Science.gov

Sample records for fourteen billion years

  1. First Fourteen Years of Lake Mead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Harold E.

    1954-01-01

    This circular summarizes the results of recent studies of Lake Mead and its environs. Area-capacity tables, prepared on the basis of a hydrographic survey of the lake in 1948-49, show that the capacity of the reservoir was reduced 4.9 percent during the first 14 years after Hoover Dam was completed, but the usable capacity was reduced only 3.2 percent. Practically all of this reduction was caused by accumulation of sediment in the reservoir. Studies of inflow and outflow indicate that the reservoir has a total storage capacity about 12 percent greater than that shown by the area-capacity table, because of 'bank' storage, or ground-water storage in the bottom and sides of the reservoir. Thus the total capacity in 1949 was greater than the quantity shown by the original area-capacity table, even though large quantities of sediment had been deposited in the reservoir during the 14 years. According to computations of the volume and weight of the accumulated sediment, about 2,000 million tons were deposited in the reservoir by the Colorado River in 14 years; this is within 2 percent of the amount calculated from measurements of the suspended sediment carried by the in flowing rivers. It is estimated that the sediment capacity of the reservoir, when filled to the level of the permanent spillway crest, is about 75,000 million tons. The sediment contributed by the Colorado River averages about 45 percent sand and 55 percent silt and clay. If the sediment carried by the river in the years 1926-50 represents the long-term average rate of accumulation in Lake Mead, it will be a century before the sediment at the dam reaches the level of the lowest gates in the intake towers, and more than 4 centuries before the reservoir is filled with sediment to the level of the permanent spillway crest. The rate of sedimentation since the first year of Lake Mead (1935) has been about 20 percent lower, and if that rate continues in the future, the life of the reservoir will be correspondingly greater. Construction of upstream reservoirs to capture some of the inflowing sediment, or transportation of sediment in the outflow through Hoover Dam, would also increase the life of the reservoir. In the first 12 years of Lake Mead, the dissolved mineral matter in the outflowing water was significantly greater than the average in the in flowing water, owing in part to solution of gypsum and rock salt from the bed of the reservoir. Currently the increased dissolved solids in the outflowing water can be accounted for almost entirely by evaporation from the reservoir, which is about 5 fo 7 percent of the annual inflow. The water from Lake Mead is habitually of better quality than that diverted from the river for irrigation prior to regulation by Hoover Dam, because it represents an average of the poor water of low stages and the excellent water from melting snow. Geodetic surveys of the Lake Mead area show that the weight of water has caused subsidence of the earth's crust amounting to about 120 millimeter at Hoover Dam, and an even greater amount in the principal area of storage in the reservoir.

  2. Fourteen years of resonance of Vanguard orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Tracking of Vanguard 3 and the Vanguard 2 rocket with Baker-Nunn cameras and the U.S. Navy's Space Surveillance (radio interferometer) system over a 14 year period revealed resonant fluctuations of up to 0.035 deg in inclination (peak to peak). Six geopotential terms (lumped coefficients) of 11th order and three of 22nd order were measured using orbit inclinations derived from this tracking record. The terms of 11th order are significantly smaller than Kaula's rule. (The lumped coefficients are sensitive to geopotential effects as high as 37th degree.) These observed terms are compatible with a recent 27-satellite geopotential solution whose formal coefficient errors are increased by a factor of 3.3.

  3. ASTER TIR onboard calibration over fourteen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Tatsumi, Kenji; Ono, Hidehiko

    2014-10-01

    The ASTER Instrument is one of the five sensors on the NASA's Terra satellite on orbit since December 1999. After 14 years on orbit, ASTER VNIR and TIR are still taking Earth images of good quality. The TIR radiometer has five bands from 8 to 12 ?m with spatial resolution of 90 m. Each band has ten detectors. The detectors are cooled at 80 K precisely by using a Stirling cooler within 0.1 K. TIR is radiometrically calibrated by a single onboard blackbody. In the normal operation mode the blackbody is kept at 270 K, and once in 49 days the blackbody is heated up to 340 K for the gain calibration. The degradation at band 12 is largest and 48% and that at band 10 is smallest and 18%. One of the possible causes of the degradation is the contamination accretion by outgas of silicone SE9188 RTV used for TIR followed by the ultraviolet radiation. The absorption spectra of outgas of this silicon was measured at JAXA and the absorption spectra showed similar to the TIR degradation in the early days on orbit. ASTER science team is proposing the second lunar calibration at the end of terra mission for the estimation of the TIR optical characteristics. ASTER experienced first lunar calibration in April 2003 and many of the TIR bands were saturated. Due to the responsivity degradation the TIR dynamic range has extended to higher temperature. At least TIR four bands will not saturate in the next lunar calibration.

  4. 29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fourteen-year minimum. 779.507 Section 779.507 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES...

  5. 29 CFR 570.119 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fourteen-year minimum. 570.119 Section 570.119 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair...

  6. 29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... to other specified limits. Under the provisions of Child Labor Regulations, subpart C ( 570.31... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fourteen-year minimum. 779.507 Section 779.507...

  7. 29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... to other specified limits. Under the provisions of Child Labor Regulations, subpart C ( 570.31... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fourteen-year minimum. 779.507 Section 779.507...

  8. 29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... to other specified limits. Under the provisions of Child Labor Regulations, subpart C ( 570.31... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fourteen-year minimum. 779.507 Section 779.507...

  9. 29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... to other specified limits. Under the provisions of Child Labor Regulations, subpart C ( 570.31... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fourteen-year minimum. 779.507 Section 779.507...

  10. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Sean A; Dssing, Lasse N; Beukes, Nicolas J; Bau, Michael; Kruger, Stephanus J; Frei, Robert; Canfield, Donald E

    2013-09-26

    It is widely assumed that atmospheric oxygen concentrations remained persistently low (less than 10(-5) times present levels) for about the first 2 billion years of Earth's history. The first long-term oxygenation of the atmosphere is thought to have taken place around 2.3 billion years ago, during the Great Oxidation Event. Geochemical indications of transient atmospheric oxygenation, however, date back to 2.6-2.7 billion years ago. Here we examine the distribution of chromium isotopes and redox-sensitive metals in the approximately 3-billion-year-old Nsuze palaeosol and in the near-contemporaneous Ijzermyn iron formation from the Pongola Supergroup, South Africa. We find extensive mobilization of redox-sensitive elements through oxidative weathering. Furthermore, using our data we compute a best minimum estimate for atmospheric oxygen concentrations at that time of 3??10(-4) times present levels. Overall, our findings suggest that there were appreciable levels of atmospheric oxygen about 3 billion years ago, more than 600 million years before the Great Oxidation Event and some 300-400 million years earlier than previous indications for Earth surface oxygenation. PMID:24067713

  11. Unusual presentation of mandibular extraoral sinus in a fourteen year old girl: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kalra, A; Mahapatra, G K; Dhalla, D

    2000-09-01

    A case of fourteen year old healthy girl with complaint of a discharging sinus on the lower right side of face is reported. All teeth were vital and there was no evidence of periodontitis. There was no history of extraction of a tooth. Total leucocyte count, differential leucocyte count, fasting blood sugar, chest x-ray and routine urine examination were within normal limits. Actinomycosis and scrofuloderma which simulate such a condition were ruled out by culture study. The intraoral periapical x-ray of mandibular molar showed questionable periapical changes at the time of presentation. But definite osteolysis was observed in the repeat radiograph after three months. It was decided to extract the second molar and curette the sinus tract. The extraction proved to be difficult. On examination of the extracted tooth, it was found that the mandibular second molar and second premolar were fused together. The radiograph of the tooth taken after extraction showed confluence of the premolar pulp with the periodontal membrane. On follow up, the lesion was found to heal satisfactorily. PMID:11324200

  12. Conservation of protein structure over four billion years.

    PubMed

    Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Delgado-Delgado, Asuncion; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Fernandez, Julio M; Gaucher, Eric A; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M; Gavira, Jose A

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the evolution of protein structures and the degree of protein structure conservation over planetary time scales. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of seven laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins dating up to approximately four billion years ago. Despite considerable sequence differences compared with extant enzymes, the ancestral proteins display the canonical thioredoxin fold, whereas only small structural changes have occurred over four billion years. This remarkable degree of structure conservation since a time near the last common ancestor of life supports a punctuated-equilibrium model of structure evolution in which the generation of new folds occurs over comparatively short periods and is followed by long periods of structural stasis. PMID:23932589

  13. Emergence of modern continental crust about 3 billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuime, Bruno; Wuestefeld, Andreas; Hawkesworth, Chris J.

    2015-07-01

    The continental crust is the principal record of conditions on the Earth during the past 4.4 billion years. However, how the continental crust formed and evolved through time remains highly controversial. In particular, the composition and thickness of juvenile continental crust are unknown. Here we show that Rb/Sr ratios can be used as a proxy for both the silica content and the thickness of the continental crust. We calculate Rb/Sr ratios of the juvenile crust for over 13,000 samples, with Nd model ages ranging from the Hadean to Phanerozoic. The ratios were calculated based on the evolution of Sr isotopes in the period between the TDM Nd model age and the crystallization of the samples analysed. We find that the juvenile crust had a low silica content and was largely mafic in composition during the first 1.5 billion years of Earth’s evolution, consistent with magmatism on a pre-plate tectonics planet. About 3 billion years ago, the Rb/Sr ratios of the juvenile continental crust increased, indicating that the newly formed crust became more silica-rich and probably thicker. This transition is in turn linked to the onset of plate tectonics and an increase of continental detritus into the oceans.

  14. Early Archean (3.3-billion to 3.5-billion-year-old) microfossils from Warrawoona Group, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopf, J. W.; Packer, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    Cellularly preserved filamentous and colonial fossil microorganisms have been discovered in bedded carbonaceous cherts from the Early Archean Apex Basalt and Towers Formation of northwestern Western Australia. The cell types detected suggest that cyanobacteria, and therefore oxygen-producing photosynthesis, may have been extant as early as 3.3 billion to 3.5 billion years ago. These fossils are among the oldest now known from the geologic record; their discovery substantiates previous reports of Early Archean microfossils in Warrawoona Group strata.

  15. Fourteen Years of Structural Evolution in the HH 30 Protostellar Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl; choudhary, arpita

    2015-08-01

    HH 30 is an edge-on young stellar object disk with highly collimated emission line jets outflowing along its polar axis. As a prototype of its class, and of astrophysical accretion disks generally, the object has been the subject of extensive study with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Thirteen HST observing programs imaged the object at nineteen epochs over the period 1994-2008. We present an Archival study of the astrometric and morphological evolution of the jet knots using fifteen epochs of HST broadband R imaging and five epochs of [S II]+Halpha imaging. The data was taken with the WFPC2 and ACS cameras. New knots continue to emerge at regular intervals in the bipolar jets, expand laterally, and cool significantly on timescales of a few years. We present measurements pf the knot velocities, accelerations, expansion, mergers, and luminosity evolution and compare these to hydrodynamic models.

  16. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U; Wang, Huajian; Costa, M Mafalda; Bjerrum, Christian J; Connelly, James N; Zhang, Baomin; Bian, Lizeng; Canfield, Donald E

    2015-03-24

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ?1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment. PMID:25775605

  17. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Wang, Huajian; Costa, M. Mafalda; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Connelly, James N.; Zhang, Baomin; Bian, Lizeng; Canfield, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment. PMID:25775605

  18. Nine Billion Years: Past and Future of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leubner, I. H.

    2013-05-01

    As the Sun is losing mass and thus gravity by radiation and solar wind, solar-planetary energy balances diminish. Since the planets are only weakly bound to the Sun, the planets have been moving away from the Sun, causing increases of orbits and orbital periods. This is modeled for selected planets from Mercury to Sedna and from the formation of the Solar system at -4.5 to +4.5 billion years (Byr/Ma). Planets were initially significantly closer to the Sun, suggesting that modeling of the formation of the solar system needs to be revisited. By +4.5Byr planets beyond Saturn will have separated from the Solar System. The presently outermost solar object, Sedna, is in the process of separation. Climate changes of Mars and Earth are modeled as a function of time. The prediction of the transition of Mars from water to ice at -3.6 Byr is in agreement with observations (-2.9 to -3.7 Byr). This provides for the first time answers to the why and when of water to ice transition on Mars. Earth temperatures are predicted to decrease by of 38, 24, and 20C between -4.5 Byr to +4.5 Byr for present temperatures of +50, 0, and -50 C, respectively. Mars: Water - Ice Transition

  19. 3.5 billion years of reshaped Moho, southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, Jacek; de Wit, Maarten

    2013-12-01

    According to some previous studies, Archean continental crust is, on global average, apparently thinner than Proterozoic crust. Subsequently, the validity of this statement has been questioned. To provide an additional perspective on this issue, we present analyses of Moho signatures derived from recent seismic data along swaths 2000 km in length across southern Africa and its flanking ocean. The imaged crust has a near continuous age range between ca. 0.1 and 3.7 billion years, and the seismic data allow direct comparison of Moho depths between adjacent Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic crust. We find no simple secular change in depth to Moho over this time period. In contrast, there is significant variation in depth to Moho beneath both Archean and Proterozoic crust; Archean crust of southern Africa displays as much crustal diversity in thickness as the adjacent Proterozoic crust. The Moho beneath all crustal provinces that we have analysed has been severely altered by tectono-metamorphic and igneous processes, in many cases more than once, and cannot provide unequivocal data for geodynamic models dealing with secular changes in continental crust formation. These results and conclusions are similar to those documented along ca. 2000 km swaths across the Canadian Shield recorded by Lithoprobe. Tying the age and character of the Precambrian crust of southern Africa to their depth diversities is clearly related to manifold processes of tectono-thermal surgery subsequent to their origin, the details of which are still to be resolved, as they are in most Precambrian terranes. Reconstructing pristine Moho of the early Earth therefore remains a formidable challenge. In South Africa, better knowledge of fossilised Archean crustal sections turned-on-edge, such as at the Vredefort impact crater (for the continental crust), and from the Barberton greenstone belt (for oceanic crust) is needed to characterize potential pristine Archean Moho transitions.

  20. Dynamics of Tree Species Composition in Temperate Mountains of South Korea over Fourteen Years using 880 Permanent Plots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B.; Kim, H. S.; Park, J.; Moon, M.; Cho, S.; Ryu, D.; Wynn, K. Z.; Park, J.

    2014-12-01

    The structure of forest and diversity of tree species in temperate mountains have been influenced by changing climate conditions as well as successional changes. To understand how tree species composition and stand structure change across temperate mountains, the species composition, size, and environmental information were collected over the past fourteen years in 880 quadrats of 20 m x 50 m of woodland communities distributed across Jiri and Baekoon Mountains, South Korea. The preliminary investigation on variations of tree species revealed that overall composition of tree species increased in terms of both diversity and biomass growth of tree species, reflecting fast and wide changes in temperate forests of Korea. Among dominant trees, the Quercus mongolica, Styrax japonicu, and Acer pseudosieboldianum recorded the highest increase in stand density, implying the most prosperous species under current conditions, while the species of Quercus variabilis and Fraxinus mandshurica appeared as fast declining species in the number. In terms of biomass growth of dominant species, the Stewartia pseudocamellia showed the largest increase of biomass, followed by Quercus serrata and Quercus mongolica., while the Fraxinus mandshurica appeared to have a rapid decline, followed by Alnus japonica and Quercus dentata. Overall, the fast change of composition in tree species is clear and further analysis to clarify the reasons for such fast and species-specific changes is underway especially to separate the effect of successional change and climate change.

  1. A SWIRE Picture is Worth Billions of Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: SWIRE View of Distant Galaxies [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3 Figure 4

    These spectacular images, taken by the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Legacy project, encapsulate one of the primary objectives of the Spitzer mission: to connect the evolution of galaxies from the distant, or early, universe to the nearby, or present day, universe.

    The Tadpole galaxy (main image) is the result of a recent galactic interaction in the local universe. Although these galactic mergers are rare in the universe's recent history, astronomers believe that they were much more common in the early universe. Thus, SWIRE team members will use this detailed image of the Tadpole galaxy to help understand the nature of the 'faint red-orange specks' of the early universe.

    The larger picture (figure 2) depicts one-sixteenth of the SWIRE survey field called ELAIS-N1. In this image, the bright blue sources are hot stars in our own Milky Way, which range anywhere from 3 to 60 times the mass of our Sun. The fainter green spots are cooler stars and galaxies beyond the Milky Way whose light is dominated by older stellar populations. The red dots are dusty galaxies that are undergoing intense star formation. The faintest specks of red-orange are galaxies billions of light-years away in the distant universe.

    Figure 3 features an unusual ring-like galaxy called CGCG 275-022. The red spiral arms indicate that this galaxy is very dusty and perhaps undergoing intense star formation. The star-forming activity could have been initiated by a near head-on collision with another galaxy.

    The most distant galaxies that SWIRE is able to detect are revealed in a zoom of deep space (figure 4). The colors in this feature represent the same objects as those in the larger field image of ELAIS-N1.

    The observed SWIRE fields were chosen on the basis of being 'empty' or as free as possible from the obscuring dust, gas, and stars of our own Milky Way. Because Earth is located within the Milky Way galaxy, there is always a screen of Milky Way objects blocking our view of the rest of the universe. In some places, our view of the larger universe is less obscured than others and for the most part is considered 'empty.' These are prime observing spots for astronomers interested in studying objects beyond the Milky Way. ELAIS-N1 is only one of six SWIRE survey fields. The full survey covers 49 square degrees of the sky, equivalent to the area covered by about 250 full moons.

    The SWIRE images are 3-channel false-color composites, where blue represents visible green light (light that would appear to be blue/green to the human eye), green captures infrared light of 3.6 microns, and red represents infrared emissions of 8 microns. The infrared data are from Spitzer's infrared array camera and the visible-light data are from the Isaac Newton Telescope, Spain.

  2. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmoto, H.; Kakegawa, T.; Lowe, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

  3. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence.

    PubMed

    Ohmoto, H; Kakegawa, T; Lowe, D R

    1993-10-22

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen. PMID:11539502

  4. The Impact of Timing of Puberty on Psychosomatic Symptoms among Fourteen- to Sixteen-Year-Old Finnish Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Hillevi; Taipale, Vappu

    1987-01-01

    Studied whether pubertal age affects reports of psychosomatic symptoms among 14- to 16-year-old girls. Considered whether differences in dating and alcohol use might be mediating factors in the relation between pubertal age and psychosomatic symptoms. Subjects were 935 Finnish eighth-grade pupils who completed questionnaires three times during a…

  5. The Impact of Timing of Puberty on Psychosomatic Symptoms among Fourteen- to Sixteen-Year-Old Finnish Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Hillevi; Taipale, Vappu

    1987-01-01

    Studied whether pubertal age affects reports of psychosomatic symptoms among 14- to 16-year-old girls. Considered whether differences in dating and alcohol use might be mediating factors in the relation between pubertal age and psychosomatic symptoms. Subjects were 935 Finnish eighth-grade pupils who completed questionnaires three times during a

  6. Fourteen Years of Pond Monitoring in Boreal Plain, northern Alberta, Canada: The effects of climate variability and harvesting practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abnizova, A.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Western Boreal forest of Canada is experiencing rapid increase in rates of cumulative impacts of disturbance for resource extraction, climate change and forest fires. To understand their sensitivity and response to multi-decadal natural and anthropogenic disturbances a long-term (1998-2013) and extensive pond ecosystem monitoring has been conducted on the Boreal Plains at the Utikuma Region Study Area (URSA) (56o N, 115o W). Hydrological, chemical and nutrient data were collected along a forest-peatland-pond transect in a paired catchment aspen harvest study in the area underlain by fine-grained till moraines glacial deposits. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrologic regime, specifically water level dynamics, both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured hydro-chemistry and nutrients; and (3) to provide evidence on how water quality conditions in the ponds are changing on long (multi-year to decadal) time scales in response to harvesting practices and climatic trends during wet and dry cycles. No difference in pond or catchment hydrologic and hydro-chemical response was observed between harvested and reference sites pre- or post- harvesting. Wetland and pond waters were not affected by the harvesting practices due to lack of hydrologic connectivity between pond and forest systems. The hydrologic relationship between forestlands and open-water wetlands is a response in their water balance differences driven by their storage characteristics. Temporal trends in ponds' water levels, chemical and nutrient concentrations during the 14 year record were most closely related to relative connectivity to groundwater systems and flow direction in response to climatic cycles and vegetation water use and were the most useful parameters for characterizing duration and type of connectivity during wet and dry cycles. Using empirical relationships from such long-term monitoring, this study (1) shows a unique set of responses in hydrologic and biogeochemical properties of Boreal Plain pond-wetland complexes to climate variation and harvesting practices; and (2) provides a valuable insight into hydrologic and hydro-chemical interactions between pond-wetland-forestland systems.

  7. Spatial variability in oceanic redox structure 1.8billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulton, Simon W.; Fralick, Philip W.; Canfield, Donald E.

    2010-07-01

    The evolution of ocean chemistry during the Proterozoic eon (2.5-0.542 billion years ago) is thought to have played a central role in both the timing and rate of eukaryote evolution. The timing of the deposition of iron formations implies that, early in the Earth's history, oceans were predominantly anoxic and rich in dissolved iron. However, global deposition of iron formations ceased about 1.84 billion years ago. This termination indicates a major upheaval in ocean chemistry, but the precise nature of this change remains debated. Here we use iron and sulphur systematics to reconstruct oceanic redox conditions from the 1.88- to 1.83-billion-year-old Animikie group from the Superior region, North America. We find that surface waters were oxygenated, whereas at mid-depths, anoxic and sulphidic (euxinic) conditions extended over 100km from the palaeoshoreline. The spatial extent of euxinia varied through time, but deep ocean waters remained rich in dissolved iron. Widespread euxinia along continental margins would have removed dissolved iron from the water column through the precipitation of pyrite, which would have reduced the supply of dissolved iron and resulted in the global cessation of the deposition of `Superior-type' iron formations. We suggest that incursions of sulphide from the mid-depths into overlying oxygenated surface waters may have placed severe constraints on eukaryotic evolution.

  8. [The year 2000: one billion couples of child-bearing age].

    PubMed

    Lintong, L J

    1988-04-01

    Out of 1 billion couples there are only 124 million who use modern and effective contraceptives. World abortions number 33 million/year. 250 million sexually active women of child-bearing age in developing countries outside China do not use modern and effective contraceptives. Fertility control costs on the average US$2.5 billion a year in each developing country, 20% of which is assistance from developed countries. Expanding the family planning service to the 250 million sexually active child-bearing aged women costs an additional U.S. $5 billion yearly. A family planning accessibility survey was conducted by the Population Crisis Committee. PCC divided the countries into 2 categories: Developed and developing countries. The 110 countries (15 developed and 95 developing) covered 96% of the world population. The survey placed the countries in 5 classes according to accessibility levels: Excellent, good, fair, poor, very poor. The developed countries were analyzed according to effective contraceptive methods, service to the poor and minorities, sex education in the schools, and family planning information and advertisement. The developing countries were analyzed according to effective contraceptive methods, performance of service and distribution, public information and education, private sector participation, government finance and policies. Of the 15 developed countries, 43% were excellent, 22% good, 24% fair, and 2% poor. Of the 95 developing countries, 5 were excellent, 10 good, 16 fair, and 64 either poor or very poor countries in respect to family planning accessibility. In the face of a population explosion in the year 2000, many countries lack of government support for family planning programs. After 30 years of world effort in population control, half of the world population still has no effective family planning services. PMID:12343749

  9. The First Billion Years: The Growth of Galaxies in the Reionization Epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Garth

    2015-08-01

    Detection and measurement of the earliest galaxies in the first billion years only became possible after the Hubble Space Telescope was updated in 2009 with the infrared WFC3/IR camera during Shuttle servicing mission SM4. The first billion years is a fascinating epoch, not just because of the earliest galaxies known from about 450 Myr after the Big Bang, but also because it encompasses the reionization epoch that peaked around z~9, as Planck has recently shown, and ended around redshift z~6 at 900 Myr. Before 2009 just a handful of galaxies were known in the reionization epoch at z>6. But within the last 5 years, with the first HUDF09 survey, the HUDF12, CANDELS and numerous other surveys on the GOODS and CANDELS fields, as well as detections from the cluster lensing programs like CLASH and the Frontier Fields, the number of galaxies at redshifts 7-10 has exploded, with some 700 galaxies being found and characterized. The first billion years was a period of extraordinary growth in the galaxy population with rapid growth in the star formation rate density and global mass density in galaxies. Spitzer observations in the infrared of these Hubble fields are establishing masses as well as giving insights into the nature and timescales of star formation from the very powerful emission lines being revealed by the Spitzer IRAC data. I will discuss what we understand about the growth of galaxies in this epoch from the insights gained from remarkable deep fields like the XDF, as well as the wide-area GOODS/CANDELS fields, the detection of unexpectedly luminous galaxies at redshifts 8-10, the impact of early galaxies on reionization, confirmation of a number of galaxies at z~7-8 from ground-based spectroscopic measurements, and the indications of a change in the growth of the star formation rate around 500 Myr. The first billion years was a time of dramatic growth and change in the early galaxy population.

  10. A massive galaxy in its core formation phase three billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha Förster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Leja, Joel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-09-18

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores in early cosmic epochs. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes, but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we report a candidate core in the process of formation 11 billion years ago, at redshift z = 2.3. This galaxy, GOODS-N-774, has a stellar mass of 100 billion solar masses, a half-light radius of 1.0 kiloparsecs and a star formation rate of solar masses per year. The star-forming gas has a velocity dispersion of 317 ± 30 kilometres per second. This is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, which are compact quiescent galaxies at z ≈ 2 (refs 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 seem to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of this galaxy we infer that many star-forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys. PMID:25162527

  11. Extraterrestrial demise of banded iron formations 1.85 billion years ago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Cannon, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    In the Lake Superior region of North America, deposition of most banded iron formations (BIFs) ended abruptly 1.85 Ga ago, coincident with the oceanic impact of the giant Sudbury extraterrestrial bolide. We propose a new model in which this impact produced global mixing of shallow oxic and deep anoxic waters of the Paleoproterozoic ocean, creating a suboxic redox state for deep seawater. This suboxic state, characterized by only small concentrations of dissolved O2 (???1 ??M), prevented transport of hydrothermally derived Fe(II) from the deep ocean to continental-margin settings, ending an ???1.1 billion-year-long period of episodic BIF mineralization. The model is supported by the nature of Precambrian deep-water exhalative chemical sediments, which changed from predominantly sulfide facies prior to ca. 1.85 Ga to mainly oxide facies thereafter. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  12. Star Formation in Galaxy Clusters Over the Past 10 Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Kim-Vy

    2012-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound systems in the universe and include the most massive galaxies in the universe; this makes galaxy clusters ideal laboratories for disentangling the nature versus nurture aspect of how galaxies evolve. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve in clusters continues to be a fundamental question in astronomy. The ages and assembly histories of galaxies in rich clusters test both stellar population models and hierarchical formation scenarios. Is star formation in cluster galaxies simply accelerated relative to their counterparts in the lower density field, or do cluster galaxies assemble their stars in a fundamentally different manner? To answer this question, I review multi-wavelength results on star formation in galaxy clusters from Coma to the most distant clusters yet discovered at look-back times of 10 billion years (z 2).

  13. Geodynamo, solar wind, and magnetopause 3.4 to 3.45 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Tarduno, John A; Cottrell, Rory D; Watkeys, Michael K; Hofmann, Axel; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Mamajek, Eric E; Liu, Dunji; Sibeck, David G; Neukirch, Levi P; Usui, Yoichi

    2010-03-01

    Stellar wind standoff by a planetary magnetic field prevents atmospheric erosion and water loss. Although the early Earth retained its water and atmosphere, and thus evolved as a habitable planet, little is known about Earth's magnetic field strength during that time. We report paleointensity results from single silicate crystals bearing magnetic inclusions that record a geodynamo 3.4 to 3.45 billion years ago. The measured field strength is approximately 50 to 70% that of the present-day field. When combined with a greater Paleoarchean solar wind pressure, the paleofield strength data suggest steady-state magnetopause standoff distances of < or = 5 Earth radii, similar to values observed during recent coronal mass ejection events. The data also suggest lower-latitude aurora and increases in polar cap area, as well as heating, expansion, and volatile loss from the exosphere that would have affected long-term atmospheric composition. PMID:20203044

  14. Atmospheric carbon dioxide: a driver of photosynthetic eukaryote evolution for over a billion years?

    PubMed Central

    Beerling, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Exciting evidence from diverse fields, including physiology, evolutionary biology, palaeontology, geosciences and molecular genetics, is providing an increasingly secure basis for robustly formulating and evaluating hypotheses concerning the role of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Such studies span over a billion years of evolutionary change, from the origins of eukaryotic algae through to the evolution of our present-day terrestrial floras, and have relevance for plant and ecosystem responses to future global CO2 increases. The papers in this issue reflect the breadth and depth of approaches being adopted to address this issue. They reveal new discoveries pointing to deep evidence for the role of CO2 in shaping evolutionary changes in plants and ecosystems, and establish an exciting cross-disciplinary research agenda for uncovering new insights into feedbacks between biology and the Earth system. PMID:22232760

  15. A change in the geodynamics of continental growth 3 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Dhuime, Bruno; Hawkesworth, Chris J; Cawood, Peter A; Storey, Craig D

    2012-03-16

    Models for the growth of continental crust rely on knowing the balance between the generation of new crust and the reworking of old crust throughout Earth's history. The oxygen isotopic composition of zircons, for which uranium-lead and hafnium isotopic data provide age constraints, is a key archive of crustal reworking. We identified systematic variations in hafnium and oxygen isotopes in zircons of different ages that reveal the relative proportions of reworked crust and of new crust through time. Growth of continental crust appears to have been a continuous process, albeit at variable rates. A marked decrease in the rate of crustal growth at ~3 billion years ago may be linked to the onset of subduction-driven plate tectonics. PMID:22422979

  16. Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

  17. IRON AND {alpha}-ELEMENT PRODUCTION IN THE FIRST ONE BILLION YEARS AFTER THE BIG BANG

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, George D.; Carswell, Robert F.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.; Rauch, Michael E-mail: acalver@ast.cam.ac.uk E-mail: mr@obs.carnegiescience.edu

    2012-01-10

    We present measurements of carbon, oxygen, silicon, and iron in quasar absorption systems existing when the universe was roughly one billion years old. We measure column densities in nine low-ionization systems at 4.7 < z < 6.3 using Keck, Magellan, and Very Large Telescope optical and near-infrared spectra with moderate to high resolution. The column density ratios among C II, O I, Si II, and Fe II are nearly identical to sub-damped Ly{alpha} systems (sub-DLAs) and metal-poor ([M/H] {<=} -1) DLAs at lower redshifts, with no significant evolution over 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 6. The estimated intrinsic scatter in the ratio of any two elements is also small, with a typical rms deviation of {approx}< 0.1 dex. These facts suggest that dust depletion and ionization effects are minimal in our z > 4.7 systems, as in the lower-redshift DLAs, and that the column density ratios are close to the intrinsic relative element abundances. The abundances in our z > 4.7 systems are therefore likely to represent the typical integrated yields from stellar populations within the first gigayear of cosmic history. Due to the time limit imposed by the age of the universe at these redshifts, our measurements thus place direct constraints on the metal production of massive stars, including iron yields of prompt supernovae. The lack of redshift evolution further suggests that the metal inventories of most metal-poor absorption systems at z {approx}> 2 are also dominated by massive stars, with minimal contributions from delayed Type Ia supernovae or winds from asymptotic giant branch stars. The relative abundances in our systems broadly agree with those in very metal-poor, non-carbon-enhanced Galactic halo stars. This is consistent with the picture in which present-day metal-poor stars were potentially formed as early as one billion years after the big bang.

  18. Evolving core conditions ca. 2 billion years ago detected by paleosecular variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Tarduno, John A.; Evans, David A. D.

    2011-08-01

    Paleomagnetic data provide one of the few probes available to interrogate early evolution of the core. Here we apply this probe by examining the latitudinal dependence of paleosecular variation (PSV) data derived from high-quality paleomagnetic data collected from Proterozoic and Neoarchean rocks. These data define a Neoarchean geomagnetic field that was more dipolar than that during Proterozoic times, indicating a change in core conditions. The signals observed may reflect a change in forcing of the dynamo and an early onset of inner core growth. We propose a model that links evolution of the core, mantle and crust in three principal phases: (i) Before approximately 3.5 Ga, an entirely liquid core may not have hosted a geodynamo. If heat transport was sufficient across the core-mantle boundary, however, a geodynamo could have been generated. If so, sources in the shallow outer core could have been more important for generating the dynamo relative to deeper convection, resulting in a field that was less dipolar than that generated in later times. (ii) Cooling of the lower mantle between ca. 2 and 3.5 billion years ago was promoted by deep subduction and possibly coincided with inner core growth. The geodynamo during this episode was deeply-seated producing a highly dipolar surface magnetic field. (iii) After ca. 2 billion years ago, continued subduction led to large-scale core-mantle boundary compositional and heat flux heterogeneity. With these changes, shallow core contributions to the geomagnetic field grew in importance, resulting in a less dipolar field.

  19. Galaxy evolution. Evidence for mature bulges and an inside-out quenching phase 3 billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Tacchella, S; Carollo, C M; Renzini, A; Förster Schreiber, N M; Lang, P; Wuyts, S; Cresci, G; Dekel, A; Genzel, R; Lilly, S J; Mancini, C; Newman, S; Onodera, M; Shapley, A; Tacconi, L; Woo, J; Zamorani, G

    2015-04-17

    Most present-day galaxies with stellar masses ≥10(11) solar masses show no ongoing star formation and are dense spheroids. Ten billion years ago, similarly massive galaxies were typically forming stars at rates of hundreds solar masses per year. It is debated how star formation ceased, on which time scales, and how this "quenching" relates to the emergence of dense spheroids. We measured stellar mass and star-formation rate surface density distributions in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.2 with ~1-kiloparsec resolution. We find that, in the most massive galaxies, star formation is quenched from the inside out, on time scales less than 1 billion years in the inner regions, up to a few billion years in the outer disks. These galaxies sustain high star-formation activity at large radii, while hosting fully grown and already quenched bulges in their cores. PMID:25883353

  20. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents1. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot2. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by ?-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  1. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Evans, W. C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, A. G.

    2014-02-01

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  2. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Lowenstern, J B; Evans, W C; Bergfeld, D; Hunt, A G

    2014-02-20

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions. PMID:24553240

  3. Cooling and exhumation of continents at billion-year time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, T.; Bowring, S. A.; Perron, T.; Mahan, K. H.; Dudas, F. O.

    2011-12-01

    The oldest rocks on Earth are preserved within the continental lithosphere, where assembled fragments of ancient orogenic belts have survived erosion and destruction by plate tectonic and surface processes for billions of years. Though the rate of orogenic exhumation and erosion has been measured for segments of an orogenic history, it remains unclear how these exhumation rates have changed over the lifetime of any terrane. Because the exhumation of the lithospheric surface has a direct effect on the rate of heat loss within the lithosphere, a continuous record of lithosphere exhumation can be reconstructed through the use of thermochronology. Thermochronologic studies have typically employed systems sensitive to cooling at temperatures <300 C, such as the (U-Th)/He and 40Ar/39Ar systems. This largely restricts their application to measuring cooling in rocks from the outer 10 km of the Earth's crust, resulting in a thermal history that is controlled by either upper crustal flexure and faulting and/or isotherm inflections related to surface topography. Combining these biases with the uplift, erosion and recycling of these shallow rocks results in a poor preservation potential of any long-term record. Here, an ancient and long-term record of lithosphere exhumation is constructed using U-Pb thermochronology, a geochronologic system sensitive to cooling at temperatures found at 20-50 km depth (400-650 C). Lower crustal xenoliths provide material that resided at these depths for billions of years or more, recording a thermal history that is buried deep enough to remain insensitive to upper crustal deformation and instead is dominated by the vertical motions of the continents. We show how this temperature-sensitive system can produce a long-term integrated measure of continental exhumation and erosion. Preserved beneath Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks within Montana, USA, the Great Falls Tectonic Zone formed when two Archean cratons, the Wyoming Province and Medicine Hat Block collided at ~1.8 Ga. Rutile U-Pb data from multiple xenoliths, each exhumed from a different depth within the crustal column reveal a range of dates that varies as a function of xenolith residence depth. The shallowest mid- to lower crustal xenoliths (~25 km) cooled first, yielding the youngest dates and yet cooled at rates between 0.1-0.25 C/Ma over 500 My or more. Deeper xenoliths record cooling at progressively younger times at similar rates and time-scales. From orogony to eruption of xenoliths onto the surface, the lithospheric thermal history constructed using this technique may exceed a billion years. Combining this cooling history with a lithosphere thermal model yields an estimate for the average integrated rate of craton erosion between 0.00-<0.0025 km/Ma across the orogen; a range far lower than the geologically recent to present day rates for continental erosion (<0.005-0.1 km/Ma). This marks the first ever determination of continental exhumation rates on time-scales that approach the age of the continents themselves and has implications for secular cooling of the asthenosphere.

  4. Constraints on the first billion years of the geodynamo from paleointensity studies of zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarduno, John; Cottrell, Rory; Davis, William

    2014-05-01

    Several lines of reasoning, including new ideas on core thermal conductivity, suggest that onset of a strong geomagnetic field might have been delayed by one billion years (or more) after the lunar forming event. Here we extend the Proterozoic/Archean to Paleoarchean record of the geomagnetic field constrained by single crystal paleointensity (SCP) analyses (Tarduno et al., Science, 2010) to older times using zircons containing minute magnetic inclusions. Specifically, we focus on samples from the Jack Hills (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia). We employ a CO2 laser demagnetization system and a small bore (6.3 mm) 3-component DC SQUID magnetometer; the latter offers the highest currently available moment resolution. Sample age is analyzed using SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology. Preliminary data support the presence of a relatively strong Paleoarchean field produced by a core dynamo, extending the known record by at least 100 million years, to approximately 3.55 Ga. These data only serve to exacerbate the apparent problem posed by the presence of a Paleoarchean dynamo. Alternative dynamo driving mechanisms, or efficient core/lowermost mantle heat loss processes unique to the Paleoarchean (and older times) might have been at work. We will discuss these processes, and our efforts to study even older Eoarchean-Hadean zircons.

  5. The controversial "Cambrian" fossils of the Vindhyan are real but more than a billion years older.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Stefan; Belivanova, Veneta; Rasmussen, Birger; Whitehouse, Martin

    2009-05-12

    The age of the Vindhyan sedimentary basin in central India is controversial, because geochronology indicating early Proterozoic ages clashes with reports of Cambrian fossils. We present here an integrated paleontologic-geochronologic investigation to resolve this conundrum. New sampling of Lower Vindhyan phosphoritic stromatolitic dolomites from the northern flank of the Vindhyans confirms the presence of fossils most closely resembling those found elsewhere in Cambrian deposits: annulated tubes, embryo-like globules with polygonal surface pattern, and filamentous and coccoidal microbial fabrics similar to Girvanella and Renalcis. None of the fossils, however, can be ascribed to uniquely Cambrian or Ediacaran taxa. Indeed, the embryo-like globules are not interpreted as fossils at all but as former gas bubbles trapped in mucus-rich cyanobacterial mats. Direct dating of the same fossiliferous phosphorite yielded a Pb-Pb isochron of 1,650 +/- 89 (2sigma) million years ago, confirming the Paleoproterozoic age of the fossils. New U-Pb geochronology of zircons from tuffaceous mudrocks in the Lower Vindhyan Porcellanite Formation on the southern flank of the Vindhyans give comparable ages. The Vindhyan phosphorites provide a window of 3-dimensionally preserved Paleoproterozoic fossils resembling filamentous and coccoidal cyanobacteria and filamentous eukaryotic algae, as well as problematic forms. Like Neoproterozoic phosphorites a billion years later, the Vindhyan deposits offer important new insights into the nature and diversity of life, and in particular, the early evolution of multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:19416859

  6. The First Billion Years project: dark matter haloes going from contraction to expansion and back again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Andrew J.; Khochfar, Sadegh; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    We study the effect of baryons on the inner dark matter profile of the first galaxies using the First Billion Years simulation between z = 16 and 6 before secular evolution sets in. Using a large statistical sample from two simulations of the same volume and cosmological initial conditions, one with and one without baryons, we are able to directly compare haloes with their baryon-free counterparts, allowing a detailed study of the modifications to the dark matter density profile due to the presence of baryons during the first billion years of galaxy formation. For each of the ≈5000 haloes in our sample (3 × 107 M⊙ ≤ Mtot ≤ 5 × 109 M⊙), we quantify the impact of the baryons using η, defined as the ratio of dark matter mass enclosed in 100 pc in the baryonic run to its counterpart without baryons. During this epoch of rapid growth of galaxies, we find that many haloes of these first galaxies show an enhancement of dark matter in the halo centre compared to the baryon-free simulation, while many others show a deficit. We find that the mean value of η is close to unity, but there is a large dispersion, with a standard deviation of 0.677. The enhancement is cyclical in time and tracks the star formation cycle of the galaxy; as gas falls to the centre and forms stars, the dark matter moves in as well. Supernova (SN) feedback then removes the gas, and the dark matter again responds to the changing potential. We study three physical models relating the motion of baryons to that of the dark matter: adiabatic contraction, dynamical friction, and rapid outflows. We find that dynamical friction plays only a very minor role, while adiabatic contraction and the rapid outflows due to feedback describe well the enhancement (or decrement) of dark matter. For haloes which show significant decrements of dark matter in the core, we find that to remove the dark matter requires an energy input between 1051 and 1053 erg. For our SN feedback proscription, this requires as a lower limit a constant star formation rate between 0.002 and 0.2 M⊙ yr-1 for the previous 5 Myr. We also find that heating due to reionization is able to prevent the formation of strong cusps for haloes which at z ˜ 12 have ≤108 M⊙. The lack of a strong cusp in these haloes remains down to z = 6, the end of our simulation.

  7. A redox-stratified ocean 3.2 billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satkoski, Aaron M.; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Li, Weiqiang; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2015-11-01

    Before the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) 2.4-2.2 billion years ago it has been traditionally thought that oceanic water columns were uniformly anoxic due to a lack of oxygen-producing microorganisms. Recently, however, it has been proposed that transient oxygenation of shallow seawater occurred between 2.8 and 3.0 billion years ago. Here, we present a novel combination of stable Fe and radiogenic U-Th-Pb isotope data that demonstrate significant oxygen contents in the shallow oceans at 3.2 Ga, based on analysis of the Manzimnyama Banded Iron Formation (BIF), Fig Tree Group, South Africa. This unit is exceptional in that proximal, shallow-water and distal, deep-water facies are preserved. When compared to the distal, deep-water facies, the proximal samples show elevated U concentrations and moderately positive δ56Fe values, indicating vertical stratification in dissolved oxygen contents. Confirmation of oxidizing conditions using U abundances is robustly constrained using samples that have been closed to U and Pb mobility using U-Th-Pb geochronology. Although redox-sensitive elements have been commonly used in ancient rocks to infer redox conditions, post-depositional element mobility has been rarely tested, and U-Th-Pb geochronology can constrain open- or closed-system behavior. The U abundances and δ56Fe values of the Manzimnyama BIF suggest the proximal, shallow-water samples record precipitation under stronger oxidizing conditions compared to the distal deeper-water facies, which in turn indicates the existence of a discrete redox boundary between deep and shallow ocean waters at this time; this work, therefore, documents the oldest known preserved marine redox gradient in the rock record. The relative enrichment of O2 in the upper water column is likely due to the existence of oxygen-producing microorganisms such as cyanobacteria. These results provide a new approach for identifying free oxygen in Earth's ancient oceans, including confirming the age of redox proxies, and indicate that cyanobacteria evolved prior to 3.2 Ga.

  8. Survival of Pure Disk Galaxies over the Last 8 Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Sonali; Saha, Kanak

    2016-03-01

    Pure disk galaxies without any bulge component, i.e., bulges that are neither classical nor pseudo, seem to have escaped the effects of merger activity that are inherent to hierarchical galaxy formation models as well as strong internal secular evolution. We discover that a significant fraction (∼15%–18%) of disk galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field (0.4\\lt z\\lt 1.0) and in the local universe (0.02\\lt z\\lt 0.05) are such pure disk systems (PDSs). The spatial distribution of light in these PDSs is well-described by a single exponential function from the outskirts to the center and appears to have remained intact over the last 8 billion years, keeping the mean central surface brightness and scale-length nearly constant. These two disk parameters of PDSs are brighter and shorter, respectively, than those of disks which are part of disk galaxies with bulges. Since the fraction of PDSs, as well as their profile-defining parameters, do not change, this indicates that these galaxies have not witnessed either major mergers or multiple minor mergers since z∼ 1. However, there is a substantial increase in their total stellar mass and total size over the same time range. This suggests that smooth accretion of cold gas via cosmic filaments is the most probable mode of their evolutions. We speculate that PDSs are dynamically hotter and cushioned in massive dark matter halos, which may prevent them from undergoing strong secular evolution.

  9. A Massive Galaxy in Its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years After the Big Bang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha M. Forster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Leja, Joel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z = 2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0 × 10 (exp 11) solar mass, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90 (sup +45 / sub -20) solar mass/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317 plus or minus 30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z is approximately equal to 2 (exp 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.

  10. Could organic matter have been preserved on Mars for 3.5 billion years?

    PubMed

    Kanavarioti, A; Mancinelli, R L

    1990-03-01

    3.5 billion years (byr) ago, when it is thought that Mars and Earth had similar climates, biological evolution on Earth had made considerable progress, such that life was abundant. It is therefore surmised that prior to this time period the advent of chemical evolution and subsequent origin of life occurred on Earth and may have occurred on Mars. Analysis for organic compounds in the soil buried beneath the Martian surface may yield useful information regarding the occurrence of chemical evolution and possibly biological evolution. Calculations based on the stability of amino acids lead to the conclusion that remnants of these compounds, if they existed on Mars 3.5 byr ago, might have been preserved buried beneath the surface oxidizing layer. For example, if phenylalanine, an amino acid of average stability, existed on Mars 3.5 byr ago, then 1.6% would remain buried today, or 25 pg-2.5 ng of C g-1 Martian soil may exist from remnants of meteoritic and cometary bombardment, assuming that 1% of the organics survived impact. PMID:11538399

  11. Enhanced cellular preservation by clay minerals in 1 billion-year-old lakes.

    PubMed

    Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Roberts, Malcolm; Menon, Sarath; Green, Leonard; Kong, Charlie; Culwick, Timothy; Strother, Paul; Brasier, Martin D

    2014-01-01

    Organic-walled microfossils provide the best insights into the composition and evolution of the biosphere through the first 80 percent of Earth history. The mechanism of microfossil preservation affects the quality of biological information retained and informs understanding of early Earth palaeo-environments. We here show that 1 billion-year-old microfossils from the non-marine Torridon Group are remarkably preserved by a combination of clay minerals and phosphate, with clay minerals providing the highest fidelity of preservation. Fe-rich clay mostly occurs in narrow zones in contact with cellular material and is interpreted as an early microbially-mediated phase enclosing and replacing the most labile biological material. K-rich clay occurs within and exterior to cell envelopes, forming where the supply of Fe had been exhausted. Clay minerals inter-finger with calcium phosphate that co-precipitated with the clays in the sub-oxic zone of the lake sediments. This type of preservation was favoured in sulfate-poor environments where Fe-silicate precipitation could outcompete Fe-sulfide formation. This work shows that clay minerals can provide an exceptionally high fidelity of microfossil preservation and extends the known geological range of this fossilization style by almost 500 Ma. It also suggests that the best-preserved microfossils of this time may be found in low-sulfate environments. PMID:25068404

  12. Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Harrison, T. Mark; Mao, Wendy L.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of life on Earth is manifestly preserved in the rock record. However, the microfossil record only extends to ∼3.5 billion years (Ga), the chemofossil record arguably to ∼3.8 Ga, and the rock record to 4.0 Ga. Detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia range in age up to nearly 4.4 Ga. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one >3.8-Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions. Here, we report carbon isotopic measurements on these inclusions in a concordant, 4.10 ± 0.01-Ga zircon. We interpret these inclusions as primary due to their enclosure in a crack-free host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit. Their δ13CPDB of −24 ± 5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and may be evidence that a terrestrial biosphere had emerged by 4.1 Ga, or ∼300 My earlier than has been previously proposed. PMID:26483481

  13. Precambrian crustal evolution of Peninsular India: A 3.0 billion year odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meert, Joseph G.; Pandit, Manoj K.; Pradhan, Vimal R.; Banks, Jonathan; Sirianni, Robert; Stroud, Misty; Newstead, Brittany; Gifford, Jennifer

    2010-11-01

    The Precambrian geologic history of Peninsular India covers nearly 3.0 billion years of time. India is presently attached to the Eurasian continent although it remains (for now) a separate plate. It comprises several cratonic nuclei namely, Aravalli-Bundelkhand, Eastern Dharwar, Western Dharwar, Bastar and Singhbhum Cratons along with the Southern Granulite Province. Cratonization of India was polyphase, but a stable configuration between the major elements was largely complete by 2.5 Ga. Each of the major cratons was intruded by various age granitoids, mafic dykes and ultramafic bodies throughout the Proterozoic. The Vindhyan, Chhattisgarh, Cuddapah, Pranhita-Godavari, Indravati, Bhima-Kaladgi, Kurnool and Marwar basins are the major Meso to Neoproterozoic sedimentary repositories. In this paper we review the major tectonic and igneous events that led to the formation of Peninsular India and provide an up to date geochronologic summary of the Precambrian. India is thought to have played a role in a number of supercontinental cycles including (from oldest to youngest) Ur, Columbia, Rodinia, Gondwana and Pangea. This paper gives an overview of the deep history of Peninsular India as an introduction to this special TOIS volume.

  14. A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

    2004-02-26

    The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman alpha transition of neutral hydrogen, indicating that hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not been completely ionized at a redshift of z approximately 6.3, about one billion years after the Big Bang. Here we show that the IGM surrounding these quasars had a neutral hydrogen fraction of tens of per cent before the quasar activity started, much higher than the previous lower limits of approximately 0.1 per cent. Our results, when combined with the recent inference of a large cumulative optical depth to electron scattering after cosmological recombination therefore suggest the presence of a second peak in the mean ionization history of the Universe. PMID:14985754

  15. Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon.

    PubMed

    Bell, Elizabeth A; Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark; Mao, Wendy L

    2015-11-24

    Evidence of life on Earth is manifestly preserved in the rock record. However, the microfossil record only extends to ∼ 3.5 billion years (Ga), the chemofossil record arguably to ∼ 3.8 Ga, and the rock record to 4.0 Ga. Detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia range in age up to nearly 4.4 Ga. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one >3.8-Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions. Here, we report carbon isotopic measurements on these inclusions in a concordant, 4.10 ± 0.01-Ga zircon. We interpret these inclusions as primary due to their enclosure in a crack-free host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit. Their δ(13)CPDB of -24 ± 5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and may be evidence that a terrestrial biosphere had emerged by 4.1 Ga, or ∼ 300 My earlier than has been previously proposed. PMID:26483481

  16. The First Billion Years project: gamma-ray bursts at z > 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J.; Khochfar, S.; Greiner, J.; Dalla Vecchia, C.

    2015-02-01

    Long gamma-ray burst's (LGRB's) association with the death of massive stars suggests that they could be used to probe the cosmic star formation history (CSFH) with high accuracy, due to their high luminosities. We utilize cosmological simulations from the First Billion Years project to investigate the biases between the CSFH and the LGRB rate at z > 5, assuming various different models and constraints on the progenitors of LGRBs. We populate LGRBs using a selection based on environmental properties and demonstrate that the LGRB rate should trace the CSFH to high redshifts. The measured LGRB rate suggests that LGRBs have opening angles of ?jet = 0.1, although the degeneracy with the progenitor model cannot rule out an underlying bias. We demonstrate that proxies that relate the LGRB rate with global LGRB host properties do not reflect the underlying LGRB environment, and are in fact a result of the host galaxy's spatial properties, such that LGRBs can exist in galaxies of solar metallicity. However, we find a class of host galaxies that have low stellar mass and are metal rich, and that their metallicity dispersions would not allow low-metallicity environments. Detection of hosts with this set of properties would directly reflect the progenitor's environment. We predict that 10 per cent of LGRBs per year are associated with this set of galaxies that would have forbidden line emission that could be detected by instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope. Such a discovery would place strong constraints on the collapsar model and suggests other avenues to be investigated.

  17. The formation of submillimetre-bright galaxies from gas infall over a billion years.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Desika; Turk, Matthew; Feldmann, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Hopkins, Philip; Thompson, Robert; Hayward, Christopher; Ball, David; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-09-24

    Submillimetre-bright galaxies at high redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe and are characterized by prodigious emission in the far-infrared, with a flux of at least five millijanskys at a wavelength of 850 micrometres. They reside in haloes with masses about 10(13) times that of the Sun, have low gas fractions compared to main-sequence disks at a comparable redshift, trace complex environments and are not easily observable at optical wavelengths. Their physical origin remains unclear. Simulations have been able to form galaxies with the requisite luminosities, but have otherwise been unable to simultaneously match the stellar masses, star formation rates, gas fractions and environments. Here we report a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation that is able to form a submillimetre galaxy that simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints. We find that groups of galaxies residing in massive dark matter haloes have increasing rates of star formation that peak at collective rates of about 500-1,000 solar masses per year at redshifts of two to three, by which time the interstellar medium is sufficiently enriched with metals that the region may be observed as a submillimetre-selected system. The intense star formation rates are fuelled in part by the infall of a reservoir gas supply enabled by stellar feedback at earlier times, not through major mergers. With a lifetime of nearly a billion years, our simulations show that the submillimetre-bright phase of high-redshift galaxies is prolonged and associated with significant mass buildup in early-Universe proto-clusters, and that many submillimetre-bright galaxies are composed of numerous unresolved components (for which there is some observational evidence). PMID:26399829

  18. Atmospheric sulfur rearrangement 2.7 billion years ago: Evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzweil, Florian; Claire, Mark; Thomazo, Christophe; Peters, Marc; Hannington, Mark; Strauss, Harald

    2013-03-01

    Mass-independently fractionated sulfur isotopes (MIF-S) provide strong evidence for an anoxic atmosphere during the Archean. Moreover, the temporal evolution of MIF-S shows increasing magnitudes between 2.7 and 2.5 Ga until the start of the Great Oxidation Event (G.O.E.) at around 2.4 Ga. The conclusion of a completely anoxic atmosphere up to the G.O.E. is in contrast to recent studies on redox-sensitive elements, which suggest slightly oxidizing conditions during continental weathering already several hundred million years prior to the G.O.E. In order to investigate this apparent inconsistency, we present multiple sulfur isotopes for 2.71 Ga pyritic black shales derived from the Kidd Creek area, Ontario, Canada. These samples display high positive Δ33S values up to 3.8‰ and the typical late Archean slope in Δ36S/Δ33S of -0.9. In contrast, the time period before (3.2-2.73 Ga) is characterized by greatly attenuated MIF-S magnitudes and a slope in Δ36S/Δ33S of -1.5. We attribute the increase in Δ33S magnitude as well as the contemporaneous change in the slope of Δ36S/Δ33S to changes in the relative reaction rate of different MIF-S source reactions and changes in atmospheric sulfur exit channels. Both of these are dependent on atmospheric CH4:CO2 and O2 mixing ratios. We propose a distinct change in atmospheric composition at 2.7 Ga resulting from increased fluxes of oxygen and methane as the best explanation for the observed Neoarchean MIF-S record. Our data and modeling results suggest that oxygenic photosynthesis was a major contributor to primary productivity 2.7 billion years ago.

  19. The formation of submillimetre-bright galaxies from gas infall over a billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Desika; Turk, Matthew; Feldmann, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Hopkins, Philip; Thompson, Robert; Hayward, Christopher; Ball, David; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-09-01

    Submillimetre-bright galaxies at high redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe and are characterized by prodigious emission in the far-infrared, with a flux of at least five millijanskys at a wavelength of 850 micrometres. They reside in haloes with masses about 1013 times that of the Sun, have low gas fractions compared to main-sequence disks at a comparable redshift, trace complex environments and are not easily observable at optical wavelengths. Their physical origin remains unclear. Simulations have been able to form galaxies with the requisite luminosities, but have otherwise been unable to simultaneously match the stellar masses, star formation rates, gas fractions and environments. Here we report a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation that is able to form a submillimetre galaxy that simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints. We find that groups of galaxies residing in massive dark matter haloes have increasing rates of star formation that peak at collective rates of about 500-1,000 solar masses per year at redshifts of two to three, by which time the interstellar medium is sufficiently enriched with metals that the region may be observed as a submillimetre-selected system. The intense star formation rates are fuelled in part by the infall of a reservoir gas supply enabled by stellar feedback at earlier times, not through major mergers. With a lifetime of nearly a billion years, our simulations show that the submillimetre-bright phase of high-redshift galaxies is prolonged and associated with significant mass buildup in early-Universe proto-clusters, and that many submillimetre-bright galaxies are composed of numerous unresolved components (for which there is some observational evidence).

  20. Switching To Less-Expensive Blindness Drug Could Save Medicare Part B $18 Billion Over A Ten-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, DW; Newman-Casey, PA; Tavag, M; Zacks, DN; Stein, JD

    2014-01-01

    The biologic drugs bevacizumab and ranibizumab have revolutionized treatment of diabetic macular edema and macular degeneration, leading causes of blindness. Ophthalmologic use of these drugs has increased, now accounting for roughly one-sixth of the Medicare Part B drug budget. Ranibizumab and bevacizumab have similar efficacy and potentially minor differences in adverse event rates, but at $2,023 per dose, ranibizumab costs forty times more than bevacizumab. Using modeling methods, we predict ten-year (2010–2020) population-level costs and health benefits of using bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Our results show that if all patients were treated with the less-expensive bevacizumab instead of current usage patterns, Medicare Part B, patients, and the health care system would save $18 billion, $4.6 billion, and $29 billion, respectively. Altering patterns of use with these therapies by encouraging bevacizumab use and hastening approval of biosimilar therapies would dramatically reduce spending without substantially affecting patient outcomes. PMID:24889941

  1. Fourteen Times the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    ESO HARPS Instrument Discovers Smallest Ever Extra-Solar Planet Summary A European team of astronomers [1] has discovered the lightest known planet orbiting a star other than the sun (an "exoplanet"). The new exoplanet orbits the bright star mu Arae located in the southern constellation of the Altar. It is the second planet discovered around this star and completes a full revolution in 9.5 days. With a mass of only 14 times the mass of the Earth, the new planet lies at the threshold of the largest possible rocky planets, making it a possible super Earth-like object. Uranus, the smallest of the giant planets of the Solar System has a similar mass. However Uranus and the new exoplanet differ so much by their distance from the host star that their formation and structure are likely to be very different. This discovery was made possible by the unprecedented accuracy of the HARPS spectrograph on ESO's 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, which allows radial velocities to be measured with a precision better than 1 m/s. It is another clear demonstration of the European leadership in the field of exoplanet research. PR Photo 25a/04: The HARPS Spectrograph and the 3.6m Telescope PR Photo 25b/04: Observed Velocity Variation of mu Arae (3.6m/HARPS, 1.2m Swiss/CORALIE, AAT/UCLES) PR Photo 25c/04: Velocity Variation of mu Arae Observed by HARPS (3.6m/HARPS) PR Photo 25d/04: "Velocity Curve" of mu Arae A unique planet hunting machine ESO PR Photo 25a/04 ESO PR Photo 25a/04 The HARPS Spectrograph and the 3.6m Telescope [Preview - JPEG: 602 x 400 pix - 211k] [Normal - JPEG: 1202 x 800 pix - 645k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 25a/04 represents a montage of the HARPS spectrograph and the 3.6m telescope at La Silla. The upper left shows the dome of the telescope, while the upper right illustrates the telescope itself. The HARPS spectrograph is shown in the lower image during laboratory tests. The vacuum tank is open so that some of the high-precision components inside can be seen. Since the first detection in 1995 of a planet around the star 51 Peg by Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz from the Geneva Observatory (Switzerland), astronomers have learned that our Solar System is not unique, as more than 120 giant planets orbiting other stars were discovered mostly by radial-velocity surveys (cf. ESO PR 13/00, ESO PR 07/01, and ESO PR 03/03). This fundamental observational method is based on the detection of variations in the velocity of the central star, due to the changing direction of the gravitational pull from an (unseen) exoplanet as it orbits the star. The evaluation of the measured velocity variations allows to deduce the planet's orbit, in particular the period and the distance from the star, as well as a minimum mass [2]. The continued quest for exoplanets requires better and better instrumentation. In this context, ESO undoubtedly took the leadership with the new HARPS spectrograph (High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher) of the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (see ESO PR 06/03). Offered in October 2003 to the research community in the ESO member countries, this unique instrument is optimized to detect planets in orbit around other stars ("exoplanets") by means of accurate (radial) velocity measurements with an unequalled precision of 1 metre per second. HARPS was built by a European Consortium [3] in collaboration with ESO. Already from the beginning of its operation, it has demonstrated its very high efficiency. By comparison with CORALIE, another well known planet-hunting optimized spectrograph installed on the Swiss-Euler 1.2-m telescope at La Silla (cf ESO PR 18/98, 12/99, 13/00), the typical observation times have been reduced by a factor one hundred and the accuracy of the measurements has been increased by a factor ten. These improvements have opened new perspectives in the search for extra-solar planets and have set new standards in terms of instrumental precision. The planetary system around mu Arae The star mu Arae is about 50 light years away. This solar-like star is located in the southern constellation Ara (the Altar) and is bright enough (5th magnitude) to be observed with the unaided eye. Mu Arae was already known to harbour a Jupiter-sized planet with a 650 days orbital period. Previous observations also hinted at the presence of another companion (a planet or a star) much further away. The new measurements obtained by the astronomers on this object, combined with data from other teams confirm this picture. But as François Bouchy, member of the team, states: "Not only did the new HARPS measurements confirm what we previously believed to know about this star but they also showed that an additional planet on short orbit was present. And this new planet appears to be the smallest yet discovered around a star other than the sun. This makes mu Arae a very exciting planetary system." "Listening" to the star ESO PR Photo 25b/04 ESO PR Photo 25b/04 Observed Velocity Variation of mu Arae [Preview - JPEG: 440 x 400 pix - 98k] [Normal - JPEG: 879 x 800 pix - 230k] ESO PR Photo 25c/04 ESO PR Photo 25c/04 Velocity Variation of mu Arae Observed by HARPS [Preview - JPEG: 460 x 400 pix - 90k] [Normal - JPEG: 919 x 800 pix - 215k] Captions: ESO PR Photo 25b/04 shows the measurements of the radial velocity of the star mu Arae obtained by HARPS on the ESO 3.6m telescope at La Silla (green triangles), CORALIE on the Swiss Leonhard Euler 1.2m telescope also on La Silla (red dots) and UCLES on the Anglo-Australian Telescope (blue circles). The solid line shows the best fit to the measurements, assuming the existence of two planets and an additional long-period companion. The fact that the line happens to have a given width is related to the existence of the newly found short period planet. The data shown span the interval from July 1998 to August 2004. ESO PR Photo 25c/04 illustrates the high-quality radial velocity measurements obtained with HARPS. Here also, the solid line shows the best fit to the measurements, assuming the existence of two planets. The data were obtained over a time span of 80 days and the first points shown are the data from the 8 nights in June. Note that the full span of the vertical axis is only 40 m/s! Error bars indicate the accuracy of the measurements. The lower part of the diagram displays the deviation of the measurements from the best fit. ESO PR Photo 25d/04 ESO PR Photo 25d/04 Observed Velocity Variation of mu Arae [Preview - JPEG: 440 x 400 pix - 78k] [Normal - JPEG: 879 x 800 pix - 171k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 25d/04 displays the HARPS radial velocity measurements phase-folded with the orbital period of the newly found exoplanet (9.5 days). The measurements have been corrected from the effect of the two longer period companions. The semi-amplitude of the curve is less than 5 m/s! Coupled with the 9.5 days orbital period, this implies a minimum mass for the newly discovered planet of 14 times the mass of the Earth. During 8 nights in June 2004, mu Arae was repeatedly observed and its radial velocity measured by HARPS to obtain information on the interior of the star. This so-called astero-seismology technique (see ESO PR 15/01) studies the small acoustic waves which make the surface of the star periodically pulsate in and out. By knowing the internal structure of the star, the astronomers aimed at understanding the origin of the unusual amount of heavy elements observed in its stellar atmosphere. This unusual chemical composition could provide unique information to the planet formation history. Says Nuno Santos, another member of the team: "To our surprise, the analysis of the new measurements revealed a radial velocity variation with a period of 9.5 days on top of the acoustic oscillation signal!" This discovery has been made possible thanks to the large number of measurements obtained during the astero-seimology campaign. From this date, the star, that was also part of the HARPS consortium survey programme, was regularly monitored with a careful observation strategy to reduce the "seismic noise" of the star. These new data confirmed both the amplitude and the periodicity of the radial velocity variations found during the 8 nights in June. The astronomers were left with only one convincing explanation to this periodic signal: a second planet orbits mu Arae and accomplishes a full revolution in 9.5 days. But this was not the only surprise: from the radial velocity amplitude, that is the size of the wobble induced by the gravitational pull of the planet on the star, the astronomers derived a mass for the planet of only 14 times the mass of the Earth! This is about the mass of Uranus, the smallest of the giant planets in the solar system. The newly found exoplanet therefore sets a new record in the smallest planet discovered around a solar type star. At the boundary The mass of this planet places it at the boundary between the very large earth-like (rocky) planets and giant planets. As current planetary formation models are still far from being able to account for all the amazing diversity observed amongst the extrasolar planets discovered, astronomers can only speculate on the true nature of the present object. In the current paradigm of giant planet formation, a core is formed first through the accretion of solid "planetesimals". Once this core reaches a critical mass, gas accumulates in a "runaway" fashion and the mass of the planet increases rapidly. In the present case, this later phase is unlikely to have happened for otherwise the planet would have become much more massive. Furthermore, recent models having shown that migration shortens the formation time, it is unlikely that the present object has migrated over large distances and remained of such small mass. This object is therefore likely to be a planet with a rocky (not an icy) core surrounded by a small (of the order of a tenth of the total mass) gaseous envelope and would therefore qualify as a "super-Earth". Further Prospects The HARPS consortium, led by Michel Mayor (Geneva Observatory, Switzerland), has been granted 100 observing nights per year during a 5-year period at the ESO 3.6-m telescope to perform one of the most ambitious systematic searches for exoplanets so far implemented worldwide. To this aim, the consortium repeatedly measures velocities of hundreds of stars that may harbour planetary systems. The detection of this new light planet after less than 1 year of operation demonstrates the outstanding potential of HARPS for detecting rocky planets on short orbits. Further analysis shows that performances achieved with HARPS make possible the detection of big "telluric" planets with only a few times the mass of the Earth. Such a capability is a major improvement compared to past planet surveys. Detection of such rocky objects strengthens the interest of future transit detections from space with missions like COROT, Eddington and KEPLER that shall be able to measure their radius. More information The research described in this Press release has been submitted for publication to the leading astrophysical journal "Astronomy and Astrophysics". A preprint is available as a postscript file at http://www.oal.ul.pt/~nuno/. Notes [1]: The team is composed of Nuno Santos (Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal), François Bouchy and Jean-Pierre Sivan (Laboratoire d'astrophysique de Marseille, France), Michel Mayor, Francesco Pepe, Didier Queloz, Stéphane Udry, and Christophe Lovis (Observatoire de l'Université de Genève, Switzerland), Sylvie Vauclair, Michael Bazot (Toulouse, France), Gaspare Lo Curto and Dominique Naef (ESO), Xavier Delfosse (LAOG, Grenoble, France), Willy Benz and Christoph Mordasini (Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bern, Switzerland), and Jean-Louis Bertaux (Service d'Aéronomie de Verrière-le-Buisson, Paris, France). [2] A fundamental limitation of the radial-velocity method is the unknown of the inclination of the planetary orbit that only allows the determination of a lower mass limit for the planet. However, statistical considerations indicate that in most cases, the true mass will not be much higher than this value. The mass units for the exoplanets used in this text are 1 Jupiter mass = 22 Uranus masses = 318 Earth masses; 1 Uranus mass = 14.5 Earth masses. [3] HARPS has been designed and built by an international consortium of research institutes, led by the Observatoire de Genève (Switzerland) and including Observatoire de Haute-Provence (France), Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bern (Switzerland), the Service d'Aeronomie (CNRS, France), as well as ESO La Silla and ESO Garching.

  2. Ten Billion Years of Growth: Massive Galaxy Evolution from Structures and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezanson, Rachel

    Once thought to be relies of a much earlier epoch, the most massive local galaxies are red and dead ellipticals, with little ongoing star formation or organized rotation. In the last decade, observations of their assumed progenitors have demonstrated that billions of years ago, massive galaxies were more compact and morphologically different, possibly with more disklike structures. The details of this observed evolution can place constraints on the physical processes that have driven massive galaxy evolution through cosmic time. The work presented in this thesis provides observational constraints on the dynamical and structural evolution of massive galaxies since z ~ 1.5 - 2 using a variety of photometric and spectroscopic surveys, including OBEY, SDSS, NMBS, and UDS. First, we find that although overall densities of these galaxies have decreased with time, the central densities of massive galaxies at high and low redshifts, are quite similar. This suggests that massive galaxies grow "inside-out": compact cores form early and then gradually build a more diffuse envelope of stars in their outskirts. Balancing the need for efficient size growth and consistent number densities of progenitor and descendent galaxies, we conclude that minor-merging is the best physical explanation for the observed size evolution. The remainder of this dissertation focuses on the inferred and measured dynamical evolution of massive galaxies since z ~ 2. Using velocity dispersions inferred by galaxy stellar masses and morphologies, we find that the number density of galaxies at a given velocity dispersion, or velocity dispersion function , is quite stable with redshift since z ~ 1.5, with a weak evolution at the low dispersion end due to a growing population of quenched galaxies. The constancy provides evidence in favor of inside-out growth of galaxies and is consistent with theoretical predictions that the central potentials of massive galaxies are set early. We suggest a toy model that requires that galaxy quenching must be extremely efficient at high velocity dispersions and quenching must be combined with rapidly increasing dispersions. We present two large spectroscopic studies of high-redshift massive galaxies using the Keck Telescopes: directly measuring absorption line kinematics for eight galaxies at z ~ 1.5 and ~ 100 galaxies at z ~ 0.7. Using a collection of cutting edge photometric and spectroscopic data, we verify that the z ~ 1.5 galaxies are dynamically massive and compact, with high measured velocity dispersions. Surprisingly, the spectra of many of the galaxies in this sample have extremely strong Balmer absorption lines, in contrast with massive galaxies in the Universe. These observations can only be explained by recently quenched star-formation within ~ 1 Gyr. Finally, we collect all spectroscopic data from these two surveys and ~ 6000 galaxies from the literature and examine the structural and dynamical evolution of galaxies in the Fundamental Plane since z ~ 2. We find that although the zeropoint of the luminosity fundamental plane evolves dramatically in the last 10 billion years, the mass fundamental plane exhibits very little redshift evolution. We note that a stable mass fundamental plane was predicted by simulations of merging galaxies. Finally, these results imply that galaxies must undergo evolution in their velocity dispersions, in addition to growing in size in order to remain on the Fundamental Plane. Overall, these results provide strong evidence for inside-out growth, minimal, but non-negligible, dynamical evolution and efficient quenching of massive galaxies since z ~ 2.

  3. Preservation of hydrocarbons and biomarkers in oil trapped inside fluid inclusions for >2 billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Simon C.; Volk, Herbert; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger

    2008-02-01

    Oil-bearing fluid inclusions occur in a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying deltaic McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of the oil reveal a wide range of compounds, including CH 4, CO 2, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, low molecular weight cyclic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring biomarkers. Maturity ratios show that the oil was generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. This is remarkable, given that the oils were exposed to upper prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism (280-350 °C) either during migration or after entrapment. The fluid inclusions are closed systems, with high fluid pressures, and contain no clays or other minerals or metals that might catalyse oil-to-gas cracking. These three attributes may all contribute to the thermal stability of the included oil and enable survival of biomarkers and molecular ratios over billions of years. The biomarker geochemistry of the oil in the Matinenda Formation fluid inclusions enables inferences about the organisms that contributed to the organic matter deposited in the Palaeoproterozoic source rocks from which the analysed oil was generated and expelled. The presence of biomarkers produced by cyanobacteria and eukaryotes that are derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before ca. 2.2 Ga is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution through Earth's early history that avoids the potential contamination problems affecting shale-hosted hydrocarbons.

  4. Switching to less expensive blindness drug could save medicare part B $18 billion over a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    Hutton, David; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Tavag, Mrinalini; Zacks, David; Stein, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    The biologic drugs bevacizumab and ranibizumab have revolutionized treatment of diabetic macular edema and neovascular age-related macular degeneration, leading causes of blindness. Ophthalmologic use of these drugs has increased and now accounts for roughly one-sixth of the Medicare Part B drug budget. The two drugs have similar efficacy and potentially minor differences in adverse-event rates; however, at $2,023 per dose, ranibizumab costs forty times more than bevacizumab. Using modeling methods, we predict ten-year (2010-20) population-level costs and health benefits of using bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Our results show that if all patients were treated with the less expensive bevacizumab instead of current usage patterns, savings would amount to $18 billion for Medicare Part B and nearly $5 billion for patients. With an additional $6 billion savings in other health care expenses, the total savings would be almost $29 billion. Altering patterns of use with these therapies by encouraging bevacizumab use and hastening approval of biosimilar therapies would dramatically reduce spending without substantially affecting patient outcomes. PMID:24889941

  5. Evidence for Oxygenic Photosynthesis Half a Billion Years Before the Great Oxidation Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planavsky, N.; Asael, D.; Reinhard, C.; Hofmann, A.; Lyons, T. W.; Rouxel, O.

    2012-12-01

    Despite detailed investigations over the past 50 years, there is still intense debate about when oxygenic photosynthesis evolved. Current estimates span over a billion years of Earth history, ranging from prior to 3.8 Ga, the age of the oldest sedimentary rocks, to 2.5-2.3 Ga, coincident with the rise of atmospheric oxygen ("The Great Oxidation Event" or GOE). Hitherto, geochemical and biomarker evidence for the development of oxygenic photosynthesis prior to the GOE has been inconclusive and so a new, independent perspective is needed to constrain when oxygenesis evolved. Through the use of molybdenum (Mo) isotopes, we can track the onset of manganese(II) (Mn2+) oxidation, which requires free oxygen. It is only through photosynthesis that free oxygen is produced in significant quantities, allowing local oxygen build up in aqueous environments. Therefore, if we find a clear signal for appreciable Mn oxidation in the sedimentary rock record, oxygenic photosynthesis must have evolved by that time. There are large Mo isotope fractionations associated with the sorption of Mo onto Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides, with an approximately -2.7‰ δ98Mo fractionation associated with Mo sorption onto Mn oxyhydroxides. In contrast, sorption of Mo onto the common Fe oxyhydroxide ferrihydrite results in a fractionation of only ca. -1.1‰. Because of these differences in Mo isotope fractionations, Mo isotope values should become lighter with increasing Mn content if Mn oxidation occurs during deposition and is an important vector of Mo transfer to the sediment. In other words, a negative correlation between Fe/Mn ratios and Mo isotope values in chemical sediments is an unambiguous signal for Mn oxidation. Importantly, this Mo isotope approach holds up regardless of the original isotopic composition of seawater. We found a strong negative correlation between δ98Mo values and Fe/Mn ratios in iron formations deposited before and after the Great Oxidation Event. Most strikingly, Mo isotope data and Fe/Mn ratios correlate over a 2.5‰ range in δ98Mo in iron formations of the 2.95 Ga Sinqeni Formation, South Africa. In the Sinqeni Formation, we find this signal for Mn(II) oxidation despite Mn being predominantly reduced (Mn2+) and associated with Fe-Mn carbonates, pointing to retention of the primary δ98Mo despite subsequent reduction of the Mn host. The iron formations of the Sinqeni Formation were deposited in an epicontinental sea that was likely restricted at times. There would have been a limited supply of deep-water-sourced reductants (e.g. methane, ammonium, ferrous iron) to this depositional setting, which likely allowed for local, perhaps anomalous oxygen accumulation to levels supporting Mn oxidation beneath a globally anoxic atmosphere. Our Mo isotope data establish that there was biological oxygen production well before its first appreciable accumulation in the atmosphere (the GOE).

  6. Evidence for Oxygenic Photosynthesis Half a Billion Years Before the Great Oxidation Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planavsky, Noah; Reinhard, Chris; Asael, Dan; Lyons, Tim; Hofmann, Axel; Rouxel, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Despite detailed investigations over the past 50 years, there is still intense debate about when oxygenic photosynthesis evolved. Current estimates span over a billion years of Earth history, ranging from prior to 3.7 Ga, the age of the oldest sedimentary rocks, to 2.4-2.3 Ga, coincident with the rise of atmospheric oxygen ("The Great Oxidation Event" or GOE). As such, a new, independent perspective is needed. We will provide such a perspective herein by using molybdenum (Mo) isotopes in a novel way to track the onset of manganese(II)oxidation and thus biological oxygen production. The oxidation of Mn(II) in modern marine setting requires free dissolved oxygen. Mn is relatively unique in its environmental specificity for oxygen as an electron acceptor among the redox-sensitive transition metals, many of which, like Fe, can be oxidized under anoxic conditions either through a microbial pathway and/or with alternative oxidants such as nitrate. There are large Mo isotope fractionations associated with the sorption of Mo (as a polymolybdate complex) onto Mn-oxyhydroxides, with an approximately -2.7‰ fractionation in d98Mo associated with Mo sorption onto Mn-oxyhydroxides (e.g., birnessite, vernadite). In contrast, sorption of Mo onto the Fe-oxyhydroxide (e.g., ferrihydrite) results in a fractionation of only -1.1‰ or less. Because of this difference in Mo isotope fractionation, Mo isotope values should become lighter with increasing Mn content, if Mn oxidation occurred during deposition and is an important vector of Mo transfer to the sediment. We find a strong positive correlation between d98Mo values and Fe/Mn ratios in iron formations deposited before and after the Great Oxidation Event. Most strikingly, Mo isotope data and Fe/Mn ratios correlate over a 2.5‰ range in d98Mo values in the Mn-rich (0.1 - 6%) iron formation of the 2.95 Ga Sinqeni Formation, South Africa. The large isotopic shifts occur over a relatively thin (3 meter thick) horizon, reflecting short-term variations in the degree of Mn oxidation that are consistent with localized oxygen generation and rapid consumption in a geochemical backdrop that was otherwise reducing. The observed range in d98Mo values and the correlation between d98Mo values and Fe/Mn ratios is statistically identical to that found in the ca. 1.89 Ga iron formations from the Lake Superior region, Animikie basin, which were deposited well after the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Our work and other recent geochemical work on the Pongola Supergroup reconcile geochemical and molecular records for the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and provide strong evidence that there was biological oxygen production well before its permanent accumulation in the atmosphere around 2.4-2.3 Ga.

  7. Fourteen years of variability in the meteoric water, sea-ice melt, and Pacific water contributions to the central Arctic Ocean: 2000-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkire, M. B.; Morison, J.

    2014-12-01

    More than a decade of observations of water type composition (meteoric water, net sea-ice meltwater, Pacific and Atlantic seawater) in the mixed layer of the Central Arctic Ocean were compiled from data collected during the North Pole Environmental Observatory program. Although no large changes were apparent in the total freshwater inventory, a decline in the inventory of meteoric water (-600 km3 yr-1) between 2000 and 2012 was somewhat offset by a concomitant increase in the net sea-ice meltwater (300 km3 yr-1) contribution to the total freshwater volume of the North Pole region. In more recent years (2013-2014), both meteoric water and sea-ice melt contributions have reverted back toward values reminiscent of the late 1990s/early 2000s. The loss of meteoric water from the Central Arctic generally agreed with hypotheses that suggest the recent freshwater increase observed in Canada Basin was due, in part, to a diversion of Siberian river runoff from the Central to Western Arctic. In contrast, the average annual increase in net sea-ice melt was approximately equal to the long-term decline in the sea ice volume anomaly. Although no trend was apparent in the Pacific water influence, two separate events resulted in relatively brief (1-3 years) returns of Pacific water to the Central Arctic.

  8. Do arsenic concentrations in groundwater change over time? A fourteen-year follow-up study of 760 tubewells in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailloux, B. J.; Chen, T. L.; van Geen, A.; Bostick, B. C.; Ellis, T.; Ahmed, E. B.; Ahmed, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Naturally occurring arsenic (As) contamination of shallow groundwater affects numerous tubewells utilized for drinking water in Bangladesh. Long-term exposure to As contaminated water increases the risk of skin lesions and internal cancers. In 2000-2001, water samples from 61 villages distributed within a 25 km area of Araihazar, Bangladesh were collected and tested for As to better understand the spatial distribution of arsenic in groundwater. In 2012, village health workers returned to the same area and performed field kit tests for arsenic and resurveyed well owners. Of the 9,000 tubewells originally sampled in 2000-01, 760 of them have been identified as potentially still in existence by matching GPS coordinates, well depth, and well age information. The goal of this work is to determine whether arsenic concentrations along with groundwater chemistry have changed over the past 14 years in these tubewells. Archived water samples from the 2000-2001 sampling campaign are being assessed for sample storage integrity and village health workers are currently resampling these 760 tubewells. In 2000-2001, these samples were initially analyzed for As using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption (GFAA). The 2000-2001 archived water samples are currently being reanalyzed with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) to improve sensitivity, accuracy and precision of arsenic detection. ICP-MS will also be used to analyze for 13 other elements. Comparing ICP-MS with the GFAA As demonstrated that the long-term storage of these samples did not alter the water chemistry. Analysis of the samples currently being collected in Bangladesh will enable us to determine the stability of groundwater chemistry over time.

  9. Microfossils of sulphur-metabolizing cells in 3.4-billion-year-old rocks of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacey, David; Kilburn, Matt R.; Saunders, Martin; Cliff, John; Brasier, Martin D.

    2011-10-01

    Sulphur isotope data from early Archaean rocks suggest that microbes with metabolisms based on sulphur existed almost 3.5 billion years ago, leading to suggestions that the earliest microbial ecosystems were sulphur-based. However, morphological evidence for these sulphur-metabolizing bacteria has been elusive. Here we report the presence of microstructures from the 3.4-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation in Western Australia that are associated with micrometre-sized pyrite crystals. The microstructures we identify exhibit indicators of biological affinity, including hollow cell lumens, carbonaceous cell walls enriched in nitrogen, taphonomic degradation, organization into chains and clusters, and δ13C values of -33 to -46‰ Vienna PeeDee Belemnite (VPDB). We therefore identify them as microfossils of spheroidal and ellipsoidal cells and tubular sheaths demonstrating the organization of multiple cells. The associated pyrite crystals have Δ33S values between -1.65 and +1.43‰ and δ34S values ranging from -12 to +6‰ Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite (VCDT). We interpret the pyrite crystals as the metabolic by-products of these cells, which would have employed sulphate-reduction and sulphur-disproportionation pathways. These microfossils are about 200 million years older than previously described microfossils from Palaeoarchaean siliciclastic environments.

  10. A spin-down clock for cool stars from observations of a 2.5-billion-year-old cluster.

    PubMed

    Meibom, Sren; Barnes, Sydney A; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L; Latham, David W; Mathieu, Robert D

    2015-01-29

    The ages of the most common stars--low-mass (cool) stars like the Sun, and smaller--are difficult to derive because traditional dating methods use stellar properties that either change little as the stars age or are hard to measure. The rotation rates of all cool stars decrease substantially with time as the stars steadily lose their angular momenta. If properly calibrated, rotation therefore can act as a reliable determinant of their ages based on the method of gyrochronology. To calibrate gyrochronology, the relationship between rotation period and age must be determined for cool stars of different masses, which is best accomplished with rotation period measurements for stars in clusters with well-known ages. Hitherto, such measurements have been possible only in clusters with ages of less than about one billion years, and gyrochronology ages for older stars have been inferred from model predictions. Here we report rotation period measurements for 30 cool stars in the 2.5-billion-year-old cluster NGC 6819. The periods reveal a well-defined relationship between rotation period and stellar mass at the cluster age, suggesting that ages with a precision of order 10 per cent can be derived for large numbers of cool Galactic field stars. PMID:25539085

  11. An age difference of two billion years between a metal-rich and a metal-poor globular cluster.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B M S; Kalirai, J S; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J R; King, I R; Reitzel, D; Stetson, P B

    2013-08-01

    Globular clusters trace the formation history of the spheroidal components of our Galaxy and other galaxies, which represent the bulk of star formation over the history of the Universe. The clusters exhibit a range of metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium), with metal-poor clusters dominating the stellar halo of the Galaxy, and higher-metallicity clusters found within the inner Galaxy, associated with the stellar bulge, or the thick disk. Age differences between these clusters can indicate the sequence in which the components of the Galaxy formed, and in particular which clusters were formed outside the Galaxy and were later engulfed along with their original host galaxies, and which were formed within it. Here we report an absolute age of 9.9 ± 0.7 billion years (at 95 per cent confidence) for the metal-rich globular cluster 47 Tucanae, determined by modelling the properties of the cluster's white-dwarf cooling sequence. This is about two billion years younger than has been inferred for the metal-poor cluster NGC 6397 from the same models, and provides quantitative evidence that metal-rich clusters like 47 Tucanae formed later than metal-poor halo clusters like NGC 6397. PMID:23903747

  12. The thesis of stages fourteen years later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeby, C. E.

    1980-12-01

    The author indicates the changes and additions he would make to his book ` The Quality of Education in Developing Countries' (1966) if he were re-writing it in 1980. He would make clearer that his primary interest is in a continuum of change, the process of growth of a school system, and that the `stages' are only a convenient non-mathematical artifact to make the thesis more useful to administrators and planners. In the light of more recent developments and experiences, he now gives new stress to the pluralism of objectives at the stage of Meaning, and discusses the political, social, cultural and financial reasons why a country may choose not to take the difficult step from stage III to stage IV. Recent forms of alternative education, particularly those embodying plans for lifelong education, offer some hope of bypassing his thesis of stages. More consideration is given to constraints other than that of teacher qualification, though the difficulty of changing the skills, habits, attitudes and purposes in the teaching profession remain the chief obstacle to qualitative growth. Particular attention is paid to `crash' programmes where processes that are, by their very nature, successive are compressed into simultaneous or almost simultaneous ones. Some implications of the thesis of stages for teacher training are briefly dealt with. Regarding the application of the thesis to secondary education, he maintains that a better model of growth would be one based on the capacity of secondary education to respond to the changing economic and social demands of the community. Finally, he suggests three methods of testing his hypotheses and pleads that more consideration be given to building up a body of educational, theory based on the experience of developing countries over the past three decades.

  13. Tracing the effects of an enormous meteorite impact 3 billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-07-01

    The most well-known and popularized meteorite impact occurred 65 million years ago and left behind the Chicxulub crater, a feature more than 110 miles in diameter. Dust kicked up by the impact, which lingered in the atmosphere for years, may have helped kill all the nonavian dinosaurs along with three quarters of the world's plant and animal species.

  14. The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China craton: 2.505-billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle.

    PubMed

    Kusky, T M; Li, J H; Tucker, R D

    2001-05-11

    We report a thick, laterally extensive 2505 +/- 2.2-million-year-old (uranium-lead ratio in zircon) Archean ophiolite complex in the North China craton. Basal harzburgite tectonite is overlain by cumulate ultramafic rocks, a mafic-ultramafic transition zone of interlayered gabbro and ultramafic cumulates, compositionally layered olivine-gabbro and pyroxenite, and isotropic gabbro. A sheeted dike complex is rooted in the gabbro and overlain by a mixed dike-pillow lava section, chert, and banded iron formation. The documentation of a complete Archean ophiolite implies that mechanisms of oceanic crustal accretion similar to those of today were in operation by 2.5 billion years ago at divergent plate margins and that the temperature of the early mantle was not extremely elevated, as compared to the present-day temperature. Plate tectonic processes similar to those of the present must also have emplaced the ophiolite in a convergent margin setting. PMID:11349144

  15. Magnetite 3D colloidal crystals formed in the early solar system 4.6 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Jun; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; van Enckevort, Willem; Nakamura, Tomoki; Kimura, Yuki; Miura, Hitoshi; Satoh, Hisao; Nagashima, Ken; Konoto, Makoto

    2011-06-15

    Three-dimensional colloidal crystals made of ferromagnetic particles, such as magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), cannot be synthesized in principle because of the strong attractive magnetic interaction. However, we discovered colloidal crystals composed of polyhedral magnetite nanocrystallites of uniform size in the range of a few hundred nanometers in the Tagish Lake meteorite. Those colloidal crystals were formed 4.6 billion years ago and thus are much older than natural colloidal crystals on earth, such as opals, which formed about 100 million years ago. We found that the size of each individual magnetite particle determines its morphology, which in turn plays an important role in deciding the packing structure of the colloidal crystals. We also hypothesize that each particle has a flux-closed magnetic domain structure, which reduces the interparticle magnetic force significantly. PMID:21563777

  16. Legius Syndrome in Fourteen Families

    PubMed Central

    Denayer, Ellen; Chmara, Magdalena; Brems, Hilde; Kievit, Anneke Maat; van Bever, Yolande; Van den Ouweland, Ans MW; Van Minkelen, Rick; de Goede-Bolder, Arja; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Lakeman, Phillis; Beert, Eline; Ishizaki, Takuma; Mori, Tomoaki; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Van den Ende, Jenneke; Mangold, Elisabeth; Peltonen, Sirkku; Brice, Glen; Rankin, Julia; Van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Legius, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Legius syndrome presents as an autosomal dominant condition characterized by café-au-lait macules with or without freckling and sometimes a Noonan-like appearance and/or learning difficulties. It is caused by germline loss-of-function SPRED1 mutations and is a member of the RAS-MAPK pathway syndromes. Most mutations result in a truncated protein and only a few inactivating missense mutations have been reported. Since only a limited number of patients has been reported up until now, the full clinical and mutational spectrum is still unknown. We report mutation data and clinical details in fourteen new families with Legius syndrome. Six novel germline mutations are described. The Trp31Cys mutation is a new pathogenic SPRED1 missense mutation. Clinical details in the 14 families confirmed the absence of neurofibromas, and Lisch nodules, and the absence of a high prevalence of central nervous system tumors. We report white matter T2 hyperintensities on brain MRI scans in 2 patients and a potential association between postaxial polydactyly and Legius syndrome. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21089071

  17. Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11thFive-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

    2007-05-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious targetfor energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country sgross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and bindingtarget has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift inChina's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energydevelopment. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates intoan annual reduction of over one billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making theChinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in theworld today. While it is still too early to tell whether China willachieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend inenergy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options towardmeeting the 20 percent target using a detailed endues energymodel.

  18. 1.8 Billion Years of Detrital Zircon Recycling Calibrates a Refractory Part of Earth’s Sedimentary Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Hadlari, Thomas; Swindles, Graeme T.; Galloway, Jennifer M.; Bell, Kimberley M.; Sulphur, Kyle C.; Heaman, Larry M.; Beranek, Luke P.; Fallas, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Detrital zircon studies are providing new insights on the evolution of sedimentary basins but the role of sedimentary recycling remains largely undefined. In a broad region of northwestern North America, this contribution traces the pathway of detrital zircon sand grains from Proterozoic sandstones through Phanerozoic strata and argues for multi-stage sedimentary recycling over more than a billion years. As a test of our hypothesis, integrated palynology and detrital zircon provenance provides clear evidence for erosion of Carboniferous strata in the northern Cordillera as a sediment source for Upper Cretaceous strata. Our results help to calibrate Earth's sedimentary cycle by showing that recycling dominates sedimentary provenance for the refractory mineral zircon. PMID:26658165

  19. Constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio 1.5 billion years after the big bang.

    PubMed

    Bagdonaite, J; Ubachs, W; Murphy, M T; Whitmore, J B

    2015-02-20

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to μ, yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of Δμ/μ=(-9.5 ± 5.4(stat)± 5.3(syst))×10(-6). PMID:25763949

  20. 1.8 Billion Years of Detrital Zircon Recycling Calibrates a Refractory Part of Earth's Sedimentary Cycle.

    PubMed

    Hadlari, Thomas; Swindles, Graeme T; Galloway, Jennifer M; Bell, Kimberley M; Sulphur, Kyle C; Heaman, Larry M; Beranek, Luke P; Fallas, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    Detrital zircon studies are providing new insights on the evolution of sedimentary basins but the role of sedimentary recycling remains largely undefined. In a broad region of northwestern North America, this contribution traces the pathway of detrital zircon sand grains from Proterozoic sandstones through Phanerozoic strata and argues for multi-stage sedimentary recycling over more than a billion years. As a test of our hypothesis, integrated palynology and detrital zircon provenance provides clear evidence for erosion of Carboniferous strata in the northern Cordillera as a sediment source for Upper Cretaceous strata. Our results help to calibrate Earth's sedimentary cycle by showing that recycling dominates sedimentary provenance for the refractory mineral zircon. PMID:26658165

  1. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2007-07-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

  2. Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years ago - Evidence at Kolar, south India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogstad, E. J.; Hanson, G. N.; Balakrishnan, S.; Rajamani, V.; Mukhopadhyay, D. K.

    1989-01-01

    The Archean Kolar Schist Belt, south India, is a suture zone where two gneiss terranes and at least two amphibolite terranes with distinct histories were accreted. Amphibolites from the eastern and western sides of the schist belt have distinct incompatible element and isotopic characteristics suggesting that their volcanic protoliths were derived from different mantle sources. The amphibolite and gneiss terranes were juxtaposed by horizontal compression and shearing between 2530 and 2420 million years ago (Ma) along a zone marked by the Kolar Schist Belt. This history of accretion of discrete crustal terranes resembles those of Phanerozoic convergent margins and thus suggests that plate tectonics operated on earth by 2500 Ma.

  3. National expenditure for false-positive mammograms and breast cancer overdiagnoses estimated at $4 billion a year.

    PubMed

    Ong, Mei-Sing; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2015-04-01

    Populationwide mammography screening has been associated with a substantial rise in false-positive mammography findings and breast cancer overdiagnosis. However, there is a lack of current data on the associated costs in the United States. We present costs due to false-positive mammograms and breast cancer overdiagnoses among women ages 40-59, based on expenditure data from a major US health care insurance plan for 702,154 women in the years 2011-13. The average expenditures for each false-positive mammogram, invasive breast cancer, and ductal carcinoma in situ in the twelve months following diagnosis were $852, $51,837 and $12,369, respectively. This translates to a national cost of $4 billion each year. The costs associated with false-positive mammograms and breast cancer overdiagnoses appear to be much higher than previously documented. Screening has the potential to save lives. However, the economic impact of false-positive mammography results and breast cancer overdiagnoses must be considered in the debate about the appropriate populations for screening. PMID:25847639

  4. Global resurfacing of Mercury 4.0-4.1 billion years ago by heavy bombardment and volcanism.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Simone; Chapman, Clark R; Fassett, Caleb I; Head, James W; Bottke, W F; Strom, Robert G

    2013-07-01

    The most heavily cratered terrains on Mercury have been estimated to be about 4 billion years (Gyr) old, but this was based on images of only about 45 per cent of the surface; even older regions could have existed in the unobserved portion. These terrains have a lower density of craters less than 100 km in diameter than does the Moon, an observation attributed to preferential resurfacing on Mercury. Here we report global crater statistics of Mercury's most heavily cratered terrains on the entire surface. Applying a recent model for early lunar crater chronology and an updated dynamical extrapolation to Mercury, we find that the oldest surfaces were emplaced just after the start of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) about 4.0-4.1 Gyr ago. Mercury's global record of large impact basins, which has hitherto not been dated, yields a similar surface age. This agreement implies that resurfacing was global and was due to volcanism, as previously suggested. This activity ended during the tail of the LHB, within about 300-400 million years after the emplacement of the oldest terrains on Mercury. These findings suggest that persistent volcanism could have been aided by the surge of basin-scale impacts during this bombardment. PMID:23823793

  5. How Obama's $12-Billion Could Change 2-Year Colleges: An In-Depth Look at Ways the President's Proposal Might Play Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin; Parry, Marc

    2009-01-01

    President Obama announced a plan to spend an unprecedented $12-billion over 10 years to improve programs, courses, and facilities at community colleges. The money, the president said, will position two-year institutions to produce five million more graduates over the next decade and to play a leading role in rebuilding the economy. But after the

  6. A One Billion Year Martian Climate Model: The Importance of Seasonally Resolved Polar Caps and the Role of Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. C.; Leovy, C. B.; Quinn, T. R.; Haberle, R. M.; Schaeffer, J.

    2003-01-01

    Wind deflation and deposition are powerful agents of surface change in the present Mars climate regime. Recent studies indicate that, while the distribution of regions of potential deflation (or erosion) and deposition is remarkably insensitive to changes in orbital parameters (obliquity, timing of perihelion passage, etc.), rates of aeolian surface modification may be highly sensitive to these parameters even if the atmospheric mass remains constant. But previous work suggested the atmospheric mass is likely to be sensitive to obliquity, especially if a significant mass of carbon dioxide can be stored in the regolith or deposited in the form of massive polar caps. Deflation and erosion are highly sensitive to surface pressure, so feedback between orbit variations and surface pressure can greatly enhance the sensitivity of aeolian modification rates to orbital parameters. We used statistics derived from a 1 Gyr orbital integration of the spin axis of Mars, coupled with 3D general circulation models (GCMs) at a variety of orbital conditions and pressures, to explore this feedback. We also employed a seasonally resolved 1D energy balance model to illuminate the gross characteristics of the longterm atmospheric evolution, wind erosion and deposition over one billion years. We find that seasonal polar cycles have a critical influence on the ability for the regolith to release CO2 at high obliquities, and find that the atmospheric CO2 actually decreases at high obliquities due to the cooling effect of polar deposits at latitudes where seasonal caps form. At low obliquity, the formation of massive, permanent polar caps depends critically on the values of the frost albedo, A(sub frost), and frost emissivity, E(sub frost). Using our 1D model with values of A(sub frost) = 0.67 and E(sub frost) = 0.55, matched to the NASA Ames GCM results, we find that permanent caps only form at low obliquities (< 10 degrees). Thus, contrary to expectations, the Martian atmospheric pressure is remarkable static over time, and decreases both at high and low obliquity. Also, from our one billion year orbital model, we present new results on the fraction of time Mars is expected to experience periods of high and low obliquity. Finally, using GCM runs at a variety of pressures, we examine the likely role of wind erosion under an early more massive Martian atmosphere.

  7. Evidence from massive siderite beds for a CO2-rich atmosphere before approximately 1.8 billion years ago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yumiko; Kumazawa, Kazumasa

    2004-01-01

    It is generally thought that, in order to compensate for lower solar flux and maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth, methane must have been an important greenhouse gas before approximately 2.2 billion years (Gyr) ago. This is based upon a simple thermodynamic calculation that relates the absence of siderite (FeCO3) in some pre-2.2-Gyr palaeosols to atmospheric CO2 concentrations that would have been too low to have provided the necessary greenhouse effect. Using multi-dimensional thermodynamic analyses and geological evidence, we show here that the absence of siderite in palaeosols does not constrain atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Siderite is absent in many palaeosols (both pre- and post-2.2-Gyr in age) because the O2 concentrations and pH conditions in well-aerated soils have favoured the formation of ferric (Fe3+)-rich minerals, such as goethite, rather than siderite. Siderite, however, has formed throughout geological history in subsurface environments, such as euxinic seas, where anaerobic organisms created H2-rich conditions. The abundance of large, massive siderite-rich beds in pre-1.8-Gyr sedimentary sequences and their carbon isotope ratios indicate that the atmospheric CO2 concentration was more than 100 times greater than today, causing the rain and ocean waters to be more acidic than today. We therefore conclude that CO2 alone (without a significant contribution from methane) could have provided the necessary greenhouse effect to maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth.

  8. Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bontognali, Tomaso R R; Sessions, Alex L; Allwood, Abigail C; Fischer, Woodward W; Grotzinger, John P; Summons, Roger E; Eiler, John M

    2012-09-18

    The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites contain laminae rich in organic carbon, interpreted as the fossil remains of ancient microbial mats. To better understand the biogeochemistry of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur, including both ?(33)S and . This approach allows us to tie physiological inference from isotope ratios directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabolism that is complimentary to, and independent from, inorganic proxies (e.g., pyrite). ?(33)S values of the kerogen reveal mass-anomalous fractionations expected of the Archean sulfur cycle, whereas values show large fractionations at very small spatial scales, including values below -15. We interpret these isotopic patterns as recording the process of sulfurization of organic matter by H(2)S in heterogeneous mat pore-waters influenced by respiratory S metabolism. Positive ?(33)S anomalies suggest that disproportionation of elemental sulfur would have been a prominent microbial process in these communities. PMID:22949693

  9. Evidence from massive siderite beds for a CO2-rich atmosphere before ~ 1.8 billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yumiko; Kumazawa, Kazumasa

    2004-05-01

    It is generally thought that, in order to compensate for lower solar flux and maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth, methane must have been an important greenhouse gas before ~2.2 billion years (Gyr) ago. This is based upon a simple thermodynamic calculation that relates the absence of siderite (FeCO3) in some pre-2.2-Gyr palaeosols to atmospheric CO2 concentrations that would have been too low to have provided the necessary greenhouse effect. Using multi-dimensional thermodynamic analyses and geological evidence, we show here that the absence of siderite in palaeosols does not constrain atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Siderite is absent in many palaeosols (both pre- and post-2.2-Gyr in age) because the O2 concentrations and pH conditions in well-aerated soils have favoured the formation of ferric (Fe3+)-rich minerals, such as goethite, rather than siderite. Siderite, however, has formed throughout geological history in subsurface environments, such as euxinic seas, where anaerobic organisms created H2-rich conditions. The abundance of large, massive siderite-rich beds in pre-1.8-Gyr sedimentary sequences and their carbon isotope ratios indicate that the atmospheric CO2 concentration was more than 100 times greater than today, causing the rain and ocean waters to be more acidic than today. We therefore conclude that CO2 alone (without a significant contribution from methane) could have provided the necessary greenhouse effect to maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth.

  10. Survival of LLSVPs for billions of years in a vigorously convecting mantle: Replenishment and destruction of chemical anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyukova, Elvira; Steinberger, Bernhard; Dabrowski, Marcin; Sobolev, Stephan V.

    2015-05-01

    We study segregation of the subducted oceanic crust (OC) at the core-mantle boundary and its ability to accumulate and form large thermochemical piles (such as the seismically observed Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs)). Our high-resolution numerical simulations of thermochemical mantle convection suggest that the longevity of LLSVPs for up to three billion years, and possibly longer, can be ensured by a balance in the rate of segregation of high-density OC material to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and the rate of its entrainment away from the CMB by mantle upwellings. For a range of parameters tested in this study, a large-scale compositional anomaly forms at the CMB, similar in shape and size to the LLSVPs. Neutrally buoyant thermochemical piles formed by mechanical stirringwhere thermally induced negative density anomaly is balanced by the presence of a fraction of dense anomalous materialbest resemble the geometry of LLSVPs. Such neutrally buoyant piles tend to emerge and survive for at least 3 Gyr in simulations with quite different parameters. We conclude that for a plausible range of values of density anomaly of OC material in the lower mantleit is likely that it segregates to the CMB, gets mechanically mixed with the ambient material, and forms neutrally buoyant large-scale compositional anomalies similar in shape to the LLSVPs.

  11. Mobile hydrocarbon microspheres from >2-billion-year-old carbon-bearing seams in the South African deep subsurface.

    PubMed

    Wanger, G; Moser, D; Hay, M; Myneni, S; Onstott, T C; Southam, G

    2012-11-01

    By ~2.9 Ga, the time of the deposition of the Witwatersrand Supergroup, life is believed to have been well established on Earth. Carbon remnants of the microbial biosphere from this time period are evident in sediments from around the world. In the Witwatersrand Supergroup, the carbonaceous material is often concentrated in seams, closely associated with the gold deposits and may have been a mobile phase 2 billion years ago. Whereas today the carbon in the Witwatersrand Supergroup is presumed to be immobile, hollow hydrocarbon spheres ranging in size from <1 ?m to >50 ?m were discovered emanating from a borehole drilled through the carbon-bearing seams suggesting that a portion of the carbon may still be mobile in the deep subsurface. ToF-SIMS and STXM analyses revealed that these spheres contain a suite of alkane, alkenes, and aromatic compounds consistent with the described organic-rich carbon seams within the Witwatersrand Supergroup's auriferous reef horizons. Analysis by electron microscopy and ToF-SIMS, however, revealed that these spheres, although most likely composed of biogenic carbon and resembling biological organisms, do not retain any true structural, that is, fossil, information and were formed by an abiogenic process. PMID:22901282

  12. Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Sessions, Alex L.; Allwood, Abigail C.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Grotzinger, John P.; Summons, Roger E.; Eiler, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites contain laminae rich in organic carbon, interpreted as the fossil remains of ancient microbial mats. To better understand the biogeochemistry of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur, including both ?33S and . This approach allows us to tie physiological inference from isotope ratios directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabolism that is complimentary to, and independent from, inorganic proxies (e.g., pyrite). ?33S values of the kerogen reveal mass-anomalous fractionations expected of the Archean sulfur cycle, whereas values show large fractionations at very small spatial scales, including values below -15. We interpret these isotopic patterns as recording the process of sulfurization of organic matter by H2S in heterogeneous mat pore-waters influenced by respiratory S metabolism. Positive ?33S anomalies suggest that disproportionation of elemental sulfur would have been a prominent microbial process in these communities. PMID:22949693

  13. Air density 2.7 billion years ago limited to less than twice modern levels by fossil raindrop imprints.

    PubMed

    Som, Sanjoy M; Catling, David C; Harnmeijer, Jelte P; Polivka, Peter M; Buick, Roger

    2012-04-19

    According to the 'Faint Young Sun' paradox, during the late Archaean eon a Sun approximately 20% dimmer warmed the early Earth such that it had liquid water and a clement climate. Explanations for this phenomenon have invoked a denser atmosphere that provided warmth by nitrogen pressure broadening or enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. Such solutions are allowed by geochemical studies and numerical investigations that place approximate concentration limits on Archaean atmospheric gases, including methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen. But no field data constraining ground-level air density and barometric pressure have been reported, leaving the plausibility of these various hypotheses in doubt. Here we show that raindrop imprints in tuffs of the Ventersdorp Supergroup, South Africa, constrain surface air density 2.7 billion years ago to less than twice modern levels. We interpret the raindrop fossils using experiments in which water droplets of known size fall at terminal velocity into fresh and weathered volcanic ash, thus defining a relationship between imprint size and raindrop impact momentum. Fragmentation following raindrop flattening limits raindrop size to a maximum value independent of air density, whereas raindrop terminal velocity varies as the inverse of the square root of air density. If the Archaean raindrops reached the modern maximum measured size, air density must have been less than 2.3?kg?m(-3), compared to today's 1.2?kg?m(-3), but because such drops rarely occur, air density was more probably below 1.3?kg?m(-3). The upper estimate for air density renders the pressure broadening explanation possible, but it is improbable under the likely lower estimates. Our results also disallow the extreme CO(2) levels required for hot Archaean climates. PMID:22456703

  14. The Infrared Insights on the Nature and Evolution of Star-Forming Galaxies in the Past 11 Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rujopakarn, Wiphu

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the nature of star-forming galaxies and their evolution as seen in the mid-infrared (IR) wavelengths. We first study the star formation rate density evolution by constructing the IR luminosity functions (LF) at 0 < z < 1.2. Separately, we find that star-forming galaxies at both low and high redshifts fall into a nearly linear relationship between the infrared luminosity (LIR) and infrared luminosity surface density (LIRSD) over five orders of magnitude in luminosity, which indicates that high-redshift IR luminous star-forming galaxies have similar structures to local normal star-forming galaxies and primarily differ in the 100x to 1000x higher star formation rate (SFR) surface density. We show that the LIRSD, instead of the LIR, is a good indicator of the shape of star-forming galaxies' spectral energy distributions at both low and high redshifts. This result is used to develop a new technique to estimate the LIR, which results in an indicator that predicts LIR and SFR from a single-band 24 micron observation, consistent with a full spectral energy distribution within 0.1 dex. We use this indicator to construct the IR LF of star-forming galaxies and study SFR evolution at redshift 0 < z < 3, spanning 11 billion years of the cosmic history. In addition to exploring statistical properties of large samples of galaxies, this thesis also studies individual strongly gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 3 using near-IR and mid-IR spectroscopy with the the Large Binocular Telescope and the Spitzer Space Telescope to understand their extinction, structure, and physical conditions.

  15. Deposition of 1.88-billion-year-old iron formations as a consequence of rapid crustal growth.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Birger; Fletcher, Ian R; Bekker, Andrey; Muhling, Janet R; Gregory, Courtney J; Thorne, Alan M

    2012-04-26

    Iron formations are chemical sedimentary rocks comprising layers of iron-rich and silica-rich minerals whose deposition requires anoxic and iron-rich (ferruginous) sea water. Their demise after the rise in atmospheric oxygen by 2.32 billion years (Gyr) ago has been attributed to the removal of dissolved iron through progressive oxidation or sulphidation of the deep ocean. Therefore, a sudden return of voluminous iron formations nearly 500 million years later poses an apparent conundrum. Most late Palaeoproterozoic iron formations are about 1.88 Gyr old and occur in the Superior region of North America. Major iron formations are also preserved in Australia, but these were apparently deposited after the transition to a sulphidic ocean at 1.84 Gyr ago that should have terminated iron formation deposition, implying that they reflect local marine conditions. Here we date zircons in tuff layers to show that iron formations in the Frere Formation of Western Australia are about 1.88 Gyr old, indicating that the deposition of iron formations from two disparate cratons was coeval and probably reflects global ocean chemistry. The sudden reappearance of major iron formations at 1.88 Gyr ago--contemporaneous with peaks in global mafic-ultramafic magmatism, juvenile continental and oceanic crust formation, mantle depletion and volcanogenic massive sulphide formation--suggests deposition of iron formations as a consequence of major mantle activity and rapid crustal growth. Our findings support the idea that enhanced submarine volcanism and hydrothermal activity linked to a peak in mantle melting released large volumes of ferrous iron and other reductants that overwhelmed the sulphate and oxygen reservoirs of the ocean, decoupling atmospheric and seawater redox states, and causing the return of widespread ferruginous conditions. Iron formations formed on clastic-starved coastal shelves where dissolved iron upwelled and mixed with oxygenated surface water. The disappearance of iron formations after this event may reflect waning mafic-ultramafic magmatism and a diminished flux of hydrothermal iron relative to seawater oxidants. PMID:22538613

  16. Dipolar geomagnetic field and low orbital obliquity during the last two billion years: Evidence from paleomagnetism of evaporite basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    Paleomagnetism of climatically sensitive sedimentary rock types, such as glacial deposits and evaporites, can test the uniformitarianism of ancient geomagnetic fields and paleoclimatic zones. Precambrian glacial deposits laid down in near-equatorial paleomagnetic latitudes indicate a paleoclimatic paradox that can be explained either by Snowball Earth episodes, or high orbital obliquity, or dramatically non-uniformitarian geomagnetic fields. Here I present the first global paleomagnetic compilation of the Earth's entire basin-scale evaporite record. Evaporation exceeds precipitation in today's subtropical desert belts, generally within a zone of 15-35 from the equator. Assuming a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) magnetic field for Cenozoic- Mesozoic time, evaporite basins of the past 250 Myr have a volume-weighted mean paleolatitude of 234, also squarely within the subtropics. Carboniferous-Permian evaporites have an indistinguishable weighted-mean paleolatitude of 224, which does not change significantly when recently hypothesized octupolar field components are included in the calculations. Early Paleozoic (including late Ediacaran) evaporites are lower-latitude (weighted mean 105), but detailed analyses of individual examples show this cannot be attributed solely to nondipolar field components or sedimentary inclination biases; the cause may be due to particular paleogeographic effects on regional tropical climates, or incomplete sampling by the paleomagnetic data. Proterozoic (pre-Ediacaran) evaporite basins have a volume- weighted mean inclination of 334, which would correspond to a mean paleolatitude of 183 for a pure GAD field. This latter mean is indistinguishable, within error, from the Cenozoic-Mesozoic mean and demonstrates the success of the GAD model as a first-order description of the geomagnetic field for the last two billion years. Also, general circulation climate models of a high-obliquity Earth predict either no strong zonal trends in mean precipitation-evaporation, or a slight minimum at the rotational equator. The focused subtropical concentration of Proterozoic evaporite latitudes, as shown above, is inconsistent with the high- obliquity hypothesis for Precambrian Earth.

  17. Survival of LLSVPs for Billions of Years in a Vigorously Convecting Mantle: Replenishment and Destruction of Chemical Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyukova, Elvira; Steinberger, Bernhard; Dabrowski, Marcin; Sobolev, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    We study segregation of the subducted oceanic crust (OC) at the core mantle boundary, its ability to accumulate and form large-scale compositional anomaly (such as the LLSVPs), and its susceptibility to get entrained by the hot rising plumes. Based on the results from our high-resolution numerical simulations of 2D thermochemical mantle convection, we propose that the longevity of LLSVPs for up to three billion years, and possibly longer, can be ensured by a balance in the rate of segregation of high-density OC-material to the CMB, and the rate of its entrainment away from the CMB by mantle upwellings. For a range of parameters tested in this study, a large-scale compositional anomaly forms at the CMB, which is similar in shape and size to the seismically observed LLSVPs - high topography of over 1000 km, steep edges, and occupying a few % (~ 2%) of the total mantle volume. In our simulations, neutrally buoyant thermochemical piles - those in which the thermally induced negative density anomaly is balanced by the presence of a fraction of compositionally anomalous high density material - best resemble the geometry of LLSVPs. Such neutrally buoyant piles tend to emerge and survive for a long time (over 3Gyr) in simulations with quite different parameters. For moderate compositional density anomaly of oceanic crust, the neutrally buoyant piles form at the CMB and contain ~ 80% of dense OC material. For high compositional density anomaly, a dense layer forms at the base of the mantle, and a neutrally buoyant pile develops on top of it. In the latter case, the dense basal layer and the neutrally buoyant pile on top of it are clearly separated by a jump in the concentration of the compositionally anomalous material. We conclude from our numerical study that for a plausible range of values of density anomaly of OC material in the lower mantle - it is likely that it segregates to the CMB, gets mechanically mixed with the ambient material, and forms neutrally buoyant large scale compositional anomalies similar in shape to the LLSVPs. To perform this numerical study, we developed an efficient FEM code with dynamically adaptive time and space resolution, and marker-in-cell methodology. This enabled us to model thermochemical mantle convection at realistically high convective vigor, strong thermally induced viscosity variations, and long term evolution of compositional fields. Confidence in our numerical results was gained through thorough benchmarking of the code, together with the resolution studies, all in the light of the characteristic length and time scales of governing processes in our modeled system.

  18. The [sup 18]O/[sup 16]O ratio of 2-billion-year-old seawater inferred from ancient oceanic crust

    SciTech Connect

    Holmden, C.; Muehlenbachs, K. )

    1993-03-19

    An oxygen isotope profile of the 2-billion-year-old Purtuniq ophiolite overlaps with similar profiles of younger ophiolites and the modern oceanic crust. This overlap implies (i) that there was a similar style of seawater-ocean crust interaction during the past 2 billion years; (ii) that the oxygen isotope composition of early Proterozoic seawater was similar to the modern value; (iii) that early Proterozoic sea-floor spreading rates were similar to, or greater than, average modern rates; and (iv) that early Proterozoic carbonate rocks and cherts with low [sup 18]O/[sup 16]O ratios do not reflect global-scale [sup 18]O depletion of early Proterozoic oceans. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Microbially induced sedimentary structures recording an ancient ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 billion-year-old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Noffke, Nora; Christian, Daniel; Wacey, David; Hazen, Robert M

    2013-12-01

    Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) result from the response of microbial mats to physical sediment dynamics. MISS are cosmopolitan and found in many modern environments, including shelves, tidal flats, lagoons, riverine shores, lakes, interdune areas, and sabkhas. The structures record highly diverse communities of microbial mats and have been reported from numerous intervals in the geological record up to 3.2 billion years (Ga) old. This contribution describes a suite of MISS from some of the oldest well-preserved sedimentary rocks in the geological record, the early Archean (ca. 3.48 Ga) Dresser Formation, Western Australia. Outcrop mapping at the meter to millimeter scale defined five sub-environments characteristic of an ancient coastal sabkha. These sub-environments contain associations of distinct macroscopic and microscopic MISS. Macroscopic MISS include polygonal oscillation cracks and gas domes, erosional remnants and pockets, and mat chips. Microscopic MISS comprise tufts, sinoidal structures, and laminae fabrics; the microscopic laminae are composed of primary carbonaceous matter, pyrite, and hematite, plus trapped and bound grains. Identical suites of MISS occur in equivalent environmental settings through the entire subsequent history of Earth including the present time. This work extends the geological record of MISS by almost 300 million years. Complex mat-forming microbial communities likely existed almost 3.5 billion years ago. PMID:24205812

  20. Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures Recording an Ancient Ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 Billion-Year-Old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Daniel; Wacey, David; Hazen, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) result from the response of microbial mats to physical sediment dynamics. MISS are cosmopolitan and found in many modern environments, including shelves, tidal flats, lagoons, riverine shores, lakes, interdune areas, and sabkhas. The structures record highly diverse communities of microbial mats and have been reported from numerous intervals in the geological record up to 3.2 billion years (Ga) old. This contribution describes a suite of MISS from some of the oldest well-preserved sedimentary rocks in the geological record, the early Archean (ca. 3.48 Ga) Dresser Formation, Western Australia. Outcrop mapping at the meter to millimeter scale defined five sub-environments characteristic of an ancient coastal sabkha. These sub-environments contain associations of distinct macroscopic and microscopic MISS. Macroscopic MISS include polygonal oscillation cracks and gas domes, erosional remnants and pockets, and mat chips. Microscopic MISS comprise tufts, sinoidal structures, and laminae fabrics; the microscopic laminae are composed of primary carbonaceous matter, pyrite, and hematite, plus trapped and bound grains. Identical suites of MISS occur in equivalent environmental settings through the entire subsequent history of Earth including the present time. This work extends the geological record of MISS by almost 300 million years. Complex mat-forming microbial communities likely existed almost 3.5 billion years ago. Key Words: Archean—Biofilms—Microbial mats—Early Earth—Evolution. Astrobiology 13, 1103–1124. PMID:24205812

  1. Recrystallized Granite Surface Fissures Of The Wasatch Range, Produced Not Later Than 1/4 Billion Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Keith L.

    2000-05-01

    Our studies of numerous recrystallized fissures in 4 granite plutons of Wasatch Range, namely, Mount Tuscarora-Wolverine-Millicent,^1,6,7 Bonanza Peak-Midway,^2 Little Cottonwood Canyon and Ferguson Canyon plutons, all of which formed magma chambers reaching Earth-atmosphere interface, establish that they resulted from high thermal gradients rather than passages of earthquake waves. Magma chambers formed, solidified during Permo-Caroniferous Ice Age(roughly, 1/3...1/4 billion yr ago, a time interval preceding period of extrusion of Rocky Mountains, 10^8 yr ago), and while fluid, belched lava flows^5 extending over its reservoir walls to run hundred of meters. We have shown how the magma melts, dilutes and replaces overlying metamorphic rock^7 to reach Earth's surface so that a pluton containing large amounts of dross(Fe-ores, etc.) had a short fluid lifetime. We also described how offshoots from a long-running main fissure form acute angles with that fissure.^3 Such recrystallized fissures, reaching depths of perhaps 100 m, have initial fractures near time of solidification of their uppermost portion of magma chamber while still hot(<= 1600^oF), a time when max. stresses occur near granite surface due to high thermal gradients, owing to snow coverage, cold water contacts due to rain, stream flow over granite surface, partial coverage by ocean, etc., wherever heat sinks might occur, during P-C ice age--when region of Wasatch Range existed at sea level, Salt Lake Valley being covered entirely by ocean water and region east of Wasatch Bouleuard rising gently above Pacific Ocean to elevations of possibly 500-1000 ft, say, at a distance of 10-15 mi to east. This fact is implied by Chinese Wall of white limestone on Grandeur Peak, unequivocally, and similarly another in Neff's Canyon running e. from n. ridge of 9200 ft. saddle-summit, as well as a dozen other ancient calcified stream beds emptying into ocean to w., in Salt Lake Valley. This existed prior to regional uplift(with uncontorted topography) of over 4000 ft. Details of how earthquake wave passages form an epicenter from which propagate a stress field in diametrically opposite directions to open up, by a few meters, the surface granite in forming a long running fissure^1 of km length, are unknown. Several examples of thermal fissures of 3-4 ft widths are known but one of 6ft width at epicenter running both n and s for only 50-75m to terminations is located on w spur of Maybird Gulch, and is seen when viewing w from trail leading to upper 2 small lakes. In contrast, a 12 ft wide fissure, 50-100m s of White Pine Lake,^1 resulted from earthquake waves. ^1K.L.McDonald, Bul. Am. Phys. Soc., 32(4),1124; ^235(9),2132; ^333(3),485; ^433(9),1982-3; ^536(9),2466; ^637(5),1256-7; ^738(1),740.

  2. On time variations of the intensity of galactic cosmic rays for the recent billion years from the data on exposure ages of iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain probable variations of the intensity of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) for the recent billion years, the distribution of exposure ages T of iron meteorites has been analyzed. We considered all ~80 values of ages from the data by Voshage and Feldmann (1979), Voshage et al. (1983), and Voshage (1984), as well as a set of values obtained from the correction for eliminating the meteorites formed in a single collision. To correct the data, the Akaike information criterion was used. For the distributions of the phase values Ph = T/t-int( T/t), the dependence of the criterion χ 2 on the presumable period t in the exposure age variations was analyzed. For t ~ 400-500 Myr and, partly, for t ~ 150 Myr, the significant deviations of this criterion from the corresponding mean values were found. To clear up the influence of the GCR intensity variations on the age distribution, the numerical models were calculated with an account of the set of ages randomly distributed in the interval of 0-1000 Myr with the presumptive mean lifetime of iron meteorites in outer space τ = 700 Myr. It has been ascertained that, for variations with a period of t = 450 Myr, the distribution of exposure ages of the model set is similar to that found for iron meteorites. The obtained data suggest that the GCR intensity variations with a period of approximately 400-500 Myr have probably existed during the recent billion years. These variations may be caused by periodic passages of the Solar System through spiral arms of the Galaxy. It has been shown that the earlier discussed changes in the GCR intensity with a period of ~150 Myr (Shaviv, 2002; 2003; Scherer et al., 2006) are less defined.

  3. 5.5 billion -- and growing.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1992-07-17

    On World Population Day in 1992 the total world population reached 5.5 billion, 100 million more than on July 11, 1991, and it is expected to pass the 6 billion figure by 2000. In developed countries the average number of children is 2/family, while in developing countries the norm is 4 children, a substantial drop from 6 children in the 1960s. The 2 billion level was reached in 1930, the world population doubled from 1 billion in 100 years. The billion mark in 1960 took only 30 years, the 4 billion figure was reached in 1975 in only 15 years, and to grow to 5 billion in 1987 took only 12 years. A 20-year delay to reach replacement level adds another 1 billion to the population size. If the 2-children-per family size had been reached in 1990, the total would still have increased to 8 billion by 2100. Provided the present trend of 3.4 children/couple continues, there will be 102 billion people in 2100. Some claim that the resources of the Earth are already overtaxed with ever-worsening environmental pollution. Family planning information and services have to me made available to those millions who want to avoid pregnancy and ensure a better future for fewer children. PMID:12317568

  4. GPM Science Status Fourteen Months after Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skofronick Jackson, Gail; Huffman, George

    2015-04-01

    Water is fundamental to life on Earth. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, launched February 27, 2014, is an international satellite mission to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational sensors to provide "next-generation" precipitation products. The joint NASA-JAXA GPM Core Observatory serves as the cornerstone and anchor to unite the constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory carries a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. As a science mission with integrated application goals, GPM is designed to (1) advance precipitation measurement capability from space through combined use of active and passive microwave sensors, (2) advance the knowledge of the global water/energy cycle and freshwater availability through better description of the space-time variability of global precipitation, and (3) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of instantaneous precipitation rates and time-integrated rainfall accumulation. Since launch, the instruments have been collecting outstanding precipitation data. New scientific insights resulting from these fourteen months of GPM data, an overview of the GPM mission concept and science activities in the United States, updates on algorithm status and performance, together with information on international collaborations for radiometer inter-calibration and ground validation will be presented. Opportunities for scientific and user involvement will be provided.

  5. Feeding six billion.

    PubMed

    Brown, L R

    1989-01-01

    Between 1986-88 drought damage to crops caused the grain supply to decrease and the price of grain worldwide increased 50%. However, in 1989 higher prices and better weather did not result in a rebuilding of reserves lost in previous years. According to the US Agriculture Department, the 1989 harvest will be 13 million tons short of the projected 1684 million tons of consumption. If grain stock cannot be replenished this year, then when will they be replenished? There are a variety of problems causing this situation. Lack of crop land and irrigation water prevent expansion. Diminishing returns from fertilizer inputs, deforestation, soil erosion, and pollution are all decreasing yields. Growth in food production worldwide has stabilized. Between 1950-84 world grain harvest increased 2.6 times or 3%/year. But between 1985-90 that same growth was only 0.2%/year. While this is too short a time to establish a trend, it does suggest a slowdown in worldwide food production. Every year 24 billion tons of topsoil are lost to water and wind erosion, and the world population grows by 88 million annually. Together, these 2 trends indicate a pending disaster. There is no reason to believe that food production is going to continue to grow as fast as the population, thus, population growth must be drastically curtailed. The UN has changes its projected level of population stabilization from 10 billion to 14 billion based on the fact that worldwide population growth has dropped only to 1.7%. Family planning programs have not been as successful as was hoped, partly because the US has withdrawn a large amount of funding due to political pressure from conservatives. The outlook is not good, as the per capita food share shrinks, malnutrition and starvation will continue to grow. Food prices will rise sharply and many more people will be unable to afford food. In many developing countries, people spend 70% of their income on food. This is already occurring as measured by a worldwide increase in infant mortality. PMID:12283531

  6. Two-phase increase in the maximum size of life over 3.5 billion years reflects biological innovation and environmental opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jonathan L.; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Finnegan, Seth; Kowalewski, Micha?; Krause, Richard A.; Lyons, S. Kathleen; McClain, Craig R.; McShea, Daniel W.; Novack-Gottshall, Philip M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stempien, Jennifer A.; Wang, Steve C.

    2009-01-01

    The maximum size of organisms has increased enormously since the initial appearance of life >3.5 billion years ago (Gya), but the pattern and timing of this size increase is poorly known. Consequently, controls underlying the size spectrum of the global biota have been difficult to evaluate. Our period-level compilation of the largest known fossil organisms demonstrates that maximum size increased by 16 orders of magnitude since life first appeared in the fossil record. The great majority of the increase is accounted for by 2 discrete steps of approximately equal magnitude: the first in the middle of the Paleoproterozoic Era (?1.9 Gya) and the second during the late Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic eras (0.60.45 Gya). Each size step required a major innovation in organismal complexityfirst the eukaryotic cell and later eukaryotic multicellularity. These size steps coincide with, or slightly postdate, increases in the concentration of atmospheric oxygen, suggesting latent evolutionary potential was realized soon after environmental limitations were removed. PMID:19106296

  7. 29 CFR 570.119 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Oppressive Child Labor 570.119...

  8. 29 CFR 570.119 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Oppressive Child Labor 570.119...

  9. 29 CFR 570.119 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Oppressive Child Labor 570.119...

  10. 29 CFR 570.119 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Oppressive Child Labor 570.119...

  11. Spend Billions and They Will Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Bette-Lee

    2004-01-01

    People look at one billion dollars in one of two ways: if it is the result of the long, hard effort of years of fundraising, they rejoice; if it signifies an astronomical budget deficit, they cringe. How, then, should people respond as a community to reaching the $1 billion mark ($1,242,436,438, to be exact) in this year's spending for public

  12. Redox stratification of the ocean 2.7 billion years ago: Preliminary results from Fe speciation analysis of shallow- and deep-facies black shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, A.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Haraguchi, S.; Naraoka, H.; Yahagi, T. R.

    2012-12-01

    Rise of atmospheric oxygen, or as known as GOE (Great Oxidation Event: e.g., Holland, 1994), has been widely believed to have occurred at around 2.4 billion years ago. Contrary, however, some studies have suggested that such oxygenation could have occurred much earlier (e.g., Hoashi et al., 2009). Geochemical behaviors of Fe, a redox-sensitive element, have played crucial roles in constraining past redox environments and the timing of the inferred GOE. In order to examine if there was intra-basinal heterogeneity in the redox conditions before the inferred GOE, we applied Fe speciation analysis to two contrasting sets of pyrite-bearing black shales; WRL1 (deeper facies) and RHDH2A (shallow facies). Both of these semi-contemporaneous black shales, deposited about 2.7 billion years ago and recovered as drillcores in Pilbara, northwestern Australia, have been previously used by Brocks et al. (1999), Yamaguchi et al. (2005), and Eigenbrode and Freeman (2006). Chemical compositions of major and some minor elements were measured by a standard XRF method, S content by elemental analysis, and Fe speciation by the method of Poulton et al. (2005) and Leventhal and Taylor (1990). Contrasting Fe/Al ratios of the examined samples suggest that Fe in WRL1 and RHDH2A is mostly from submarine hydrothermal activity and continental weathering, respectively. Relationships between organic carbon (Corg) and S contents suggest that oxic, normal marine setting is favored for WRL1 and euxinic environment for RHDH2A (S/Corg > 0.37). Oxygen in deep environment (WRL1) must have been supplied by sinking of O2-rich surface water through ocean circulation, because there was no source of oxygen in deep sea. In the 2.7 Ga surface ocean, oxygenic photosynthetic organisms (e.g., cyanobacteria) are considered to have been active. A large amount of organic matter was produced and sank, consuming a large amount of dissolved oxygen for decomposition/respiration. This led to the formation of euxinic environment in the shallow water, such as those seen in the modern ocean. In the euxinic environment, bacterial sulfate reduction became popular and induced pyrite formation. Abundance of reactive Fe and highly reactive Fe and DOP (degree of pyritization) is also contrasting between WRL1 and RHDH2A, i.e., deep and shallow ocean sediments. Contrasting heterogeneities in the above geochemical parameters between shallow and deep Archean ocean suggest that the chemical structure of the 2.7 Ga ocean was not homogeneously anoxic or reducing as have been commonly believed, but possibly more variable, i.e., relatively anoxic in shallow ocean and oxic in deep ocean. References: Brocks et al. (1999) Sciecne 285, 1033-1036; Eigenbrode and Freeman (2006) PNAS 103, 15759-15764; Hoashi et al. (2009) Nature Geoscience 2, 301-306, Holland (1994) In Early Life on Earth, Columbia Univ. Press; Leventhal and Taylor (1990) J. Sed. Petrol. 58, 812-819; Poulton and Canfield (2005) 214, 209- 221; Yamaguchi et al. (2005) Chem. Geol 218, 135-169.

  13. 16 Years, 16 Cruises, 1.6 Billion Soundings: a Compilation of High-Resolution Multibeam Bathymetry of the Active Plate Boundary Along the Chilean Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinrebe, W.; Flueh, E. R.; Hasert, M.; Behrmann, J. H.; Voelker, D.; Geersen, J.; Ranero, C. R.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Chile, a country stranding the active plate boundary between the South-American and the Nazca Plate is afflicted by recurrent earthquakes and hazardous volcanic eruptions. The strongest earthquake ever recorded occurred here, and volcanic hazards are frequent. Consequently, this area has been studied by geoscientists for many years to improve the understanding of subduction zone processes. Swath bathymetry mapping of the ocean floor has proven to bear a large potential for the interpretation of subduction-related processes, such as tectonic deformation of the marine forearc, release and migration of fluids as well as earthquake-triggered mass wasting. Multibeam bathymetry data of 16 major cruises of German, British, and Chilean research vessels recorded between 1995 and December 2010, in total more than 10,000 data files comprising about 1.6 billion soundings, have now been carefully reprocessed, compiled and merged into a unifying set of high-resolution bathymetric maps of the Chilean continental margin from latitude 40S to 20S. The imprint of subsurface processes on the surface morphology is well displayed in the case of the Chilean continental margin. The 3,500 km long Chilean convergent margin is not uniform, as various segments with different tectonic characteristics can be distinguished. Major factors that control margin morphology and thus the style of subduction are (1) relief and structure of the incoming oceanic plate, (2) supply of trench sediment, (3) turbidite transport within the trench, and (4) the input of terrigeneous sediments down the continental slope. A major segment boundary occurs at latitude 32-33 S where the hotspot-related volcanic chain of Juan Fernandez is presently subducting. South of the area of ridge subduction the trench is filled with turbidites, and accretionary ridges develop across the base of the slope along most of the segment, whereas north of this boundary the turbiditic infill is reduced and subduction erosion is prevailing.

  14. Composition and syngeneity of molecular fossils from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old Mount Bruce Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Logan, Graham A.; Summons, Roger E.

    2003-11-01

    Shales of very low metamorphic grade from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old (Ga) Mount Bruce Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, were analyzed for solvent extractable hydrocarbons. Samples were collected from ten drill cores and two mines in a sampling area centered in the Hamersley Basin near Wittenoom and ranging 200 km to the southeast, 100 km to the southwest and 70 km to the northwest. Almost all analyzed kerogenous sedimentary rocks yielded solvent extractable organic matter. Concentrations of total saturated hydrocarbons were commonly in the range of 1 to 20 ppm (?g/g rock) but reached maximum values of 1000 ppm. The abundance of aromatic hydrocarbons was 1 to 30 ppm. Analysis of the extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-MS metastable reaction monitoring (MRM) revealed the presence of n-alkanes, mid- and end-branched monomethylalkanes, ?-cyclohexylalkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, diamondoids, tri- to pentacyclic terpanes, steranes, aromatic steroids and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Neither plant biomarkers nor hydrocarbon distributions indicative of Phanerozoic contamination were detected. The host kerogens of the hydrocarbons were depleted in 13C by 2 to 21 relative to n-alkanes, a pattern typical of, although more extreme than, other Precambrian samples. Acyclic isoprenoids showed carbon isotopic depletion relative to n-alkanes and concentrations of 2?-methylhopanes were relatively high, features rarely observed in the Phanerozoic but characteristic of many other Precambrian bitumens. Molecular parameters, including sterane and hopane ratios at their apparent thermal maxima, condensate-like alkane profiles, high mono- and triaromatic steroid maturity parameters, high methyladamantane and methyldiamantane indices and high methylphenanthrene maturity ratios, indicate thermal maturities in the wet-gas generation zone. Additionally, extracts from shales associated with iron ore deposits at Tom Price and Newman have unusual polyaromatic hydrocarbon patterns indicative of pyrolytic dealkylation. The saturated hydrocarbons and biomarkers in bitumens from the Fortescue and Hamersley Groups are characterized as 'probably syngenetic with their Archean host rock' based on their typical Precambrian molecular and isotopic composition, extreme maturities that appear consistent with the thermal history of the host sediments, the absence of biomarkers diagnostic of Phanerozoic age, the absence of younger petroleum source rocks in the basin and the wide geographic distribution of the samples. Aromatic hydrocarbons detected in shales associated with iron ore deposits at Mt Tom Price and Mt Whaleback are characterized as 'clearly Archean' based on their hypermature composition and covalent bonding to kerogen.

  15. The Billion-Dollar Question: Which Students Benefit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Becky

    2009-01-01

    The new economic-stimulus law includes more than $29-billion in provisions directed at making college more affordable in the next two years. That includes $13.9-billion budgeted over 10 years for education-tax-credit changes in 2009 and 2010, $15-billion in additional Pell Grant support, and $200-million for the Federal Work-Study program. But

  16. ANALYSIS OF CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE FOR FOURTEEN CITIES USING HAPEM-MS3 (FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes results and findings of applying the Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM) for mobile sources, Version 3. This version is formally known as HAPEM-MS3. The application is to fourteen urban areas for calendar year 1990. The urban areas modeled inclu...

  17. Analysis of the Basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea Reveals Conservation of the Core Meiotic Expression Program over Half a Billion Years of Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Claire; Stajich, Jason E.; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Casselton, Lorna; Hanlon, Sean E.; Wilke, Sarah K.; Savytskyy, Oleksandr P.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lilly, Walt W.; Lieb, Jason D.; Zolan, Miriam E.; Pukkila, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Coprinopsis cinerea (also known as Coprinus cinereus) is a multicellular basidiomycete mushroom particularly suited to the study of meiosis due to its synchronous meiotic development and prolonged prophase. We examined the 15-hour meiotic transcriptional program of C. cinerea, encompassing time points prior to haploid nuclear fusion though tetrad formation, using a 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray. As with other organisms, a large proportion (?20%) of genes are differentially regulated during this developmental process, with successive waves of transcription apparent in nine transcriptional clusters, including one enriched for meiotic functions. C. cinerea and the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe diverged ?500900 million years ago, permitting a comparison of transcriptional programs across a broad evolutionary time scale. Previous studies of S. cerevisiae and S. pombe compared genes that were induced upon entry into meiosis; inclusion of C. cinerea data indicates that meiotic genes are more conserved in their patterns of induction across species than genes not known to be meiotic. In addition, we found that meiotic genes are significantly more conserved in their transcript profiles than genes not known to be meiotic, which indicates a remarkable conservation of the meiotic process across evolutionarily distant organisms. Overall, meiotic function genes are more conserved in both induction and transcript profile than genes not known to be meiotic. However, of 50 meiotic function genes that were co-induced in all three species, 41 transcript profiles were well-correlated in at least two of the three species, but only a single gene (rad50) exhibited coordinated induction and well-correlated transcript profiles in all three species, indicating that co-induction does not necessarily predict correlated expression or vice versa. Differences may reflect differences in meiotic mechanisms or new roles for paralogs. Similarities in induction, transcript profiles, or both, should contribute to gene discovery for orthologs without currently characterized meiotic roles. PMID:20885784

  18. Skeletal-extraskeletal angiomatosis. A clinicopathological study of fourteen patients and nosologic considerations.

    PubMed

    Devaney, K; Vinh, T N; Sweet, D E

    1994-06-01

    We reviewed the consultation files of the ARmed Forces Institute of Pathology for 1951 through 1989 and identified fourteen patients who had had skeletal-extraskeletal angiomatosis. Skeletal-extraskeletal angiomatosis was defined as a benign vascular proliferation involving the medullary cavity of bone and at least one other type of tissue. The age of the patients at the time of initial biopsy ranged from nine months to sixty-nine years (average, twenty-two years; median, ten years). Ten of the patients were male and four were female. The presenting signs and symptoms were highly variable; they included pain (four patients), a mass noted at birth (three patients), a painless mass that developed after birth (two patients), both pain and a mass (one patient), a localized deformity of the thoracic spine (one patient), and anemia associated with chronic bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract (one patient); in this last patient, skeletal lesions subsequently were found and biopsied. Skeletal-extraskeletal angiomatosis was an incidental finding in the remaining two patients. Multiple bones were involved in thirteen of the fourteen patients. Histologically, three patterns of lesion could be identified: cavernous lymphangioma (six patients), cavernous hemangioma (six patients), and arteriovenous hemangioma (two patients). Five of the patients died (three of sepsis associated with persistent lesions of angiomatosis and two of unrelated causes); eight of the patients survived but had residual disease, and one survived and had no evidence of residual disease. PMID:8200895

  19. Synechococcus: 3 billion years of global dominance.

    PubMed

    Dvo?k, Petr; Casamatta, Dale A; Poul?kov, Aloisie; Haler, Petr; Ond?ej, Vladan; Sanges, Remo

    2014-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are among the most important primary producers on the Earth. However, the evolutionary forces driving cyanobacterial species diversity remain largely enigmatic due to both their distinction from macro-organisms and an undersampling of sequenced genomes. Thus, we present a new genome of a Synechococcus-like cyanobacterium from a novel evolutionary lineage. Further, we analyse all existing 16S rRNA sequences and genomes of Synechococcus-like cyanobacteria. Chronograms showed extremely polyphyletic relationships in Synechococcus, which has not been observed in any other cyanobacteria. Moreover, most Synechococcus lineages bifurcated after the Great Oxidation Event, including the most abundant marine picoplankton lineage. Quantification of horizontal gene transfer among 70 cyanobacterial genomes revealed significant differences among studied genomes. Horizontal gene transfer levels were not correlated with ecology, genome size or phenotype, but were correlated with the age of divergence. All findings were synthetized into a novel model of cyanobacterial evolution, characterized by serial convergence of the features, that is multicellularity and ecology. PMID:25283338

  20. Palaeoclimates: the first two billion years

    PubMed Central

    Kasting, James F; Ono, Shuhei

    2006-01-01

    Earth's climate during the Archaean remains highly uncertain, as the relevant geologic evidence is sparse and occasionally contradictory. Oxygen isotopes in cherts suggest that between 3.5 and 3.2 Gyr ago (Ga) the Archaean climate was hot (55–85 °C); however, the fact that these cherts have experienced only a modest amount of weathering suggests that the climate was temperate, as today. The presence of diamictites in the Pongola Supergroup and the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa suggests that by 2.9 Ga the climate was glacial. The Late Archaean was relatively warm; then glaciation (possibly of global extent) reappeared in the Early Palaeoproterozoic, around 2.3–2.4 Ga. Fitting these climatic constraints with a model requires high concentrations of atmospheric CO2 or CH4, or both. Solar luminosity was 20–25% lower than today, so elevated greenhouse gas concentrations were needed just to keep the mean surface temperature above freezing. A rise in O2 at approximately 2.4 Ga, and a concomitant decrease in CH4, provides a natural explanation for the Palaeoproterozoic glaciations. The Mid-Archaean glaciations may have been caused by a drawdown in H2 and CH4 caused by the origin of bacterial sulphate reduction. More work is needed to test this latter hypothesis. PMID:16754607

  1. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare. PMID:26933676

  2. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare. PMID:26933676

  3. To reactivate or not to reactivate: nature and varied behavior of structural inheritance in the Proterozoic basement of the Eastern Colorado mineral belt over 1.7 billion years of earth history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, Jonathan Saul; Ridley, John; Wessel, Zachary R.

    2010-01-01

    The eastern central Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado has long been a region of geologic interest because of Laramide-age hydrothermal polymetallic vein-related ores. The region is characterized by a well-exposed array of geologic structures associated with ductile and brittle deformation, which record crustal strain over 1.7 billion years of continental growth and evolution. The mineralized areas lie along a broad linear zone termed the Colorado Mineral Belt. This lineament has commonly been interpreted as following a fundamental boundary, such as a suture zone, in the North American Proterozoic crust that acted as a persistent zone of weakness localizing the emplacement of magmas and associated hydrothermal fluid flow. However, the details on the controls of the location, orientation, kinematics, density, permeability, and relative strength of various geological structures and their specific relationships to mineral deposit formation are not related to Proterozoic ancestry in a simple manner. The objectives of this field trip are to show key localities typical of the various types of structures present, show recently compiled and new data, offer alternative conceptual models, and foster dialogue. Topics to be discussed include: (1) structural history of the eastern Front Range; (2) characteristics, kinematics, orientations, and age of ductile and brittle structures and how they may or may not relate to one another and mineral deposit permeability; and (3) characteristics, localization, and evolution of the metal and nonmetal-bearing hydrothermal systems in the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt.

  4. An Investigation of Critical Thinking While Reading in Grades Thirteen and Fourteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Frank Michael

    The problems stated for this investigation were as follows: (1) to determine if there is an increase in critical reading ability for students from grades thirteen to fourteen; (2) to determine if there is a difference in the critical reading ability of males and females in grades thirteen and fourteen; (3) to determine the relationship between

  5. Fourteen Connections, or How To Study Everything. Fastback 502.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuska, Kenneth R.

    Every year, students encounter the same topics. While they may successfully learn the topics each year, there is not enough attention to the process of learning how to learn. Without knowing how to learn, students will find it difficult to transfer what they have learned to new but similar learning tasks. This fastback identifies the areas that

  6. Initial Costs vs. Operational Costs. A Study of Building Improvement Projects in Fourteen Schools in the School District of Greenville County, South Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tak Cheung

    To determine whether initial facility improvement costs were paid back by the reduced operational costs resulting from the improvement projects, this study examined the relationship between initial costs and operational costs of fourteen school buildings improved during the 1978-79 school year in Greenville County, South Carolina. With energy

  7. Fourteen years of mapped, permanent quadrats in a northern mixed prairie, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This historical dataset consists of 44 permanent 1-m2 quadrats located on northern mixed prairie in eastern Montana, USA. Individual plants in these quadrats were identified and mapped annually from 1932 through 1945. Quadrats were located in six pastures assigned to cattle grazing treatments with l...

  8. Herbicide treatment effects on properties of mountain big sagebrush soils after fourteen years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, I. C.; Reiners, W. A.; Sturges, D. L.; Matson, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of sagebrush conversion on the soil properties of a high-elevation portion of the Western Intermountain Sagebrush Steppe (West, 1983) are described. Changes were found in only a few soil chemical properties after conversion to grassland. It was found that surface concentrations of N were lower under grass vegetation than under undisturbed vegetation. Undershrub net N mineralization rates were higher under shrubs in the sagebrush vegetation than under former shrubs in the grass vegetation.

  9. Fourteen Years of Proper Motions in the HH30 Protostellar Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2011-10-01

    HH 30 is an edge-on young stellar object disk with highly collimated emission line jets outflowing along its polar axis. As a prototype of its class {and of astrophysical accretion disks generally}, the object has been the subject of extensive study with HST. Thirteen HST programs have imaged on the object at nineteen epochs over the period 1994-2008; thirteen refereed papers have used this data to report on the disk structure, the jet structure, and the outflows from adjacent sources XZ Tauri and HL Tauri. Yet surprisingly, no comprehensive study has yet been made of the HH 30 jet proper motions treating more than just two epochs of observation. We propose to investigate the kinematics and structural evolution of the HH 30 protostellar jet over all 15 epochs for which there are Archival R band continuum and emssion line images taken by WFPC2 and ACS. We will track the astrometric and morphological evolution of a dozen emission knots in the jet, thereby measuring their velocities, accelerations, expansion, mergers, and luminosity evolution. The results will provide strong constraints for models of the propagation of astrophysical jets with Mach numbers near 20.

  10. Colleges' Billion-Dollar Campaigns Feel the Economy's Sting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The economy's collapse has caught up with the billion-dollar campaign. In the past 12 months, the amount of money raised by a dozen of the colleges engaged in higher education's biggest fund-raising campaigns fell 32 percent from the year before. The decline, which started before the worst of the recession, has forced colleges to postpone

  11. Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

  12. Contemporary "Hoisan-wa" Language Maintenance in Northern California: Evidence from Fourteen Frog Story Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    This article explores uninvestigated issues in Cantonese and "Hoisan-wa" language maintenance from an ethnic Chinese diaspora point of view. Data come from a larger study looking at Frog Story narratives from 140 Cantonese-English bilingual children in California. Fourteen of these children were found to display uniquely "Hoisan-wa" phonology and…

  13. Contemporary "Hoisan-wa" Language Maintenance in Northern California: Evidence from Fourteen Frog Story Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    This article explores uninvestigated issues in Cantonese and "Hoisan-wa" language maintenance from an ethnic Chinese diaspora point of view. Data come from a larger study looking at Frog Story narratives from 140 Cantonese-English bilingual children in California. Fourteen of these children were found to display uniquely "Hoisan-wa" phonology and

  14. PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA611. STRUCTURAL DETAILS. FACE PLATE. FOURTEEN OPENINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA-611. STRUCTURAL DETAILS. FACE PLATE. FOURTEEN OPENINGS LABELED FOR PLUGS FROM SPECIFIC SIZE GROUPS IN THE MTR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-811-2, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0611-00-098-100694, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Life with Four Billion Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Thomas

    2013-04-10

    Today it is commonplace to design and construct single silicon chips with billions of transistors. These are complex systems, difficult (but possible) to design, test, and fabricate. Remarkably, simple living systems can be assembled from a similar number of atoms, most of them in water molecules. In this talk I will present the current status of our attempts at full understanding and complexity reduction of one of the simplest living systems, the free-living bacterial species Mesoplasma florum. This 400 nm diameter cell thrives and replicates every 40 minutes with a genome of only 800 kilobases. Our recent experiments using transposon gene knockouts identified 354 of 683 annotated genes as inessential in laboratory culture when inactivated individually. While a functional redesigned genome will certainly not remove all of those genes, this suggests that roughly half the genome can be removed in an intentional redesign. I will discuss our recent knockout results and methodology, and our future plans for Genome re-engineering using targeted knock-in/knock-out double recombination; whole cell metabolic models; comprehensive whole cell metabolite measurement techniques; creation of plug-and-play metabolic modules for the simplified organism; inherent and engineered biosafety control mechanisms. This redesign is part of a comprehensive plan to lay the foundations for a new discipline of engineering biology. Engineering biological systems requires a fundamentally different viewpoint from that taken by the science of biology. Key engineering principles of modularity, simplicity, separation of concerns, abstraction, flexibility, hierarchical design, isolation, and standardization are of critical importance. The essence of engineering is the ability to imagine, design, model, build, and characterize novel systems to achieve specific goals. Current tools and components for these tasks are primitive. Our approach is to create and distribute standard biological parts, organisms, assembly techniques, and measurement techniques as a way of enabling this new field.

  16. Eight billion asteroids in the Oort cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, Andrew; Jackson, Alan P.; Veras, Dimitri; Wyatt, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Oort cloud is usually thought of as a collection of icy comets inhabiting the outer reaches of the Solar system, but this picture is incomplete. We use simulations of the formation of the Oort cloud to show that 4 per cent of the small bodies in the Oort cloud should have formed within 2.5 au of the Sun, and hence be ice-free rock-iron bodies. If we assume that these Oort cloud asteroids have the same size distribution as their cometary counterparts, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should find roughly a dozen Oort cloud asteroids during 10 years of operations. Measurement of the asteroid fraction within the Oort cloud can serve as an excellent test of the Solar system's formation and dynamical history. Oort cloud asteroids could be of particular concern as impact hazards as their high mass density, high impact velocity, and low visibility make them both hard to detect and hard to divert or destroy. However, they should be a rare class of object, and we estimate globally catastrophic collisions should only occur about once per billion years.

  17. Effects of Fourteen-Day Bed Rest on Trunk Stabilizing Functions in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sarabon, Nejc; Rosker, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been shown to have detrimental effects on structural and functional characteristics of the trunk muscles, possibly affecting trunk and spinal stability. This is especially important in populations such as aging adults with often altered trunk stabilizing functions. This study examined the effects of a fourteen-day bed rest on anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex responses of the abdominal wall and back muscles in sixteen adult men. Postural activation of trunk muscles was measured using voluntary quick arm movement and sudden arm loading paradigm. Measurements were conducted prior to the bed rest, immediately after, and fourteen days after the bed rest. Immediately after the bed rest, latencies of anticipatory postural adjustments showed significant shortening, especially for the obliquus internus and externus muscles. After a fourteen-day recuperation period, anticipatory postural adjustments reached a near to complete recovery. On the contrary, reactive response latencies increased from pre-bed-rest to both post-bed-rest measurement sessions. Results indicate an important effect of bed rest on stabilizing functions of the trunk muscles in elderly adults. Moreover, there proved to be a significant deterioration of postural reactive responses that outlasted the 14-day post-bed-rest rehabilitation. PMID:26601104

  18. Ubiquitous Supercritical Wing Design Cuts Billions in Fuel Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    A Langley Research Center engineer’s work in the 1960s and ’70s to develop a wing with better performance near the speed of sound resulted in a significant increase in subsonic efficiency. The design was shared with industry. Today, Renton, Washington-based Boeing Commercial Airplanes, as well as most other plane manufacturers, apply it to all their aircraft, saving the airline industry billions of dollars in fuel every year.

  19. A Billion Is How Big?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, John

    2008-01-01

    Place-value is a central, powerful mathematical concept. From the earliest years of school, students focus on developing strong understanding of the ideas, notation and computational use. Many times, however, they get as far as thousands and then resort to waving their hands--at least until they start a far more advanced and abstract treatment of

  20. Inversion of the Broad Fourteens Basin (offshore Netherlands), a small-scale model investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalpas, T.; Le Douaran, S.; Brun, J.-P.; Unternehr, P.; Richert, J.-P.

    1995-03-01

    The southern North Sea exhibits spectacular examples of graben inversion which have been extensively documented by oil industry exploration. The Broad Fourteens Basin, which is located at the southern limit of the Southern Permian Salt Basin, displays numerous structural patterns of positive inversion, which are related to the inversion, which are related to the presence and thickness of Zechstein salts. In the northern part of the Broad Fourteens Basin, the Zechstein salt is rather thick (> 500 m), allowing decollement of the Mesozoic series during both extension and compression. Salt is missing to the southern part of this graben, and both Mesozoic series and Palaeozoic 'basement' display similar patterns of deformatiqn. The mechanical significance of inversion patterns was investigated through laboratory experiments on brittleductile models. Models were built with sand and silicone putty that represent, respectively, the frictional behaviour of the Mesozoic cover as well as the Palaeozoic basement, and the viscous behaviour of a decollement layer, mainly composed of Zechstein salts, which is intercalated between them. The models were scaled to fit natural configurations observed in the Broad Fourteens Basin. All small-scale experiments were carried out in two steps: (1) graben formation with synkinematic sedimentation, and (2) compression at various angles of obliquity to the graben. Experimental results show that the structures generated by or reactivated during inversion are strongly dependent on: (a) the strength of the decollement layer, which is a function of the layer thickness and of the displacement velocity applied at the model boundaries; and (b) the strength of the sedimentary overburden, which is a function only of its thickness (for a given lithology). Reactivation of normal faults occurs when the angle between the compression and the direction of the normal faults is smaller than 45. The ductile layer, which can be a source for diapirs during extension, plays during compression an important r1e in the thrusting of the graben fill onto the adjacent platforms.

  1. Billion shot flashlamp for spaceborne lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Linda; Schuda, Felix; Degnan, John

    1990-01-01

    A billion-shot flashlamp developed under a NASA contract for spaceborne laser missions is presented. Lifetime-limiting mechanisms are identified and addressed. Two energy loadings of 15 and 44 Joules were selected for the initial accelerated life testing. A fluorescence-efficiency test station was used for measuring the useful-light output degradation of the lamps. The design characteristics meeting NASA specifications are outlined. Attention is focused on the physical properties of tungsten-matrix cathodes, the chemistry of dispenser cathodes, and anode degradation. It is reported that out of the total 83 lamps tested in the program, 4 lamps reached a billion shots and one lamp is beyond 1.7 billion shots, while at 44 Joules, 4 lamps went beyond 100 million shots and one lamp reached 500 million shots.

  2. Spherule Beds 3.47-3.24 Billion Years Old in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa: A Record of Large Meteorite Impacts and Their Influence on Early Crustal and Biological Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.; Kyte, Frank T.; Shukolyukov, Alexander; Asaro, Frank; Krull, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Four layers, S1-S4, containing sand-sized spherical particles formed as a result of large meteorite impacts, occur in 3.47-3.24 Ga rocks of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Ir levels in S3 and S4 locally equal or exceed chondritic values but in other sections are at or only slightly above background. Most spherules are inferred to have formed by condensation of impact-produced rock vapor clouds, although some may represent ballistically ejected liquid droplets. Extreme Ir abundances and heterogeneity may reflect element fractionation during spherule formation, hydraulic fractionation during deposition, and/or diagenetic and metasomatic processes. Deposition of S1, S2, and S3 was widely influenced by waves and/or currents interpreted to represent impact-generated tsunamis, and S1 and S2 show multiple graded layers indicating the passage of two or more wave trains. These tsunamis may have promoted mixing within a globally stratified ocean, enriching surface waters in nutrients for biological communities. S2 and S3 mark the transition from the 300-million-year-long Onverwacht stage of predominantly basaltic and komatiitic volcanism to the late orogenic stage of greenstone belt evolution, suggesting that regional and possibly global tectonic reorganization resulted from these large impacts. These beds provide the oldest known direct record of terrestrial impacts and an opportunity to explore their influence on early life, crust, ocean, and atmosphere. The apparent presence of impact clusters at 3.26-3.24 Ga and approx. 2.65-2.5 Ga suggests either spikes in impact rates during the Archean or that the entire Archean was characterized by terrestrial impact rates above those currently estimated from the lunar cratering record.

  3. Spherule beds 3.47-3.24 billion years old in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa: a record of large meteorite impacts and their influence on early crustal and biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Donald R; Byerly, Gary R; Kyte, Frank T; Shukolyukov, Alexander; Asaro, Frank; Krull, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Four layers, S1-S4, containing sand-sized spherical particles formed as a result of large meteorite impacts, occur in 3.47-3.24 Ga rocks of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Ir levels in S3 and S4 locally equal or exceed chondritic values but in other sections are at or only slightly above background. Most spherules are inferred to have formed by condensation of impact-produced rock vapor clouds, although some may represent ballistically ejected liquid droplets. Extreme Ir abundances and heterogeneity may reflect element fractionation during spherule formation, hydraulic fractionation during deposition, and/or diagenetic and metasomatic processes. Deposition of S1, S2, and S3 was widely influenced by waves and/or currents interpreted to represent impact-generated tsunamis, and S1 and S2 show multiple graded layers indicating the passage of two or more wave trains. These tsunamis may have promoted mixing within a globally stratified ocean, enriching surface waters in nutrients for biological communities. S2 and S3 mark the transition from the 300-million-year-long Onverwacht stage of predominantly basaltic and komatiitic volcanism to the late orogenic stage of greenstone belt evolution, suggesting that regional and possibly global tectonic reorganization resulted from these large impacts. These beds provide the oldest known direct record of terrestrial impacts and an opportunity to explore their influence on early life, crust, ocean, and atmosphere. The apparent presence of impact clusters at 3.26-3.24 Ga and approximately 2.65-2.5 Ga suggests either spikes in impact rates during the Archean or that the entire Archean was characterized by terrestrial impact rates above those currently estimated from the lunar cratering record. PMID:12804363

  4. Is our Universe likely to decay within 20 billion years?

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2008-09-15

    Observations that we are highly unlikely to be vacuum fluctuations suggest that our universe is decaying at a rate faster than the asymptotic volume growth rate, in order that there not be too many observers produced by vacuum fluctuations to make our observations highly atypical. An asymptotic linear e-folding time of roughly 16 Gyr (deduced from current measurements of cosmic acceleration) would then imply that our universe is more likely than not to decay within a time that is less than 19 Gyr in the future.

  5. The first billion years of a warm dark matter universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maio, Umberto; Viel, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    We present results of cosmological N-body hydrodynamic chemistry simulations of primordial structure growth and evolution in a scenario with warm dark matter (WDM) having a mass of 3 keV (thermal relic) and compare with a model consisting of standard cold dark matter (CDM). We focus on the high-redshift universe (z > 6), where the structure formation process should better reflect the primordial (linear) differences in terms of matter power spectrum. We find that early epochs can be exceptional probes of the dark matter nature. Non-linear WDM power spectra and mass functions are up to 2 dex lower than in CDM and show spreads of factor of a few persisting in the whole first Gyr. Runaway molecular cooling in WDM haloes results severely inhibited because of the damping of power at large k modes and hence cosmic (Populations III and II-I) star formation rate (SFR) is usually suppressed with respect to CDM predictions. Luminous objects formed in a WDM background are very rare at z > 10, due to the sparser and retarded evolution of early WDM minihaloes during the dark ages and their lack can be fitted with a simple analytical formula depending only on magnitude and redshift. Future high-z observations of faint galaxies have the potential to discriminate between CDM and WDM scenarios by means of cosmic stellar mass density and specific SFR, as well. When compared to the effects of alternative cosmologies (e.g. non-Gaussian or dark energy models) or of high-order corrections at large z (e.g. primordial streaming motions or changes in the pristine initial mass function) the ones caused by WDM are definitely more dramatic.

  6. The Yatela gold deposit: 2 billion years in the making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, K. A. A.; Matsheka, I. R.; Bruguier, O.; Masurel, Q.; Bosch, D.; Caby, R.; Monié, P.

    2015-12-01

    Gold mineralisation in the Yatela Main gold mine is hosted in a saprolitic residuum situated above Birimian supracrustal rocks, and at depth. The supracrustal rocks comprise metamorphosed calcitic and dolomitic marbles that were intruded by diorite (2106 ± 10 Ma, 207Pb/206Pb), and sandstone-siltstone-shale sequences (youngest detrital zircon population dated at 2139 ± 6 Ma). In-situ gold-sulphide mineralisation is associated with hydrothermal activity synchronous to emplacement of the diorite and forms a sub-economic resource; however, the overlying saprolitic residuum hosts economic gold mineralisation in friable lateritized palaeosols and aeolian sands (loess). Samples of saprolitic residuum were studied to investigate the morphology and composition of gold grains as a proxy for distance from source (and possible exploration vector) because the deposit hosts both angular and detrital gold suggesting both proximal and distal sources. U-Pb geochronology of detrital zircons also indicated a proximal and distal source, with the age spectra giving Archaean (2.83-3.28 Ga), and Palaeoproterozoic (1.95-2.20 Ga) to Neoproterozoic (1.1-1.8 Ga) zircons in the Yatela depocentre. The 1.1-1.8 Ga age spectrum restricts the maximum age for the first deposition of the sedimentary units in the Neoproterozoic, or during early deposition in the Taoudeni Basin. Models for formation of the residuum include distal and proximal sources for detritus into the depocentre, however, it is more likely that material was sourced locally and included recycled material. The creation of a deep laterite weathering profile and supergene enrichment of the residuum probably took place during the mid-Cretaceous-early Tertiary.

  7. Relations of fine-root morphology on (137)Cs uptake by fourteen Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Aung, Han Phyo; Aye, Yi Swe; Mensah, Akwasi Dwira; Omari, Richard Ansong; Djedidi, Salem; Oikawa, Yosei; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-12-01

    Fourteen Brassica species consisting of seven leafy vegetables and seven root vegetables were examined for (137)Cs uptake differences in relation to their fine-root morphological characters. A pot experiment was conducted from November 2014 to February 2015 in a Phytroton using a contaminated soil of Fukushima prefecture. Leafy vegetables showed bigger root diameters, larger root surface area and larger root volume. Consequently, leafy vegetables had higher (137)Cs uptake compared to root vegetables. Among the three fine-root parameters, only root surface area was observed as a significant contributing factor to higher (137)Cs uptake in terms of transfer factor (TF, dry weight basis). Kakina exhibited higher (137)Cs TF value (0.20) followed by Chinese cabbage (0.18) and mizuna (0.17). Lower TF values were observed in turnip (0.059), rutabaga (Kitanoshou) (0.062) and radish (Ha daikon) (0.064). PMID:26355648

  8. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the threatened Arnica montana (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Duwe, Virginia K.; Ismail, Sascha A.; Buser, Andres; Sossai, Esther; Borsch, Thomas; Muller, Ludo A. H.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to investigate population genetic structure in the threatened species Arnica montana. • Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers with di-, tetra-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed for A. montana using 454 pyrosequencing without and with library-enrichment methods, resulting in 56,545 sequence reads and 14,467 sequence reads, respectively. All loci showed a high level of polymorphism, with allele numbers ranging from four to 11 in five individuals from five populations (25 samples) and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.192 to 0.648 across the loci. • Conclusions: This set of microsatellite markers is the first one described for A. montana and will facilitate conservation genetic applications as well as the understanding of phylogeographic patterns in this species. PMID:25606354

  9. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of fourteen wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Lamien-Meda, Aline; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Compaor, Moussa M Y; Meda, Roland N T; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Zeba, Boukare; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2008-01-01

    A total of fourteen (14) species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso were analyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities using the DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic and total flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana and Lannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the other fruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit also showed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with high antioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents. There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidant activities. PMID:18463567

  10. Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini) with description of fourteen new species

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Adriana; Short, Andrew E. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: Berosus aragua sp. n., Berosus asymmetricus sp. n., Berosus capanaparo sp. n., Berosus castaneus sp. n., Berosus corozo sp. n., Berosus ebeninus sp. n., Berosus garciai sp. n., Berosus humeralis sp. n., Berosus jolyi sp. n., Berosus llanensis sp. n., Berosus megaphallus sp. n., Berosus ornaticollis sp. n., Berosus repertus sp. n., and Berosus tramidrum sp. n. The fifteenth new species, known from a single female, is left undescribed pending the collection of males. Twelve species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Berosus ambogynus Mouchamps, Berosus consobrinus Knisch, Berosus elegans Knisch, Berosus geayi dOrchymont, Berosus ghanicus dOrchymont, Berosus guyanensis Queney, Berosus holdhausi Knisch, Berosus marquardti Knisch, Berosus olivae Queney, Berosus reticulatus Knisch, Berosus wintersteineri Knisch, and Berosus zimmermanni Knisch. PMID:22811607

  11. Complications of implantation of synthetic fibers into scalps for "hair" replacement: experience with fourteen cases.

    PubMed

    Lepaw, M I

    1979-03-01

    Fourteen cases of complications from implantation of acrylic fibers into scalps for correction of male-pattern baldness were studied. The complications were severe enough in all of them to force attempts to remove the fibers, many of which from the nature of their knotted insertion could not be extracted. Thus, immediate complications were encountered and serious, delayed, bad effects are anticipated. Among the early complications already observed are marked edema of the face; hemorrhagic oozing; microbial infection; foreign-body reactions; scarring; acneform comedones and pustules; pain, pruritus, and numbness; and loss of natural hair. Complications in the furture are likely to be progressive sclerosis from irretrievable fragments and knots of the artificial materials and conceivably malignant degeneration of tissues of the scalp. For all of these known and possible bad effects, implantation of present-day synthetic fibers into the scalp must be judged to be a dangerous practice that must be stopped at once. PMID:429673

  12. LLNL's Big Science Capabilities Help Spur Over $796 Billion in U.S. Economic Activity Sequencing the Human Genome

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-28

    LLNL’s successful history of taking on big science projects spans beyond national security and has helped create billions of dollars per year in new economic activity. One example is LLNL’s role in helping sequence the human genome. Over $796 billion in new economic activity in over half a dozen fields has been documented since LLNL successfully completed this Grand Challenge.

  13. Teledesic pushes $9-billion, 900-satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-03-01

    Teledesic Corp. is seeking FCC approval to deploy a communication satellite system, costing $9 billion and using more than 900 satellites in low Earth orbit. This system would provide telephone and broadband data service to remote areas and developing countries. The two major stockholders in Teledesic are William Gates (of Microsoft Corp.) and Craig McCaw (of McCaw Cellular Communications). Each satellite would act as a node in a packet-switching network. The satellites would provide continuous global coverage.

  14. Delivering on Obama's renewables promise will cost billions

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    For wind energy in the eastern half of the U.S., costs would be $50 billion to $80 billion for transmission lines, in addition to the $700 billion to $1.1 trillion to build the wind farms to generate power.

  15. Bullish Stock Market Pushes Endowments Up 21.9% in 1997, to More Than $150-Billion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strosnider, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Investment returns on college and university endowments for 1997 was the sixth double-digit gain in the 1990s and the highest since 1986. Fiscal year 1998 is experiencing greater market volatility, with more modest returns predicted. Institutions with endowments of over $1 billion have increased from 20 to 25 in one year; this group holds nearly

  16. A retrospective cohort mortality study on workers of two thermoelectric power plants: fourteen-year follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, G; Menniti-Ippolito, F; Taroni, F; Raschetti, R; Magarotto, G

    1989-03-01

    Although many studies have been performed to evaluate the environmental impact of coal energy production, few studies are available on the health risk for the people working in coal power plants. A retrospective cohort study was performed on the workers of two power plants near Venice (which use coal since 1968) in order to test the association between exposure to coal dust and ashes and mortality for all causes, all cancers, and respiratory and digestive cancer. One thousand three hundred seven male workers were followed up from 1968 to 1984. During this period 41 workers died; causes of death were collected from the local Mortality Registers and/or from the Hospital Records. The observed mortality of the study cohort was compared with the mortality expected from the Italian death rates in the same period. No Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) was found in excess in the working cohort with respect to the standard population for any of the investigated effects. PMID:2707397

  17. Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Comprehensive fourteen year report, 1968-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, N.W.

    1982-07-01

    A testing procedure is being developed which may reduce the incidence of birth defects. The procedure uses in vitro cultures of whole rat embryos. Early studies on the nutrition of embryos involved attempts to culture whole chick embryos on protein-free chemically defined media. Media containing proteins from whole egg were superior. No single protein would support growth and development, at least two proteins were required. One protein was a transferrin, the second protein could be either ovalbumin or lipovitellin. To determine the path taken by nutrient proteins from medium to embryo, radioactive ovalbumin was prepared. The results showed that intact ovalbumin was taken up by the extra-embryonic yolk-sac and degraded to constituent amino acids within this structure. This observation was difficult to reconcile with the observed responses of the embryo to nutrient proteins. Consideration was given to yolk-sac function. When isolated yolk-sacs were incubated in Ringer's salt solution, they synthesized and secreted a distinct group of proteins. Yolk-sacs cultured on media containing various protein constituents synthesized serum proteins in relative amounts that were distinct for each medium. This suggested that the embryo responses to various culture media were mediated by changes in the relative synthesis of serum proteins. This hypothesis led to two lines of experimentation: what are the mechanisms regulating the relative synthesis of serum proteins by the yolk-sac; and do serum proteins actually provide signals of developmental significance. The first question led to studies with cultures of endodermal cells while the second question led to work on the development of a test for teratological surveillance. (ERB)

  18. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate, drawing on tumor incidence data from fourteen chronic/carcinogenicity rodent studies.

    PubMed

    Greim, Helmut; Saltmiras, David; Mostert, Volker; Strupp, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Glyphosate, an herbicidal derivative of the amino acid glycine, was introduced to agriculture in the 1970s. Glyphosate targets and blocks a plant metabolic pathway not found in animals, the shikimate pathway, required for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants. After almost forty years of commercial use, and multiple regulatory approvals including toxicology evaluations, literature reviews, and numerous human health risk assessments, the clear and consistent conclusions are that glyphosate is of low toxicological concern, and no concerns exist with respect to glyphosate use and cancer in humans. This manuscript discusses the basis for these conclusions. Most toxicological studies informing regulatory evaluations are of commercial interest and are proprietary in nature. Given the widespread attention to this molecule, the authors gained access to carcinogenicity data submitted to regulatory agencies and present overviews of each study, followed by a weight of evidence evaluation of tumor incidence data. Fourteen carcinogenicity studies (nine rat and five mouse) are evaluated for their individual reliability, and select neoplasms are identified for further evaluation across the data base. The original tumor incidence data from study reports are presented in the online data supplement. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect related to glyphosate treatment. The lack of a plausible mechanism, along with published epidemiology studies, which fail to demonstrate clear, statistically significant, unbiased and non-confounded associations between glyphosate and cancer of any single etiology, and a compelling weight of evidence, support the conclusion that glyphosate does not present concern with respect to carcinogenic potential in humans. PMID:25716480

  19. Evaluation of humidity, cloud and precipitation predicted by fourteen MAP D-PHASE mesocale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polade, Suraj; Ament, Felix

    2010-05-01

    Precipitation is the final component of the atmospheric part of hydrological cycle. Consequently, all model errors in this complex process chain are accumulated in quantitative precipitation forecasts. Furthermore, many parts of forecasting system can cause errors: poor model formulations, inaccurate initial or boundary data, limited grid resolution etc. We will demonstrate how a multivariate verification of fourteen different mesoscale forecasting systems can be used to disentangle this multitude of effects and to identify specific model deficits. The models forecasts were collected in summer 2007 during the forecast demonstration experiment MAP D-PHASE in the Alpine region and comprise both results from convection permitting high-resolution models as well as systems with parameterized deep convection. The observational basis to evaluate these models is obtained from the remote-sensing observations gathered during general observation period (GOP) of the German research program on quantitative precipitation forecasts. Analyses of integrated water vapour (IWV) content, cloud cover and precipitation rate are performed for the summer 2007 over the southern Germany. By analyzing which type of models show similar error structures, it is possible to decide whether the resolution, the model formulation or the initial conditions have a dominant impact on the model error. Particular attention is paid to the representation of the diurnal cycle in all considered quantities. This reveals the great impact of introducing a dry bias by the assimilation of day time radiosondes: There is a significant loss of IWV, a reduction in low and high cloud cover, also sudden decrease of precipitation at 1200 UTC. Finally, we will discuss the added value of using high resolution convection permitting models and of implementing a rapid update cycle of model initialization.

  20. Simulating Billion-Task Parallel Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S; Park, Alfred J

    2014-01-01

    In simulating large parallel systems, bottom-up approaches exercise detailed hardware models with effects from simplified software models or traces, whereas top-down approaches evaluate the timing and functionality of detailed software models over coarse hardware models. Here, we focus on the top-down approach and significantly advance the scale of the simulated parallel programs. Via the direct execution technique combined with parallel discrete event simulation, we stretch the limits of the top-down approach by simulating message passing interface (MPI) programs with millions of tasks. Using a timing-validated benchmark application, a proof-of-concept scaling level is achieved to over 0.22 billion virtual MPI processes on 216,000 cores of a Cray XT5 supercomputer, representing one of the largest direct execution simulations to date, combined with a multiplexing ratio of 1024 simulated tasks per real task.

  1. Prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory activity of fourteen Kampo formulas and inhibitory constituents of Tokaku-joki-to.

    PubMed

    Fan, W; Tezuka, Y; Kadota, S

    2000-07-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP, EC 3.4.21.26) is an enzyme playing a role in the metabolism of proline-containing neuropeptides which have been suggested to be involved in learning and memory processes. In screening for PEP inhibitors from fourteen traditional Kampo formulas, we found that Tokaku-joki-to shows a significant inhibitory activity. Examination of the constituents of the Kampo formula resulted in the isolation of two new compounds, cis-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 4'-O-beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (10) and 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone 4'-O-beta-D-(6-O-galloyl-2-O-cinnamoyl)glucopyranoside (16), along with twenty-five known compounds, cinnamic acid (1), protocatechuic acid (2), gallic acid (3), torachrysone 8-O-beta-D-glucoside (4), emodin (5), emodin 8-O-beta-D-glucoside (6), 3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), 3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 4'-O-beta-D-(2-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (8), 3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 4'-O-beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (9), 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (11), isolindleyin (12), lindleyin (13), 4(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone 4'-O-beta-D-(2,6-di-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (14), 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone 4'-O-beta-D-(2-O-galloyl-6-O-cinnamoyl)glucopyranoside (15), 1-O-galloylglucose (17), 1,2,6-tri-O-galloylglucose (18), gallic acid 4-O-beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (19), liquiritigenin (20), liquiritigenin 4'-O-beta-D-glucoside (21), liquiritigenin 7,4'-diglucoside (22), liquiritigenin 4'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (23), licuroside (24), (-)-epicatechin (25), (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (26) and (+)-catechin (27). Among these compounds, twelve (7-10, 14-16, 18, 19, 24-26) showed noncompetitive inhibition with an IC50 of 22.9, 3.0, 14.9, 2.8, 10.5, 0.69, 8.2, 0.44, 9.39, 26.5, 28.1 and 0.052 microM, respectively. PMID:10923840

  2. Universities Report $1.8-Billion in Earnings on Inventions in 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Universities and their inventors earned more than $1.8-billion from commercializing their academic research in the 2011 fiscal year, collecting royalties from new breeds of wheat, from a new drug for the treatment of HIV, and from longstanding arrangements over enduring products like Gatorade. Northwestern University earned the most of any…

  3. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium requirements to support a multi-billion gallon biofuel industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To accomplish the goals for biofuel and bioenergy production, 1 billion tons of biomass will need to be produced annually by the year 2030. Crop production data from a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) demonstrated how this goal could...

  4. Universities Report $1.8-Billion in Earnings on Inventions in 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Universities and their inventors earned more than $1.8-billion from commercializing their academic research in the 2011 fiscal year, collecting royalties from new breeds of wheat, from a new drug for the treatment of HIV, and from longstanding arrangements over enduring products like Gatorade. Northwestern University earned the most of any

  5. Cancer costs projected to reach at least $158 billion in 2020

    Cancer.gov

    Based on growth and aging of the U.S. population, medical expenditures for cancer in the year 2020 are projected to reach at least $158 billion (in 2010 dollars) – an increase of 27 percent over 2010. If newly developed tools for cancer diagnosis, treatme

  6. Uranium in Canada: A billion dollar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, V. )

    1989-12-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer of uranium with an output of more than 12,400 MT of uranium in concentrates, worth $1.1 billion Canadian. As domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian production, most of the output was exported. With current implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade Agreement, the US has become Canada's major uranium export customer. With a large share of the world's known uranium resources, Canada remains the focus of international uranium exploration activity. In 1988, the uranium exploration expenditures in Canada exceeded $58 million Canadian. The principal exploration targets were deposits associated with Proterozoic unconformities in Saskatchewan and Northwest Territories, particularly those in the Athabasca and Thelon basin regions of the Canadian Shield. Major attention was also paid to polymetallic deposits in which uranium is associated with precious metals, such as gold and platinum group elements. Conceptual genetic models for these deposit types represent useful tools to guide exploration.

  7. Agroecohydrology: Key to Feeding 9 Billion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, J.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural production necessary to feed 9 billion people in 2050 depends on increased production on existing croplands, and expanding onto 'marginal' lands. A high proportion of these lands are marginal because they are too steep or too dry to reliably support crop production. These same characteristics increase their susceptibility to accelerated erosion, leading (for most soil profiles) to further reductions in plant available water as infiltration and soil profile water holding capacity decline. Sustaining production on these marginal lands will require careful land use planning. In this paper, we present a land use planning framework that integrates 4 elements: (1) potential production (based on soil profile characteristics), (2) edaphic, topographic and climatic limitations to production, (3) soil resistance to degradation, and (4) resilience. This framework expands existing land capability classification systems through the integration of biophysical feedbacks and thresholds. State and transition models, similar to those currently applied to rangelands in the United States and other countries, are used to organize and communicate knowledge about the sustainability of different land use changes and management actions at field to regional scales. This framework emphasizes hydrologic characteristics of soil profiles and landscapes over fertility because fertility declines are more easily addressed through increased inputs. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of how research in ecohydrology can be more effectively focused to support sustainable food production in the context of increasingly rapid social and economic changes throughout the world.

  8. Colleges Angle for Billions to Build Obama's Broadband Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Marc

    2009-01-01

    As the federal government prepares to pour billions of stimulus dollars into increased broadband Internet access, colleges are trying to claim much of the money and shape the emerging national networking policy. Their focus is $4.7-billion that will be doled out under a new grant program administered by a small Commerce Department agency called…

  9. Genetic Change and Continuity from Fourteen to Twenty Months: The MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated genetic change and continuity within the domains of temperament, emotion, and cognition and language for 200 pairs of twins assessed at 14 and 20 months of age. Correlations of measures at the two ages indicated that individual differences in the second year of life showed greater change than continuity on most measures. (MDM)

  10. Marine Gastrotricha of the Near East: 1. Fourteen new species of Macrodasyida and a redescription of Dactylopodola agadasys Hochberg, 2003

    PubMed Central

    Hummon, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The near eastern geographical region is almost devoid of reports of macrodasyidan gastrotrichs, the exceptions themselves being part of this study. Here, as Part 1 are described fourteen new Macrodasyida from countries of the Near East (Cyprus, Egypt and Israel, representing both the Mediterranean and the Red Seas), and a redescription of the previously described Dactylopodolidae: Dactylopodola agadasys Hochberg, 2002. The new species are: Cephalodasyidae (2) - Cephalodasys dolichosomus; Cephalodasys saegailus; Dactylopodolidae (1) Dendrodasys rubomarinus; Macrodasyidae (5) - Macrodasys imbricatus; Macrodasys macrurus; Macrodasys nigrocellus; Macrodasys scleracrus; Urodasys toxostylus; Thaumastodermatidae(4) - Tetranchyroderma corallium; Tetranchyroderma rhopalotum; Tetranchyroderma sinaiensis; Tetranchyroderma xenodactylum; Turbanellidae(2) - Paraturbanella levantia; Turbanella erythrothalassia - spp. n. PMID:21594074

  11. Marine Gastrotricha of the Near East: 1. Fourteen new species of Macrodasyida and a redescription of Dactylopodola agadasys Hochberg, 2003.

    PubMed

    Hummon, William D

    2011-01-01

    The near eastern geographical region is almost devoid of reports of macrodasyidan gastrotrichs, the exceptions themselves being part of this study. Here, as Part 1 are described fourteen new Macrodasyida from countries of the Near East (Cyprus, Egypt and Israel, representing both the Mediterranean and the Red Seas), and a redescription of the previously described Dactylopodolidae: Dactylopodola agadasys Hochberg, 2002. The new species are: Cephalodasyidae (2) - Cephalodasys dolichosomus; Cephalodasys saegailus; Dactylopodolidae (1) Dendrodasys rubomarinus; Macrodasyidae (5) - Macrodasys imbricatus; Macrodasys macrurus; Macrodasys nigrocellus; Macrodasys scleracrus; Urodasys toxostylus; Thaumastodermatidae(4) - Tetranchyroderma corallium; Tetranchyroderma rhopalotum; Tetranchyroderma sinaiensis; Tetranchyroderma xenodactylum; Turbanellidae(2) - Paraturbanella levantia; Turbanella erythrothalassia - spp. n. PMID:21594074

  12. Multi-Billion Shot, High-Fluence Exposure of Cr(4+): YAG Passive Q-Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephen, Mark A.; Dallas, Joseph L.; Afzal, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is developing the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) employing a diode pumped, Q-Switched, ND:YAG laser operating at 40 Hz repetition rate. To meet the five-year mission lifetime goal, a single transmitter would accumulate over 6.3 billion shots. Cr(4+):YAG is a promising candidate material for passively Q-switching the laser. Historically, the performance of saturable absorbers has degraded over long-duration usage. To measure the multi-billion shot performance of Cr(4+):YAG, a passively Q-switched GLAS-like oscillator was tested at an accelerated repetition rate of 500 Hz. The intracavity fluence was calculated to be approximately 2.5 J/cm(exp 2). The laser was monitored autonomously for 165 days. There was no evidence of change in the material optical properties during the 7.2 billion shot test.. All observed changes in laser operation could be attributed to pump laser diode aging. This is the first demonstration of multi-billion shot exposure testing of Cr(4+):YAG in this pulse energy regime

  13. Identification of a Testis-Enriched Heat Shock Protein and Fourteen Members of Hsp70 Family in the Swamp Eel

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Luo, Majing; Yi, Minhan; Sheng, Yue; Cheng, Yibin; Zhou, Rongjia; Cheng, Hanhua

    2013-01-01

    Background Gonad differentiation is one of the most important developmental events in vertebrates. Some heat shock proteins are associated with gonad development. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the teleost fish and its roles in sex differentiation are poorly understood. Methods and Findings We have identified a testis-enriched heat shock protein Hspa8b2 in the swamp eel using Western blot analysis and Mass Spectrometry (MS). Fourteen Hsp70 family genes were further identified in this species based on transcriptome information. The phylogenetic tree of Hsp70 family was constructed using the Maximum Likelihood method and their expression patterns in the swamp eel gonads were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conclusion There are fourteen gene members in the Hsp70 family in the swamp eel genome. Hsp70 family, particularly Hspa8, has expanded in the species. One of the family members Hspa8b2 is predominantly expressed in testis of the swamp eel. PMID:23750249

  14. Severe Obesity Costs Medicaid $8 Billion Annually, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Severe Obesity Costs Medicaid $8 Billion Annually, Study Finds And health care expenses for heaviest adults ... severely obese patients themselves, new research suggests. The study pegs the national bill for providing obesity-related ...

  15. Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Nocera

    2011-09-12

    Daniel Nocera, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor whose recent research focuses on solar-powered fuels, presents a Brookhaven Science Associates Distinguished Lecture, titled "Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People -- One at a Time."

  16. Injury Toll in U.S. in 2013: $671 Billion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... most fatal injury costs (27 percent), followed by transportation-related deaths (23 percent) and gun-related deaths ( ... was $167.1 billion. Falls (37 percent) and transportation-related injuries (21 percent) accounted for most of ...

  17. Academic Pork Barrel Tops $2-Billion for the First Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Borrego, Anne Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes how, despite the growing budget deficit, Congress directed a record $2 billion to college projects in 2003, many of them dealing with security and bioterrorism. Includes data tables on the earmarks. (EV)

  18. Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People

    ScienceCinema

    Daniel Nocera

    2013-07-19

    Daniel Nocera, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor whose recent research focuses on solar-powered fuels, presents a Brookhaven Science Associates Distinguished Lecture, titled "Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People -- One at a Time."

  19. $3.4 Billion Remains in Race to Top Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.; McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    By selecting just two states as first-round Race to the Top winners, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan is leaving $3.4 billion on the table for the remaining states to vie for in round two. Delaware and Tennessee beat out 14 other finalists last week to win the first grants awarded in the $4 billion Race to the Top Fund competition. Mr.…

  20. $3.4 Billion Remains in Race to Top Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.; McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    By selecting just two states as first-round Race to the Top winners, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan is leaving $3.4 billion on the table for the remaining states to vie for in round two. Delaware and Tennessee beat out 14 other finalists last week to win the first grants awarded in the $4 billion Race to the Top Fund competition. Mr.

  1. Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding, FY2009-FY2010.

    PubMed

    Franco, Crystal

    2009-09-01

    Since 2001, the United States government has spent substantial resources on preparing the nation against a bioterrorist attack. Earlier articles in this series analyzed civilian biodefense funding by the federal government for fiscal years (FY) 2001 through 2009. This article updates those figures with budgeted amounts for FY2010, specifically analyzing the budgets and allocations for biodefense at the Departments of Health and Human Services, Defense, Homeland Security, Agriculture, and State; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the National Science Foundation. This year's article also provides an assessment of the proportion of the biodefense budget that serves multiple programmatic goals and benefits, including research into infectious disease pathogenesis and immunology, public health planning and preparedness, and disaster response efforts. The FY2010 federal budget for civilian biodefense totals $6.05 billion. Of that total, $4.96 billion is budgeted for programs that serve multiple goals and provide manifold benefits. PMID:19772453

  2. Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome: fourteen new patients and a clinical analysis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Peter N; Neumann, Luitgard M; Demuth, Stephanie; Enders, Herbert; Jung, Ursula; Knig, Rainer; Mitulla, Beate; Mller, Dietmar; Muschke, Petra; Pfeiffer, Lutz; Prager, Bettina; Somer, Mirja; Tinschert, Sigrid

    2005-06-15

    The Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) is a disorder of unknown cause comprising craniosynostosis, a marfanoid habitus and skeletal, neurological, cardiovascular, and connective-tissue anomalies. There are no pathognomonic signs of SGS and diagnosis depends on recognition of a characteristic combination of anomalies. Here, we describe 14 persons with SGS and compare their clinical findings with those of 23 previously reported individuals, including two families with more than one affected individual. Our analysis suggests that there is a characteristic facial appearance, with more than two thirds of all individuals having hypertelorism, down-slanting palpebral fissures, a high-arched palate, micrognathia, and apparently low-set and posteriorly rotated ears. Other commonly reported manifestations include hypotonia in at least the neonatal period, developmental delay, and inguinal or umbilical hernia. The degree of reported intellectual impairment ranges from mild to severe. The most common skeletal manifestations in SGS were arachnodactyly, pectus deformity, camptodactyly, scoliosis, and joint hypermobility. None of the skeletal signs alone is specific for SGS. Our study includes 14 mainly German individuals with SGS evaluated over a period of 10 years. Given that only 23 other persons with SGS have been reported to date worldwide, we suggest that SGS may be more common than previously assumed. PMID:15884042

  3. Planet Earth 2025. A look into a future world of 8 billion humans.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D; Rowley, J

    1999-01-01

    Population projections for the next quarter century are reasonably predictable, and related resource challenges are quite visible. The world's population is expected to grow to around 8 billion by 2025. According to the International Food Policy Research Institute, if current levels of investments in agriculture and social welfare continue, food grain production will increase by about 1.5% and livestock production by 2.7% a year over the next 2 decades. These levels are much lower now compared to previous decades, and population could outstrip supply unless there is a big increase in developing country imports. The continued destruction of the earth's forest mantle as a result of human activities is another desperate concern. By 2025, some 3 billion people will live in land-short countries and another 2 billion will be living in urban areas with high levels of air pollution. In addition, coastal ecosystems, which are already exposed to unbridled coastal development and mounting pollution loads, will experience more pressures as the number of people living near them increases in the next 25 years. One final challenge is the unprecedented rate of habitat loss and species extinction. Ecosystem destruction is so severe that as many as 60,000 plant species could be lost by the year 2025. PMID:12295546

  4. Fourteen new species, one new genus, and eleven new country or state records for New World Lamiinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen new species and one new genus are described from the New World in Lamiinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Bisaltes (Bisaltes) lingafelteri sp. nov., Trestonia skelleyi sp. nov. and Psapharochrus langeri sp. nov. from Bolivia; Eupogonius azteca sp. nov., Aegomorphus mexicanus sp. nov., Lamacoscylus albatus sp. nov., Lamacoscylus obscurus sp. nov. and Piruanycha wappesi sp. nov. from Mexico; Dolichestola egeri sp. nov. and Wappesellus cavus gen. nov., sp. nov. from Brazil (Rondônia); Scleronotus virgatus sp. nov. from Venezuela; Oreodera casariae sp. nov. from Panama; Alampyris bicolor sp. nov. from Costa Rica; and Emphytoeciosoma flava sp. nov. from Peru. Additionally, eleven new country/state records are established in Lamiinae: three for Peru; three for Bolivia; one for Mexico; one for Uruguay; and two for Brazil (Rondônia) (state records). Bisaltes (Bisaltes) lingafelteri, Eupogonius azteca, Aegomorphus mexicanus, Lamacoscylus albatus, Lamacoscylus obscurus, Piruanycha wappesi, Scleronotus virgatus, Alampyris bicolor, Emphytoeciosoma flava and Wappesellus are included in new or known keys. PMID:26249940

  5. Immunogenicity of a polyvalent HIV-1 candidate vaccine based on fourteen wild type gp120 proteins in golden hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Ali; Anderson, David E; Ghorbani, Masoud; Gee, Katrina; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Background One of the major obstacles in the design of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is the hypervariability of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Most HIV-1 vaccine candidates have utilized envelope glycoprotein from a single virus isolate, but to date, none of them elicited broadly reactive humoral immunity. Herein, we hypothesised that a cocktail of HIV-1 gp120 proteins containing multiple epitopes may increase the breadth of immune responses against HIV-1. We compared and evaluated the immunogenicity of HIV-1 vaccines containing either gp120 protein alone or in combinations of four or fourteen gp120s from different primary HIV-1 isolates in immunized hamsters. Results We amplified and characterized 14 different gp120s from primary subtype B isolates with both syncytium and non-syncytium inducing properties, and expressed the proteins in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines. Purified proteins were used either alone or in combinations of four or fourteen different gp120s to vaccinate golden hamsters. The polyvalent vaccine showed higher antibody titers to HIV-1 subtype B isolates MN and SF162 compared to the groups that received one or four gp120 proteins. However, the polyvalent vaccine was not able to show higher neutralizing antibody responses against HIV-1 primary isolates. Interestingly, the polyvalent vaccine group had the highest proliferative immune responses and showed a substantial proportion of cross-subtype CD4 reactivity to HIV-1 subtypes B, C, and A/E Conclusion Although the polyvalent approach achieved only a modest increase in the breadth of humoral and cellular immunity, the qualitative change in the vaccine (14 vs. 1 gp120) resulted in a quantitative improvement in vaccine-induced immunity. PMID:17076905

  6. Hydroelectric dams need billions for rehab

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, F.H.; Soast, A.

    1993-01-11

    Many of the Corps of Engineers older hydroelectric dams will require major rehabilitation over the next ten years. Preventive maintenance, repair work, and major rehabilitation of the Corp's hydro dams in inadequate because the revenue generated by sales of electricity, by law, is returned to the Treasury. Most multimillion dollar rehabilitation projects require specific approval for funding by Congress and securing it is a long and difficult process. It is hoped the funding problem will soon be addressed by the Clinton administration. Already, nearly one-sixth of the 2,154 Mw of hydro is unavailable because with hydro units are either out of service or operating at less than full capacity.

  7. Physical Education. Chapter Fourteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Luke E.

    Physical education is a direct service which should be provided to all students with mental disabilities. Instruction in physical education should be guided by a comprehensive plan which outlines long-term goals and sequential objectives leading to attainment of these goals. The Achievement Based Curriculum model serves as an example of such a

  8. Winglets Save Billions of Dollars in Fuel Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The upturned ends now featured on many airplane wings are saving airlines billions of dollars in fuel costs. Called winglets, the drag-reducing technology was advanced through the research of Langley Research Center engineer Richard Whitcomb and through flight tests conducted at Dryden Flight Research Center. Seattle-based Aviation Partners Boeing -- a partnership between Aviation Partners Inc., of Seattle, and The Boeing Company, of Chicago -- manufactures Blended Winglets, a unique design featured on Boeing aircraft around the world. These winglets have saved more than 2 billion gallons of jet fuel to date, representing a cost savings of more than $4 billion and a reduction of almost 21.5 million tons in carbon dioxide emissions.

  9. The reproductive revolution among China's billion people.

    PubMed

    Tuan, C H

    1983-08-01

    The government of China is waging the world's most comprehensive battle to control population growth. The current attitude contrasts sharply with that of the pronatalist days of the 1950s. The urgency of the issue is the result of pressures from population growth during the last 330 years, which has resulted in a 20-fold increase in the country's population. Extensive studies of the impact of population size on resources, environment, and development over the next 100 years have shown that China should aim at a total of no more than 700 million people. These studies show that unless immediate and drastic action is taken to cut fertility there is no likelihood of raising China's nutritional intake to a level comparable to that of developed countries. In response to the potential crisis of overpopulation, the government has adopted population policies based on a novel "U shaped" transition curve. The theory behind it is that fertility should be brought down to below replacement level, kept there for a number of years, and then raised to realize replacement level fertility at the ideal population size. The pursuit of this goal has resulted in the single child policy. The family planning program has been impressive. A national survey conducted in 1982 demonstrated that the average number of births per woman had been cut by at least half from 1972-81. The attainment of almost universal consensus favoring birth control can be attributed to an ingenious pyramidal social structure that links the central administration in Beijing with individuals in the village. Socioeconomic adjustments and reorientation of traditional values have not had time to catch up with government policy throughout China. Urban areas seem to have accepted the 1 child policy, but the vast number of villages are reluctant to forego their preference for large families. As long as villages remain underdeveloped and their residents lack a comprehensive social security system for old age protection, there is good reason for the villagers to evade the new family planning policy. This situation is responsible for dreadful incidents such as maltreatment of women who give birth to daughters and infanticide of females. If these horrible incidents demonstrate the hardship of adjustment from traditional values to the 1 child family, the question that arises is whether the policy should be repealed. Most likely the maltreatment of females stems from the clash of the single child policy with traditional values such as family continuation, the value of male labor, and the desire to bear a son for protection in one's old age. Problems such as infanticide did not become apparent until the 1 child policy was enforced in the 1970s. The current task is to convince rural villagers to accept the single child limit by synchronizing political mobilization and ideological education with economic measures. PMID:12338972

  10. US Physician Practices Spend More Than $15.4 Billion Annually To Report Quality Measures.

    PubMed

    Casalino, Lawrence P; Gans, David; Weber, Rachel; Cea, Meagan; Tuchovsky, Amber; Bishop, Tara F; Miranda, Yesenia; Frankel, Brittany A; Ziehler, Kristina B; Wong, Meghan M; Evenson, Todd B

    2016-03-01

    Each year US physician practices in four common specialties spend, on average, 785 hours per physician and more than $15.4 billion dealing with the reporting of quality measures. While much is to be gained from quality measurement, the current system is unnecessarily costly, and greater effort is needed to standardize measures and make them easier to report. PMID:26953292

  11. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be used as a powerful genetic marker in selection programs for beef quality improvement in the Snow Dragon Beef population. PMID:25656186

  12. [Implementation of the program of "Collaborative Development of Advanced Practical Education to Train Pharmacists in Leadership" under the joint operation of the pharmaceutical departments in fourteen national universities].

    PubMed

    Hirata, Kazumasa; Tamura, Satoru; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2012-01-01

    "Collaborative Development of Advanced Practical Education Program to Train Pharmacists with Leadership" applied jointly by the pharmaceutical departments of fourteen national universities was selected to receive the special expenditure support of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for fiscal year 2010 under "the Training of Highly Skillful Professionals and Improvement of the Quality of the Function of Professional Education". This project is to promote the collaborative development of the educational program which will make it possible to further advance and substantiate the education of pharmacists in the six year course of the pharmaceutical department for the ultimate purpose to introduce pharmacists with leadership who can play an active role and fill in a leadership position in a wide range of responsibilities into the society which, more and more, has come to expect pharmacy to take the initiative in acting against health hazards caused by infections, foods and environmental pollution as well as to meet the diversification of healthcare. To be more specific, this project is to try and evaluate the following programs repeatedly based on the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle: 1) Practical medical and pharmaceutical education program; 2) Program concerning research on long term themes and advanced education; 3) Program concerning training and education of SPs (standardized patients or simulated patients) and PBL (problem-based learning) tutorial education; and 4) Program concerning the method of evaluation of education. Through this repeated trial and evaluation, this project ultimately seeks to construct a highly effective practical educational program which integrates each university's achievements and educational attempts rich in originality. PMID:22382840

  13. Severe Obesity In Adults Cost State Medicaid Programs Nearly $8 Billion In 2013.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Claire; Pamplin, John; Long, Michael W; Ward, Zachary J; Gortmaker, Steven L; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2015-11-01

    Efforts to expand Medicaid while controlling spending must be informed by a deeper understanding of the extent to which the high medical costs associated with severe obesity (having a body mass index of [Formula: see text] or higher) determine spending at the state level. Our analysis of population-representative data indicates that in 2013, severe obesity cost the nation approximately $69billion, which accounted for 60percent of total obesity-related costs. Approximately 11percent of the cost of severe obesity was paid for by Medicaid, 30percent by Medicare and other federal health programs, 27percent by private health plans, and 30percent out of pocket. Overall, severe obesity cost state Medicaid programs almost $8billion a year, ranging from $5million in Wyoming to $1.3billion in California. These costs are likely to increase following Medicaid expansion and enhanced coverage of weight loss therapies in the form of nutrition consultation, drug therapy, and bariatric surgery. Ensuring and expanding Medicaid-eligible populations' access to cost-effective treatment for severe obesity should be part of each state's strategy to mitigate rising obesity-related health care costs. PMID:26526251

  14. The BIA As Banker: "Trust" Is Hard When Billions Disappear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Bruce E.

    1997-01-01

    The federal government's trust responsibility toward Native Americans involves protection of their lands, resources, and right to self-government and provision of services (including education). However, the Bureau of Indian Affairs has misplaced billions of dollars owed Native American individuals and tribes and now faces class-action litigation.

  15. Anti-bacterial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of methanolic extracts of fourteen different edible vegetables from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, M. Obayed; Haque, Mahmuda; Urmi, Kaniz Fatima; Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md.; Anita, Elichea Synthi; Begum, Momtaj; Hamid, Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of fourteen different edible vegetables methanolic extract from Bangladesh. Methods The antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assay method against 12 bacteria (both gram positive and gram negative). The plant extracts were also screened for cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay method and the lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined at 95% confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with Finney Programme. Results All the vegetable extracts showed low to elevated levels of antibacterial activity against most of the tested strains (zone of inhibition=5-28 mm). The most active extract against all bacterial strains was from Xanthium indicum which showed remarkable antibacterial activity having the diameter of growth inhibition zone ranging from 12 to 28 mm followed by Alternanthera sessilis (zone of inhibition=6-21 mm). All extracts exhibited considerable general toxicity towards brine shrimps. The LC50 value of the tested extracts was within the range of 8.447 to 60.323 g/mL with respect to the positive control (vincristine sulphate) which was 0.91 g/mL. Among all studied extracts, Xanthium indicum displayed the highest cytotoxic effect with LC50 value of 8.447 g/mL. Conclusions The results of the present investigation suggest that most of the studied plants are potentially good source of antibacterial and anticancer agents. PMID:23570009

  16. Obama Asks Congress for $1.9 Billion to Battle Zika Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Asks Congress for $1.9 Billion to Battle Zika Virus Money would go toward mosquito-control programs, vaccine ... billion to help stem the spread of the Zika virus. The mosquito-borne disease has been linked to -- ...

  17. Project Catch-Up, June 1966 to June 1970: An Educational Program for Socially Disadvantaged Thirteen and Fourteen Year Old Youngsters. A Progress Report....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Evelyn P.

    After discussing the view that ethnic and socioeconomic status are, undesirably, predictive of academic success (e.g., only 3 or 4% of the Indians in Northwest Washington were high school graduates at the time of writing), this document sketches the rationale and methods of Western Washington State College's (WWSC) Project Catch-Up (PCU).

  18. Project Catch-Up, June, 1966 to July, 1971: An Educational Program for Socially Disadvantaged Thirteen and Fourteen Year Old Youngsters. A Progress Report....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Evelyn P.

    In this progress report are descriptions of (1) the 1970 program of Project Catch-Up (PCU), Western Washington State College's (WWSC) 6-week summer residence program of remediation and cultural enrichment for junior high age youth of ethnic minority status or poverty background having high potential and low achievement, and (2) the follow-up

  19. Determination of Fluorine in Fourteen Microanalytical Geologic Reference Materials using SIMS, EPMA, and Proton Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE) Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggino, S. N.; Hervig, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    Fluorine (F) is a volatile constituent of magmas and hydrous minerals, and trace amounts of F are incorporated into nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine and clinopyroxene. Microanalytical techniques are routinely used to measure trace amounts of F at both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution in glasses and crystals. However, there are few well-established F concentrations for the glass standards routinely used in microanalytical laboratories, particularly standards of low silica, basaltic composition. In this study, we determined the F content of fourteen commonly used microanalytical glass standards of basaltic, intermediate, and rhyolitic composition. To serve as calibration standards, five basaltic glasses with ~0.2 to 2.5 wt% F were synthesized and characterized. A natural tholeiite from the East Pacific Rise was mixed with variable amounts of CaF2. The mixture was heated in a 1 atmosphere furnace to 1440 °C at fO2 = NNO for 30 minutes and quenched in water. Portions of the run products were studied by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The EPMA used a 15 µm diameter defocused electron beam with a 15 kV accelerating voltage and a 25 nA primary current, a TAP crystal for detecting FKα X-rays, and Biotite 3 as the F standard. The F contents by EPMA agreed with the F added to the basalts after correction for mass loss during melting. The SIMS analyses used a primary beam of 16O- and detection of low-energy negative ions (-5 kV) at a mass resolution that resolved 18OH. Both microanalytical techniques confirmed homogeneity, and the SIMS calibration defined by EPMA shows an excellent linear trend with backgrounds of 2 ppm or less. Analyses of basaltic glass standards based on our synthesized calibration standards gave the following F contents and 2σ errors (ppm): ALV-519 = 83 ± 3; BCR-2G = 359 ± 6; BHVO-2G = 322 ± 15; GSA-1G = 10 ± 1; GSC-1G = 11 ± 1; GSD-1G = 19 ± 2; GSE-1G = 173 ± 1; KL2G (MPI-DING) = 101 ± 1; ML3B-G (MPI-DING) = 49 ± 17. These values are lower than published values for BCR-2 and BHVO-2 (unmelted powders) and the “information values” for the MPI-DING glass standards. Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) was tested for the high silica samples. PIGE analyses (1.7 MeV Tandem Accelerator; reaction type: 19F(p, αγ)16O; primary current = 20-30 nA; incident beam voltage = 1.5 MeV) were calibrated with a crystal of fluor-topaz (F = 20.3 wt%) and gave F values of: NIST 610 = 266 ± 14 ppm; NIST 620 = 54 ± 5 ppm; and UTR-2 = 1432 ± 32 ppm. SIMS calibration defined by the PIGE analyses shows an excellent linear trend with low background similar to the basaltic calibration. The F concentrations of intermediate MPI-DING glasses were determined based on SIMS calibration generated from the PIGE analysis above. The F concentrations and 2σ errors (ppm) are: T1G = 219.9 ± 6.8; StHs/680-G = 278.0 ± 2.0 ppm. This study revealed a large matrix effect between the high-silica and basaltic glasses, thus requiring the use of appropriate standards and separate SIMS calibrations when analyzing samples of different compositions.

  20. Billion particle linac simulations for future light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R. D.; Venturini, M.; Zholents, A. A.; Qiang, J.

    2008-09-25

    In this paper we report on multi-physics, multi-billion macroparticle simulation of beam transport in a free electron laser (FEL) linac for future light source applications. The simulation includes a self-consistent calculation of 3D space-charge effects, short-range geometry wakefields, longitudinal coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wakefields, and detailed modeling of RF acceleration and focusing. We discuss the need for and the challenges associated with such large-scale simulation. Applications to the study of the microbunching instability in an FEL linac are also presented.

  1. Scalable in-memory RDFS closure on billions of triples.

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Eric L.; Mizell, David

    2010-06-01

    We present an RDFS closure algorithm, specifically designed and implemented on the Cray XMT supercomputer, that obtains inference rates of 13 million inferences per second on the largest system configuration we used. The Cray XMT, with its large global memory (4TB for our experiments), permits the construction of a conceptually straightforward algorithm, fundamentally a series of operations on a shared hash table. Each thread is given a partition of triple data to process, a dedicated copy of the ontology to apply to the data, and a reference to the hash table into which it inserts inferred triples. The global nature of the hash table allows the algorithm to avoid a common obstacle for distributed memory machines: the creation of duplicate triples. On LUBM data sets ranging between 1.3 billion and 5.3 billion triples, we obtain nearly linear speedup except for two portions: file I/O, which can be ameliorated with the additional service nodes, and data structure initialization, which requires nearly constant time for runs involving 32 processors or more.

  2. Parametrization and Classification of 20 Billion LSST Objects: Lessons from SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Ivezic, Z.; Axelrod, T.; Becker, A.C.; Becla, J.; Borne, K.; Burke, David L.; Claver, C.F.; Cook, K.H.; Connolly, A.; Gilmore, D.K.; Jones, R.L.; Juric, M.; Kahn, Steven M.; Lim, K-T.; Lupton, R.H.; Monet, D.G.; Pinto, P.A.; Sesar, B.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis

    2011-11-10

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain, starting in 2015, multiple images of the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times during the anticipated 10 years of operations (distributed over six bands, ugrizy). Each 30-second long visit will deliver 5{sigma} depth for point sources of r {approx} 24.5 on average. The co-added map will be about 3 magnitudes deeper, and will include 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. We discuss various measurements that will be automatically performed for these 20 billion sources, and how they can be used for classification and determination of source physical and other properties. We provide a few classification examples based on SDSS data, such as color classification of stars, color-spatial proximity search for wide-angle binary stars, orbital-color classification of asteroid families, and the recognition of main Galaxy components based on the distribution of stars in the position-metallicity-kinematics space. Guided by these examples, we anticipate that two grand classification challenges for LSST will be (1) rapid and robust classification of sources detected in difference images, and (2) simultaneous treatment of diverse astrometric and photometric time series measurements for an unprecedentedly large number of objects.

  3. Cusiana reserves as much as 1. 5 billion bbl

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-02

    This paper reports that Cusiana field in Colombia holds estimated recoverable reserves of as much as 1.5 billion bbl of crude oil and condensate and additional large volumes of gas, a unit of British Petroleum Co. plc disclosed last week. However, the full extent of reserves won't be known until more wells are drilled and field limits firmly established, BP said. BP Exploration Co. (Colombia) Ltd. and partners Total Exploratie en Produktie Mij. BV and Triton Colombia also have found a second field with their 1 Cupiagua wildcat, 15 km north and on the same license block, with reserves about one-third as large those of Cusiana. Cusiana and Cupiagua are on a geological trend BP believes extends north into the separate 5,000 sq km Piedemonte license area, owned 100% by BP, where it is drilling the 2 Pauto wildcat.

  4. Western Australia updates $A4 billion North West Shelf scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.E.

    1980-02-01

    A four billion (Australian) dollar scheme to produce natural gas from the North West Shelf will bring a growth boom to an area rich in energy and mineral resources. The project will begin with production at the offshore North Rankin field, process liquified natural gas (LNG) onshore, and transport it to three closed link inland markets at a competitive cost. Woodside Petroleum Ltd. is responsible for planning the joint venture. Engineering plans are outlined for the two production platforms and the pipeline, and liquefaction facility. Australian expertise in the project is welcome, but the joint venturers will use the best professionals regardless of nationality to meet the demands of a competitive technology and market. (DCK)

  5. European cogeneration market estimated at $12 billion by 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    A new study by an international market research firm projects that European companies will install some $12 billion worth of cogeneration equipment by 1995. Products for waste heat recovery, steam and turbine generators made up a $993 million cogeneration market in 1986 in Europe. West Germany is expected to account for nearly a quarter of all volume throughout the 1986-95 period. In 1986, industry there spent some $218 million on cogeneration equipment. France and the U.K. are expected to account for another 17% and 16% of sales, respectively. The report discusses the various industrial end users, and on average finds that commercial/institutional establishments; food, beverage and tobacco producers; fuels processors; and the pulp and paper industry each represent between 10% and 15% of cogeneration purchases.

  6. Inflation, completions, recompletions boost well servicing to near $3 billion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Oil and gas producers in late 1978 planned to spend slightly over $2 billion on well completions, servicing, and workover in 1979, but the total figure reached $2,904,166,000 and the 1980 cost projection is $3,617,281,000. The record costs are attributed to the fact that development drilling now exceeds exploration by more than 10 to one, and recompletion of existing wells runs close to new completions nationally and surpasses new completions in several areas. There were approximately 49,100 drilling efforts during 1979, resulting in 19,478 oil completions and 13,772 gas wells. Business projections for tabular goods and rig availability are discussed. Statistical data are tubulated for service jobs in several areas of the US.

  7. Bigger, Better Catalog Unveils Half a Billion Celestial Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These frames are samples from the photographic sky surveys, which have been digitized by a technical team at the Space Telescope Science Institute to support the Hubble Space Telescope operations. The team processed these images to create a new astronomical catalog, called the Guide Star Catalog II. This project was undertaken by the Space Telescope Science Institute as an upgrade to an earlier sky survey and catalog (DSS-I and GSC-I), initially done to provide guide stars for pointing the Hubble Space Telescope. By virtue of its sheer size, the DSS-II and GSC-II have many research applications for both professional and amateur astronomers. [Top] An example from the DSS-II shows the Rosette Nebula, (originally photographed by the Palomar Observatory) as digitized in the DSS-I (left) and DSS-II (right). The DSS-II includes views of the sky at both red and blue wavelengths, providing invaluable color information on about one billion deep-sky objects. [Bottom] This blow-up of the inset box in the raw DSS-I scan shows examples of the GSC-I and the improved GSC-II catalogs. Astronomers extracted the stars from the scanned plate of the Rosette and listed them in the catalogs. The new GSC-II catalog provides the colors, positions, and luminosities of nearly half a billion stars -- over 20 times as many as the original GSC-I. The GSC-II contains information on stars as dim as the 19th magnitude. Credit: NASA, the DSS-II and GSC-II Consortia (with images from the Palomar Observatory-STScI Digital Sky Survey of the northern sky, based on scans of the Second Palomar Sky Survey are copyright c 1993-1999 by the California Institute of Technology)

  8. Fourteen-Month-Old Infants Infer the Continuous Identity of Objects on the Basis of Nonvisible Causal Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacchione, Trix; Schaub, Simone; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Research on object cognition in infancy suggests that children from (at latest) 1 year of age are capable of individuating objects according to property/kind information. It remains unclear from previous work, however, whether infants in such studies truly apply sortal (kind) concepts or whether they merely track objects on the basis of

  9. Public School Desegregation/Redesign: A Case Study in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. Urban Education Reports Number Fourteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Frank Andrews

    This publication presents a case study of the public school desegregation and redesign program of the East Baton Rouge Parish (Louisiana) School System, focusing on the 5 years from 1987 to 1992. Chapter 1 describes the setting and background, the sociocultural history of the area since pre-Revolutionary War days, the role and treatment of African…

  10. Fourteen-Month-Old Infants Infer the Continuous Identity of Objects on the Basis of Nonvisible Causal Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacchione, Trix; Schaub, Simone; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Research on object cognition in infancy suggests that children from (at latest) 1 year of age are capable of individuating objects according to property/kind information. It remains unclear from previous work, however, whether infants in such studies truly apply sortal (kind) concepts or whether they merely track objects on the basis of…

  11. Shear Strength at 75 F to 500 F of Fourteen Adhesives Used to Bond a Glass-fabric-reinforced Phenolic Resin Laminate to Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John R

    1956-01-01

    Fourteen adhesives used to bond a glass-fabric-reinforced phenolic resin laminate to steel were tested in order to determine their shear strengths at temperatures from 75 F to 500 F. Fabrication methods were varied to evaluate the effect of placing cloth between the facing surfaces to maintain a uniform bond-line thickness. One glass-fabric supported phenolic adhesive was found to have a shear strength of 3,400 psi at 300 F and over 1,000 psi at 500 F. Strength and fabrication data are tabulated for all adhesives tested.

  12. How Long Is a Piece of String? 4.5 Billion Years Perhaps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Terry; McGuigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    As reported in an earlier article (Russell and McGuigan, 2014), with Nuffield Foundation support, the authors of this article have been exploring with a group of primary teachers the teaching and learning of evolution and inheritance, focusing on conceptual progression. The new National Curriculum for England requires learners to access knowledge…

  13. THE CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES OVER THE LAST 11 BILLION YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Kewley, Lisa J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Kurtz, Michael J.

    2013-07-10

    We calculate the stellar mass-metallicity relation at five epochs ranging to z {approx} 2.3. We quantify evolution in the shape of the mass-metallicity relation as a function of redshift; the mass-metallicity relation flattens at late times. There is an empirical upper limit to the gas-phase oxygen abundance in star-forming galaxies that is independent of redshift. From examination of the mass-metallicity relation and its observed scatter, we show that the flattening at late times is a consequence of evolution in the stellar mass where galaxies enrich to this empirical upper metallicity limit; there is also evolution in the fraction of galaxies at a fixed stellar mass that enrich to this limit. The stellar mass where metallicities begin to saturate is {approx}0.7 dex smaller in the local universe than it is at z {approx} 0.8.

  14. The First Billion Years of Martian History as Seen from the SNC Meteorites: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    There are currently 28 known, distinct samples of Mars that have been liberated from that planet by impacts and subsequently delivered to the Earth. The formation ages of these samples range from 4.5 b.y. to 180 m.y. Collectively, these samples are called SNC meteorites after the major petrologic subdivisions: Shergottite, Nakhlite, Chassigny. Texturally, most of these meteorites are cumulates or partial cumulates. However, a few may represent real melt compositions: EET79001B, Y9800459, QUE94201, and the groundmass of EET79001A.

  15. Primary haematite formation in an oxygenated sea 3.46billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoashi, Masamichi; Bevacqua, David C.; Otake, Tsubasa; Watanabe, Yumiko; Hickman, Arthur H.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    The timing of the origin of photosynthesis on the early Earth is greatly debated. It is generally agreed, on the basis of the presence of biological molecules found in shales from the Hamersley Basin, Australia, that oxygenic photosynthesis had evolved 2.7billionyears (Gyr) ago. However, whether photosynthesis occurred before this time remains controversial. Here we report primary haematite crystals and associated minerals within the marine sedimentary rocks preserved in a jasper formation of the Pilbara Craton, Australia, which we interpret as evidence for the formation of these rocks in an oxygenated water body 3.46Gyr ago. We suggest that these haematite crystals formed at temperatures greater than 60?C from locally discharged hydrothermal fluids rich in ferrous iron. The crystals precipitated when the fluids rapidly mixed with overlying oxygenated sea water, at depths greater than 200m. As our findings imply the existence of noticeable quantities of molecular oxygen, we propose that organisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis evolved more than 700millionyears earlier than previously recognized, resulting in the oxygenation of at least some intermediate and deep ocean regions.

  16. 3.5 billion years of glass bioalteration: Volcanic rocks as a basis for microbial life?

    SciTech Connect

    Staudigel, H.; Furnes, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Banerjee, N.R.; Connell, L.B.; Templeton, A.

    2009-04-07

    Alteration textures in volcanic glass from the seafloor fall into two classes, one suggestive of abiotic/diffusive hydration and chemical exchange, and another likely to be caused by microbial, cavity-forming, congruent dissolution. Glass bioalteration is common in submarine lavas throughout the world's ocean, dominant in the upper 300 m of the oceanic crust, and found in all well-preserved ophiolites and greenstone belts dating back to 3.5 Ga. It may yield a significant fraction of the global biomass and geochemical fluxes and is relevant to the development of the earliest life on Earth. We present a critical review concerning these glass bioalteration textures and present new data on their microchemical environment. We explore arguments for their biogenicity and further develop the prevalent model for their formation by relating corrosion morphology to the mechanism of microbial dissolution. Biological alteration produces conspicuous micron-scale granular and tubular textures. Granular glass alteration is well explained by colonizing microbes that selectively dissolve the glass in their contact area, forming a sponge-like interconnected network of micron-sized cavities along glass surfaces. Tubular alteration meanwhile, is more likely to be caused by filamentous cell extensions in a process similar to fungal tunneling of soil feldspars and marine carbonates. While we see clear functional similarities to fungal dissolution behavior, we do not know whether fungal or prokaryotic organisms are involved. However, this functional constraint may eventually help to identify potential microbes responsible for these features, potentially including eukaryotic or prokaryotic organisms. Yet, we caution that these organisms may be difficult to identify and to study, because they are likely to be sparsely distributed, slow growing, and difficult to cultivate.

  17. Could organic matter have been preserved on Mars for 3.5 billion years?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    1990-01-01

    About 3.5 Gyr ago, when it is thought that Mars and earth had similar climates, biological evolution on earth had made considerable progress, such that life was abundant. It is therefore surmised that prior to this time period, the advent of chemical evolution and subsequent origin of life occurred on earth and may have occurred on Mars. Analysis for organic compounds in the soil buried beneath the Martian surface may yield useful information regarding the occurrence of chemical evolution and possibly biological evolution. Calculations based on the stability of amino acids lead to the conclusion that remnants of these compounds, if they existed on Mars 3.5 Gyr ago, might have been preserved buried beneath the surface oxidizing layer. For example, if phenylalanine, an amino acid of average stability, existed on Mars 3.5 Gyr ago, then 1.6 percent would remain buried today. Martian soil may exist from remnants of meteoritic and cometary bombardment, assuming that 1 percent of the organics survived impact.

  18. Plutonium-244 fission tracks - Evidence in a lunar rock 3.95 billion years old.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheon, I. D.; Price, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    Tracks attributed to the spontaneous fission of plutonium-244 and of uranium-238 were detected in a large whitlockite crystal in the lunar breccia 14321 from the Fra Mauro formation. For a track-retention age of 3.95 b.y., the number of plutonium tracks relative to the number of uranium tracks is 0.51 plus or minus 0.15, provided that the rock was not heavily neutron-irradiated 3.95 b.y. ago.

  19. ON THE LAST 10 BILLION YEARS OF STELLAR MASS GROWTH IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Samuel N.

    2012-02-01

    The star formation rate-stellar mass relation (SFR-M{sub *}) and its evolution (i.e., the SFR main sequence) describe the growth rate of galaxies of a given stellar mass and at a given redshift. Assuming that present-day star-forming galaxies (SFGs) were always star forming in the past, these growth rate observations can be integrated to calculate average star formation histories (SFHs). Using this Main Sequence Integration (MSI) approach, we trace present-day massive SFGs back to when they were 10%-20% of their current stellar mass. The integration is robust throughout those epochs: the SFR data underpinning our calculations are consistent with the evolution of stellar mass density in this regime. Analytic approximations to these SFHs are provided. Integration-based results reaffirm previous suggestions that current SFGs formed virtually all of their stellar mass at z < 2. It follows that massive galaxies observed at z > 2 are not the typical progenitors of SFGs today. We also check MSI-based SFHs against those inferred from analysis of the fossil record-from spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of SFGs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of resolved stars in dwarf irregular galaxies. Once stellar population age uncertainties are accounted for, the main sequence is in excellent agreement with SED-based SFHs (from VESPA). Extrapolating SFR main sequence observations to dwarf galaxies, we find differences between MSI results and SFHs from CMD analysis of Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury and Local Group galaxies. Resolved dwarfs appear to grow much slower than main sequence trends imply, and also slower than slightly higher mass SED-analyzed galaxies. This difference may signal problems with SFH determinations, but it may also signal a shift in star formation trends at the lowest stellar masses.

  20. A Powerful Toolkit for Synthetic Biology: Over 3.8 Billion Years of Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of evolutionary with engineering principles will enhance synthetic biology. Conversely, synthetic biology has the potential to enrich evolutionary biology by explaining why some adaptive space is empty, on Earth or elsewhere. Synthetic biology, the design and construction of artificial biological systems, substitutes bio-engineering for evolution, which is seen as an obstacle. But because evolution has produced the complexity and diversity of life, it provides a proven toolkit of genetic materials and principles available to synthetic biology. Evolution operates on the population level, with the populations composed of unique individuals that are historical entities. The source of genetic novelty includes mutation, gene regulation, sex, symbiosis, and interspecies gene transfer. At a phenotypic level, variation derives from regulatory control, replication and diversification of components, compartmentalization, sexual selection and speciation, among others. Variation is limited by physical constraints such as diffusion, and chemical constraints such as reaction rates and membrane fluidity. While some of these tools of evolution are currently in use in synthetic biology, all ought to be examined for utility. A hybrid approach of synthetic biology coupled with fine-tuning through evolution is suggested

  1. Gusev Crater Paleolake: Two-Billion Years of Martian Geologic, (and Biologic?) History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Landheim, R.; Greeley, R.; Kuzmin, R.; McKay, C. P.

    1998-01-01

    Ancient Martian lakes are sites where the climatological, chemical, and possibly biological history of the planet has been recorded. Their potential to keep this global information in their sedimentary deposits, potential only shared with the polar layered-deposits, designates them as the most promising targets for the ongoing exploration of Mars in terms of science return and global knowledge about Mars evolution. Many of the science priority objectives of the Surveyor Program can be met by exploring ancient Martian lake beds. Among martian paleolakes, lakes in impact craters represent probably the most favorable sites to explore. Though highly destructive events when they occur, impacts may have provided in time a significant energy source for life, by generating heat, and at the contact of water and/or ice, deep hydrothermal systems, which are considered as favorable environments for life. In addition, impact crater lakes are changing environments, from thermally driven systems at the very first stage of their formation, to cold ice-protected potential oases in the more recent Martian geological times. Thus, they are plausible sites to study the progression of diverse microbiologic communities.

  2. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations before 2.2 billion years ago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rye, R.; Kuo, P. H.; Holland, H. D.

    1995-01-01

    The composition of the Earth's early atmosphere is a subject of continuing debate. In particular, it has been suggested that elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide would have been necessary to maintain normal surface temperatures in the face of lower solar luminosity in early Earth history. Fossil weathering profiles, known as palaeosols, have provided semi-quantitative constraints on atmospheric oxygen partial pressure (pO2) before 2.2 Gyr ago. Here we use the same well studied palaeosols to constrain atmospheric pCO2 between 2.75 and 2.2 Gyr ago. The observation that iron lost from the tops of these profiles was reprecipitated lower down as iron silicate minerals, rather than as iron carbonate, indicates that atmospheric pCO2 must have been less than 10(-1.4) atm--about 100 times today's level of 360 p.p.m., and at least five times lower than that required in one-dimensional climate models to compensate for lower solar luminosity at 2.75 Gyr. Our results suggest that either the Earth's early climate was much more sensitive to increases in pCO2 than has been thought, or that one or more greenhouse gases other than CO2 contributed significantly to the atmosphere's radiative balance during the late Archaean and early Proterozoic eons.

  3. How Long Is a Piece of String? 4.5 Billion Years Perhaps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Terry; McGuigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    As reported in an earlier article (Russell and McGuigan, 2014), with Nuffield Foundation support, the authors of this article have been exploring with a group of primary teachers the teaching and learning of evolution and inheritance, focusing on conceptual progression. The new National Curriculum for England requires learners to access knowledge

  4. The Violent Youth of Bright and Massive Cluster Galaxies and their Maturation over 7 Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascaso, B.; Lemaux, B.; Lubin, L. M.; Gal, R. R.; Kocevski, D. D.; Rumbaugh, N.; Squires, G.

    2014-12-01

    In this talk, I will present recent research on the formation and evolution mechanisms of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) over cosmic time. At high redshift (z˜0.9) we selected BCGs and most massive cluster galaxies (MMCGs) from the Cl1604 supercluster and compared to low-redshift (z˜0.1) counterparts drawn from the MCXC meta-catalog and supplemented by SDSS imaging and spectroscopy. We observed striking differences in the morphological, color, spectral, and stellar mass properties of the BCGs/MMCGs in the two samples. High-redshift BCGs/MMCGs were, in many cases, star-forming, late-type galaxies, with blue broadband colors, properties largely absent amongst the low-redshift BCGs/MMCGs. The stellar mass of BCGs was found to increase by an average factor of 2.51±0.71 from z˜0.9 to z˜0.1. Through this and other comparisons we conclude that a combination of major merging (mainly wet or mixed) and in situ star formation are the main mechanisms which build stellar mass in BCGs/MMCGs. The stellar mass growth of the BCGs/MMCGs also appears to grow in lockstep with both the stellar baryonic and total mass of the cluster. Additionally, BCGs/MMCGs were found to grow in size, on average, a factor of ˜3 while their average Sérsic index increased by ˜0.45 from z˜0.9 to z˜0.1, also supporting a scenario involving major merging, though some adiabatic expansion is required. These observational results are compared to both models and simulations to further explore the implications on processes which shape and evolve BCGs/MMCGs over the past ˜7 Gyr.

  5. The violent youth of bright and massive cluster galaxies and their maturation over 7 billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascaso, B.; Lemaux, B. C.; Lubin, L. M.; Gal, R. R.; Kocevski, D. D.; Rumbaugh, N.; Squires, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we investigate the formation and evolution mechanisms of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) over cosmic time. At high redshift (z ˜ 0.9), we selected BCGs and most massive cluster galaxies (MMCGs) from the Cl1604 supercluster and compared them to low-redshift (z ˜ 0.1) counterparts drawn from the MCXC meta-catalogue, supplemented by Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging and spectroscopy. We observed striking differences in the morphological, colour, spectral, and stellar mass properties of the BCGs/MMCGs in the two samples. High-redshift BCGs/MMCGs were, in many cases, star-forming, late-type galaxies, with blue broad-band colours, properties largely absent amongst the low-redshift BCGs/MMCGs. The stellar mass of BCGs was found to increase by an average factor of 2.51 ± 0.71 from z ˜ 0.9 to z ˜ 0.1. Through this and other comparisons, we conclude that a combination of major merging (mainly wet or mixed) and in situ star formation are the main mechanisms which build stellar mass in BCGs/MMCGs. The stellar mass growth of the BCGs/MMCGs also appears to grow in lockstep with both the stellar baryonic and total mass of the cluster. Additionally, BCGs/MMCGs were found to grow in size, on average, a factor of ˜3, while their average Sérsic index increased by ˜0.45 from z ˜ 0.9 to z ˜ 0.1, also supporting a scenario involving major merging, though some adiabatic expansion is required. These observational results are compared to both models and simulations to further explore the implications on processes which shape and evolve BCGs/MMCGs over the past ˜7 Gyr.

  6. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations before 2.2 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Rye, R; Kuo, P H; Holland, H D

    1995-12-01

    The composition of the Earth's early atmosphere is a subject of continuing debate. In particular, it has been suggested that elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide would have been necessary to maintain normal surface temperatures in the face of lower solar luminosity in early Earth history. Fossil weathering profiles, known as palaeosols, have provided semi-quantitative constraints on atmospheric oxygen partial pressure (pO2) before 2.2 Gyr ago. Here we use the same well studied palaeosols to constrain atmospheric pCO2 between 2.75 and 2.2 Gyr ago. The observation that iron lost from the tops of these profiles was reprecipitated lower down as iron silicate minerals, rather than as iron carbonate, indicates that atmospheric pCO2 must have been less than 10(-1.4) atm--about 100 times today's level of 360 p.p.m., and at least five times lower than that required in one-dimensional climate models to compensate for lower solar luminosity at 2.75 Gyr. Our results suggest that either the Earth's early climate was much more sensitive to increases in pCO2 than has been thought, or that one or more greenhouse gases other than CO2 contributed significantly to the atmosphere's radiative balance during the late Archaean and early Proterozoic eons. PMID:11536713

  7. SCORCH I: The Galaxy-Halo Connection in the First Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trac, Hy; Cen, Renyue; Mansfield, Philip

    2015-11-01

    SCORCH (Simulations and Constructions of the Reionization of Cosmic Hydrogen) is a new project to study the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). In this first paper, we probe the connection between observed high-redshift galaxies and simulated dark matter halos to better understand the primary source of ionizing radiation. High-resolution N-body simulations are run to quantify the abundance of dark matter halos as a function of mass M, accretion rate \\dot{M}, and redshift z. A new fit for the halo mass function dn/dM is ≈20% more accurate at the high-mass end. A novel approach is used to fit the halo accretion rate function {dn}/d\\dot{M} in terms of the halo mass function. Abundance matching against the observed galaxy luminosity function is used to estimate the luminosity-mass relation and the luminosity-accretion-rate relation. The inferred star formation efficiency is not monotonic with M nor \\dot{M}, but reaches a maximum value at a characteristic mass ˜ 2× {10}11 {M}⊙ and a characteristic accretion rate ˜ 6× {10}2 {M}⊙ {{{yr}}}-1 at z ≈ 6. We find a universal EoR luminosity-accretion-rate relation and construct a fiducial model for the galaxy luminosity function. The Schechter parameters evolve such that {φ }\\star decreases, {M}\\star is fainter, and α is steeper at higher redshifts. We forecast for the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope and show that with apparent magnitude limit {m}{{AB}}≈ 31 (32), it can observe ≳ 11 (24) unlensed galaxies per square degree per unit redshift at least down to {M}\\star at z ≲ 13 (14).

  8. Detection of pristine gas two billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Michele; O'Meara, John M; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2011-12-01

    In the current cosmological model, only the three lightest elements were created in the first few minutes after the Big Bang; all other elements were produced later in stars. To date, however, heavy elements have been observed in all astrophysical environments. We report the detection of two gas clouds with no discernible elements heavier than hydrogen. These systems exhibit the lowest heavy-element abundance in the early universe, and thus are potential fuel for the most metal-poor halo stars. The detection of deuterium in one system at the level predicted by primordial nucleosynthesis provides a direct confirmation of the standard cosmological model. The composition of these clouds further implies that the transport of heavy elements from galaxies to their surroundings is highly inhomogeneous. PMID:22075722

  9. The discovery of fullerenes in the 1.85 billion-year-old Sudbury meteorite crater

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, L.; Bada, J.L.; Winans, R.E.; Hunt, J.E.; Bunch, T.E.; French, B.M.

    1996-02-01

    Fullerenes (C{sub 60}, C{sub 70}) have been identified by laser time-of-flight and electron-ionization mass spectroscopy in rock samples (black tuff in the Onaping formation) from the crater. They were likely synthesized within the impact plume from carbon contained in the meteorite. The isotopic ratios suggest {sup 13}C enrichment. They are associated with sulfur which may have protected them. This is the largest known deposit of naturally occurring fullerenes.

  10. On the origin, evolution, and nature of programmed cell death: a timeline of four billion years.

    PubMed

    Ameisen, J C

    2002-04-01

    Programmed cell death is a genetically regulated process of cell suicide that is central to the development, homeostasis and integrity of multicellular organisms. Conversely, the dysregulation of mechanisms controlling cell suicide plays a role in the pathogenesis of a wide range of diseases. While great progress has been achieved in the unveiling of the molecular mechanisms of programmed cell death, a new level of complexity, with important therapeutic implications, has begun to emerge, suggesting (i) that several different self-destruction pathways may exist and operate in parallel in our cells, and (ii) that molecular effectors of cell suicide may also perform other functions unrelated to cell death induction and crucial to cell survival. In this review, I will argue that this new level of complexity, implying that there may be no such thing as a 'bona fide' genetic death program in our cells, might be better understood when considered in an evolutionary context. And a new view of the regulated cell suicide pathways emerges when one attempts to ask the question of when and how they may have become selected during evolution, at the level of ancestral single-celled organisms. PMID:11965491

  11. Geomagnetic field strength 3.2 billion years ago recorded by single silicate crystals.

    PubMed

    Tarduno, John A; Cottrell, Rory D; Watkeys, Michael K; Bauch, Dorothy

    2007-04-01

    The strength of the Earth's early geomagnetic field is of importance for understanding the evolution of the Earth's deep interior, surface environment and atmosphere. Palaeomagnetic and palaeointensity data from rocks formed near the boundary of the Proterozoic and Archaean eons, some 2.5 Gyr ago, show many hallmarks of the more recent geomagnetic field. Reversals are recorded, palaeosecular variation data indicate a dipole-dominated morphology and available palaeointensity values are similar to those from younger rocks. The picture before 2.8 Gyr ago is much less clear. Rocks of the Archaean Kaapvaal craton (South Africa) are among the best-preserved, but even they have experienced low-grade metamorphism. The variable acquisition of later magnetizations by these rocks is therefore expected, precluding use of conventional palaeointensity methods. Silicate crystals from igneous rocks, however, can contain minute magnetic inclusions capable of preserving Archaean-age magnetizations. Here we use a CO2 laser heating approach and direct-current SQUID magnetometer measurements to obtain palaeodirections and intensities from single silicate crystals that host magnetite inclusions. We find 3.2-Gyr-old field strengths that are within 50 per cent of the present-day value, indicating that a viable magnetosphere sheltered the early Earth's atmosphere from solar wind erosion. PMID:17410173

  12. Ekofisk field; The first 20 years

    SciTech Connect

    Sulak, R.M. )

    1991-10-01

    Ekofish oil field, discovered in late 1969, in the Norwegian North Sea is now more than 20 years old. During its first 20 years, Ekofish has undergone both gas and water injection. This paper reports that the initial $1.5-billion waterflood project (1983) has been expanded (1988), extended (1989) and optimized (1990). Subsidence, discovered in late 1984, was rectified by the deck-elevation (1987) and the protective barrier (1989) projects, at a total cost of about 1 billion.

  13. Fuel efficient stoves for the poorest two billion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2012-03-01

    About 2 billion people cook their daily meals on generally inefficient, polluting, biomass cookstoves. The fuels include twigs and leaves, agricultural waste, animal dung, firewood, and charcoal. Exposure to resulting smoke leads to acute respiratory illness, and cancers, particularly among women cooks, and their infant children near them. Resulting annual mortality estimate is almost 2 million deaths, higher than that from malaria or tuberculosis. There is a large diversity of cooking methods (baking, boiling, long simmers, brazing and roasting), and a diversity of pot shapes and sizes in which the cooking is undertaken. Fuel-efficiency and emissions depend on the tending of the fire (and thermal power), type of fuel, stove characteristics, and fit of the pot to the stove. Thus, no one perfect fuel-efficient low-emitting stove can suit all users. Affordability imposes a further severe constraint on the stove design. For various economic strata within the users, a variety of stove designs may be appropriate and affordable. In some regions, biomass is harvested non-renewably for cooking fuel. There is also increasing evidence that black carbon emitted from stoves is a significant contributor to atmospheric forcing. Thus improved biomass stoves can also help mitigate global climate change. The speaker will describe specific work undertaken to design, develop, test, and disseminate affordable fuel-efficient stoves for internally displaced persons (IDPs) of Darfur, Sudan, where the IDPs face hardship, humiliation, hunger, and risk of sexual assault owing to their dependence on local biomass for cooking their meals.

  14. Stimulus Plan Aids Education: House Bill Could Provide $100 Billion to K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    Cash-strapped school districts could see an unprecedented $100 billion infusion of federal aid under a massive economic-stimulus package unveiled by House Democrats this week. The overall measure, put forth January 15 by the House Appropriations Committee, is aimed at providing a $825 billion jolt to the stumbling U.S. economy, and to help avert

  15. A Multi-billion Parcel Atmospheric Trajectory Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, C.; Clune, T. L.; Lait, L. R.; Ranawake, U.; Burns, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    We present a new parallel implementation of an atmospheric trajectory modelling framework which provides improved numerical accuracy, greater flexibility for specifying experiments, and sufficient raw performance to simultaneously simulate billions of parcel trajectories on suitable computing platforms. The application is parallelized using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library and can scale efficiently on a wide variety of modern computing platforms. The ability to treat such large numbers of parcels is expected to enable a new generation of experiments to explore questions related to global stratosphere-troposphere exchange, age-of-air spectra, and transport of trace gases and aerosols. The modelling framework is written in C++ for easy integration with other computing technologies. It also provides a great deal of flexibility by allowing users to select from (or add to) alternative subclasses for vertical coordinates (pressure, potential temperature), integration schemes (Runge-Kutta, Euler), meteorological data sources (NCEP/NCAR Reanalsyis, MERRA), data interpolation methods (linear, log-linear, splines), and output (parcel histories, summary statistics, min/max quantities encountered). Significantly improved numerical accuracy, especially near the poles, is provided by expressing integration in terms of purely geometric constructs which avoid various complications associated with spherical coordinates near the poles. The entire package has been rigorously developed using Test-Driven Development (TDD) which both provides confidence in the implementation and should also assist other developers that wish to extend the framework. Several tests are performed to demonstrate the fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme with our spherical geometric constructs. Tilted solid body rotation provides a baseline synthetic wind field for assessing model performance, and a time-varying case is used to examine the errors introduced by interpolating linearly in time. We perform full model tests with NCAR/NCEP reanalysis wind fields to computer forward and backwards trajectories of thousands of parcels in kinematic and isentropic mode. Accuracy and performance statistics from these tests show that the model efficiently generates highly reproducible trajectories.

  16. Multimillion to billion atom simulations of nanosystems under extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashishta, P.

    2008-12-01

    Advanced materials and devices with nanometer grain/feature sizes are being developed to achieve higher strength and toughness in ceramic materials and greater speeds in electronic devices. Below 100 nm, however, continuum description of materials and devices must be supplemented by atomistic descriptions. Current state of the art atomistic simulations involve 10 million - 1 billion atoms. We investigate initiation, growth and healing of wing cracks in confined silica glass by multimillion atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Under dynamic compression, frictional sliding of pre-crack surfaces nucleates nanovoids, which evolve into nanocrack columns at the pre-crack tip. Nanocrack columns merge to form a wing crack, which grows via coalescence with nanovoids in the direction of maximum compression. Lateral confinement arrests the growth and partially heals the wing crack. Growth and arrest of the wing crack occur repeatedly, as observed in dynamic compression experiments on brittle solids under lateral confinement. MD simulation of hypervelocity projectile impact in aluminum nitride and alumina has also been studied. The simulations reveal strong interplay between shock- induced structural phase transformation, plastic deformation and brittle cracks. The shock wave splits into an elastic precursor and a wurtzite-to-rocksalt structural transformation wave. When the elastic wave reflected from the boundary of the sample interacts with the transformation wave front, nanocavities are generated along the penetration path of the projectile and dislocations in adjacent regions. The nanocavities coalesce to form mode I brittle cracks while dislocations generate kink bands that give rise to mode II cracks. These simulations provide a microscopic view of defects associated with simultaneous tensile and shear cracking at the structural phase transformation boundary due to shock impact in high-strength ceramics. Initiation of chemical reactions at shock fronts prior to detonation and dynamic transition in the shock structure of an energetic material (RDX) and reaction of aluminium nanoparticles in oxygen atmosphere followed by explosive burning is also discussed.

  17. NREL Helps Clean Cities Displace Billions of Gallons of Petroleum, One Vehicle at a Time (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    With more than 15 years and nearly 3 billion gallons of displaced petroleum under its belt, the Clean Cities program relies on the support and expertise of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). An initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Clean Cities creates public-private partnerships with a common mission: to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Since the inception of Clean Cities in 1993, NREL has played a central role in supporting the program, an effort that stems from the laboratory's strategy to put scientific innovation into action in the marketplace.

  18. Uncertainties in Recent Satellite Ozone Profile Trend Assessments (SI2N, WMO 2014): A Network-Based Assessment of Fourteen Contributing Limb and Occultation Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, D.; Lambert, J.-C.; Verhoelst, T.; Granville, J.; Keppens, A.; Cortesi, U.; Degenstein, D. A.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hoppel, K. W.; Kyrola, E.; Leblanc, T.; Lichtenberg, G.; McDermid, I. S.; McElroy, C. T.; Murtagh, D.; Nakane, H.; Russell, J. M., III; Smit, H. G. J.; Stebel, K.; Steinbrecht, W.; Stubi, R.; Swart, D. P. J.; Taha, G.; Thompson, A. M.; Urban, J.; van Gijsel, J. A. E.; von der Gathen, P.; Walker, K. A.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Numerous vertical ozone profile data records collected over the past decades from space-based platforms have the potential to allow the ozone and climate communities to tackle a variety of research questions. A prime topic is the study and documentation of long-term changes in the vertical distribution of atmospheric ozone, as targeted by the recent SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC Initiative (SI2N) and WMOs ozone assessment. Such studies typically require data records with documented mutual consistency in terms of bias and long-term stability. We performed a comprehensive assessment of fourteen limb/occultation ozone profile data records, using NDACC/GAW/SHADOZ ozonesonde and NDACC lidar network data as reference standards.

  19. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  20. Fourteen Ways To Save Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    School districts have come up with some money-saving practices that include auditing utility bills, turning off lights, installing light fixtures that are more cost-efficient, keeping track of what the district owns, and shopping for better deals with utilities. (MLF)

  1. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Mark; Eaton, Laurence M; Graham, Robin Lambert; Langholtz, Matthew H; Perlack, Robert D; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Stokes, Bryce; Brandt, Craig C

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small-diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result of a burgeoning worldwide demand and concerns about long-term supplies. By the end of the summer, oil prices topped $70 per barrel (bbl) and catastrophic hurricanes in the Gulf Coast shut down a significant fraction of U.S. refinery capacity. The following year, oil approached $80 per bbl due to supply concerns, as well as continued political tensions in the Middle East. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was enacted in December of that year. By the end of December 2007, oil prices surpassed $100 per bbl for the first time, and by mid-summer 2008, prices approached $150 per bbl because of supply concerns, speculation, and weakness of the U.S. dollar. As fast as they skyrocketed, oil prices fell, and by the end of 2008, oil prices dropped below $50 per bbl, falling even more a month later due to the global economic recession. In 2009 and 2010, oil prices began to increase again as a result of a weak U.S. dollar and the rebounding of world economies.

  2. Residence Life Programs and the First-Year Experience. The Freshman Year Experience. Monograph Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, William, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph contains papers which suggest means of implementing residential programs, services, and facilities that will help to meet the needs of first-year college students. Fourteen papers are presented and are as follows: "Reflections on the First Year Residential Experience" (John N. Gardner); "The Role of Residential Programs in the

  3. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D.; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-01

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (109 ). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-? emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ~1.2 1010 , which is consistent with the 1.3 1010 derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate.

  4. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-α emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ∼1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate. PMID:25719667

  5. Lewin estimates 2 billion barrels of US tar sand recoverable at mid $20/bbl

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    In 1983, Lewin and Associates prepared a report which established that the US tar sands resource amounts to over 60 billion barrels of bitumen in-place. However, no estimate was made of the technically or economically recoverable portion of this resource. More recent work carried out by Lewin for the US Department of Energy presents an appraisal of technically and economically recoverable tar sands. The paper describes the tar sand resource in-place, tar sand recovery models used in the study, engineering cost models, the economics of the steam soak prospect, and the economics of a surface mining prospect. The results of the Lewin study show that 5.7 billion barrels of domestic tar sand are technically recoverable, using cyclic steam injection and surface extractive mining. Of this, 4.9 billion barrels are technically recoverable from surface mining methods, with 0.8 billion recoverable from steam soak applications. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  6. White House Seeks $1.8 Billion to Fight Zika Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... White House Seeks $1.8 Billion to Fight Zika Virus Emergency funds from Congress would combat the global ... to combat the threat of the mosquito-borne Zika virus, the White House announced Monday. The funding will ...

  7. NASA Now Minute: Earth and Space Science: 100 Billion Planets - Duration: 62 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Stephen Kane, co-author of the article, “Study Shows Our Galaxy has 100Billion Planets” reveals details about this incredible study explainsjust how common planets are in our Milky Way galaxy...

  8. Forecast 1978: $45.2-Billion for R and D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosbacher, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses Research and Development (R&D) funding trends from industry and the federal government. A real increase for the third consecutive year is forecast for 1978, if inflation stays below 7.9 percent. (SL)

  9. The Population of China. One Billion, Eight Million People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Cancellier, Patricia

    1983-01-01

    Several programs have been instituted in China over the past 30 years in order to slow the birth rate. The population, set at 1,008,175,288 people by a 1982 census, is by far the largest of any nation. A 10-year family planning program, begun in 1957, caused the birth rate to drop considerably through the mid-1960's. In 1971, "wan xi shao," the

  10. Large data analysis: automatic visual personal identification in a demography of 1.2 billion persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugman, John

    2014-05-01

    The largest biometric deployment in history is now underway in India, where the Government is enrolling the iris patterns (among other data) of all 1.2 billion citizens. The purpose of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is to ensure fair access to welfare benefits and entitlements, to reduce fraud, and enhance social inclusion. Only a minority of Indian citizens have bank accounts; only 4 percent possess passports; and less than half of all aid money reaches its intended recipients. A person who lacks any means of establishing their identity is excluded from entitlements and does not officially exist; thus the slogan of UIDAI is: To give the poor an identity." This ambitious program enrolls a million people every day, across 36,000 stations run by 83 agencies, with a 3-year completion target for the entire national population. The halfway point was recently passed with more than 600 million persons now enrolled. In order to detect and prevent duplicate identities, every iris pattern that is enrolled is first compared against all others enrolled so far; thus the daily workflow now requires 600 trillion (or 600 million-million) iris cross-comparisons. Avoiding identity collisions (False Matches) requires high biometric entropy, and achieving the tremendous match speed requires phase bit coding. Both of these requirements are being delivered operationally by wavelet methods developed by the author for encoding and comparing iris patterns, which will be the focus of this Large Data Award" presentation.

  11. Analysis of precious metals at parts-per-billion levels in industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tickner, James; O'Dwyer, Joel; Roach, Greg; Smith, Michael; Van Haarlem, Yves

    2015-11-01

    Precious metals, including gold and the platinum group metals (notable Pt, Pd and Rh), are mined commercially at concentrations of a few parts-per-million and below. Mining and processing operations demand sensitive and rapid analysis at concentrations down to about 100 parts-per-billion (ppb). In this paper, we discuss two technologies being developed to meet this challenge: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma-activation analysis (GAA). We have designed on-stream XRF analysers capable of measuring targeted elements in slurries with precisions in the 35-70 ppb range. For the past two years, two on-stream analysers have been in continuous operation at a precious metals concentrator plant. The simultaneous measurement of feed and waste stream grades provides real-time information on metal recovery, allowing changes in operating conditions and plant upsets to be detected and corrected more rapidly. Separately, we have been developing GAA for the measurement of gold as a replacement for the traditional laboratory fire-assay process. High-energy Bremsstrahlung X-rays are used to excite gold via the 197Au(γ,γ‧)197Au-M reaction, and the gamma-rays released in the decay of the meta-state are then counted. We report on work to significantly improve accuracy and detection limits.

  12. Rules Set for $4 Billion Race to Top Contest: Final Rules Give States Detailed Map in Quest for $4 Billion in Education Stimulus Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    For a good shot at $4 billion in grants from the federal Race to the Top Fund, states will need to make a persuasive case for their education reform agendas, demonstrate significant buy-in from local school districts, and devise plans to evaluate teachers and principals based on student performance, according to final regulations released last

  13. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country’s present petroleum consumption – the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  14. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people.

    PubMed

    Godfray, H Charles J; Beddington, John R; Crute, Ian R; Haddad, Lawrence; Lawrence, David; Muir, James F; Pretty, Jules; Robinson, Sherman; Thomas, Sandy M; Toulmin, Camilla

    2010-02-12

    Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the environment. The effects of climate change are a further threat. But the world can produce more food and can ensure that it is used more efficiently and equitably. A multifaceted and linked global strategy is needed to ensure sustainable and equitable food security, different components of which are explored here. PMID:20110467

  15. Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: "Child Development, Molecular Genetics, and What to Do With Genes Once They Are Found" (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental

  16. 2 Years of Science, One-of-a-Kind Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Elyse

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen years ago, Bruce A. Jackson was doing his postdoctoral work at the Boston University School of Medicine and working nights teaching at nearby Roxbury Community College. But his exhausting shuttle between two colleges was about to come to an end. Mr. Jackson, a biochemist, had recently received word from the National Science Foundation

  17. 2 Years of Science, One-of-a-Kind Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Elyse

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen years ago, Bruce A. Jackson was doing his postdoctoral work at the Boston University School of Medicine and working nights teaching at nearby Roxbury Community College. But his exhausting shuttle between two colleges was about to come to an end. Mr. Jackson, a biochemist, had recently received word from the National Science Foundation…

  18. Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: "Child Development, Molecular Genetics, and What to Do With Genes Once They Are Found" (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental…

  19. Ground-based assessment of the bias and long-term stability of fourteen limb and occultation ozone profile data records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, D.; Lambert, J.-C.; Verhoelst, T.; Granville, J.; Keppens, A.; Baray, J.-L.; Cortesi, U.; Degenstein, D. A.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hoppel, K. W.; Kyrölä, E.; Leblanc, T.; Lichtenberg, G.; McElroy, C. T.; Murtagh, D.; Nakane, H.; Russell, J. M., III; Salvador, J.; Smit, H. G. J.; Stebel, K.; Steinbrecht, W.; Strawbridge, K. B.; Stübi, R.; Swart, D. P. J.; Taha, G.; Thompson, A. M.; Urban, J.; van Gijsel, J. A. E.; von der Gathen, P.; Walker, K. A.; Wolfram, E.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    The ozone profile records of a large number of limb and occultation satellite instruments are widely used to address several key questions in ozone research. Further progress in some domains depends on a more detailed understanding of these data sets, especially of their long-term stability and their mutual consistency. To this end, we make a systematic assessment of fourteen limb and occultation sounders that, together, provide more than three decades of global ozone profile measurements. In particular, we consider the latest operational Level-2 records by SAGE II, SAGE III, HALOE, UARS MLS, Aura MLS, POAM II, POAM III, OSIRIS, SMR, GOMOS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, ACE-FTS and MAESTRO. Central to our work is a harmonized and robust analysis of the comparisons against the ground-based ozonesonde and stratospheric ozone lidar networks. It allows us to investigate, from the ground up to the stratopause, the following main aspects of data quality: long-term stability, overall bias, and short-term variability, together with their dependence on geophysical parameters and profile representation. In addition, it permits us to quantify the overall consistency between the ozone profilers. Generally, we find that between 20-40 km, the satellite ozone measurement biases are smaller than ±5 %, the short-term variabilities are better than 5-12 % and the drifts are at most ±5 % decade-1 (and ±3 % decade-1 for a few records). The agreement with ground-based data degrades somewhat towards the stratopause and especially towards the tropopause, where natural variability and low ozone abundancies impede a more precise analysis. A few records deviate from the preceding general remarks, in part of the stratosphere; we identify biases of 10 % and more (POAM II and SCIAMACHY), markedly higher single-profile variability (SMR and SCIAMACHY), and significant long-term drifts (SCIAMACHY, OSIRIS, HALOE, and possibly GOMOS and SMR as well). Furthermore, we reflect on the repercussions of our findings for the construction, analysis and interpretation of merged data records. Most notably, the discrepancies between several recent ozone profile trend assessments can be mostly explained by instrumental drift. This clearly demonstrates the need for systematic comprehensive multi-instrument comparison analyses.

  20. Conservation in a World of Six Billion: A Grassroots Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hren, Benedict J.

    This grassroots action guide features a conservation initiative working to bring the impacts of human population growth, economic development, and natural resource consumption into balance with the limits of nature for the benefit of current and future generations. Contents include information sheets entitled "Six Billion People and Growing,""The…

  1. High-Stakes Hustle: Public Schools and the New Billion Dollar Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Lawrence A.; Stanley, Gregory Kent

    2004-01-01

    High-stakes testing costs up to $50 billion per annum, has no impact on student achievement, and has changed the focus of American public schools. This article analyzes the benefits and costs of the accountability movement, as well as discusses its roots in the eugenics movements of the early 20th century.

  2. Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy

    ScienceCinema

    Daniel Sperling

    2010-01-08

    April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

  3. Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Sperling

    2009-04-15

    April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

  4. 77 FR 16224 - Billion Auto, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Billion Auto, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade... the terms of the consent order--embodied in the consent agreement--that would settle these allegations... above-captioned consent agreement containing a consent order to cease and desist, having been filed...

  5. The Other Inconvenient Truth: Feeding 9 Billion While Sustaining the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    As the international community focuses on climate change as the great challenge of our era, we have been largely ignoring another looming problem — the global crisis in agriculture, food security and the environment. Our use of land, particularly for agriculture, is absolutely essential to the success of the human race: we depend on agriculture to supply us with food, feed, fiber, and, increasingly, biofuels. Without a highly efficient, productive, and resilient agricultural system, our society would collapse almost overnight. But we are demanding more and more from our global agricultural systems, pushing them to their very limits. Continued population growth (adding more than 70 million people to the world every year), changing dietary preferences (including more meat and dairy consumption), rising energy prices, and increasing needs for bioenergy sources are putting tremendous pressure on the world’s resources. And, if we want any hope of keeping up with these demands, we’ll need to double the agricultural production of the planet in the next 30 to 40 years. Meeting these huge new agricultural demands will be one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. At present, it is completely unclear how (and if) we can do it. If this wasn’t enough, we must also address the massive environmental impacts of our current agricultural practices, which new evidence indicates rival the impacts of climate change. Simply put, providing for the basic needs of 9 billion-plus people, without ruining the biosphere in the process, will be one of the greatest challenges our species has ever faced. In this presentation, I will present a new framework for evaluating and assessing global patterns of agriculture, food / fiber / fuel production, and their relationship to the earth system, particularly in terms of changing stocks and flows of water, nutrients and carbon in our planetary environment. This framework aims to help us manage the challenges of increasing global food security -- in the fact of dramatically increasing demand -- while greatly reducing the impact of agriculture on the earth system.

  6. The rapid assembly of an elliptical galaxy of 400 billion solar masses at a redshift of 2.3.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hai; Cooray, Asantha; Feruglio, C; Ivison, R J; Riechers, D A; Gurwell, M; Bussmann, R S; Harris, A I; Altieri, B; Aussel, H; Baker, A J; Bock, J; Boylan-Kolchin, M; Bridge, C; Calanog, J A; Casey, C M; Cava, A; Chapman, S C; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Cox, P; Farrah, D; Frayer, D; Hopwood, R; Jia, J; Magdis, G; Marsden, G; Martnez-Navajas, P; Negrello, M; Neri, R; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Prez-Fournon, I; Schulz, B; Scott, D; Smith, A; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J L; Zemcov, M

    2013-06-20

    Stellar archaeology shows that massive elliptical galaxies formed rapidly about ten billion years ago with star-formation rates of above several hundred solar masses per year. Their progenitors are probably the submillimetre bright galaxies at redshifts z greater than 2. Although the mean molecular gas mass (5??10(10) solar masses) of the submillimetre bright galaxies can explain the formation of typical elliptical galaxies, it is inadequate to form elliptical galaxies that already have stellar masses above 2??10(11) solar masses at z???2. Here we report multi-wavelength high-resolution observations of a rare merger of two massive submillimetre bright galaxies at z = 2.3. The system is seen to be forming stars at a rate of 2,000 solar masses per year. The star-formation efficiency is an order of magnitude greater than that of normal galaxies, so the gas reservoir will be exhausted and star formation will be quenched in only around 200 million years. At a projected separation of 19?kiloparsecs, the two massive starbursts are about to merge and form a passive elliptical galaxy with a stellar mass of about 4??10(11) solar masses. We conclude that gas-rich major galaxy mergers with intense star formation can form the most massive elliptical galaxies by z???1.5. PMID:23698363

  7. K-12 Budget Picture: Lean Years Ahead. Education Outlook. No. 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; Downs, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    While educators are eager to forget the financial woes of the past two years and return to the familiar routine of steady budget increases, the fiscal outlook for America's fourteen thousand school districts is bleak--not just for next year, but for a half decade or more. This calls for a new mindset among educators and an unfamiliar,

  8. Site geotechnical considerations for expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to one billion barrels

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T. ); Whittington, D.W. ); Magorian, T.R. , Amherst, NY )

    1991-01-01

    Eight Gulf Coast salt domes have emerged as candidate sites for possible expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to one billion barrels. Two existing SPR sites, Big Hill, TX, and Weeks Island, LA, are among the eight that are being considered. To achieve the billion barrel capacity, some 25 new leached caverns would be constructed, and would probably be established in two separate sites in Louisiana and Texas because of distribution requirements. Geotechnical factors involved in siting studies have centered first and foremost on cavern integrity and environmental acceptability, once logistical suitability is realized. Other factors have involved subsidence and flooding potential, loss of coastal marshlands, seismicity, brine injection well utility, and co-use by multiple operators. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. How to Bring Solar Energy to Seven Billion People (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Wadia, Cyrus

    2011-04-28

    By exploiting the powers of nanotechnology and taking advantage of non-toxic, Earth-abundant materials, Berkeley Lab's Cyrus Wadia has fabricated new solar cell devices that have the potential to be several orders of magnitude less expensive than conventional solar cells. And by mastering the chemistry of these materials-and the economics of solar energy-he envisions bringing electricity to the 1.2 billion people now living without it.

  10. MMap: Fast Billion-Scale Graph Computation on a PC via Memory Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhiyuan; Kahng, Minsuk; Sabrin, Kaeser Md.; Chau, Duen Horng (Polo); Lee, Ho; Kang, U

    2015-01-01

    Graph computation approaches such as GraphChi and TurboGraph recently demonstrated that a single PC can perform efficient computation on billion-node graphs. To achieve high speed and scalability, they often need sophisticated data structures and memory management strategies. We propose a minimalist approach that forgoes such requirements, by leveraging the fundamental memory mapping (MMap) capability found on operating systems. We contribute: (1) a new insight that MMap is a viable technique for creating fast and scalable graph algorithms that surpasses some of the best techniques; (2) the design and implementation of popular graph algorithms for billion-scale graphs with little code, thanks to memory mapping; (3) extensive experiments on real graphs, including the 6.6 billion edge YahooWeb graph, and show that this new approach is significantly faster or comparable to the highly-optimized methods (e.g., 9.5 faster than GraphChi for computing PageRank on 1.47B edge Twitter graph). We believe our work provides a new direction in the design and development of scalable algorithms. Our packaged code is available at http://poloclub.gatech.edu/mmap/. PMID:25866846

  11. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-12-01

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes. PMID:22158244

  12. The Evolution of the Galaxy Rest-Frame Ultraviolet Luminosity Function Over the First Two Billion Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Ryan, Russell E., Jr.; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Song, Mimi; Somerville, Rachel; Ferguson, Henry C.; Salmon, Brett; Giavalisco, Mauro; Koekomoer, Anton M.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Behroozi, Peter; Castellano, Marco; Dunlop, James S.; Faber, Sandy M.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Fontana, Adriano; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish; Jaacks, Jason; Kocevski, Dale D.; Livermore, Rachael; McLure, Ross J.; Merlin, Emiliano; Rafelski, Marc Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function at z = 4 to 8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the CANDELS/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations near the Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1- 2403 clusters. The combination of these surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 ×10(exp 6) Mpc(exp 3) over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for bright (M(sub UV) less than -21) and faint (M(sub UV) = -18) galaxies. We select galaxies using a well-tested photometric redshift technique with careful screening of contaminants, finding a sample of 7446 galaxies at 3.5 less than z less than 8.5, with more than 1000 galaxies at z of approximately 6 - 8. We measure both a stepwise luminosity function for galaxies in our redshift samples, as well as a Schechter function, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end our UV luminosity functions agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright galaxies at z of greater than or equal to 6. Our bestfit value of the characteristic magnitude M* is consistent with -21 at z of greater than or equal to 5, different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift. At z = 8, a single power-law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z = 6 and 7, an exponential cutoff at the bright-end is moderately preferred. We compare our luminosity functions to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in M* is consistent with models where the impact of dust attenuation on the bright-end of the luminosity function decreases at higher redshift, though a decreasing impact of feedback may also be possible. We measure the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate (SFR) density by integrating our observed luminosity functions to M(sub UV) = -17, correcting for dust attenuation, and find that the SFR density declines proportionally to (1 + z)((exp -4.3)(+/-)(0.5)) at z greater than 4, consistent with observations at z greater than or equal to 9. Our observed luminosity functions are consistent with a reionization history that starts at redshift of approximately greater than 10, completes at z greater than 6, and reaches a midpoint (x(sub HII) = 0.5) at 6.7 less than z less than 9.4. Finally, using a constant cumulative number density selection and an empirically derived rising star-formation history, our observations predict that the abundance of bright z = 9 galaxies is likely higher than previous constraints, though consistent with recent estimates of bright z similar to 10 galaxies.

  13. The Formation And Evolution Of Massive Galaxies And Their Supermassive Black Holes Over The Past 12 Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluck, Asa; Conselice, C. J.; GNS Group

    2012-01-01

    We present results from the recently completed GOODS NICMOS Survey, which utilizes 180 orbits of the HST with NIC-3 H-band imaging of >8000 galaxies in the GOODS fields. Moreover, we construct a unique sample of 80 extremely massive galaxies (with log(M*) > 11) at high redshifts (z = 1.7 - 3) and examine their merger properties through morphological and close pair methods. This represents the largest and most thorough merger history examination to date for massive galaxies at high redshifts. We conclude that these galaxies will experience on average 4 - 5 mergers with companion galaxies greater than log(M*) = 9, leading to a stellar mass increase of a factor of two from z = 3 to the present. We present arguments that this merging can explain most of the observed size evolution of up to a factor of five in effective radii over the same epoch of cosmic history. We also examine the AGN sub-sample of these galaxies, concluding that at least one third of all massive galaxies will go through a Seyfert luminosity (or brighter) AGN phase leading to an average massive galaxy releasing through its AGN at least 35 times its binding energy in radiation throughout its lifetime. We observe no strong evolution in the local black hole mass - galaxy stellar mass relation, suggesting that supermassive black holes and their hosts grow principally together over the history of the Universe. We also note that it is massive galaxy Seyferts which dominate the X-ray luminosity function at all redshifts, up to z = 3. The profound implications of these processes will be discussed in relation to massive galaxy formation and evolution. This work was funded by the STFC, the Leverhulme Trust, and NASA/STSci grant HST-GO11082.

  14. Massive Galaxies Near and Far: The Evolution of an Unbiased Population Over the Last Ten Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, Gabriel Barnes

    2010-08-01

    Recent deep near-infrared surveys have extended the study of the buildup of stellar mass in galaxies to ever-increasing redshifts. We present a new photometric redshift code, EAZY, which provides precise redshift estimates that allow us to exploit the full depth of surveys that frequently reach much fainter than is currently feasible for large spectroscopic campaigns. EAZY includes a carefully-determined template set and a novel "template error function" that accounts for systematic differences between the templates and true galaxy SEDs. We present results from the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey, a 75-night program recently undertaken with the Mayall 4-m, that uses 5 medium-width NIR filters designed to measure precise photometric redshifts and rest-frame colors at z > 1.5. We find that the color bimodality between "red and dead" and blue star-forming galaxies, prominent at lower redshifts, persists to at least z 2.5. The separation of the two populations is greatly improved after accounting for the effects of dust-reddening of star-forming galaxies. The existence of apparently "dead" galaxies at these high redshifts is remarkable, given the large gas reservoir available at early times and the fact that the average star formation rate in the Universe was much higher than it is today. The mass density of quiescent galaxies with M > 10^11 M? increases by 1 dex from z = 2.2 to the present day, whereas the mass density in star-forming galaxies is flat or decreases over the same time periods. Using a simple toy model, we show that modest mass growth (i.e., a factor of two) of individual galaxies can explain much of the strong density evolution of quiescent galaxies, due to the steepness of the exponential end of the mass function. We argue that mergers are a primary mechanism for building up the massive quiescent galaxy population, while less massive quiescent galaxies are continuously formed by transforming galaxies from the star-forming population. We conclude with a case study of a M = 4 10^11 M? quiescent galaxy at z = 1.902 using spatially-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy with the WFC3 grism on the Hubble Space Telescope , demonstrating the promise of this technique for further bridging the gap between photometric and spectroscopic surveys.

  15. An over-massive black hole in a typical star-forming galaxy, 2 billion years after the Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Urry, C. Megan; Civano, Francesca; Rosario, David J.; Elvis, Martin; Schawinski, Kevin; Suh, Hyewon; Bongiorno, Angela; Simmons, Brooke D.

    2015-07-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are generally thought to coevolve, so that the SMBH achieves up to about 0.2 to 0.5% of the host galaxy mass in the present day. The radiation emitted from the growing SMBH is expected to affect star formation throughout the host galaxy. The relevance of this scenario at early cosmic epochs is not yet established. We present spectroscopic observations of a galaxy at redshift z = 3.328, which hosts an actively accreting, extremely massive BH, in its final stages of growth. The SMBH mass is roughly one-tenth the mass of the entire host galaxy, suggesting that it has grown much more efficiently than the host, contrary to models of synchronized coevolution. The host galaxy is forming stars at an intense rate, despite the presence of a SMBH-driven gas outflow.

  16. A Rise in the Ionizing Photons in Star-forming Galaxies over the Past 8 Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewley, Lisa J.; Zahid, H. Jabran; Geller, Margaret J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Fabricant, Dan

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the change in ionizing photons in galaxies in the range 0.2\\lt z\\lt 0.6 using the F2 field of the SHELS complete galaxy redshift survey. We show, for the first time, that while the [O iii]/H? and [O iii]/[O ii] ratios rise, the [N ii]/H? and [S ii]/H? ratios fall significantly over the 0.2\\lt z\\lt 0.35 redshift range for stellar masses in the range 9.2\\lt {log}(M/{M}? )\\lt 10.6. The [O iii]/H? and [O iii]/[O ii] ratios continue to rise across the full 0.2\\lt z\\lt 0.6 redshift range for stellar masses in the range 9.8\\lt {log}(M/{M}? )\\lt 10.0. We conclusively rule out active galactic nucleus contamination, a changing ISM pressure, and a change in the hardness of the EUV radiation field as the cause of the change in the line ratios in the range 0.2\\lt z\\lt 0.35. We find that the ionization parameter rises significantly with redshift (by 0.1-0.25 dex depending on the stellar mass of the sample). We show that the ionization parameter is strongly correlated with the fraction of young-to-old stars, as traced by the H? equivalent width. We discuss the implications of this result on higher redshift studies, and we consider the implications on the use of standard optical metallicity diagnostics at high redshift.

  17. Bar Evolution over the Last 8 Billion Years: A Constant Fraction of Strong Bars in the GEMS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jogee, Shardha; Barazza, Fabio D.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Shlosman, Isaac; Barden, Marco; Wolf, Christian; Davies, James; Heyer, Inge; Beckwith, Steven V. W.; Bell, Eric F.; Borch, Andrea; Caldwell, John A. R.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dahlen, Tomas; Hussler, Boris; Heymans, Catherine; Jahnke, Knud; Knapen, Johan H.; Laine, Seppo; Lubell, Gabriel M.; Mobasher, Bahram; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Peng, Chien Y.; Ravindranath, Swara; Sanchez, Sebastian F.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2004-11-01

    One-third of present-day spirals host optically visible strong bars that drive their dynamical evolution. However, the fundamental question of how bars evolve over cosmological times has yet to be resolved, and even the frequency of bars at intermediate redshifts remains controversial. We investigate the frequency of bars out to z ~ 1 drawing on a sample of 1590 galaxies from the Galaxy Evolution from Morphologies and SEDs survey, which provides morphologies from Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) two-band images and accurate redshifts from the COMBO-17 survey. We identify spiral galaxies using three independent techniques based on the Sersic index, concentration parameter, and rest-frame color. We characterize bar and disk features by fitting ellipses to F606W and F850LP images, using the two bands to minimize shifts in the rest-frame bandpass. We exclude highly inclined (i>60deg) galaxies to ensure reliable morphological classifications and apply different completeness cuts of MV<=-19.3 and -20.6. More than 40% of the bars that we detect have semimajor axes a<0.5" and would be easily missed in earlier surveys without the small point-spread function of ACS. The bars that we can reliably detect are fairly strong (with ellipticities e>=0.4) and have a in the range ~1.2-13 kpc. We find that the optical fraction of such strong bars remains at ~30%+/-6% from the present day out to look-back times of 2-6 Gyr (z~0.2-0.7) and 6-8 Gyr (z~0.7-1.0) it certainly shows no sign of a drastic decline at z>0.7. Our findings of a large and similar bar fraction at these three epochs favor scenarios in which cold gravitationally unstable disks are already in place by z~1 and where on average bars have a long lifetime (well in excess of 2 Gyr). The distributions of structural bar properties in the two slices are, however, not statistically identical and therefore allow for the possibility that the bar strengths and sizes may evolve over time.

  18. The Evolution of the Galaxy Rest-frame Ultraviolet Luminosity Function over the First Two Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Ryan, Russell E., Jr.; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Song, Mimi; Somerville, Rachel S.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Salmon, Brett; Giavalisco, Mauro; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Behroozi, Peter; Castellano, Marco; Dunlop, James S.; Faber, Sandy M.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Fontana, Adriano; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish; Jaacks, Jason; Kocevski, Dale D.; Livermore, Rachael; McLure, Ross J.; Merlin, Emiliano; Mobasher, Bahram; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Rafelski, Marc; Tilvi, Vithal; Willner, S. P.

    2015-09-01

    We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions at z = 4-8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and the Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations near the Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1-2403 clusters. The combination of these surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 × 106 Mpc3 over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for faint ({M}{UV}=-18) and bright (M{}{UV}\\lt -21) high-redshift galaxies. We select candidate galaxies using a well-tested photometric redshift technique with careful screening of contaminants, finding a sample of 7446 candidate galaxies at 3.5 \\lt z \\lt 8.5, with >1000 galaxies at z ≈ 6-8. We measure both a stepwise luminosity function for candidate galaxies in our redshift samples, and a Schechter function, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end, our UV luminosity functions agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright candidate galaxies at z ≥slant 6. Our best-fit value of the characteristic magnitude {M}{UV}* is consistent with -21 at z ≥slant 5, which is different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift, and brighter at ˜2σ significance than previous measures at z = 6 and 7. At z = 8, a single power law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z = 6 and 7 an exponential cutoff at the bright end is moderately preferred. We compare our luminosity functions to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in {M}{UV}* is consistent with models where the impact of dust attenuation on the bright end of the luminosity function decreases at higher redshift, although a decreasing impact of feedback may also be possible. We measure the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate (SFR) density by integrating our observed luminosity functions to {M}{UV}=-17, correcting for dust attenuation, and find that the SFR density declines proportionally to (1 +z){}-4.3+/- 0.5 at z \\gt 4, which is consistent with observations at z ≥slant 9. Our observed luminosity functions are consistent with a reionization history that starts at z ≳ 10, completes at z \\gt 6, and reaches a midpoint (x{}{{H} {{II}}} = 0.5) at 6.7 \\lt z \\lt 9.4. Finally, using a constant cumulative number density selection and an empirically derived rising star-formation history, our observations predict that the abundance of bright z = 9 galaxies is likely higher than previous constraints, although consistent with recent estimates of bright z ˜ 10 galaxies.

  19. Northwest Africa 8159: An approximately 2.3 Billion Year Old Martian Olivine-Bearing Augite Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, J. I.; Peters, T. J.; Tappa, M. J.; Agee, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    Based on petrology, mineralogy, and bulk composition, the new NWA 8159 martian meteorite is distinct from all known samples from Mars. In particular, the augite compositional trends are unique, but most similar to those of nakhite intercumulus. Whether NWA 8159 represents a new lithology or is related to a known meteorite group remains to be determined. Sr and Nd isotopic analyses will allow comparison of source characteristics with SNC and other new ungrouped meteorites (e.g., NWA 7635). Here we report initial Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for NWA 8159 with the objective to determine its formation age and to potentially identify similarities and potential source affinities with other martian rocks.

  20. Vanadyls ions in the 3.5 billion-year-old Apex Basalt chert: relics of a primitive metabolism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Laurent; Delpoux, Olivier; Gourier, Didier; Skrzypczak-Bonduelle, Audrey; Vezin, Herve; Derenne, Sylvie

    The identification of physico-chemical signatures of primitive life on Earth is a challenging issue, as it is extremely difficult to determine whether the carbonaceous matter preserved in the most ancient rocks is biogenic or abiotic. Indeed, organic matter of both origins always give the same type of macromolecular, acid resistant and insoluble carbonaceous matter during geologic evolution, with similar structures and spectroscopic signatures. There is still a lack of consensus in the scientific community on which observables could be considered as reliable biosignatures, and at present there is no physico-chemical marker, which could help to determine the origin of an ancient mineralized carbonaceous matter. Therefore, the determination of stable and reliable biosignatures is a fundamental issue in the search of primitive life on Earth and on Mars. Metalloporphyrins are important biomarkers as all living organisms, including the most primitive bacteria, use porphyrin derivatives in their metabolism. Complexes of vanadyl (VO++) porphyrins (VO-P) are particularly interesting as they are universally found within biogenic terrestrial carbonaceous materials. Therefore these complexes should constitute ideal biomarkers for the search of traces of primitive life in the most ancient (Lower Archean) geological materials and possibly in some Martian rocks. Vanadium in +4 oxidation state [V(IV)] in the Apex Basalt chert of the Warrawoona group in Western Australia is studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The biogenic origin of the carbonaceous microstructures fossilized in these cherts has been recently opened to question. More than 95% of V(IV) detected in the chert are in the form of VO++ with oxygenated ligands. To test the possibility that these oxygenated vanadyl species originate from the degradation of vanadyl porphyrin complex, we studied by EPR the thermal stability and the degradation mechanism of vanadyl porphyrins encapsulated in SiO2. We observed that degradation occurs by transferring the vanadyl ion from the porphyrin to an oxygenated environment within the SiO2 network, forming a complex very similar to that observed in Apex Basalt chert. We conclude that vanadyl complexes of the Apex Basalt chert likely originate from the degradation of vanadyl porphyrins formed during the precipitation of the silica. As porphyrins are found in all living systems, oxygenated vanadyl complexes in Archean cherts may thus constitute second order biomarkers for early life.

  1. Potential magnetofossils in ~3.4 billion-year-old cherts from the Barberton Greenstone Belt of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, Julia; Tarduno, John; Watkeys, Michael; Hofmann, Axel

    2013-04-01

    Previous reported paleointensity data from ~3.45 Ga dacites of the Barberton Greenstone Belt indicate the presence of a relatively strong geomagnetic field requiring the presence of a dynamo (Tarduno et al., Science, 2010). The ~3.40 Ga Buck Reef Chert from the same belt includes shallow water environments that may have been conducive for magnetotactic bacteria, if such forms were present in the Paleoarchean, as might be expected given the presence of the field. Here we use rock magnetism, electron microscopy, and ferromagnetic resonance to test for the presence of bacterial magnetite particles. Magnetic hysteresis properties of bulk samples show a variety of rock magnetic behaviors, including multi-domain, pseudo-single domain, single domain, and wasp-waisted curves; the latter indicate grain and/or compositional mixtures. Electron microscopy of magnetic separates and in-situ particles from the Buck Reef Chert show cubo-octahedral to quasi-rectangular and hexagonally shaped grains that fall within a stable single domain range typical of biogenic magnetite. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra from bulk samples appear asymmetrical and skew towards low fields, suggesting a magnetic anisotropy that is similar to the spectra seen from some strains of modern magnetotactic bacteria. Thus, while there is clearly a mixture of magnetic particles within the Buck Reef Chert, these data suggest one component could be ancient bacterial magnetite.

  2. Pre-4.0 billion year weathering on Mars constrained by Rb-Sr geochronology on meteorite ALH84001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, Brian L.; Ludois, James M.; Lapen, Thomas J.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2013-01-01

    The timing and nature of aqueous alteration of meteorite ALH84001 has important implications for the history of water on early Mars, the evolution of the Martian atmosphere, and the potential for early Mars habitability. Rubidium-Sr isotope analyses of mineral separates from igneous-textured and carbonate-rich aliquots of Martian meteorite ALH84001 constrain the age of alteration and the source of fluids. The carbonate-rich aliquot defines a precise Rb-Sr isochron between maskelynite, orthopyroxene, and chromite of 3952±22 Ma, and this is interpreted to represent a shock resetting event that was broadly coeval with carbonate precipitation. Carbonate, bulk rock, and multi-mineral separates all have high 87Sr/86Sr ratios that can only have been produced by alteration via a fluid derived through interaction with high Rb/Sr phyllosilicates that were produced prior to 3950 Ma. These data confirm that the source of Sr in the fluids was previously altered crustal rock, consistent with fluids that underwent low-temperature water-rock interaction (Eiler et al., 2002; Halvey et al., 2011). These results therefore provide evidence for wet, clay-rich conditions on the surface of Mars prior to ˜4.2 Ga.

  3. State Implementation and Perceptions of Title I School Improvement Grants under the Recovery Act: One Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Jennifer; McIntosh, Shelby

    2012-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), also known as the stimulus package, appropriated $100 billion for education and included $3 billion for school improvement grants (SIGs) to help reform low-performing schools. This amount was in addition to the $546 million provided by the regular fiscal year 2009 appropriations bill for

  4. Discovery of a 12 billion solar mass black hole at redshift 6.3 and its challenge to the black hole/galaxy co-evolution at cosmic dawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-08-01

    To date about 40 quasars with redshifts z>6 have been discovered. Each quasar harbors a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses. The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years after the Big Bang presents significant challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the black hole/galaxy co-evolution. I will report a recent discovery of an ultra-luminous quasar at redshift z=6.30, which has an observed optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z>6 quasars. With near-infrared spectroscopy, we obtain a black hole mass of about 12 billion solar masses, which is well consistent with the mass derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion. This ultra-luminous quasar with a 12 billion solar mass black hole at z>6 provides a unique laboratory to the study of the mass assembly and galaxy formation around the most massive black holes in the early Universe. It raises further challenges to the black hole/galaxy co-evolution in the epoch of cosmic reionization because the black hole needs to grow much faster than the host galaxy.

  5. FRESHMAN ENGLISH AT FOURTEEN TWO-YEAR COLLEGES--JUNIOR COLLEGE OF ALBANY, AMARILLO, BAKERSFIELD, BECKLEY, CALIFORNIA CONCORDIA, CAZENOVIA, GRAND VIEW, HARCUM, LAKEWOOD STATE, MIAMI-DADE, AND COLBY, JEFFERSON, MONROE COUNTY, AND PORTLAND COMMUNITY COLLEGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NELSON, BONNIE E., COMP.

    FOR A REPORT ON FRESHMAN COMPOSITION PROGRAMS, THE ASSOCIATION OF DEPARTMENTS OF ENGLISH OBTAINED SYLLABI AND COURSE DESCRIPTIONS FROM DIRECTORS OF FRESHMAN COMPOSITION AT 66 COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. AMONG THE DATA ASSEMBELED FOR THE FULL REPORT (AVAILABLE AS TE 500 190) ARE THE DESCRIPTIONS, CONTAINED HERE, OF FRESHMAN ENGLISH PROGRAMS AT 14

  6. A Content Analysis and Comparison of Themes in Fiction with the Subject of an Alcoholic Parent Written for Children Ages Ten to Fourteen Years in the Sixties and in the Eighties. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Opdorp, Beth McMenamin

    This study explored the themes in children's fiction with the subject of an alcoholic parent and evaluated the treatment of the subject in novels from the 1960s and the 1980s. It was hypothesized that, compared to writings from the 1960s, writings from the 1980s would more often contain references to the disease concept of alcoholism, would more

  7. Survey of ocular irritation predictive capacity using Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test historical data for 319 personal care products over fourteen years.

    PubMed

    Donahue, D A; Kaufman, L E; Avalos, J; Simion, F A; Cerven, D R

    2011-03-01

    The Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test are widely used to predict ocular irritation potential for consumer-use products. These in vitro assays do not require live animals, produce reliable predictive data for defined applicability domains compared to the Draize rabbit eye test, and are rapid and inexpensive. Data from 304 CAMVA and/or BCOP studies (319 formulations) were surveyed to determine the feasibility of predicting ocular irritation potential for various formulations. Hair shampoos, skin cleansers, and ethanol-based hair styling sprays were repeatedly predicted to be ocular irritants (accuracy rate=0.90-1.00), with skin cleanser and hair shampoo irritation largely dependent on surfactant species and concentration. Conversely, skin lotions/moisturizers and hair styling gels/lotions were repeatedly predicted to be non-irritants (accuracy rate=0.92 and 0.82, respectively). For hair shampoos, ethanol-based hair stylers, skin cleansers, and skin lotions/moisturizers, future ocular irritation testing (i.e., CAMVA/BCOP) can be nearly eliminated if new formulations are systematically compared to those previously tested using a defined decision tree. For other tested product categories, new formulations should continue to be evaluated in CAMVA/BCOP for ocular irritation potential because either the historical data exhibit significant variability (hair conditioners and mousses) or the historical sample size is too small to permit definitive conclusions (deodorants, make-up removers, massage oils, facial masks, body sprays, and other hair styling products). All decision tree conclusions should be made within a conservative weight-of-evidence context, considering the reported limitations of the BCOP test for alcohols, ketones, and solids. PMID:21147215

  8. NASA's Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request - Duration: 8 minutes, 1 second.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced an $18.7 billion budget request for fiscal year 2012 that supports a reinvigorated path of innovation, technological development and scientific discovery. The budget supports all ele...

  9. 77 FR 15052 - Dataset Workshop-U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Dataset (1980-2011): Assessing Dataset Strengths...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... Disasters (1980-2011) dataset and associated methods used to develop the data set. An important goal of the... data set addresses; What steps should be taken to enhance the robustness of the billion-dollar...

  10. The $1. 5 billion question: Can the US Global Change Research Program deliver on its promises

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1993-09-04

    President Clinton has continued the funding for scientific investigations of global climatic change, increasing funds to a total of $1.5 billion spread amoung 11 different agencies. However, a growing number of critics warn that the program appears heading toward failure. The main issue is relevancy. Almost every agrees that the research effort will support important scientific work over the next decade, but it will not necessarily provide the information policymakers need to address the threat of climatic change, ozone depletion, deforestation, desertification, and similiar issues. This article summarizes the concerns and comments of critics, and the gap between the climate scientists and governmental policymakers.

  11. Nanobubble Collapse on a Silica Surface in Water: Billion-Atom Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, Adarsh; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2013-11-01

    Cavitation bubbles occur in fluids subjected to rapid changes in pressure. We use billion-atom reactive molecular dynamics simulations on a 163 840-processor BlueGene/P supercomputer to investigate damage caused by shock-induced collapse of nanobubbles in water near an amorphous silica surface. Collapse of an empty bubble generates a high-speed nanojet, which causes pitting on the silica surface. We find pit radii are close to bubble radii, and experiments also indicate linear scaling between them. The gas-filled bubbles undergo partial collapse and, consequently, the damage on the silica surface is mitigated.

  12. CPMSA Comprehensive Partnerships for Mathematics and Science Achievement, Hartford Public Schools. 1997-1998 Year-End Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrelli, Matthew; Cimochowski, Anna M.

    In October 1996, the Hartford Public Schools (Connecticut) received a grant for a partnership in minority student achievement, but in 1998, the grant was not renewed. This is the final year-end report on the Hartford Comprehensive Partnerships for Mathematics and Science Achievement (CPMSA) covering the program's second year. Fourteen schools were

  13. Saving billions from energy efficiency in the Federal sector: Investing in energy efficiency in Federal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.

    1997-06-01

    Since 1985, the Federal Government has amassed $35 billion in energy cost savings in buildings, operations, and vehicle fleets. The annual energy bill of the Federal Government is down $5.9 billion and the government has reduced its total energy consumption by almost 17 percent. These savings are large enough to satisfy the annual energy needs of over one million households. Federal energy management is a roaring success. Yet there remains a vast reservoir of energy and cost savings to be tapped in Federal buildings, industrial processes, and vehicle fleets. The reality is that there remain significant barriers that must be overcome to achieve that potential. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is breaking down these barriers by providing leadership, marshaling support in Federal agencies, mobilizing public and private sector partners, putting reliable information into the hands of energy managers and key decision makers, and enabling ways for the private sector to invest in and profit from Federal energy management. This leadership by good example provides strong fiscal and environmental stewardship. These good business practices will lead directly to deficit reduction and more efficient, productive government. Since energy efficiency is the best investment we can make in our homes and businesses, the next logical step is to incorporate these business practices into Federal facility management.

  14. The Value Of The Nonprofit Hospital Tax Exemption Was $24.6 Billion In 2011.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Kindig, David A; Bao, Jie; Byrnes, Maureen K; O'Laughlin, Colin

    2015-07-01

    The federal government encourages public support for charitable activities by allowing people to deduct donations to tax-exempt organizations on their income tax returns. Tax-exempt hospitals are major beneficiaries of this policy because it encourages donations to the hospitals while shielding them from federal and state tax liability. In exchange, these hospitals must engage in community benefit activities, such as providing care to indigent patients and participating in Medicaid. The congressional Joint Committee on Taxation estimated the value of the nonprofit hospital tax exemption at $12.6 billion in 2002--a number that included forgone taxes, public contributions, and the value of tax-exempt bond financing. In this article we estimate that the size of the exemption reached $24.6 billion in 2011. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) brings a new focus on community benefit activities by requiring tax-exempt hospitals to engage in communitywide planning efforts to improve community health. The magnitude of the tax exemption, coupled with ACA reforms, underscores the public's interest not only in community benefit spending generally but also in the extent to which nonprofit hospitals allocate funds for community benefit expenditures that improve the overall health of their communities. PMID:26085486

  15. On the constancy of the lunar cratering flux over the past 3.3 billion yr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinness, E. A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Utilizing a method that minimizes random fluctuations in sampling crater populations, it can be shown that the ejecta deposit of Tycho, the floor of Copernicus, and the region surrounding the Apollo 12 landing site have incremental crater size-frequency distributions that can be expressed as log-log linear functions over the diameter range from 0.1 to 1 km. Slopes are indistinguishable for the three populations, probably indicating that the surfaces are dominated by primary craters. Treating the crater populations of Tycho, the floor of Copernicus, and Apollo 12 as primary crater populations contaminated, but not overwhelmed, with secondaries, allows an attempt at calibration of the post-heavy bombardment cratering flux. Using the age of Tycho as 109 m.y., Copernicus as 800 m.y., and Apollo 12 as 3.26 billion yr, there is no basis for assuming that the flux has changed over the past 3.3 billion yr. This result can be used for dating intermediate aged surfaces by crater density.

  16. Investigation of Repeat Client Drop-Out and Re-Enrolment Cycles in Fourteen Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clinics in Guangdong, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Di; Li, Xiaoling; Zhao, Peizhen; Ling, Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective Client adherence is vital for effective methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). This study explores the pattern and associated factors of client adherence, drop-out and re-enrolment in the Chinese MMT programme over the period of 2006–2013. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in 14 MMT clinics in Guangdong Province, China. We employed Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to estimate the rates of drop-out and re-enrolment of MMT clients and multivariate Cox regression to identify associated factors. Results Among 1,512 study participants, 79% have experienced ‘drop-out’ during the 7-year study period. However, 82% ‘dropped-out’ clients resumed treatment at a later time. Low education level (junior high or below versus otherwise, HR = 1.21, 1.05–1.40), low methadone dosage in the first treatment episode (<50 ml versus ≥50 ml, HR = 1.84, 1.64–2.06) and higher proportion of positive urine test (≥50% versus<50%, HR = 3.72, 3.30–4.20) during the first treatment episode were strong predictors of subsequent drop-outs of the participants. Among the ‘dropped-out’ clients, being female (HR = 1.40, 1.23–1.60), being married (HR = 1.19, 1.09–1.30), and having a higher proportion of positive urine tests in the first treatment episode (≥50% versus<50%, HR = 1.35, 1.20–1.51) had greater likelihood of subsequent re-enrolment in MMT. Clients receiving lower methadone dosage (first treatment episode <50 ml versus ≥50 ml, HR = 1.12, 1.03–1.23; the last intake before drop-out <50 ml versus ≥50 ml, HR = 1.16, 1.04–1.30) were also more likely to re-enrol. Conclusion Persistent cycling in-and-out of clients in MMT programmes is common. Insufficient dosage and higher proportion of positive urine samples in the first treatment episode are the key determinants for subsequent client drop-out and re-enrolment. Interventions should target clients in their early stage of treatment to improve retention in the long term. PMID:26484772

  17. Institutional Characteristics Contributing to the Effectiveness of 4-Year Business Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book-Ellard, Tracy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Over $8 billion is spent yearly, on college education in one Southern U.S. state, yet the employment effectiveness of public and private 4-year undergraduate business degrees (effectiveness defined as obtaining employment or entering into a degree program requiring a 4-year business degree by the end of Year 1 and remaining employed or in a degree…

  18. Low sample volume part-per-billion level ion chromatographic analysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    The author has developed an ion chromatographic method which enables low part-per-billion levels of analysis while minimizing liquid waste generation. This method incorporates several recent technical improvements in ion chromatographic instrumentation to achieve a hundred-fold increase in sensitivity over existing ion chromatographic methods without additional analysis time or sample pre-concentration. This paper outlines the method, establishes the precision and accuracy levels, and discusses the applicability of the method to waste minimization and radiation exposure reduction. The author`s laboratory provides analytical support for many different types of research programs within SRTC and throughout the Savannah River Site. A wide variety of sample types including ground water, organics, laboratory waste, process control, sludge, soils, and others are received for many different analyses. These samples are both radioactive and non-radioactive and may contain hazardous materials such as RCRA metals, organics, and flammable solvents.

  19. Investigation of Radar Propagation in Buildings: A 10 Billion Element Cartesian-Mesh FETD Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Stowell, M L; Fasenfest, B J; White, D A

    2008-01-14

    In this paper large scale full-wave simulations are performed to investigate radar wave propagation inside buildings. In principle, a radar system combined with sophisticated numerical methods for inverse problems can be used to determine the internal structure of a building. The composition of the walls (cinder block, re-bar) may effect the propagation of the radar waves in a complicated manner. In order to provide a benchmark solution of radar propagation in buildings, including the effects of typical cinder block and re-bar, we performed large scale full wave simulations using a Finite Element Time Domain (FETD) method. This particular FETD implementation is tuned for the special case of an orthogonal Cartesian mesh and hence resembles FDTD in accuracy and efficiency. The method was implemented on a general-purpose massively parallel computer. In this paper we briefly describe the radar propagation problem, the FETD implementation, and we present results of simulations that used over 10 billion elements.

  20. Enumeration of 166 billion organic small molecules in the chemical universe database GDB-17.

    PubMed

    Ruddigkeit, Lars; van Deursen, Ruud; Blum, Lorenz C; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2012-11-26

    Drug molecules consist of a few tens of atoms connected by covalent bonds. How many such molecules are possible in total and what is their structure? This question is of pressing interest in medicinal chemistry to help solve the problems of drug potency, selectivity, and toxicity and reduce attrition rates by pointing to new molecular series. To better define the unknown chemical space, we have enumerated 166.4 billion molecules of up to 17 atoms of C, N, O, S, and halogens forming the chemical universe database GDB-17, covering a size range containing many drugs and typical for lead compounds. GDB-17 contains millions of isomers of known drugs, including analogs with high shape similarity to the parent drug. Compared to known molecules in PubChem, GDB-17 molecules are much richer in nonaromatic heterocycles, quaternary centers, and stereoisomers, densely populate the third dimension in shape space, and represent many more scaffold types. PMID:23088335

  1. Billion-atom synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of critical 3D Ising systems

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, E.; Monasterio, P.R.; Marian, J.

    2011-02-20

    An extension of the synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo (spkMC) algorithm developed by Martinez et al. [J. Comp. Phys. 227 (2008) 3804] to discrete lattices is presented. The method solves the master equation synchronously by recourse to null events that keep all processors' time clocks current in a global sense. Boundary conflicts are resolved by adopting a chessboard decomposition into non-interacting sublattices. We find that the bias introduced by the spatial correlations attendant to the sublattice decomposition is within the standard deviation of serial calculations, which confirms the statistical validity of our algorithm. We have analyzed the parallel efficiency of spkMC and find that it scales consistently with problem size and sublattice partition. We apply the method to the calculation of scale-dependent critical exponents in billion-atom 3D Ising systems, with very good agreement with state-of-the-art multispin simulations.

  2. The strongest matter: Einsteinon could be one billion times stronger than carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugno, Nicola M.

    2008-09-01

    The controversy about the feasibility of space elevator cables is summarized, emphasizing the huge strength-to-density ratio needed for the megacable material, comparable only to that of defect-free carbon nanotubes. In spite of this, the existence of an hypothetical matter, that we have called "Einsteinon", with strength-to-density ratio one billion times higher than that of carbon nanotubes, is shown to be compatible with Relativity. Einsteinon would be the strongest material, having cracks propagating at the speed of light. A very simple argument is also introduced for a rough unification of the gravitational and nuclear forces, suggesting that such a material would probably be based on sub-nuclear-like interactions.

  3. Sub-parts-per-billion level detection of NO2 using room-temperature quantum cascade lasers

    PubMed Central

    Pushkarsky, Michael; Tsekoun, Alexei; Dunayevskiy, Ilya G.; Go, Rowel; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2006-01-01

    We report the sub-parts-per-billion-level detection of NO2 using tunable laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy where the laser radiation is obtained from a room-temperature continuous-wave high-power quantum cascade laser operating in an external grating cavity configuration. The continuously tunable external grating cavity quantum cascade laser produces maximum single-frequency output of ?300 mW tunable over ?350 nm centered at 6.25 ?m. We demonstrate minimum detection level of ?0.5 parts per billion of NO2 in the presence of humidified air. PMID:16829569

  4. Fourteen cases of imposed upper airway obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, M P; McClaughlin, W; Jacobson, R R; Poets, C F; Southall, D P

    1992-01-01

    Imposed upper airway obstruction was diagnosed as the cause of recurrent and severe cyanotic episodes in 14 patients. Episodes started between 0.8 and 33 months of age (median 1.4) and occurred over a period of 0.8 to 20 months (median 3.5). Diagnosis was made by covert video surveillance, instituted after either (a) the observation that episodes began only in the presence of one person, or (b) characteristic findings on physiological recordings, lasting between 12 hours and three weeks, performed in hospital or at home. Surveillance was undertaken for between 15 minutes and 12 days (median 24 hours) and resulted in safety for the patient and psychiatric assessment of the parent: mother (n = 12), father (n = 1), and grandmother (n = 1). These revealed histories of sexual, physical, or emotional abuse (n = 11), self harm (n = 9), factitious illness (n = 7), eating disorder (n = 10), and previous involvement with a psychiatrist (n = 7). Management of the abusing parents is complex, but recognition of their psychosocial characteristics may allow earlier diagnosis. Imposed upper airway obstruction should be considered and excluded by physiological recordings in any infant or young child with recurrent cyanotic episodes. If physiological recordings fail to substantiate a natural cause for episodes, covert video surveillance may be essential to protect the child from further injury or death. PMID:1543373

  5. Educational Cooperation: An Examination of Fourteen Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepchenske, George L.

    The development of consortia and cooperative educational services in higher education in response to financial pressures and social and governmental influences is examined. Consortia or cooperatives may be multi-channeled efforts, with each member struggling to advance its own self-interest at the cost of united goals and efforts, or thriving…

  6. The APPA Journey and RMA Fourteeners Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The APPA journey represents a continuum through one's career in educational facilities management. Early in one's career, APPA can assist with professional development such as the Facilities Drive-In Workshop, the Supervisor's Toolkit, the APPA Institute for Facilities Management, and the APPA Leadership Academy. APPA provides for both

  7. Handling Aggression: Fourteen Methods Teachers Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhl, Kathy L.

    1985-01-01

    The article examines preventive measures (classroom rules, token or response-cost systems, contracts, cognitive behavioral techniques, and physical exercise programs) as well as consequential measures (time-out, verbal intervention, punishment, and physical restraint). The article further identifies (based on survey results) the types of…

  8. Private Donations to Colleges Rise for 4th Consecutive Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2008-01-01

    Backed by a strong economy and a growing stock market, American colleges and universities raised an estimated $29.8-billion in the 2007 fiscal year, the highest total ever recorded, according to a report released last week by the Council for Aid to Education. But the country's recent economic troubles have some fund-raising experts concerned that…

  9. Capping blowouts from Iran's eight-year war

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, B. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports on capping blowouts from Iran's eight year war. Fires in three Iranian wells (two oil, one gas), started during 1987 by Iraqi sabotage, finally were extinguished during the last several months of 1990. Burning during the final months of the countries' eight-year war, plus another subsequent peaceful two years, the fires consumed millions of barrels of oil and billions of cubic feet of gas before they were capped. Ironically, bringing the wells under control took relatively little time.

  10. The Effect of Text Messaging on 9- and 10-Year-Old Children's Reading, Spelling and Phonological Processing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, C.; Jackson, E.; Hart, L.; Plester, B.; Wilde, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an intervention study that considered the impact of text messaging on 9- to 10-year-old children's literacy skills. One hundred and fourteen children who had never owned a mobile phone before were recruited and randomly allocated to either the intervention or control conditions. All children were pre- and post-tested on a

  11. Combined Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Parent Training for Childhood Depression: 2- to 3-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen children with significant depressive symptoms from an open clinical trial of Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training augmented with Caregiver-Child Relationship Enhancement Training, participated in a 2- to 3-year follow-up assessment. The results suggested that the significant decreases in depressive symptoms observed at…

  12. $100 Billion: For Reform...or to Subsidize the Status Quo? Education Stimulus Watch. Special Report 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2009-01-01

    This is the first in a quarterly series of special reports on the K-12 education implications of the federal government's economic stimulus package, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). That the ARRA, which was signed into law in February, will pump nearly $100 billion--an unprecedented sum of federal money--into K-12 education is…

  13. Industrial R&D Expenditures Rise to $22 Billion in 1974. Science Resources Studies Highlights, January 14, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Reported in this newsletter in narrative, graphical, and tabular form are data related to industrial research and development expenditures in 1974, showing a seven percent increase over 1973. It is noted that more than 80 percent of a total of $22.3 billion was spent by five industries; these included electrical equipment and communication,

  14. Simulating materials failure by using up to one billion atoms and the world's fastest computer: Work-hardening

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Farid F.; Walkup, Robert; Gao, Huajian; Duchaineau, Mark; Diaz De La Rubia, Tomas; Seager, Mark

    2002-01-01

    We describe the second of two large-scale atomic simulation projects on materials failure performed on the 12-teraflop ASCI (Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative) White computer at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This investigation simulates ductile failure by using more than one billion atoms where the true complexity of the creation and interaction of hundreds of dislocations are revealed. PMID:16578877

  15. EVALUATION OF PARTS-PER-BILLION (PPB) ORGANIC CYLINDER GASES FOR USE AS AUDITS DURING HAZARDOUS WASTE TRIAL BURN TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A repository of 14 gaseous organic compounds at parts-per-billion levels (7-430 ppb) in compressed gas cylinders has been established by the Environmental Protection Agency. This repository was established to provide audit materials for use in conducting performance audits to ass...

  16. Industrial R&D Spending Reached $26.6 Billion in 1976. Science Resources Studies Highlights, May 5, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report presents data compiled as part of a comprehensive program to measure and analyze the nation's resources expended for research and development (R&D). Industry, which carries out 69% of the R&D in the United States, spent $26.6 billion on these activities in 1976, 10% above the 1975 level. In constant dollars, this presents an increase

  17. 77 FR 29458 - Supervisory Guidance on Stress Testing for Banking Organizations With More Than $10 Billion in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ...The Board, FDIC and OCC, (collectively, the ``agencies'') are issuing this guidance, which outlines high-level principles for stress testing practices, applicable to all Federal Reserve-supervised, FDIC- supervised, and OCC-supervised banking organizations with more than $10 billion in total consolidated assets. The guidance highlights the importance of stress testing as an ongoing risk......

  18. $100 Billion: For Reform...or to Subsidize the Status Quo? Education Stimulus Watch. Special Report 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2009-01-01

    This is the first in a quarterly series of special reports on the K-12 education implications of the federal government's economic stimulus package, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). That the ARRA, which was signed into law in February, will pump nearly $100 billion--an unprecedented sum of federal money--into K-12 education is

  19. The apoptotic machinery as a biological complex system: analysis of its omics and evolution, identification of candidate genes for fourteen major types of cancer, and experimental validation in CML and neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Di Pietro, Cinzia; Ragusa, Marco; Barbagallo, Davide; Duro, Laura R; Guglielmino, Maria R; Majorana, Alessandra; Angelica, Rosario; Scalia, Marina; Statello, Luisa; Salito, Loredana; Tomasello, Luisa; Pernagallo, Salvo; Valenti, Salvo; D'Agostino, Vito; Triberio, Patrizio; Tandurella, Igor; Palumbo, Giuseppe A; La Cava, Piera; Cafiso, Viviana; Bertuccio, Taschia; Santagati, Maria; Li Destri, Giovanni; Lanzafame, Salvatore; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Stefani, Stefania; Mishra, Bud; Purrello, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is a critical biological phenomenon, executed under the guidance of the Apoptotic Machinery (AM), which allows the physiologic elimination of terminally differentiated, senescent or diseased cells. Because of its relevance to BioMedicine, we have sought to obtain a detailed characterization of AM Omics in Homo sapiens, namely its Genomics and Evolution, Transcriptomics, Proteomics, Interactomics, Oncogenomics, and Pharmacogenomics. Methods This project exploited the methodology commonly used in Computational Biology (i.e., mining of many omics databases of the web) as well as the High Throughput biomolecular analytical techniques. Results In Homo sapiens AM is comprised of 342 protein-encoding genes (possessing either anti- or pro-apoptotic activity, or a regulatory function) and 110 MIR-encoding genes targeting them: some have a critical role within the system (core AM nodes), others perform tissue-, pathway-, or disease-specific functions (peripheral AM nodes). By overlapping the cancer type-specific AM mutation map in the fourteen most frequent cancers in western societies (breast, colon, kidney, leukaemia, liver, lung, neuroblastoma, ovary, pancreas, prostate, skin, stomach, thyroid, and uterus) to their transcriptome, proteome and interactome in the same tumour type, we have identified the most prominent AM molecular alterations within each class. The comparison of the fourteen mutated AM networks (both protein- as MIR-based) has allowed us to pinpoint the hubs with a general and critical role in tumour development and, conversely, in cell physiology: in particular, we found that some of these had already been used as targets for pharmacological anticancer therapy. For a better understanding of the relationship between AM molecular alterations and pharmacological induction of apoptosis in cancer, we examined the expression of AM genes in K562 and SH-SY5Y after anticancer treatment. Conclusion We believe that our data on the Apoptotic Machinery will lead to the identification of new cancer genes and to the discovery of new biomarkers, which could then be used to profile cancers for diagnostic purposes and to pinpoint new targets for pharmacological therapy. This approach could pave the way for future studies and applications in molecular and clinical Medicine with important perspectives both for Oncology as for Regenerative Medicine. PMID:19402918

  20. Biomolecular electrostatics using a fast multipole BEM on up to 512 GPUs and a billion unknowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Rio; Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Knepley, Matthew G.; Barba, L. A.; Hamada, Tsuyoshi

    2011-06-01

    We present teraflop-scale calculations of biomolecular electrostatics enabled by the combination of algorithmic and hardware acceleration. The algorithmic acceleration is achieved with the fast multipole method ( FMM) in conjunction with a boundary element method ( BEM) formulation of the continuum electrostatic model, as well as the BIBEE approximation to BEM. The hardware acceleration is achieved through graphics processors, GPUs. We demonstrate the power of our algorithms and software for the calculation of the electrostatic interactions between biological molecules in solution. The applications demonstrated include the electrostatics of protein-drug binding and several multi-million atom systems consisting of hundreds to thousands of copies of lysozyme molecules. The parallel scalability of the software was studied in a cluster at the Nagasaki Advanced Computing Center, using 128 nodes, each with 4 GPUs. Delicate tuning has resulted in strong scaling with parallel efficiency of 0.8 for 256 and 0.5 for 512 GPUs. The largest application run, with over 20 million atoms and one billion unknowns, required only one minute on 512 GPUs. We are currently adapting our BEM software to solve the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation for dilute ionic solutions, and it is also designed to be flexible enough to be extended for a variety of integral equation problems, ranging from Poisson problems to Helmholtz problems in electromagnetics and acoustics to high Reynolds number flow.

  1. GERLUMPH Data Release 2: 2.5 Billion Simulated Microlensing Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.; Bate, N. F.; Croton, D.; Vohl, D.

    2015-04-01

    In the upcoming synoptic all-sky survey era of astronomy, thousands of new multiply imaged quasars are expected to be discovered and monitored regularly. Light curves from the images of gravitationally lensed quasars are further affected by superimposed variability due to microlensing. In order to disentangle the microlensing from the intrinsic variability of the light curves, the time delays between the multiple images have to be accurately measured. The resulting microlensing light curves can then be analyzed to reveal information about the background source, such as the size of the quasar accretion disk. In this paper we present the most extensive and coherent collection of simulated microlensing light curves; we have generated \\gt 2.5 billion light curves using the GERLUMPH high resolution microlensing magnification maps. Our simulations can be used to train algorithms to measure lensed quasar time delays, plan future monitoring campaigns, and study light curve properties throughout parameter space. Our data are openly available to the community and are complemented by online eResearch tools, located at http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au.

  2. Ballography: A Billion Nanosecond History of the Bee Bluff Impact Crater of South Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, R. A.

    2006-07-01

    The Bee Bluff Structure of South Texas in Zavala County near Uvalde has been found to exhibit unusual features permitting study of impactites and meteorite impact processes from the standpoint of grain-level, nanosecond shock-compression science. The site is characterized by a thin cap of Carrizo Sandstone covering a thin hard Indio fm calcareous siltstone. A soft calcareous silt lies below the hard cap. Calculations based on the Earth Impact Effects web-based program indicate that the site is best described by a 60 m diameter iron meteorite striking the ground at 11 km/sec. Such an impact into sandstone is expected to produce a shock pressure of 250 GPa. A large release wave originates from the bottom of the hard target with upward moving melt-vaporization waves of solid, liquid and vapor products that become trapped at the impact interface. Numerous distinctive types of impactites result from this `bottom-up' release behavior. Evidence for hydrodynamic instabilities and resulting density gradients are abundant at the impact interface. An unusually valuable breccia sample called `The Uvalde Crater Rosetta Stone' contains at least seven types of impactites in a well defined arrangement that can be used to read the billion nanosecond history of the impact and identify scattered impactites relative to their place in that history.

  3. How to make a billion-barrel oil field in offshore California commercial

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.C.; Ballard, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The major obstacles and challenges involved in exploration and development of a giant deep-water low-gravity oil field are exemplified in the undeveloped Sword field of offshore southern California. In 1979, Conoco Exploration identified a northeast-southwest-trending basement high in the 800 to 2,000-ft deep federal waters 12 mi southwest of Pt. Conception at the western end of the Santa Barbara Channel. The intended reservoir was fractured Miocene Monterey chert, silicic shales/siltstones,m and dolomites that are draped over the axially faulted structure. Drilling of the initial well in OCS P-0322 in 1982 resulted in discovering the giant Sword field. A confirmation well drilled in OCS P-0320 indicates in-place reserves of well over 1 billion bbl. while the discovered potential is significant, the low gravity (8.5/sup 0/-10.5/sup 0/ API) of the oils discovered to data, along with water depths in excess of 1,500 ft, currently pose economic challenges to successful field development.

  4. How to make a billion-barrel oil field in offshore California commercial

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.C.; Ballard, J.H.

    1988-02-01

    The major obstacles and challenges involved in exploration and development of a giant deep-water low-gravity oil field are exemplified in the undeveloped Sword field of offshore southern California. In 1979, Conoco Exploration identified a northeast-southwest-trending basement high in the 800 to 2000-ft deep federal waters 12 mi southwest of Pt. Conception at the western end of the Santa Barbara Channel. The intended reservoir was fractured Miocene Monterey chert, silicic shales/siltstones, and dolomites that are draped over the axially faulted structure. Drilling of the initial well in OCS P-0322 in 1982 resulted in discovering the giant Sword field. A confirmation well drilled in OCS P-0320 indicates in-place reserves of well over 1 billion bbl. While the discovered potential is significant, the low gravity (8.5/degree/-10.5/degree/ API) of the oils discovered to date, along with water depths in excess of 1500 ft, currently pose economic challenges to successful field development. Conoco and its partners are addressing the current economic barriers on a number of fronts. Three-dimensional seismic surveys are being conducted to better delineate reservoir geometry and to define probable variations in lithology, fracturing, and oil gravity. A market feasibility study will be undertaken to assess the demand for low-gravity crude from offshore California.

  5. Bioinspired architecture approach for a one-billion transistor smart CMOS camera chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fey, Dietmar; Komann, Marcus

    2007-05-01

    In the paper we present a massively parallel VLSI architecture for future smart CMOS camera chips with up to one billion transistors. To exploit efficiently the potential offered by future micro- or nanoelectronic devices traditional on central structures oriented parallel architectures based on MIMD or SIMD approaches will fail. They require too long and too many global interconnects for the distribution of code or the access to common memory. On the other hand nature developed self-organising and emergent principles to manage successfully complex structures based on lots of interacting simple elements. Therefore we developed a new as Marching Pixels denoted emergent computing paradigm based on a mixture of bio-inspired computing models like cellular automaton and artificial ants. In the paper we present different Marching Pixels algorithms and the corresponding VLSI array architecture. A detailed synthesis result for a 0.18 ?m CMOS process shows that a 256256 pixel image is processed in less than 10 ms assuming a moderate 100 MHz clock rate for the processor array. Future higher integration densities and a 3D chip stacking technology will allow the integration and processing of Mega pixels within the same time since our architecture is fully scalable.

  6. Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Shoibal; Chikkatur, Ananth; de Coninck, Heleen; Pacala, Stephen; Socolow, Robert; Tavoni, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    We present a framework for allocating a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of “common but differentiated responsibilities” refers to the emissions of individuals instead of nations. We use the income distribution of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO2 emissions are distributed among its citizens, from which we build up a global CO2 distribution. We then propose a simple rule to derive a universal cap on global individual emissions and find corresponding limits on national aggregate emissions from this cap. All of the world's high CO2-emitting individuals are treated the same, regardless of where they live. Any future global emission goal (target and time frame) can be converted into national reduction targets, which are determined by “Business as Usual” projections of national carbon emissions and in-country income distributions. For example, reducing projected global emissions in 2030 by 13 GtCO2 would require the engagement of 1.13 billion high emitters, roughly equally distributed in 4 regions: the U.S., the OECD minus the U.S., China, and the non-OECD minus China. We also modify our methodology to place a floor on emissions of the world's lowest CO2 emitters and demonstrate that climate mitigation and alleviation of extreme poverty are largely decoupled. PMID:19581586

  7. Assessment of the Projected One Billion Ton Biomass for Cellulosic Biofuel Production and Its Potential Implications on Regional Water Quality and Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Yan, E.; Wu, M.

    2011-12-01

    The DOE and USDA joint study, also commonly referred as the "Billion-Ton" study, assessed the cellulosic feedstock resources potential in the U.S. for producing second generation biofuel to replace 30 percent of the country's transportation fuels by year 2030. The available resource is expected to come from changing cropping pattern, increasing crop yield, harvesting agricultural and forest wood residues, and developing energy crops. Such large-scale changes in land use and crop managements are likely to affect the associated water quality and resources at both regional and local scales. To address the water sustainability associated with the projected biomass production in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), we have developed a SWAT watershed model that simulate the changes in water quality (nitrogen, phosphorus, and soil erosion) and resources (soil water content, evapotranspiration, and runoff) of the region due to future biomass production scenario estimated by the Billion-Ton study. The scenario is implemented by changing the model inputs and parameters at subbasin and hydrologic response unit levels, as well as by improving the SWAT model to represent spatially varying crop properties. The potential impacts on water quality and water availability were compared with the results obtained from a baseline simulation which represents current watershed conditions and existing level of feedstock production. The basin level results suggested mixed effects on the water quality. The projected large-scale biomass production scenario is expected to decrease loadings of total nitrogen and nitrate in the streams while increase total phosphorus and suspended sediment. Results indicate an increase in the rate of evapotranspiration and a decrease in the soil water content and in surface runoff. discharge to the streams. The impacts at the subbasin or local scale varies spatially and temporally depending on the types of land use change, their locations, and crop managements, suggesting needs to further optimize the sustainable biomass production from water resource perspective at both regional and local levels.

  8. An HPLC-ESI-MS method for simultaneous determination of fourteen metabolites of promethazine and caffeine and its application to pharmacokinetic study of the combination therapy against motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Gao, Jian-yi; Zhai, Zhi-gang; Liang, Qiong-lin; Wang, Yi-ming; Bai, Yan-qiang; Luo, Guo-an

    2012-03-25

    The combination therapy, promethazine and caffeine had been proven effective in treating motion sickness and counteracting some possible side effects of using promethazine alone while the mechanism and interaction remained unclear. Therefore, an HPLC-ESI-MS method for simultaneous determination of both drugs, and their metabolites was developed for purpose of pharmacokinetic study. To determine as many metabolites as possible, the influence of parameters such as column, flow rate and pH value of mobile phase, ionization polarity and fragmentation voltage were optimized. Fourteen target analytes were well separated and all of them could be identified and determined in plasma after administration of promethazine and caffeine. The LODs and LOQs were 0.9-6.0 and 2.50-16.0 ng/ml, respectively; the recoveries of three levels of quality control samples were from 86.7% to 102%; the intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 3% and 9%, separately; and the RSDs of compound stability were all lower than 10% within 24h after sample preparation. As a pharmacokinetic study of the combination therapy in 30 healthy volunteers, concentration-time curves of the drugs and metabolites were studied. The present method for simultaneous measurement of more than ten metabolites is valuable for the study of mechanism and interaction of the combination therapy. PMID:22264564

  9. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country's present petroleum consumption--the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  10. Layout finishing of a 28nm, 3 billions transistors, multi-core processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Beisser, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Designing a fully new 256 cores processor is a great challenge for a fabless startup. In addition to all architecture, functionalities and timing issues, the layout by itself is a bottleneck due to all the process constraints of a 28nm technology. As developers of advanced layout finishing solutions, we were involved in the design flow of this huge chip with its 3 billions transistors. We had to face the issue of dummy patterns instantiation with respect to design constraints. All the design rules to generate the "dummies" are clearly defined in the Design Rule Manual, and some automatic procedures are provided by the foundry itself, but these routines don't take care of the designer requests. Such a chip, embeds both digital parts and analog modules for clock and power management. These two different type of designs have each their own set of constraints. In both cases, the insertion of dummies should not introduce unexpected variations leading to malfunctions. For example, on digital parts were signal race conditions are critical on long wires or bus, introduction of uncontrolled parasitic along these nets are highly critical. For analog devices such as high frequency and high sensitivity comparators, the exact symmetry of the two parts of a current mirror generator should be guaranteed. Thanks to the easily customizable features of our dummies insertion tool, we were able to configure it in order to meet all the designer requirements as well as the process constraints. This paper will present all these advanced key features as well as the layout tricks used to fulfill all requirements.

  11. No Photon Left Behind: How Billions of Spectral Lines are Transforming Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of realistic potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) descriptions, theoretically computed linelists can now synthesize accurate spectral parameters for billions of spectral lines sampling the untamed high-energy molecular domain. Being the initial driver for these databases the characterization of stellar spectra, these theoretical databases, in combination with decades of precise experimental studies (nicely compiled in community databases such as HITRAN and GEISA), are leading to unprecedented precisions in the characterization of planetary atmospheres. Cometary sciences are among the most affected by this spectroscopic revolution. Even though comets are relatively cold bodies (T˜100 K), their infrared molecular emission is mainly defined by non-LTE solar fluorescence induced by a high-energy source (Sun, T˜5600 K). In order to interpret high-resolution spectra of comets acquired with extremely powerful telescopes (e.g., Keck, VLT, NASA-IRTF), we have developed advanced non-LTE fluorescence models that integrate the high-energy dynamic range of ab-initio databases (e.g., BT2, VTT, HPT2, BYTe, TROVE) and the precision of laboratory and semi-empirical compilations (e.g., HITRAN, GEISA, CDMS, WKMC, SELP, IUPAC). These new models allow us to calculate realistic non-LTE pumps, cascades, branching-ratios, and emission rates for a broad range of excitation regimes for H2O, HDO, HCN, HNC and NH3. We have implemented elements of these compilations to the study of Mars spectra, and we are now exploring its application to modeling non-LTE emission in exoplanets. In this presentation, we present application of these advanced models to interpret highresolution spectra of comets, Mars and exoplanets.

  12. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The Budget includes three new robust exploration programs: (1) Technology demonstration program, $7.8 five years. Funds the development and demonstration of technologies that reduce the cost and expand the capabilities of future exploration activities, including in-orbit refueling and storage. (2) Heavy-Lift and Propulsion R&D, $3.1 billion over five years. Funds R&D for new launch systems, propellants, materials, and combustion processes. (3) Robotic precursor missions, $3.0 billion over five years. Funds cost-effective means to scout exploration targets and identify hazards and resources for human visitation and habitation. In addition, the Budget enhances the current Human Research Program by 42%; and supports the Participatory Exploration Program at 5 million per year for activities across many NASA programs.

  13. Reducing the staggering costs of environmental disease in children, estimated at $76.6 billion in 2008.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; Liu, Yinghua

    2011-05-01

    A 2002 analysis documented $54.9 billion in annual costs of environmentally mediated diseases in US children. However, few important changes in federal policy have been implemented to prevent exposures to toxic chemicals. We therefore updated and expanded the previous analysis and found that the costs of lead poisoning, prenatal methylmercury exposure, childhood cancer, asthma, intellectual disability, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were $76.6 billion in 2008. To prevent further increases in these costs, efforts are needed to institute premarket testing of new chemicals; conduct toxicity testing on chemicals already in use; reduce lead-based paint hazards; and curb mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. PMID:21543421

  14. Silviculture: the next 30 years the past 30 years. Part III. The South

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, S.G.; Burkhardt, E.C.; Kellison, R.C.; van Lear, D.H.

    1986-06-01

    This paper discussed the need for modern forestry management in the South. The author defined the South as Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia. Of the 10 billion cubic feet of softwood harvested in the US in 1976, 44% came from the South. In addition, half of the 4.2 billion cubic feet of hardwoods harvested in the US in 1976 came from the South. Less than half of the southern forests were cultivated by trained foresters. With real forest management, a real potential should exist for increased forest production. The author discussed the history of these forest lands and the need for better forest management over the next 30 years. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  15. Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences

    PubMed Central

    Rideout, Jai Ram; He, Yan; Navas-Molina, Jose A.; Walters, William A.; Ursell, Luke K.; Gibbons, Sean M.; Chase, John; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Clemente, Jose C.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Huse, Susan M.; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Knight, Rob

    2014-01-01

    We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA) sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime) and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity). Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to classic open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, classic open-reference OTU clustering is often faster). We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons). To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of classic open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by classic open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIMEs uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository) that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced). Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in QIIMEs OTU picking workflows and make recommendations on settings for these free parameters to optimize runtime without reducing the quality of the results. These optimized parameters can vastly decrease the runtime of uclust-based OTU picking in QIIME. PMID:25177538

  16. University Environment Experience of the First Two Years of University Graduates at a Newly Established Small University Located in Suburban Area in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-Nii

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe students' university environment experience from the perspectives of the first two years of university graduates of a newly established small university located in suburban area in Taiwan. A qualitative method of phenomenology with in-depth interviews is adopted. Fourteen male and sixteen female seniors,…

  17. Annual cost of illness and quality-adjusted life year losses in the United States due to 14 foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Batz, Michael B; Morris, J Glenn

    2012-07-01

    In this article we estimate the annual cost of illness and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) loss in the United States caused by 14 of the 31 major foodborne pathogens reported on by Scallan et al. (Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17:7-15, 2011), based on their incidence estimates of foodborne illness in the United States. These 14 pathogens account for 95 % of illnesses and hospitalizations and 98 % of deaths due to identifiable pathogens estimated by Scallan et al. We estimate that these 14 pathogens cause $14.0 billion (ranging from $4.4 billion to $33.0 billion) in cost of illness and a loss of 61,000 QALYs (ranging from 19,000 to 145,000 QALYs) per year. Roughly 90 % of this loss is caused by five pathogens: nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica ($3.3 billion; 17,000 QALYs), Campylobacter spp. ($1.7 billion; 13,300 QALYs), Listeria monocytogenes ($2.6 billion; 9,400 QALYs), Toxoplasma gondii ($3 billion; 11,000 QALYs), and norovirus ($2 billion; 5,000 QALYs). A companion article attributes losses estimated in this study to the consumption of specific categories of foods. To arrive at these estimates, for each pathogen we create disease outcome trees that characterize the symptoms, severities, durations, outcomes, and likelihoods of health states associated with that pathogen. We then estimate the cost of illness (medical costs, productivity loss, and valuation of premature mortality) for each pathogen. We also estimate QALY loss for each health state associated with a given pathogen, using the EuroQol 5D scale. Construction of disease outcome trees, outcome-specific cost of illness, and EuroQol 5D scoring are described in greater detail in a second companion article. PMID:22980013

  18. [20 years without smallpox].

    PubMed

    Jezek, Z

    2000-08-01

    It is 20 years since the 33rd World Health Assembly (WHA) declared that "worldwide eradication of smallpox" was achieved. This was the outcome of many years intensive work of the World Health Organization (WHO) and its member countries. In 1958 the WHA adopted the recommendation that WHO should initiate the eradication of smallpox on a worldwide scale. In 1967 the eradication activities in hitherto endemic countries became more intense. Smallpox affected 31 countries and 15 countries recorded from occasional cases. Every year more than 10 million people contracted the disease and two million of them died. A ten-year limit for the eradication was set. Gradually smallpox were eradicated in South America, then in Asia and last in Africa where the last case of endemic smallpox was recorded in 1977 in Somalia. WHO ensured international collaboration, close coordination of activities and mobilization of financial, personal and material resources. It ensured also that tested methods were fully applied in the affected countries regardless of their political, religious and cultural differences. In the eradication activities participated hundreds of thousands of local and 700 health professionals from abroad, incl. 20 Czechoslovak epidemiologists. The worldwide costs of eradication amounted to some 300 million dollars, i.e. some 23 million per year. The most important contribution of the eradication of smallpox was in addition to the termination of human suffering, worldwide financial savings estimated to 1-2 billion US dollars per year. These saved personal and financial resources could be used for other important health projects. The eradication of variola was defined as eradication of clinical forms of smallpox not as the final eradication of the variola virus. The importance of laboratories keeping the variola virus increased steeply at the time when clinical cases of smallpox were eradicated. From the beginning of the eighties WHO made an effort to reduce their number to a minimum. Since 1984 strains of variola are officially kept only in two centres collaborating with WHO. The Organization suggested destruction of the kept viruses in 1987, i.e. ten years after the eradication of smallpox. Unfortunately some political and scientific circles did not agree with this intention. Even recommendations to destroy the virus in 1993 and again in 1999 were not accepted. In the nineties fear of bio-terrorism and secret modernization of biological weapons influenced some member countries to change their opinion on the intended destruction of the virus. Despite this in May 1999 the WHA adopted a resolution that the final destruction of all variola strains is the objective of all member countries of WHO and recommended to postpone the destruction of the virus to the year 2002. The reason for postponement is current research of new antiviral preparations and better vaccines. There is again hope that all that will be left of the variola virus will be magnetic signals on computer diskettes. PMID:11040489

  19. With GI Bill's Billions at Stake, Colleges Compete to Lure Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    As the Post-9/11 GI Bill nears its fourth year, with more than 550,000 veterans enrolled in thousands of institutions, advocacy groups, lawmakers, and President Obama warn that veterans are vulnerable in a higher-education marketplace eager for their GI Bill dollars--with some purveyors, particularly for-profits, recruiting aggressively. The

  20. With GI Bill's Billions at Stake, Colleges Compete to Lure Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    As the Post-9/11 GI Bill nears its fourth year, with more than 550,000 veterans enrolled in thousands of institutions, advocacy groups, lawmakers, and President Obama warn that veterans are vulnerable in a higher-education marketplace eager for their GI Bill dollars--with some purveyors, particularly for-profits, recruiting aggressively. The…

  1. Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSCIA and CSHIA) has been increasingly used to study the source, transport, and bioremediation of organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. In natural aquatic systems, dissolved contaminants represent the bioavailable fraction that generally is of the greatest toxicological significance. However, determining the isotopic ratios of waterborne hydrophobic contaminants in natural waters is very challenging because of their extremely low concentrations (often at sub-parts ber billion, or even lower). To acquire sufficient quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 10 ng/L concentration for CSHIA, more than 1000 L of water must be extracted. Conventional liquid/liquid or solid-phase extraction is not suitable for such large volume extractions. We have developed a new approach that is capable of efficiently sampling sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons for CSIA. We use semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants from polluted waters and then recover the compounds in the laboratory for CSIA. In this study, we demonstrate, under a variety of experimental conditions (different concentrations, temperatures, and turbulence levels), that SPMD-associated processes do not induce C and H isotopic fractionations. The applicability of SPMD-CSIA technology to natural systems is further demonstrated by determining the ??13C and ??D values of petroleum hydrocarbons present in the Pawtuxet River, RI. Our results show that the combined SPMD-CSIA is an effective tool to investigate the source and fate of hydrophobic contaminants in the aquatic environments.

  2. White Light Demonstration of One Hundred Parts per Billion Irradiance Suppression in Air by New Starshade Occulters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinton, Douglas B.; Cash, Webster C.; Gleason, Brian; Kaiser, Michael J.; Levine, Sara A.; Lo, Amy S.; Schindhelm, Eric; Shipley, Ann F.

    2007-01-01

    A new mission concept for the direct imaging of exo-solar planets called the New Worlds Observer (NWO) has been proposed. The concept involves flying a meter-class space telescope in formation with a newly-conceived, specially-shaped, deployable star-occulting shade several meters across at a separation of some tens of thousands of kilometers. The telescope would make its observations from behind the starshade in a volume of high suppression of incident irradiance from the star around which planets orbit. The required level of irradiance suppression created by the starshade for an efficacious mission is of order 0.1 to 10 parts per billion in broadband light. This paper discusses the experimental setup developed to accurately measure the suppression ratio of irradiance produced at the null position behind candidate starshade forms to these levels. It also presents results of broadband measurements which demonstrated suppression levels of just under 100 parts per billion in air using the Sun as a light source. Analytical modeling of spatial irradiance distributions surrounding the null are presented and compared with photographs of irradiance captured in situ behind candidate starshades.

  3. Production of higher hydrides of boron by. gamma. -ray radiolysis of decaborane(14); characterization of the eleven isomers of icosaborane(26), B/sub 20/H/sub 26/, and separation and mass spectral identification of fourteen isomers of triacontaborane(38), B/sub 30/H/sub 28/

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    ..gamma..-ray radiolysis of crystalline B/sub 10/H/sub 14/ produced the eleven B/sub 20/H/sub 26/ isomers and twenty other isomers, fourteen of which were confirmed as B/sub 30/H/sub 38/ by mass spectrometry. Separation of the isomers was accomplished with high performance liquid chromatography. The isomers were enumerated in order of their HPLC elution.

  4. GALAXY EVOLUTION. An over-massive black hole in a typical star-forming galaxy, 2 billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Urry, C Megan; Civano, Francesca; Rosario, David J; Elvis, Martin; Schawinski, Kevin; Suh, Hyewon; Bongiorno, Angela; Simmons, Brooke D

    2015-07-10

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are generally thought to coevolve, so that the SMBH achieves up to about 0.2 to 0.5% of the host galaxy mass in the present day. The radiation emitted from the growing SMBH is expected to affect star formation throughout the host galaxy. The relevance of this scenario at early cosmic epochs is not yet established. We present spectroscopic observations of a galaxy at redshift z = 3.328, which hosts an actively accreting, extremely massive BH, in its final stages of growth. The SMBH mass is roughly one-tenth the mass of the entire host galaxy, suggesting that it has grown much more efficiently than the host, contrary to models of synchronized coevolution. The host galaxy is forming stars at an intense rate, despite the presence of a SMBH-driven gas outflow. PMID:26160942

  5. A 4.2 billion year old impact basin on the Moon: U-Pb dating of zirconolite and apatite in lunar melt rock 67955

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Marc D.; Nemchin, Alexander A.

    2014-02-01

    A sharp rise in the flux of asteroid-size bodies traversing the inner Solar System at 3.9 Ga has become a central tenet of recent models describing planetary dynamics and the potential habitability of early terrestrial environments. The prevalence of 3.9 Ga crystallization ages for lunar impact-melt breccias and U-Pb isotopic compositions of lunar crustal rocks provide the primary evidence for a short-lived, cataclysmic episode of late heavy bombardment at that time. Here we report U-Pb isotopic compositions of zirconolite and apatite in coarse-grained lunar melt rock 67955, measured by ion microprobe, that date a basin-scale impact melting event on the Moon at 4.220.01 Ga followed by entrainment within lower grade ejecta from a younger basin approximately 300 million yr later. Significant impacts prior to 3.9 Ga are also recorded by lunar zircons although the magnitudes of those events are difficult to establish. Other isotopic evidence such as 40Ar-39Ar ages of granulitic lunar breccias, regolith fragments, and clasts extracted from fragmental breccias, and Re-Os isotopic compositions of lunar metal is also suggestive of impact-related thermal events in the lunar crust during the period 4.1-4.3 Ga. We conclude that numerous large impactors hit the Moon prior to the canonical 3.9 Ga cataclysm, that some of those pre-cataclysm impacts were similar in size to the younger lunar basins, and that the oldest preserved lunar basins are likely to be significantly older than 3.9 Ga. This provides sample-based support for dynamical models capable of producing older basins on the Moon and discrete populations of impactors. An extended period of basin formation implies a less intense cataclysm at 3.9 Ga, and therefore a better opportunity for preservation of early habitable niches and Hadean crust on the Earth. A diminished cataclysm at 3.9 Ga suggests that the similarity in the age of the oldest terrestrial continental crust with the canonical lunar cataclysm is likely to be coincidental with no genetic significance.

  6. New palaeomagnetic results from outcrop and drill core samples of the 3.47 billion year old Komati Formation, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts Artal, Laura; Biggin, Andy; MacNiocaill, Conall; de Wit, Maarten; Langereis, Cor; Wilson, Allan; Arndt, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    Palaeomagnetic results obtained in the 1980s and 1990s from the Komati Formation in the Palaeoarchaean Onverwacht Group in the Barberton Greenstone Belt constitute the world's oldest unrefuted palaeomagnetic pole. This pole has been crucial in arguing for the existence of a viable geomagnetic field early in the Earth's history but does not yet have the support of rigorous field tests in constraining its age and viability. Here we present new palaeomagnetic data from a hitherto unexamined locality where these komatiites crop out along the Komati River and where two 400m drill cores have recently been extracted by an International Continental Drilling Programme (ICDP) project. Oriented samples have been taken from both of the deep drill cores and also from surface outcrops allowing detailed comparisons to take place between the new and old datasets. Two ancient components have been identified. One of these is dual polarity and may be associated with widespread intrusive activity at 3.2 Gyr. The other is older and has a direction in agreement with previous results from the Komati Formation. The implications of these new results for our understanding of the early Earth's geomagnetic field will be discussed.

  7. 1.8 billion years of fluid-crust interaction: A zircon oxygen isotope record for the lower crust, western Churchill Province, Canadian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petts, Duane C.; Moser, Desmond E.; Longstaffe, Frederick J.; Davis, William J.; Stern, Richard A.

    2014-04-01

    The western Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield experienced a prolonged and complex formation history (ca. 4.04 to 1.70 Ga), with evidence for multiple episodes of orogenesis and regional magmatic activity. Here we report on the oxygen isotopic compositions of garnet and zircon recovered from lower crustal xenoliths, which have U-Pb ages between ca. 3.5 and 1.7 Ga. Overall, zircon from four metabasite xenoliths from the Rankin Inlet sample suite have ?18O values ranging from + 5.5 to + 8.6. Zircon from three metatonalite/anorthosite xenoliths and five metabasite xenoliths from the Repulse Bay sample suite have ?18O values of + 5.6 to + 8.3. High ?18O values (> + 6.0) for the oldest igneous zircon cores (ca. 3.5 Ga and 3.0-2.6 Ga) indicate that their metatonalite/anorthosite protolith magmas were generated from, or had assimilated, supracrustal rocks that interacted previously with surface-derived fluids. Igneous zircon cores (ca. 2.9-2.6 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith have ?18O values of + 5.6 to + 6.4, which suggests a formation from a mantle-derived basaltic/gabbroic magma. Metamorphic zircon cores (ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith commonly have ?18O values between + 6.0 and + 6.3, which is indicative of a basalt/gabbro protolith and localized reworking of the lower crust caused by regional-scale plate convergence. The wide range of ?18O values (+ 5.5 to + 8.3) for ca. 1.75-1.70 Ga metamorphic zircon rims (identified in all xenoliths) indicates regional transient heating and reworking of mantle- and supracrustal-derived crust, induced by magmatic underplating along the crust-mantle boundary.

  8. A TALE OF DWARFS AND GIANTS: USING A z = 1.62 CLUSTER TO UNDERSTAND HOW THE RED SEQUENCE GREW OVER THE LAST 9.5 BILLION YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnick, Gregory H.; Tran, Kim-Vy; Papovich, Casey; Momcheva, Ivelina; Willmer, Christopher

    2012-08-10

    We study the red sequence in a cluster of galaxies at z = 1.62 and follow its evolution over the intervening 9.5 Gyr to the present day. Using deep YJK{sub s} imaging with the HAWK-I instrument on the Very Large Telescope, we identify a tight red sequence and construct its rest-frame i-band luminosity function (LF). There is a marked deficit of faint red galaxies in the cluster that causes a turnover in the LF. We compare the red-sequence LF to that for clusters at z < 0.8, correcting the luminosities for passive evolution. The shape of the cluster red-sequence LF does not evolve between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 but at z < 0.6 the faint population builds up significantly. Meanwhile, between z = 1.62 and 0.6 the inferred total light on the red sequence grows by a factor of {approx}2 and the bright end of the LF becomes more populated. We construct a simple model for red-sequence evolution that grows the red sequence in total luminosity and matches the constant LF shape at z > 0.6. In this model the cluster accretes blue galaxies from the field whose star formation is quenched and who are subsequently allowed to merge. We find that three to four mergers among cluster galaxies during the 4 Gyr between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 match the observed LF evolution between the two redshifts. The inferred merger rate is consistent with other studies of this cluster. Our result supports the picture that galaxy merging during the major growth phase of massive clusters is an important process in shaping the red-sequence population at all luminosities.

  9. The UV colours of high-redshift early-type galaxies: evidence for recent star formation and stellar mass assembly over the last 8 billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviraj, S.; Khochfar, S.; Schawinski, K.; Yi, S. K.; Gawiser, E.; Silk, J.; Virani, S. N.; Cardamone, C. N.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Urry, C. M.

    2008-07-01

    We combine deep optical and NIR (UBVRIzJK) photometry from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC) with redshifts from the COMBO-17 survey to perform a large-scale study of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties of 674 high-redshift (0.5 < z < 1) early-type galaxies, drawn from the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDFS). Galaxy morphologies are determined through visual inspection of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images taken from the GEMS survey. We harness the sensitivity of the UV to young (<1-Gyr old) stars to quantify the recent star formation history of early-type galaxies across a range of luminosities [-23.5 < M(V) < -18]. Comparisons to simple stellar populations forming at high redshift indicate that ~1.1 per cent of early-types in this sample are consistent with purely passive ageing since z = 2 - this value drops to ~0.24 per cent and ~0.15 per cent for z = 3 and 5, respectively. Parametrizing the recent star formation (RSF) in terms of the mass fraction of stars less than a Gyr old, we find that the early-type population as a whole shows a typical RSF between 5 and 13 per cent in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 1. Early-types on the broad UV `red sequence' show RSF values less than 5 per cent, while the reddest early-types (which are also the most luminous) are virtually quiescent with RSF values of ~1 per cent. In contrast to their low-redshift (z < 0.1) counterparts, the high-redshift early-types in this sample show a pronounced bimodality in the rest-frame UV-optical colour, with a minor but significant peak centred on the blue cloud. Furthermore, star formation in the most active early-types is a factor of 2 greater at z ~ 0.7 than in the local universe. Given that evolved sources of UV flux (e.g. horizontal branch stars) should be absent at z > 0.5, implying that the UV is dominated by young stars, we find compelling evidence that early-types of all luminosities form stars over the lifetime of the Universe, although the bulk of their star formation is already complete at high redshift. This `tail-end' of star formation is measurable and not negligible, with luminous [-23 < M(V) < -20.5] early-types potentially forming 10-15 per cent of their mass since z = 1, with less luminous early-types [M(V) > -20.5] potentially forming 30-60 per cent of their mass after z = 1. This, in turn, implies that intermediate-age stellar populations should be abundant in local early-type galaxies, as expected in hierarchical cosmology.

  10. Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4-3.5 billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cnossen, Ingrid; Sanz-Forcada, Jorge; Favata, Fabio; Witasse, Olivier; Zegers, Tanja; Arnold, Neil F.

    2007-02-01

    Solar X-ray and UV radiation (0.1-320 nm) received at Earth's surface is an important aspect of the circumstances under which life formed on Earth. The quantity that is received depends on two main variables: the emission of radiation by the young Sun and its extinction through absorption and scattering by the Earth's early atmosphere. The spectrum emitted by the Sun when life formed, between 4 and 3.5 Ga, was modeled here, including the effects of flares and activity cycles, using a solar-like star that has the same age now as the Sun had 4-3.5 Ga. Atmospheric extinction was calculated using the Beer-Lambert law, assuming several density profiles for the atmosphere of the Archean Earth. We found that almost all radiation with a wavelength shorter than 200 nm is attenuated effectively, even by very tenuous atmospheres. Longer-wavelength radiation is progressively less well attenuated, and its extinction is more sensitive to atmospheric composition. Minor atmospheric components, such as methane, ozone, water vapor, etc., have only negligible effects, but changes in CO2 concentration can cause large differences in surface flux. Differences due to variability in solar emission are small compared to this. In all cases surface radiation levels on the Archean Earth were several orders of magnitude higher in the 200-300 nm wavelength range than current levels in this range. That means that any form of life that might have been present at Earth's surface 4-3.5 Ga must have been exposed to much higher quantities of damaging radiation than at present.

  11. In situ Raman spectroscopy and confocal microscopy of 2.5-billion-year-old fossil microorganisms: viable nondestructive techniques for the study of returned Martian samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, A. D.; Lorber, K.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the discovery of two sets of Archean fossil microorganisms (microfossils) and describes how such a study can be an analogue for a potential Martian sample return mission like that proposed as a follow up to the Mars 2020 mission. Microfossils are not easily preserved and their simple morphologies (made less distinct by taphonomy and diagenesis) can be confused with nonbiological structures. Thus, several lines of evidence are required for a biological interpretation of such remains. Despite this limitation, microfossils represent the most direct and easily illustrated evidence of life, and this will also be true of any microfossils that might be found on Mars. Martian sample return will provide the first chance to apply a full suite of analytical techniques to the study of possible Martian microfossils. Because such precious samples would be of limited quantity, this suite must include nondestructive techniques that are performed in situ and at a micron-scale.The samples studied here were collected from two chert units within the Gamohaan Formation of the Kaapvaal Craton of South Africa. One set was collected from the Tsineng Member near the top of the formation and contains fossils of mat-forming filamentous microorganisms (~15-20 µm in diameter) that were buried in place. The other set comes from a chert bed stratigraphically lower within the Gamohaan Formation. This bed contains shriveled and somewhat compacted spherical microfossils (~100 µm in diameter) and are interpreted to be the remains of planktonic forms that settled from above. Cherts were collected based on a visual identification of their likelihood to contain microfossils. Optical microscopy was used to locate microstructures of interest within thin sections. The biological nature of these structures is supported by analyses of their three dimensional morphologies by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as well as their carbonaceous compositions by Raman spectroscopy. Raman and CLSM are nondestructive techniques that can be used to analyze specimens within rock to the depth of several tens of microns with no special sample preparation. Also, because Raman and CLSM can be used to study modern microorganisms, they are ideal techniques for the study of returned Martian samples that could contain either fossil or living material.

  12. State-Funded Scholarship/Grant Programs for Students to Attend Postsecondary Education Institutions. National Association of Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) 27th Annual Survey Report, 1995-96 Academic Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSalvatore, Kristen; Hughes, Linda

    This report presents data for the 1995-96 academic year on state-funded student scholarship and grant programs in 14 tables. States awarded over $2.9 billion in student aid to over 2 million students in 1995-96, an increase of 1.6 percent over the amount awarded the previous year. Of the $2.5 billion in need-based grant aid available, 99 percent

  13. Distributing $800 Billion: An Early Assessment of the Medicare Part D Risk Adjustment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, John; Huang, Jie; Fung, Vicki; Price, Mary; Brand, Richard; Hui, Rita; Fireman, Bruce; Dow, William; Bertko, John; Newhouse, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    The viability and stability of the Medicare Part D prescription drug program depends on accurate risk adjusted payments. The current approach (RxHCC) uses diagnosis and demographic information to predict future drug costs. We evaluated the performance of multiple approaches for predicting 2006 Part D drug costs and plan liability. RxHCCs explain 12% of the variation in actual drug expenditures, overpredict costs for beneficiaries with low actual expenditures, and underpredict costs for beneficiaries with high actual expenditures. Combining RxHCCs with individual-level information on prior-year drug use substantially improves performance and decreases incentives for plans to select against bad risks. PMID:19124873

  14. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Presents national and state information on public education finances, including revenues by source, current expenditures by function, and current expenditures per pupil. About $326 billion of revenues were raised by local, state, and federal governments to finance public education through grade 12 in school year 1997-1998. (Author/SLD)

  15. Symbolic Density Models of One-in-a-Billion Statistical Tails via Importance Sampling and Genetic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConaghy, Trent

    This paper explores the application of symbolic regression for building models of probability distributions in which the accuracy at the distributions' tails is critical. The problem is of importance to cutting-edge industrial integrated circuit design, such as designing SRAM memory components (bitcells, sense amps) where each component has extremely low probability of failure. A naive approach is infeasible because it would require billions of Monte Carlo circuit simulations. This paper demonstrates a flow that efficiently generates samples at the tails using importance sampling, then builds genetic programming symbolic regression models in a space that captures the tails - the normal quantile space. These symbolic density models allow the circuit designers to analyze the tradeoff between high-sigma yields and circuit performance. The flow is validated on two modern industrial problems: a bitcell circuit on a 45nm TSMC process, and a sense amp circuit on a 28nm TSMC process.

  16. Vaccine Assistance To Low- And Middle-Income Countries Increased To $3.6 Billion In 2014.

    PubMed

    Haakenstad, Annie; Birger, Maxwell; Singh, Lavanya; Liu, Patrick; Lim, Stephen; Ng, Marie; Dieleman, Joseph L

    2016-02-01

    In the 2012 Global Vaccine Action Plan, development assistance partners committed to providing sustainable financing for vaccines and expanding vaccination coverage to all children in low- and middle-income countries by 2020. To assess progress toward these goals, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation produced estimates of development assistance for vaccinations. These estimates reveal major increases in the assistance provided since 2000. In 2014, $3.6 billion in development assistance for vaccinations was provided for low- and middle-income countries, up from $822 million in 2000. The funding increase was driven predominantly by the establishment of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the governments of the United States and United Kingdom. Despite stagnation in total development assistance for health from donors from 2010 onward, development assistance for vaccination has continued to grow. PMID:26858376

  17. Past Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    Preface; 1. Ancestry and early days; 2. Schooldays; 3. Relation with other boys at school; 4. Education; 5. Influence of the Royal Institution; 6. Later education in London; 7. Reminiscences of Bedford College; 8. Scientific work and friends in London; 9. Personal retrospect; 10. Romance; 11. Influence of the British Association; 12. Reminiscences of Coopers Hill and assistants and popular lectures; 13. Liverpool; 14. Scientific work at Liverpool; 15. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 16. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 17. Electric waves and the beginnings of wireless; 18. Other friends; 19. Family life; 20. Holidays; 21. Side issues; 22. Early experiences in psychical research; 23. Psychical research; 24. Further psychic adventures, and psycho-physical phenomena; 25. Reminiscences of my years at the university of Birmingham; 26. Birmingham friendships and recollections; 27. Scientific retrospect; 28. Apologia pro vita mea; Index.

  18. Ivermectin: 25 years and still going strong.

    PubMed

    Omura, S

    2008-02-01

    Ivermectin is a drug that many people will never have heard of. Yet thousands of villagers of all ages in communities scattered throughout the remotest parts of Africa and Latin America know its name, and some experts regard it as one of the greatest health interventions of the past 50 years. Ivermectin was brought to the commercial market place for multi-purpose use in animal health in 1981. Six years later it was registered for human use. This remarkable compound has improved the lives and productivity of billions of humans, livestock and pets around the globe, and promises to help consign to the history books two devastating and disfiguring diseases that have plagued people throughout the tropics for generations--while new uses for it are continually being found. PMID:18037274

  19. Spin noise spectroscopy in semiconductors: from a billion down to single spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hbner, J.; Dahbashi, R.; Berski, F.; Wiegand, J.; Kuhn, H.; Lonnemann, J.; Oestreich, M.

    2014-08-01

    Spin noise spectroscopy in semiconductors has matured during the past nine years into a versatile and well developed technique being capable to unveil the intrinsic and unaltered spin dynamics in a wide range of semiconductor systems. Originating from atom and quantum optics as a potential true quantum non-demolition measurement technique, SNS is capable of unearthing the intricate dynamics of free or localized electron and hole spins in semiconductors being eventually coupled to the nuclear spin bath as well. In this contribution, we review shortly the major steps which inspired the success of spin noise spectroscopy in semiconductors and present the most recent extensions into the low-invasive detection regime of the spin dynamics for the two extreme limits of very high and extremely low rates of spin decoherence, respectively. On the one hand, merging ultrafast laser spectroscopy with spin noise spectroscopy enables the detection of spin noise with picosecond resolution, i.e., with THz bandwidths yielding access to otherwise concealed microscopic electronic processes. On the other hand, we present very high sensitivity SNS being capable to measure the extremely long spin coherence of single holes enclosed in individual quantum dots venturing a step forward towards true optical quantum non-demolition experiments in semiconductors. In addition, higher-order spin noise statistics of, e.g., single charges can give information beyond the linear response regime governed by the fundamental fluctuationdissipation theorem and thereby possibly shed some light on the nested coupling between electronic and nuclear spins.

  20. Billions of Planetary Systems: Turning Point at Mid-20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, S. J.

    2002-12-01

    The search for planetary systems, an elusive goal for most of the 20th century, is reminiscent of the search for stellar parallax in earlier centuries. Of the latter, John Herschel once wrote that it seemed within reach of the astronomer, "only to elude his seizure when apparently just within his grasp, continually hovering just beyond the limits of his distinct apprehension, and so leading him on in hopeless, endless, and exhausting pursuit." Such was the case for planetary systems, until the discovery of pulsar planets in 1992, and of planets around solar-type stars beginning in 1995. For the early decades of the century the Jeans-Jeffreys tidal theory of planet formation via close stellar encounters predicted that planets should be very rare. But the 15 years between 1943 and 1958 saw a remarkable turning point in the fortunes of planetary systems. It began with Russell's criticism of the Jeans-Jeffreys theory, but was fueled by the revival of a modified nebular hypothesis (von Weizsacker, 1944), developments in fields as diverse as double star astronomy (Kuiper, 1951), the measurement of stellar rotation periods (Struve, 1950), and geochemistry (Urey, 1952) and - most surprising of all - by claims that planetary systems, or their effects had actually been observed (Strand, 1943; Reuyl and Holmberg, 1943). Struve (1952) even suggested a means for planet detection by the radial velocity method. As Harlow Shapley made clear in his work Of Stars and Men: Human Response to an Expanding Universe (1958), the new cosmology was a continual force in the background favoring abundant planetary systems. All this work was in the background as Peter van de Kamp played out his solitary search for planetary systems, culminating in the announcement (1963) of a planet around Barnard's star. The limits that Herschel spoke of have now been breached, and the search is no longer solitary.

  1. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

  2. STABILITY OF PARTS-PER-BILLION HAZARDOUS ORGANIC CYLINDER GASES AND PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS OF SOURCE TEST AND AMBIENT AIR MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS. STATUS REPORT 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    A repository of 22 gaseous organic compounds at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels in compressed gas cylinders has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objectives of this ongoing project are: (1) to provide accurate gas mixtures to EPA, stat...

  3. STABILITY OF PARTS-PER-BILLION HAZARDOUS ORGANIC CYLINDER GASES AND PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS OF SOURCE TEST AND AMBIENT AIR MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS. STATUS REPORT 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    A repository of 14 gaseous organic compounds at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels in compressed gas cylinders has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objectives of this on-going project are: (1) to provide accurate gas mixtures to EPA, sta...

  4. New Schools, Overcrowding Relief, and Achievement Gains in Los Angeles--Strong Returns from a $19.5 Billion Investment. Policy Brief 12-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, William; Coghlan, Erin; Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to relieve overcrowded schools operating on multiple tracks, the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) has invested more than $19 billion to build 130 new facilities over the past decade. District leaders asked researchers at Berkeley to estimate the achievement effects of this massive initiative--benefits that may stem from entering

  5. 40 CFR 35.910-12 - Reallotment of deobligated funds of Fiscal Year 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Clean Water Act 35.910-12 Reallotment of deobligated funds of Fiscal Year 1978. (a) Of the 4.5 billion appropriated by Public Law 95-240 for Fiscal Year 1978, $23,902,130 remained unobligated as of September 30... Arizona 196,050 Arkansas 189,880 California 2,009,389 Colorado 232,191 Connecticut 279,813 Delaware...

  6. 40 CFR 35.910-12 - Reallotment of deobligated funds of Fiscal Year 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Clean Water Act 35.910-12 Reallotment of deobligated funds of Fiscal Year 1978. (a) Of the 4.5 billion appropriated by Public Law 95-240 for Fiscal Year 1978, $23,902,130 remained unobligated as of September 30... Arizona 196,050 Arkansas 189,880 California 2,009,389 Colorado 232,191 Connecticut 279,813 Delaware...

  7. 40 CFR 35.910-12 - Reallotment of deobligated funds of Fiscal Year 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Clean Water Act 35.910-12 Reallotment of deobligated funds of Fiscal Year 1978. (a) Of the 4.5 billion appropriated by Public Law 95-240 for Fiscal Year 1978, $23,902,130 remained unobligated as of September 30... Arizona 196,050 Arkansas 189,880 California 2,009,389 Colorado 232,191 Connecticut 279,813 Delaware...

  8. 40 CFR 35.910-12 - Reallotment of deobligated funds of Fiscal Year 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Clean Water Act 35.910-12 Reallotment of deobligated funds of Fiscal Year 1978. (a) Of the 4.5 billion appropriated by Public Law 95-240 for Fiscal Year 1978, $23,902,130 remained unobligated as of September 30... Arizona 196,050 Arkansas 189,880 California 2,009,389 Colorado 232,191 Connecticut 279,813 Delaware...

  9. 40 CFR 35.910-12 - Reallotment of deobligated funds of Fiscal Year 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Clean Water Act 35.910-12 Reallotment of deobligated funds of Fiscal Year 1978. (a) Of the 4.5 billion appropriated by Public Law 95-240 for Fiscal Year 1978, $23,902,130 remained unobligated as of September 30... Arizona 196,050 Arkansas 189,880 California 2,009,389 Colorado 232,191 Connecticut 279,813 Delaware...

  10. Microfabricated gas chromatograph for the selective determination of trichloroethylene vapor at sub-parts-per-billion concentrations in complex mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Kyu; Chang, Hungwei; Zellers, Edward T

    2011-09-15

    A complete field-deployable microfabricated gas chromatograph (?GC) is described, and its adaptation to the analysis of low- and subparts-per-billion (ppb) concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE) vapors in complex mixtures is demonstrated through laboratory testing. The specific application being addressed concerns the problem of indoor air contamination by TCE vapor intrusion. The ?GC prototype employs a microfabricated focuser, dual microfabricated separation columns, and a microsensor array. These are interfaced to a nonmicrofabricated front-end pretrap and high-volume sampler module to reduce analysis time and limits of detection (LOD). Selective preconcentration and focusing are coupled with rapid chromatographic separation and multisensor detection for the determination of TCE in the presence of up to 45 interferences. Autonomous operation is possible via a laptop computer. Preconcentration factors as high as 500?000 are achieved. Sensitivities are constant over the range of captured TCE masses tested (i.e., 9-390 ng), and TCE is measured in a test atmosphere at 120 parts-per-trillion (ppt), with a projected LOD of 40 ppt (4.2 ng captured, 20 L sample) and a maximum sampling + analytical cycle time of 36 min. Short- and medium-term (1 month) variations in retention time, absolute responses, and response patterns are within acceptable limits. PMID:21859085

  11. Multi million-to-Billion Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Cavitation-Induced Damage on a Silica Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, Adarsh; Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2012-02-01

    Cavitation bubble collapse causes severe damage to materials. For example, cavitation erosion is a major threat to the safety of nuclear power plants. The cavitation bubbles may also be utilized for preventing stress corrosion cracking with water jet peening technology. We have performed multi million-to-billion atoms molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the shock-induced cavitation damage mechanism on an amorphous silica slab in water. The system consists of a 60nm thick silica slab immersed in water in an MD box of dimension 285 x 200 x 200 nm3. A nanobubble is created by removing water molecules within a sphere of radius 100 nm. To apply a planar shock, we assign a uniform particle velocity vp on the entire system towards a planar momentum mirror. We have performed the simulation with two kinds of bubbles, an empty bubble and a bubble filled with inert gas. The simulation results reveal nanojet formation during bubble collapse causing damage on the silica surface; however, the damage was significantly reduced in the case of the filled bubble. We will discuss the effect of the presence of inter gas inside the nanobubble on the pressure distribution, the extent of damage, and collapse behavior corresponding the shock front.

  12. Impacts of a 32-billion-gallon bioenergy landscape on land and fossil fuel use in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Wang, Weiwei; Khanna, Madhu; Long, Stephen P.; Dwivedi, Puneet; Parton, William J.; Hartman, Melannie; Delucia, Evan H.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable transportation biofuels may require considerable changes in land use to meet mandated targets. Understanding the possible impact of different policies on land use and greenhouse gas emissions has typically proceeded by exploring either ecosystem or economic modelling. Here we integrate such models to assess the potential for the US Renewable Fuel Standard to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector through the use of cellulosic biofuels. We find that 2022 US emissions are decreased by 7.0 ± 2.5% largely through gasoline displacement and soil carbon storage by perennial grasses. If the Renewable Fuel Standard is accompanied by a cellulosic biofuel tax credit, these emissions could be reduced by 12.3 ± 3.4%. Our integrated approach indicates that transitioning to cellulosic biofuels can meet a 32-billion-gallon Renewable Fuel Standard target with negligible effects on food crop production, while reducing fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions. However, emissions savings are lower than previous estimates that did not account for economic constraints.

  13. Malthus is still wrong: we can feed a world of 9-10 billion, but only by reducing food demand.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete

    2015-08-01

    In 1798, Thomas Robert Malthus published 'An essay on the principle of population' in which he concluded that: 'The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.' Over the following century he was criticised for underestimating the potential for scientific and technological innovation to provide positive change. Since then, he has been proved wrong, with a number of papers published during the past few decades pointing out why he has been proved wrong so many times. In the present paper, I briefly review the main changes in food production in the past that have allowed us to continue to meet ever growing demand for food, and I examine the possibility of these same innovations delivering food security in the future. On the basis of recent studies, I conclude that technological innovation can no longer be relied upon to prove Malthus wrong as we strive to feed 9-10 billion people by 2050. Unless we are prepared to accept a wide range of significant, undesirable environmental consequences, technology alone cannot provide food security in 2050. Food demand, particularly the demand for livestock products, will need to be managed if we are to continue to prove Malthus wrong into the future. PMID:25319456

  14. Developing a Billion Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gergen, Christopher; Rego, Lyndon; Wright, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Intentionally developing the leadership capacity of all students is a necessary requirement for schools around the world. The Center for Creative Leadership in Greensboro, N.C., has been at the center of this work and presents three schools as examples: Ravenscroft School in Raleigh, N.C., the African Leadership Academy in Johannesburg, South

  15. Developing a Billion Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gergen, Christopher; Rego, Lyndon; Wright, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Intentionally developing the leadership capacity of all students is a necessary requirement for schools around the world. The Center for Creative Leadership in Greensboro, N.C., has been at the center of this work and presents three schools as examples: Ravenscroft School in Raleigh, N.C., the African Leadership Academy in Johannesburg, South…

  16. Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: Child Development, Molecular Genetics, andWhat to Do With Genes Once They Are Found (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental research are still relevant today. The problem lies with the phrase once they are found: It has been much more difficult than expected to identify genes responsible for the heritability of complex traits and common disorders, the so-called missing heritability problem. The present article considers reasons for the missing heritability problem and possible solutions. PMID:22469254

  17. ``GiGa'': the Billion Galaxy HI Survey-Tracing Galaxy Assembly from Reionization to the Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhorst, R. A.; Cohen, S. H.; Hathi, N. P.; Jansen, R. A.; Ryan, R. E.

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we review the Billion Galaxy Survey that will be carried out at radio-optical wavelengths to micro-nanoJansky levels with the telescopes of the next decades. These are the Low-Frequency Array, the Square Kilometer Array and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope as survey telescopes, and the Thirty Meter class Telescopes for high spectral resolution plus AO, and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for high spatial resolution near-mid-IR follow-up. With these facilities, we will be addressing fundamental questions like how galaxies assemble with super-massive black-holes inside from the epoch of First Light until the present, how these objects started and finished the reionization of the universe, and how the processes of star-formation, stellar evolution, and metal enrichment of the IGM proceeded over cosmic time. We also summarize the high-resolution science that has been done thus far on high redshift galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Faint galaxies have steadily decreasing sizes at fainter fluxes and higher redshifts, reflecting the hierarchical formation of galaxies over cosmic time. HST has imaged this process in great structural detail to z<~6. We show that ultradeep radio-optical surveys may slowly approach the natural confusion limit, where objects start to unavoidably overlap because of their own sizes, which only SKA can remedy with HI redshifts for individual sub-clumps. Finally, we summarize how the 6.5 meter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will measure first light, reionization, and galaxy assembly in the near-mid-IR.

  18. Photographer : JPL Range : 4 billion miles from Earth, at 32 degrees to the ecliptic. P-36057C This

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 4 billion miles from Earth, at 32 degrees to the ecliptic. P-36057C This color image of the Sun, Earth, and Venus is one of the first, and maybe, only images that show are solar system from such a vantage point. The image is a portion of a wide angle image containing the sun and the region of space where the Earth and Venus were at the time, with narrow angle cameras centered on each planet. The wide angle was taken with the cameras darkest filter, a methane absorption band, and the shortest possible exposure, one two-hundredth of a second, to avoid saturating the camera's vidicon tube with scattered sunlight. The sun is not large in the sky, as seen from Voyager's perpective at the edge of the solar system. Yet, it is still 8xs brighter than the brightest star in Earth's sky, Sirius. The image of the sun you see is far larger than the actual dimension of the solar disk. The result of the brightness is a bright burned out image with multiple reflections from the optics of the camera. The rays around th sun are a diffraction pattern of the calibration lamp which is mounted in front of the wide angle lens. the 2 narrow angle frames containing the images of the Earth and Venus have been digitally mosaicked into the wide angle image at the appropriate scale. These images were taken through three color filters and recombined to produce the color image. The violet, green, and blue filters used , as well as exposure times of .72,.48, and .72 for Earth, and .36, .24, and .36 for Venus.The images also show long linear streaks resulting from scatering of sulight off parts of the camera and its shade.

  19. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

  20. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program`s oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994.

  1. Drug Prohibition and Public Health: 25 Years of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Drucker, Ernest

    1999-01-01

    FOR THE PAST 25 YEARS, the US has pursued a drug policy based on prohibition and the vigorous application of criminal sanctions for the use and sale of illicit drugs. The relationship of a prohibition-based drug policy to prevalence patterns and health consequences of drug use has never been fully evaluated. To explore that relationship, the author examines national data on the application of criminal penalties for illegal drugs and associated trends in their patterns of use and adverse health outcomes for 1972–1997. Over this 25-year period, the rate at which criminal penalties are imposed for drug offenses has climbed steadily, reaching 1.5 million arrests for drug offenses in 1996, with a tenfold increase in imprisonment for drug charges since 1979. Today, drug enforcement activities constitute 67% of the $16 billion Federal drug budget and more than $20 billion per year in state and local enforcement expenditures, compared with $7.6 billion for treatment, prevention, and research. Despite an overall decline in the prevalence of drug use since 1979, we have seen dramatic increases in drugrelated emergency department visits and drug-related deaths coinciding with this period of increased enforcement. Further, while black, Hispanic, and white Americans use illegal drugs at comparable rates, there are dramatic differences in the application of criminal penalties for drug offenses. African Americans are more than 20 times as likely as whites to be incarcerated for drug offenses, and drug-related emergency department visits, overdose deaths, and new HIV infections related to injecting drugs are many times higher for blacks than whites. These outcomes may be understood as public health consequences of policies that criminalize and marginalize drug users and increase drug-related risks to life and health. Imagesp14-ap15-ap16-ap21-ap24-a PMID:9925168

  2. River Protection Project FY 2000 Multi Year Work Plan Summary

    SciTech Connect

    LENSEIGNE, D.L.

    1999-08-27

    The River Protection Project (RPP), formerly the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), is a major part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP). The ORP was established as directed by Congress in Section 3139 of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The ORP was established to elevate the reporting and accountability for the RPP to the DOE-Headquarters level. This was done to gain Congressional visibility and obtain support for a major $10 billion high-level liquid waste vitrification effort.

  3. The pericardial valve in the aortic position ten years later.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Lavin, L; Gonzalez-Lavin, J; Chi, S; Lewis, B; Amini, S; Graf, D

    1991-01-01

    To assess the behavior of the pericardial valve at 10 years after implantation, the cases of 240 patients who had undergone aortic valve replacement with the standard Ionescu-Shiley (Shiley, Inc., Irvine, Calif.) bovine pericardial valve between February 1977 and December 1983 were reassessed. Follow-up of the 224 hospital survivors was 99.6% complete. Fifty-seven valve-related events occurred. Fourteen were thrombotic events (1.2%/patient-year), 28 were intrinsic tissue failures (2.4%/patient-year), 13 were cases of prosthetic valve endocarditis (1.1%/patient-year), and 2 were paravalvular leaks (0.17%/patient-year). The linearized rate for death, reoperation, or both resulting from valve-related events was 3.6%/patient-year. Time-related hazard function for the instantaneous risk of death and/or reoperation resulting from valve-related events demonstrated an exponential increase after 80 months. These data, in conjunction with our previous reports on the histologic changes in pericardial collagen and the incidence of calcification (26/28), should be considered regarding new and future generations of pericardial bioprostheses. Although this device provides good hemodynamics and carries a low incidence of thromboembolism, it has a limited durability. New generations of pericardial valves may have improved structural features, but the behavior of glutaraldehyde-fixed, formaldehyde-stored bovine pericardium as currently selected and prepared is unlikely to change. PMID:1986172

  4. Betting big on doc ownership. 'Boutique' chain blasts off with $1 billion investment, plans for 10 hospitals, and hopes to create healthcare model of the future.

    PubMed

    Zigmond, Jessica

    2006-12-11

    A new "boutique" chain is roaring out the gate with $1 billion to spend and plans for 10 hospitals. University General Hospital Systems, which aspires to offer the feel of a luxury hotel in its facilities, is wading into the thick of some of the most controversial issues in healthcare. All but one of its hospitals are planned for states without CON laws, according to W.J. "Bill" Burk, left. PMID:17212213

  5. A Year-by-Year Analysis of Transiting Exoplanet Detectability Using LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacklin, Savannah Renee; Lund, Michael B.; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan

    2015-12-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will generate light curves for approximately 1 billion stars over the course of its ten year initial mission. The majority of LSST light curves will contain about 1000 data points (so-called regular cadence) while select fields will have light curves with 10000 data points (deep-drilling cadence). Lund et al. (2015) demonstrated that several configurations of exoplanetary systems could be recovered using LSST in areas currently underrepresented in planet searches; i.e. the galactic bulge, the Magellanic clouds, and nearby red dwarfs. A fundamental question in working with LSST data is how time sensitive detection of transient phenomena will affect the rate and type of expected scientific discoveries. Specifically, we aim to examine how quickly significant science results be achievable over the course of LSSTs ten year mission. We apply a methodology established in Jacklin et al. (2015) designed to examine hot Jupiter detectability over a range of planetary periods and radii in LSSTs ten year light curves. Here, we conduct a similar analysis on a yearly basis in order to examine the change in detectability over the course of the LSST mission. We specifically report on how the LSST yield evolves on a year-by-year basis for the extreme systems, such as planets orbiting very low-mass M-dwarfs in the Milky Way, that we have considered in our previous analyses.

  6. Small business report to Congress for fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report describes the various programs of the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization designed to ensure small businesses have an equitable opportunity to do business with the Department of Energy. In addition, this report covers 33 organizational components of the Department and details the extent to which small business firms are participating in the procurement process as well as efforts taken to ensure continued involvement. During fiscal year 1992, the Department met or exceeded its percentage and dollar goals for 8(a) concerns, labor surplus area set-asides, and for-subcontracting to small businesses. The Department`s contract awards to small businesses totaled $3.1 billion (17.3 percent of the 18.1 billion the Department spent on contracts), which consisted of Departmental prime contracts and management and operating contracts. During fiscal year 1992, the Department awarded contracts totaling $307 million to small disadvantaged businesses under Section 8(a) of the U.S. Small Business Act. This total represents 1.7 percent of all prime contracts over $25,000 awarded by the Department during that period. The Department and its management and operating contractors awards to women-owned businesses and labor surplus area set-asides totaled $327 million and $596 million, respectively. The achievements in small business subcontracting for fiscal year 1992 was $234 million, including $23 million to small disadvantaged firms.

  7. Fourteen Reasons Privacy Matters: A Multidisciplinary Review of Scholarly Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magi, Trina J.

    2011-01-01

    Librarians have long recognized the importance of privacy to intellectual freedom. As digital technology and its applications advance, however, efforts to protect privacy may become increasingly difficult. With some users behaving in ways that suggest they do not care about privacy and with powerful voices claiming that privacy is dead, librarians…

  8. Curriculum Design for Consumer Education, Kindergarten through Grade Fourteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    Exploring the economic-psychological-sociological questions related to the purchase of goods, the publication is intended as a foundation on which comprehensive local programs of consumer education can be built. It provides a conceptual framework drawn from the academic disciplines. Focusing on three major concepts (the individual consumer, the

  9. Determining Work Culture Scores for Fourteen Developed Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belote, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As business relationships become increasingly global in nature, a new methodology for understanding the approach to work in various nations is needed. When involved in business dealings with international partners, it is crucial that the modern businessperson understand and empathize with the culture of the company with which he or she is working.

  10. Fourteen babies born after round spermatid injection into human oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Nagayoshi, Motoi; Takemoto, Youichi; Tanaka, Izumi; Kusunoki, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Seiji; Kuroda, Keiji; Takeda, Satoru; Ito, Masahiko; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo

    2015-01-01

    During the human in vitro fertilization procedure in the assisted reproductive technology, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is routinely used to inject a spermatozoon or a less mature elongating spermatid into the oocyte. In some infertile men, round spermatids (haploid male germ cells that have completed meiosis) are the most mature cells visible during testicular biopsy. The microsurgical injection of a round spermatid into an oocyte as a substitute is commonly referred to as round spermatid injection (ROSI). Currently, human ROSI is considered a very inefficient procedure and of no clinical value. Herein, we report the birth and development of 14 children born to 12 women following ROSI of 734 oocytes previously activated by an electric current. The round spermatids came from men who had been diagnosed as not having spermatozoa or elongated spermatids by andrologists at other hospitals after a first Micro-TESE. A key to our success was our ability to identify round spermatids accurately before oocyte injection. As of today, all children born after ROSI in our clinic are without any unusual physical, mental, or epigenetic problems. Thus, for men whose germ cells are unable to develop beyond the round spermatid stage, ROSI can, as a last resort, enable them to have their own genetic offspring. PMID:26575628

  11. Fourteen babies born after round spermatid injection into human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Nagayoshi, Motoi; Takemoto, Youichi; Tanaka, Izumi; Kusunoki, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Seiji; Kuroda, Keiji; Takeda, Satoru; Ito, Masahiko; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo

    2015-11-24

    During the human in vitro fertilization procedure in the assisted reproductive technology, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is routinely used to inject a spermatozoon or a less mature elongating spermatid into the oocyte. In some infertile men, round spermatids (haploid male germ cells that have completed meiosis) are the most mature cells visible during testicular biopsy. The microsurgical injection of a round spermatid into an oocyte as a substitute is commonly referred to as round spermatid injection (ROSI). Currently, human ROSI is considered a very inefficient procedure and of no clinical value. Herein, we report the birth and development of 14 children born to 12 women following ROSI of 734 oocytes previously activated by an electric current. The round spermatids came from men who had been diagnosed as not having spermatozoa or elongated spermatids by andrologists at other hospitals after a first Micro-TESE. A key to our success was our ability to identify round spermatids accurately before oocyte injection. As of today, all children born after ROSI in our clinic are without any unusual physical, mental, or epigenetic problems. Thus, for men whose germ cells are unable to develop beyond the round spermatid stage, ROSI can, as a last resort, enable them to have their own genetic offspring. PMID:26575628

  12. Fourteen monogenic genes account for 15% of nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis.

    PubMed

    Halbritter, Jan; Baum, Michelle; Hynes, Ann Marie; Rice, Sarah J; Thwaites, David T; Gucev, Zoran S; Fisher, Brittany; Spaneas, Leslie; Porath, Jonathan D; Braun, Daniela A; Wassner, Ari J; Nelson, Caleb P; Tasic, Velibor; Sayer, John A; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2015-03-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a prevalent condition with a high morbidity. Although dozens of monogenic causes have been identified, the fraction of single-gene disease has not been well studied. To determine the percentage of cases that can be molecularly explained by mutations in 1 of 30 known kidney stone genes, we conducted a high-throughput mutation analysis in a cohort of consecutively recruited patients from typical kidney stone clinics. The cohort comprised 272 genetically unresolved individuals (106 children and 166 adults) from 268 families with nephrolithiasis (n=256) or isolated nephrocalcinosis (n=16). We detected 50 likely causative mutations in 14 of 30 analyzed genes, leading to a molecular diagnosis in 14.9% (40 of 268) of all cases; 20 of 50 detected mutations were novel (40%). The cystinuria gene SLC7A9 (n=19) was most frequently mutated. The percentage of monogenic cases was notably high in both the adult (11.4%) and pediatric cohorts (20.8%). Recessive causes were more frequent among children, whereas dominant disease occurred more abundantly in adults. Our study provides an in-depth analysis of monogenic causes of kidney stone disease. We suggest that knowledge of the molecular cause of nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis may have practical implications and might facilitate personalized treatment. PMID:25296721

  13. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Fourteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the journal includes these papers on contrastive linguistics: "Violations of Frege's Principle and Their Significance for Contrastive Semantics" (Dafydd Gibbon); "Writing the Contrastive Grammar of English and Dutch. The Treatment of Modal Notions" (Flor Aarts and Herman Wekker); "The Theory and Methodology of Speech Science and

  14. Total Quality Management in Higher Education: Applying Deming's Fourteen Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Robert J.; Leiker, Linda

    1992-01-01

    This article presents guidelines to aid administrators of institutions of higher education in applying the 14 principles of Total Quality Management. The principles stress understanding process improvements, handling variation, fostering prediction, and using psychology to capitalize on human resources. (DB)

  15. Fourteen Reasons Privacy Matters: A Multidisciplinary Review of Scholarly Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magi, Trina J.

    2011-01-01

    Librarians have long recognized the importance of privacy to intellectual freedom. As digital technology and its applications advance, however, efforts to protect privacy may become increasingly difficult. With some users behaving in ways that suggest they do not care about privacy and with powerful voices claiming that privacy is dead, librarians

  16. Syllabi Set on Women, Health and Healing: Fourteen Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzek, Sheryl, Comp.; And Others

    Compiled with the goal of developing social science perspectives on women's health and on topics at the intersection of social science and clinical issues, the syllabi included were developed by faculty teaching in the Women, Health and Healing Program at the University of California, San Francisco. The courses here are directed at upper division

  17. Galaxy Evolution Explorer Celebrates Five Years in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    Since its launch five years ago, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has photographed hundreds of millions of galaxies in ultraviolet light. M106 is one of those galaxies, and from 22 light years away, it strikes a pose in blue and gold for this new commemorative portrait.

    The galaxy's extended arms are the blue filaments that curve around its edge, creating its outer disk. Tints of blue in M106's arms reveal hot, young massive stars. Traces of gold toward the center show an older stellar population and indicate the presence of obscuring dust.

    From 24 million light-years away, neighboring galaxy NGC 4248 also makes a memorable appearance, sitting just right of M106. The irregular galaxy looks like a yellow smudge, with a bluish-white bar in the center. The galaxy's outer golden glow indicates a population of older stars, while the blue central region shows a younger stellar demographic.

    Dwarf galaxy UGC 7365 emerges at the bottom center of this image, as a faint yellow smudge directly below M106. This galaxy is not forming any new stars, and looks much smaller than M106 despite being closer to Earth, at 14 million light-years away.

    Over the past five years, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has imaged half a billion objects over 27,000 square degrees of sky equivalent to an area that would be covered by 138,000 full moons. The telescope orbits Earth every 94 minutes and travels approximately 408,470 million miles per day. Its overarching question is: how do galaxies grow and change over 10 billion years of cosmic history?

    M106, also known as NGC 4258, is located in the constellation Canes Venatici. This image is a two-color composite, where far-ultraviolet light is blue, and near-ultraviolet light is red.

  18. Student Financial Aid Reaches $20.5-Billion, but Fails to Keep Pace with Rising College Costs, Study Finds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evangelauf, Jean

    1987-01-01

    A College Board study found that over seven years, college charges rose 56 percent to 80 percent, while institutional, state, and federal aid rose only 20 percent and dramatic shifts in the composition of federal aid occurred. (MSE)

  19. Subacute bacterial endocarditis and subsequent shunt nephritis from ventriculoatrial shunting 14?years after shunt implantation.

    PubMed

    Burstrm, Gustav; Andresen, Morten; Bartek, Jiri; Fytagoridis, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Fourteen years after shunt implantation, a 26-year-old patient with myelomeningocele, concomitant hydrocephalus and a ventriculoatrial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt presented with brief but recurrent episodes of fever predominantly when taking showers or during physical exertion. After 4?years of inconclusive multidisciplinary investigations, the patient progressed into end-stage renal disease before an echocardiogram revealed a vegetative plaque on the tendinous chords of the tricuspid valve. CSF cultures were grown from the shunt valve, confirming bacterial growth of Propionibacterium acnes suspected of causing subacute bacterial endocarditis and subsequent shunt nephritis. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotics combined with ventriculoatrial shunt removal and endoscopic third ventriculocisternostomy (VCS). This case illustrates the nowadays rare, but potentially severe complication of subacute bacterial endocarditis and shunt nephritis. It also exemplifies the VCS as an alternative to implanting foreign shunt systems for CSF diversion. PMID:24962489

  20. An efficient and comprehensive method for drainage network extraction from DEM with billions of pixels using a size-balanced binary search tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Rui; Li, Tiejian; Huang, Yuefei; Li, Jiaye; Wang, Guangqian

    2015-06-01

    With the increasing resolution of digital elevation models (DEMs), computational efficiency problems have been encountered when extracting the drainage network of a large river basin at billion-pixel scales. The efficiency of the most time-consuming depression-filling pretreatment has been improved by using the O(NlogN) complexity least-cost path search method, but the complete extraction steps following this method have not been proposed and tested. In this paper, an improved O(NlogN) algorithm was proposed by introducing a size-balanced binary search tree (BST) to improve the efficiency of the depression-filling pretreatment further. The following extraction steps, including the flow direction determination and the upslope area accumulation, were also redesigned to benefit from this improvement. Therefore, an efficient and comprehensive method was developed. The method was tested to extract drainage networks of 31 river basins with areas greater than 500,000 km2 from the 30-m-resolution ASTER GDEM and two sub-basins with areas of approximately 1000 km2 from the 1-m-resolution airborne LiDAR DEM. Complete drainage networks with both vector features and topographic parameters were obtained with time consumptions in O(NlogN) complexity. The results indicate that the developed method can be used to extract entire drainage networks from DEMs with billions of pixels with high efficiency.

  1. Assessment of the labor impacts of coal gasification systems: Project No. 61027. Final report. [Considers a 250 billion Btu/day coal gasification plant, in each of 17 counties with sufficient coal, in terms of available labor and in-migration necessary

    SciTech Connect

    Donakowski, T.D.; Daniels, E.J.

    1980-12-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has estimated the labor requirements and their impacts for construction and operation of coal gasification systems (mine and plant). Commercial-size high-, medium-, and low-Btu systems were studied. For the high-Btu system (1000 Btu/SCF) producing 250 billion Btu/day, the labor requirements are shown in Table ES-1. For small, low-Btu systems (150 Btu/SCF) producing 1.5 billion Btu/day, we determined that about 300 systems have equivalent labor requirements to one high-Btu system. Requirements include both mining and gasifying coal. Both basic and secondary (supportive) labor were considered during the 4-year construction and 20-year operation phases of the system. The requirements are expected values based on a sample of 17 counties that we consider as potential sites for gasification. Labor availability at the county level was obtained from the Social and Economic Assessment Model developed by Argonne National Laboratory. This model allowed us to estimate in-migration requirements. If one assmes a commercialization scenario of ten systems under construction simultaneously, the average number of workers required during the 4-year construction period is the sum of basic and secondary labor, or about 77,830. If ten systems are operating simultaneously, about 47,000 workers are required for 20 years. In-migration (or training) impacts during the construction phase of this scenario is about 49,270 workers; during the operation phase, it is about 13,900. A qualitative evaluation of future labor supply by types of occupations indicates that shortages are possible for engineers, painters, pipefitters, ironworkers, and cement masons as coal gasification technology becomes increasingly commercialized.

  2. Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts: a ten year experience in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Inouye, A A; Whelan, T J

    1978-07-01

    A ten year review (1966-1975) of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma in three major Honolulu hospitals is presented. Fifty-seven patients satisfied the criteria for the study. The disease occurs predominantly in the Japanese population. Survival of patients with upper third lesions proximal to the cystic duct is poor, and all patients followed died within seventeen months of hospitalization or operation. In patients undergoing bypass procedures for lower third (intrapancreatic) lesions, palliation averages ten months. The Whipple operation, performed in fourteen selected patients with favorable lesions, affords palliation averaging twenty months, and five patients were long-term survivors, including two with five year cures. However, morbidity and mortality for the Whipple procedure is high. Methods for improving palliation in upper third lesions and lowering morbidity and mortality from pancreatoduodenectomy are proposed. PMID:677394

  3. Comparison of ozone injury to vegetation during moist and drought years

    SciTech Connect

    Showman, R.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Ozone is the most important phytotoxic air pollutant in the US. It has been estimated that ozone is responsible for a yearly agricultural yield loss of around $3 billion. The severity of ozone injury to plants in influence by a number of factors. Experimental studies have demonstrated that drought stress is one factor that can ameliorate the phytotoxic effects of ozone. the purpose of this note is to report the results of field surveys of ozone injury during years of varying rainfall and ozone concentrations.

  4. Connectivity and control in the year 2000 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Nolan, R L; Brennan, J; Coyne, K P; Spong, S; Spar, J; Strauss, N; Milan, T; Speight, D; Tedlow, R S; Gillotti, D; Yardeni, E; Block, D J; Radin, S A; Sheinheit, S; Robbins, B

    1998-01-01

    By now, most executives are familiar with the famous Year 2000 problem--and many believe that their companies have the situation well in hand. After all, it seems to be such a trivial problem--computer software that interprets "oo" to be the year 1900 instead of the year 2000. And yet armies of computer professionals have been working on it--updating code in payroll systems, distribution systems, actuarial systems, sales-tracking systems, and the like. The problem is pervasive. Not only is it in your systems, it's in your suppliers' systems, your bankers' systems, and your customers' systems. It's embedded in chips that control elevators, automated teller machines, process-control equipment, and power grids. Already, a dried-food manufacturer destroyed millions of dollars of perfectly good product when a computer counted inventory marked with an expiration date of "oo" as nearly a hundred years old. And when managers of a sewage-control plant turned the clock to January I, 2000 on a computer system they thought had been fixed, raw sewage pumped directly into the harbor. It has become apparent that there will not be enough time to find and fix all of the problems by January I, 2000. And what good will it do if your computers work but they're connected with systems that don't? That is one of the questions Harvard Business School professor Richard Nolan asks in his introduction to HBR's Perspectives on the Year 2000 issue. How will you prepare your organization to respond when things start to go wrong? Fourteen commentators offer their ideas on how senior managers should think about connectivity and control in the year 2000 and beyond. PMID:10181588

  5. Pediatric Pathology In The Year 2050.

    PubMed

    Singer, Don B

    2015-01-01

    The study of pathology in fetuses, infants, and children had its beginnings in the mid-19th century. Now, 165 years later, hundreds of pediatric pathologists are in up-to-date practices throughout the world. They, and all medical practitioners, are just beginning to delve into the nanotechnical wave. Nanotechnology refers to the structure and activity of minute particles, molecules, compounds, and atoms. By 2050, as nanotechnical studies develop further, new diseases and variations of old diseases will be discovered. Aggregation of medical data from billions of people, a process known as crowd sourcing, will be digitally interconnected to the new findings with computers. Pediatric pathologists will contribute to this expanding science with new laboratory instruments, including ultramodern microscopes known as Omniscopes. Robots will be programmed to perform autopsies and process surgical specimens. Analyzers in chemistry, microbiology, hematology, and genetics will, in 2050, produce dozens or even hundreds of results within minutes. These advances will lead to better treatments and overall better health for everyone. PMID:26214731

  6. An Extraordinary Year for Managing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    It's wonderful to be back home again in Indiana. I am honored to be here with you today to share two important results of effective technology management. The first is the indirect return on investment that Americans get from NASA's relatively lean annual budget, and the second is the direct economic benefits that the great state of Indiana and businesses nationwide realize through multiple contracts with NASA. As a proud Purdue graduate and deputy director of one of NASA's highest-priority, multi-billion dollar projects, I have a vested interest in this conference and in the outcome of this work. My goal today is to help you better understand the types of work in which NASA engages and to provide avenues for you to pursue opportunities with America's space Agency, if that is a good fit for your company. You may already know that NASA and various Indiana businesses and universities are partners in the pursuit of improving life on Earth through scientific discoveries that pay dividends in terms of expanded knowledge, as well as big-picture conveniences and a multitude of spin-offs. Whether your organization is large or small, NASA offers numerous opportunities to participate. Before I provide some motivating facts and figures about the aerospace industry and its economic impact, I want to set the stage by sharing several notable examples of how 2005 was an extraordinary year for technology management at NASA, a subject that I can speak about firsthand.

  7. U. S. natural gas demand through the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Itteilag, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Based on predictions by the U.S. Gas Association, the demand for natural gas (PG) in the country may rise by 1.5 times from 1980 to the year 2000. This prediction counts on an increase in the extraction of natural gas in Alaska and on the import of natural gas from Canada and Mexico and in some variants, liquified natural gas from other countries. The production of gas from coal and heavy hydrocarbons is discussed. The increase in the demand for gas will make it possible to reduce oil imports to the U.S. At the same time, it is noted that with an unfavorable development of the gas balance, it is possible that the demand for natural gas in the U.S. will not rise by the year 2000 and might even be somewhat reduced as compared to the 1980 level. The balance of gas demand in the U.S. (in billions of cubic meters) for 1980 and the year 2000 (predicted), respectively, is as follows: homes: 150 and 130 to 170; small consumers: 70 and 90 to 130; industry: 240 and 230 to 350; electric power plants (ES): 100 and 30 to 60; new fields of application: 0 and 40 to 140 and pipelines: 20 and 20, with totals of 580 and 550 to 870, respectively. In all variants the demand for natural gas by small consumers rises while the demand by thermoelectric power plants (TES) will be sharply reduced. New fields for using natural gas (billions of cubic meters) are: motor vehicle motors, from 10 to 50; complex industrial installations which generate electricity and thermal power, 20 to 60 and the liquefaction of natural gas along with coal to facilitate the use of coal.

  8. Six climate change-related events in the United States accounted for about $14 billion in lost lives and health costs.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Kim; Rotkin-Ellman, Miriam; Geballe, Linda; Max, Wendy; Solomon, Gina M

    2011-11-01

    The future health costs associated with predicted climate change-related events such as hurricanes, heat waves, and floods are projected to be enormous. This article estimates the health costs associated with six climate change-related events that struck the United States between 2000 and 2009. The six case studies came from categories of climate change-related events projected to worsen with continued global warming-ozone pollution, heat waves, hurricanes, infectious disease outbreaks, river flooding, and wildfires. We estimate that the health costs exceeded $14billion, with 95percent due to the value of lives lost prematurely. Actual health care costs were an estimated $740million. This reflects more than 760,000 encounters with the health care system. Our analysis provides scientists and policy makers with a methodology to use in estimating future health costs related to climate change and highlights the growing need for public health preparedness. PMID:22068410

  9. Period Recoverability of Exoplanets Using LSST: A Yearly Yield Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacklin, Savannah; Lund, Michael; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan

    2016-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will generate light curves for approximately 1 billion stars over the course of its ten year initial mission. The majority of LSST light curves will contain about 1000 data points (so-called regular cadence) while select fields will have 10000 data points (deep-drilling cadence). Lund et al. (2015) demonstrated that several configurations of exoplanetary systems could be recovered using LSST in areas currently underrepresented in planet searches; i.e. the galactic bulge, the Magellanic clouds, and nearby red dwarfs. A fundamental question in working with LSST data is how time-sensitive detection of transient phenomena will affect the rate and type of expected scientific discoveries. Specifically, we aim to examine how quickly significant science results be achievable over the course of LSST's ten-year mission. We apply a methodology established in Jacklin et al. (2015) designed to examine hot Jupiter detectability over a range of planetary periods and radii in LSST's ten-year light curves. Here, we conduct a similar analysis on a yearly basis in order to examine the rate of detection over the course of the LSST mission. We specifically report on how the LSST yield of exoplanet detections evolves on a year-by-year basis for a variety of systems.

  10. 100 patient-years of ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Dudrick, S J; O'Donnell, J J; Englert, D M; Matheny, R G; Blume, E R; Nutt, R E; Hickey, M S; Barroso, A O

    1984-01-01

    More than 100 patient-years' experience has been acquired in the treatment of 133 patients with ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition (TPN) between May 1974 and December 1983. Indications for chronic or permanent home TPN include short bowel syndrome, malabsorption, scleroderma, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide syndrome. Indications for acute or temporary home TPN include Crohn's disease, malignancies, gastrointestinal fistulas, ulcerative colitis, anorexia nervosa, and numerous other disorders. Eighty-two patients in the acute group were treated primarily with percutaneously placed standard subclavian catheters and 51 patients in the chronic group have been treated thus far with implanted silicone rubber, Dacron-cuffed catheters for a cumulative total of 38,939 patient days. Of the 125 implanted catheters, 115 were placed in the superior vena cava and ten in the inferior vena cava for an average duration of 250 catheter-days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for more than 8 1/2 years. Catheter-related sepsis occurred 33 times with the implanted catheters, or once every 2.6 catheter-years. One hundred and fourteen temporary catheters were placed percutaneously in the superior vena cava via a subclavian vein for an average duration of 68 days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for 213 days. Catheter-related sepsis occurred seven times, equivalent to one episode per 3 catheter-years. Total catheter-related complications were quite infrequent and were directly related to duration of catheterization. They included venous thrombosis (12), clotted catheter (11), catheter failure or rupture (8), catheter compression (5) and inadvertent catheter removal (4). Twenty-six catheters were repaired or spliced in situ when the external segment was accidentally damaged or deteriorated secondary to long-term material fatigue. One remarkable patient has been maintained exclusively by TPN originally as an inpatient and subsequently as an outpatient for the entire 13 years of his life. Images Fig. 1. Figs. 2A and B. Figs. 3A-C. PMID:6428331

  11. Meeting the food, energy, and water demands of nine billion people: Will climate change add a new dimension?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change will add a new stress to our ability to produce food and supply water and energy for the expanding population. There is an emerging gap between the current production trends in food commodities around the world and the projected needs to meet the demands for the world population. This also translates into a water gap as well because it will require an increasing amount of water to produce this food. There is emerging evidence that the rising temperatures will reduce our potential for increasing food production because the optimal temperature for plant growth will be exceeded. This will be accompanied by an increase in water use because of the increasing rates of water use by plants in a warming environment. These factors will further increase the gap between supply and demand. To offset these impacts will require comprehensive adaptation strategies linking food production systems to climate change. Climate change will create scenarios with increasing variability in both the spatial and temporal components of precipitation and temperature. The spatial variability in precipitation being experienced around the world in the past five years will be expected to increase and impact both food and water supplies. These trends along with an increase in extreme events will further exacerbate the stress on water availability and ultimately on food and energy production. The nexus of food, energy, and water demands of an increasing world population is complex because of the interactions among climate parameters and these demands. Considering the interactions among these parameters adds even more complexity to how we have to consider adaptation strategies to ensure an adequate food supply and efficient use of water and energy. Structuring policy to develop potential solutions to ensure an increasing food supply and more efficient use of water and energy will require a more integrated approach to understanding the dynamics of food, water, and energy systems across the backdrop of a changing climate and increasing world population.

  12. Can the World's Farmers Feed a World of 10 Billion People In Spite of Climate Change? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easterling, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    The rapid rise in agricultural productivity due to technological innovation and science-based methods was one of the great human achievements of the 20th century. We now face the prospect of needing to double agricultural output by the latter third of the current century to match the growth of demand for food and fiber—albeit the pace of growth in demand shows signs of slowing in the future. How farmers and the agricultural industry deal with climate change will, in large measure, determine success or failure. The Earth is committed to about the same amount of warming in the future as has been experienced over the past hundred years regardless of future greenhouse gas emissions trajectories; such will require adaptive responses by plants, animals, producers and consumers if society’s goals for global food security are to be met. In this paper, I summarize the state-of-the science of how climate change may affect our global agricultural production system. I review the latest thinking on the combined effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes on crop productivity across the globe. Prospects for adaptation in agriculturally important regions are examined. While it appears that global food production will be adequate to meet global food demand in spite of advancing climate change, it is clear that many parts of the tropics and dry sub-tropics will see yield decreases and possible loss of comparative advantage. In those regions, continued large population growth and deleterious climate changes will contribute to declining per capita agricultural production. Increasing numbers of people at risk of hunger are probable there.

  13. Twenty years after Giotto - ESA's pioneering mission to comet Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwehm, Gerhard

    2006-02-01

    Almost exactly twenty years ago, on 14 March 1986, ESA's Giotto spacecraft made its historic fly-by of comet Halley at a distance of about 596 km. This close encounter represented a major milestone of planetary science in general, but also gave an important boost to the European planetary-science community that is still having an impact today. Besides its scientific importance, it was also the first big mission-related media event for ESA. The "Night of the Comet" at ESOC in Darmstadt (D) was relayed by Eurovision, with 56 TV stations from 37 countries reporting the encounter live, attracting a television audience of more than 1.5 billion. The images sent back by Giotto's Halley Multicolour Camera radically transformed everyone's ideas about what the nucleus of a comet really looked like.

  14. False-belief understanding and social preference over the first 2 years of school: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fink, Elian; Begeer, Sander; Hunt, Caroline; de Rosnay, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The role of false belief in establishing children's social relationships during the transition to school was examined and compared to other social cognitive constructs. One hundred and fourteen 5-year-olds were recruited during their 1st year of school (Time 1); 106 children were retained 1 year later. False belief, emotion expression recognition, empathy, verbal ability, and peer-rated social preference were measured at both times. False belief at Time 1 had a direct influence on concurrent social preference, over and above the influence of emotion expression recognition and empathy. False belief made no independent contribution to later social preference accounting for stability in social preference. The role of social cognitive development is discussed with respect to how children establish and maintain their position in a peer group. PMID:25291436

  15. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

    1999-05-26

    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. They also locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consists of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The operational rate for the first quarter of FY99 for stations in the HSN was 99.8%. There were 121 triggers during the first quarter of fiscal year 1999. Fourteen triggers were local earthquakes; seven (50%) were in the Columbia River Basalt Group, no earthquakes occurred in the pre-basalt sediments, and seven (50%) were in the crystalline basement. One earthquake (7%) occurred near or along the Horn Rapids anticline, seven earthquakes (50%) occurred in a known swarm area, and six earthquakes (43%) were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometer during the first quarter of FY99.

  16. The International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1957 a program of international research, inspired by the International Polar Years of 1882 and 1932, was organized as the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to study global phenomena of the Earth and geospace. Fifty years later, the world s space science community will again come together for international programs of scientific collaboration: the International Heliophysical Year (IHY), the Electronic Geophysical Year (eGY), and the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007. This time, research will extend out into the Heliosphere to focus on solar-terrestrial-planetary interactions. The ambitious plans for the IHY, eGY and IPY incorporate the activities of scientists in 191 nations, as well as the IGY Gold Historical Preservation initiative, plus a series of coordinated campaigns involving more than 100 instruments and models, education and public outreach programs, a developing nations instrument development program, and opportunities for supported research worldwide. The presentation will focus on the efforts and operations which will make these activities possible.

  17. Follow the money: how the billions of dollars that flow from smokers in poor nations to companies in rich nations greatly exceed funding for global tobacco control and what might be done about it.

    PubMed

    Callard, Cynthia

    2010-08-01

    The business of selling cigarettes is increasingly concentrated in the hands of five tobacco companies that collectively control almost 90% of the world's cigarette market, four of which are publicly traded corporations. The economic activities of these cigarette manufacturers can be monitored through their reports to shareholders and other public documents. Reports for 2008 show that the revenues of these five companies exceeded $300 billion, of which more than $160 billion was provided to governments as taxes, and that corporate earnings of the four publicly traded companies were over $25 billion, of which $14 billion was retained after corporate income taxes were paid. By contrast, funding for domestic and international tobacco control is not reliably reported. Estimated funding for global tobacco control in 2008, at $240 million, is significantly lower than resources provided to address other highmortality global health challenges. Tobacco control has not yet benefited from the innovative finance mechanisms that are in place for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The Framework Convention On Tobacco Control (FCTC) process could be used to redirect some of the earnings from transnational tobacco sales to fund FCTC implementation or other global health efforts. PMID:20610436

  18. Follow the money: How the billions of dollars that flow from smokers in poor nations to companies in rich nations greatly exceed funding for global tobacco control and what might be done about it

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The business of selling cigarettes is increasingly concentrated in the hands of five tobacco companies that collectively control almost 90% of the world's cigarette market, four of which are publicly traded corporations. The economic activities of these cigarette manufacturers can be monitored through their reports to shareholders and other public documents. Reports for 2008 show that the revenues of these five companies exceeded $300 billion, of which more than $160 billion was provided to governments as taxes, and that corporate earnings of the four publicly traded companies were over $25 billion, of which $14 billion was retained after corporate income taxes were paid. By contrast, funding for domestic and international tobacco control is not reliably reported. Estimated funding for global tobacco control in 2008, at $240 million, is significantly lower than resources provided to address other high-mortality global health challenges. Tobacco control has not yet benefited from the innovative finance mechanisms that are in place for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The Framework Convention On Tobacco Control (FCTC) process could be used to redirect some of the earnings from transnational tobacco sales to fund FCTC implementation or other global health efforts. PMID:20610436

  19. Exotic minerals in 3,500 million year old rocks: Evidence for large meteorite impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byerly, G. R.; Lowe, D. R.; Asaro, F.

    A relatively small area of mountainous terrain in southern Africa provides scientists from all over the world a look at what the surface of the earth was like three and a half billion years ago. The Barberton Mountains lie astride the borders of the Republic of South Africa, Mozambique, and the Kingdom of Swaziland. The discovery of several widely distributed deposits that were likely formed by major terrestrial impacts of large extraterrestrial bodies during this early period of earth's history is reported. The Barberton impact deposits are being studied by electron microscopy. The impact deposits were examined for minerals that show the effects of shock metamorphism or compositions unusual in terrestrial rocks.

  20. Year-Round School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Burton C.

    This presentation describes the year-round school operation of the Chula Vista City School District in California. Chula Vista adopted the 45-15 year-round plan to help ease a shortage of classroom space while maintaining a quality program for children. Under the plan, each pupil attends school for about nine weeks and then has vacation for three

  1. 20 Years and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzyk, Raya

    2008-01-01

    In commemoration of the Librarian of the Year Award's 20th anniversary, this article presents brief vignettes on all 19 of the title holders. When "Library Journal" named them Librarians of the Year, these inimitable 19 (for the 20th, Norma Blake, see EJ788676) had singled themselves out as risk takers, visionaries, bulldogs, pragmatists,

  2. Celebrating 50 Years!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansdottir, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The author congratulates members of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) on celebrating the 50th anniversary of their annual conference. These conferences have kept the spirit alive from the early years, especially the engagement in investigative, collaborative, and reasoning activities. In the 50th year as an association, the author

  3. Final Year Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hubsch, Tristan

    2013-06-20

    In the last years of this eighteen-year grant project, the research efforts have focused mostly on the study of off-shell representations of supersymmetry, both on the worldline and on the world- sheet, i.e., both in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and in supersymmetric field theory in 1+1-dimensional spacetime.

  4. 200 Years of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotberg, Edith H., Ed.

    This book surveys different aspects of childhood in the United States during its first 200 years. The first chapter surveys trends in immigration, mortality and health, education, and income. Chapter 2 is an historical review of family behavior. In Chapter 3, child health services over the last 200 years are reviewed including early policy and

  5. Celebrating 50 Years!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansdottir, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The author congratulates members of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) on celebrating the 50th anniversary of their annual conference. These conferences have kept the spirit alive from the early years, especially the engagement in investigative, collaborative, and reasoning activities. In the 50th year as an association, the author…

  6. Potentiometric-level monitoring program: Mississippi and Louisiana. Annual status report for fiscal year 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    Potentiometric-level data presented in this report were collected from October 1983 through September 1984 at 79 wells in Mississippi and Louisiana. These wells are located near Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi and Vacherie Dome in Louisiana. Fourteen wells were added to the program during this period. Two of these wells were not measurable. Two wells previously unmeasurable were located and measured. One well was destroyed during military maneuvers in the area. Analysis of the data indicated minimal, if any, change in potentiometric levels during the past year in the Citronelle, Hattiesburg, Cockfield, Sparta, and Wilcox Formations in Mississippi. A continuing decline in potentiometric levels, ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 foot per year, occurred in the wells screened in the caprock at Richton and Cypress Creek Domes. The Catahoula Formation experienced a continuing decline in potentiometric levels of about 2 feet per year. Two wells in the Cook Mountain Formation showed a continuing rise in potentiometric levels ranging from 8 to 30 ft during the past fiscal year. Wells screened in the Austin Formation in Louisiana showed a fall in potentiometric levels of 2 to 3 ft over the past fiscal year. Other formations in Louisiana generally showed no change in potentiometric levels over the past year. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Aluminum: The Next Twenty Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, M. Desmond; Pollio, Gerald

    1982-12-01

    This report concludes that the outlook for the world aluminum industry is quite favorable. Demand is expected to expand at a more rapid rate than for other basic metals, but not sufficiently to put undue strain on productive capacity. Capital requirements of the world aluminum industry are projected at 95.5 billion in 1980 prices more than 200 billion in current pricesover the balance of the century. Given the aluminum industry's past success in generating internal funds, this level of capital expanditure should not cause undue financing problems. Finally, we expect changes to occur in the structure of the industry over the forecast period, with virtually all new alumina capacity being installed in proximity to bauxite production, andwith the exception of Australiaa major shift in smelting capacity away from other industrialized economies. While the large multinational companies will still play a dominant role in the world aluminum market, their share of production and ownership is likely to decline progressively during the period.

  8. NATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM DURING THE ARRA PERIOD: PROGRAM YEARS 2009-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M; Schmoyer, Richard L; Eisenberg, Joel Fred; Ternes, Mark P; Schweitzer, Martin; Hendrick, Timothy P

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the third major evaluation of the Program, encompassing program years 2009 to 2011. In this report, this period of time is referred to as the ARRA Period. This is a special period of time for the Program because the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 has allocated $5 billion of funding for the Program. In normal program years, WAP s annual appropriation is in the range of $200-250 million, supporting the weatherization of approximately 100,000 homes. With the addition of ARRA funding during these program years, the expectation is that weatherization activity will exceed 300,000 homes per year. In addition to saving energy and reducing low-income energy bills, expanded WAP funding is expected to stimulate the economy by providing new jobs in the weatherization field and allowing low-income households to spend more money on goods and services by spending less on energy.

  9. Millions and Billions of Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, Darren; Horowitz, Paul

    The history of the Harvard SETI group is inextricably linked with the history of Paul Horowitz. Horowitz became enamored with SETI as a student at Harvard, reading Ed Purcell's paper "Radio Astronomy and Communication Through Space" (Purcell, 1960), discussing with his roommates a class that Carl Sagan was teaching there using a draft of Shklovskii and Sagan's "Intelligent Life in the Universe" (Shklovskii and Sagan, 1966) as a text, and finally attending a Loeb Lecture series at Harvard by Frank Drake (Drake, 1969). The series was officially about pulsars but Drake did manage to slip in one inspiring talk about SETI. Horowitz says that "It was this lecture that launched me into this field; it was a revelation that you could go beyond idle speculation - you could actually calculate stuff."

  10. The Four Billion Dollar Lunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sautter, R. Craig

    1978-01-01

    Discusses problems with the National School Lunch Program, including the high proportion of food thrown away by students, problems with food preparation, nutritional standards, and competition from junk foods. Suggestions for nutrition education are offered and organizations and books for further reference are listed. (JMB)

  11. Toward constraining the long-term reversing behavior of the geodynamo: A new “Maya” superchron ˜1 billion years ago from the magnetostratigraphy of the Kartochka Formation (southwestern Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallet, Yves; Pavlov, Vladimir; Halverson, Galen; Hulot, Gauthier

    2012-07-01

    We present new magnetostratigraphic data obtained from the Late Mesoproterozoic (˜1 Ga) Kartochka Formation in the East Angara terrane of the Yenisey Ridge region (southwestern Siberian platform). A ˜200 m-thick section encompassing the carbonate Kartochka Formation was densely sampled and another more limited outcrop several kilometers away was sampled in order to conduct a paleomagnetic fold test between the two sites. Paleomagnetic analyses revealed the existence of two magnetization components. A low unblocking temperature component, which likely has a viscous origin, was first isolated below 200 °C. A characteristic component, carried either by magnetite or by a mixture of magnetite and hematite, was then isolated in the medium to high temperature range (up to 565-585 °C or 680 °C). The hematite-bearing component has a shallower inclination than the magnetite component showing that magnetite was less sensitive to flattening. A positive paleomagnetic fold test was obtained between the two studied sections indicating that the characteristic magnetization was likely acquired during or very soon after sediment deposition. This primary origin was further verified by comparison between the paleomagnetic poles derived for the Kartochka Formation and other late Mesoproterozoic Siberian sections. All data from the Kartochka Formation contain a single magnetic polarity assumed to be normal. This long normal polarity interval is consistent with the polarity zonation previously determined from magnetostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data from the Siberian Uchur Maya region. The new data fortify evidence of a normal polarity superchron spanning the ˜1000 Ma old Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary, which we propose to call the Maya superchron. These data confirm the occurrence of sharp transitions between a frequently reversing regime and a non-reversing regime of the geodynamo. This behavior, also observed in other regions, may represent a consistent property of the Proterozoic geomagnetic field. Together with changes in the amount of time spent in the superchron regime, they may testify to a different field behavior during the late Precambrian than during the Phanerozoic. This difference could reflect a stronger influence of the heterogeneous heat flux patterns at the core-mantle boundary during the Precambrian, possibly as a consequence of the inner core not yet being nucleated at this time.

  12. ALMA imaging of gas and dust in a galaxy protocluster at redshift 5.3: [C II] emission in 'typical' galaxies and dusty starbursts ≈1 billion years after the big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Capak, Peter L.; Yan, Lin; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Smolčić, Vernesa; Schinnerer, Eva; Yun, Min; Cox, Pierre; Bertoldi, Frank; Karim, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    We report interferometric imaging of [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}→{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) and OH({sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} J = 3/2→1/2) emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z = 5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [C II], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 μm continuum emission toward the SMG. The [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}→{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of Σ{sub SFR} = 530 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}. This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at Σ{sub SFR} approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [C II] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}→{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ∼95 kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not detected in the continuum, suggesting far-infrared SFRs of <18-54 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, consistent with a UV-based estimate of 22 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The spectral energy distribution of these galaxies is inconsistent with nearby spiral and starburst galaxies, but resembles those of dwarf galaxies. This is consistent with expectations for young starbursts without significant older stellar populations. This suggests that these galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, 'normal' star-forming galaxies at z > 5, showing that ALMA can detect the interstellar medium in 'typical' galaxies in the very early universe.

  13. ALMA Imaging of Gas and Dust in a Galaxy Protocluster at Redshift 5.3: [C II] Emission in "Typical" Galaxies and Dusty Starbursts ?1 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Capak, Peter L.; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Smol?i?, Vernesa; Schinnerer, Eva; Yun, Min; Cox, Pierre; Bertoldi, Frank; Karim, Alexander; Yan, Lin

    2014-12-01

    We report interferometric imaging of [C II](2 P 3/2?2 P 1/2) and OH(2?1/2 J = 3/2?1/2) emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z = 5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [C II], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 ?m continuum emission toward the SMG. The [C II](2 P 3/2?2 P 1/2) emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 1010 M ?, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of ?SFR = 530 M ? yr-1 kpc-2. This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at ?SFR approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [C II] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [C II](2 P 3/2?2 P 1/2) emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ~95 kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not detected in the continuum, suggesting far-infrared SFRs of <18-54 M ? yr-1, consistent with a UV-based estimate of 22 M ? yr-1. The spectral energy distribution of these galaxies is inconsistent with nearby spiral and starburst galaxies, but resembles those of dwarf galaxies. This is consistent with expectations for young starbursts without significant older stellar populations. This suggests that these galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, "normal" star-forming galaxies at z > 5, showing that ALMA can detect the interstellar medium in "typical" galaxies in the very early universe.

  14. Retraction notice to "Ca. 2.5 billion year old mafic dykes in western Shandong Province: Implications for hybridization between subducted continental crust and the North China Craton, China"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shen; Feng, Caixia; Zhai, Mingguo; Hu, Ruizhong; Gao, Shan; Lai, Shaocong; Zou, Haibo; Yan, Jun

    2015-02-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors-in-Chief. The article duplicates significant parts of a paper that had already appeared in, and was withdrawn from Precambrain Research (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2014.08.012") One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that the paper is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  15. Student Loans. Direct Loans Could Save Billions in First 5 Years with Proper Implementation. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This paper responds to a congressional request for more information concerning first, the potential cost savings from direct rather than guaranteed student loans and second, the ability of the Department of Education and postsecondary institutions to effectively manage a direct lending program. The report: (1) provides a more complete analysis of

  16. Atmospheric methane evolution the last 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalsøren, Stig B.; Myhre, Cathrine L.; Myhre, Gunnar; Gomez-Pelaez, Angel J.; Søvde, Ole A.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.; Weiss, Ray F.; Harth, Christina M.

    2016-03-01

    Observations at surface sites show an increase in global mean surface methane (CH4) of about 180 parts per billion (ppb) (above 10 %) over the period 1984-2012. Over this period there are large fluctuations in the annual growth rate. In this work, we investigate the atmospheric CH4 evolution over the period 1970-2012 with the Oslo CTM3 global chemical transport model (CTM) in a bottom-up approach. We thoroughly assess data from surface measurement sites in international networks and select a subset suited for comparisons with the output from the CTM. We compare model results and observations to understand causes for both long-term trends and short-term variations. Employing Oslo CTM3 we are able to reproduce the seasonal and year-to-year variations and shifts between years with consecutive growth and stagnation, both at global and regional scales. The overall CH4 trend over the period is reproduced, but for some periods the model fails to reproduce the strength of the growth. The model overestimates the observed growth after 2006 in all regions. This seems to be explained by an overly strong increase in anthropogenic emissions in Asia, having global impact. Our findings confirm other studies questioning the timing or strength of the emission changes in Asia in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory over recent decades. The evolution of CH4 is not only controlled by changes in sources, but also by changes in the chemical loss in the atmosphere and soil uptake. The atmospheric CH4 lifetime is an indicator of the CH4 loss. In our simulations, the atmospheric CH4 lifetime decreases by more than 8 % from 1970 to 2012, a significant reduction of the residence time of this important greenhouse gas. Changes in CO and NOx emissions, specific humidity, and ozone column drive most of this, and we provide simple prognostic equations for the relations between those and the CH4 lifetime. The reduced lifetime results in substantial growth in the chemical CH4 loss (relative to its burden) and dampens the CH4 growth.

  17. Atmospheric methane evolution the last 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalsren, S. B.; Myhre, C. L.; Myhre, G.; Gomez-Pelaez, A. J.; Svde, O. A.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Weiss, R. F.; Harth, C. M.

    2015-11-01

    Observations at surface sites show an increase in global mean surface methane (CH4) of about 180 parts per billion (ppb) (above 10 %) over the period 1984-2012. Over this period there are large fluctuations in the annual growth rate. In this work, we investigate the atmospheric CH4 evolution over the period 1970-2012 with the Oslo CTM3 global Chemical Transport Model (CTM) in a bottom-up approach. We thoroughly assess data from surface measurement sites in international networks and select a subset suited for comparisons with the output from the CTM. We compare model results and observations to understand causes both for long-term trends and short-term variations. Employing the Oslo CTM3 model we are able to reproduce the seasonal and year to year variations and shifts between years with consecutive growth and stagnation, both at global and regional scales. The overall CH4 trend over the period is reproduced, but for some periods the model fails to reproduce the strength of the growth. The observed growth after 2006 is overestimated by the model in all regions. This seems to be explained by a too strong increase in anthropogenic emissions in Asia, having global impact. Our findings confirm other studies questioning the timing or strength of the emission changes in Asia in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory over the last decades. The evolution of CH4 is not only controlled by changes in sources, but also by changes in the chemical loss in the atmosphere and soil uptake. We model a large growth in atmospheric oxidation capacity over the period 1970-2012. In our simulations, the CH4 lifetime decreases by more than 8 % from 1970 to 2012, a significant shortening of the residence time of this important greenhouse gas. This results in substantial growth in the chemical CH4 loss (relative to its burden) and dampens the CH4 growth. The change in atmospheric oxidation capacity is driven by complex interactions between a number of chemical components and meteorological factors. In our analysis, we are able to detach the key factors and provide simple prognostic equations for the relations between these and the atmospheric CH4 lifetime.

  18. Vitamins: preparing for the next 100 years.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2012-10-01

    The insights gained from the last 100 years of vitamin research and applications have contributed substantially to our fundamental understanding of biology and importantly to the promotion of human health. There is no reason to think that the next 100 years will be any less fruitful if we are committed to preparing for them, particularly by changing four critical nutrition paradigms. First, we must move beyond the concept of preventing vitamin deficiencies and inadequacies to establishing health and, further, to creating optimal physiological functions. Each essential vitamin possesses different concentration thresholds for its variety of effects and the required balance necessary to achieving each has yet to be fully defined. Second, we must apply the research approaches and methods of ?-omics,? systems biology, and imaging technologies to define the dynamic role of vitamins and their broad array of genomic, molecular, biochemical, and functional interactions. Such work is necessary to understand the multiplicity of vitamin actions and ultimately apply them directly at the level of the individual. Third, we must revise the concept of evidence-based nutrition away from its current hierarchical system to recognize in a comprehensive and integrated way the attributes of each type of approach to research. To adhere to a single gold standard of the randomized clinical trial ignores both how we have moved forward so productively during the last 100 years and the vital information to be gained from basic research and other human studies; further, it acts to stifle innovation in both scientific and regulatory affairs. Fourth, we must understand that changes in the supply and distribution of food during the next century are likely to be at least as dramatic as those which have occurred over this last one. For example, inevitable environmental constraints will require more food protein be derived from plant than animal sources, a shift that will directly impact the dietary sources for vitamins. To meet the challenge of achieving global health in 2113 among a population of 9 billion people, effectively managing these four changes demands new and creative ways in which those in academia, government and non-government organizations, and industry must work together. PMID:23798056

  19. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  20. [Pacemakers 16 years later].

    PubMed

    Dodinot, B

    1976-01-01

    In 1976, 10 years after the first successful implantations, the pacemaker technique is perfectly well accepted. Transvenous placement of the electrode is preferred in 95 % of the cases. Besides the 15 years nuclear power pacers (1970), conventional mercury pacemakers may reach a longevity of 4 to 5 years because of the reduction of the current drain. Lithium iodine seems a very promising source of energy. The mini-pacemakers with various iodine anodes are particularly attractive. The future is probably a well designed medium sized lithium pacemaker lasting more than 7 years. Patient follow-up is very much improved. All pacemakers exhibit an obvious rate reduction when their source of energy runs down. Therefore general practitioner and even the patients may detect this symptom. The main problem remains the lead resistance. The reduction of the frequency of pacemaker replacements and of the medical check-up makes life more simple for the pacemaker patient. PMID:1087802

  1. Fiscal Year 2003

    Cancer.gov

    The Nations Investment in Cancer Research A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 P re p a r ed by the Dir e c t o r National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 . . . bringing together the resources to stimulate and support scientific discovery and its application to achieve a future when all cancers are uncommon and easily treated.

  2. Tall earthfill dam key to flood plan: California`s most hazardous basin scene of $1.3-billion Corps program

    SciTech Connect

    Soast, A.

    1994-11-07

    In semiarid Southern California, {open_quotes}The Big One{close_quotes} generally connotes a seismic even. For those near the usually docile Santa Ana River, however, the major destructive event could be a flood. The Corps of Engineers says it could cover 170 sq miles with about 3 ft of water, jeopardizing more than 3 million persons and 255,000 structures. To avert that, the agency launched a $1.3-billion program. Half of the total cost is for major construction. About $500 million will go for land acquisition and relocations, while some $170 million is for planning, engineering and project management. Seven Oaks will be a rock and earthfill embankment standing 550 ft above the streambed with a crest length of 3,000 ft. An excavated and grouted foundation trench will extend as far as 80 ft below the dam. The structure will contain 43 million cu yd. {open_quotes}It`s between two branches of the San Andreas Fault,{close_quotes} says Robert L. Hall, chief of the design branch in the Corps` Los Angeles district office. {open_quotes}We ended up with a criterion of 4 ft of displacement in any direction that the dam must withstand.{close_quotes} That could be produced by a quake of magnitude 8-plus resulting in maximum horizontal acceleration of 0.7 g. But Hall adds that the dam is in a geological compression zone. In the event of a quake there would be {open_quotes} just slippage. The dam would heal itself.{close_quotes}

  3. The year in review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. James

    The year 1983 was an exciting one, filled with intense activity by oceanographers in all disciplines. The year started with confirmation that we were indeed experiencing a major and unusual El Nio. The awareness of the role of the ocean in climate variation was enhanced both by the severity of the El Nio and the new reports on the effect of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere.The year continued with remarkable demonstrations of the power of satellite-borne instruments to reveal new physical, biological, and geological features of the ocean. We saw the retirement of the Glomar Challenger as a deep sea drilling vessel after 15 successful years and the start of a major new drilling program destined to be aboard a larger vessel. The year ended with planning for new, expanded studies on the interaction of the tropical ocean with the global atmosphere and on the general circulation of the ocean. The prospects of global studies of biogeochemical fluxes were under discussion.

  4. Congress passes space year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The year 1992 will mark the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' arrival in America and the 35th anniversary of both the International Geophysical Year and the launch of Sputnik. The U.S. Senate passed a joint resolution (S.J.Res. 177) on November 21 recommending that the President endorse an International Space Year (ISY) in 1992. A similar resolution introduced in the House of Representatives was incorporated into the conference report (House Report 99-379) accompanying the authorization bill for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and approved by both houses, also on November 21. As Eos went to press, the NASA authorization bill (H.R. 1714) awaited President Ronald Reagan's signature.

  5. Emergent technologies: 25 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rising, Hawley K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

  6. New year, old hat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    American Geological Institute; American Institute of Physics; American Associationthe Advancement of Science; Carlowicz, Michael

    It is only August, but October 1 looms large on the calendar. That is the day when the 1997 fiscal year (FY ‧97) begins for the U.S. federal government, and like last year, that day might come without a budget.In a flurry of summer activity, the U.S. Congress has passed several landmark bills on welfare reform, expansion of health coverage for workers between jobs, a raise in the minimum wage, and a Safe Drinking Water Act. The House of Representatives even passed all 13 of its annual appropriations bills before Congress took its August recess.

  7. 150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

  8. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical

  9. Tuskegee: 100 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Renelda

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history and accomplishments of Tuskegee Institute over the past 100 years. Highlights the role played by Booker T. Washington, and W. E. B. DuBois; discusses the career of the school's retiring president, Luther Foster. Provides information on the new president, Dr. Benjamin Payton, and discusses future directions for the college. (APM)

  10. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  11. The Turbulent Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, John, Ed.

    This summary of the Fourth Annual Conference on Major Transitions in the Human Life Cycle contains a preface, introductory section on adolescence and young adulthood (ages 14 through 24 years), and the following presentations, complete with discussion text: (1) "Historical Treatment of the Age Group" (John Demos); (2) "Demographic Considerations"

  12. News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Lifer, Evan; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This section includes three articles that review library news from the past year. Highlights include public library budgets, examined by geographic regions; government programs; flood damage; library school closings; school library media programs; publishing industry concerns, including mergers, broadening markets, and on-demand printing; and

  13. Working with Year 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the three outreach projects in Kent, a girls grammar school with a mixed sixth form. Due to the selective system in Kent they have around 100 potential feeder schools with their Year 7 intake of around 150 arriving from about 70 different primary schools, some of which are independent. In this article, the author describes the

  14. Smog - the learning years

    SciTech Connect

    Heinen, C.M.; Fagley, W.S. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    35 years of continuous work by government and industry and the public have led to a very sophisticated system of emission controls. This paper is intended to recall and perhaps to honor those who participated in the hectic early period, when instrumentation, basic knowledge, and primitive devices competed for the attention of these pioneers with strident demands from policitians.

  15. Books of the Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2004

    2004-01-01

    It's that time of year again and "Adults Learning" has once more asked some of the outstanding authors who have contributed to the journal over the past 12 months to nominate their best and most valuable reads of 2004. The authors are: (1) Judith Summers; (2) Thomas Sticht; (3) Alison Wolf; (4) Tom Schuller; (5) Linden West; (6) Brian Groombridge;

  16. Tenth Year Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The booklet presents the minimum material for which students are responsible on the Tenth Year Regents examination of the state of New York. The syllabus is an attempt to integrate plane geometry with arithmetic, algebra and numerical trigonometry brought about by: (1) greater use of fractions and percents in mensuration problems; (2) use of

  17. ISME Celebrates 50 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Music, 2004

    2004-01-01

    When members of the International Society for Music Education (ISME) met in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain in July for the 26th ISME World Conference, the gathering was an opportunity to share music from around the world, and to attend music education workshops. It was also an opportunity for its members to look back on the rich 50-year history

  18. Year-Round Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChesney, Jim

    1996-01-01

    One avenue being explored as a way to cut costs while maintaining the quality of programs and services is year-round education (YRE). In most cases, the known benefits and drawbacks of an existing component of traditional scheduling must be weighed against the theoretical advantages and disadvantages of YRE. The five articles reviewed in this

  19. The Lost Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann; Mousa, Yasmine

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of children were deprived of schooling in the difficult aftermath of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq five years ago. During those times, more than 2 million Iraqis have fled their homeland, mainly to Jordan and Syria. Even though the schoolchildren who came to these neighboring Arab lands with their families are now given seats in

  20. 5-Year Budget Forecasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, John G.; Lingel, George; Piekarski, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Financial planning is the key to providing a high-quality instructional plan. A 5-year financial plan is typically updated by looking at district financial history, future instructional plans, staffing requirements, and revenue projections. Planning assumptions must be clearly understood by the financial team and the community. (MLH)

  1. Black Studies Year One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Richard A.

    Though Dubois tried to begin a series of scientific studies on the Negro problem in America more than 70 years ago, only recently have attempts been made to present a true history of the Black man in institutions of higher learning. Until that time, the experience of the Black man was defined in Euro-American terms, or in most cases was completely

  2. Five Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jeremiah

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author relates some of the bitter realizations he encountered during his student-teaching years when he realized that not all teachers were willing to help novice teachers. Some of them seemed to believe that teaching is as instinctive to a teacher as flight is to a bird. Despite these obstacles, the author states that he

  3. The Economic Benefits Resulting from the First 8 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (20002007)

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Brian K.; Hooper, Pamela J.; Bradley, Mark H.; McFarland, Deborah A.; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Between 20002007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 46 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. Methodology To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization Principal Findings An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. Conclusions/Significance MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with favorable program implementation costs (largely a result of the sustained commitments of donated drugs from the pharmaceutical industry) it is clear that the economic rate of return of the GPELF is extremely high and that this Programme continues to prove itself an excellent investment in global health. PMID:20532228

  4. Speed and agility of 12- and 14-year-old elite male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Sasa T; Karalejic, Milivoje S; Pajic, Zoran B; Macura, Marija M; Erculj, Frane F

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to identify and compare the speed and agility of 12- and 14-year-old elite male basketball players and (b) to investigate relations between speed and agility for both age groups of basketball players, to help coaches to improve their work. Sixty-four players aged 12 (M = 11.98 years, SD = 0.311) and 54 players aged 14 (M = 14.092 years, SD = 0.275) were tested. Three agility tests: agility t-test, zigzag agility drill, and agility run 4 15 m and 3 speed tests: 20-m run, 30-m run, and 50-m run were applied. Fourteen-year-old players achieved significantly better results in all speed and agility tests compared with 12-year-old players. The correlation coefficient (r = 0.81, p = 0.001) showed that 12-year-old players have the same ability in the 30- and 50-m runs. The other correlation coefficient (r = 0.59, p = 0.001) indicated that 20- and 30-m runs had inherently different qualities. The correlation coefficients between agility tests were <0.71, and therefore, each test in this group represents a specific task. In 14-year-old players, the correlation coefficients between the speed test results were <0.71. In contrast, the correlation coefficients between the agility tests were >0.71, which means that all the 3 tests represent the same quality. During the speed training of 12-year-old players, it is advisable to focus on shorter running distances, up to 30 m. During the agility training of the same players, it is useful to apply exercises with various complexities. In speed training of the 14-year-old players, the 30- and 50-m runs should be applied, and agility training should include more specific basketball movements and activities. PMID:22067243

  5. 1905a miraculous year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renn, Jrgen; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2005-05-01

    The article discusses Einstein's famous papers of 1905his miraculous yearand deals with their physical and historical context as well as their fundamental impact on modern physics. It shows that the papers are not isolated, but connected with each other by Einstein's deep-seated conviction of physical atomism and his criticism of an ether. They are concerned with specific problems that can be characterized as 'borderline problems' since they go beyond the traditional divisions between mechanics, electrodynamics, and thermodynamics.

  6. Ten Years of Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    We celebrated the 10-th anniversary of the Launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory on July 13, 2009. During these 10 years data from this Great Observatory have had a profound impact on 21st century astrophysics. With its unrivaled capability to produce sub-arcsecond images, the Observatory has enabled astronomers to make new discoveries in topics as diverse as comets and cosmology. We shall review some of the highlights, discuss the current status, and future plans.

  7. Five Year Flashlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An ultra-reliable flashlight, initially developed for rescue signaling and utility use by NASA astronauts and military aircrews, has attracted a broad commercial market. Called the Five Year Light, it has a shelf life at least that long because there is no power drain on the batteries when the flashlight is not in use. The NASA version of the light was developed under contract with Langley Research Center by ACR Electronics, Inc., now known as the Chromalloy Electronics Division of Chromalloy American Corporation, Hollywood, Florida. NASA wanted a light that had long shelf life and assured reliability in case it was needed in an emergency. Reliability was designed into the flashlight by means of a unique switch. Instead of the customary thumb-button, the Five Year Light is turned on by rotating its collar to make contact with the battery terminal; the turning motion wipes away any corrosion that might be present and makes contact virtually certain. The Five Year Light available commercially is a repackaged version of the NASA light. It is sold for car, home, industrial, police, firefighting, recreational and a variety of other uses, and sales have topped two million units.

  8. 40 Years of Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, B; Heller, A

    2003-07-08

    History is most interesting when seen through the eyes of those who lived it. In this 40th anniversary retrospective of bioscience research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we've asked 19 scientists to share their personal recollections about a major accomplishment in the program's history. We have not tried to create a comprehensive or seamless story. Rather, we've attempted to capture the perspectives of key individuals, each of whom worked on a research program that met significant milestones. We have focused particularly on programs and accomplishments that have shaped the current Biology and Biotechnology Research Program (BBRP). In addition, we have included a timeline of biosciences at LLNL, a history of the directorate that appeared in the Laboratory's magazine, ''Science & Technology Review'', in 2002, and a list of bioscience-related articles that have appeared over the years in ''Science & Technology Review and its predecessor, Energy & Technology Review''. The landscape of biological science today is stunningly different from 40 years ago. When LLNL bioscience began in 1963, we knew about the structure of DNA and that it was the carrier of genetic information. However, it would be another year before scientists would understand how DNA codes for the production of proteins and more than a decade before the earliest DNA sequence would be known. It is sometimes difficult to remember that it was only 15 years ago that the polymerase chain reaction, a synthetic method to amplify pieces of DNA was developed, and that only within the last half-dozen years has sequence data for entire organisms begun to be available. In this publication, we have tried to capture some of the landmark and seminal research history: radiation effects studies, which were a major reason for founding the biological research program, and flow sorting and chromosome painting, which dramatically changed our ability to study DNA damage and enabled the creation of chromosome-specific clone libraries, a key step toward sequencing the human genome. Several histories relate to the Human Genome Project itself and surrounding technologies, and several to long-standing research themes such as DNA repair, food mutagens, and reproductive biology. Others describe more recent developments such as computational biology, health-care technologies, and biodefense research.

  9. Reauthorization of the National Science Foundation, 1985. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United State Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on Examining the Reauthorization of Appropriations for the National Science Foundation for Fiscal Year 1985 (April 4, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These hearings focused on the reauthorization of appropriations for the National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 1985. (The Reagan administration's request for the NSF was $1.5 billion, an increase of 13.6 percent over the FY 1984 budget.) The hearings include a prepared statement from Edward Knapp (NSF director) which provides an…

  10. TRMM 3-Year Anniversary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ever wonder about the rain? Beyond the practicality of needing an umbrella, climate researchers have wondered about the science of rainfall for a long time. But it's only in the past few years that they've begun to roll back some of its secrets. One of their tools for doing so is a powerful satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, or TRMM. Now, after three years of continual operation, project scientists have released dramatic new maps of rainfall patterns gathered across a wide band of the Earth. And with measurements from one of the satellite's advanced sensors, meteorologists are now able to calibrate ground-based rain monitoring systems with greater precision than ever before. A complete accounting of the world's total rainfall has long been a major goal of climate researchers. Rain acts as the atmosphere's fundamental engine for heat exchange; every time a raindrop falls, the atmosphere gets churned up and latent heat flows back into the total climate system. Considering that rainfall is the primary driving force of heat in the atmosphere, and that two thirds of all rain falls in the tropics, these measurements are significant for our understanding of overall climate. The above image shows a one month average of rainfall measurements taken by the TRMM's unique precipitation radar during January of 1998. Areas of low rainfall are colored light blue, while regions with heavy rainfal are colored orange and red. TRMM began collecting data in December of 1997, and continues today. For more information about TRMM's 3-year anniversary, read Maps of Falling Water To learn more about the TRMM mission or order TRMM data, see the TRMM Home Page. Image courtesy TRMM Science team and the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

  11. Fruits of 20 Years of Highway Safety Legislative Advocacy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ted R.; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the effects on crash fatalities and costs of 20 years of legislative actions resulting from Federal and state advocacy efforts. We catalogued road safety laws passed between 1990 and 2009 and motorcycle helmet law repeals that advocacy efforts narrowly defeated. We used NHTSA’s estimates of lives saved by airbags and published estimates of the percentage reduction in related crash fatalities associated with each type of law. State by state and year by year, from the actual fatality count for the year, we modeled how many fatalities each state's laws averted. We assumed, somewhat shakily, that the percentage reduction in nonfatal injury costs would mirror the fatality reduction. We used crash cost estimates for 10 years between 1990 and 2008 to estimate total crash costs from 1990–2009. The costs were built from NHTSA’s estimates of cost per crash. The state laws passed included 113 occupant protection laws, 131 impaired driving laws, and 76 teen driving laws, plus a Federal airbag mandate. These laws saved an estimated 120,000 lives. The life-saving benefits accelerated as the number of laws in force grew. By 2009, they resulted in 25% fewer crash fatalities. The largest life-saving benefits sprang from airbag, belt use, and impaired driving laws. Laws that affect narrow subpopulations had more modest impacts. The laws reduced insurance costs by more than $210 billion and saved government an estimated $42 billion. Including the value of lost quality of life, estimated savings exceeded $1.3 trillion. Legislative advocacy is truly a spark plug in the safety engine. PMID:22105410

  12. Thirty Years of Intracrinology

    PubMed Central

    Re, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intracrinology is the study of the intracellular actions, regulation, trafficking, and interactions of extracellular signaling peptides/proteins. Methods We describe the development of intracrine biology since the term was defined in 1984. Results Intracrine biology plays a role in many normal and pathological processes and represents a fertile field for the development of novel therapeutics. Conclusion Although 30 years old, the field of intracrinology is only now becoming widely accepted. Intracrine principles can be applied to the investigation of physiological processes and to the development of new therapies. PMID:25598734

  13. 75 Years of the Junior Year in Munich

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Not only has the US Senate designated 2006 the Year of Study Abroad; the year also marks the anniversary of a distinguished tradition of study abroad in Germany that reaches back 75 years. Founded in 1931, suspended during the war years, and re-opened in 1953 by Wayne State University, the Junior Year in Munich is America's oldest study abroad…

  14. 75 Years of the Junior Year in Munich

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Not only has the US Senate designated 2006 the Year of Study Abroad; the year also marks the anniversary of a distinguished tradition of study abroad in Germany that reaches back 75 years. Founded in 1931, suspended during the war years, and re-opened in 1953 by Wayne State University, the Junior Year in Munich is America's oldest study abroad

  15. International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph, M.

    2005-01-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY), an international program of scientific collaboration to understand the external drivers of planetary environments, will be conducted in 2007. This will be a major international event of great interest to the member States. The M Y will involve the deployment of new instrumentation, new observations from the ground and in space, and an education component. The IHY 2007 will coincide with the fiftieth anniversary of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957. The IGY was organized to study global phenomena of the Earth and Geospace involving about 60,000 scientists from 66 nations, working at thousands of stations, around the world to obtain simultaneous, global observations from the ground and space. Building on results obtained during IGY 1957, the IHY will expand to the study of universal processes in the solar system that affect the interplanetary and terrestrial environments. The study of energetic events in the solar system will pave the way for safe human space travel to the Moon and planets in the future, and it will serve to inspire the next generation of space physicists.

  16. Einstein's Years in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plendl, Hans S.

    2005-11-01

    Albert Einstein left Germany, the country of his birth, in 1894 and moved to Switzerland in 1895. He studied, worked and taught there, except for a year's stay in Prague, until1914. That year he returned to Germany, where he lived until his emigration to the United States in 1933. In 1905, while living with his wife Mileva and their first son Hans Albert in Bern and working as a technical expert at the Swiss Patent Office, he published his dissertation on the determination of molecular dimensions, his papers on Brownian Motion that helped to establish the Kinetic Theory of Heat and on the Photo-Electric Effect that validated the Quantum Theory of Light, and the two papers introducing the Special Theory of Relativity. How the young Einstein could help to lay the foundations of these theories while still working on his dissertation, holding a full-time job and helping to raise a family has evoked much discussion among his biographers. In this contribution, the extent to which living within Swiss society and culture could have made this feat possible will be examined. Old and recent photos of places in Switzerland where Einstein has lived and worked will be shown.

  17. Year of oceans?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John V. Byrne, administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has proposed that 1984 be observed as the Year of the Oceans. The year should be devoted to defining and clarifying the U.S.'s ocean and coastal goals and rallying the support to achieve them, Byrne recently told oceanographers attending the Coastal Zone ?83 gathering in San Diego, Calif.Today we see ferment in ocean and coastal concerns, Byrne said. Among the examples he cited was the proclamation issued by President Reagan on March 10 declaring an exclusive economic zone within 200 miles of the coast where the United States will exercise jurisdiction for the purposes of exploring, exploiting, conserving, and managing natural resources (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402). In addition, legislation has been introduced to define the outer continental shelf, deep seabed minerals, ocean thermal energy, marine pollution, fisheries, and other oceanic concerns, Byrne said. In both houses of the U.S. Congress, legislators are considering bills that would establish a National Oceans Policy Commission, he added.

  18. Results of Medium Seventeen Years' Follow-Up after Laparoscopic Choledochotomy for Ductal Stones

    PubMed Central

    Quaresima, Silvia; Balla, Andrea; Guerrieri, Mario; Campagnacci, Roberto; D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo; Lezoche, Emanuele; Paganini, Alessandro M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. In a previously published article the authors reported the long-term follow-up results in 138 consecutive patients with gallstones and common bile duct (CBD) stones who underwent laparoscopic transverse choledochotomy (TC) with T-tube biliary drainage and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Aim of this study is to evaluate the results at up to 23 years of follow-up in the same series. Methods. One hundred twenty-one patients are the object of the present study. Patients were evaluated by clinical visit, blood assay, and abdominal ultrasound. Symptomatic patients underwent cholangio-MRI, followed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) as required. Results. Out of 121 patients, 61 elderly patients died from unrelated causes. Fourteen patients were lost to follow-up. In the 46 remaining patients, ductal stone recurrence occurred in one case (2,1%) successfully managed by ERCP with endoscopic sphincterotomy. At a mean follow-up of 17.1 years no other patients showed signs of bile stasis and no patient showed any imaging evidence of CBD stricture at the site of choledochotomy. Conclusions. Laparoscopic transverse choledochotomy with routine T-tube biliary drainage during LC has proven to be safe and effective at up to 23 years of follow-up, with no evidence of CBD stricture when the procedure is performed with a correct technique. PMID:26880900

  19. Results of Medium Seventeen Years' Follow-Up after Laparoscopic Choledochotomy for Ductal Stones.

    PubMed

    Quaresima, Silvia; Balla, Andrea; Guerrieri, Mario; Lezoche, Giovanni; Campagnacci, Roberto; D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo; Lezoche, Emanuele; Paganini, Alessandro M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. In a previously published article the authors reported the long-term follow-up results in 138 consecutive patients with gallstones and common bile duct (CBD) stones who underwent laparoscopic transverse choledochotomy (TC) with T-tube biliary drainage and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Aim of this study is to evaluate the results at up to 23 years of follow-up in the same series. Methods. One hundred twenty-one patients are the object of the present study. Patients were evaluated by clinical visit, blood assay, and abdominal ultrasound. Symptomatic patients underwent cholangio-MRI, followed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) as required. Results. Out of 121 patients, 61 elderly patients died from unrelated causes. Fourteen patients were lost to follow-up. In the 46 remaining patients, ductal stone recurrence occurred in one case (2,1%) successfully managed by ERCP with endoscopic sphincterotomy. At a mean follow-up of 17.1 years no other patients showed signs of bile stasis and no patient showed any imaging evidence of CBD stricture at the site of choledochotomy. Conclusions. Laparoscopic transverse choledochotomy with routine T-tube biliary drainage during LC has proven to be safe and effective at up to 23 years of follow-up, with no evidence of CBD stricture when the procedure is performed with a correct technique. PMID:26880900

  20. Phosphogenesis in the 2460 and 2728 million-year-old banded iron formations as evidence for biological cycling of phosphate in the early biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Liang; Sun, Si; Chan, Lung S

    2013-01-01

    The banded iron formation deposited during the first 2 billion years of Earth's history holds the key to understanding the interplay between the geosphere and the early biosphere at large geological timescales. The earliest ore-scale phosphorite depositions formed almost at ∼2.0–2.2 billion years ago bear evidence for the earliest bloom of aerobic life. The cycling of nutrient phosphorus and how it constrained primary productivity in the anaerobic world of Archean–Palaeoproterozoic eons are still open questions. The controversy centers about whether the precipitation of ultrafine ferric oxyhydroxide due to the microbial Fe(II) oxidation in oceans earlier than 1.9 billion years substantially sequestrated phosphate, and whether this process significantly limited the primary productivity of the early biosphere. In this study, we report apatite radial flowers of a few micrometers in the 2728 million-year-old Abitibi banded iron formation and the 2460 million-year-old Kuruman banded iron formation and their similarities to those in the 535 million-year-old Lower Cambrian phosphorite. The lithology of the 535 Million-year-old phosphorite as a biosignature bears abundant biomarkers that reveal the possible similar biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the Later Archean and Palaeoproterozoic oceans. These apatite radial flowers represent the primary precipitation of phosphate derived from the phytoplankton blooms in the euphotic zones of Neoarchean and Palaoeproterozoic oceans. The unbiased distributions of the apatite radial flowers within sub-millimeter bands do not support the idea of an Archean Crisis of Phosphate. This is the first report of the microbial mediated mineralization of phosphorus before the Great Oxidation Event when the whole biosphere was still dominated by anaerobic microorganisms. PMID:23404127

  1. Phosphogenesis in the 2460 and 2728 million-year-old banded iron formations as evidence for biological cycling of phosphate in the early biosphere.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Liang; Sun, Si; Chan, Lung S

    2012-01-01

    The banded iron formation deposited during the first 2 billion years of Earth's history holds the key to understanding the interplay between the geosphere and the early biosphere at large geological timescales. The earliest ore-scale phosphorite depositions formed almost at ?2.0-2.2 billion years ago bear evidence for the earliest bloom of aerobic life. The cycling of nutrient phosphorus and how it constrained primary productivity in the anaerobic world of Archean-Palaeoproterozoic eons are still open questions. The controversy centers about whether the precipitation of ultrafine ferric oxyhydroxide due to the microbial Fe(II) oxidation in oceans earlier than 1.9 billion years substantially sequestrated phosphate, and whether this process significantly limited the primary productivity of the early biosphere. In this study, we report apatite radial flowers of a few micrometers in the 2728 million-year-old Abitibi banded iron formation and the 2460 million-year-old Kuruman banded iron formation and their similarities to those in the 535 million-year-old Lower Cambrian phosphorite. The lithology of the 535 Million-year-old phosphorite as a biosignature bears abundant biomarkers that reveal the possible similar biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the Later Archean and Palaeoproterozoic oceans. These apatite radial flowers represent the primary precipitation of phosphate derived from the phytoplankton blooms in the euphotic zones of Neoarchean and Palaoeproterozoic oceans. The unbiased distributions of the apatite radial flowers within sub-millimeter bands do not support the idea of an Archean Crisis of Phosphate. This is the first report of the microbial mediated mineralization of phosphorus before the Great Oxidation Event when the whole biosphere was still dominated by anaerobic microorganisms. PMID:23404127

  2. Twenty years of KSHV.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Twenty years ago, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill's Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men-in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) since its initial description in 1994. PMID:25386844

  3. Electroencephalography 60 years later.

    PubMed

    Kugler, J

    1991-03-01

    The birthday of Electroencephalography (EEG) is dated back to the 22nd of April 1929. On this date Hans Berger submitted the first of his 14 contributions "Uber das Elektrenkephalogramm des Menschen" to the "Archiv fr Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten" for publication. Therefore in 1989 Electroencephalography was 60 years of age. In spite of controversy over its usefulness during this period, Electroencephalography substantially contributed to progress in medicine. Today is the beginning of its Renaissance due to a dramatic diversification of Clinical Electroencephalography into applied neurophysiological specialties. Progress became possible by the introduction of new techniques. However it will become obvious that new instrumentations cannot replace intelligence and human understanding. The dispute of importance and nonsense, use and misuse of Electroencephalography is without doubt useful and stimulates new orientations. PMID:2047558

  4. The 34 Year Starship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosanov, J.; Shapiro, A.; Garrett, H.

    2012-09-01

    In 1974, the designers and leadership of a mission then known as ``Mariner Jupiter Saturn 1977'' decided that the name was a mouthful. They briefly deliberated and decided to rename it ``Voyager'' [1]. Similarly, we believe that ``DARPA 100 Year Starship'' is unnecessarily verbose. We propose to call it ``Enterprise.'' Among the many challenges facing such a mission is that of earning public support - we should let half a century of Hollywood storytelling do that for us. This paper is composed of four parts. Part 1 will discuss the parallels between the Voyager program and a future Enterprise program. Part 2 will go into greater detail regarding the Voyager program and the challenges and opportunities that defined it. Part 3 will discuss some of the major technical challenges for Voyager and Enterprise in greater detail. Part 4 will discuss next steps and various strategies to meet DARPA's challenge of sustainable industry-funded research into interstellar flight.

  5. Another slow year

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This article is a review of the petroleum activity in the Middle East. The article is accompanied by a detailed color map showing the activity in the area. Highlights of the article include the fact that Saudi Arabia's drilling and development activity has sunk to its lowest level in many years. The article also points out that discoveries are increasing production in North and South Yemen as well as in Syria. The article also highlights the fact that Qatar is beginning work on its massive North gas field in the Gulf. Also attention is paid to the effects of the Iranian and Iraq war on each other's oil and gas activities. The article also mentions the drilling activity of Dubai and Oman.

  6. Fiscal year 2013 energy department budget: Proposed investments in clean energy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Energy and environmental research programs generally fared well in President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the Department of Energy (DOE) for fiscal year (FY) 2013. In his State of the Union address, Obama called for the United States to pursue an "all of the above" energy strategy that includes fossil fuels, as well as a variety of renewable sources of energy. The DOE budget request supports that strategy, Energy Secretary Steven Chu said in a 13 February press briefing announcing the budget proposal. The proposed budget gives DOE 27.2 billion overall, a 3.2% increase from the FY 2012 enacted budget (see Table 1). This budget "reflects some tough choices," Chu said. The proposed budget would cut 4 billion in subsidies for oil and gas companies; many Republican members of Congress have already indicated that they oppose such cuts, suggesting that congressional approval of this budget may run into stumbling blocks. The budget would also cut funding for research and development projects that are already attracting private-sector investment or that are not working, and would reduce some of the department's operational costs.

  7. From 2000years of Ganoderma lucidum to recent developments in nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Karen S; Kao, Chi H J; Xu, Yuanye; Glucina, Marcus P; Paterson, R Russell M; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2015-06-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been used for centuries as nutraceuticals to improve health and to treat numerous chronic and infectious diseases. One such mushroom is Ganoderma lucidum, commonly known as Lingzhi, a species revered as a medicinal mushroom for treating assorted diseases and prolonging life. The fungus is found in diverse locations, and this may have contributed to confusion regarding the correct taxonomic classification of the genus Ganoderma. G. lucidum was first used to name a specimen found in England and thereafter was naively applied to a different Ganoderma species found in Asia, commonly known as Chinese Lingzhi. Despite the taxonomic confusion, which has largely been uncorrected, the popularity of Lingzhi has escalated across the globe. The current taxonomic situation is now discussed accurately in this Special Issue on Ganoderma. Today it is a multi-billion dollar industry wherein Lingzhi is cultivated or collected from the wild and consumed as a tea, in alcoholic beverages, and as a nutraceutical to confer numerous health benefits. Consumption of nutraceuticals has grown in popularity, and it is becoming increasingly important that active ingredients be identified and that suppliers make substantiated health claims about their products. The objective of this article is to present a review of G. lucidum over the past 2000 years from prized ancient "herbal" remedy to its use in nutraceuticals and to the establishment of a 2.5 billion $ (US) industry. PMID:25794896

  8. Stabilization Wedges and the Management of Global Carbon for the next 50 years

    ScienceCinema

    Socolow, Robert [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

    2009-09-01

    More than 40 years after receiving a Ph.D. in physics, I am still working on problems where conservation laws matter. In particular, for the problems I work on now, the conservation of the carbon atom matters. I will tell the saga of an annual flow of 8 billion tons of carbon associated with the global extraction of fossil fuels from underground. Until recently, it was taken for granted that virtually all of this carbon will move within weeks through engines of various kinds and then into the atmosphere. For compelling environmental reasons, I and many others are challenging this complacent view, asking whether the carbon might wisely be directed elsewhere. To frame this and similar discussions, Steve Pacala and I introduced the 'stabilization wedge' in 2004 as a useful unit for discussing climate stabilization. Updating the definition, a wedge is the reduction of CO2 emissions by one billion tons of carbon per year in 2057, achieved by any strategy generated as a result of deliberate attention to global carbon. Each strategy uses already commercialized technology, generally at much larger scale than today. Implementing seven wedges should enable the world to achieve the interim goal of emitting no more CO2 globally in 2057 than today. This would place humanity, approximately, on a path to stabilizing CO2 at less than double the pre-industrial concentration, and it would put those at the helm in the following 50 years in a position to drive CO2 emissions to a net of zero in the following 50 years. Arguably, the tasks of the two half-centuries are comparably difficult.

  9. One-Year Health Care Costs Associated with Delirium in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Douglas L.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Zhang, Ying; Leo-Summers, Linda; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Background While delirium has been increasingly recognized as a serious and potentially preventable source of morbidity and mortality for hospitalized older persons, its long-term implications are not well understood. The objective of this study is to determine the total 1-year health care costs associated with delirium. Methods Hospitalized patients aged 70 years and older who participated in a previous controlled clinical trial of a delirium prevention intervention at an academic medical center between 1995 and 1998 were followed for 1 year after discharge. Total inflation-adjusted healthcare costs were computed using data from Medicare administrative files, hospital billing records, and the Connecticut Long-Term Care Registry. Regression models were used to determine costs associated with delirium after adjusting for patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Results During the index hospitalization, 109 (13%) patients developed delirium while 732 did not. Patients with delirium had significantly higher unadjusted healthcare costs than non-delirious patients and survived fewer days. After adjusting for pertinent demographic and clinical characteristics, average costs per day survived among patients with delirium were over two and a half times the costs among patients without delirium. Total cost estimates attributable to delirium ranged from $16,303 to $64,421 per patient, implying that the national burden of delirium on the health care system ranges from $38 billion to $152 billion each year. Conclusions The economic impact of delirium is substantial, rivaling the health care costs of falls and diabetes. These results highlight the need for increased efforts to mitigate this clinically significant and costly disorder. PMID:18195192

  10. NIH and NCI grant-related changes during fiscal years 2014 and 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Rosemary S. L.

    2015-03-01

    The 2014 fiscal year (FY) continued to be a challenging one for all federal agencies despite the many Congressional strategies proposed to address the U.S. budget deficit. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 passed by the House and Senate in December 2013 approved a two-year spending bill which cancelled the FY2014 and FY2015 required sequestration cuts (i.e., 4-5% National Institute of Health (NIH)/National Cancer Institute (NCI) budget reduction initiated on March 1, 2013), but extended the sequestration period through FY2023. This bill passage helped minimize any further budget reductions and resulted in a final FY2014 NIH budget of 29.9 billion and a NCI budget of 4.9 billion. Both NIH and NCI worked hard to maintain awarding the same number of NIH/NCI investigator-initiated R01 and exploratory R21 grants funded in FY2014 and similar to the level seen in FY2013 and previous years (see Tables 1 and 2). Since Congress only recently passed the 2015 spending bill in December 16, 2014, the final NIH and NCI budget appropriations for FY2015 remains unknown at this time and most likely will be similar to the FY2014 budget level. The NCI overall success and funding rates for unsolicited investigator-initiated R01 applications remained at 15%, while the success rate for exploratory R21 applications was 12% in FY2014 with similar rates seen in FY2013 (see Tables 1 and 2). The success rate for biomedical research applications in the Photodynamic Therapy and laser research field will be provided for the past few years. NIH provides numerous resources to help inform the extramural biomedical research community of new and current grant applicants about new grant policy changes and the grant submission and review processes.

  11. Developmental milestones record - 5 years

    MedlinePLUS

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Growth milestones for children - 5 years ... makes mistakes Shows less aggressive behavior Outgrows earlier childhood fears Accepts other points of view (but may ...

  12. Phototroph genomics ten years on.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Jason; Swingley, Wesley D

    2008-07-01

    The onset of the genome era means different things to different people, but it is clear that this new age brings with it paradigm shifts that will forever affect biological research. Less clear is just how these shifts are changing the scope and scale of research. Are gigabases of raw data more useful than a single well-understood gene? Do we really need a full genome to understand the physiology of a single organism? The photosynthetic field is poised at the periphery of the bulk of genome sequencing work--understandably skewed toward health-related disciplines--and, as such, is subject to different motivations, limitations, and primary focus for each new genome. To understand some of these differences, we focus here on various indicators of the impact that genomics has had on the photosynthetic community, now a full decade since the publication of the first photosynthetic genome. Many useful indicators are indexed in public databases, providing pre- and post-genome sequence snapshots of changes in factors such as publication rate, number of proteins characterized, and sequenced genome coverage versus known diversity. As more genomes are sequenced and metagenomic projects begin to pour out billions of bases, it becomes crucial to understand how to harness this data in order to accumulate possible benefits and avoid possible pitfalls, especially as resources become increasingly directed toward natural environments governed by photosynthetic activity, ranging from hot springs to tropical forest ecosystems to the open ocean. PMID:18568416

  13. Ten years of teledermatology.

    PubMed

    Eminovi?, Nina; de Keizer, Nicolette F; Bindels, Patrick J E; Hasman, Arie

    2006-01-01

    Using telemedicine health professionals can communicate with each other and with their patients over a distance. Teledermatology, dermatology application of telemedicine, is one of the most often applied telemedicine applications worldwide. Various studies have been performed to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of and satisfaction with teledermatology. Up to now no or limited valid scientific evidence has been found that teledermatology is beneficial for any group of users. This study aimed to perceive insight into the evolution of evaluation studies of teledermatology over the past ten years in terms of the telemedicine evaluation framework by Holle and Zahlmann consisting of four continuous phases. We added the phase "post implementation studies" that evaluate teledermatology as a fully integrated service in regular care. Retrieved literature from Medline was reviewed by two reviewers independently in order to include studies and classify them into the five phases. Ninety-nine studies out of 372 found unique references were included and classified into the phases. Most represented phase was phase II with 72 (72%) studies. The number of phase II studies is continuously growing since the introduction of evaluation in teledermatology. There were eight reported RCTs found (two in phase III, six in phase IV). The number of phase III and IV studies is too low to draw conclusions about the trends in their publication and stress the need for more such studies. Phase I and post implementations studies are probably under-represented as they might often not be published separately in scientific journal papers. PMID:17108549

  14. 25 years in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    With the launch by the U.S.S.R. of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik, on October 4, 1957, the space age was inaugurated. Now, a symposium will mark the 25th anniversary of that launch with a review of the origins, motivations, and progress of the era.The National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution's National Air & Space Museum will host 25 Years in Space on October 14. The day-long symposium, to be held at the Academy auditorium at 2100 C St., N.W., Washington, D.C., will feature three major sessions: motivations for space activity, the practical dimensions of space, and science and space. Also on the agenda is a special program on the space age and the arts. Harvey Brooks of Harvard University, Simon Ramo of TRW, Inc., and Freeman Dyson of Princeton's Institute for Advanced Study will lead these sessions. Closing remarks will be presented by Philip Morrison of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  15. The International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph M.; Gopalswamy, Nat; Thompson, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that evolution in the solar system proceeds through a set of Universal Processes, i.e. reconnection, particle acceleration, plasma wave generation and propagation, etc. By studying these Universal Processes together, in diverse environments, and in a comparative way, new scientific insights will be gained. This is perhaps best understood by citing a few examples: (I) Shocks are observed in situ in the interplanetary medium, shocks are believed to play a role in the acceleration of particles in the solar corona, and standing bow shocks and termination shocks separate the major regions in the heliosphere. Shock formation, and particle acceleration are universal processes. (2) Aurorae are observed on Earth, Saturn, and Jupiter, and Jovian auroral "footprints" have been observed on 10, Ganymede and Europa. The formation of aurorae is observed to be the universal response of a magnetized body in the solar wind. The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) specifically highlights the cross-disciplinary study of universal physical processes in the solar system, observed in a variety of settings. The study of these processes will provide new insights that will lead to a better understanding of the universal processes in the solar system that affect the interplanetary and planetary environments, and pave the way for safe human space travel to the Moon and planets in the future, and it will serve to inspire the next generation of space physicists.

  16. Projects of the year

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    2007-01-15

    The Peabody Hotel, Orlando, Florida was the site of Power Engineering magazine's 2006 Projects of the Year Awards Banquet, which kicked-off the Power-Gen International conference and exhibition. The Best Coal-fired Project was awarded to Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association Inc., owner of Springenville Unit 3. This is a 400 MW pulverized coal plant in Springeville, AZ, sited with two existing coal-fired units. Designed to fire Powder River Basin coal, it has low NOx burners and selective catalytic reduction for NOx control, dry flue gas desulfurization for SO{sub 2} control and a pulse jet baghouse for particulate control. It has a seven-stage feedwater heater and condensers to ensure maximum performance. Progress Energy-Carolinas' Asheville Power Station FGD and SCR Project was awarded the 2006 coal-fired Project Honorable Mention. This plant in Skyland, NC was required to significantly reduce NOx emissions. When completed, the improvements will reduce NOx by 93% compared to 1996 levels and SO{sub 2} by 93% compared to 2001 levels. Awards for best gas-fired, nuclear, and renewable/sustainable energy projects are recorded. The Sasyadko Coal-Mine Methane Cogeneration Plant near Donezk, Ukraine, was given the 2006 Honorable Mention for Best Renewable/Sustainable Energy Project. In November 2004, Ukraine was among 14 nations to launch the Methane to Markets partnership. The award-winning plant is fuelled by methane released during coal extraction. It generates 42 MW of power. 4 photos.

  17. Broadcast Education Curricula in 2-Year and 4-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Erin; Kang, Jong G.; Allen, David S.

    1999-01-01

    Compares broadcasting curricula of two-year and four-year colleges. Finds that most broadcast programs implement a blend of practical and theoretical courses, and that students at two-year and four-year schools are subjected to comparable course work and internship/practicum experience. Suggests that many students are not receiving enough

  18. Thalidomide: 40 years on.

    PubMed

    Diggle, G E

    2001-11-01

    Thalidomide was marketed in the late-1950s as a sedative and tranquilliser of exceptionally low general toxicity, but in 1961 it was implicated separately by Lenz and MacBride as the cause of the epidemic of congenital malformations that had been puzzling the world for some years. It is a very potent teratogen in humans, but in few other mammalian species; damage to the embryo is produced at specific stages of gestation, but the mechanism of embryopathic action is still not understood. Following the withdrawal of the drug worldwide, it was consigned to the history of medical tragedies. In 1965, however, Sheskin discovered that it was effective in treating erythema nodosum leprosum, a distressing complication of leprosy. As the drug is neither an antibiotic nor an analgesic, its action was assumed to be immunosuppressive. In Brazil the drug was used widely with few regulatory controls, since when more than 100 cases of congenital malformation have appeared. Sheskin's discovery led to the experimental use of thalidomide in many other indications thought to possess some immunological component. In some cases, e.g. Behet's syndrome, graft-versus-host disease and aphthous ulceration in HIV-positive patients, the drug has been shown to possess some efficacy. And there is some evidence that it inhibits the replication of one of the immunodeficiency viruses. The AIDS community in the US has exerted much pressure on the FDA to allow the drug on to the market, although the use of a potent immunosuppressive drug of unknown mechanism in an immunodeficiency condition raises further questions. Thalidomide is not always beneficial; its use is associated with an increased mortality in epidermal necrolysis. In 1991, D'Amato confirmed it possessed antiangiogenic properties and this led to further trials in malignant conditions. Results were mixed, but those in multiple myeloma gave some grounds for optimism. In 1998, the FDA announced its extraordinary decision to grant marketing approval for thalidomide. PMID:11770361

  19. Lost in space: SDI struggles through its sixth year

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, B.W.

    1989-09-01

    After six years of debate, it is clear that Congress is willing to support a robust research program for SDI, but it is also clear that Congress will not support SDI annual outlays on the order of $10 billion. Thus the policy choice is between a good research program that meshes with fiscal reality, or an inadequate and wasteful development program that continues to focus on preparing for a Phase I deployment for which the funds simply will not be available. The Bush administration so far seems trapped by its own rhetoric from coming to grips with the implications of the new SDI reality. The responsibility for getting SDI on a steadier course toward more realistic research objectives thus seems to lie with Congress in the near term. Since Congress has been reluctant to earmark SDI research funds for specific objectives, it will take a change in administration perceptions before SDI program goals can be changed away from Phase I deployment. The only likely way this could happen in the near term would be as a result of a Congress-executive branch summit agreement on SDI objectives and funding levels. In the absence of such an agreement, SDI will be sailing under ever weaker fiscal and political winds and runs the risk of finding itself becalmed, working ceaselessly toward goals that will never be fulfilled.

  20. Tank waste remediation system multi-year work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) documents the detailed total Program baseline and was constructed to guide Program execution. The TWRS MYWP is one of two elements that comprise the TWRS Program Management Plan. The TWRS MYWP fulfills the Hanford Site Management System requirement for a Multi-Year Program Plan and a Fiscal-Year Work Plan. The MYWP addresses program vision, mission, objectives, strategy, functions and requirements, risks, decisions, assumptions, constraints, structure, logic, schedule, resource requirements, and waste generation and disposition. Sections 1 through 6, Section 8, and the appendixes provide program-wide information. Section 7 includes a subsection for each of the nine program elements that comprise the TWRS Program. The foundation of any program baseline is base planning data (e.g., defendable product definition, logic, schedules, cost estimates, and bases of estimates). The TWRS Program continues to improve base data. As data improve, so will program element planning, integration between program elements, integration outside of the TWRS Program, and the overall quality of the TWRS MYWP. The MYWP establishes the TWRS baseline objectives to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The TWRS Program will complete the baseline mission in 2040 and will incur costs totalling approximately 40 billion dollars. The summary strategy is to meet the above objectives by using a robust systems engineering effort, placing the highest possible priority on safety and environmental protection; encouraging {open_quotes}out sourcing{close_quotes} of the work to the extent practical; and managing significant but limited resources to move toward final disposition of tank wastes, while openly communicating with all interested stakeholders.