Sample records for fourteen billion years

  1. Fourteen years of resonance of Vanguard orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Tracking of Vanguard 3 and the Vanguard 2 rocket with Baker-Nunn cameras and the U.S. Navy's Space Surveillance (radio interferometer) system over a 14 year period revealed resonant fluctuations of up to 0.035 deg in inclination (peak to peak). Six geopotential terms (lumped coefficients) of 11th order and three of 22nd order were measured using orbit inclinations derived from this tracking record. The terms of 11th order are significantly smaller than Kaula's rule. (The lumped coefficients are sensitive to geopotential effects as high as 37th degree.) These observed terms are compatible with a recent 27-satellite geopotential solution whose formal coefficient errors are increased by a factor of 3.3.

  2. ASTER TIR onboard calibration over fourteen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Tatsumi, Kenji; Ono, Hidehiko

    2014-10-01

    The ASTER Instrument is one of the five sensors on the NASA's Terra satellite on orbit since December 1999. After 14 years on orbit, ASTER VNIR and TIR are still taking Earth images of good quality. The TIR radiometer has five bands from 8 to 12 ?m with spatial resolution of 90 m. Each band has ten detectors. The detectors are cooled at 80 K precisely by using a Stirling cooler within 0.1 K. TIR is radiometrically calibrated by a single onboard blackbody. In the normal operation mode the blackbody is kept at 270 K, and once in 49 days the blackbody is heated up to 340 K for the gain calibration. The degradation at band 12 is largest and 48% and that at band 10 is smallest and 18%. One of the possible causes of the degradation is the contamination accretion by outgas of silicone SE9188 RTV used for TIR followed by the ultraviolet radiation. The absorption spectra of outgas of this silicon was measured at JAXA and the absorption spectra showed similar to the TIR degradation in the early days on orbit. ASTER science team is proposing the second lunar calibration at the end of terra mission for the estimation of the TIR optical characteristics. ASTER experienced first lunar calibration in April 2003 and many of the TIR bands were saturated. Due to the responsivity degradation the TIR dynamic range has extended to higher temperature. At least TIR four bands will not saturate in the next lunar calibration.

  3. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Sean A; Døssing, Lasse N; Beukes, Nicolas J; Bau, Michael; Kruger, Stephanus J; Frei, Robert; Canfield, Donald E

    2013-09-26

    It is widely assumed that atmospheric oxygen concentrations remained persistently low (less than 10(-5) times present levels) for about the first 2 billion years of Earth's history. The first long-term oxygenation of the atmosphere is thought to have taken place around 2.3 billion years ago, during the Great Oxidation Event. Geochemical indications of transient atmospheric oxygenation, however, date back to 2.6-2.7 billion years ago. Here we examine the distribution of chromium isotopes and redox-sensitive metals in the approximately 3-billion-year-old Nsuze palaeosol and in the near-contemporaneous Ijzermyn iron formation from the Pongola Supergroup, South Africa. We find extensive mobilization of redox-sensitive elements through oxidative weathering. Furthermore, using our data we compute a best minimum estimate for atmospheric oxygen concentrations at that time of 3?×?10(-4) times present levels. Overall, our findings suggest that there were appreciable levels of atmospheric oxygen about 3 billion years ago, more than 600 million years before the Great Oxidation Event and some 300-400 million years earlier than previous indications for Earth surface oxygenation. PMID:24067713

  4. $17 billion needed by year 2000.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1995-09-01

    The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) estimates that US$17 billion will be needed to fund reproductive health care in developing countries by the year 2000. About US$10 billion of would go for family planning: currently, the amount spent on family planning is about US$5 billion. Donors are focusing on fewer countries because of limited resources. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is planning to phase out support for family planning in Jamaica and Brazil because the programs there have advanced sufficiently. Resources will be shifted to countries with more pressing needs. Dr. Richard Osborn, senior technical officer for UNFPA, states that UNFPA works with national program managers in allocating resources at the macro level (commodities, training). Currently, two-thirds of family planning funds spent worldwide come from developing country governments (mainly China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, Turkey, and Bangladesh). Sustaining programs, much less adding new services, will be difficult. User fees and public-private partnerships are being considered; worldwide, consumers provide, currently, about 14% of family planning funds (The portion is higher in most Latin American countries.). In a few countries, insurance, social security, and other public-private arrangements contribute. Social marketing programs are being considered that would remove constraints on prescriptions and prices and improve the quality of services so that clients would be more willing to pay for contraceptives. Although governments are attempting to fit family planning into their health care budgets, estimates at the national level are difficult to make. Standards are needed to make expenditure estimates quickly and at low cost, according to Dr. Barbara Janowitz of FHI, which is developing guidelines. Studies in Bangladesh, Ecuador, Ghana, Mexico, and the Philippines are being conducted, with the assistance of The Evaluation Project at the Population Center at the University of North Carolina and in-country organizations, to determine the amounts from government resources spent on family planning services in general and by function (training, administration, service delivery, and information). PMID:12290464

  5. [The rare case of fibroma of reticuloendothelial system of parapharyngeal space in fourteen year old girl].

    PubMed

    Szmeja, Zygmunt; ?aczkowska-Przybylska, Joanna; Salwa-Zurawska, Wies?awa

    2008-01-01

    The subject of our presentation is the case of a fourteen year old girl with rare histological type of histiocytoma malignum and with rare localisation of the primary neoplasm of the parapharyngeal space. Anatomopathology of histiocytoma fibrosum malignum and its clinical symptoms are described. PMID:19004274

  6. Book Review The Mermaid's Tale: Four Billion Years of Cooperation

    E-print Network

    Hochberg, Michael

    Book Review The Mermaid's Tale: Four Billion Years of Cooperation in the Making of Living Things.00 (cloth). The motivation for The Mermaid's Tale: Four Billion Years of Cooperation in the Making of Living from this book largely unconvinced and sometimes annoyed. The Mermaid's Tale is presented in three

  7. 10 Billion Years of Massive Galaxies Edward N Taylor

    E-print Network

    Hille, Sander

    for these scaling relations has long been a major goal for theoretical models of galaxy evolution. Current models10 Billion Years of Massive Galaxies Edward N Taylor Summary Background Galaxy formation and the formation of stars and planets within galaxies. The study of galaxy evolution thus links the two big

  8. BCG vaccination of children against leprosy: fourteen-year findings of the trial in Burma

    PubMed Central

    Lwin, Kyaw; Sundaresan, T.; Gyi, Mg Mg; Bechelli, L. M.; Tamondong, C.; Garbajosa, P. Gallego; Sansarricq, H.; Noordeen, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The value of BCG vaccination in preventing leprosy among children was studied in an area of high leprosy endemicity in Burma through a controlled trial; one group of 13 066 children received BCG and another group of 13 176 served as controls. The overall protective effect of BCG, which was only about 20% over the 14-year period, was found to vary with the batch of vaccine, as well as age, sex, and contact status of the children. BCG protection was found to be independent of the initial tuberculin status of the children. The protective effect of BCG against the lepromatous type of leprosy could not be measured because of the low incidence. Protection was observed throughout the fourteen years of the study except for the first year. The results are compared with those of three other major BCG trials in leprosy. The trial has shown that BCG provides only a very modest level of protection and that BCG vaccination is not likely to be an important solution for leprosy control. PMID:2940028

  9. Conservation of protein structure over four billion years

    PubMed Central

    Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Delgado-Delgado, Asuncion; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Fernandez, Julio M.; Gaucher, Eric A.; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.; Gavira, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Little is known with certainty about the evolution of protein structures in general and the degree of protein structure conservation over planetary time scales in particular. Here we report the X-ray crystal structures of seven laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins dating back up to ~4 billion years before present. Despite considerable sequence differences compared with extant enzymes, the ancestral proteins display the canonical thioredoxin fold while only small structural changes have occurred over 4 billion years. This remarkable degree of structure conservation since a time near the last common ancestor of life supports a punctuated-equilibrium model of structure evolution in which the generation of new folds occurs over comparatively short periods of time and is followed by long periods of structural stasis. PMID:23932589

  10. Conservation of protein structure over four billion years.

    PubMed

    Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Delgado-Delgado, Asuncion; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Fernandez, Julio M; Gaucher, Eric A; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M; Gavira, Jose A

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the evolution of protein structures and the degree of protein structure conservation over planetary time scales. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of seven laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins dating up to approximately four billion years ago. Despite considerable sequence differences compared with extant enzymes, the ancestral proteins display the canonical thioredoxin fold, whereas only small structural changes have occurred over four billion years. This remarkable degree of structure conservation since a time near the last common ancestor of life supports a punctuated-equilibrium model of structure evolution in which the generation of new folds occurs over comparatively short periods and is followed by long periods of structural stasis. PMID:23932589

  11. Emergence of modern continental crust about 3 billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuime, Bruno; Wuestefeld, Andreas; Hawkesworth, Chris J.

    2015-07-01

    The continental crust is the principal record of conditions on the Earth during the past 4.4 billion years. However, how the continental crust formed and evolved through time remains highly controversial. In particular, the composition and thickness of juvenile continental crust are unknown. Here we show that Rb/Sr ratios can be used as a proxy for both the silica content and the thickness of the continental crust. We calculate Rb/Sr ratios of the juvenile crust for over 13,000 samples, with Nd model ages ranging from the Hadean to Phanerozoic. The ratios were calculated based on the evolution of Sr isotopes in the period between the TDM Nd model age and the crystallization of the samples analysed. We find that the juvenile crust had a low silica content and was largely mafic in composition during the first 1.5 billion years of Earth’s evolution, consistent with magmatism on a pre-plate tectonics planet. About 3 billion years ago, the Rb/Sr ratios of the juvenile continental crust increased, indicating that the newly formed crust became more silica-rich and probably thicker. This transition is in turn linked to the onset of plate tectonics and an increase of continental detritus into the oceans.

  12. Early Archean (3.3-billion to 3.5-billion-year-old) microfossils from Warrawoona Group, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schopf, J. W.; Packer, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    Cellularly preserved filamentous and colonial fossil microorganisms have been discovered in bedded carbonaceous cherts from the Early Archean Apex Basalt and Towers Formation of northwestern Western Australia. The cell types detected suggest that cyanobacteria, and therefore oxygen-producing photosynthesis, may have been extant as early as 3.3 billion to 3.5 billion years ago. These fossils are among the oldest now known from the geologic record; their discovery substantiates previous reports of Early Archean microfossils in Warrawoona Group strata.

  13. BRIEF REPORT: The Aging of the Homeless Population: Fourteen-Year Trends in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Judith A; Kushel, Margot B; Bangsberg, David R; Riley, Elise; Moss, Andrew R

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Homelessness is associated with high rates of health and substance use problems. OBJECTIVE To examine trends in the age, housing, health status, health service utilization, and drug use of the homeless population over a 14-year period. DESIGN Serial cross-sectional. PARTICIPANTS We studied 3,534 literally homeless adults recruited at service providers in San Francisco in 4 waves: 1990–1994, 1996–1998, 1999–2000, and 2003. MEASUREMENTS Age, time homeless, self-reported chronic conditions, hospital and emergency department utilization, and drug and alcohol use. RESULTS The median age of the homeless increased from 37 to 46 over the study waves, at a rate of 0.66 years per calendar year (P < 0.01). The median total time homeless increased from 12 to 39.5 months (P < 0.01). Emergency department visits, hospital admissions, and chronic health conditions increased. CONCLUSIONS The homeless population is aging by about two thirds of a year every calendar year, consistent with trends in several other cities. It is likely that the homeless are static, aging population cohort. The aging trends suggest that chronic conditions will become increasingly prominent for homeless health services. This will present challenges to traditional approaches to screening, prevention, and treatment of chronic diseases in an aging homeless population. PMID:16808781

  14. Constraining the geodynamo and magnetopause during Earth's first billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, R. D.; Tarduno, J. A.; Davis, W. J.; Mamajek, E.

    2013-12-01

    A key parameter in determining solar-terrestrial interactions for the early Earth is the magnetopause standoff distance, determined by the balance between the geomagnetic field and solar wind pressure. The oldest constraints are for 3.45 Ga, during which the magnetopause standoff was less than half the distance of present-day, suggesting an environment where enhanced volatile loss (including water) from the atmosphere seems unavoidable (Tarduno et al., Science, 2010). As we look further back in time there are two vastly different, but currently viable models for the geodynamo. In one the dynamo started shortly after core formation, whereas in the other the dynamo was delayed by as much as 1 billion years by slow lower mantle cooling. A further uncertainty in standoff calculations is solar mass loss for the first 700 million years of the young Sun. Here we address both the uncertainties in solar winds and Earth's dipole moment. We constrain solar mass loss using a new model for the evolution of solar magnetic topology with time, allowing us to extend our prior calculations to the earliest Sun. Extant rocks suitable for paleomagnetic analysis are not available older than ca. 3.47 Ga, however, silicate minerals containing magnetic inclusions composing sedimentary rocks could preserve an ancient record of the geodynamo. Among these, the Jack Hills metaconglomerate (Yilgarn craton, Western Australia) is a promising unit because cobbles pass a conglomerate test (Tarduno and Cottrell, EPSL, 2013). Following our work on zircons and other single silicate crystals hosting magnetic inclusions in the Rochester laboratory since 1997, we discuss the first successful Thellier-Thellier paleointensity results on zircons measured in situ in quartz and as isolated crystals. We employ a CO2 laser demagnetization system and a small bore (6.3 mm) 3-component DC SQUID magnetometer; the latter offers the highest currently available moment resolution. We will discuss our related geochronological studies, and the implications for the early history of the geodynamo, atmospheric loss by solar wind erosion and planetary habitability.

  15. Food Web Changes over Fourteen Years Following Introduction of Rainbow Smelt into a Colorado Reservoir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett M. Johnson; John P. Goettl Jr

    1999-01-01

    Rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax were introduced into Horsetooth Reservoir, Colorado, in 1983 to increase prey availability for walleyes Stizostedion vitreum. The introduction was highly successful. Rainbow smelt abundance reached at least 0.4 fish\\/m within 6 years, and walleye growth improved by 50%. Zooplankton sampling provided the first clues that the Horsetooth Reservoir food web was undergoing dramatic changes in response

  16. Food Web Changes over Fourteen Years Following Introduction of Rainbow Smelt into a Colorado Reservoir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett M. Johnson; John P. Goettl

    1999-01-01

    Rainbow smelt Osmerus mordaxwere introduced into Horsetooth Reservoir, Colorado, in 1983 to increase prey availability for walleyes Stizostedion vitreum.The introduction was highly successful. Rainbow smelt abundance reached at least 0.4 fish\\/m 3 within 6 years, and walleye growth improved by 50%. Zooplankton sampling provided the first clues that the Horsetooth Reservoir food web was undergoing dramatic changes in response to

  17. Adiposity and growth: relationship of stature at fourteen years with relative body weight at different ages and several measures of adiposity and body bulk.

    PubMed

    Amador, M; Bacallao, J; Hermelo, M

    1992-03-01

    A non-probabilistic sample of 354 healthy adolescents (182 boys and 172 girls) with ages ranging from 13.6 to 14.5 years was studied. Measurements of mid-arm muscle, thigh and leg circumferences, triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and records of body weight and height at one, four, six and twelve years of age were available. The sexual maturation stage of all subjects was also determined. Height at fourteen years was found to be significantly associated with relative body weight at different ages in both sexes, and particularly with the relative weight at twelve months. Height is more strongly related with indicators of lean body mass than with indicators of adiposity, especially in boys. The stage of sexual development is also an important determinant of stature at fourteen years of age. The results seem to support the hypothesis that the same factors which increase fat deposition, contribute to increase lean tissues and linear growth. PMID:1559526

  18. For the first billion years of life on Earth,prokaryotes had the place to

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Feature For the first billion years of life on Earth,prokaryotes had the place to themselves. By the time the first eukary- otes and then, finally, multicellular or- ganisms arose and diversified,prokaryotic animals are thought to have some type of symbiotic prokaryote living inside them, although

  19. Despite High Cost, Improved Pneumococcal Vaccine Expected To Return 10-Year Net Savings Of $12 Billion.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Michele A; Farkouh, Raymond A; Maschio, Michael J; McGarry, Lisa J; Strutton, David R; Weinstein, Milton C

    2015-07-01

    In 2010 the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended that the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) be replaced by the thirteen-valent version (PCV13), which provides protection against six additional serotypes of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. The higher price of PCV13, compared to PCV7, may be a concern for funding agencies and payers, as has been the case with other new vaccines. This study estimated the budgetary impact on both public and private US insurance payers of the routine use of PCV13 instead of PCV7 from 2010 to 2019. Implementing the PCV13 vaccine is projected to cost public and private payers $3.5 billion and $2.6 billion, respectively, more than PCV7. However, PCV13 is expected to provide net cost savings of $6.1 billion and $4.2 billion, respectively, to those payers during the ten-year period by preventing pneumococcal disease and its associated costs. An additional $1.7 billion in cost savings would be realized for uninsured patients, whose costs ultimately fall on those payers. Despite its higher price, compared to PCV7, this new vaccine is expected to provide payers with substantial net budgetary savings. PMID:26135209

  20. Star-forming galaxies growing up over the last ten billion years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Elaine Bauer

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis investigates the evolution of star-forming galaxies over the last ten billion years. This time period encompasses nearly three-fourths of the age of the Universe, when a substantial fraction of the total stellar mass forms, and the sites of active star formation shift to lower-mass galaxies. The first study presented here combines galaxies from the

  1. Paleomagnetic and paleointensity investigations of a 3.6 billion-year-old granite from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, J.; Tarduno, J. A.; Mukul, M.; Cottrell, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    The presence of a dynamo during Paleoarchean and older times is important because of the role played by the geomagnetic field in shielding Earth from intense radiation from the rapidly-rotating young Sun. Dacites 3.45 billion-years-old from South Africa record a geomagnetic field (Tarduno et al., 2010), and some models for the thermal evolution of Earth suggest a relatively strong field shortly after core formation. However, other models suggest a delayed dynamo onset, to ages as young as 3.6 Ga. Here, we present an initial investigation of a 3.6 billion-year-old granite from the Bastar Craton, India. The granite is undeformed and has experienced only greenschist-grade metamorphism; therefore it potentially records information on the presence/absence of a geodynamo. We focus on analyses of quartz phenocrysts, as such minerals have been shown to host minute magnetic minerals suitable for the preservation of remanent magnetizations on time scales of billions of years (e.g. Tarduno et al., 2007). In prior work, the principal magnetic inclusion identified in quartz phenocrysts from Archean plutonic rocks has been magnetite. We find that some quartz grains from the Bastar Craton also contain hematite grains in the single domain size range, occurring as isolated particles. These hematite particles have the potential to provide an additional unblocking temperature range useful in testing for the presence of an ancient geomagnetic field. We will present preliminary rock magnetic, paleomagnetic and paleointensity analyses on the quartz phenocrysts.

  2. House dust mite sensitization in toddlers predict persistent wheeze in children between eight to fourteen years old

    PubMed Central

    Llanora, Genevieve V.; Ming, Low Jia; Wei, Lee Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Identifying toddlers at increased risk of developing persistent wheeze provides an opportunity for risk-reducing interventions. House dust mite (HDM) allergen sensitization might identify this group of high-risk children. Objective We examined whether a positive skin prick test (SPT) to at least 1 of the 3 HDMs in wheezing toddlers, would serve as a predictor for persistent wheeze at age 8 to 14 years old. Methods A cohort of 78 children, who had wheezing episodes, and underwent SPT to 3 HDMs between the ages of 2 to 5 years old, were enrolled. SPT results were obtained from the National University Hospital database. Four to 9 years later, the children, currently between 8 to 14 years old, were re-assessed for persistence of asthma symptoms and other atopic disorders via a telephone interview. A validated questionnaire on current wheezing and asthma, developed by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, was used. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate the association between persistence of asthma and a positive SPT. Results Of the 78 children who participated in the study, 42 (53.8%) had a positive SPT and 36 (46.2%) had a negative SPT. Of these, 18 (42.9%) of SPT positive and 7 (19.4%) of SPT negative children had persistence of asthma symptoms. There is a significant association between a positive SPT during the preschool years, and persistence of asthma (p = 0.0314 [<0.05]). Conclusion HDM sensitization at ages 2 to 5 years old in wheezing children predicts persistence of asthma after 4 to 9 years. This in turn may have benefits for management of asthma in this high-risk group. PMID:22872820

  3. Fourteen Years of Diverse Annual No-Till Cropping in Washington’s Winter Wheat – Summer Fallow Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have completed the 14th year of a cropping systems experiment to evaluate diverse annual (i.e., no summer fallow) cropping systems using no-till as an alternative to tillage-intensive winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow (WW-SF). Soft white and hard white classes of winter and spri...

  4. Applied Psychology in the Junior High School: Teaching ESL Communicative Skills to Twelve-to-Fourteen-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams-Smith, Diana E.

    Boys and girls in the early years of adolescence can best learn ESL communicative skills if the instructor has an understanding of the main characteristics of early adolescence and an appreciation of the teaching techniques best adaped to them. Characteristics which should be taken into account when designing an ESL course include the following:…

  5. Epidemiology of Generalized Joint Laxity (Hypermobility) in Fourteen-Year-Old Children From the UK: A Population-Based Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Clinch, Jacqui; Deere, Kevin; Sayers, Adrian; Palmer, Shea; Riddoch, Chris; Tobias, Jonathan H; Clark, Emma M

    2011-01-01

    Objective Although diagnostic criteria for generalized ligamentous laxity (hypermobility) in children are widely used, their validity may be limited, due to the lack of robust descriptive epidemiologic data on this condition. The present study was undertaken to describe the point prevalence and pattern of hypermobility in 14-year-old children from a population-based cohort. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large population-based birth cohort. Hypermobility among children in the cohort (mean age 13.8 years) was measured using the Beighton scoring system. Objective measures of physical activity were ascertained by accelerometry. Data on other variables, including puberty and socioeconomic status, were collected. Simple prevalence rates were calculated. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations of specific variables with hypermobility. Results Among the 6,022 children evaluated, the prevalence of hypermobility (defined as a Beighton score of ?4 [i.e., ?4 joints affected]) in girls and boys age 13.8 years was 27.5% and 10.6%, respectively. Forty-five percent of girls and 29% of boys had hypermobile fingers. There was a suggestion of a positive association between hypermobility in girls and variables including physical activity, body mass index, and maternal education. No associations were seen in boys. Conclusion We have shown that the prevalence of hypermobility in UK children is high, possibly suggesting that the Beighton score cutoff of ?4 is too low or that this scoring is not appropriate for use in subjects whose musculoskeletal system is still developing. These results provide a platform to evaluate the relationships between the Beighton criteria and key clinical features (including pain), thereby testing the clinical validity of this scoring system in the pediatric population. PMID:21547894

  6. The Interstellar Medium In Galaxies Seen A Billion Years After The Big Bang

    E-print Network

    Capak, P L; Jones, G; Casey, C M; Riechers, D; Sheth, K; Carollo, C M; Ilbert, O; Karim, A; LeFevre, O; Lilly, S; Scoville, N; Smolcic, V; Yan, L

    2015-01-01

    Evolution in the measured rest frame ultraviolet spectral slope and ultraviolet to optical flux ratios indicate a rapid evolution in the dust obscuration of galaxies during the first 3 billion years of cosmic time (z>4). This evolution implies a change in the average interstellar medium properties, but the measurements are systematically uncertain due to untested assumptions, and the inability to measure heavily obscured regions of the galaxies. Previous attempts to directly measure the interstellar medium in normal galaxies at these redshifts have failed for a number of reasons with one notable exception. Here we report measurements of the [CII] gas and dust emission in 9 typical (~1-4L*) star-forming galaxies ~1 billon years after the big bang (z~5-6). We find these galaxies have >12x less thermal emission compared with similar systems ~2 billion years later, and enhanced [CII] emission relative to the far-infrared continuum, confirming a strong evolution in the interstellar medium properties in the early u...

  7. Evidence for arsenic metabolism and cycling by microorganisms 2.7 billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sforna, Marie Catherine; Philippot, Pascal; Somogyi, Andrea; van Zuilen, Mark A.; Medjoubi, Kadda; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Visscher, Pieter T.

    2014-11-01

    The ability of microbes to metabolize arsenic may have emerged more than 3.4 billion years ago. Some of the modern environments in which prominent arsenic metabolism occurs are anoxic, as were the Precambrian oceans. Early oceans may also have had a relatively high abundance of arsenic. However, it is unclear whether arsenic cycling occurred in ancient environments. Here we assess the chemistry and nature of cell-like globules identified in salt-encrusted portions of 2.72-billion-year-old fossil stromatolites from Western Australia. We use Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence to show that the globules are composed of organic carbon and arsenic (As). We argue that our data are best explained by the occurrence of a complete arsenic cycle at this site, with As(III) oxidation and As(V) reduction by microbes living in permanently anoxic conditions. We therefore suggest that arsenic cycling could have occurred more widely in marine environments in the several hundred million years before the Earth’s atmosphere and shallow oceans were oxygenated.

  8. Changes over fourteen years in adult obesity in Estonia: socioeconomic status and use of outpatient health services.

    PubMed

    Tekkel, Mare; Veideman, Tatjana; Rahu, Mati

    2010-12-01

    It has been noted that great socioeconomic and lifestyle changes have triggered an epidemic of obesity among Eastern Europeans. The objective of this study was to assess the change of adult obesity in Estonia by socioeconomic status and the use of outpatient healthcare services among obese individuals over time. It can be maintained that obesity distribution in Estonia in 1990-2004 developed similarly to an average Western country and, regardless of an increasing level of male obesity, obesity prevalence for 16-64 year-olds was on the average level in Europe in 2004 - 14.0% for men and 14.9% for women. Change in obesity prevalence correlates quite well with changes in the economy in Estonia. From studied socioeconomic variables only age and education (among women) strongly affect the change in obesity level. Obese individuals used outpatient medical care slightly differently compared to individuals with a normal BMI. PMID:21361100

  9. Fourteen-year experience with the intraoperative frozen section examination of testicular lesion in a tertiary university center.

    PubMed

    Silverio, Patricia Caseiro; Schoofs, Fabian; Iselin, Christophe E; Tille, Jean-Christophe

    2015-06-01

    Most testicular tumors are germ cell neoplasias. The number of incidentally detected small-sized, nonpalpable testicular lesions is increasing with the use of high-frequency ultrasound for infertility or trauma. These lesions are benign in 80% of cases and can be treated by organ-sparing surgery on the basis of frozen section examination (FSE). We assess the reliability of FSE in testicular and paratesticular lesions and its possible impact on surgical management. We performed a retrospective review of intraoperative FSE in testicular/paratesticular lesions at Geneva University Hospital during a 14-year period. A total of 170 cases were identified, with 159 testicular and 11 paratesticular lesions. The FSE results, permanent sections, and orchiectomy slides were reviewed and compared. Frozen section examinations were reported to be benign in 9 paratesticular and in 43 testicular lesions, and malignant in 2 paratesticular and 105 testicular lesions. Comparing FSE and final diagnosis, FSE correctly identified all nontumor lesions. There was a failure rate of 3.5% to identify tumor. Specificity was 100%, sensitivity was 95%, positive predictive value was 100%, and negative predictive value was 89%. Frozen section examination is a highly sensitive and specific intraoperative procedure, which allows to differentiate between benign and malignant testicular and paratesticular lesions, with a possibility of organ-sparing surgery when they are benign. PMID:25747842

  10. Extraterrestrial demise of banded iron formations 1.85 billion years ago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Cannon, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    In the Lake Superior region of North America, deposition of most banded iron formations (BIFs) ended abruptly 1.85 Ga ago, coincident with the oceanic impact of the giant Sudbury extraterrestrial bolide. We propose a new model in which this impact produced global mixing of shallow oxic and deep anoxic waters of the Paleoproterozoic ocean, creating a suboxic redox state for deep seawater. This suboxic state, characterized by only small concentrations of dissolved O2 (???1 ??M), prevented transport of hydrothermally derived Fe(II) from the deep ocean to continental-margin settings, ending an ???1.1 billion-year-long period of episodic BIF mineralization. The model is supported by the nature of Precambrian deep-water exhalative chemical sediments, which changed from predominantly sulfide facies prior to ca. 1.85 Ga to mainly oxide facies thereafter. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  11. A Change in the Geodynamics of Continental Growth 3 Billion Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuime, Bruno; Hawkesworth, Chris J.; Cawood, Peter A.; Storey, Craig D.

    2012-03-01

    Models for the growth of continental crust rely on knowing the balance between the generation of new crust and the reworking of old crust throughout Earth’s history. The oxygen isotopic composition of zircons, for which uranium-lead and hafnium isotopic data provide age constraints, is a key archive of crustal reworking. We identified systematic variations in hafnium and oxygen isotopes in zircons of different ages that reveal the relative proportions of reworked crust and of new crust through time. Growth of continental crust appears to have been a continuous process, albeit at variable rates. A marked decrease in the rate of crustal growth at ~3 billion years ago may be linked to the onset of subduction-driven plate tectonics.

  12. Exploring the Impact of Galaxy Interactions over Seven Billion Years with CAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. H.; Jogee, S.; Conselice, C.; Penner, K.; Bell, E.; Zheng, X.; Papovich, C.; Skelton, R.; Somerville, R.; Rix, H.-W.; Barazza, F.; Barden, M.; Borch, A.; Beckwith, S.; Caldwell, J.; Häussler, B.; Heymans, C.; Robaina, A.; Sanchez, S.; Zheng, X.; Borch, A.; Peng, C.; Papovich, C.; Beckwith, S.; McIntosh, D.; Caldwell, J.; Conselice, C.; Haeussler, B.; Rix, H.; Wolf, C.; Somerville, R.; Meisenheimer, K.; Wisotzki, L.

    2008-08-01

    We explore galaxy assembly over the last seven billion years by characterizing ``normal'' galaxies along the Hubble sequence, against strongly disturbed merging/interacting galaxies with the widely used CAS system of concentration (C), asymmetry (A), and `clumpiness' (S) parameters, as well as visual classification. We analyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ACS images of ˜4000 intermediate and high mass ( M/ M?>109) galaxies from the GEMS survey, one of the largest HST surveys conducted to date in two filters. We explore the effectiveness of the CAS criteria [A>S and A>~0.35] in separating normal and strongly disturbed galaxies at different redshifts, and quantify the recovery and contamination rate. We also compare the average star formation rate and the cosmic star formation rate density as a function of redshift between normal and interacting systems identified by CAS.

  13. A change in the geodynamics of continental growth 3 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Dhuime, Bruno; Hawkesworth, Chris J; Cawood, Peter A; Storey, Craig D

    2012-03-16

    Models for the growth of continental crust rely on knowing the balance between the generation of new crust and the reworking of old crust throughout Earth's history. The oxygen isotopic composition of zircons, for which uranium-lead and hafnium isotopic data provide age constraints, is a key archive of crustal reworking. We identified systematic variations in hafnium and oxygen isotopes in zircons of different ages that reveal the relative proportions of reworked crust and of new crust through time. Growth of continental crust appears to have been a continuous process, albeit at variable rates. A marked decrease in the rate of crustal growth at ~3 billion years ago may be linked to the onset of subduction-driven plate tectonics. PMID:22422979

  14. Evidence for Mature Bulges and an Inside-out Quenching Phase 3 Billion Years After the Big Bang

    E-print Network

    Tacchella, S; Renzini, A; Schreiber, N M Förster; Lang, P; Wuyts, S; Cresci, G; Dekel, A; Genzel, R; Lilly, S J; Mancini, C; Newman, S; Onodera, M; Shapley, A; Tacconi, L; Woo, J; Zamorani, G

    2015-01-01

    Most present-day galaxies with stellar masses $\\geq10^{11}$ solar masses show no ongoing star formation and are dense spheroids. Ten billion years ago, similarly massive galaxies were typically forming stars at rates of hundreds solar masses per year. It is debated how star formation ceased, on which timescales, and how this "quenching" relates to the emergence of dense spheroids. We measured stellar mass and star-formation rate surface density distributions in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.2 with $\\sim1$ kiloparsec resolution. We find that, in the most massive galaxies, star formation is quenched from the inside out, on timescales less than 1 billion years in the inner regions, up to a few billion years in the outer disks. These galaxies sustain high star-formation activity at large radii, while hosting fully grown and already quenched bulges in their cores.

  15. New research indicates that asteroids barraged the Earth's surface for an additional two billion years

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    2012-05-04

    Ancient asteroids kept on cominghttp://www.nature.com/news/ancient-asteroids-kept-on-coming-1.10504Dinosaurs were declining before asteroid struck, say scientistshttp://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2012/0501/Dinosaurs-were-declining-before-asteroid-struck-say-scientists-videoTriceratops was already on road to extinction before asteroid wiped out dinosaurshttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/dinosaurs/9238658/Triceratops-was-already-on-road-to-exctinction-before-asteroid-wiped-out-dinosaurs.htmlBBC Nature: Prehistoric Life: Dinosaurshttp://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/life/DinosaurDinobasehttp://dinobase.gly.bris.ac.uk/It is generally believed that a massive asteroid impact some 65 million years ago killed off the dinosaurs, ending their long reign as the dominant vertebrates on the planet. However, a recent pair of studies has revealed that such occurrences were much more common than previously thought. Before now, scientists thought that the intense period of asteroid impacts ended almost 3.7 billion years ago. Both of these new studies seem to indicate that over 70 asteroid impacts at least as severe as the one that likely killed off the dinosaurs continued over an additional period of 2 billion years. The scientists think that the potential culprits were asteroids originating from the E belt, which is quite small in the present day. Of course, there is some dissent between the two studies about the range of speeds at which the asteroids were traveling before impact, and both groups of scientists will continue to compare their respective findings. The first link leads to a podcast and article on this recent discovery from the Scientific American's "60-Second Space" series. The second link will whisk users away to a detailed piece by Nature's Helen Thompson which provides additional insights into the recently published studies on the asteroids. The third link takes interested parties to a nice piece from The Christian Science Monitor about those groups of dinosaurs that were already in decline before a massive meteor struck the Earth's surface some 65 million years ago. Moving on, the fourth link leads to a piece from this Tuesday's Telegraph about this steady decline, with a focus on the Hadrosaurs and the Triceratops. The fifth link leads to a site created by the BBC about the world of the dinosaurs. Here visitors can look over renderings of these fabulous creatures, and learn more about them in sections such as When they lived, What their world was like, and Behaviours. The final link leads to a wonderful database of photos, blogs, forums and so on (annotated in this week's Scout Report) from the University of Bristol on the subject of dinosaurs.

  16. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Lowenstern, J B; Evans, W C; Bergfeld, D; Hunt, A G

    2014-02-20

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by ?-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions. PMID:24553240

  17. The 18O/16O Ratio of 2-Billion-Year-Old Seawater Inferred from Ancient Oceanic Crust.

    PubMed

    Holmden, C; Muehlenbachs, K

    1993-03-19

    An oxygen isotope profile of the 2-billion-year-old Purtuniq ophiolite overlaps with similar profiles of younger ophiolites and the modern oceanic crust. This overlap implies (i) that there was a similar style of seawater-ocean crust interaction during the past 2 billion years; (ii) that the oxygen isotope composition of early Proterozoic seawater was similar to the modern value; (iii) that early Proterozoic sea-floor spreading rates were similar to, or greater than, average modern rates; and (iv) that early Proterozoic carbonate rocks and cherts with low (18)O/(16)O ratios do not reflect global-scale (18)O depletion of early Proterozoic oceans. PMID:17816892

  18. The First Billion Years project: dark matter haloes going from contraction to expansion and back again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Andrew J.; Khochfar, Sadegh; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    We study the effect of baryons on the inner dark matter profile of the first galaxies using the First Billion Years simulation between z = 16 and 6 before secular evolution sets in. Using a large statistical sample from two simulations of the same volume and cosmological initial conditions, one with and one without baryons, we are able to directly compare haloes with their baryon-free counterparts, allowing a detailed study of the modifications to the dark matter density profile due to the presence of baryons during the first billion years of galaxy formation. For each of the ?5000 haloes in our sample (3 × 107 M? ? Mtot ? 5 × 109 M?), we quantify the impact of the baryons using ?, defined as the ratio of dark matter mass enclosed in 100 pc in the baryonic run to its counterpart without baryons. During this epoch of rapid growth of galaxies, we find that many haloes of these first galaxies show an enhancement of dark matter in the halo centre compared to the baryon-free simulation, while many others show a deficit. We find that the mean value of ? is close to unity, but there is a large dispersion, with a standard deviation of 0.677. The enhancement is cyclical in time and tracks the star formation cycle of the galaxy; as gas falls to the centre and forms stars, the dark matter moves in as well. Supernova (SN) feedback then removes the gas, and the dark matter again responds to the changing potential. We study three physical models relating the motion of baryons to that of the dark matter: adiabatic contraction, dynamical friction, and rapid outflows. We find that dynamical friction plays only a very minor role, while adiabatic contraction and the rapid outflows due to feedback describe well the enhancement (or decrement) of dark matter. For haloes which show significant decrements of dark matter in the core, we find that to remove the dark matter requires an energy input between 1051 and 1053 erg. For our SN feedback proscription, this requires as a lower limit a constant star formation rate between 0.002 and 0.2 M? yr-1 for the previous 5 Myr. We also find that heating due to reionization is able to prevent the formation of strong cusps for haloes which at z ˜ 12 have ?108 M?. The lack of a strong cusp in these haloes remains down to z = 6, the end of our simulation.

  19. Cosmic Hydrogen Was Significantly Neutral a Billion Years After the Big Bang

    E-print Network

    Stuart Wyithe; Abraham Loeb

    2004-01-12

    The ionization fraction of cosmic hydrogen, left over from the big bang, provides crucial fossil evidence for when the first stars and quasar black holes formed in the infant universe. Spectra of the two most distant quasars known show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Ly-alpha transition of neutral hydrogen, indicating that hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not been completely ionized at a redshift z~6.3, about a billion years after the big bang. Here we show that the radii of influence of ionizing radiation from these quasars imply that the surrounding IGM had a neutral hydrogen fraction of tens of percent prior to the quasar activity, much higher than previous lower limits of ~0.1%. When combined with the recent inference of a large cumulative optical depth to electron scattering after cosmological recombination from the WMAP data, our result suggests the existence of a second peak in the mean ionization history, potentially due to an early formation episode of the first stars.

  20. Enhanced cellular preservation by clay minerals in 1 billion-year-old lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Roberts, Malcolm; Menon, Sarath; Green, Leonard; Kong, Charlie; Culwick, Timothy; Strother, Paul; Brasier, Martin D.

    2014-07-01

    Organic-walled microfossils provide the best insights into the composition and evolution of the biosphere through the first 80 percent of Earth history. The mechanism of microfossil preservation affects the quality of biological information retained and informs understanding of early Earth palaeo-environments. We here show that 1 billion-year-old microfossils from the non-marine Torridon Group are remarkably preserved by a combination of clay minerals and phosphate, with clay minerals providing the highest fidelity of preservation. Fe-rich clay mostly occurs in narrow zones in contact with cellular material and is interpreted as an early microbially-mediated phase enclosing and replacing the most labile biological material. K-rich clay occurs within and exterior to cell envelopes, forming where the supply of Fe had been exhausted. Clay minerals inter-finger with calcium phosphate that co-precipitated with the clays in the sub-oxic zone of the lake sediments. This type of preservation was favoured in sulfate-poor environments where Fe-silicate precipitation could outcompete Fe-sulfide formation. This work shows that clay minerals can provide an exceptionally high fidelity of microfossil preservation and extends the known geological range of this fossilization style by almost 500 Ma. It also suggests that the best-preserved microfossils of this time may be found in low-sulfate environments.

  1. The First Billion Years project: birthplaces of direct collapse black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Bhaskar; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Johnson, Jarrett L.; Khochfar, Sadegh; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the environment in which direct-collapse black holes may form by analysing a cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation that is part of the First Billion Years project. This simulation includes the most relevant physical processes leading to direct collapse of haloes, most importantly, molecular hydrogen depletion by dissociation of H2 and H- from the evolving Lyman-Werner radiation field. We selected a sample of pristine atomic-cooling haloes that have never formed stars in their past, have not been polluted with heavy elements and are cooling predominantly via atomic hydrogen lines. Amongst them we identified six haloes that could potentially harbour massive seed black holes formed via direct collapse (with masses in the range of 104-6 M?). These potential hosts of direct-collapse black holes form as satellites are found within 15 physical kpc of protogalaxies, with stellar masses in the range ?105-7 M? and maximal star formation rates of ?0.1 M? yr-1 over the past 5 Myr, and are exposed to the highest flux of Lyman-Werner radiation emitted from the neighbouring galaxies. It is the proximity to these protogalaxies that differentiates these haloes from rest of the sample.

  2. Enhanced cellular preservation by clay minerals in 1 billion-year-old lakes.

    PubMed

    Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Roberts, Malcolm; Menon, Sarath; Green, Leonard; Kong, Charlie; Culwick, Timothy; Strother, Paul; Brasier, Martin D

    2014-01-01

    Organic-walled microfossils provide the best insights into the composition and evolution of the biosphere through the first 80 percent of Earth history. The mechanism of microfossil preservation affects the quality of biological information retained and informs understanding of early Earth palaeo-environments. We here show that 1 billion-year-old microfossils from the non-marine Torridon Group are remarkably preserved by a combination of clay minerals and phosphate, with clay minerals providing the highest fidelity of preservation. Fe-rich clay mostly occurs in narrow zones in contact with cellular material and is interpreted as an early microbially-mediated phase enclosing and replacing the most labile biological material. K-rich clay occurs within and exterior to cell envelopes, forming where the supply of Fe had been exhausted. Clay minerals inter-finger with calcium phosphate that co-precipitated with the clays in the sub-oxic zone of the lake sediments. This type of preservation was favoured in sulfate-poor environments where Fe-silicate precipitation could outcompete Fe-sulfide formation. This work shows that clay minerals can provide an exceptionally high fidelity of microfossil preservation and extends the known geological range of this fossilization style by almost 500?Ma. It also suggests that the best-preserved microfossils of this time may be found in low-sulfate environments. PMID:25068404

  3. Physicists believe that our universe began with a huge explosion about thirteen billion years ago, called the Big Bang.

    E-print Network

    Kazama, Hokto

    #12;#12;1 Big Bang Physicists believe that our universe began with a huge explosion about thirteen billion years ago, called the Big Bang. Immediately after, the temperature is believed to have been the cooling period, after the Big Bang explosion, quarks and electrons were formed, followed by protons

  4. THE BIRTH OF THE SUN The solar system formed 4.54.6 billion years ago (Patterson

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    THE BIRTH OF THE SUN The solar system formed 4.5­4.6 billion years ago (Patterson 1956) by collapse of many elements in these grains are vastly different from those of our solar system and provide the trigger. The for- mer presence of short-lived radionu- clides at the start of the solar system has been

  5. 1.3 Billion years of acritarch history: An empirical morphospace approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Warren Huntley; Shuhai Xiao; Micha? Kowalewski

    2006-01-01

    Acritarchs are a group of organic-walled vesicular microfossils interpreted as protists, and are among the first eukaryotes preserved in the fossil record. Taxonomic inconsistencies amongst acritarch workers have made it difficult to address the evolutionary history of this group through more traditional methods (i.e., biodiversity through species counts). We have constructed an empirical morphospace to examine the first 1.3 billion

  6. MIT BLOSSOMS - Geologic Time: The Ticking of Our Planet’s 4.6 Billion Year Clock

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MIT BLOSSOMS

    2011-07-18

    The Earth is 4.6 billion years old. That's a hard number to conceptualize. What does 4.6 billion look like, and what happened during all those hundreds of millions of years between the formation of our planet and now? This BLOSSOMS lesson will help students conceptualize the enormity of geologic time and learn about important events in Earth's history. Students will also learn how geologic time can help explain seemingly incomprehensible processes, like the formation of the Himalayan Mountains from a flat plain to their current height, and the evolution of a tiny group of reptiles into enormous dinosaurs. The lesson will take approximately 45 minutes. Students should have a basic understanding of biology, and a familiarity with geology is helpful but not necessary. The supplies required include a measuring tape that is at least 5 meters long, a 5 meter long piece of string, ribbon, or rope, index cards or other stiff pieces of paper, and calculators. During the breaks, students will construct a geologic timeline of their own in the classroom and do simple calculations to determine how long amounts of time can lead to impressive changes in the height of the Himalayan Mountains and the size of a group of reptiles.

  7. An age difference of two billion years between a metal-rich and a metal-poor globular cluster.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B M S; Kalirai, J S; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J R; King, I R; Reitzel, D; Stetson, P B

    2013-08-01

    Globular clusters trace the formation history of the spheroidal components of our Galaxy and other galaxies, which represent the bulk of star formation over the history of the Universe. The clusters exhibit a range of metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium), with metal-poor clusters dominating the stellar halo of the Galaxy, and higher-metallicity clusters found within the inner Galaxy, associated with the stellar bulge, or the thick disk. Age differences between these clusters can indicate the sequence in which the components of the Galaxy formed, and in particular which clusters were formed outside the Galaxy and were later engulfed along with their original host galaxies, and which were formed within it. Here we report an absolute age of 9.9?±?0.7 billion years (at 95 per cent confidence) for the metal-rich globular cluster 47?Tucanae, determined by modelling the properties of the cluster's white-dwarf cooling sequence. This is about two billion years younger than has been inferred for the metal-poor cluster NGC?6397 from the same models, and provides quantitative evidence that metal-rich clusters like 47?Tucanae formed later than metal-poor halo clusters like NGC?6397. PMID:23903747

  8. The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China craton: 2.505-billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle.

    PubMed

    Kusky, T M; Li, J H; Tucker, R D

    2001-05-11

    We report a thick, laterally extensive 2505 +/- 2.2-million-year-old (uranium-lead ratio in zircon) Archean ophiolite complex in the North China craton. Basal harzburgite tectonite is overlain by cumulate ultramafic rocks, a mafic-ultramafic transition zone of interlayered gabbro and ultramafic cumulates, compositionally layered olivine-gabbro and pyroxenite, and isotropic gabbro. A sheeted dike complex is rooted in the gabbro and overlain by a mixed dike-pillow lava section, chert, and banded iron formation. The documentation of a complete Archean ophiolite implies that mechanisms of oceanic crustal accretion similar to those of today were in operation by 2.5 billion years ago at divergent plate margins and that the temperature of the early mantle was not extremely elevated, as compared to the present-day temperature. Plate tectonic processes similar to those of the present must also have emplaced the ophiolite in a convergent margin setting. PMID:11349144

  9. Tracing the effects of an enormous meteorite impact 3 billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-07-01

    The most well-known and popularized meteorite impact occurred 65 million years ago and left behind the Chicxulub crater, a feature more than 110 miles in diameter. Dust kicked up by the impact, which lingered in the atmosphere for years, may have helped kill all the nonavian dinosaurs along with three quarters of the world's plant and animal species.

  10. Reducing US import oil dependence by one billion gallons of diesel fuel per year

    SciTech Connect

    Bilanin, A.J.; Williamson, G.G.; Geyer, R.G.

    1985-08-01

    A system of simple plates attached to the aft-end of a Ford Club Wagon passenger van was configured to significantly reduce the base drag of the van. When these results are scaled to tractor/semi-trailers or trailer vans it is shown that vehicle-drag reductions in excess of 10% are possible. Based on the current size of the U.S. semi-trailer van fleet, and yearly over-the-road use estimates, this drag reduction translates into a yearly fuel saving well in excess of 1,000,000,000 gallons. Questions remain unanswered with regard to mechanisms that result in the base drag reduction, as well as performance of the device in a crosswind.

  11. Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years ago - Evidence at Kolar, south India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogstad, E. J.; Hanson, G. N.; Balakrishnan, S.; Rajamani, V.; Mukhopadhyay, D. K.

    1989-01-01

    The Archean Kolar Schist Belt, south India, is a suture zone where two gneiss terranes and at least two amphibolite terranes with distinct histories were accreted. Amphibolites from the eastern and western sides of the schist belt have distinct incompatible element and isotopic characteristics suggesting that their volcanic protoliths were derived from different mantle sources. The amphibolite and gneiss terranes were juxtaposed by horizontal compression and shearing between 2530 and 2420 million years ago (Ma) along a zone marked by the Kolar Schist Belt. This history of accretion of discrete crustal terranes resembles those of Phanerozoic convergent margins and thus suggests that plate tectonics operated on earth by 2500 Ma.

  12. Fourteen Years of Educational and Psychological Research in Sweden: A Bibliography of Publications in English, 1967-1980. Studia Psychologica et Paedagogica. Series Altera LXIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerstedt, Ake

    This document, the second of two bibliographies, lists Swedish publications and reports written in English for the fields of education and psychology, covering the years 1967-1980. Along with published articles, the bibliography also lists official reports from education and psychology departments. The entries are arranged alphabetically by the…

  13. Fourteen years of plant proteomics reflected in Proteomics: moving from model species and 2DE-based approaches to orphan species and gel-free platforms.

    PubMed

    Jorrín-Novo, Jesus V; Pascual, Jesus; Sánchez-Lucas, Rosa; Romero-Rodríguez, M Cristina; Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel J; Lenz, Christof; Valledor, Luis

    2015-03-01

    In this article, the topic of plant proteomics is reviewed based on related papers published in the journal Proteomics since publication of the first issue in 2001. In total, around 300 original papers and 41 reviews published in Proteomics between 2000 and 2014 have been surveyed. Our main objective for this review is to help bridge the gap between plant biologists and proteomics technologists, two often very separate groups. Over the past years a number of reviews on plant proteomics have been published . To avoid repetition we have focused on more recent literature published after 2010, and have chosen to rather make continuous reference to older publications. The use of the latest proteomics techniques and their integration with other approaches in the "systems biology" direction are discussed more in detail. Finally we comment on the recent history, state of the art, and future directions of plant proteomics, using publications in Proteomics to illustrate the progress in the field. The review is organized into two major blocks, the first devoted to provide an overview of experimental systems (plants, plant organs, biological processes) and the second one to the methodology. PMID:25487722

  14. Global resurfacing of Mercury 4.0-4.1 billion years ago by heavy bombardment and volcanism.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Simone; Chapman, Clark R; Fassett, Caleb I; Head, James W; Bottke, W F; Strom, Robert G

    2013-07-01

    The most heavily cratered terrains on Mercury have been estimated to be about 4 billion years (Gyr) old, but this was based on images of only about 45 per cent of the surface; even older regions could have existed in the unobserved portion. These terrains have a lower density of craters less than 100 km in diameter than does the Moon, an observation attributed to preferential resurfacing on Mercury. Here we report global crater statistics of Mercury's most heavily cratered terrains on the entire surface. Applying a recent model for early lunar crater chronology and an updated dynamical extrapolation to Mercury, we find that the oldest surfaces were emplaced just after the start of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) about 4.0-4.1 Gyr ago. Mercury's global record of large impact basins, which has hitherto not been dated, yields a similar surface age. This agreement implies that resurfacing was global and was due to volcanism, as previously suggested. This activity ended during the tail of the LHB, within about 300-400 million years after the emplacement of the oldest terrains on Mercury. These findings suggest that persistent volcanism could have been aided by the surge of basin-scale impacts during this bombardment. PMID:23823793

  15. Onset of inner core growth before 2.2 billion years ago: Insight from secular variation and paleointensity analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. V.; Tarduno, J. A.; Evans, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    While estimates for the onset of solid inner core nucleation range from times younger than 1 Ga to 3.5 Ga, many models for the thermal evolution of Earth predict a relatively late start of inner core growth (<1 Ga). We test these models by examining the latitudinal dependence of paleosecular variation (PSV) data derived from high-quality paleomagnetic data collected from Proterozoic and Neoarchean rocks. When compared with data for the last 5 million years, the Precambrian data suggest a more dipolar field. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that a Neoarchean geomagnetic field that was more dipolar than that during Proterozoic times, suggesting onset of inner core nucleation before 2.2 billion years ago. We propose a model, constrained by PSV and paleointensity data and consistent with available geodynamic modeling results, that links evolution of the core, mantle and crust. The relatively old inner core age implied by our analyses favors low power solutions to the geodynamo, low present-day core-mantle boundary heat flow, and radioactive heat sources in the core.

  16. Mobile hydrocarbon microspheres from >2-billion-year-old carbon-bearing seams in the South African deep subsurface.

    PubMed

    Wanger, G; Moser, D; Hay, M; Myneni, S; Onstott, T C; Southam, G

    2012-11-01

    By ~2.9 Ga, the time of the deposition of the Witwatersrand Supergroup, life is believed to have been well established on Earth. Carbon remnants of the microbial biosphere from this time period are evident in sediments from around the world. In the Witwatersrand Supergroup, the carbonaceous material is often concentrated in seams, closely associated with the gold deposits and may have been a mobile phase 2 billion years ago. Whereas today the carbon in the Witwatersrand Supergroup is presumed to be immobile, hollow hydrocarbon spheres ranging in size from <1 ?m to >50 ?m were discovered emanating from a borehole drilled through the carbon-bearing seams suggesting that a portion of the carbon may still be mobile in the deep subsurface. ToF-SIMS and STXM analyses revealed that these spheres contain a suite of alkane, alkenes, and aromatic compounds consistent with the described organic-rich carbon seams within the Witwatersrand Supergroup's auriferous reef horizons. Analysis by electron microscopy and ToF-SIMS, however, revealed that these spheres, although most likely composed of biogenic carbon and resembling biological organisms, do not retain any true structural, that is, fossil, information and were formed by an abiogenic process. PMID:22901282

  17. Evidence from massive siderite beds for a CO2-rich atmosphere before approximately 1.8 billion years ago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yumiko; Kumazawa, Kazumasa

    2004-01-01

    It is generally thought that, in order to compensate for lower solar flux and maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth, methane must have been an important greenhouse gas before approximately 2.2 billion years (Gyr) ago. This is based upon a simple thermodynamic calculation that relates the absence of siderite (FeCO3) in some pre-2.2-Gyr palaeosols to atmospheric CO2 concentrations that would have been too low to have provided the necessary greenhouse effect. Using multi-dimensional thermodynamic analyses and geological evidence, we show here that the absence of siderite in palaeosols does not constrain atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Siderite is absent in many palaeosols (both pre- and post-2.2-Gyr in age) because the O2 concentrations and pH conditions in well-aerated soils have favoured the formation of ferric (Fe3+)-rich minerals, such as goethite, rather than siderite. Siderite, however, has formed throughout geological history in subsurface environments, such as euxinic seas, where anaerobic organisms created H2-rich conditions. The abundance of large, massive siderite-rich beds in pre-1.8-Gyr sedimentary sequences and their carbon isotope ratios indicate that the atmospheric CO2 concentration was more than 100 times greater than today, causing the rain and ocean waters to be more acidic than today. We therefore conclude that CO2 alone (without a significant contribution from methane) could have provided the necessary greenhouse effect to maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth.

  18. Evidence from massive siderite beds for a CO2-rich atmosphere before approximately 1.8 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yumiko; Kumazawa, Kazumasa

    2004-05-27

    It is generally thought that, in order to compensate for lower solar flux and maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth, methane must have been an important greenhouse gas before approximately 2.2 billion years (Gyr) ago. This is based upon a simple thermodynamic calculation that relates the absence of siderite (FeCO3) in some pre-2.2-Gyr palaeosols to atmospheric CO2 concentrations that would have been too low to have provided the necessary greenhouse effect. Using multi-dimensional thermodynamic analyses and geological evidence, we show here that the absence of siderite in palaeosols does not constrain atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Siderite is absent in many palaeosols (both pre- and post-2.2-Gyr in age) because the O2 concentrations and pH conditions in well-aerated soils have favoured the formation of ferric (Fe3+)-rich minerals, such as goethite, rather than siderite. Siderite, however, has formed throughout geological history in subsurface environments, such as euxinic seas, where anaerobic organisms created H2-rich conditions. The abundance of large, massive siderite-rich beds in pre-1.8-Gyr sedimentary sequences and their carbon isotope ratios indicate that the atmospheric CO2 concentration was more than 100 times greater than today, causing the rain and ocean waters to be more acidic than today. We therefore conclude that CO2 alone (without a significant contribution from methane) could have provided the necessary greenhouse effect to maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth. PMID:15164058

  19. Fourteen Years of Assessment: Regents' Testing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Jean Bolen

    In 1972, the Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia instituted the Regents' Testing Program (RTP) to provide systemwide information on the status of student competence in reading and writing and to provide a uniform means of identifying those students who fail to attain minimum levels of competence in these areas. Since 1972, some…

  20. More than $115 billion of freight moves via marine shipping in the United States each year. Maintaining the ports and waterways that

    E-print Network

    Neimark, Alexander V.

    More than $115 billion of freight moves via marine shipping in the United States each year. Maintaining the ports and waterways that move these goods is imperative to national commerce. As a key com-growing demand for larger ships and increased port capacity. At the same time, environmental regu- lations

  1. Legius Syndrome in Fourteen Families

    PubMed Central

    Denayer, Ellen; Chmara, Magdalena; Brems, Hilde; Kievit, Anneke Maat; van Bever, Yolande; Van den Ouweland, Ans MW; Van Minkelen, Rick; de Goede-Bolder, Arja; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Lakeman, Phillis; Beert, Eline; Ishizaki, Takuma; Mori, Tomoaki; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Van den Ende, Jenneke; Mangold, Elisabeth; Peltonen, Sirkku; Brice, Glen; Rankin, Julia; Van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Legius, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Legius syndrome presents as an autosomal dominant condition characterized by café-au-lait macules with or without freckling and sometimes a Noonan-like appearance and/or learning difficulties. It is caused by germline loss-of-function SPRED1 mutations and is a member of the RAS-MAPK pathway syndromes. Most mutations result in a truncated protein and only a few inactivating missense mutations have been reported. Since only a limited number of patients has been reported up until now, the full clinical and mutational spectrum is still unknown. We report mutation data and clinical details in fourteen new families with Legius syndrome. Six novel germline mutations are described. The Trp31Cys mutation is a new pathogenic SPRED1 missense mutation. Clinical details in the 14 families confirmed the absence of neurofibromas, and Lisch nodules, and the absence of a high prevalence of central nervous system tumors. We report white matter T2 hyperintensities on brain MRI scans in 2 patients and a potential association between postaxial polydactyly and Legius syndrome. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21089071

  2. Deposition of 1.88-billion-year-old iron formations as a consequence of rapid crustal growth.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Birger; Fletcher, Ian R; Bekker, Andrey; Muhling, Janet R; Gregory, Courtney J; Thorne, Alan M

    2012-04-26

    Iron formations are chemical sedimentary rocks comprising layers of iron-rich and silica-rich minerals whose deposition requires anoxic and iron-rich (ferruginous) sea water. Their demise after the rise in atmospheric oxygen by 2.32?billion years (Gyr) ago has been attributed to the removal of dissolved iron through progressive oxidation or sulphidation of the deep ocean. Therefore, a sudden return of voluminous iron formations nearly 500?million years later poses an apparent conundrum. Most late Palaeoproterozoic iron formations are about 1.88?Gyr old and occur in the Superior region of North America. Major iron formations are also preserved in Australia, but these were apparently deposited after the transition to a sulphidic ocean at 1.84?Gyr ago that should have terminated iron formation deposition, implying that they reflect local marine conditions. Here we date zircons in tuff layers to show that iron formations in the Frere Formation of Western Australia are about 1.88?Gyr old, indicating that the deposition of iron formations from two disparate cratons was coeval and probably reflects global ocean chemistry. The sudden reappearance of major iron formations at 1.88?Gyr ago--contemporaneous with peaks in global mafic-ultramafic magmatism, juvenile continental and oceanic crust formation, mantle depletion and volcanogenic massive sulphide formation--suggests deposition of iron formations as a consequence of major mantle activity and rapid crustal growth. Our findings support the idea that enhanced submarine volcanism and hydrothermal activity linked to a peak in mantle melting released large volumes of ferrous iron and other reductants that overwhelmed the sulphate and oxygen reservoirs of the ocean, decoupling atmospheric and seawater redox states, and causing the return of widespread ferruginous conditions. Iron formations formed on clastic-starved coastal shelves where dissolved iron upwelled and mixed with oxygenated surface water. The disappearance of iron formations after this event may reflect waning mafic-ultramafic magmatism and a diminished flux of hydrothermal iron relative to seawater oxidants. PMID:22538613

  3. Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology in Strain Development Every year, we consume about 27 billion barrels of fossil oil.

    E-print Network

    billion barrels of fossil oil. This enormous amount of oil is used for fueling our cars and airplanes, such as shale gas, are becoming available as new energy and chemical sources, these fossil resources high dependence on the fossil resources. To reflect the change required, there has recently been much

  4. Survival of LLSVPs for Billions of Years in a Vigorously Convecting Mantle: Replenishment and Destruction of Chemical Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyukova, Elvira; Steinberger, Bernhard; Dabrowski, Marcin; Sobolev, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    We study segregation of the subducted oceanic crust (OC) at the core mantle boundary, its ability to accumulate and form large-scale compositional anomaly (such as the LLSVPs), and its susceptibility to get entrained by the hot rising plumes. Based on the results from our high-resolution numerical simulations of 2D thermochemical mantle convection, we propose that the longevity of LLSVPs for up to three billion years, and possibly longer, can be ensured by a balance in the rate of segregation of high-density OC-material to the CMB, and the rate of its entrainment away from the CMB by mantle upwellings. For a range of parameters tested in this study, a large-scale compositional anomaly forms at the CMB, which is similar in shape and size to the seismically observed LLSVPs - high topography of over 1000 km, steep edges, and occupying a few % (~ 2%) of the total mantle volume. In our simulations, neutrally buoyant thermochemical piles - those in which the thermally induced negative density anomaly is balanced by the presence of a fraction of compositionally anomalous high density material - best resemble the geometry of LLSVPs. Such neutrally buoyant piles tend to emerge and survive for a long time (over 3Gyr) in simulations with quite different parameters. For moderate compositional density anomaly of oceanic crust, the neutrally buoyant piles form at the CMB and contain ~ 80% of dense OC material. For high compositional density anomaly, a dense layer forms at the base of the mantle, and a neutrally buoyant pile develops on top of it. In the latter case, the dense basal layer and the neutrally buoyant pile on top of it are clearly separated by a jump in the concentration of the compositionally anomalous material. We conclude from our numerical study that for a plausible range of values of density anomaly of OC material in the lower mantle - it is likely that it segregates to the CMB, gets mechanically mixed with the ambient material, and forms neutrally buoyant large scale compositional anomalies similar in shape to the LLSVPs. To perform this numerical study, we developed an efficient FEM code with dynamically adaptive time and space resolution, and marker-in-cell methodology. This enabled us to model thermochemical mantle convection at realistically high convective vigor, strong thermally induced viscosity variations, and long term evolution of compositional fields. Confidence in our numerical results was gained through thorough benchmarking of the code, together with the resolution studies, all in the light of the characteristic length and time scales of governing processes in our modeled system.

  5. The [sup 18]O/[sup 16]O ratio of 2-billion-year-old seawater inferred from ancient oceanic crust

    SciTech Connect

    Holmden, C.; Muehlenbachs, K. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1993-03-19

    An oxygen isotope profile of the 2-billion-year-old Purtuniq ophiolite overlaps with similar profiles of younger ophiolites and the modern oceanic crust. This overlap implies (i) that there was a similar style of seawater-ocean crust interaction during the past 2 billion years; (ii) that the oxygen isotope composition of early Proterozoic seawater was similar to the modern value; (iii) that early Proterozoic sea-floor spreading rates were similar to, or greater than, average modern rates; and (iv) that early Proterozoic carbonate rocks and cherts with low [sup 18]O/[sup 16]O ratios do not reflect global-scale [sup 18]O depletion of early Proterozoic oceans. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. 3.43 billion-year-old stromatolite reef from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia: Ecosystem-scale insights to early life on Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abigail C. Allwood; Malcolm R. Walter; Ian W. Burch; Balz S. Kamber

    2007-01-01

    The 3.43 billion-year-old Strelley Pool Chert, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, contains compelling evidence of Early Archaean life in the form of kilometre-sized remnants of an ancient stromatolitic carbonate platform. Reviewing and building on earlier studies, we examine the fossilized remains of the platform to seek ecosystem-scale insights to Earth's early biosphere, examining the evidence for biosedimentation, and the importance and

  7. Exceptional preservation of aragonite in a circa 3.3 billion year old microbial mat from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, Frances; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Lemelle, Laurence; Marrochhi, Yves; Rouzaud, Jean-Noel; Simionovici, Alexandre; Andreazza, Caroline; Foucher, Frédéric; Thiel, Volker; Hofmann, Axel

    2010-05-01

    Exceptional preservation of aragonite in a circa 3.3 billion year old microbial mat from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa Frances Westall, Barbara Cavalazzi, Laurence Lemelle, Yves Marrocchi, Jean-Noël Rouzaud, Alexandre Simionovici, Murielle Salomé, Smail Mostefaoui, Caroline Andreazza, Frédéric Foucher, Jan Toporski, Andrea Jauss, Volker Thiel, Axel Hofmann, Anders Meibom, François Robert Aragonite occurs as a biologically-formed mineral precipitate within modern calcifying microbial mats. It is, however, rarely preserved in the geological record because, as one of the least stable polymorphs of calcium carbonate, it readily converts to calcite in present environmental conditions at the Earth's surface. In an in situ investigation at the micro- to nanometer-scale, we show that 5-10 nm sized nanocrystals of aragonite are preserved within the organic framework of a partially calcified microbial mat from the ~ 3.3 billion year-old Josefsdal Chert in the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa. Transformation of the aragonite to calcite was blocked by a combination of chemical inhibitors within the crystal lattice, organic molecules coating the nanocrystals and, in particular, to the precocious permeation of the mat by hydrothermal silica. Apart from its exceptional preservation for 3.3 billion years, the identification of aragonite in the Josefsdal microbial mat is the earliest evidence for in situ calcification of a microbial mat. Furthermore, the indications of associated sulphur-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity with calcification strongly support a photosynthetic origin for the mat. This is the most direct evidence for photosynthesis in early Archaean rocks.

  8. Recrystallized Granite Surface Fissures Of The Wasatch Range, Produced Not Later Than 1/4 Billion Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Keith L.

    2000-05-01

    Our studies of numerous recrystallized fissures in 4 granite plutons of Wasatch Range, namely, Mount Tuscarora-Wolverine-Millicent,^1,6,7 Bonanza Peak-Midway,^2 Little Cottonwood Canyon and Ferguson Canyon plutons, all of which formed magma chambers reaching Earth-atmosphere interface, establish that they resulted from high thermal gradients rather than passages of earthquake waves. Magma chambers formed, solidified during Permo-Caroniferous Ice Age(roughly, 1/3...1/4 billion yr ago, a time interval preceding period of extrusion of Rocky Mountains, 10^8 yr ago), and while fluid, belched lava flows^5 extending over its reservoir walls to run hundred of meters. We have shown how the magma melts, dilutes and replaces overlying metamorphic rock^7 to reach Earth's surface so that a pluton containing large amounts of dross(Fe-ores, etc.) had a short fluid lifetime. We also described how offshoots from a long-running main fissure form acute angles with that fissure.^3 Such recrystallized fissures, reaching depths of perhaps 100 m, have initial fractures near time of solidification of their uppermost portion of magma chamber while still hot(<= 1600^oF), a time when max. stresses occur near granite surface due to high thermal gradients, owing to snow coverage, cold water contacts due to rain, stream flow over granite surface, partial coverage by ocean, etc., wherever heat sinks might occur, during P-C ice age--when region of Wasatch Range existed at sea level, Salt Lake Valley being covered entirely by ocean water and region east of Wasatch Bouleuard rising gently above Pacific Ocean to elevations of possibly 500-1000 ft, say, at a distance of 10-15 mi to east. This fact is implied by Chinese Wall of white limestone on Grandeur Peak, unequivocally, and similarly another in Neff's Canyon running e. from n. ridge of 9200 ft. saddle-summit, as well as a dozen other ancient calcified stream beds emptying into ocean to w., in Salt Lake Valley. This existed prior to regional uplift(with uncontorted topography) of over 4000 ft. Details of how earthquake wave passages form an epicenter from which propagate a stress field in diametrically opposite directions to open up, by a few meters, the surface granite in forming a long running fissure^1 of km length, are unknown. Several examples of thermal fissures of 3-4 ft widths are known but one of 6ft width at epicenter running both n and s for only 50-75m to terminations is located on w spur of Maybird Gulch, and is seen when viewing w from trail leading to upper 2 small lakes. In contrast, a 12 ft wide fissure, 50-100m s of White Pine Lake,^1 resulted from earthquake waves. ^1K.L.McDonald, Bul. Am. Phys. Soc., 32(4),1124; ^235(9),2132; ^333(3),485; ^433(9),1982-3; ^536(9),2466; ^637(5),1256-7; ^738(1),740.

  9. Recrystallized Granite Surface Fissures of Wasatch Range Produced Not Later Than 1/4Billion Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Keith

    2000-11-01

    Our studies of numerous recrystallized fissures in 4 granite plutons of Wasatch Range, i.e., Mount T-W-M, (K.L. McDonald, Bul. A.P.S., 32 (4), 1124),(37 (5), 1256-7),(38 (1), 740) Bonanza Pk.-Midway,(35 (9), 2132) Little Cottonwood and Ferguson Canyon plutons, all of which formed magma chambers reaching Earth-atm. interface, estab that they resulted from high thermal gradients and not passages of earthquake waves.(33 (9), 1982-2) Magma chambers formed, solidified during Permo- Carboniferous Ice Age (roughly 1/3...1/4 billion yr ago), a time interval preceding extrusion, pf Rocky Mts., 10^8 yr ago, and while fluid, some belched lava flows(36 (9), 2466) extending over its reservoir walls to run hundreds of m. We have shown how the magma melts, dilutes and replaces overlying metamorphic rock(38 (1), 740) to reach Earth's surface, so that a pluton containing large amounts of dross (Fe ores, etc.) had a short fluid lifetime. We also described how offshoots from a long-running main fissure form acute angles with that fissure.(33 (3), 485) Recryst. fissures, reaching depths of perhaps 100 m, had initial fractures near time of solidification of top portion of magma chamber, while still hot (<< 1600 ^oF), a time when max. stresses occur near granite surface due to high thermal gradients, owing to snow coverage, rain water, stream flow over granite surface, partial coverage by ocean, etc., during P-C ice age -- when region of Wasatch Range existed at sea level, S.L. Valley being covered entrely by ocean water and region of Wasatch Boul. rising gently above Pac. Ocean to elev. of possibly 500-1000 ft, say, at a dist. of 10-15 mi to e, as implied by Chinese Wall of limestone on Grandeur Pk, another in Neff's Canyon running e from n ridge of her 9200 ft saddle-summit, as well as a dozen other ancient calcified stream beds emptying into ocean to w., in S.L. Valley. This existed prior to regional uplift (of similar topog.) of over 4000 ft. Details of how earthquake waves form an epicenter from which propagate 2 stress fields in diam. opp. directions to open up, by a few m, surface granite to form long running fissures of km lengths, are unknown, e.g., the one 12 ft wide, 50-100 m s of White Pine Lake.(32 (4), 1124) Many exs. of therm-fissures of 1-2 ft widths are believed known but one of ques. of 6 ft width at epicenter running both n, s for only 50-75 m to term. is located on w spur of Maybird Gulch, and is seen when viewing w from trail leading to 2 upper small lakes.

  10. Recrystallized Granite Surface Fissures Of Wasatch Range, Produced Not Later Than 1/4 Billion Years Ago.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. L.

    2002-04-01

    Our studies of numerous recrystallized fissures in 4 granite plutons of Wasatch Range, i.e., Mount T-W-M^1,6,7 Bonanza Pk.-Midway,^2 Little Cottonwood and Ferguson Canyon plutons, all of which formed magma chambers reaching Earth-atm. interface, estab. that they resulted from high thermal gradients and not passages of earthquake waves.^4 Magma chambers formed, solidified during Permo-Carboniferous Ice Age (roughly 1/3...1/4 billion yr ago), a time interval preceding extrusion of Rocky Mts., 10^8 yr ago, and while fluid, some belched lava flows^5 extending over its reservoir walls to run hundreds of m. We have shown how the magma melts, dilutes and replaces overlying metamorphic rock^7 to reach Earth's surface, so that a pluton containing large amounts of dross (Fe-ores, etc.) had a short fluid lifetime. We also described how offshoots from a long-running main fissure form acute angles with that fissure^3. Recryst. fissures, reaching depths of perhaps 100 m, had initial fractures near time of solidification of top portion of magma chamber, while still hot (<= 1600^oF), a time when max. stresses occur near granite surface due to high thermal gradients, owing to snow coverage, rain water, stream flow over granite surface, partial coverage by ocean, etc., during P-C ice age - when region of Wasatch Range existed at sea level, S. L. Valley being covered entirely by ocean water and region east of Wasatch Boul. rising gently above Pac. Ocean to elev. of possibly 500-1000 ft, say, at a distance of 10-15 mi to e, as implied by Chinese wall of limestone on Grandeur Pk, another in Neff's Canyon running e from n ridge of her 9200 ft saddle-summit, as well as a dozen other ancient calcified stream beds emptying into ocean to w, in S.L. Valley. This existed prior to regional uplift (of similar topog.) of over 4000 ft. Details of how earthquake waves form an epicenter from which propagate 2 stress fields in diam. opp. directions to open up, by a few m, surface granite to form a long running fissure of km lengths, are unknown, e.g., the one 12 ft wide, 50-100 m s of White Pine Lake.^1 Many exs. of thermofissures of 1-2 ft widths are believed known but one of ques. of 6 ft width at epicenter running both n, s for only 50-75 m to term. is located on w spur of Maybird Gulch, and is seen when viewing w from trail leading to 2 upper small lakes. (This abstract corrects that e-mailed and printed in Bul. A.P.S., 45(9), 192, 2000.) raggedright ^1K.L. McDonald, Bul. A.P.S., 32(4), 1124; ^2 35(9), 2132; ^3 33(3),485; ^4 33(9), 1982-3; ^5 36(9),2466; ^6 37(5),1256-7; ^7 38(1),740. Submitted by Dr. Keith L. McDonald, APS Member MC402346

  11. Redox stratification of the ocean 2.7 billion years ago: Preliminary results from Fe speciation analysis of shallow- and deep-facies black shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, A.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Haraguchi, S.; Naraoka, H.; Yahagi, T. R.

    2012-12-01

    Rise of atmospheric oxygen, or as known as GOE (Great Oxidation Event: e.g., Holland, 1994), has been widely believed to have occurred at around 2.4 billion years ago. Contrary, however, some studies have suggested that such oxygenation could have occurred much earlier (e.g., Hoashi et al., 2009). Geochemical behaviors of Fe, a redox-sensitive element, have played crucial roles in constraining past redox environments and the timing of the inferred GOE. In order to examine if there was intra-basinal heterogeneity in the redox conditions before the inferred GOE, we applied Fe speciation analysis to two contrasting sets of pyrite-bearing black shales; WRL1 (deeper facies) and RHDH2A (shallow facies). Both of these semi-contemporaneous black shales, deposited about 2.7 billion years ago and recovered as drillcores in Pilbara, northwestern Australia, have been previously used by Brocks et al. (1999), Yamaguchi et al. (2005), and Eigenbrode and Freeman (2006). Chemical compositions of major and some minor elements were measured by a standard XRF method, S content by elemental analysis, and Fe speciation by the method of Poulton et al. (2005) and Leventhal and Taylor (1990). Contrasting Fe/Al ratios of the examined samples suggest that Fe in WRL1 and RHDH2A is mostly from submarine hydrothermal activity and continental weathering, respectively. Relationships between organic carbon (Corg) and S contents suggest that oxic, normal marine setting is favored for WRL1 and euxinic environment for RHDH2A (S/Corg > 0.37). Oxygen in deep environment (WRL1) must have been supplied by sinking of O2-rich surface water through ocean circulation, because there was no source of oxygen in deep sea. In the 2.7 Ga surface ocean, oxygenic photosynthetic organisms (e.g., cyanobacteria) are considered to have been active. A large amount of organic matter was produced and sank, consuming a large amount of dissolved oxygen for decomposition/respiration. This led to the formation of euxinic environment in the shallow water, such as those seen in the modern ocean. In the euxinic environment, bacterial sulfate reduction became popular and induced pyrite formation. Abundance of reactive Fe and highly reactive Fe and DOP (degree of pyritization) is also contrasting between WRL1 and RHDH2A, i.e., deep and shallow ocean sediments. Contrasting heterogeneities in the above geochemical parameters between shallow and deep Archean ocean suggest that the chemical structure of the 2.7 Ga ocean was not homogeneously anoxic or reducing as have been commonly believed, but possibly more variable, i.e., relatively anoxic in shallow ocean and oxic in deep ocean. References: Brocks et al. (1999) Sciecne 285, 1033-1036; Eigenbrode and Freeman (2006) PNAS 103, 15759-15764; Hoashi et al. (2009) Nature Geoscience 2, 301-306, Holland (1994) In Early Life on Earth, Columbia Univ. Press; Leventhal and Taylor (1990) J. Sed. Petrol. 58, 812-819; Poulton and Canfield (2005) 214, 209- 221; Yamaguchi et al. (2005) Chem. Geol 218, 135-169.

  12. 10/10/2007 04:26 PMScientists' Good News: Earth May Survive Sun's Demise in 5 Billion Years -New York Times Page 1 of 2http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/13/science/13planet.html?_r=2&oref=slogin&pagewanted=print

    E-print Network

    Rasio, Frederic A.

    evolve and grow old." The star V 391 Pegasi is about 4,500 light years from Earth and is about half10/10/2007 04:26 PMScientists' Good News: Earth May Survive Sun's Demise in 5 Billion Years - New=slogin&pagewanted=print September 13, 2007 Scientists' Good News: Earth May Survive Sun's Demise in 5 Billion Years By DENNIS

  13. The Billion-Dollar Question: Which Students Benefit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Becky

    2009-01-01

    The new economic-stimulus law includes more than $29-billion in provisions directed at making college more affordable in the next two years. That includes $13.9-billion budgeted over 10 years for education-tax-credit changes in 2009 and 2010, $15-billion in additional Pell Grant support, and $200-million for the Federal Work-Study program. But…

  14. GPM Science Status Fourteen Months after Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skofronick Jackson, Gail; Huffman, George

    2015-04-01

    Water is fundamental to life on Earth. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, launched February 27, 2014, is an international satellite mission to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational sensors to provide "next-generation" precipitation products. The joint NASA-JAXA GPM Core Observatory serves as the cornerstone and anchor to unite the constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory carries a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. As a science mission with integrated application goals, GPM is designed to (1) advance precipitation measurement capability from space through combined use of active and passive microwave sensors, (2) advance the knowledge of the global water/energy cycle and freshwater availability through better description of the space-time variability of global precipitation, and (3) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of instantaneous precipitation rates and time-integrated rainfall accumulation. Since launch, the instruments have been collecting outstanding precipitation data. New scientific insights resulting from these fourteen months of GPM data, an overview of the GPM mission concept and science activities in the United States, updates on algorithm status and performance, together with information on international collaborations for radiometer inter-calibration and ground validation will be presented. Opportunities for scientific and user involvement will be provided.

  15. A reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on molecular fossils from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old Mount Bruce Supergroup, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen J Brocks; Roger Buick; Roger E Summons; Graham A Logan

    2003-01-01

    Bitumens extracted from 2.7 to 2.5 billion-year-old (Ga) shales of the Fortescue and Hamersley Groups in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, contain traces of molecular fossils. Based on a combination of molecular characteristics typical of many Precambrian bitumens, their consistently and unusually high thermal maturities, and their widespread distribution throughout the Hamersley Basin, the bitumens can be characterized as ‘probably

  16. 29 CFR 570.119 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...other than manufacturing and mining, the Secretary is...Reserved] (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations...convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: ...other than manufacturing and mining and in accordance with the...

  17. Eight billion asteroids in the Oort cloud

    E-print Network

    Shannon, Andrew; Jackson, Alan P.; Veras, Dimitri; Wyatt, Mark

    2014-11-25

    the planets except Mars; in the Solar system stable Trojans are only known for Jupiter (Wolf 1907), Neptune (Brasser et al. 2004), and Mars (Scholl, Marzari & Tricarico 2005), but shorter lifetime Trojans are also known for Venus (de la Fuente Marcos & de la... , and we estimate globally catastrophic collisions should only occur about once per billion years. Key words: comets: general –minor planets, asteroids: general –Oort cloud. 1 INTRODUCTION The Sun is surrounded by a cloud of hundreds of billions of comets...

  18. One in a Billion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amy R. Taylor

    2007-01-01

    How do you get students to understand a number as small as one-billionth? Through a hands-on dilution activity using food coloring, students will learn about parts per billion. A matching card game helps students further understand one-billionth by giving real examples, including nanoscale examples.

  19. ANALYSIS OF CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE FOR FOURTEEN CITIES USING HAPEM-MS3 (FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes results and findings of applying the Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM) for mobile sources, Version 3. This version is formally known as HAPEM-MS3. The application is to fourteen urban areas for calendar year 1990. The urban areas modeled inclu...

  20. Six Billion and Beyond

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Last week, the world population reached six billion (see the October 13, 1999 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). PBS offers this site as a companion to their timely airing this month of the documentary "Six Billion and Beyond." The site provides background information on the UN Summits on Population in 1994 and 1999, including interviews with prominent delegates such as Hillary Clinton and Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund. Also featured are sections focusing on population issues in six disparate nations -- the US, Mexico, India, China, Kenya, and Italy -- examining in each country the related topics of the environment, reproductive health, the economy, and women's status. Both the study guide and the library, which provides online resources, are quite useful, making the site substantial enough to serve as the basis, along with an available video of the documentary, for a complete unit on population issues in a high school or college social sciences course.

  1. A Rest-Frame Optical View on Galaxies in the First 2 Billion Years: New Insights from Deep and Ultra-deep Spitzer/IRAC Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesch, Pascal; Labbe, I.; Bouwens, R.; Illingworth, G. D.; XDF

    2013-01-01

    The HST WFC3/IR camera has enabled remarkable progress over the last two years in the study of the first generations of galaxies. We can now identify large samples of galaxies in the heart of cosmic reionization, at z=7-8, and even get a first glimpse out to 10. However, HST only samples the rest-frame UV light of galaxies at z>4, providing extremely limited information on the stellar masses of these early sources. Fortunately, several Spitzer programs have complemented the deep HST fields, such as the HUDF09 and CANDELS fields, with deep Spitzer/IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] imaging. In particular, our IUDF10 Spitzer program brought the IRAC imaging over the HUDF to a total exposure time of 120h, reaching to ~27.0 mag (3sigma AB mag total). These data allow for reliable stellar mass estimates of galaxies out to 8. In this talk, I will present some of our recent results on the stellar mass build-up of galaxies in the first 2Gyr from the combination of HST and Spitzer data over the HUDF09, XDF and CANDELS fields.

  2. Ultra-dense billion year memory chip

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2009-01-01

    This video shows an iron nanoparticle shuttle moving through a carbon nanotube in the presence of a low voltage electrical current. The shuttles position inside the tube can function as a high-density nonvolatile memory element. (Courtesy of /Zettl Research Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California at Berkeley.)

  3. A reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on molecular fossils from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old Mount Bruce Supergroup, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E.; Logan, Graham A.

    2003-11-01

    Bitumens extracted from 2.7 to 2.5 billion-year-old (Ga) shales of the Fortescue and Hamersley Groups in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, contain traces of molecular fossils. Based on a combination of molecular characteristics typical of many Precambrian bitumens, their consistently and unusually high thermal maturities, and their widespread distribution throughout the Hamersley Basin, the bitumens can be characterized as 'probably of Archean age'. Accepting this interpretation, the biomarkers open a new window on Archean biodiversity. The presence of hopanes in the Archean rocks confirms the antiquity of the domain Bacteria, and high relative concentrations of 2?-methylhopanes indicate that cyanobacteria were important primary producers. Oxygenic photosynthesis therefore evolved > 2.7 Ga ago, and well before independent evidence suggests significant levels of oxygen accumulated in the atmosphere. Moreover, the abundance of cyanobacterial biomarkers in shales interbedded with oxide-facies banded iron formations (BIF) indicates that although some Archean BIF might have been formed by abiotic photochemical processes or anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, those in the Hamersley Group formed as a direct consequence of biological oxygen production. Biomarkers of the 3?-methylhopane series suggest that microaerophilic heterotrophic bacteria, probably methanotrophs or methylotrophs, were active in late Archean environments. The presence of steranes in a wide range of structures with relative abundances like those from late Paleoproterozoic to Phanerozoic sediments is convincing evidence for the existence of eukaryotes in the late Archean, 900 Ma before visible fossil evidence indicates that the lineage arose. Sterol biosynthesis in extant eukaryotes requires molecular oxygen. The presence of steranes together with biomarkers of oxygenic photosynthetic cyanobacteria suggests that the concentration of dissolved oxygen in some regions of the upper water column was equivalent to at least ˜1% of the present atmospheric level (PAL) and may have been sufficient to support aerobic respiration.

  4. Human fatalities from wild elephant attacks--a study of fourteen cases.

    PubMed

    Das, Sobhan Kr; Chattopadhyay, Saurabh

    2011-05-01

    Human-wild elephant conflicts are frequently reported from various parts of the country. Encroaching of animal habitat by human civilization is a primary reason for this. The present study comprises of fourteen autopsy cases conducted at the department of Forensic Medicine, B.S Medical College, Bankura, West Bengal, India over a period of three years. The study attempts to find out the nature of injuries caused by wild elephant attack and the common factors contributing to human-wild elephant conflict so that vulnerable population can be cautioned to avoid conflicts. A distinct seasonal as well as diurnal variation of attack incidences was noted. Attacks were sudden and unprovoked. Killer elephants were wild tuskers in all the cases. Victims were from the low socioeconomic group and the cause of death was due to trampling on the vital organs like chest and head. PMID:21550563

  5. Fourteen years of mapped, permanent quadrats in a northern mixed prairie, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This historical dataset consists of 44 permanent 1-m2 quadrats located on northern mixed prairie in eastern Montana, USA. Individual plants in these quadrats were identified and mapped annually from 1932 through 1945. Quadrats were located in six pastures assigned to cattle grazing treatments with l...

  6. FOURTEEN STONY BROOK UNIVERSITY STUDENTS RECEIVE SUNY CHANCELLOR'S AWARD FOR STUDENT EXCELLENCE

    E-print Network

    FOURTEEN STONY BROOK UNIVERSITY STUDENTS RECEIVE SUNY CHANCELLOR'S AWARD FOR STUDENT EXCELLENCE with the 2012 Chancellor's Award for Student Excellence at an awards reception held earlier this month at the Empire State Plaza Convention Center in Albany. The Chancellor's Award for Student Excellence

  7. Discovering the Meaning of Unity of Purpose: A Case Study of Fourteen Accelerated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Betty M.; Dell, Geralyn L.

    This paper presents findings of a study that examined how teachers restructuring schools came to understand the meaning of the term "unity of purpose." Fourteen Louisiana schools, comprised primarily of high-risk student populations, implemented the accelerated-schools model of restructuring. The accelerated school model is based on three…

  8. PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA611. STRUCTURAL DETAILS. FACE PLATE. FOURTEEN OPENINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA-611. STRUCTURAL DETAILS. FACE PLATE. FOURTEEN OPENINGS LABELED FOR PLUGS FROM SPECIFIC SIZE GROUPS IN THE MTR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-811-2, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0611-00-098-100694, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Abundances of the fourteen rare-earth elements, scandium, and yttrium in meteoritic and terrestrial matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Schmitt; R. H. Smith; J. E. Lasch; A. W. Mosen; D. A. Olehy; J. Vasilevskis

    1963-01-01

    Abundances and isotopic ratios have been determined for the fourteen rare-earth elements (REE) (Pm excluded) plus Sc and Y by neutron-activation analysis in nineteen meteorites and in three terrestrial specimens. The meteorites investigated included eleven chondrites (1 carbonaceous, 2 pigeonitic, 2 hypersthenic, 3 bronzitic and 3 enstatitic), two calcium-rich and three calcium-poor achondrites, one mesosiderite and two iron meteorites; the

  10. 12/13/13 14 Billion years of History

    E-print Network

    Whittle, Mark

    birth 4) Galaxy maps: the galaxy web 5) Infant galaxies ­ wild 9mes. 6 Evolu9on; Young Galaxies Telescopes are a kind of time-machine. The Hubble Deep Fields #12;12/13/13 5 Deep fields are small 3 5 The HUDF includes galaxies

  11. Are the green algae (phylum Viridiplantae) two billion years old?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard TEYSSÈDRE

    2006-01-01

    In his book, Life on a young planet, A.H. KNOLL states that the first documented fossils of green algae date back 750 Ma. However, according to B. TEYSSÈDRE's book, La vie invisible, they are much older. Using a method which combines paleontology and molecular phylogeny, this paper is an inquiry into the Precambrian fossils of some \\

  12. Beyond Six Billion: Forecasting the World's Population

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As part of their continuing practice of making recently published titles available in their entirety online, the National Academy Press last month posted Beyond Six Billion: Forecasting the World's Population, written by the National Research Council's Panel on Population Projections. The study examines national and global population projections from such agencies as the United Nations Population Division, the World Bank, and the US Census Bureau. The panel assesses the "assumptions behind the projections of these various agencies, estimates their accuracy and uncertainty, evaluates the implications of current demographic research, and recommends changes in protocol and new research that might improve projections."

  13. Simulating Billion-Task Parallel Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL] [ORNL; Park, Alfred J [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In simulating large parallel systems, bottom-up approaches exercise detailed hardware models with effects from simplified software models or traces, whereas top-down approaches evaluate the timing and functionality of detailed software models over coarse hardware models. Here, we focus on the top-down approach and significantly advance the scale of the simulated parallel programs. Via the direct execution technique combined with parallel discrete event simulation, we stretch the limits of the top-down approach by simulating message passing interface (MPI) programs with millions of tasks. Using a timing-validated benchmark application, a proof-of-concept scaling level is achieved to over 0.22 billion virtual MPI processes on 216,000 cores of a Cray XT5 supercomputer, representing one of the largest direct execution simulations to date, combined with a multiplexing ratio of 1024 simulated tasks per real task.

  14. Universities Report $1.8-Billion in Earnings on Inventions in 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Universities and their inventors earned more than $1.8-billion from commercializing their academic research in the 2011 fiscal year, collecting royalties from new breeds of wheat, from a new drug for the treatment of HIV, and from longstanding arrangements over enduring products like Gatorade. Northwestern University earned the most of any…

  15. Queensland's 1.7 million cars use nearly 3 billion litres of petrol

    E-print Network

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Queensland's 1.7 million cars use nearly 3 billion litres of petrol per year. In December 2001 to lead-free petrol without modification. "I have been running my car on E10 since June and two of my, the EPA's 85 fleet cars will then start using E10, and the facility will be available to vehicles from

  16. The earth: can it support 5.2 billion people?

    PubMed

    Sadik, N

    1989-12-01

    In the last 20 years the world's population has grown by 1.6 billion and has reached 5.2 billion. The gap in population growth between developing and developed areas will increase in the next decade: at present 77% of the earth's population lives in developing countries. A major demographic factor is the future of urban growth where the number of cities over 5 million will increase to 45 by the end of the century. The aging of the population is another demographic factor found worldwide. By the year 2000, 13% of the population will be over 60: 70% of those will be in developed areas. Most developing countries now have a population policy. The total fertility rate has dropped more than 20% in developing countries since 1970. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has devoted a recent report to the purpose of investing in women. The key to the future of mankind is related directly to the extent that women can make decisions affecting their lives. It is apparent that the effects of resource misuse, environmental damage, and population growth crosses national borders indiscriminately. The key elements to a new approach of development are population, environment, and the role and status of women. In the development of national conservation policies and in the implementing a world strategy, the population environmental relationship will need to be addressed. Since women are directly and indirectly related to the environment by the tasks they perform they are also the most directly effected by environmental degradation. A new approach is needed for balanced development that recognized social, economic, population and environmental relationships. A realistic set of goals for population policy would be to slow the rapid population growth, decrease infant, child and maternal mortality, raise the status of women, and regulate the migration and distribution of population. PMID:12316162

  17. Colleges Angle for Billions to Build Obama's Broadband Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Marc

    2009-01-01

    As the federal government prepares to pour billions of stimulus dollars into increased broadband Internet access, colleges are trying to claim much of the money and shape the emerging national networking policy. Their focus is $4.7-billion that will be doled out under a new grant program administered by a small Commerce Department agency called…

  18. The Billion Dollar Eigenvector The mathematics behind Google's

    E-print Network

    Christensen, Dan

    The Billion Dollar Eigenvector The mathematics behind Google's pagerank algorithm Dan Christensen #12;The Web Google came to prominence, and became a multi-billion dollar corporation, because of Middlesex College, or the excellent article by Kurt Bryan and Tanya Leise at http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~bryan/google

  19. The Billion Dollar Eigenvector The mathematics behind Google's

    E-print Network

    Christensen, Dan

    The Billion Dollar Eigenvector The mathematics behind Google's pagerank algorithm Dan Christensen #12;The Web Google came to prominence, and became a multi-billion dollar corporation, because and Tanya Leise at http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~bryan/google.html Or just put "google eigenvector

  20. Activity profiles of fourteen selected medicinal plants from Rural Venda communities in South Africa against fifteen clinical bacterial species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fourteen plants used in traditional medicine in the Venda region of South Africa were screened for activity against fifteen bacterial species. Methanol, acetone and hexane extracts and in some cases essential oils were tested using the disc diffusion and the microdilution methods. Most of the extracts were active against at least one bacterial species. Methanol and acetone extracts were the

  1. Assessment of metals in fourteen species of vegetables and crops cultivated in a suburban area using multivariate analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nima Pourang; Azam S. Noori

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of seven metals (Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) were determined in fourteen plant species including vegetables and crops from an agricultural area located at the Southern part of the Iranian capital, near the Tehran oil refinery. Different statistical methods, especially multivariate ones, were employed for the analysis of the results. Based on the results of agglomerative

  2. Deep space communication - A one billion mile noisy channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    Deep space exploration is concerned with the study of natural phenomena in the solar system with the aid of measurements made at spacecraft on deep space missions. Deep space communication refers to communication between earth and spacecraft in deep space. The Deep Space Network is an earth-based facility employed for deep space communication. It includes a network of large tracking antennas located at various positions around the earth. The goals and achievements of deep space exploration over the past 20 years are discussed along with the broad functional requirements of deep space missions. Attention is given to the differences in space loss between communication satellites and deep space vehicles, effects of the long round-trip light time on spacecraft autonomy, requirements for the use of massive nuclear power plants on spacecraft at large distances from the sun, and the kinds of scientific return provided by a deep space mission. Problems concerning a deep space link of one billion miles are also explored.

  3. Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People

    ScienceCinema

    Daniel Nocera

    2013-07-19

    Daniel Nocera, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor whose recent research focuses on solar-powered fuels, presents a Brookhaven Science Associates Distinguished Lecture, titled "Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People -- One at a Time."

  4. Clustering Billions of Images with Large Scale Nearest Neighbor Search

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    Clustering Billions of Images with Large Scale Nearest Neighbor Search Ting Liu tingliu@google.com Charles Rosenberg chuck@google.com Google Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA Henry A. Rowley har@google.com

  5. Academic Pork Barrel Tops $2-Billion for the First Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Borrego, Anne Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes how, despite the growing budget deficit, Congress directed a record $2 billion to college projects in 2003, many of them dealing with security and bioterrorism. Includes data tables on the earmarks. (EV)

  6. Medicare, Medicaid fraud a billion-dollar art form in the US.

    PubMed

    Korcok, M

    1997-04-15

    Medicare and Medicaid fraud costs billions of dollars each year in the US. Investigators have shown that fraud is found in all segments of the health care system. Even though the Canadian system has stricter regulations and tighter controls, can regulators here afford to be complacent about believing that such abuse would not happen here? One province has established an antifraud unit to monitor its health insurance scheme; it already has 1 prosecution under its belt. PMID:9141996

  7. $3.4 Billion Remains in Race to Top Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.; McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    By selecting just two states as first-round Race to the Top winners, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan is leaving $3.4 billion on the table for the remaining states to vie for in round two. Delaware and Tennessee beat out 14 other finalists last week to win the first grants awarded in the $4 billion Race to the Top Fund competition. Mr.…

  8. Hydroelectric dams need billions for rehab

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, F.H.; Soast, A.

    1993-01-11

    Many of the Corps of Engineers older hydroelectric dams will require major rehabilitation over the next ten years. Preventive maintenance, repair work, and major rehabilitation of the Corp's hydro dams in inadequate because the revenue generated by sales of electricity, by law, is returned to the Treasury. Most multimillion dollar rehabilitation projects require specific approval for funding by Congress and securing it is a long and difficult process. It is hoped the funding problem will soon be addressed by the Clinton administration. Already, nearly one-sixth of the 2,154 Mw of hydro is unavailable because with hydro units are either out of service or operating at less than full capacity.

  9. Winglets Save Billions of Dollars in Fuel Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The upturned ends now featured on many airplane wings are saving airlines billions of dollars in fuel costs. Called winglets, the drag-reducing technology was advanced through the research of Langley Research Center engineer Richard Whitcomb and through flight tests conducted at Dryden Flight Research Center. Seattle-based Aviation Partners Boeing -- a partnership between Aviation Partners Inc., of Seattle, and The Boeing Company, of Chicago -- manufactures Blended Winglets, a unique design featured on Boeing aircraft around the world. These winglets have saved more than 2 billion gallons of jet fuel to date, representing a cost savings of more than $4 billion and a reduction of almost 21.5 million tons in carbon dioxide emissions.

  10. In The News: October 12, 1999: The Day of Six Billion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Payne, Laura X.

    It took almost all of human history (until 1804) for the Earth's human population to reach one billion. But more recently, during just twelve years, humans increased their numbers by one billion from 1987 to the present. These and other statistics are of supreme interest to scientists and others, as we attempt to predict environmental conditions and biological responses to future population growth. This week, October 12th, 1999 was declared "The Day of Six Billion," based on The United Nations's estimates of human population growth. Although the true expectancy date for the Earth's six billionth human being is (of course) unknown, this symbolic date serves as a focal point for issues associated with the world's human population -- and the environmental impacts. To that end, this week's In The News focuses on human population growth, from the basic to the sophisticated. The ten resources listed above provide background information, summary statistics, future projections, and a plethora of informative resources related to human population growth and the resulting influences on the environment.

  11. Turning a regular microscope into billion-pixel imaging system

    E-print Network

    Yang, Changhuei

    Turning a regular microscope into billion-pixel imaging system Engineers at Caltech say that their approach -- computing their way past optical limitations -- could bring high-performance microscopes 100 times more information than those produced by conventional microscope platforms. (Credit: Yan

  12. Network on a Chip: An architecture for billion transistor era

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Hemani; Axel Jantsch; Shashi Kumar; Adam Postula; Johnny Öberg

    2000-01-01

    Looking into the future, when the billion transitor ASICs will become reality, this pa- per presents Network on a chip (NOC) concept and its associated methodology as solution to the design productivity problem. NOC is a network of computational, storage and I\\/O resources, interconnected by a network of switches. Resources communcate with each other using ad- dressed data packets routed

  13. In an announcement this week, the Indian Prime Minister pledges $5 billion in support to Africa

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    2011-05-27

    India prime minister pledges billions to Africahttp://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-13515993Africa Can End Povertyhttp://blogs.worldbank.org/africacan/United States African Development Foundationhttp://www.adf.gov/Africa Region: Working Paper Serieshttp://www.worldbank.org/afr/wps/In recent years, China has increased its investment in Africa by billions of dollars as they work with governments there to build new power plants, factories, and other pieces of key infrastructure. This week, another world power announced that they would be entering this competitive market. On Tuesday, Indian Prime Minster Manmohan Singh pledged $5 billion towards new projects in Africa, including tele-medicine for a virtual university and information technology investments. The announcement was made at the Africa-India Forum Summit in Addis Ababa, where Singh remarked, "The India-Africa partnership is unique and owes its origins to history and our common struggle against colonialism, apartheid, poverty, disease, illiteracy and hunger." India is hoping to catch up with China's tremendous economic relationship with Africa, which totaled approximately $126.9 billion in 2010. Along with this announcement, Prime Minister Singh also remarked that India would sponsor five new institutes in Africa and invite all African airlines to fly to several different Indian cities over the next couple of years.The first link leads to helpful article about the specifics of this development, courtesy of the Times of India. The second link whisks users away to a news update from the BBC website about this pledge of $5 billion. The third link leads to a blog from Shanta Devarajan, the World Bank Chief Economist for Africa, about the challenges (and successes) of ending poverty in Africa. The fourth link takes users to the homepage of the US African Development Foundation, which works on a range of important projects on the African continent. Finally, the last link leads to the World Bank's Africa Region Working Paper Series, which covers applied research and policy studies on cotton production, technological innovation, and other important developments.

  14. Energy tax price tag for CPI: $1. 2 billion, jobs, and production

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1993-03-03

    If President Clinton's proposed energy tax had been fully in place last year, it would have cost the US chemical industry an additional $1.2 billion and 9,900 jobs, according to Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA; Washington) estimates. It also would have driven output down 3% and prices up 5%, CMA says. Allen Lenz, CMA director/trade and economics, says the increase in production costs that would accompany the tax will not be shared by foreign competitors, cannot be neutralized with higher border taxes because of existing trade agreements, and provides another reason to move production offshore. Worse, the US chemical industry's generally impressive trade surplus declined by $2.5 billion last year, and a further drop is projected for this year. The margin of error gets thinner all the time as competition increases, Lenz says. We're not concerned only with the chemical industry, but the rest of US-based manufacturing because they taken half our output, he adds. One problem is the energy intensiveness of the chemical process industries-a CMA report says that 55% of the cost of producing ethylene glycol is energy related. And double taxation of such things as coproducts returned for credit to oil refineries could add up to $115 million/year, the report says.

  15. Identification of a Testis-Enriched Heat Shock Protein and Fourteen Members of Hsp70 Family in the Swamp Eel

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Luo, Majing; Yi, Minhan; Sheng, Yue; Cheng, Yibin; Zhou, Rongjia; Cheng, Hanhua

    2013-01-01

    Background Gonad differentiation is one of the most important developmental events in vertebrates. Some heat shock proteins are associated with gonad development. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the teleost fish and its roles in sex differentiation are poorly understood. Methods and Findings We have identified a testis-enriched heat shock protein Hspa8b2 in the swamp eel using Western blot analysis and Mass Spectrometry (MS). Fourteen Hsp70 family genes were further identified in this species based on transcriptome information. The phylogenetic tree of Hsp70 family was constructed using the Maximum Likelihood method and their expression patterns in the swamp eel gonads were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conclusion There are fourteen gene members in the Hsp70 family in the swamp eel genome. Hsp70 family, particularly Hspa8, has expanded in the species. One of the family members Hspa8b2 is predominantly expressed in testis of the swamp eel. PMID:23750249

  16. 77 FR 16224 - Billion Auto, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ...below. Write ``Billion Auto, File No. 112 3209...Federal Trade Commission, Office of the Secretary, Room...paper, write ``Billion Auto, File No. 112 3209...Federal Trade Commission, Office of the Secretary, Room...consent order from Billion Auto, Inc. The proposed...

  17. CHAPTER FOURTEEN RNA Radiolabeling

    E-print Network

    Herschlag, Dan

    Shrimp Alkaline Phosphatase and 50 -Labeling with T4 Polynucleotide Kinase 264 5.1 Overview 264 5 phosphatase is used. Although there are many types of alkaline phosphatases, the protocol here uses a phosphatase that can be heat inactivated, as this can simplify the labeling protocol. Shrimp alkaline

  18. Fourteen Writing Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Thomas; Broemmel, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Any science teacher who wants his or her students to be engaged in real science is going to engage them in real science writing. Writing in science should begin with clear, imaginative writing purposes and stimuli that are then scaffolded in such a way that students are able to find an organizational structure for their writing. Writing fluency is…

  19. Chapter Fourteen Telescope Consortium

    E-print Network

    Glashausser, Charles

    external review. This assessment of the Department was confirmed by the 1993 survey of research of Physics and Astronomy a ranking of 1a (distin- guished), its highest grade, and affirmed the conclusion in this chapter is taken from Annual Reports of the Department of Physics and Astronomy. #12;Paul Leath (1995

  20. Parametrization and Classification of 20 Billion LSST Objects: Lessons from SDSS

    E-print Network

    Z. Ivezic; T. Axelrod; A. C. Becker

    2008-10-28

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain, starting in 2015, multiple images of the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg$^2$ region about 1000 times during the anticipated 10 years of operations (distributed over six bands, $ugrizy$). Each 30-second long visit will deliver 5$\\sigma$ depth for point sources of $r\\sim24.5$ on average. The co-added map will be about 3 magnitudes deeper, and will include 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. We discuss various measurements that will be automatically performed for these 20 billion sources, and how they can be used for classification and determination of source physical and other properties. We provide a few classification examples based on SDSS data, such as color classification of stars, color-spatial proximity search for wide-angle binary stars, orbital-color classification of asteroid families, and the recognition of main Galaxy components based on the distribution of stars in the position-metallicity-kinematics space. Guided by these examples, we anticipate that two grand classification challenges for LSST will be 1) rapid and robust classification of sources detected in difference images, and 2) {\\it simultaneous} treatment of diverse astrometric and photometric time series measurements for an unprecedentedly large number of objects.

  1. Parametrization and Classification of 20 Billion LSST Objects: Lessons from SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Ivezic, Z.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Axelrod, T.; /Large Binocular Telescope, Tucson; Becker, A.C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Becla, J.; /SLAC; Borne, K.; /George Mason U.; Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Claver, C.F.; /NOAO, Tucson; Cook, K.H.; /LLNL, Livermore; Connolly, A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Gilmore, D.K.; /SLAC; Jones, R.L.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Juric, M.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study; Kahn, Steven M.; /SLAC; Lim, K-T.; /SLAC; Lupton, R.H.; /Princeton U.; Monet, D.G.; /Naval Observ., Flagstaff; Pinto, P.A.; /Arizona U.; Sesar, B.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard U.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis

    2011-11-10

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain, starting in 2015, multiple images of the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times during the anticipated 10 years of operations (distributed over six bands, ugrizy). Each 30-second long visit will deliver 5{sigma} depth for point sources of r {approx} 24.5 on average. The co-added map will be about 3 magnitudes deeper, and will include 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. We discuss various measurements that will be automatically performed for these 20 billion sources, and how they can be used for classification and determination of source physical and other properties. We provide a few classification examples based on SDSS data, such as color classification of stars, color-spatial proximity search for wide-angle binary stars, orbital-color classification of asteroid families, and the recognition of main Galaxy components based on the distribution of stars in the position-metallicity-kinematics space. Guided by these examples, we anticipate that two grand classification challenges for LSST will be (1) rapid and robust classification of sources detected in difference images, and (2) simultaneous treatment of diverse astrometric and photometric time series measurements for an unprecedentedly large number of objects.

  2. Scalable in-memory RDFS closure on billions of triples.

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Eric L.; Mizell, David (Cray, Inc, Seattle, WA)

    2010-06-01

    We present an RDFS closure algorithm, specifically designed and implemented on the Cray XMT supercomputer, that obtains inference rates of 13 million inferences per second on the largest system configuration we used. The Cray XMT, with its large global memory (4TB for our experiments), permits the construction of a conceptually straightforward algorithm, fundamentally a series of operations on a shared hash table. Each thread is given a partition of triple data to process, a dedicated copy of the ontology to apply to the data, and a reference to the hash table into which it inserts inferred triples. The global nature of the hash table allows the algorithm to avoid a common obstacle for distributed memory machines: the creation of duplicate triples. On LUBM data sets ranging between 1.3 billion and 5.3 billion triples, we obtain nearly linear speedup except for two portions: file I/O, which can be ameliorated with the additional service nodes, and data structure initialization, which requires nearly constant time for runs involving 32 processors or more.

  3. Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a large, complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion

    E-print Network

    Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a large, complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion passengers each year. Air traffic delays have become a huge, implementation, and evaluation of practical algorithms for air transportation systems that will help air traffic

  4. Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion

    E-print Network

    Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion passengers each year. Air traffic delays have become a huge problem, implementation, and evaluation of practical algorithms for air transportation systems to help air traffic

  5. THE CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES OVER THE LAST 11 BILLION YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Kewley, Lisa J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Kurtz, Michael J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-07-10

    We calculate the stellar mass-metallicity relation at five epochs ranging to z {approx} 2.3. We quantify evolution in the shape of the mass-metallicity relation as a function of redshift; the mass-metallicity relation flattens at late times. There is an empirical upper limit to the gas-phase oxygen abundance in star-forming galaxies that is independent of redshift. From examination of the mass-metallicity relation and its observed scatter, we show that the flattening at late times is a consequence of evolution in the stellar mass where galaxies enrich to this empirical upper metallicity limit; there is also evolution in the fraction of galaxies at a fixed stellar mass that enrich to this limit. The stellar mass where metallicities begin to saturate is {approx}0.7 dex smaller in the local universe than it is at z {approx} 0.8.

  6. How Long Is a Piece of String? 4.5 Billion Years Perhaps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Terry; McGuigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    As reported in an earlier article (Russell and McGuigan, 2014), with Nuffield Foundation support, the authors of this article have been exploring with a group of primary teachers the teaching and learning of evolution and inheritance, focusing on conceptual progression. The new National Curriculum for England requires learners to access knowledge…

  7. THE LAST EIGHT-BILLION YEARS OF INTERGALACTIC C IV EVOLUTION

    E-print Network

    Cooksey, Kathy

    We surveyed the Hubble Space Telescope UV spectra of 49 low-redshift quasars for z < 1 C IV candidates, relying solely on the characteristic wavelength separation of the doublet. After consideration of the defining traits ...

  8. A high abundance of massive galaxies 3-6 billion years after the Big Bang

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Glazebrook; Roberto G. Abraham; Patrick J. McCarthy; Sandra Savaglio; Hsiao-Wen Chen; David Crampton; Rick Murowinski; Inger Jørgensen; Kathy Roth; Isobel Hook; Ronald O. Marzke; R. G. Carlberg

    2004-01-01

    Hierarchical galaxy formation is the model whereby massive galaxies form from an assembly of smaller units. The most massive objects therefore form last. The model succeeds in describing the clustering of galaxies, but the evolutionary history of massive galaxies, as revealed by their visible stars and gas, is not accurately predicted. Near-infrared observations (which allow us to measure the stellar

  9. The rapid formation of a large rotating disk galaxy three billion years after the Big Bang

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Genzel; L. J. Tacconi; F. Eisenhauer; N. M. Förster Schreiber; A. Cimatti; E. Daddi; N. Bouché; R. Davies; M. D. Lehnert; D. Lutz; N. Nesvadba; A. Verma; R. Abuter; K. Shapiro; A. Sternberg; A. Renzini; X. Kong; N. Arimoto; M. Mignoli

    2006-01-01

    Observations and theoretical simulations have established a framework for galaxy formation and evolution in the young Universe. Galaxies formed as baryonic gas cooled at the centres of collapsing dark-matter haloes; mergers of haloes and galaxies then led to the hierarchical build-up of galaxy mass. It remains unclear, however, over what timescales galaxies were assembled and when and how bulges and

  10. Detection of pristine gas two billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Michele; O'Meara, John M; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2011-12-01

    In the current cosmological model, only the three lightest elements were created in the first few minutes after the Big Bang; all other elements were produced later in stars. To date, however, heavy elements have been observed in all astrophysical environments. We report the detection of two gas clouds with no discernible elements heavier than hydrogen. These systems exhibit the lowest heavy-element abundance in the early universe, and thus are potential fuel for the most metal-poor halo stars. The detection of deuterium in one system at the level predicted by primordial nucleosynthesis provides a direct confirmation of the standard cosmological model. The composition of these clouds further implies that the transport of heavy elements from galaxies to their surroundings is highly inhomogeneous. PMID:22075722

  11. A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Stuart B. Wyithe; Abraham Loeb

    2004-01-01

    The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman

  12. On the last 10 billion years of stellar mass growth in star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Samuel Nicholas

    The star formation rate - stellar mass relation (SFR-M ?) and its evolution (i.e., the SFR main sequence) describes the growth rate of galaxies of a given stellar mass and at a given redshift. Assuming that present-day star-forming galaxies were always star-forming in the past, these growth rate observations can be integrated to calculate average Star Formation Histories (SFHs). Using this Main Sequence Integration (MSI) approach, we trace present-day massive star-forming galaxies back to when they were 10-20% of their current stellar mass. The integration is robust throughout those epochs: the SFR data underpinning our calculations is consistent with the evolution of stellar mass density in this regime. Analytic approximations to these SFHs are provided. Integration-based results reaffirm previous suggestions that current star-forming galaxies formed virtually all of their stellar mass at z < 2. It follows that massive galaxies observed at z > 2 are not the typical progenitors of star-forming galaxies today. We also check MSI-based SFHs against those inferred from analysis of the fossil record - from spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of star-forming galaxies in the SDSS, and color magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of resolved stars in dwarf irregular galaxies. Once stellar population age uncertainties are accounted for, the main sequence is in excellent agreement with SED-based SFHs (from VESPA). Extrapolating SFR main sequence observations to dwarf galaxies, we find differences between MSI results and SFHs from CMD analysis of ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) and Local Group (LG) galaxies. Resolved dwarfs appear to grow much slower than main sequence trends imply, and also slower than slightly higher mass SED-analyzed galaxies. This difference may signal problems with SFH determinations, but it may also signal a shift in star formation trends at the lowest stellar masses.

  13. Stars, Planets and The Weather: If You Don't Like It Wait 5 Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jeremy J.

    2011-05-01

    Over the last decade realisation has grown that high-energy phenomena such as X-ray and EUV radiation, winds and coronal mass ejections exhibited by stars like our own Sun have an importance way beyond local "stellar weather". From the stormy magnetic extremes of stellar youth to the gentle breeze of stellar middle age and beyond, I describe how stellar weather is now central to problems as diverse as the evolution of supernova Type 1a progenitor candidates, planet formation, and the development and survival of life on planetary systems.

  14. Probing the Last 13.8 Billion Years in the Universe with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenhorst, James

    2014-03-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is a 6 m special purpose telescope designed to measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at millimeter wavelengths. ACT has an angular resolution of better than 1.4', which means it measures not only the primordial fluctuations in the CMB, but is also sensitive to the intervening universe in several ways. ACT observes from a site at 5300 m in the Atacama Desert in Chile. This midlatitude site allows ACT to map regions of the sky in which there exist substantial data from surveys at other wavelengths. ACT detects clusters of galaxies through their Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (a spectral effect due to scattering off the hot electrons in the clusters). ACT measures clusters directly, in blind surveys, and also makes statistical measurements based on stacking analyses and by measuring the 3-point function in the maps. Furthermore, gravitational lensing by all the intervening matter from the primordial epoch to now leads to signatures in the 4-point functions in the ACT maps. Cross-correlating the ACT lensing deflection field with other optical surveys in the same region is a particularly fruitful way of deriving cosmological information on the expansion history of the universe.

  15. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations before 2.2 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Rye, R; Kuo, P H; Holland, H D

    1995-12-01

    The composition of the Earth's early atmosphere is a subject of continuing debate. In particular, it has been suggested that elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide would have been necessary to maintain normal surface temperatures in the face of lower solar luminosity in early Earth history. Fossil weathering profiles, known as palaeosols, have provided semi-quantitative constraints on atmospheric oxygen partial pressure (pO2) before 2.2 Gyr ago. Here we use the same well studied palaeosols to constrain atmospheric pCO2 between 2.75 and 2.2 Gyr ago. The observation that iron lost from the tops of these profiles was reprecipitated lower down as iron silicate minerals, rather than as iron carbonate, indicates that atmospheric pCO2 must have been less than 10(-1.4) atm--about 100 times today's level of 360 p.p.m., and at least five times lower than that required in one-dimensional climate models to compensate for lower solar luminosity at 2.75 Gyr. Our results suggest that either the Earth's early climate was much more sensitive to increases in pCO2 than has been thought, or that one or more greenhouse gases other than CO2 contributed significantly to the atmosphere's radiative balance during the late Archaean and early Proterozoic eons. PMID:11536713

  16. The rapid formation of a large rotating disk galaxy three billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Genzel, R; Tacconi, L J; Eisenhauer, F; Schreiber, N M Förster; Cimatti, A; Daddi, E; Bouché, N; Davies, R; Lehnert, M D; Lutz, D; Nesvadba, N; Verma, A; Abuter, R; Shapiro, K; Sternberg, A; Renzini, A; Kong, X; Arimoto, N; Mignoli, M

    2006-08-17

    Observations and theoretical simulations have established a framework for galaxy formation and evolution in the young Universe. Galaxies formed as baryonic gas cooled at the centres of collapsing dark-matter haloes; mergers of haloes and galaxies then led to the hierarchical build-up of galaxy mass. It remains unclear, however, over what timescales galaxies were assembled and when and how bulges and disks--the primary components of present-day galaxies--were formed. It is also puzzling that the most massive galaxies were more abundant and were forming stars more rapidly at early epochs than expected from models. Here we report high-angular-resolution observations of a representative luminous star-forming galaxy when the Universe was only 20% of its current age. A large and massive rotating protodisk is channelling gas towards a growing central stellar bulge hosting an accreting massive black hole. The high surface densities of gas, the high rate of star formation and the moderately young stellar ages suggest rapid assembly, fragmentation and conversion to stars of an initially very gas-rich protodisk, with no obvious evidence for a major merger. PMID:16915282

  17. On the origin, evolution, and nature of programmed cell death: a timeline of four billion years.

    PubMed

    Ameisen, J C

    2002-04-01

    Programmed cell death is a genetically regulated process of cell suicide that is central to the development, homeostasis and integrity of multicellular organisms. Conversely, the dysregulation of mechanisms controlling cell suicide plays a role in the pathogenesis of a wide range of diseases. While great progress has been achieved in the unveiling of the molecular mechanisms of programmed cell death, a new level of complexity, with important therapeutic implications, has begun to emerge, suggesting (i) that several different self-destruction pathways may exist and operate in parallel in our cells, and (ii) that molecular effectors of cell suicide may also perform other functions unrelated to cell death induction and crucial to cell survival. In this review, I will argue that this new level of complexity, implying that there may be no such thing as a 'bona fide' genetic death program in our cells, might be better understood when considered in an evolutionary context. And a new view of the regulated cell suicide pathways emerges when one attempts to ask the question of when and how they may have become selected during evolution, at the level of ancestral single-celled organisms. PMID:11965491

  18. Iapetus: 4.5 Billion Years of Contamination by Phoebe Dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas P. Hamilton

    1997-01-01

    One of the strangest satellites in the Solar System is Saturn's tidally-locked Iapetus which has a bright white trailing hemisphere and a jet-black leading face. It has long been suspected that dark dusty debris, originating from Saturn's outermost satellite Phoebe and brought inward by Poynting-Robertson drag, is responsible for Iapetus' striking albedo asymmetry. The Phoebe-dust model is very compelling because

  19. Evolution of bright star-forming galaxies in the first billion years 

    E-print Network

    Bowler, Rebecca Alison Andrews

    2015-07-01

    in the UltraVISTA first and second data releases (DR1, DR2) and the UKIDSS (UKIRT Infrared Deep Survey) UDS DR10 (Ultra Deep Survey). The UltraVISTA survey provides deep Y, J,H andKs near-imaging over 1.5 deg² of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field...

  20. SCORCH I: The Galaxy-Halo Connection in the First Billion Years

    E-print Network

    Trac, Hy; Mansfield, Philip

    2015-01-01

    SCORCH (Simulations and Constructions of the Reionization of Cosmic Hydrogen) is a new project to study the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). In this first paper, we probe the connection between observed high-redshift galaxies and simulated dark matter halos in order to better understand the abundance and evolution of the primary source of ionizing radiation. A series of high-resolution N-body simulations is run to quantify the abundance of dark matter halos as a function of mass $M$, accretion rate $\\dot{M}$, and redshift $z$. A new fit for the halo mass function $dn/dM$ is $\\approx 20\\%$ more accurate at the high-mass end where bright galaxies are expected to reside. A novel approach is used to fit the halo accretion rate function $dn/d\\dot{M}$ in terms of the halo mass function. Abundance matching against the observed galaxy luminosity function is used to estimate the luminosity-mass relation and the luminosity-accretion-rate relation. The inferred star formation efficiency is not monotonic with $M$ nor $\\dot{M...

  1. ON THE LAST 10 BILLION YEARS OF STELLAR MASS GROWTH IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Samuel N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The star formation rate-stellar mass relation (SFR-M{sub *}) and its evolution (i.e., the SFR main sequence) describe the growth rate of galaxies of a given stellar mass and at a given redshift. Assuming that present-day star-forming galaxies (SFGs) were always star forming in the past, these growth rate observations can be integrated to calculate average star formation histories (SFHs). Using this Main Sequence Integration (MSI) approach, we trace present-day massive SFGs back to when they were 10%-20% of their current stellar mass. The integration is robust throughout those epochs: the SFR data underpinning our calculations are consistent with the evolution of stellar mass density in this regime. Analytic approximations to these SFHs are provided. Integration-based results reaffirm previous suggestions that current SFGs formed virtually all of their stellar mass at z < 2. It follows that massive galaxies observed at z > 2 are not the typical progenitors of SFGs today. We also check MSI-based SFHs against those inferred from analysis of the fossil record-from spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of SFGs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of resolved stars in dwarf irregular galaxies. Once stellar population age uncertainties are accounted for, the main sequence is in excellent agreement with SED-based SFHs (from VESPA). Extrapolating SFR main sequence observations to dwarf galaxies, we find differences between MSI results and SFHs from CMD analysis of Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury and Local Group galaxies. Resolved dwarfs appear to grow much slower than main sequence trends imply, and also slower than slightly higher mass SED-analyzed galaxies. This difference may signal problems with SFH determinations, but it may also signal a shift in star formation trends at the lowest stellar masses.

  2. Plutonium-244 fission tracks - Evidence in a lunar rock 3.95 billion years old.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheon, I. D.; Price, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    Tracks attributed to the spontaneous fission of plutonium-244 and of uranium-238 were detected in a large whitlockite crystal in the lunar breccia 14321 from the Fra Mauro formation. For a track-retention age of 3.95 b.y., the number of plutonium tracks relative to the number of uranium tracks is 0.51 plus or minus 0.15, provided that the rock was not heavily neutron-irradiated 3.95 b.y. ago.

  3. Trisomy 1q32 and monosomy 11q25 associated with congenital heart defect: cytogenomic delineation and patient fourteen years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Partial duplication 1q is a rare cytogenetic anomaly frequently associated to deletion of another chromosome, making it difficult to define the precise contribution of the different specific chromosomal segments to the clinical phenotype. Case presentation We report a clinical and cytogenomic study of a patient with multiple congenital anomalies, heart defect, neuromotordevelopment delay, intellectual disability, who presents partial trisomy 1q32 and partial monosomy 11q25 inherited from a paternal balanced translocation identified by chromosome microarray and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Conclusion Compared to patients from the literature, the patient’s phenotype is more compatible to the 1q32 duplication’s clinical phenotype, although some clinical features may also be associated to the deleted segment on chromosome 11. This is the smallest 11q terminal deletion ever reported and the first association between 1q32.3 duplication and 11q25 deletion in the literature. PMID:25184002

  4. Case report: fourteen-year follow-up of an apudoma of the bile ducts at the hilum of the liver.

    PubMed

    Van Steenbergen, W; Fevery, J; Vanstapel, M J; Geboes, K; Ponette, E; Kerremans, R; De Groote, J

    1983-06-01

    A patient presented with a sclerosing tumor at the bifurcation of the main hepatic ducts and was followed for 14 yr after the initial symptoms. Palliative surgery was performed in 1968, followed by a remission of 10 yr. A reintervention in 1979 showed an impressive fibrotic mass that could be extirpated. The patient is again in complete remission for almost 3 yr. A tumor biopsy specimen, obtained at the second intervention, showed an apudoma-type tumor. This was confirmed by a positive Grimelius stain and by immunohistochemical investigation. PMID:6840489

  5. Sex-Role Stereotyping in Television Commercials: A Review and Comparison of Fourteen Studies Done on Five Continents Over 25 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Furnham; Twiggy Mak

    1999-01-01

    Since the pioneering content-analytic study byMcArthur and Resko (1975) on sex-role stereotyping oftelevision advertisements in America, many others haveused a similar methodology and coding scheme to examine similar stereotypes in their owncountries. This study compares and contrasts 14 studies,all using the McArthur and Resko (1975) scheme: 3 fromAmerica, 1 each from Australia, Denmark, and France, and 2 and one from

  6. Site geotechnical considerations for expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to one billion barrels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Neal; D. W. Whittington; T. R. Magorian

    1991-01-01

    Eight Gulf Coast salt domes have emerged as candidate sites for possible expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to one billion barrels. Two existing SPR sites, Big Hill, TX, and Weeks Island, LA, are among the eight that are being considered. To achieve the billion barrel capacity, some 25 new leached caverns would be constructed, and would probably be

  7. Residence Life Programs and the First-Year Experience. The Freshman Year Experience. Monograph Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, William, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph contains papers which suggest means of implementing residential programs, services, and facilities that will help to meet the needs of first-year college students. Fourteen papers are presented and are as follows: "Reflections on the First Year Residential Experience" (John N. Gardner); "The Role of Residential Programs in the…

  8. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-? emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ?1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate. PMID:25719667

  9. Shear Strength at 75 F to 500 F of Fourteen Adhesives Used to Bond a Glass-fabric-reinforced Phenolic Resin Laminate to Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John R

    1956-01-01

    Fourteen adhesives used to bond a glass-fabric-reinforced phenolic resin laminate to steel were tested in order to determine their shear strengths at temperatures from 75 F to 500 F. Fabrication methods were varied to evaluate the effect of placing cloth between the facing surfaces to maintain a uniform bond-line thickness. One glass-fabric supported phenolic adhesive was found to have a shear strength of 3,400 psi at 300 F and over 1,000 psi at 500 F. Strength and fabrication data are tabulated for all adhesives tested.

  10. Fourteen-Month-Old Infants Infer the Continuous Identity of Objects on the Basis of Nonvisible Causal Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacchione, Trix; Schaub, Simone; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Research on object cognition in infancy suggests that children from (at latest) 1 year of age are capable of individuating objects according to property/kind information. It remains unclear from previous work, however, whether infants in such studies truly apply sortal (kind) concepts or whether they merely track objects on the basis of…

  11. Pretreatment Variables for the Innovative Application of Urine Alarm Treatment for Young Children in Fourteen Outpatient Clinics in Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bettina Shapira; Pamela K. S. Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The influence of specific pretreatment variables (i.e., age, gender, birth order, number of children in the family, and family history of enuresis) on outpatient urine alarm treatment outcomes was examined. A total of 186 Israeli children between the ages of 4 to 7 participated in the study, and of those, 55 children were 4 years old. The entire sample was

  12. The Population of China. One Billion, Eight Million People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Cancellier, Patricia

    1983-01-01

    Several programs have been instituted in China over the past 30 years in order to slow the birth rate. The population, set at 1,008,175,288 people by a 1982 census, is by far the largest of any nation. A 10-year family planning program, begun in 1957, caused the birth rate to drop considerably through the mid-1960's. In 1971, "wan xi shao," the…

  13. Terpenes in a conifer forest: Detection at sub-parts per billion level without sample preconcentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, T. N.

    In a natural atmosphere free from anthropogenic emissions, terpenes constitute a major part of the biogenic hydrocarbon family. The study of their involvement in chemical reactions with various oxidants in the atmosphere requires continuous and accurate checking of their diurnal concentration variations. In past studies, the ever present sample preconcentration step with large sample volumes is expected to be associated with the problems of sample loss or chemical modifications in addition to their limitations on the measurement frequency. To improve upon these drawbacks, a commercially available microprocessor-based portable gas chromatograph with an ultra-sensitive detector was successfully tested and used for in situ measurements. With a direct sample volume of a few hundred microlitres of ambient air and suitable selection of the column packing material, quick separation of the various components was achieved. Excellent operational features and on-line calibration with pure samples allowed accurate and instant measurements during field studies. The photoionization (PI) detector allowed high S/N ratio even at sub-parts per billion level concentration of the hydrocarbons. Data collected over a one-year period under varying meteorological conditions from a conifer forest situated at Gulmarg (34°03'N, 74°24'E, 2650 m MSL) indicates the suitability of this system for remote field studies and also throws light on the lifecycle of these hydrocarbons in the natural atmosphere. The different hydrocarbons measured in this evaluation study includes isoprene, ?-pinene and ?-pinene.

  14. Large data analysis: automatic visual personal identification in a demography of 1.2 billion persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugman, John

    2014-05-01

    The largest biometric deployment in history is now underway in India, where the Government is enrolling the iris patterns (among other data) of all 1.2 billion citizens. The purpose of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is to ensure fair access to welfare benefits and entitlements, to reduce fraud, and enhance social inclusion. Only a minority of Indian citizens have bank accounts; only 4 percent possess passports; and less than half of all aid money reaches its intended recipients. A person who lacks any means of establishing their identity is excluded from entitlements and does not officially exist; thus the slogan of UIDAI is: To give the poor an identity." This ambitious program enrolls a million people every day, across 36,000 stations run by 83 agencies, with a 3-year completion target for the entire national population. The halfway point was recently passed with more than 600 million persons now enrolled. In order to detect and prevent duplicate identities, every iris pattern that is enrolled is first compared against all others enrolled so far; thus the daily workflow now requires 600 trillion (or 600 million-million) iris cross-comparisons. Avoiding identity collisions (False Matches) requires high biometric entropy, and achieving the tremendous match speed requires phase bit coding. Both of these requirements are being delivered operationally by wavelet methods developed by the author for encoding and comparing iris patterns, which will be the focus of this Large Data Award" presentation.

  15. 1-billion-color TFT LCD TV with full HD format

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Ho Kim; Byong-Deok Choi; Oh-Kyong Kwon

    2005-01-01

    To develop data driver LSIs for over a 1-billion-color TFT-LCD TV with full HD (1920×1080) format, key issues in the driver architecture as well as circuit design and TFT-LCD panel issues for realizing true 1024 gray level images are discussed. We present our recent results of the 10-bit gray scale TFT-LCD data driver applied to 42-inch diagonal 1-billion-color TFT-LCD TV

  16. How much is a million? How big is a billion?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Danita Brandt

    We constructed a geologic timeline along a 5K road-race route across the MSU campus at a scale of 1 meter = 1 million years, using signage to mark important eventsin the history of life. In addition to over 1500 race participants, numerous casual observers were exposed to the timeline. This project works well in the classroom at a scale of 1 mm = 1 million years, and as a manageable one-day outdoor sidewalk chalk activity at a scale of 1" = 1 million years. Timelines drawn to scale lead the observer to the inescapable conclusions that "simple" life appeared early in Earth history; that it took the bulk of Earth history to achieve the next, multi-cellular stage of development; and that once the metazoan threshold was crossed, subsequent biological diversification-and the resulting fossil record-followed in rapid succession.

  17. Corporations Give Record $1.6 Billion to Colleges and Universities in 1984-85; Total Giving Reaches $6.3 Billion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CFAE Newsletter, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Findings from the publication, "Voluntary Support of Education 1984-85," are summarized. The survey report includes contributions to 1,114 colleges and universities. Highlights of findings show that: total estimated voluntary support was $6.32 billion in 1984-1985; for the first time, corporations contributed more than any other donor group ($1.57…

  18. Rules Set for $4 Billion Race to Top Contest: Final Rules Give States Detailed Map in Quest for $4 Billion in Education Stimulus Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    For a good shot at $4 billion in grants from the federal Race to the Top Fund, states will need to make a persuasive case for their education reform agendas, demonstrate significant buy-in from local school districts, and devise plans to evaluate teachers and principals based on student performance, according to final regulations released last…

  19. Exploratory Analysis of Retail Sales of Billions of Items

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dunja Mladenic; William F. Eddy; Scott Ziolko

    This paper describes several different approaches to analysis of a data set collected over the past year from a retail grocery chain containing hundreds of stores. Each record in the data set represents an individual item processed by an individual checkout laser scanner at a particular store at a particular time on a particular day. Each record contains additional information

  20. Earth: The Early Years We discuss ...

    E-print Network

    Earth: The Early Years We discuss ... · What happened to the Earth during the first few billion)? · What is the relationship to (early) life? #12;Age of Earth James Ussher (17th C) biblical account: 6: 20-40 m.y. (million years!) Charles Darwin evolution >300 m.y. Lord Kelvin (1880's) cooling Earth: 50

  1. Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: "Child Development, Molecular Genetics, and What to Do With Genes Once They Are Found" (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental…

  2. 2 Years of Science, One-of-a-Kind Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Elyse

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen years ago, Bruce A. Jackson was doing his postdoctoral work at the Boston University School of Medicine and working nights teaching at nearby Roxbury Community College. But his exhausting shuttle between two colleges was about to come to an end. Mr. Jackson, a biochemist, had recently received word from the National Science Foundation…

  3. The rapid assembly of an elliptical galaxy of 400 billion solar masses at a redshift of 2.3.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hai; Cooray, Asantha; Feruglio, C; Ivison, R J; Riechers, D A; Gurwell, M; Bussmann, R S; Harris, A I; Altieri, B; Aussel, H; Baker, A J; Bock, J; Boylan-Kolchin, M; Bridge, C; Calanog, J A; Casey, C M; Cava, A; Chapman, S C; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Cox, P; Farrah, D; Frayer, D; Hopwood, R; Jia, J; Magdis, G; Marsden, G; Martínez-Navajas, P; Negrello, M; Neri, R; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Pérez-Fournon, I; Schulz, B; Scott, D; Smith, A; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J L; Zemcov, M

    2013-06-20

    Stellar archaeology shows that massive elliptical galaxies formed rapidly about ten billion years ago with star-formation rates of above several hundred solar masses per year. Their progenitors are probably the submillimetre bright galaxies at redshifts z greater than 2. Although the mean molecular gas mass (5?×?10(10) solar masses) of the submillimetre bright galaxies can explain the formation of typical elliptical galaxies, it is inadequate to form elliptical galaxies that already have stellar masses above 2?×?10(11) solar masses at z???2. Here we report multi-wavelength high-resolution observations of a rare merger of two massive submillimetre bright galaxies at z = 2.3. The system is seen to be forming stars at a rate of 2,000 solar masses per year. The star-formation efficiency is an order of magnitude greater than that of normal galaxies, so the gas reservoir will be exhausted and star formation will be quenched in only around 200 million years. At a projected separation of 19?kiloparsecs, the two massive starbursts are about to merge and form a passive elliptical galaxy with a stellar mass of about 4?×?10(11) solar masses. We conclude that gas-rich major galaxy mergers with intense star formation can form the most massive elliptical galaxies by z???1.5. PMID:23698363

  4. Genetic Programming_______________________________________________________________ Fourteen Instances where

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    by Humans JOHN R. KOZA Stanford University Stanford, California 94305 koza@genetic-programming.com http. · It produces results that are competitive with those produced by human programmers, engineers, mathematicians created result can reasonably be viewed as being competitive with one produced by human engineers

  5. Parallel Media Processors for the Billion-Transistor Era Jason Fritts, Zhao Wu, and Wayne Wolf

    E-print Network

    Fritts, Jason

    - level languages. Some programmable media processors have started to appear in the marketplace with DSP Parallel Media Processors for the Billion-Transistor Era Jason Fritts, Zhao Wu, and Wayne Wolf Dept}@ee.princeton.edu Abstract This paper describes the challenges presented by single- chip parallel media processors (PMPs

  6. Subcommittee Hearing to Examine Billions of Dollars in U.S. Tax Avoidance by Multinational Corporations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Levin

    2012-01-01

    U.S.-based multinationals have dodged billions of dollars in taxes by shifting profits to low-tax jurisdictions overseas, and have used loopholes in the law to avoid taxes on repatriated income that should be subject to taxation, information uncovered by the U.S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations shows.

  7. High-Stakes Hustle: Public Schools and the New Billion Dollar Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Lawrence A.; Stanley, Gregory Kent

    2004-01-01

    High-stakes testing costs up to $50 billion per annum, has no impact on student achievement, and has changed the focus of American public schools. This article analyzes the benefits and costs of the accountability movement, as well as discusses its roots in the eugenics movements of the early 20th century.

  8. California agriculture is large, diverse, complex and dynamic. It generated nearly $37.5 billion

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    California agriculture is large, diverse, complex and dynamic. It generated nearly $37.5 billion in cash receipts in 2010. California has been the nation's top agricultural state in cash receipts every in 1960 to about 12 percent in 2010. UniversityofCalifornia AgriculturalIssuesCenter The Measure

  9. Structure of Cow-Calf Industry Beef production in Texas is a $7 billion industry,

    E-print Network

    Structure of Cow-Calf Industry Beef production in Texas is a $7 billion industry, topping every industry have many beef cattle operations across the state and nation seeking ways to optimize production Short Course is to bring together the top beef cattle researchers, educators and industry leaders

  10. Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Sperling

    2009-04-15

    April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

  11. Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually.

    E-print Network

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually. Emissions. (fertilizers that use nitric acid or ammonium bicarbonate result in emissions of nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide% of agricultural greenhouse-gas emissions are from the production and use of nitrogen fertilizers. Influences

  12. New Neuromuscular Symptoms in Patients with Old Poliomyelitis: A Three-Year Follow-Up Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marinos C. Dalakas

    1986-01-01

    Fourteen survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis experienced new symptoms after years of stability. Seven patients had lost functional capacity, with joint pain, instability and recurrent falls, but were again stable and remained essentially unchanged during a 3-year follow-up period. Seven others had late postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy (PPMA) with new weakness, wasting, fasciculations and myalgia in muscles originally spared or seemingly recovered.

  13. Seabrook could cost $7 billion; unit 2 outlays ok'd

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    The New Hampshire Public Service Commission is concerned with increased costs of the Seabrook nuclear plant project, which its estimate reveals could rise to between $6 and 7 billion; the commission wants to assure that Unit 1 will not go uncompleted for lack of funds. The Public Service Co. of New Hampshire (PSNH), for whom Seabrook is being built, feels the Seabrook project is economically justifiable despite the higher costs. The New Hampshire Supreme Court in December 1982 ruled in favor of continued expenditures on Seabrook-2 without requiring PSNH to reduce its 35% share. The company announced a 43% increase in projected costs (to $5.12 billion) and a 10-month delay in completion (now December 1984 for Unit 1 and March 1987 for Unit 2). Justification for the plant is based on lower overall energy costs for consumers when the area reduces its dependency on imported oil. Low bond ratings have deprived the utility of financial flexibility. (DCK)

  14. IMF Approves SDR 15.5 Billion Stand-by Credit for Korea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The "IMF Approves SDR 15.5 Billion Stand-by Credit for Korea" details the aid package put together for Korea and provides a background of the events and the objectives of the aid package. The beginning of the financial crisis in South Korea can be traced to the collapse of Hanbo Steel Corp., the first in a string of large corporate failures in South Korea. This was followed by the decline in the value of the Korean won against the dollar in October 1997, which persisted until November when the Central Bank of Korea stopped intervening to support the won. The continued decline in won forced the Korean government to seek financial assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). On December 3, the IMF announced a $55 billion aid package for South Korea.

  15. The strongest matter: “Einsteinon” could be one billion times stronger than carbon nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola M. Pugno

    2008-01-01

    The controversy about the feasibility of space elevator cables is summarized, emphasizing the huge strength-to-density ratio needed for the megacable material, comparable only to that of defect-free carbon nanotubes. In spite of this, the existence of an hypothetical matter, that we have called “Einsteinon”, with strength-to-density ratio one billion times higher than that of carbon nanotubes, is shown to be

  16. U.S. Wind projected to Be $60 billion business by 2013

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    A recent U.S. Department of Energy report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to meeting 20 percent of U.S. electricity generation from wind by 2030, but identified upgrading of the transmission grid as a major challenge, requiring a $60+ billion investment. One major obstacle is the highly fragmented ownership of the 200,000-mile network among some 500 diverse, intensely territorial entities.

  17. MMap: Fast Billion-Scale Graph Computation on a PC via Memory Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhiyuan; Kahng, Minsuk; Sabrin, Kaeser Md.; Chau, Duen Horng (Polo); Lee, Ho; Kang, U

    2015-01-01

    Graph computation approaches such as GraphChi and TurboGraph recently demonstrated that a single PC can perform efficient computation on billion-node graphs. To achieve high speed and scalability, they often need sophisticated data structures and memory management strategies. We propose a minimalist approach that forgoes such requirements, by leveraging the fundamental memory mapping (MMap) capability found on operating systems. We contribute: (1) a new insight that MMap is a viable technique for creating fast and scalable graph algorithms that surpasses some of the best techniques; (2) the design and implementation of popular graph algorithms for billion-scale graphs with little code, thanks to memory mapping; (3) extensive experiments on real graphs, including the 6.6 billion edge YahooWeb graph, and show that this new approach is significantly faster or comparable to the highly-optimized methods (e.g., 9.5× faster than GraphChi for computing PageRank on 1.47B edge Twitter graph). We believe our work provides a new direction in the design and development of scalable algorithms. Our packaged code is available at http://poloclub.gatech.edu/mmap/. PMID:25866846

  18. The Properties of Galaxies in the First Billion Years, as Revealed by the Hubble Ultra Deep Field 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, James; McLure, R.; Rogers, S.; Ono, Y.; Ouchi, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Ellis, R. S.; Schenker, M.; Robertson, B. E.; UDF12 Team

    2013-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Ultra Deep Field 2012 (UDF12) provides the deepest near-infrared imaging to date of the high redshift Universe. By effectively doubling the depth of the Wide Field Camera 3 near-infrared imaging in the UDF, with valuable diagnostic imaging through a new additional filter, the UDF12 program considerably enhances our understanding of the rest-frame UV properties of star-forming galaxies in the crucial redshift range z=7-10 when the reionization process is ending. We present the first unbiased measurements of the UV continuum slopes of galaxies at z=7 (and the first meaningful measures at z=8), thereby setting new constraints on the age, metallicity and ionizing photon escape fractions for early galaxies . We also present new results on the sizes of these primeval galaxies with more accuracy than hitherto, and set new constraints on their stellar masses. These new measurements of the physical properties of the emerging population of young galaxies are compared with the predictions of the latest theoretical models of galaxy formation.

  19. Northwest Africa 8159: An approximately 2.3 Billion Year Old Martian Olivine-Bearing Augite Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, J. I.; Peters, T. J.; Tappa, M. J.; Agee, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    Based on petrology, mineralogy, and bulk composition, the new NWA 8159 martian meteorite is distinct from all known samples from Mars. In particular, the augite compositional trends are unique, but most similar to those of nakhite intercumulus. Whether NWA 8159 represents a new lithology or is related to a known meteorite group remains to be determined. Sr and Nd isotopic analyses will allow comparison of source characteristics with SNC and other new ungrouped meteorites (e.g., NWA 7635). Here we report initial Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for NWA 8159 with the objective to determine its formation age and to potentially identify similarities and potential source affinities with other martian rocks.

  20. Evidence for significant growth in the stellar mass of brightest cluster galaxies over the past 10 billion years

    E-print Network

    Lidman, C.; Suherli, J.; Muzzin, A.; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Demarco, R.; Brough, S.; Rettura, A.; Cox, J.; DeGroot, A.; Yee, H. K. C.; Gilbank, D.; Hoekstra, H.; Balogh, M.; Ellingson, E.; Hicks, A.; Nantais, J.; Noble, A.; Lacy, M.; Surace, J.; Webb, T.

    2012-01-01

    Using new and published data, we construct a sample of 160 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) spanning the redshift interval 0.03 < z < 1.63. We use this sample, which covers 70 per cent of the history of the universe, to ...

  1. An Over-Massive Black Hole in a Typical Star-Forming Galaxy, 2 Billion Years After the Big Bang

    E-print Network

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Civano, Francesca; Rosario, David J; Elvis, Martin; Schawinski, Kevin; Suh, Hyewon; Bongiorno, Angela; Simmons, Brooke D

    2015-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are generally thought to coevolve, so that the SMBH achieves up to about 0.2 to 0.5% of the host galaxy mass in the present day. The radiation emitted from the growing SMBH is expected to affect star formation throughout the host galaxy. The relevance of this scenario at early cosmic epochs is not yet established. We present spectroscopic observations of a galaxy at redshift z = 3.328, which hosts an actively accreting, extremely massive BH, in its final stages of growth. The SMBH mass is roughly one-tenth the mass of the entire host galaxy, suggesting that it has grown much more efficiently than the host, contrary to models of synchronized coevolution. The host galaxy is forming stars at an intense rate, despite the presence of a SMBH-driven gas outflow.

  2. Over One-Half Billion Years of Head Conservation? Expression of an ems Class Gene in Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ofer Mokady; Matthew H. Dick; Dagmar Lackschewitz; Bernd Schierwater; Leo W. Buss

    1998-01-01

    We report the isolation of an empty spiracles class homeodomain-containing gene, Cn-ems, from the hydrozoan Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus, the first gene of this class characterized in a lower metazoan. Cn-ems was found to be expressed in the head of gastrozooids, specifically in endodermal epithelial cells of the taeniolae of the hypostome. Cn-ems is not expressed in gonozooids, which lack taeniolae. Experimental

  3. The Evolution of the Galaxy Rest-Frame Ultraviolet Luminosity Function Over the First Two Billion Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Ryan, Russell E., Jr.; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Song, Mimi; Somerville, Rachel; Ferguson, Henry C.; Salmon, Brett; Giavalisco, Mauro; Koekomoer, Anton M.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Behroozi, Peter; Castellano, Marco; Dunlop, James S.; Faber, Sandy M.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Fontana, Adriano; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish; Jaacks, Jason; Kocevski, Dale D.; Livermore, Rachael; McLure, Ross J.; Merlin, Emiliano; Rafelski, Marc Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function at z = 4 to 8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the CANDELS/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations near the Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1- 2403 clusters. The combination of these surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 ×10(exp 6) Mpc(exp 3) over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for bright (M(sub UV) less than -21) and faint (M(sub UV) = -18) galaxies. We select galaxies using a well-tested photometric redshift technique with careful screening of contaminants, finding a sample of 7446 galaxies at 3.5 less than z less than 8.5, with more than 1000 galaxies at z of approximately 6 - 8. We measure both a stepwise luminosity function for galaxies in our redshift samples, as well as a Schechter function, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end our UV luminosity functions agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright galaxies at z of greater than or equal to 6. Our bestfit value of the characteristic magnitude M* is consistent with -21 at z of greater than or equal to 5, different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift. At z = 8, a single power-law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z = 6 and 7, an exponential cutoff at the bright-end is moderately preferred. We compare our luminosity functions to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in M* is consistent with models where the impact of dust attenuation on the bright-end of the luminosity function decreases at higher redshift, though a decreasing impact of feedback may also be possible. We measure the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate (SFR) density by integrating our observed luminosity functions to M(sub UV) = -17, correcting for dust attenuation, and find that the SFR density declines proportionally to (1 + z)((exp -4.3)(+/-)(0.5)) at z greater than 4, consistent with observations at z greater than or equal to 9. Our observed luminosity functions are consistent with a reionization history that starts at redshift of approximately greater than 10, completes at z greater than 6, and reaches a midpoint (x(sub HII) = 0.5) at 6.7 less than z less than 9.4. Finally, using a constant cumulative number density selection and an empirically derived rising star-formation history, our observations predict that the abundance of bright z = 9 galaxies is likely higher than previous constraints, though consistent with recent estimates of bright z similar to 10 galaxies.

  4. A sawtooth-like timeline for the first billion years of lunar bombardment A. Morbidelli a,n

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    that the net number of basins formed on the Moon was $ 45250. From our expected bombardment timeline, we in revised form 26 July 2012 Accepted 27 July 2012 Editor: T.M. Harrison Available online 10 October 2012 South Pole Aitken a b s t r a c t We revisit the early evolution of the Moon's bombardment. Our work

  5. The ~3.4 billion-year-old Strelley Pool Sandstone: a new window into early life on Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Wacey; Nicola McLoughlin; Owen R. Green; John Parnell; Crispin A. Stoakes; Martin D. Brasier

    2006-01-01

    The recognition and understanding of the early fossil record on Earth is vital to the success of missions searching for life on other planets. Despite this, the evidence for life on Earth before ~3.0 Ga remains controversial. The discovery of new windows of preservation in the rock record more than 3.0 Ga would therefore be helpful to enhance our understanding

  6. NASA's Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request - Duration: 8 minutes, 1 second.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced an $18.7 billion budget request for fiscal year 2012 that supports a reinvigorated path of innovation, technological development and scientific discovery. The budget supports all ele...

  7. 77 FR 15052 - Dataset Workshop-U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Dataset (1980-2011): Assessing Dataset Strengths...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Dataset Workshop--U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Dataset (1980- 2011): Assessing Dataset Strengths and Weaknesses for a Pathway to an Improved Dataset AGENCY:...

  8. In Vitro Activities of Fourteen Antimicrobial Agents Against Drug Susceptible and Resistant Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Comparative Intracellular Activities Against the Virulent H37Rv Strain in Human Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nalin Rastogi; Valérie Labrousse; Khye Seng Goh

    1996-01-01

    .   Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 14 first and second-line antituberculous drugs against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant\\u000a clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (including the multiple drug-resistant or MDR-TB isolates), as well as the type strain H37Rv, were determined radiometrically\\u000a by the Bactec 460-TB methodols. MICs (?g\\/ml) of all the fourteen drugs were within an extremely narrow range in case of susceptible

  9. On the constancy of the lunar cratering flux over the past 3.3 billion yr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinness, E. A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Utilizing a method that minimizes random fluctuations in sampling crater populations, it can be shown that the ejecta deposit of Tycho, the floor of Copernicus, and the region surrounding the Apollo 12 landing site have incremental crater size-frequency distributions that can be expressed as log-log linear functions over the diameter range from 0.1 to 1 km. Slopes are indistinguishable for the three populations, probably indicating that the surfaces are dominated by primary craters. Treating the crater populations of Tycho, the floor of Copernicus, and Apollo 12 as primary crater populations contaminated, but not overwhelmed, with secondaries, allows an attempt at calibration of the post-heavy bombardment cratering flux. Using the age of Tycho as 109 m.y., Copernicus as 800 m.y., and Apollo 12 as 3.26 billion yr, there is no basis for assuming that the flux has changed over the past 3.3 billion yr. This result can be used for dating intermediate aged surfaces by crater density.

  10. The Value Of The Nonprofit Hospital Tax Exemption Was $24.6 Billion In 2011.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Kindig, David A; Bao, Jie; Byrnes, Maureen K; O'Laughlin, Colin

    2015-07-01

    The federal government encourages public support for charitable activities by allowing people to deduct donations to tax-exempt organizations on their income tax returns. Tax-exempt hospitals are major beneficiaries of this policy because it encourages donations to the hospitals while shielding them from federal and state tax liability. In exchange, these hospitals must engage in community benefit activities, such as providing care to indigent patients and participating in Medicaid. The congressional Joint Committee on Taxation estimated the value of the nonprofit hospital tax exemption at $12.6 billion in 2002-a number that included forgone taxes, public contributions, and the value of tax-exempt bond financing. In this article we estimate that the size of the exemption reached $24.6 billion in 2011. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) brings a new focus on community benefit activities by requiring tax-exempt hospitals to engage in communitywide planning efforts to improve community health. The magnitude of the tax exemption, coupled with ACA reforms, underscores the public's interest not only in community benefit spending generally but also in the extent to which nonprofit hospitals allocate funds for community benefit expenditures that improve the overall health of their communities. PMID:26085486

  11. Institutional Characteristics Contributing to the Effectiveness of 4-Year Business Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book-Ellard, Tracy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Over $8 billion is spent yearly, on college education in one Southern U.S. state, yet the employment effectiveness of public and private 4-year undergraduate business degrees (effectiveness defined as obtaining employment or entering into a degree program requiring a 4-year business degree by the end of Year 1 and remaining employed or in a degree…

  12. Leveraging Billions of Faces to Overcome Performance Barriers in Unconstrained Face Recognition

    E-print Network

    Taigman, Yaniv

    2011-01-01

    We employ the face recognition technology developed in house at face.com to a well accepted benchmark and show that without any tuning we are able to considerably surpass state of the art results. Much of the improvement is concentrated in the high-valued performance point of zero false positive matches, where the obtained recall rate almost doubles the best reported result to date. We discuss the various components and innovations of our system that enable this significant performance gap. These components include extensive utilization of an accurate 3D reconstructed shape model dealing with challenges arising from pose and illumination. In addition, discriminative models based on billions of faces are used in order to overcome aging and facial expression as well as low light and overexposure. Finally, we identify a challenging set of identification queries that might provide useful focus for future research.

  13. Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guoping; Diallo, Souleymane; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

    2014-10-15

    We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering-gallery-mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF?) with an ultra-high quality (Q) factor above 10? at 1550 nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of 2 nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion Q-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of 3. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high-energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF? resonators potentially becomes feasible. PMID:25361142

  14. Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor

    E-print Network

    Lin, Guoping; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering gallery mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) with an ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor above $10^9$ at $1550$ nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of $2$ nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion $Q$-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of ~$3$. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF$_2$ resonators potentially becomes feasible.

  15. Evaluation testing of a portable vapor detector for Part-Per-Billion (PPB) level UDMH and N2H4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Dan; Lueck, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    Trace level detection of hydrazine (N2H4), monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) has been receiving increased attention over the past several years. In May 1995 the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) lowered their acceptable threshold limit value (TLV) from 100 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 10 ppb. Several types of ppb-level detectors are being developed by the United States Air Force (USAF) Space and Missile Systems Center (SMSC). A breadboard version of a portable, lightweight hydrazine detection sensor was developed and produced by Giner Corp. for the USAF. This sensor was designed for ppb level UDMH and N2H4 vapor detection in near real-time. This instrument employs electrochemical sensing, utilizing a three electrode cell with an anion-exchange polymer electrolyte membrane as the only electrolyte in the system. The sensing, counter and reference electrodes are bonded to the membrane forming a single component. The only liquid required to maintain the sensor is deionized water which hydrates the membrane. At the request of the USAF SMSC, independent testing and evaluation of the breadboard instrument was performed at NASA's Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) for response to ppb-level N2H4 and UDMH and MMH. The TVDL, located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the unique ability to generate calibrated sample vapor streams of N2H4, UDMH, and MMH over a range from less than 10 ppb to thousands of parts per million (ppm) with full environmental control of relative humidity (0-90%) and temperature (0-50 C). The TVDL routinely performs these types of tests. Referenced sensors were subjected to extensive testing, including precision, linearity, response/recovery times, zero and span drift, humidity and temperature effects as well as ammonia interference. Results of these tests and general operation characteristics are reported.

  16. his year the International Social and Cultural Diversity course was taught in India. Fourteen students from GW's Art Therapy and Psychology programs and one student from Boston University's Occupational Therapy program

    E-print Network

    Schmitt, William R.

    students from GW's Art Therapy and Psychology programs and one student from Boston University, as the therapist, were the minority." Experiences in India 2 Integrating the Arts 3 Director's Cut 4 GW Art Therapy in October 11 Graffiti Art Therapy 12 DRAWN from the Circle Issue 30 Fall 2009 Inside this issue: George

  17. Survey of ocular irritation predictive capacity using Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test historical data for 319 personal care products over fourteen years.

    PubMed

    Donahue, D A; Kaufman, L E; Avalos, J; Simion, F A; Cerven, D R

    2011-03-01

    The Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test are widely used to predict ocular irritation potential for consumer-use products. These in vitro assays do not require live animals, produce reliable predictive data for defined applicability domains compared to the Draize rabbit eye test, and are rapid and inexpensive. Data from 304 CAMVA and/or BCOP studies (319 formulations) were surveyed to determine the feasibility of predicting ocular irritation potential for various formulations. Hair shampoos, skin cleansers, and ethanol-based hair styling sprays were repeatedly predicted to be ocular irritants (accuracy rate=0.90-1.00), with skin cleanser and hair shampoo irritation largely dependent on surfactant species and concentration. Conversely, skin lotions/moisturizers and hair styling gels/lotions were repeatedly predicted to be non-irritants (accuracy rate=0.92 and 0.82, respectively). For hair shampoos, ethanol-based hair stylers, skin cleansers, and skin lotions/moisturizers, future ocular irritation testing (i.e., CAMVA/BCOP) can be nearly eliminated if new formulations are systematically compared to those previously tested using a defined decision tree. For other tested product categories, new formulations should continue to be evaluated in CAMVA/BCOP for ocular irritation potential because either the historical data exhibit significant variability (hair conditioners and mousses) or the historical sample size is too small to permit definitive conclusions (deodorants, make-up removers, massage oils, facial masks, body sprays, and other hair styling products). All decision tree conclusions should be made within a conservative weight-of-evidence context, considering the reported limitations of the BCOP test for alcohols, ketones, and solids. PMID:21147215

  18. The Effect of Text Messaging on 9- and 10-Year-Old Children's Reading, Spelling and Phonological Processing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, C.; Jackson, E.; Hart, L.; Plester, B.; Wilde, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an intervention study that considered the impact of text messaging on 9- to 10-year-old children's literacy skills. One hundred and fourteen children who had never owned a mobile phone before were recruited and randomly allocated to either the intervention or control conditions. All children were pre- and post-tested on a…

  19. Combined Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Parent Training for Childhood Depression: 2- to 3-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen children with significant depressive symptoms from an open clinical trial of Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training augmented with Caregiver-Child Relationship Enhancement Training, participated in a 2- to 3-year follow-up assessment. The results suggested that the significant decreases in depressive symptoms observed at…

  20. Report to the Regents First Quarter, Fiscal Year 2011

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    traveling for 10.8 billion years--80 percent of the age of the universe. The detection was facilitated. Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids that pass close to Earth. Scientists study them for insights into the young solar system, and they are of concern because of the potential for collisions with Earth

  1. $100 Billion: For Reform...or to Subsidize the Status Quo? Education Stimulus Watch. Special Report 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2009-01-01

    This is the first in a quarterly series of special reports on the K-12 education implications of the federal government's economic stimulus package, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). That the ARRA, which was signed into law in February, will pump nearly $100 billion--an unprecedented sum of federal money--into K-12 education is…

  2. Simulating materials failure by using up to one billion atoms and the world's fastest computer: Work-hardening

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Farid F.; Walkup, Robert; Gao, Huajian; Duchaineau, Mark; Diaz De La Rubia, Tomas; Seager, Mark

    2002-01-01

    We describe the second of two large-scale atomic simulation projects on materials failure performed on the 12-teraflop ASCI (Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative) White computer at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This investigation simulates ductile failure by using more than one billion atoms where the true complexity of the creation and interaction of hundreds of dislocations are revealed. PMID:16578877

  3. WHY SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL AND HOW TO DETECT ANOTHER 10 BILLION SMALL MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS. Henning Haack1

    E-print Network

    Andersen, Anja C.

    WHY SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL ­ AND HOW TO DETECT ANOTHER 10 BILLION SMALL MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS. Henning. Introduction: Estimates of the size distribution of main belt asteroids suggest that there is a population- tant sub-kilometer asteroids in the main belt. Long intergration times cannot be used unless the object

  4. Like it or not, tens of billions of lines of Cobol code are still in use today.

    E-print Network

    Helal, Abdelsalam

    Like it or not, tens of billions of lines of Cobol code are still in use today. Invented in 1959 by a group of com- puter professionals, Cobol empowered developers worldwide to program the mainframe and create applications still in existence today. Undoubtedly, Cobol owes much of its success to its stan

  5. Institutional Aid and Student Persistence: An Analysis of the Effects of Institutional Financial Aid at Public Four-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Jacob P. K.; Hossler, Don; Ziskin, Mary

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effects of institutional financial aid on year-to-year persistence for a cohort of first-time, first-year students at three large, doctorate-granting public universities. Though billions of dollars are spent each year on institutional aid, much of the research to date on student persistence does not consider its effects on…

  6. Assessment of the Projected One Billion Ton Biomass for Cellulosic Biofuel Production and Its Potential Implications on Regional Water Quality and Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Yan, E.; Wu, M.

    2011-12-01

    The DOE and USDA joint study, also commonly referred as the "Billion-Ton" study, assessed the cellulosic feedstock resources potential in the U.S. for producing second generation biofuel to replace 30 percent of the country's transportation fuels by year 2030. The available resource is expected to come from changing cropping pattern, increasing crop yield, harvesting agricultural and forest wood residues, and developing energy crops. Such large-scale changes in land use and crop managements are likely to affect the associated water quality and resources at both regional and local scales. To address the water sustainability associated with the projected biomass production in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), we have developed a SWAT watershed model that simulate the changes in water quality (nitrogen, phosphorus, and soil erosion) and resources (soil water content, evapotranspiration, and runoff) of the region due to future biomass production scenario estimated by the Billion-Ton study. The scenario is implemented by changing the model inputs and parameters at subbasin and hydrologic response unit levels, as well as by improving the SWAT model to represent spatially varying crop properties. The potential impacts on water quality and water availability were compared with the results obtained from a baseline simulation which represents current watershed conditions and existing level of feedstock production. The basin level results suggested mixed effects on the water quality. The projected large-scale biomass production scenario is expected to decrease loadings of total nitrogen and nitrate in the streams while increase total phosphorus and suspended sediment. Results indicate an increase in the rate of evapotranspiration and a decrease in the soil water content and in surface runoff. discharge to the streams. The impacts at the subbasin or local scale varies spatially and temporally depending on the types of land use change, their locations, and crop managements, suggesting needs to further optimize the sustainable biomass production from water resource perspective at both regional and local levels.

  7. Broadcasts for a billion: the growth of commercial television in China.

    PubMed

    Schmuck, C

    1987-01-01

    At present, Chinese television reaches 35% of the population (80-90% in urban areas) and is used by the government as a source of education and information. In recognition of the potential market represented by 1.1 billions consumers, Western advertisers have commissioned elaborate market research studies. Drama, sports, news, and movies are consistently identified as the favorite type of programming among Chinese television viewers. About 75% of Beijing adults watch television daily, making the medium both an important target for advertising campaigns and a way for Westerners to influence Chinese business and government leaders. Western advertisers have tended to concentrate their investments in the more urban, affluent regions where products have the greatest likelihood of being sold. There has been a recent trend, however, toward industrial commercials, with British and French companies buying television time to promote their image as partners in China's modernization. Key to the future of commercial advertising on Chinese Television. In many provinces, local television stations have developed a unique character and portray different sociocultural values than the national channel. Outside advertisers have sometimes experienced problems with local networks that substitute local advertising without informing the network. To correct this situation, the government is enacting pro-sponsor regulations that forbid the preemption of the national channel and its advertisements. At the same time, efforts are being made to improve relationships with local television stations by either paying them a fee or airing local commercials on the national network. PMID:12342936

  8. Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Shoibal; Chikkatur, Ananth; de Coninck, Heleen; Pacala, Stephen; Socolow, Robert; Tavoni, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    We present a framework for allocating a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of “common but differentiated responsibilities” refers to the emissions of individuals instead of nations. We use the income distribution of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO2 emissions are distributed among its citizens, from which we build up a global CO2 distribution. We then propose a simple rule to derive a universal cap on global individual emissions and find corresponding limits on national aggregate emissions from this cap. All of the world's high CO2-emitting individuals are treated the same, regardless of where they live. Any future global emission goal (target and time frame) can be converted into national reduction targets, which are determined by “Business as Usual” projections of national carbon emissions and in-country income distributions. For example, reducing projected global emissions in 2030 by 13 GtCO2 would require the engagement of 1.13 billion high emitters, roughly equally distributed in 4 regions: the U.S., the OECD minus the U.S., China, and the non-OECD minus China. We also modify our methodology to place a floor on emissions of the world's lowest CO2 emitters and demonstrate that climate mitigation and alleviation of extreme poverty are largely decoupled. PMID:19581586

  9. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country's present petroleum consumption--the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  10. Recovery Act Put $2.5 Billion in Ohioans' Pockets A County-by-County Review of Direct Benefits in 2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Campbell

    he $787 billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) was split between formula funding for state and local government programs, competitive grants, and direct benefits to Americans. The State of Ohio is expected to receive $8.2 billion in formula funding, and competitive grants in excess of $817 million have al- ready been awarded to Ohio entities. This report

  11. Survey of lands held for uranium exploration, development, and production in fourteen western states in the six-month period ending June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The statistics set forth for the period covered in this report are based on data gathered from records available to the public. The county records of mining claim locations, reports of state and federal land offices, and commercial reporting services furnish the data for this report. Accordingly, if any fee land has been acquired in a private transaction not entered into a public record or report, that land transaction will not be accounted for in this report. Manpower is not available to survey, acquire, and evaluate data from each available source in each reporting period. Therefore, in any given report, the figures quoted for one or more land categories in a given state may be identical to the figures shown in earlier reports even though some changes probably have occurred. Such changes will be shown on subsequent reports. The figures used for acreage controlled at the beginning of the calendar year are those published for that date in Statistical Data of the Uranium Industry GJ0-100 published and distributed by the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy.

  12. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The Budget includes three new robust exploration programs: (1) Technology demonstration program, $7.8 five years. Funds the development and demonstration of technologies that reduce the cost and expand the capabilities of future exploration activities, including in-orbit refueling and storage. (2) Heavy-Lift and Propulsion R&D, $3.1 billion over five years. Funds R&D for new launch systems, propellants, materials, and combustion processes. (3) Robotic precursor missions, $3.0 billion over five years. Funds cost-effective means to scout exploration targets and identify hazards and resources for human visitation and habitation. In addition, the Budget enhances the current Human Research Program by 42%; and supports the Participatory Exploration Program at 5 million per year for activities across many NASA programs.

  13. No Photon Left Behind: How Billions of Spectral Lines are Transforming Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of realistic potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) descriptions, theoretically computed linelists can now synthesize accurate spectral parameters for billions of spectral lines sampling the untamed high-energy molecular domain. Being the initial driver for these databases the characterization of stellar spectra, these theoretical databases, in combination with decades of precise experimental studies (nicely compiled in community databases such as HITRAN and GEISA), are leading to unprecedented precisions in the characterization of planetary atmospheres. Cometary sciences are among the most affected by this spectroscopic revolution. Even though comets are relatively cold bodies (T˜100 K), their infrared molecular emission is mainly defined by non-LTE solar fluorescence induced by a high-energy source (Sun, T˜5600 K). In order to interpret high-resolution spectra of comets acquired with extremely powerful telescopes (e.g., Keck, VLT, NASA-IRTF), we have developed advanced non-LTE fluorescence models that integrate the high-energy dynamic range of ab-initio databases (e.g., BT2, VTT, HPT2, BYTe, TROVE) and the precision of laboratory and semi-empirical compilations (e.g., HITRAN, GEISA, CDMS, WKMC, SELP, IUPAC). These new models allow us to calculate realistic non-LTE pumps, cascades, branching-ratios, and emission rates for a broad range of excitation regimes for H2O, HDO, HCN, HNC and NH3. We have implemented elements of these compilations to the study of Mars spectra, and we are now exploring its application to modeling non-LTE emission in exoplanets. In this presentation, we present application of these advanced models to interpret highresolution spectra of comets, Mars and exoplanets.

  14. StructMatrix: billion-scale visualization of planetary graphs by means of structure detection and dense matrices

    E-print Network

    Gualdron, Hugo; Rodrigues, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Given a planetary-scale graph with millions of nodes and billions of edges, how to reveal macro patterns of interest, like cliques, bi-partite cores, stars, and chains? Furthermore, how to visualize such patterns altogether getting insights from the graph to support wise decision-making? Although there are many algorithmic and visual techniques to analyze graphs, none of the existing approaches is able to present the structural information of graphs at planetary scale. Hence, this paper describes StructMatrix, a methodology aimed at high scalable visual inspection of graph structures with the goal of revealing macro patterns of interest. StructMatrix combines algorithmic structure detection and adjacency matrix visualization to present cardinality, distribution, and relationship features of the structures found in a given graph. We performed experiments in real, planetary-scale graphs with up to millions of nodes and over 10 billion edges. StructMatrix revealed that graphs of high relevance (e.g., Web, Wikipe...

  15. Lack of correlation between environmental or biological indicators of benzene exposure at parts per billion levels and micronuclei induction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco S. Violante; Giovanni Sanguinetti; Anna Barbieri; Antonio Accorsi; Stefano Mattioli; Rossano Cesari; Carmela Fimognari; Patrizia Hrelia

    2003-01-01

    Despite growing concern for possible carcinogenic effects associated with environmental benzene exposure in the general population, few studies exist at parts per billion (ppb) levels. We investigated the existence of a relationship between airborne\\/biological measurements of benzene exposure (i.e., personal\\/area sampling and unmodified urinary benzene\\/trans,trans-muconic acid; t,t-MA) and micronuclei induction (cytochalasin B technique) among exposed chemical laboratory workers (n=47) and

  16. Disappearance of stellar debris disks around main-sequence starsafter 400 million years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Habing; C. Dominik; M. Jourdain de Muizon; M. F. Kessler; R. J. Laureijs; K. Leech; L. Metcalfe; A. Salama; R. Siebenmorgen; N. Trams

    1999-01-01

    Almost 5 billion years ago, the Sun formed in a local contraction of a cloud of molecular gas. A rotating disk of gas and dust is believed to have fed material onto the proto-Sun for the first few million years of its life, and to have formed the planets, comets and other Solar System objects. Similar disks, but with less

  17. Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Jai Ram; He, Yan; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Walters, William A; Ursell, Luke K; Gibbons, Sean M; Chase, John; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Clemente, Jose C; Gilbert, Jack A; Huse, Susan M; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory

    2014-01-01

    We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA) sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime) and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity). Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to "classic" open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, "classic" open-reference OTU clustering is often faster). We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons). To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of "classic" open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by "classic" open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME's uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository) that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced). Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in QIIME's OTU picking workflows and make recommendations on settings for these free parameters to optimize runtime without reducing the quality of the results. These optimized parameters can vastly decrease the runtime of uclust-based OTU picking in QIIME. PMID:25177538

  18. Concrete Pavement Performance and Research at the Minnesota Road Research Project - The First Ten Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Burnham

    The Minnesota Road Research (MnROAD) facility was constructed in the early 1990's to include fourteen plain jointed concrete pavement test sections. Nine of the test sections are interstate highway designs with design lives of 5 or 10 years. The other five test sections are low-volume road designs. With traffic loading beginning in 1994, the test sections have now experienced over

  19. Fourteen Ideas for Good Nutrition for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammartino, Peter

    1976-01-01

    This article was prepared as a starter for Ralph Nader's campaign for better nutrition in school cafeterias. The ideas suggested were not too costly and were designed to provide sound nutrition for students. (Editor/RK)

  20. FOURTEEN SECURITY LESSONS FROM ANTIPREDATOR BEHAVIOR

    E-print Network

    Blumstein, Daniel T.

    is power, whether it creates new ways to control a situation, or whether it simply explains the biological an economic approach when we study animals in natural settings to understand the evolution, diversity there are overwhelming benefits associated with them. We expect animals will make fundamental trade-offs in how

  1. Fourteen Ways to Fool Your Synchronizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ran Ginosar

    2003-01-01

    Transferring data between mutually asynchronous clock domains requires safe synchronization. However, the exact nature of synchronization sometimes eludes designers, and as a result synchronization circuits get \\

  2. Ptolemy's Almagest: Fourteen Centuries of Neglect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. S. Hetherington; C. A. Ronan

    1984-01-01

    Ptolemy's Almagest remained the ultimate in astronomical theory for more than a millennium. Yet Ptolemy's system contains internal inconsistencies so evident and disturbing as to raise the question of why the Copernican Revolution was so long delayed. Historical breaks in research in the Ptolemaic tradition, resulting in the interment and then the resurrection of that tradition, help to explain its

  3. Fourteen Points for Energy Conservation in Lighting 

    E-print Network

    Zekowski, G.

    1979-01-01

    Today, with spiraling costs, many designers choose lighting by selecting the least expensive components. As the sole design goal, this very often adds up to an expensive lighting system in terms of installed initial cost. The purpose of this report...

  4. The APPA Journey and RMA Fourteeners Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The APPA journey represents a continuum through one's career in educational facilities management. Early in one's career, APPA can assist with professional development such as the Facilities Drive-In Workshop, the Supervisor's Toolkit, the APPA Institute for Facilities Management, and the APPA Leadership Academy. APPA provides for both…

  5. Educational Cooperation: An Examination of Fourteen Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepchenske, George L.

    The development of consortia and cooperative educational services in higher education in response to financial pressures and social and governmental influences is examined. Consortia or cooperatives may be multi-channeled efforts, with each member struggling to advance its own self-interest at the cost of united goals and efforts, or thriving…

  6. Reconstructing Environmental Changes over the Last 3 Million Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Mannion

    Ever since the Earth's creation, some 5 billion years ago, environmental change has been a defi ning characteristic of our\\u000a planet. At fi rst these changes were purely inorganic in nature: weathering and erosion of the Earth's surface, and tectonic\\u000a processes beneath the crust. As life forms began to develop, though, a new, organic infl uence came to be exerted

  7. White Light Demonstration of One Hundred Parts per Billion Irradiance Suppression in Air by New Starshade Occulters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinton, Douglas B.; Cash, Webster C.; Gleason, Brian; Kaiser, Michael J.; Levine, Sara A.; Lo, Amy S.; Schindhelm, Eric; Shipley, Ann F.

    2007-01-01

    A new mission concept for the direct imaging of exo-solar planets called the New Worlds Observer (NWO) has been proposed. The concept involves flying a meter-class space telescope in formation with a newly-conceived, specially-shaped, deployable star-occulting shade several meters across at a separation of some tens of thousands of kilometers. The telescope would make its observations from behind the starshade in a volume of high suppression of incident irradiance from the star around which planets orbit. The required level of irradiance suppression created by the starshade for an efficacious mission is of order 0.1 to 10 parts per billion in broadband light. This paper discusses the experimental setup developed to accurately measure the suppression ratio of irradiance produced at the null position behind candidate starshade forms to these levels. It also presents results of broadband measurements which demonstrated suppression levels of just under 100 parts per billion in air using the Sun as a light source. Analytical modeling of spatial irradiance distributions surrounding the null are presented and compared with photographs of irradiance captured in situ behind candidate starshades.

  8. Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSCIA and CSHIA) has been increasingly used to study the source, transport, and bioremediation of organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. In natural aquatic systems, dissolved contaminants represent the bioavailable fraction that generally is of the greatest toxicological significance. However, determining the isotopic ratios of waterborne hydrophobic contaminants in natural waters is very challenging because of their extremely low concentrations (often at sub-parts ber billion, or even lower). To acquire sufficient quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 10 ng/L concentration for CSHIA, more than 1000 L of water must be extracted. Conventional liquid/liquid or solid-phase extraction is not suitable for such large volume extractions. We have developed a new approach that is capable of efficiently sampling sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons for CSIA. We use semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants from polluted waters and then recover the compounds in the laboratory for CSIA. In this study, we demonstrate, under a variety of experimental conditions (different concentrations, temperatures, and turbulence levels), that SPMD-associated processes do not induce C and H isotopic fractionations. The applicability of SPMD-CSIA technology to natural systems is further demonstrated by determining the ??13C and ??D values of petroleum hydrocarbons present in the Pawtuxet River, RI. Our results show that the combined SPMD-CSIA is an effective tool to investigate the source and fate of hydrophobic contaminants in the aquatic environments.

  9. Light Years

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-08-09

    This video segment adapted from Shedding Light on Science describes how astronomical distances can be measured in units of light-years, and how the finite speed of light allows astronomers to study how the universe looked long ago.

  10. Life under the Spending Caps: The Clinton Fiscal Year 1995 Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Paul; Greenstein, Robert

    The stage for the introduction of the Clinton Administration's fiscal year 1995 budget was largely set by the passage of the budget reconciliation bill signed into law in August 1993. In developing the budget, the Administration had to come up with enough spending cuts to meet the spending caps--as well as billions of dollars in additional cuts to…

  11. An Evaluation of the Initial Year of Zero-Base Budgeting in the Federal Government

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virendra S. Sherlekar; Burton V. Dean

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) process during the initial year of its implementation in the Federal Government. The evaluation includes ten Departments and six agencies of the Federal Government representing 74 percent of the total budget authority of 560 billion dollars. It is based on the information received in

  12. After more than 10 years of Gulf War veteran medical evaluations, what have we learned?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory C Gray; Gary D Gackstetter; Han K Kang; John T Graham; Ken C Scott

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1991 Gulf War, more than 10 years and $1 billion dollars of health evaluations and research have been invested in understanding illnesses among Gulf War veterans. We examined the extensive published healthcare utilization data in an effort to summarize what has been learned. Using multiple search techniques, data as of June 2003 from four different national Gulf War

  13. Galaxy Zoo: An independent look at the evolution of the bar fraction over the last eight billion years from HST-COSMOS

    E-print Network

    Melvin, Thomas; Lintott, Chris; Nichol, Robert C; Simmons, Brooke; Bamford, Steven P; Casteels, Kevin R V; Cheung, Edmond; Edmondson, Edward M; Fortson, Lucy; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A; Smith, Arfon M; Willett, Kyle W

    2014-01-01

    We measure the redshift evolution of the bar fraction in a sample of 2380 visually selected disc galaxies found in Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. The visual classifications used to identify both the disc sample and to indicate the presence of stellar bars were provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) project. We find that the overall bar fraction decreases by a factor of two, from 22+/-5% at z=0.4 (tlb = 4.2 Gyr) to 11+/-2% at z=1.0 (tlb = 7.8 Gyr), consistent with previous analysis. We show that this decrease, of the strong bar fraction in a volume limited sample of massive disc galaxies [stellar mass limit of log(Mstar/Msun) > 10.0], cannot be due to redshift dependent biases hiding either bars or disc galaxies at higher redshifts. Splitting our sample into three bins of mass we find that the decrease in bar fraction is most prominent in the highest mass bin, while the lower mass discs in our sample show a more modest evolution. We also include a...

  14. NEW VIEW of the young earth covered in oceans of liquid water as early as 4.4 billion years ago

    E-print Network

    Carlson, Anders

    and even vaporizing on contact. Early on, dense iron sank out of the magma oceans to form the metallic core into a crust, before continents could form, be- fore the dense, steamy atmosphere could pool as liquid water, the thickening layer of consolidated rock would have insulated the exterior from the high temperatures deep

  15. LoCuSS: THE STEADY DECLINE AND SLOW QUENCHING OF STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTER GALAXIES OVER THE LAST FOUR BILLION YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Egami, E.; Rawle, T. D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Smith, G. P.; Sanderson, A. J. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Babul, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-0014 Helsinki (Finland); Merluzzi, P.; Busarello, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Okabe, N., E-mail: cphaines@as.arizona.edu [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    We present an analysis of the levels and evolution of star formation activity in a representative sample of 30 massive galaxy clusters at 0.15 < z < 0.30 from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey, combining wide-field Spitzer/MIPS 24 ?m data with extensive spectroscopy of cluster members. The specific SFRs of massive (M > or approx. 10{sup 10} M{sub ?}) star-forming cluster galaxies within r{sub 200} are found to be systematically ?28% lower than their counterparts in the field at fixed stellar mass and redshift, a difference significant at the 8.7? level. This is the unambiguous signature of star formation in most (and possibly all) massive star-forming galaxies being slowly quenched upon accretion into massive clusters, their star formation rates (SFRs) declining exponentially on quenching timescales in the range 0.7-2.0 Gyr. We measure the mid-infrared Butcher-Oemler effect over the redshift range 0.0-0.4, finding rapid evolution in the fraction (f{sub SF}) of massive (M{sub K} < – 23.1) cluster galaxies within r{sub 200} with SFRs > 3 M{sub ?} yr{sup –1}, of the form f{sub SF}?(1 + z){sup 7.6±1.1}. We dissect the origins of the Butcher-Oemler effect, revealing it to be due to the combination of a ?3 × decline in the mean specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies since z ? 0.3 with a ?1.5 × decrease in number density. Two-thirds of this reduction in the specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies is due to the steady cosmic decline in the specific SFRs among those field galaxies accreted into the clusters. The remaining one-third reflects an accelerated decline in the star formation activity of galaxies within clusters. The slow quenching of star formation in cluster galaxies is consistent with a gradual shut down of star formation in infalling spiral galaxies as they interact with the intracluster medium via ram-pressure stripping or starvation mechanisms. The observed sharp decline in star formation activity among cluster galaxies since z ? 0.4 likely reflects the increased susceptibility of low-redshift spiral galaxies to gas removal mechanisms as their gas surface densities decrease with time. We find no evidence for the build-up of cluster S0 bulges via major nuclear starburst episodes.

  16. Sulfur isotope mass-independent fractionation in impact deposits of the 3.2 billion-year-old Mapepe Formation, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zuilen, M. A.; Philippot, P.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Lepland, A.

    2014-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies have shown that atmospheric SO2 isotopologue self-shielding effects in the 190-220 nm region of the solar spectrum are the likely cause for mass independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S-MIF). The main products of this photochemical reaction - SO3 and S0 - typically define a compositional array of ca. ?33S/?34S = 0.06-0.14. This is at odds with the generally observed trend in Archean sulfides, which broadly defines an array of ca. ?33S/?34S = 0.9. Various explanations have been proposed, including a diminution of ?34S caused by chemical and biogenic mass-dependent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S-MDF), mixing with photolytic products produced during felsic volcanic events, or partial blocking of the low-wavelength part of the spectrum due to the presence of reduced atmospheric gases or an organic haze. Early in Earth history large meteorite impacts would have ejected dust and gas clouds into the atmosphere that shielded solar radiation and affected global climate. It is thus likely that at certain time intervals of high meteorite flux the atmosphere was significantly perturbed, having an effect on atmospheric photochemistry and possibly leaving anomalous sulfur isotopic signatures in the rock record. Here we describe the sulfur isotopic signatures in sulfides of spherule beds S2, S3 and S4 of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. In particular, in spherule bed S3 - and to a lesser extent S4 - a trend of ca. ?33S/?34S = 0.23 is observed that closely follows the expected trend for SO2-photolysis in the 190-220 nm spectral range. This suggests that an impact dust cloud (deposited as spherule beds), which sampled the higher region of the atmosphere, specifically incorporated products of SO2 photolysis in the 190-220 nm range, and blocked photochemical reactions at higher wavelengths (250-330 nm band). By implication, the generally observed Archean trend appears to be the result of mixing of different MIF-S sources arising from a variety of photochemical reactions that took place in the lower part of the atmosphere.

  17. Field and Geochemical Characteristics of the ca. 3.0-billion-years-old Ivisaartoq Greenstone Belt, West Greenland: Geodynamic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, A.

    2005-12-01

    The 3.0 Ga Ivisaartoq greenstone belt is the largest Mesoarchean (~3075 Ma) supracrustal assemblage in southern West Greenland. The belt is composed mainly of pillow basalts ultramafic flows, gabbros, and serpentinites. Pillow basalts display well-preserved core and rim structures. Many pillow cores have cavities at the centre, which are filled mainly with diopside-quartz-plagioclase-epidote assemblage, indicating Mesoarchean seafloor hydrothermal alteration processes. Pillow cores and gabbros have pre-alteration ocelli structures, composed predominantly of plagioclase-quartz assemblage. These ocelli structures are morphologically and mineralogically similar to those found in other Archean belts. Accordingly, they have been interpreted to represent immiscible liquids. The diopside-quartz-plagioclase-epidote metasomatic assemblage in the pillow cores is interpreted as metamorphosed epidosite formed under upper-greenschist to lower-amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions during hydrothermal alteration of the Mesoarchean oceanic crust. Early seafloor hydrothermal alteration was followed by amphibolite facies regional metamorphism, characterized by diopside-garnet-hornblende-plagioclase-quartz-vesuvianite calc-silicate metasomatic assemblage. Given the preservation of primary ocelli-matrix texture in the outer pillow cores, they are considered as the least altered sections of the pillow basalts. On chondrite- and primitive mantle-normalized diagrams, these pillow cores have the following trace element characteristics: (1) moderately enriched LREE patterns; (2) near-flat HREE patterns; and (3) variably negative Nb, Ti, and Zr anomalies. Ultramafic flows, with picritic geochemical characteristics, and gabbros also have similar trace element characteristics, consistent with a subduction zone geochemical signature. Given the observations that epidosites and subduction zone geochemical signatures have been identified in several Phanerozoic ophiolites, the Ivisaartoq belt is interpreted as the crustal section of a dismembered Mesoarchean supra-subduction zone ophiolite.

  18. Molecular Gas in a Submillimeter Galaxy at z=4.5: Evidence for a Major Merger at 1 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    E-print Network

    Schinnerer, E; Capak, P; Martinez-Sansigre, A; Scoville, N Z; Smolcic, V; Taniguchi, Y; Yun, M S; Bertoldi, F; Le Fèvre, O; de Ravel, L

    2008-01-01

    We report the detection of CO molecular line emission in the z=4.5 millimeter-detected galaxy COSMOS_J100054+023436 (hereafter: J100+0234) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI) and NRAO's Very Large Array (VLA). The CO(4-3) line as observed with PdBI has a full line width of ~1000 km/s, an integrated line flux of 0.66 Jy km/s, and a CO luminosity of 3.2e10 L_sun. Comparison to the 3.3sigma detection of the CO(2-1) line emission with the VLA suggests that the molecular gas is likely thermalized to the J=4-3 transition level. The corresponding molecular gas mass is 2.6e10 M_sun assuming an ULIRG-like conversion factor. From the spatial offset of the red- and blue-shifted line peaks and the line width a dynamical mass of 1.1e11 M_sun is estimated assuming a merging scenario. The molecular gas distribution coincides with the rest-frame optical and radio position of the object while being offset by 0.5'' from the previously detected Ly$\\alpha$ emission. J1000+0234 exhibits very typical properties fo...

  19. Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4–3.5 billion years ago

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Cnossen; Jorge Sanz-Forcada; Fabio Favata; Olivier Witasse; Tanja Zegers; Neil F. Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Solar X-ray and UV radiation (0.1–320 nm) received at Earth's surface is an important aspect of the circumstances under which life formed on Earth. The quantity that is received depends on two main variables: the emission of radiation by the young Sun and its extinction through absorption and scattering by the Earth's early atmosphere. The spectrum emitted by the Sun

  20. 1.8 billion years of fluid-crust interaction: A zircon oxygen isotope record for the lower crust, western Churchill Province, Canadian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petts, Duane C.; Moser, Desmond E.; Longstaffe, Frederick J.; Davis, William J.; Stern, Richard A.

    2014-04-01

    The western Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield experienced a prolonged and complex formation history (ca. 4.04 to 1.70 Ga), with evidence for multiple episodes of orogenesis and regional magmatic activity. Here we report on the oxygen isotopic compositions of garnet and zircon recovered from lower crustal xenoliths, which have U-Pb ages between ca. 3.5 and 1.7 Ga. Overall, zircon from four metabasite xenoliths from the Rankin Inlet sample suite have ?18O values ranging from + 5.5 to + 8.6‰. Zircon from three metatonalite/anorthosite xenoliths and five metabasite xenoliths from the Repulse Bay sample suite have ?18O values of + 5.6 to + 8.3‰. High ?18O values (> + 6.0‰) for the oldest igneous zircon cores (ca. 3.5 Ga and 3.0-2.6 Ga) indicate that their metatonalite/anorthosite protolith magmas were generated from, or had assimilated, supracrustal rocks that interacted previously with surface-derived fluids. Igneous zircon cores (ca. 2.9-2.6 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith have ?18O values of + 5.6 to + 6.4‰, which suggests a formation from a mantle-derived basaltic/gabbroic magma. Metamorphic zircon cores (ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith commonly have ?18O values between + 6.0 and + 6.3‰, which is indicative of a basalt/gabbro protolith and localized reworking of the lower crust caused by regional-scale plate convergence. The wide range of ?18O values (+ 5.5 to + 8.3‰) for ca. 1.75-1.70 Ga metamorphic zircon rims (identified in all xenoliths) indicates regional transient heating and reworking of mantle- and supracrustal-derived crust, induced by magmatic underplating along the crust-mantle boundary.

  1. Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4-3.5 billion years ago

    E-print Network

    I. Cnossen; J. Sanz-Forcada; F. Favata; O. Witasse; T. Zegers; N. F. Arnold

    2007-02-20

    Solar X-ray and UV radiation (0.1-320 nm) received at Earth's surface is an important aspect of the circumstances under which life formed on Earth. The quantity that is received depends on two main variables: the emission of radiation by the young Sun and its extinction through absorption and scattering by the Earth's early atmosphere. The spectrum emitted by the Sun when life formed, between 4 and 3.5 Ga, was modeled here, including the effects of flares and activity cycles, using a solar-like star that has the same age now as the Sun had 4-3.5 Ga. Atmospheric extinction was calculated using the Beer-Lambert law, assuming several density profiles for the atmosphere of the Archean Earth. We found that almost all radiation with a wavelength shorter than 200 nm is attenuated effectively, even by very tenuous atmospheres. Longer-wavelength radiation is progressively less well attenuated, and its extinction is more sensitive to atmospheric composition. Minor atmospheric components, such as methane, ozone, water vapor, etc., have only negligible effects, but changes in CO2 concentration can cause large differences in surface flux. Differences due to variability in solar emission are small compared to this. In all cases surface radiation levels on the Archean Earth were several orders of magnitude higher in the 200-300 nm wavelength range than current levels in this range. That means that any form of life that might have been present at Earth's surface 4-3.5 Ga must have been exposed to much higher quantities of damaging radiation than at present.

  2. Toward constraining the long-term reversing behavior of the geodynamo: A new “Maya” superchron ˜1 billion years ago from the magnetostratigraphy of the Kartochka Formation (southwestern Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallet, Yves; Pavlov, Vladimir; Halverson, Galen; Hulot, Gauthier

    2012-07-01

    We present new magnetostratigraphic data obtained from the Late Mesoproterozoic (˜1 Ga) Kartochka Formation in the East Angara terrane of the Yenisey Ridge region (southwestern Siberian platform). A ˜200 m-thick section encompassing the carbonate Kartochka Formation was densely sampled and another more limited outcrop several kilometers away was sampled in order to conduct a paleomagnetic fold test between the two sites. Paleomagnetic analyses revealed the existence of two magnetization components. A low unblocking temperature component, which likely has a viscous origin, was first isolated below 200 °C. A characteristic component, carried either by magnetite or by a mixture of magnetite and hematite, was then isolated in the medium to high temperature range (up to 565-585 °C or 680 °C). The hematite-bearing component has a shallower inclination than the magnetite component showing that magnetite was less sensitive to flattening. A positive paleomagnetic fold test was obtained between the two studied sections indicating that the characteristic magnetization was likely acquired during or very soon after sediment deposition. This primary origin was further verified by comparison between the paleomagnetic poles derived for the Kartochka Formation and other late Mesoproterozoic Siberian sections. All data from the Kartochka Formation contain a single magnetic polarity assumed to be normal. This long normal polarity interval is consistent with the polarity zonation previously determined from magnetostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data from the Siberian Uchur Maya region. The new data fortify evidence of a normal polarity superchron spanning the ˜1000 Ma old Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary, which we propose to call the Maya superchron. These data confirm the occurrence of sharp transitions between a frequently reversing regime and a non-reversing regime of the geodynamo. This behavior, also observed in other regions, may represent a consistent property of the Proterozoic geomagnetic field. Together with changes in the amount of time spent in the superchron regime, they may testify to a different field behavior during the late Precambrian than during the Phanerozoic. This difference could reflect a stronger influence of the heterogeneous heat flux patterns at the core-mantle boundary during the Precambrian, possibly as a consequence of the inner core not yet being nucleated at this time.

  3. Sedimentology of the Onverwacht Group (3.4 Billion Years), Transvaal, South Africa, and Its Bearing on the Characteristics and Evolution of the Early Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Lowe; L. P. Knauth

    1977-01-01

    Strata of the upper part of the Onverwacht Group (3.4 b.y.), Transvaal, South Africa, are composed mainly of chert representing silicified quartz-poor volcaniclastic detritus. Layers of carbonate, silicified carbonate, volcaniclastic debris, and possible primary silica make up minor parts of most sections. Deposition took place largely in shallow water, but no evidence was found to indicate whether the water was

  4. Galaxy Zoo: an independent look at the evolution of the bar fraction over the last eight billion years from HST-COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, Thomas; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Chris; Nichol, Robert C.; Simmons, Brooke; Bamford, Steven P.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Cheung, Edmond; Edmondson, Edward M.; Fortson, Lucy; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Smith, Arfon M.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2014-03-01

    We measure the redshift evolution of the bar fraction in a sample of 2380 visually selected disc galaxies found in Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. The visual classifications used both to identify the disc sample and to indicate the presence of stellar bars were provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) project. We find that the overall bar fraction decreases by a factor of 2, from 22 ± 5 per cent at z = 0.4 (tlb = 4.2 Gyr) to 11 ± 2 per cent at z = 1.0 (tlb = 7.8 Gyr), consistent with previous analysis. We show that this decrease, of the strong bar fraction in a volume limited sample of massive disc galaxies [stellar mass limit of log (M?/M?) ? 10.0], cannot be due to redshift-dependent biases hiding either bars or disc galaxies at higher redshifts. Splitting our sample into three bins of mass we find that the decrease in bar fraction is most prominent in the highest mass bin, while the lower mass discs in our sample show a more modest evolution. We also include a sample of 98 red disc galaxies. These galaxies have a high bar fraction (45 ± 5 per cent), and are missing from other COSMOS samples which used SED fitting or colours to identify high-redshift discs. Our results are consistent with a picture in which the evolution of massive disc galaxies begins to be affected by slow (secular) internal process at z ˜ 1. We discuss possible connections of the decrease in bar fraction to the redshift, including the growth of stable disc galaxies, mass evolution of the gas content in disc galaxies, as well as the mass-dependent effects of tidal interactions.

  5. GALAXY EVOLUTION. An over-massive black hole in a typical star-forming galaxy, 2 billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Urry, C Megan; Civano, Francesca; Rosario, David J; Elvis, Martin; Schawinski, Kevin; Suh, Hyewon; Bongiorno, Angela; Simmons, Brooke D

    2015-07-10

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are generally thought to coevolve, so that the SMBH achieves up to about 0.2 to 0.5% of the host galaxy mass in the present day. The radiation emitted from the growing SMBH is expected to affect star formation throughout the host galaxy. The relevance of this scenario at early cosmic epochs is not yet established. We present spectroscopic observations of a galaxy at redshift z = 3.328, which hosts an actively accreting, extremely massive BH, in its final stages of growth. The SMBH mass is roughly one-tenth the mass of the entire host galaxy, suggesting that it has grown much more efficiently than the host, contrary to models of synchronized coevolution. The host galaxy is forming stars at an intense rate, despite the presence of a SMBH-driven gas outflow. PMID:26160942

  6. A TALE OF DWARFS AND GIANTS: USING A z = 1.62 CLUSTER TO UNDERSTAND HOW THE RED SEQUENCE GREW OVER THE LAST 9.5 BILLION YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnick, Gregory H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Malott room 1082, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Tran, Kim-Vy; Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Momcheva, Ivelina [Observatories, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Willmer, Christopher, E-mail: grudnick@ku.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We study the red sequence in a cluster of galaxies at z = 1.62 and follow its evolution over the intervening 9.5 Gyr to the present day. Using deep YJK{sub s} imaging with the HAWK-I instrument on the Very Large Telescope, we identify a tight red sequence and construct its rest-frame i-band luminosity function (LF). There is a marked deficit of faint red galaxies in the cluster that causes a turnover in the LF. We compare the red-sequence LF to that for clusters at z < 0.8, correcting the luminosities for passive evolution. The shape of the cluster red-sequence LF does not evolve between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 but at z < 0.6 the faint population builds up significantly. Meanwhile, between z = 1.62 and 0.6 the inferred total light on the red sequence grows by a factor of {approx}2 and the bright end of the LF becomes more populated. We construct a simple model for red-sequence evolution that grows the red sequence in total luminosity and matches the constant LF shape at z > 0.6. In this model the cluster accretes blue galaxies from the field whose star formation is quenched and who are subsequently allowed to merge. We find that three to four mergers among cluster galaxies during the 4 Gyr between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 match the observed LF evolution between the two redshifts. The inferred merger rate is consistent with other studies of this cluster. Our result supports the picture that galaxy merging during the major growth phase of massive clusters is an important process in shaping the red-sequence population at all luminosities.

  7. Years ago

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen V. H. Parshall

    1991-01-01

    It is now 60 years since Kurt G6del published his remarkable discoveries on incompleteness. These discoveries changed the face of mathematical logic and, in large measure, discredited two of the three philosophies of mathematics that were prominent at the time: Hilbert's formalism and Russell's logicism. Hilbert's program was discredited by showing that to prove an axiom system consistent requires a

  8. Commodifying Fido: pets as status symbols 

    E-print Network

    Plemons, April

    2009-05-15

    -thirds of American households have pets while only one-third have children (Gettleman, 2008). American pet owners spent almost twenty billion dollars on pet food alone last year (APPMA, 2008), while only typically spending fourteen billion on baby food and baby... consumption is concerned primarily with the ostentatious display of wealth motivated by a desire to impress others with the ability to pay particularly high prices for prestigious products" (Mason, viii); this behavior would allow one to buy their way...

  9. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: Health Impact after 8 Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Ottesen; Pamela J. Hooper; Mark Bradley; Gautam Biswas

    2008-01-01

    Background: In its first 8 years, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) achieved an unprecedentedly rapid scale-up: .1.9 billion treatments with anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine) were provided via yearly mass drug administration (MDA) to a minimum of 570 million individuals living in 48 of the 83 initially identified LF-endemic countries. Methodology: To assess the health impact

  10. Global Collaboration defines IBM's Supply Chain vision Who does a global corporation, with a multi-billion dollar budget, ask when it wants to determine the future

    E-print Network

    Global Collaboration defines IBM's Supply Chain vision Who does a global corporation, with a multi and Intelligent. Data will flow from all points in the Supply Chain, enabling companies to collaborate in real-billion dollar budget, ask when it wants to determine the future direction of its Supply Chain? In the case

  11. Microsoft is taking Big Data to a billion people by providing easy access to all data, big or small, and enabling end users to analyze

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Microsoft is taking Big Data to a billion people by providing easy access to all data, big or small to glean business insights. Microsoft Big Data Solution Brief #12;Key Customer Challenges Managing data experience that simplifies the complexity of Apache Hadoop. The Microsoft Big Data Solution A modern data

  12. Malthus is still wrong: we can feed a world of 9-10 billion, but only by reducing food demand.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete

    2014-10-16

    In 1798, Thomas Robert Malthus published 'An essay on the principle of population' in which he concluded that: 'The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.' Over the following century he was criticised for underestimating the potential for scientific and technological innovation to provide positive change. Since then, he has been proved wrong, with a number of papers published during the past few decades pointing out why he has been proved wrong so many times. In the present paper, I briefly review the main changes in food production in the past that have allowed us to continue to meet ever growing demand for food, and I examine the possibility of these same innovations delivering food security in the future. On the basis of recent studies, I conclude that technological innovation can no longer be relied upon to prove Malthus wrong as we strive to feed 9-10 billion people by 2050. Unless we are prepared to accept a wide range of significant, undesirable environmental consequences, technology alone cannot provide food security in 2050. Food demand, particularly the demand for livestock products, will need to be managed if we are to continue to prove Malthus wrong into the future. PMID:25319456

  13. Small increases to employer premiums could shift millions of people to the exchanges and add billions to federal outlays.

    PubMed

    Austin, Daniel R; Luan, Anna; Wang, Louise L; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2013-09-01

    The Affordable Care Act will expand insurance coverage to more than twenty-five million Americans, partly through subsidized private insurance available from newly created health insurance exchanges for people with incomes of 133-400 percent of the federal poverty level. The act will alter the financial incentive structure for employers and influence their decisions on whether or not to offer their employees coverage. These decisions, in turn, will affect federal outlays and revenues through several mechanisms. We model the sensitivity of federal costs for the insurance exchange coverage provision of the Affordable Care Act using the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data set. We assess revenues and subsidy outlays for premiums and cost sharing for individuals purchasing private insurance through exchanges. Our findings show that changing theoretical premium contribution levels by just $100 could induce 2.25 million individuals to transition to exchanges and increase federal outlays by $6.7 billion. Policy makers and analysts should pay especially careful attention to participation rates as the act's implementation continues. PMID:24019356

  14. Lab 3: Population --People at Risk In recent years, the human population of planet Earth has increased dramatically.

    E-print Network

    Chen, Po

    as population planning, the storage of nuclear waste and the radiometric dating. To describe population growth 1 Lab 3: Population -- People at Risk In recent years, the human population of planet Earth has increased dramatically. The world's population was estimated to be 5.6 billion in 1994

  15. Federal Statistics. A Special Report on the Statistical Programs and Activities of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC. Statistical Policy Div.

    This report on the statistical programs and activities of the Federal Government covers some 70 Federal agencies or separate departmental units budgeting at least $500,000 in any of fiscal years 1985-87. The budgets of agencies whose sole mission is statistical represent less than half the $1.6 billion that the Federal Government will spend on…

  16. Federal Statistics. A Special Report on the Statistical Programs and Activities of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC. Statistical Policy Div.

    The Federal Government will spend an estimated $1.5 billion in fiscal year 1986 for the production and publication of statistical data. This estimate represents the expected obligations for statistical activities of over 70 agencies or departmental units reporting outlays of at least $500,000 for such activities in their budgets for any of fiscal…

  17. 53 Persei Observations, 14 Years of Persistence Rewarded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukes, R. J., Jr.; Mills, L. R.

    2004-12-01

    We report the analysis of fourteen years of observations of the non-radially pulsating star, 53 Persei, obtained with the Four-College Consortium Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT). We previously discussed analyses of four (AAS 185th meeting, #80.07, 1994) and ten seasons (AAS 197th meeting, #46.11, 2000) respectively. In this paper we present a summary of the analysis of the entire fourteen seasons of data. We have eliminated observations not passing various observational checks that have been devised to eliminate APT observations obtained under non-photometric conditions. Our current data set runs from the fall of 1990 through the spring of 2004. Our analysis of these observations shows that the two frequencies (0.46 c d-1 and 0.59 c d-1) identified by Smith, et. al. (Ap. J. 282, 226, 1984) and confirmed by Huang, et. al. (Ap. J. 431, 850, 1994) are present. In addition to the four other frequencies we earlier reported we now extend our list to eleven frequencies. Five of these are apparently combination terms. The complete list is f1=0.4612 c d-1, f2=0.5939 c d-1, f3=0.4715 c d -1, f4=0.5689 c d-1, f5=0.2593 c d-1, f6=0.6636 c d-1, f1+f2=1.05517 c d -1, 2f5=0.5186 c d-1, f1+f4 =0.9328 c d-1, f1 +f2+f5 = 1.31 c d-1, and f4-2f5=0.05 c d-1. Some of the combination terms are stronger than some of the main frequencies. For terms of sufficient strength to permit adequate phase determination their position on the amplitude ratio versus phase difference plot for Stromgren photometry from the models of Townsend (MNRAS, 330, 855, 2002) indicate that these are all l =1, g-modes. Finally, the strongest frequencies show a significant (u-b) color variation. There is also some indication of either a frequency splitting in the strongest terms and/or a slight change in these frequencies over the fourteen years of observation. This work has been supported in part by NSF grants #AST86-16362, #AST91-15114, #AST95-28906, and #AST-0071260 to the College of Charleston.

  18. A Unique Case of Hematemesis in a 17-Year-Old Female

    PubMed Central

    Alsheik, Eva; Bhandari, Bhavik; Ringold, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Hemosuccus pancreaticus (HP) is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) that should be considered in a patient with a history of pancreatitis and GIB. A 17-year-old female presented with nausea followed by an episode of hematemesis. Fourteen weeks prior to presentation, she had 3 episodes of vomiting within a week. Six weeks prior to presentation, she developed abdominal pain and was diagnosed with acute idiopathic pancreatitis. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a cystic lesion arising in the gastroduodenal artery (GDA), and coil embolization was performed. There are no reported cases of HP in an adolescent with acute idiopathic pancreatitis.

  19. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program`s oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994.

  20. Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: Child Development, Molecular Genetics, andWhat to Do With Genes Once They Are Found (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental research are still relevant today. The problem lies with the phrase “once they are found”: It has been much more difficult than expected to identify genes responsible for the heritability of complex traits and common disorders, the so-called missing heritability problem. The present article considers reasons for the missing heritability problem and possible solutions. PMID:22469254

  1. A billion-fold range in acidity for the solvent-exposed amides of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Janet S; Hernández, Griselda; Lemaster, David M

    2008-06-10

    The exchange rates of the static solvent-accessible amide hydrogens of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin range from near the diffusion-limited rate to a billion-fold slower for the non-hydrogen-bonded Val 38 (eubacterial numbering). Hydrogen exchange directly monitors the kinetic acidity of the peptide nitrogen. Electrostatic solvation free energies were calculated by Poisson-Boltzmann methods for the individual peptide anions that form during the hydroxide-catalyzed exchange reaction to examine how well the predicted thermodynamic acidities match the experimentally determined kinetic acidities. With the exception of the Ile 12 amide, the differential exchange rate constant for each solvent-exposed amide proton that is not hydrogen bonded to a backbone carbonyl can be predicted within a factor of 6 (10 (0.78)) root-mean-square deviation (rmsd) using the CHARMM22 electrostatic parameter set and an internal dielectric value of 3. Under equivalent conditions, the PARSE parameter set yields a larger rmsd value of 1.28 pH units, while the AMBER parm99 parameter set resulted in a considerably poorer correlation. Either increasing the internal dielectric value to 4 or reducing it to a value of 2 significantly degrades the quality of the prediction. Assigning the excess charge of the peptide anion equally between the peptide nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen also reduces the correlation to the experimental data. These continuum electrostatic calculations were further analyzed to characterize the specific structural elements that appear to be responsible for the wide range of peptide acidities observed for these solvent-exposed amides. The striking heterogeneity in the potential at sites along the protein-solvent interface should prove germane to the ongoing challenge of quantifying the contribution that electrostatic interactions make to the catalytic acceleration achieved by enzymes. PMID:18479148

  2. River Protection Project FY 2000 Multi Year Work Plan Summary

    SciTech Connect

    LENSEIGNE, D.L.

    1999-08-27

    The River Protection Project (RPP), formerly the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), is a major part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP). The ORP was established as directed by Congress in Section 3139 of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The ORP was established to elevate the reporting and accountability for the RPP to the DOE-Headquarters level. This was done to gain Congressional visibility and obtain support for a major $10 billion high-level liquid waste vitrification effort.

  3. The VVV Survey of the Milky Way: first year results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minniti, D.; Clariá, J. J.; Saito, R. K.; Hempel, M.; Lucas, P. W.; Rejkuba, M.; Toledo, I.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Alonso-García, J.; Irwin, M. J.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Cross, N.; Ivanov, V. D.; Soto, M.; Dékány, I.; Angeloni, R.; Catelan, M.; Amôres, E. B.; Gurovich, S.; Emerson, J. P.; Lewis, J.; Hodgkin, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Zoccali, M.; Sale, S. E.; Barbá, R.; Barbuy, B.; Beamin, J. C.; Helminiak, K.; Borissova, J.; Folkes, S. L.; Gamen, R. C.; Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Chené, A.-N.; Alonso, M. V.; Gunthardt, G.; Hanson, M.; Kerins, E.; Kurtev, R.; Majaess, D.; Martín, E.; Masetti, N.; Mirabel, I. F.; Monaco, L.; Moni Bidin, C.; Padilla, N.; Rojas, A.; Pietrzynski, G.; Saviane, I.; Valenti, E.; Weidmann, W.; López-Corredoira, M.; Ahumada, A. V.; Aigrain, S.; Arias, J. I.; Bica, E.; Bandyopadhyay, R. M.; Baume, G.; Bedin, L. R.; Bonatto, C.; Bronfman, L.; Carraro, G.; Contreras, C.; Davis, C. J.; de Grijs, R.; Dias, B.; Drew, J. E.; Fariña, C.; Feinstein, C.; Fernández Lajús, E.; Gieren, W.; Goldman, B.; Gosling, A.; Hambly, N. C.; Hoare, M.; Jordán, A.; Kinemuchi, K.; Maccarone, T.; Merlo, D. C.; Mennickent, R. E.; Morelli, L.; Motta, V.; Palma, T.; Popescu, B.; Parisi, M. C.; Parker, Q.; Pignata, G.; Read, M. A.; Ruiz, M. T.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Schreiber, M. R.; Schröder, A. C.; Smith, M.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Stephens, A. W.; Walton, N. A.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Tamura, M.; Tappert, C.; Thompson, M. A.; Vanzi, L.

    The VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) is an ESO public near-IR variability survey that is scanning the Milky Way bulge and an adjacent section of the Galactic mid-plane. The survey will take 1929 hours of observations with the VISTA 4.1-m telescope during five years, covering a billion point sources across an area of 520 sqdeg, including 36 known globular clusters and more than 350 open clusters. The final product will be a deep IR atlas in five passbands (0.9 - 2.5 microns) and a catalogue of more than a million variable point sources.

  4. Betting big on doc ownership. 'Boutique' chain blasts off with $1 billion investment, plans for 10 hospitals, and hopes to create healthcare model of the future.

    PubMed

    Zigmond, Jessica

    2006-12-11

    A new "boutique" chain is roaring out the gate with $1 billion to spend and plans for 10 hospitals. University General Hospital Systems, which aspires to offer the feel of a luxury hotel in its facilities, is wading into the thick of some of the most controversial issues in healthcare. All but one of its hospitals are planned for states without CON laws, according to W.J. "Bill" Burk, left. PMID:17212213

  5. Better Survival of Total Knee Replacement in Patients Older Than 70 Years: A Prospective Study with 8 To 12 Years Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Merchan, E. Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern knee designs have popularized its use in younger patients due to its better performance. There remains uncertainty whether higher demands of these patients can affect implant survivorship. Purpose: To assess whether modern knee designs have provided similar results in patients younger than 70 years versus older patients. Methods: We included 203 consecutive patients (236 knees) who underwent knee replacement for osteoarthritis with a mean follow-up of 11.4 years (range: 8.8 to 12). The mean age was 70 years (range: 31 to 85). Knee replacements were stratified into two groups: 109 were younger than 70 years and 127 were older than 70 years (70 years of age is the mandatory retirement age). Results: There were no significant pre-operative differences between groups with regards to knee alignment, alpha or beta angles, knee score or function score. Fourteen implants were radiographically loose at last follow up visit. Groups were matched in terms of demographic data. We found that patients older than 70 years had significantly better mean survivorship at 12 years. (97% vs. 88%; P=0.010). Patients under 70 years presented with a higher rate of polyethylene wear which was further associated with radiolucent lines in the femur and tibia as well as the presence of osteolysis. There was also an association between migration and presence of osteolysis. Conclusions: Patients over 70 years old undergoing cemented total knee replacement for osteoarthritis showed better implant survivorship versus patients under 70 years old. PMID:25692165

  6. The federal medical loss ratio rule: implications for consumers in year 2.

    PubMed

    McCue, Michael J; Hall, Mark A

    2014-05-01

    For the past two years, the Affordable Care Act has required health insurers to pay out a minimum percentage of premiums in the form of medical claims or quality improvement expenses--known as a medical loss ratio (MLR). Insurers with MLRs below the minimum must rebate the difference to consumers. This issue brief finds that total rebates for 2012 were $513 million, half the amount paid out in 2011, indicating greater compliance with the MLR rule. Spending on quality improvement remained low, at less than 1 percent of premiums. Insurers continued to reduce their administrative and sales costs, such as brokers' fees, without increasing profit margins, for a total reduction in overhead of $1.4 billion. In the first two years under this regulation, total consumer benefits related to the medical loss ratio--both rebates and reduced overhead--amounted to more than $3 billion. PMID:24881098

  7. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

  8. Galaxy Evolution Explorer Celebrates Five Years in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    Since its launch five years ago, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has photographed hundreds of millions of galaxies in ultraviolet light. M106 is one of those galaxies, and from 22 light years away, it strikes a pose in blue and gold for this new commemorative portrait.

    The galaxy's extended arms are the blue filaments that curve around its edge, creating its outer disk. Tints of blue in M106's arms reveal hot, young massive stars. Traces of gold toward the center show an older stellar population and indicate the presence of obscuring dust.

    From 24 million light-years away, neighboring galaxy NGC 4248 also makes a memorable appearance, sitting just right of M106. The irregular galaxy looks like a yellow smudge, with a bluish-white bar in the center. The galaxy's outer golden glow indicates a population of older stars, while the blue central region shows a younger stellar demographic.

    Dwarf galaxy UGC 7365 emerges at the bottom center of this image, as a faint yellow smudge directly below M106. This galaxy is not forming any new stars, and looks much smaller than M106 despite being closer to Earth, at 14 million light-years away.

    Over the past five years, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has imaged half a billion objects over 27,000 square degrees of sky equivalent to an area that would be covered by 138,000 full moons. The telescope orbits Earth every 94 minutes and travels approximately 408,470 million miles per day. Its overarching question is: how do galaxies grow and change over 10 billion years of cosmic history?

    M106, also known as NGC 4258, is located in the constellation Canes Venatici. This image is a two-color composite, where far-ultraviolet light is blue, and near-ultraviolet light is red.

  9. An efficient and comprehensive method for drainage network extraction from DEM with billions of pixels using a size-balanced binary search tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Rui; Li, Tiejian; Huang, Yuefei; Li, Jiaye; Wang, Guangqian

    2015-06-01

    With the increasing resolution of digital elevation models (DEMs), computational efficiency problems have been encountered when extracting the drainage network of a large river basin at billion-pixel scales. The efficiency of the most time-consuming depression-filling pretreatment has been improved by using the O(NlogN) complexity least-cost path search method, but the complete extraction steps following this method have not been proposed and tested. In this paper, an improved O(NlogN) algorithm was proposed by introducing a size-balanced binary search tree (BST) to improve the efficiency of the depression-filling pretreatment further. The following extraction steps, including the flow direction determination and the upslope area accumulation, were also redesigned to benefit from this improvement. Therefore, an efficient and comprehensive method was developed. The method was tested to extract drainage networks of 31 river basins with areas greater than 500,000 km2 from the 30-m-resolution ASTER GDEM and two sub-basins with areas of approximately 1000 km2 from the 1-m-resolution airborne LiDAR DEM. Complete drainage networks with both vector features and topographic parameters were obtained with time consumptions in O(NlogN) complexity. The results indicate that the developed method can be used to extract entire drainage networks from DEMs with billions of pixels with high efficiency.

  10. Technical challenges, past and future, in implementing THERESA: a one million patient, one billion item computer-based patient record and decision support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Henry N.

    1996-02-01

    Challenges in implementing a computer-based patient record (CPR)--such as absolute data integrity, high availability, permanent on-line storage of very large complex records, rapid search times, ease of use, commercial viability, and portability to other hospitals and doctor's offices--are given along with their significance, the solutions, and their successes. The THERESA CPR has been used sine 1983 in direct patient care by a public hospital that is the primary care provider to 350,000 people. It has 1000 beds with 45,000 admissions and 750,000 outpatient visits annually. The system supports direct provider entry, including by physicians, of complete medical `documents'. Its demonstration site currently contains 1.1 billion data items on 1 million patients. It is also a clinical decision-aiding tool used for quality assurance and cost containment, for teaching as faculty and students can easily find and `thumb through' all cases similar to a particular study, and for research with over a billion medical items that can be searched and analyzed on-line within context and with continuity. The same software can also run in a desktop microcomputer managing a private practice physician's office.

  11. Foundation Year Aguideforstudents

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jim

    Foundation Year Aguideforstudents #12;2 Contents TheFoundationYears 5 Engineering/Physics/Geophysics FoundationYear 6 ScienceFoundationYear 7 EntryRequirements 8 Moneymatters 10 Universitylife 10 TheUniversity 10 Thecity 10 Accommodation 10 Studentaccommodation MontefioreHouse4.. #12;3 OurFoundation

  12. Foundation Year Aguideforinternationalstudents

    E-print Network

    Molinari, Marc

    Foundation Year Aguideforinternationalstudents #12;2 Contents TheFoundationYears 5 Engineering/Physics/Geophysics FoundationYear 6 ScienceFoundationYear 7 EntryRequirements 8 Moneymatters 10 Universitylife 10 The-termcommitmentandabig investmentinyourfuture.OurFoundationYearsare designedtoprepareyouforundergraduatestudyandto

  13. Six climate change-related events in the United States accounted for about $14 billion in lost lives and health costs.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Kim; Rotkin-Ellman, Miriam; Geballe, Linda; Max, Wendy; Solomon, Gina M

    2011-11-01

    The future health costs associated with predicted climate change-related events such as hurricanes, heat waves, and floods are projected to be enormous. This article estimates the health costs associated with six climate change-related events that struck the United States between 2000 and 2009. The six case studies came from categories of climate change-related events projected to worsen with continued global warming-ozone pollution, heat waves, hurricanes, infectious disease outbreaks, river flooding, and wildfires. We estimate that the health costs exceeded $14 billion, with 95 percent due to the value of lives lost prematurely. Actual health care costs were an estimated $740 million. This reflects more than 760,000 encounters with the health care system. Our analysis provides scientists and policy makers with a methodology to use in estimating future health costs related to climate change and highlights the growing need for public health preparedness. PMID:22068410

  14. Utilizing artificial neural networks in MATLAB to achieve parts-per-billion mass measurement accuracy with a fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Williams, D Keith; Kovach, Alexander L; Muddiman, David C; Hanck, Kenneth W

    2009-07-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry has the ability to realize exceptional mass measurement accuracy (MMA); MMA is one of the most significant attributes of mass spectrometric measurements as it affords extraordinary molecular specificity. However, due to space-charge effects, the achievable MMA significantly depends on the total number of ions trapped in the ICR cell for a particular measurement, as well as relative ion abundance of a given species. Artificial neural network calibration in conjunction with automatic gain control (AGC) is utilized in these experiments to formally account for the differences in total ion population in the ICR cell between the external calibration spectra and experimental spectra. In addition, artificial neural network calibration is used to account for both differences in total ion population in the ICR cell as well as relative ion abundance of a given species, which also affords mean MMA values at the parts-per-billion level. PMID:19362012

  15. 100 patient-years of ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Dudrick, S J; O'Donnell, J J; Englert, D M; Matheny, R G; Blume, E R; Nutt, R E; Hickey, M S; Barroso, A O

    1984-01-01

    More than 100 patient-years' experience has been acquired in the treatment of 133 patients with ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition (TPN) between May 1974 and December 1983. Indications for chronic or permanent home TPN include short bowel syndrome, malabsorption, scleroderma, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide syndrome. Indications for acute or temporary home TPN include Crohn's disease, malignancies, gastrointestinal fistulas, ulcerative colitis, anorexia nervosa, and numerous other disorders. Eighty-two patients in the acute group were treated primarily with percutaneously placed standard subclavian catheters and 51 patients in the chronic group have been treated thus far with implanted silicone rubber, Dacron-cuffed catheters for a cumulative total of 38,939 patient days. Of the 125 implanted catheters, 115 were placed in the superior vena cava and ten in the inferior vena cava for an average duration of 250 catheter-days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for more than 8 1/2 years. Catheter-related sepsis occurred 33 times with the implanted catheters, or once every 2.6 catheter-years. One hundred and fourteen temporary catheters were placed percutaneously in the superior vena cava via a subclavian vein for an average duration of 68 days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for 213 days. Catheter-related sepsis occurred seven times, equivalent to one episode per 3 catheter-years. Total catheter-related complications were quite infrequent and were directly related to duration of catheterization. They included venous thrombosis (12), clotted catheter (11), catheter failure or rupture (8), catheter compression (5) and inadvertent catheter removal (4). Twenty-six catheters were repaired or spliced in situ when the external segment was accidentally damaged or deteriorated secondary to long-term material fatigue. One remarkable patient has been maintained exclusively by TPN originally as an inpatient and subsequently as an outpatient for the entire 13 years of his life. Images Fig. 1. Figs. 2A and B. Figs. 3A-C. PMID:6428331

  16. Family Contribution Schedule for the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Program, 1981. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, on Examination of the Family Contribution Schedule for the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Program for the Academic Year 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities.

    Testimonies are presented from U.S. Senate hearings on the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Program (Pell grant program) for the 1982-1983 academic year. The proposed schedule is tied to an expected appropriation of $2.187 billion for Pell grants for fiscal year 1982. The administration's alternative involving no statutory changes would require…

  17. Fourteen Reasons Privacy Matters: A Multidisciplinary Review of Scholarly Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magi, Trina J.

    2011-01-01

    Librarians have long recognized the importance of privacy to intellectual freedom. As digital technology and its applications advance, however, efforts to protect privacy may become increasingly difficult. With some users behaving in ways that suggest they do not care about privacy and with powerful voices claiming that privacy is dead, librarians…

  18. Determining Work Culture Scores for Fourteen Developed Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belote, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As business relationships become increasingly global in nature, a new methodology for understanding the approach to work in various nations is needed. When involved in business dealings with international partners, it is crucial that the modern businessperson understand and empathize with the culture of the company with which he or she is working.…

  19. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Fourteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the journal includes these papers on contrastive linguistics: "Violations of Frege's Principle and Their Significance for Contrastive Semantics" (Dafydd Gibbon); "Writing the Contrastive Grammar of English and Dutch. The Treatment of Modal Notions" (Flor Aarts and Herman Wekker); "The Theory and Methodology of Speech Science and…

  20. Family Policy: Government and Families in Fourteen Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.; Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.

    This collection of articles by scholars and policy makers from 14 countries presents multidisciplinary perspectives on the formation of national policy on families. Central topics common to many of the articles include: (1) the differences between policies aimed at affecting the family and policies which have other aims but which do influence the…

  1. Light microscopic morphometry of the kidneys of fourteen avian species.

    PubMed Central

    Warui, C N

    1989-01-01

    Kidney volume and the volume proportions of the cortex, medulla, blood vessels larger than capillaries and ureter and ureteral ducts were investigated in 61 birds from 14 species representing passeriformes, psittaciformes, podicipediformes, anseriformes, galliformes, and columbiformes. The kidneys were fixed in situ by perfusion via their arterial supply. Kidney volume and body weight were strongly correlated (r = 0.991); the allometric function relating kidney volume (Vk) to body weight (W) was: Vk = 13.96W0.902. Histological sections of one kidney from each bird were analysed by point counting with a Zeiss integrating eyepiece to estimate the volume proportions and subsequently the absolute volumes of the main components of the kidney. The avian kidney was found to consist of a very large cortex (range 71-81%), a relatively small medulla (range 5-15%), blood vessels larger than capillaries (range 10-13%). For all the birds, the mean volume proportions of the kidney components were as follows: cortex, 77%; medulla, 10%; blood vessels larger than capillaries, 12%; ureter and ureteral ducts, 1%. The values for the absolute volume of each of the main components of the kidney were well correlated with body weight. The allometric equations and correlation coefficients (r) relating: (a) the volume of cortex (Vc) and the body weight (W) was Vc = 10.06W0.914, r = 0.991; (b) the volume of medulla (Vm) and body weight was Vm = 2.27W0.795, r = 0.974; (c) the volume of blood vessels larger than capillaries (Vb) and body weight was Vb = 1.76W0.894, r = 0.988. All the birds were divided into two groups in the following five sets: (a) passeriform and non-passeriform orders; (b) galliform and non-galliform orders; (c) small and large birds weighing less than and more than 500 g respectively; (d) aquatic and non-aquatic birds; (e) desert and non-desert birds. In the two groups of each set the differences between kidney volume per gram body weight and those between the respective percentage proportions of cortex, medulla and blood vessels larger than capillaries were assessed by Student's t-test. The differences between kidney volume per gram body weight were significant for all sets except desert and non-desert birds; those between the respective percentage proportions of cortex and medulla were significant for all sets; those between the percentage proportions of blood vessels larger than capillaries were significant only in desert and non-desert birds.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 1 PMID:2808116

  2. Fourteen Propositions about Educational Uses of Virtual Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, William; Jackson, Randy

    1999-01-01

    Offers propositions about virtual reality in education, ranging from costs to the psychological affordances of virtual environments (VEs). Some of the propositions arise from empirical studies of performance and cognition in VEs; others come from behavioral, cognitive, and human-factors research. Much of the research is from the Human Interface…

  3. Meeting the food, energy, and water demands of nine billion people: Will climate change add a new dimension?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change will add a new stress to our ability to produce food and supply water and energy for the expanding population. There is an emerging gap between the current production trends in food commodities around the world and the projected needs to meet the demands for the world population. This also translates into a water gap as well because it will require an increasing amount of water to produce this food. There is emerging evidence that the rising temperatures will reduce our potential for increasing food production because the optimal temperature for plant growth will be exceeded. This will be accompanied by an increase in water use because of the increasing rates of water use by plants in a warming environment. These factors will further increase the gap between supply and demand. To offset these impacts will require comprehensive adaptation strategies linking food production systems to climate change. Climate change will create scenarios with increasing variability in both the spatial and temporal components of precipitation and temperature. The spatial variability in precipitation being experienced around the world in the past five years will be expected to increase and impact both food and water supplies. These trends along with an increase in extreme events will further exacerbate the stress on water availability and ultimately on food and energy production. The nexus of food, energy, and water demands of an increasing world population is complex because of the interactions among climate parameters and these demands. Considering the interactions among these parameters adds even more complexity to how we have to consider adaptation strategies to ensure an adequate food supply and efficient use of water and energy. Structuring policy to develop potential solutions to ensure an increasing food supply and more efficient use of water and energy will require a more integrated approach to understanding the dynamics of food, water, and energy systems across the backdrop of a changing climate and increasing world population.

  4. Reconsidering Municipal Solid Waste as a Renewable Energy Feedstock For many years, opposition to the use of municipal solid waste (MSW) as an energy resource has been nearly universal among

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    annually,4 which could make a significant dent in annual United States gasoline consumption of 142 billion to produce electricity, the United States could have replaced approximately 3 to 6 percent of the electricityReconsidering Municipal Solid Waste as a Renewable Energy Feedstock July 2009 For many years

  5. Seasons of the Year

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Thompson

    2010-03-25

    What are the differences in the weather in each season? Students will identify the seasons of the year. Also, describing the seasonal changes in the weather. All 4 Season of the Year. Spring. Summer. Fall. Winter. ...

  6. NATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM DURING THE ARRA PERIOD: PROGRAM YEARS 2009-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Rose, Erin M [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL; Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the third major evaluation of the Program, encompassing program years 2009 to 2011. In this report, this period of time is referred to as the ARRA Period. This is a special period of time for the Program because the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 has allocated $5 billion of funding for the Program. In normal program years, WAP s annual appropriation is in the range of $200-250 million, supporting the weatherization of approximately 100,000 homes. With the addition of ARRA funding during these program years, the expectation is that weatherization activity will exceed 300,000 homes per year. In addition to saving energy and reducing low-income energy bills, expanded WAP funding is expected to stimulate the economy by providing new jobs in the weatherization field and allowing low-income households to spend more money on goods and services by spending less on energy.

  7. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbents for the removal of parts per billion levels of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Pillay, K; Cukrowska, E M; Coville, N J

    2009-07-30

    The adsorption capabilities for the removal of parts per billion levels (ppb) of hexavalent chromium by three adsorbents namely activated carbon, functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and unfunctionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes were investigated as a function of contact time, initial solution pH, initial Cr(VI) concentrations and the presence of competing anions. The unfunctionalized MWCNTs showed the highest adsorption capability with up to 98% of a 100 ppb Cr(VI) solution being adsorbed. Both functionalized and non-functionalized MWCNTs showed a superior adsorption capability to that of activated carbon. The removal of Cr(VI) was higher at lower pH. Furthermore, the uptake of Cr(VI) was hindered by the presence of the competing anions, Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-). Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms have been used to describe the Cr(VI) adsorption process. The major mechanisms for Cr(VI) removal have been identified as an ion exchange mechanism, intraparticle diffusion and electrostatic interactions. The adsorbed Cr(VI) could also be desorbed readily from the MWCNTs surface at high pH. PMID:19157694

  8. Seasons of the Year

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Dobbin

    2010-03-24

    How does each season of the year effect what you wear? 1. Review the seasons of the year Four Seasons Review 2. Play a winter weather clothes matching game Game 3. Use the next 4 pictures to fill out your chart. Winter Spring Summer Fall ...

  9. Final Year Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hubsch, Tristan [Howard University

    2013-06-20

    In the last years of this eighteen-year grant project, the research efforts have focused mostly on the study of off-shell representations of supersymmetry, both on the worldline and on the world- sheet, i.e., both in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and in supersymmetric field theory in 1+1-dimensional spacetime.

  10. Gap year volunteer tourism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Wearing; John Neil

    The valorisation of cross-cultural understanding and promotion of an ethic of global citizenship are at the forefront of the recent development and proliferation of international ‘gap year’ travel programs and policies. Governments and industry alike promote gap year travel uncritically as a guaranteed pathway to the development of inclusive ideologies associated with global citizenship. In this paper we examine how

  11. The year's new drugs.

    PubMed

    Graul, Ann I

    2004-01-01

    Inaugurated 16 years ago, this annual article provides the opportunity to present from both a historical and a research perspective those molecular entities and biologic drugs that were launched or approved in various countries for the first time during the past year. According to our records, 30 new chemical entities and biologic drugs and two diagnostic agents reached their first markets in 2003. Another six new products were approved for the first time in 2003 but were not launched before year-end. During the past year, Endocrine and Metabolic Drugs was the most active therapeutic group in terms of new launches, with six market introductions. The United States was again the most active market for new products, with a total of 20 new launches in 2003, constituting 66.6% of the total of new introductions for the year. PMID:14993934

  12. ALMA Imaging of Gas and Dust in a Galaxy Protocluster at Redshift 5.3: [C II] Emission in "Typical" Galaxies and Dusty Starbursts ?1 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Capak, Peter L.; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Smol?i?, Vernesa; Schinnerer, Eva; Yun, Min; Cox, Pierre; Bertoldi, Frank; Karim, Alexander; Yan, Lin

    2014-12-01

    We report interferometric imaging of [C II](2 P 3/2?2 P 1/2) and OH(2?1/2 J = 3/2?1/2) emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z = 5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [C II], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 ?m continuum emission toward the SMG. The [C II](2 P 3/2?2 P 1/2) emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 × 1010 M ?, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of ?SFR = 530 M ? yr-1 kpc-2. This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at ?SFR approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [C II] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [C II](2 P 3/2?2 P 1/2) emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ~95 kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not detected in the continuum, suggesting far-infrared SFRs of <18-54 M ? yr-1, consistent with a UV-based estimate of 22 M ? yr-1. The spectral energy distribution of these galaxies is inconsistent with nearby spiral and starburst galaxies, but resembles those of dwarf galaxies. This is consistent with expectations for young starbursts without significant older stellar populations. This suggests that these galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, "normal" star-forming galaxies at z > 5, showing that ALMA can detect the interstellar medium in "typical" galaxies in the very early universe.

  13. The oxygen isotope evolution of seawater: A critical review of a long-standing controversy and an improved geological water cycle model for the past 3.4 billion years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasmine B. D. Jaffrés; Graham A. Shields; Klaus Wallmann

    2007-01-01

    Controversy over the oxygen isotope composition of seawater began in the 1950's, since which time there has been no agreement over whether the oxygen isotope composition of the oceans has changed over time. Resolving this uncertainty would allow the ?18O values of demonstrably well preserved marine authigenic precipitates to be used to reconstruct surface climate trends back to early Archean

  14. The oxygen isotope evolution of seawater: A critical review of a long-standing controversy and an improved geological water cycle model for the past 3.4 billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffrés, Jasmine B. D.; Shields, Graham A.; Wallmann, Klaus

    2007-07-01

    Controversy over the oxygen isotope composition of seawater began in the 1950's, since which time there has been no agreement over whether the oxygen isotope composition of the oceans has changed over time. Resolving this uncertainty would allow the ?18O values of demonstrably well preserved marine authigenic precipitates to be used to reconstruct surface climate trends back to early Archean times and would help towards a more quantitative description of Earth's global water cycle on geological time scales. Isotopic studies of marine carbonate and silica reveal a trend of increasing ?18O values with decreasing age since the Archean. This trend has been interpreted by some to reflect a progressive increase in seawater ?18O through time; however, it is generally accepted on the basis of ophiolite studies and theoretical considerations that seawater ?18O cannot change significantly because of the buffering effects of ocean crust alteration at mid-ocean ridges. As a result many alternative interpretations have been proposed, including meteoric alteration; warmer paleoclimates; higher seawater pH; salinity stratification and biased sampling. Here we review these interpretations in the light of an updated compilation of marine carbonate ?18O from around the world, covering the Phanerozoic and Precambrian rock records. Recent models of the geological water cycle demonstrate how long-term trends in chemical weathering and hydrothermal circulation can indeed influence the O-isotope composition of the global ocean to the extent necessary to explain the carbonate ?18O trend, with residual variation attributed to climatic fluctuations and post-depositional alteration. We present the further development of an existing model of the geological water cycle. In the model, seawater ?18O increased from about - 13.3‰ to - 0.3‰ over a period of 3.4 Ga, with average surface temperatures fluctuating between 10 °C to 33 °C, which is consistent with known biological constraints. Similar temperature variations are also obtained, although with higher starting seawater ?18O composition, when more conservative approaches are used that take into account the systematic effects of diagenetic alteration on mean calcite ?18O values. In contrast to much published opinion, the average ?18O value of ocean crust in the model remained relatively unchanged throughout all model runs. Invariable ophiolite ?18O values can, therefore, not be used as a definitive argument against changing seawater ?18O. The most likely explanation for the long-term trend in seawater ?18O invokes two stepwise increases in the ratio of high- to low-temperature fluid/rock interactions. An initial increase may have occurred close to the Archean-Proterozoic boundary, but a possibly more significant increase took place near the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary. Possible explanations for extremely low seawater ?18O during the Archean include higher continental weathering rates caused by a combination of higher atmospheric pCO 2 (necessarily combined with high CO 2 outgassing rates), a greater abundance of relatively easily weathered volcanic rocks in greenstone belts and partial emergence of spreading ridges. The second increase may have been caused by the suppression of low-temperature overprinting of ocean crust alteration by the formation of a thick sediment cover on ridge flanks due to the emergence of shelly plankton at the beginning of the Phanerozoic. Postulated increases in spreading ridge depths since the Archean would also have enhanced the efficiency of vertical heat flux and changed the depth at which hydrothermal fluids boil, both of which would favour high- over low-temperature interactions with time.

  15. Vitamins: preparing for the next 100 years.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2012-10-01

    The insights gained from the last 100 years of vitamin research and applications have contributed substantially to our fundamental understanding of biology and importantly to the promotion of human health. There is no reason to think that the next 100 years will be any less fruitful if we are committed to preparing for them, particularly by changing four critical nutrition paradigms. First, we must move beyond the concept of preventing vitamin deficiencies and inadequacies to establishing health and, further, to creating optimal physiological functions. Each essential vitamin possesses different concentration thresholds for its variety of effects and the required balance necessary to achieving each has yet to be fully defined. Second, we must apply the research approaches and methods of ?-omics,? systems biology, and imaging technologies to define the dynamic role of vitamins and their broad array of genomic, molecular, biochemical, and functional interactions. Such work is necessary to understand the multiplicity of vitamin actions and ultimately apply them directly at the level of the individual. Third, we must revise the concept of evidence-based nutrition away from its current hierarchical system to recognize in a comprehensive and integrated way the attributes of each type of approach to research. To adhere to a single gold standard of the randomized clinical trial ignores both how we have moved forward so productively during the last 100 years and the vital information to be gained from basic research and other human studies; further, it acts to stifle innovation in both scientific and regulatory affairs. Fourth, we must understand that changes in the supply and distribution of food during the next century are likely to be at least as dramatic as those which have occurred over this last one. For example, inevitable environmental constraints will require more food protein be derived from plant than animal sources, a shift that will directly impact the dietary sources for vitamins. To meet the challenge of achieving global health in 2113 among a population of 9 billion people, effectively managing these four changes demands new and creative ways in which those in academia, government and non-government organizations, and industry must work together. PMID:23798056

  16. Pictures of the Year

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    One of the oldest and most prestigious photojournalism competitions, Pictures of the Year was established 58 years ago by a University of Missouri-Columbia photojournalism professor. This year's overall winners will be announced on April 19, but in the meantime, readers can view the winning photos and those that received the Award of Excellence in the three major categories: Newspaper, Magazine, and General. These images were selected from over 32,000 entries, and they run the full gamut of subject matter and emotion. Visitors will find images that are amusing, inspiring, beautiful, and heartbreaking. Highly recommended and well worth a visit.

  17. Double Spring Year

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William; von Holten, Leslie

    2006-12-13

    Broadcast Transcript: South Korean fiancés are under pressure and the country's esteemed fortune tellers are turning up the heat. Why? Because this lunar year has two first days of spring--one last January, and another next February...

  18. 5 Year Rate Changes

    Cancer.gov

    Close Window State Cancer Profiles Quick Reference Guides ? Quick Reference Guides Index 5 Year Rate Changes Send to Printer Text description of this image. Site Home Policies Accessibility Viewing Files FOIA Contact Us U.S. Department of Health and

  19. MoonYear Applet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Juergen Giesen

    This Java applet displays the phases of the Moon for calendar years 1971-2052 by month. Clicking on the day and phase gives the phase and lumination at local noon. A downloadable version is also available.

  20. Seasons of the Year

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-04-05

    What are the seasons of the year? First, watch this video about seasons. Video on seasons Next, paint a picture about the seasons. painting the seasons After you have painted a picture, play a game to identify the seasons. Game about seasons Now, go through a step by step guide about the seasons. Different seasons in a year Next, watch another video about the seasons. Video on seasons Last, fill out this chart about the seasons. In each block, ...

  1. Fiscal Year 2003

    Cancer.gov

    The Nation’s Investment in Cancer Research A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 P re p a r ed by the Dir e c t o r National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 . . . bringing together the resources to stimulate and support scientific discovery and its application to achieve a future when all cancers are uncommon and easily treated.

  2. Yearly Arctic Temperature Anomaly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cindy Starr

    2003-10-23

    This animation shows the yearly temperature anomaly over the Arctic region from 1981-82 through 2002-03. Years run from August 1 through July 31. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -7.0 to +7.0 degrees Celsius in increments of .25 degrees. (See color bar below)

  3. Congress passes space year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The year 1992 will mark the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' arrival in America and the 35th anniversary of both the International Geophysical Year and the launch of Sputnik. The U.S. Senate passed a joint resolution (S.J.Res. 177) on November 21 recommending that the President endorse an International Space Year (ISY) in 1992. A similar resolution introduced in the House of Representatives was incorporated into the conference report (House Report 99-379) accompanying the authorization bill for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and approved by both houses, also on November 21. As Eos went to press, the NASA authorization bill (H.R. 1714) awaited President Ronald Reagan's signature.

  4. Seasons of the Year

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Stern

    This lesson demonstrates the link between the tilt of the Earth's axis to the plane of the ecliptic and seasons of the year, length of day, effectiveness of sunlight, and polar day and night. It discusses how the inclination of the Earth's rotation axis causes seasons of the year, by varying the length of the local day and the angle at which the Sun's rays arrive on the surface of the Earth, and to recognize that seasons in the southern hemisphere (at middle latitudes) occur at opposite parts of the year from seasons in the US and Europe. The student will also realize that the seasons in the middle-latitudes in US and Europe are quite different from seasons experienced near the equator and also know about the polar day, when the Sun never sets but just marches around the horizon, and the polar night, when it never rises.

  5. Emergent technologies: 25 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rising, Hawley K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

  6. The Economic Benefits Resulting from the First 8 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000–2007)

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Brian K.; Hooper, Pamela J.; Bradley, Mark H.; McFarland, Deborah A.; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Between 2000–2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 4–6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. Methodology To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization Principal Findings An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. Conclusions/Significance MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with favorable program implementation costs (largely a result of the sustained commitments of donated drugs from the pharmaceutical industry) it is clear that the economic rate of return of the GPELF is extremely high and that this Programme continues to prove itself an excellent investment in global health. PMID:20532228

  7. GAP PROGRAM SIX YEAR REVIEW

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    GAP PROGRAM SIX YEAR REVIEW Background for $250,000 request for FY 2011-12 budget year 10/1/2013 1 to take 10-15 years. #12;GAP HISTORY ­ 6 years in · 11 Competitions (69 proposals). 6 years · 37 Projects down by GAP committee #12;Learning As We Go · Members of GAP Committee Assigned as Year Long Mentor

  8. Annual Review of the Year

    E-print Network

    Annual Review Review of the Year 2006-2007 #12;2 | Review of the Year Review of the Year 2006-2007 #12;Review of the Year | 3 Foreword by Dr Calum MacDonald, Chair of the National Committee 4 #12;4 | Review of the Year Forewordby the Chair of the National Committee During this past year, my

  9. Understanding Early Years Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldock, Peter; Fitzgerald, Damien; Kay, Janet

    2005-01-01

    The book is about policy in the area of early years services and that phrase may need some clarification. For the most part, therefore, this book deals with nursery schools and classes and with services provided by full day care nurseries, pre-schools, creches, childminders, after-school clubs and holiday play schemes. This book begins with…

  10. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  11. Project Year Project Team

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    and development of haptic (touch-based) human-computer interface hardware and software. A simple, single Project Title Haptic Display of Dynamic Systems Audience 30 to 40 students per year, enrolled-axis haptic interface, called the haptic paddle, will enable students to assemble, model, connect

  12. Project Year Project Team

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    Project Year 2003 Project Team Faculty: Kevin Yarema, Biomedical Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering Fellow: Lee McDaniel, Biomedical Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering Project Title Interactive Model of Biosynthetic Metabolic Pathways Audience Students enrolled in the Topics in Cell

  13. Interlochen: The Earliest Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Theron

    1997-01-01

    Provides a personal reminiscence of the first two years (1928-29) of the now famous Interlochen Arts Camp. Profiles the camp's two founders, Joseph E. Maddy and Thaddeus P. Giddings. Early participants performed carpentry and landscaping duties and learned a classical music repertoire. Includes photographs of Maddy and Giddings. (MJP)

  14. Project Year Project Title

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    and Organic Chemistry courses, while others have not had biology since their freshmen year of high school traditional molecular biology courses we also aim to improve the quality of the course by integrating of Molecules and Cells in high school through classroom and lab experiences. Consequently, students who have

  15. Time [year] -normalized

    E-print Network

    Seehafer, Norbert

    Time [year] -normalized Southern Oscillation Index 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 -4 -2 0 2 4 and increases during the La Niña phase. The ENSO is mostly characterized by an index called Southern Oscillation-precipi- tation (red colour intensity of varved lake sediments EP160) and Southern Oscillation Index we have found

  16. Redesigning the Senior Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreis, Janice R.; Rehage, Larry D.

    2011-01-01

    The senior year by all reason should be the capstone of an individual's time in the K-12 system. It should carry not only academic rigor, but also a spirit of unrivaled engagement if it is truly going to be an appropriate culminating experience. For many 12th graders across the country, it is far from that. How can educators create an educational…

  17. PROGRAM REPORT ACADEMIC YEAR

    E-print Network

    Meng, Ellis

    PROGRAM REPORT ACADEMIC YEAR 2008-2009 WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING (WiSE) PROGRAM and Creative Work 2009 #12;1 Executive Summary The Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) Program continues joining USC in 09-10 have already been successful. WiSE serves as an advocate for women in science

  18. The Turbulent Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, John, Ed.

    This summary of the Fourth Annual Conference on Major Transitions in the Human Life Cycle contains a preface, introductory section on adolescence and young adulthood (ages 14 through 24 years), and the following presentations, complete with discussion text: (1) "Historical Treatment of the Age Group" (John Demos); (2) "Demographic Considerations"…

  19. Eleventh Year Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchman, Aaron; Zimmerman, Robert

    This outline for Eleventh Year Mathematics in New York adheres closely to the recommendations of The Commission of Mathematics of the College Entrance Examination Board and thus presents a unified development of certain aspects of algebra, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. Its aim is both as a terminal course in mathematics and as a solid…

  20. Forty years of antiprotons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Eades; F. J. Hartmann

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of the antiproton some 40 years ago and the almost synchronous fall of parity (P) and charge conjugation (C) symmetries were soon followed by the realization that CPT rather than C invariance is the fundamental symmetry connecting matter and antimatter, and that consequently any measurement of the antiproton's properties can be interpreted as a test of that symmetry.

  1. Books of the Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2004

    2004-01-01

    It's that time of year again and "Adults Learning" has once more asked some of the outstanding authors who have contributed to the journal over the past 12 months to nominate their best and most valuable reads of 2004. The authors are: (1) Judith Summers; (2) Thomas Sticht; (3) Alison Wolf; (4) Tom Schuller; (5) Linden West; (6) Brian Groombridge;…

  2. Consolidated Federal Funds Report, Fiscal Year 1998

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    According to the latest US Census Bureau's Consolidated Federal Funds Report (CFFR), federal domestic spending reached $1.5 trillion in 1998, up 3.7 percent from 1997, and social security increased by 3.9 percent at $403 billion. Census Bureau staff cite payments for disability and retirement as well as grants and procurement contracts as the main reasons for the increases.

  3. Five years of LRO laser altimetry at the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    After five years of near-continuous operation at the Moon, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on LRO continues to collect altimetry, surface roughness, slope and normal reflectance data. LOLA has acquired over 6 billion altimeter measurements, all geodetically controlled to the center-of-mass of the Moon with a radial precision of around 10 cm and an accuracy of about 1 meter. The position of the measurements on the lunar surface is primarily limited by the knowledge of the position of the spacecraft in orbit and in the last few years the LRO orbit accuracy has improved significantly as a result of the accurate gravity model of the Moon developed by the GRAIL Discovery mission. Our present estimate of positional accuracy is less than 10 m rms but is only achievable with a GRAIL gravity model to at least degree and order 600 because of the perturbing gravitational effect of the Moon’s surface features. Significant improvements in the global shape and topography have assisted the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) stereo mapping program, and the identification of potential lunar landing sites for ESA and Russia, particularly in the high-latitude polar regions where 5- and 10-meter average horizontal resolution has been obtained. LOLA’s detailed mapping of these regions has improved the delineation of permanently-shadowed areas and assisted in the understanding of the LEND neutron data, and its relationship to surface slopes. Recently a global, calibrated LOLA normal albedo dataset at 1064 nm has been developed.

  4. Trends of Hospitalizations in the United States from 2000 to 2012 of Patients >60 Years With Aortic Valve Disease.

    PubMed

    Badheka, Apurva O; Singh, Vikas; Patel, Nileshkumar J; Arora, Shilpkumar; Patel, Nilay; Thakkar, Badal; Jhamnani, Sunny; Pant, Sadip; Chothani, Ankit; Macon, Conrad; Panaich, Sidakpal S; Patel, Jay; Manvar, Sohilkumar; Savani, Chirag; Bhatt, Parth; Panchal, Vinaykumar; Patel, Neil; Patel, Achint; Patel, Darshan; Lahewala, Sopan; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Mohamad, Tamam; Mangi, Abeel A; Cleman, Michael; Forrest, John K

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment of valvular heart disease and, in particular, aortic stenosis. This has been driven in part by the development of innovative therapeutic options and by an aging patient population. We hypothesized an increase in the number of hospitalizations and the economic burden associated with aortic valve disease (AVD). Using Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2000 to 2012, AVD-related hospitalizations were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, code 424.1, as the principal discharge diagnosis. Overall AVD hospitalizations increased by 59% from 2000 to 2012. This increase was most significant in patients >80 years and those with higher burden of co-morbidities. The most frequent coexisting conditions were hypertension, heart failure, renal failure, anemia, and diabetes. Overall inhospital mortality of patients hospitalized for AVD was 3.8%, which significantly decreased from 4.5% in 2000 to 3.5% in 2012 (p <0.001). The largest decrease in mortality was seen in the subgroup of patients who had heart failure (62% reduction), higher burden of co-morbidities (58% reduction), and who were >80 years (53% reduction). There was a substantial increase in the cost of hospitalization in the last decade from $31,909 to $38,172 (p <0.001). The total annual cost for AVD hospitalization in the United States increased from $1.3 billion in 2001 to $2.1 billion in 2011 and is expected to increase to nearly 3 billion by 2020. The last decade has witnessed a significant increase in hospitalizations for AVD in the United States. The associated decrease in inhospital mortality and increase in the cost of hospitalization have considerably increased the economic burden on the public health system. PMID:25983278

  5. Year Up Program Key Components of the Year Up Program

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    JUNE 2013 Year Up Program Key Components of the Year Up Program Year Up's mission is to close them to reach their potential through professional careers and higher education. Year Up is a nonprofit of hands-on skill development and workplace apprenticeship opportunities. Year Up Benefits to FAS

  6. The epidemiology of injury in a rural state: 5,322 cases over 6 years.

    PubMed

    Vane, D W; Spanknebel, K; Murphy, E T; Wald, S L; Rogers, F B; Shackford, S R

    1993-10-01

    Presently, descriptions of rural trauma are complications of national sample statistics and local data from states projected to rural areas. This study reviews all hospital discharges (36,866) for children (aged 0 to 18 years) from January 1985 through December 1990 in an entirely rural state. Fourteen percent of admissions (5,322) were due to traumatic injury and 63% of these occurred in boys. Injury rates were age dependent with children 15 to 18 years experiencing an incidence of 110/10,000; 10 to 14 years 55/10,000; 5 to 9 years 39/10,000; 1 to 4 years 35/10,000; and < 1 year 39.5/10,000. Mean age for the entire population was 11.4 +/- 5.7 years. Thirty-five percent of children had more than one major site of injury. Sixty-three percent of admissions were for blunt trauma and only 4.8% were penetrating. The remainder were due to burns, hanging, ingestion, and other toxic agents. Falls constituted the most prevalent cause of injury in this population occurring in 25.9%, motor vehicle accidents 22.9%, struck by an object 9.6%, suicide attempts 8.5%, poisoning 4.7%, fire 1.2%, drowning 0.7%, and farm machinery 0.3%. The vast majority of motor vehicle accidents involved the child as an operator or occupant of the vehicle. Less than 10% involved a pedestrian being struck and less than 5% involved a child being struck while on a bicycle. Less than 6% of all injuries involved a bicycle. Child maltreatment was recorded in less than 2% of this population. Only 3.3% of injured children required transfer to another acute care facility (1/3 because of a motor vehicle accident and 1/4 because of a fall).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8263690

  7. Projects of the year

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2007-01-01

    The Peabody Hotel, Orlando, Florida was the site of Power Engineering magazine's 2006 Projects of the Year Awards Banquet, which kicked-off the Power-Gen International conference and exhibition. The Best Coal-fired Project was awarded to Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association Inc., owner of Springenville Unit 3. This is a 400 MW pulverized coal plant in Springeville, AZ, sited with two existing

  8. Publications through Twentifive Years

    E-print Network

    Sinha, Nirmal C.; Rechung, Jampal Kunzang

    1983-01-01

    PUBLICATIONS THROUGH TWENTIFIVE YEARS - JKR : NCS A quarter of a century is a fragment in the history of letters. In . modern period, particularly in the current century, learning finds speedy expression in wide and varied forms. Number... . In 1976 we decioed to produce important Tibetan works' diirect from' the original prints. The practice of' transfer into Calligraph Copy, ·and thereafter into print" on palm, leaUormat" is not free from errOrs' and: omissions in copying process...

  9. Fifty years later.

    PubMed

    Mangan, Terry L; Benedetti, Kathleen A; Starzl, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    That concludes my remarks. If I have not made my purpose clear, let me summarize simply. I, like all others gathered here, have come to pay homage to Paul Terasaki, a man who bent in the winds of his time but never broke. Over the last 50 years, I have worked with many people. No collaboration has been dearer than that with Paul (Fig. 7). PMID:25095497

  10. NUCLEAR ENGINEERING Four Year Plan

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    15 Term 16 CUM 15 CUM 30 CUM 46 FALL Year 2 Credits WINTER Year 2 Credits SPRING Year 3 Credits ENGR @ 4 MTH 306 4 Biological Science 4 Term 15 Term 15 Term 14 CUM 61 CUM 76 CUM 90 FALL Year 3 Credits 14 Term 16 CUM 104 CUM 118 CUM 134 FALL Year 4 Credits WINTER Year 4 Credits SPRING Year 4 Credits NE

  11. Five Year Flashlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An ultra-reliable flashlight, initially developed for rescue signaling and utility use by NASA astronauts and military aircrews, has attracted a broad commercial market. Called the Five Year Light, it has a shelf life at least that long because there is no power drain on the batteries when the flashlight is not in use. The NASA version of the light was developed under contract with Langley Research Center by ACR Electronics, Inc., now known as the Chromalloy Electronics Division of Chromalloy American Corporation, Hollywood, Florida. NASA wanted a light that had long shelf life and assured reliability in case it was needed in an emergency. Reliability was designed into the flashlight by means of a unique switch. Instead of the customary thumb-button, the Five Year Light is turned on by rotating its collar to make contact with the battery terminal; the turning motion wipes away any corrosion that might be present and makes contact virtually certain. The Five Year Light available commercially is a repackaged version of the NASA light. It is sold for car, home, industrial, police, firefighting, recreational and a variety of other uses, and sales have topped two million units.

  12. The federal medical loss ratio rule: implications for consumers in year 3.

    PubMed

    McCue, Michael J; Hall, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    For the past three years, the Affordable Care Act has required health insurers to pay out a minimum percentage of premiums in medical claims or quality improvement expenses--known as a medical loss ratio (MLR). Insurers with MLRs below the minimum must rebate the difference to consumers. This issue brief finds that total rebates for 2013 were $325 million, less than one-third the amount paid out in 2011, indicating much greater compliance with the MLR rule. Insurers' spending on quality improvement remained low, at less than 1 percent of premiums. Insurers' administrative and sales costs, such as brokers' fees, and profit margins have reduced slightly but remain fairly steady. In the first three years under this regulation, total consumer benefits related to the medical loss ratio--both rebates and reduced overhead--amounted to over $5 billion. This was achieved without a great exodus of insurers from the market. PMID:25890979

  13. In Brief: O'Keefe to leave NASA; Record year for temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-12-01

    Sean O'Keefe, who became NASA administrator in December 2001, submitted his resignation on 13 December 2004. O'Keefe is one of a number of officials departing from the Bush Administration as U.S. President George W. Bush prepares to begin his second term of office. O'Keefe's departure comes after the agency has begun to implement its new Vision for Space Exploration. He leaves NASA on good fiscal footing, with a fiscal year 2005 budget of $16.2 billion. However, U.S. Rep. Bart Gordon (D-Tenn.), the ranking member of the House of Representatives Science Committee said the next administrator will need to deal with ``reconciling the agency's goals with the constrained budgets it is likely to be facing in the years ahead.''

  14. 500 years after Columbus.

    PubMed

    Imbach, A

    1992-01-01

    The astonishing range of plants and animals of Central America's 7 countries (Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama) is disappearing, as 60% of its forests have been cut for lumber and firewood as well as for cotton, cattle, or subsistence crops. Up to 5 million Mayans lived sustainably for thousands of years in an area now being destroyed by a few hundred thousand inhabitants. The Spanish colonization that started 500 years ago was concentrated in Panama, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. The majority of the English-speaking country of Belize are descended from the black slave population whose culture spread down the coast to Central America. Panama's service economy is based on the Panama Canal and trade and finance. Costa Rica benefits from a tourist industry based on its natural beauty, however, it also has the highest rate of deforestation and its fast population growth could jeopardize earlier social and economic progress. In El Salvador and Guatemala long periods of civil conflict have taken their toll on the economy and the environment. El Salvador has a mountainous territory and limited natural resources and industrialization, while the best land is in the hands of a few families. Honduras and Nicaragua retain the highest proportion of forest cover of the countries in the region, despite Nicaragua's years of tyranny, then revolution and the Contra war, and Honduras's own turmoils. Belize has achieved some stability, and is now strengthening its Central American links. Its coral reefs and coastal areas offer potential for sustainable development through fishing and tourism. Central American countries face the challenges of their fragile environments and major social problems. PMID:12317700

  15. TRMM 3-Year Anniversary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ever wonder about the rain? Beyond the practicality of needing an umbrella, climate researchers have wondered about the science of rainfall for a long time. But it's only in the past few years that they've begun to roll back some of its secrets. One of their tools for doing so is a powerful satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, or TRMM. Now, after three years of continual operation, project scientists have released dramatic new maps of rainfall patterns gathered across a wide band of the Earth. And with measurements from one of the satellite's advanced sensors, meteorologists are now able to calibrate ground-based rain monitoring systems with greater precision than ever before. A complete accounting of the world's total rainfall has long been a major goal of climate researchers. Rain acts as the atmosphere's fundamental engine for heat exchange; every time a raindrop falls, the atmosphere gets churned up and latent heat flows back into the total climate system. Considering that rainfall is the primary driving force of heat in the atmosphere, and that two thirds of all rain falls in the tropics, these measurements are significant for our understanding of overall climate. The above image shows a one month average of rainfall measurements taken by the TRMM's unique precipitation radar during January of 1998. Areas of low rainfall are colored light blue, while regions with heavy rainfal are colored orange and red. TRMM began collecting data in December of 1997, and continues today. For more information about TRMM's 3-year anniversary, read Maps of Falling Water To learn more about the TRMM mission or order TRMM data, see the TRMM Home Page. Image courtesy TRMM Science team and the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

  16. Seasons of the Year

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Larrimore

    2012-04-11

    You are going to watch some videos of the seasons of the year.Use your worksheet to help you remember the types of weather and the clothes we wear during the different seasons. What is different about each season? Seasons Chart 1. This is what you will click on to watch the video on winter. Winter Video 2. In the spring video make sure you notice the changes in weather Spring Video 3. Now watch the summer video Summer Video 4.This is what you will click on to watch the video on fall. Fall Video 5. Click here to watch a video ...

  17. Helsinki 50 years on.

    PubMed

    Petrini, C

    2014-01-01

    Ever since its adoption the Declaration of Helsinki has been universally recognised as a key landmark in the ethics of medical research involving human subjects. Over fifty years it has been revised seven times and supplemented twice with explanatory notes. The debate surrounding its contents and organisation continues unabated and becomes particularly lively every time the text is reviewed. One of the most controversial issues is recourse to the placebo: the conditions laid down for its use are held by many to offer insufficient guarantees for the protection of those receiving it. PMID:25203329

  18. Publications through Twentyfive Years

    E-print Network

    Sinha, Nirmal C.; Rechung, Jampal Kunzang

    1984-01-01

    PUBLICA TIONS THROUGH TWENTYFIVE YEARS - JKR: NCS A quarter of a century is. a fragment in the history of letters. In modern period, particularly in the current century, learning finds speedy expression in wide and varied forms. Numb... , on palm leaf format, is not free from errors and omissions in copying proc('Ss. For authentication of the text a direct photo-mechanic reproduction of the original is thus indispensable, ev<:n though this may be costlier. So in 1976 a pro­ gramme...

  19. Developmental milestones record - 5 years

    MedlinePLUS

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Growth milestones for children - 5 years ... both the time and content of television and computer viewing Visiting local areas of interest Encouraging the ...

  20. The social and economic impact of nuclear power in the year 2000 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Kritsky, W.G. [US Ecology Nuclear Equipment Service Center, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Loiselle, V.

    1998-12-31

    Worldwide, there are 437 nuclear plants in operation throughout 31 nations based upon data provided by the IAEA Power Reactor Information System. These plants represent 17% of world electrical production and 2300 Billion kwhrs. In the United States, production exceeded 600 billion kwhrs and 22% of total electrical production in 1995. Between 1996 and 1997, seven new plants were brought on-line, of which only one was located in the US. Therefore, the United States has definitely established a gradual decline of nuclear electric production with decisions to shut down Big Rock Point and Maine Yankee and more recently, the Zion Nuclear Station. This brings to 13 the total number of power plans within the pipeline for decommissioning, or more than 10% of the commissioned installations. With no plans for new plant construction in the offing, nuclear power`s share of electrical production will shrink. This decline is expected to make a significant impact upon the social and economic structure before new needs or a new equilibrium is achieved. Specifically, the authors present their view of what the decline will do to these areas of social and commercial concern to the year 2000 and beyond.

  1. International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph, M.

    2005-01-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY), an international program of scientific collaboration to understand the external drivers of planetary environments, will be conducted in 2007. This will be a major international event of great interest to the member States. The M Y will involve the deployment of new instrumentation, new observations from the ground and in space, and an education component. The IHY 2007 will coincide with the fiftieth anniversary of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957. The IGY was organized to study global phenomena of the Earth and Geospace involving about 60,000 scientists from 66 nations, working at thousands of stations, around the world to obtain simultaneous, global observations from the ground and space. Building on results obtained during IGY 1957, the IHY will expand to the study of universal processes in the solar system that affect the interplanetary and terrestrial environments. The study of energetic events in the solar system will pave the way for safe human space travel to the Moon and planets in the future, and it will serve to inspire the next generation of space physicists.

  2. Broadcast Education Curricula in 2-Year and 4-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Erin; Kang, Jong G.; Allen, David S.

    1999-01-01

    Compares broadcasting curricula of two-year and four-year colleges. Finds that most broadcast programs implement a blend of practical and theoretical courses, and that students at two-year and four-year schools are subjected to comparable course work and internship/practicum experience. Suggests that many students are not receiving enough…

  3. Military satellite communications: Opportunity to save billions of dollars. Report to the Chairman, Legislation, and National Security Subcommittee, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-07-01

    During the past several years, the Congress has been critical of DOD's management of satellite communications-a primary concern being high costs. In August 1989, the House Appropriations Committee expressed concern that DOD's satellite communications architecture was in a state of disarray. It directed DOD to provide a comprehensive plan, defining all satellite communications requirements and potential solutions to meet the requirements within realistic resource levels. In October 1990, during deliberations on the fiscal year 1991 defense appropriations bill, the conference committee expressed dissatisfaction with the plan that DOD had provided in March 1990. The committee was concerned about the lack of a comprehensive architecture and directed DOD to submit a clear and affordable plan with the fiscal year 1992 defense budget request.

  4. Runaway Children Twelve Years Later: A Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lucy; And Others

    Fourteen young men and women, who as teenagers had run away from home, were subjects of an intensive clinical case study which was a followup of a larger-scale survey of runaways conducted in the early 1960s. A major purpose of the research was to determine how the former runaways had fared as adults and whether or not their early behavior had…

  5. The Early Years: Focus on the Young Child and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, Christine, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Fourteen brief articles focus on the young handicapped child and his family. Articles have the following titles and authors: "Elements of Early Care and Education" (W. Fowler); "Mothers and Fathers--The Special Child's Special Resources" (M. Lamb); "Child Development--Knowledge and the Special Educator" (A. Honig); "The Handicapped Child in the…

  6. Electroencephalography 60 years later.

    PubMed

    Kugler, J

    1991-03-01

    The birthday of Electroencephalography (EEG) is dated back to the 22nd of April 1929. On this date Hans Berger submitted the first of his 14 contributions "Uber das Elektrenkephalogramm des Menschen" to the "Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten" for publication. Therefore in 1989 Electroencephalography was 60 years of age. In spite of controversy over its usefulness during this period, Electroencephalography substantially contributed to progress in medicine. Today is the beginning of its Renaissance due to a dramatic diversification of Clinical Electroencephalography into applied neurophysiological specialties. Progress became possible by the introduction of new techniques. However it will become obvious that new instrumentations cannot replace intelligence and human understanding. The dispute of importance and nonsense, use and misuse of Electroencephalography is without doubt useful and stimulates new orientations. PMID:2047558

  7. All Year Long

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, each student will keep a science journal during each of the four seasons. Students will record observations of the general outdoor environment they visit and then will make observations of one specific item from the habitat in each season. At the end of the school year, students will compare their seasonal drawings and share their results with the class. This is the 1st of 3 sets of learning activities that are part of a unit on seasons that are companion activities to the Elementary GLOBE children's book, "Mystery of the Missing Hummingbirds." Includes a teacher implementation guide. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

  8. Effects of Growth Hormone Administration on Muscle Strength in Men over 50 Years Old.

    PubMed

    Tavares, A B W; Micmacher, E; Biesek, S; Assumpção, R; Redorat, R; Veloso, U; Vaisman, M; Farinatti, P T V; Conceição, F

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) use has been speculated to improve physical capacity in subjects without GH deficiency (GHD) through stimulation of collagen synthesis in the tendon and skeletal muscle, which leads to better exercise training and increased muscle strength. In this context, the use of GH in healthy elderly should be an option for increasing muscle strength. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of GH therapy on muscle strength in healthy men over 50 years old. Fourteen healthy men aged 50-70 years were evaluated at baseline for body composition and muscle strength (evaluated by leg press and bench press exercises, which focus primarily on quadriceps-lower body part and pectoralis major-upper body part-muscles, resp.). Subjects were randomised into 2 groups: GH therapy (7 subjects) and placebo (7 subjects) and reevaluated after 6 months of therapy. Thirteen subjects completed the study (6 subjects in the placebo group and 7 subjects in the GH group). Subjects of both groups were not different at baseline. After 6 months of therapy, muscle strength in the bench press responsive muscles did not increase in both groups and showed a statistically significant increase in the leg press responsive muscles in the GH group. Our study demonstrated an increase in muscle strength in the lower body part after GH therapy in healthy men. This finding must be considered and tested in frail older populations, whose physical incapacity is primarily caused by proximal muscle weakness. The trial was registered with NCT01853566. PMID:24382963

  9. Letting Billions Slip Through Your Fingers: Empirical Evidence and Legal Implications of the Failure of Financial Institutions to Participate in Securities Class Action Settlements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Cox; Randall S. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In a pilot study we published two years ago, we reported that nearly two-thirds of the institutional investors with financial losses in 53 settled securities class actions fail to submit claims. As a consequence of this failure substantial sums they were entitled to receive were given to others. This article presents the results of a much more extensive investigation of

  10. PERSISTENCE RATES --FRESHMAN COHORT BY ORIGINAL TUITION CLASSIFICATION FALL COHORT YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 YEAR 5

    E-print Network

    2009 SOPHOMORE TO JUNIOR PERSISTENCE RATES TOTAL RES NON #12;4 GRADUATION RATES -- FRESHMAN COHORT FALL GRADUATION RATES -- FRESHMAN COHORT YEAR 4 YEAR 5 YEAR 6 TOTAL #12;5 GRADUATION RATES BY GENDER -- FRESHMAN COHORT GRADUATION RATES -- FRESHMAN COHORT MALES FALL END OF END OF END OF GRADRATE TERM COHORT YEAR 4

  11. The International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph M.; Gopalswamy, Nat; Thompson, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that evolution in the solar system proceeds through a set of Universal Processes, i.e. reconnection, particle acceleration, plasma wave generation and propagation, etc. By studying these Universal Processes together, in diverse environments, and in a comparative way, new scientific insights will be gained. This is perhaps best understood by citing a few examples: (I) Shocks are observed in situ in the interplanetary medium, shocks are believed to play a role in the acceleration of particles in the solar corona, and standing bow shocks and termination shocks separate the major regions in the heliosphere. Shock formation, and particle acceleration are universal processes. (2) Aurorae are observed on Earth, Saturn, and Jupiter, and Jovian auroral "footprints" have been observed on 10, Ganymede and Europa. The formation of aurorae is observed to be the universal response of a magnetized body in the solar wind. The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) specifically highlights the cross-disciplinary study of universal physical processes in the solar system, observed in a variety of settings. The study of these processes will provide new insights that will lead to a better understanding of the universal processes in the solar system that affect the interplanetary and planetary environments, and pave the way for safe human space travel to the Moon and planets in the future, and it will serve to inspire the next generation of space physicists.

  12. [Sixty years of autism].

    PubMed

    van Berckelaer-Onnes, I A

    2004-05-22

    The concept of autism has been broadened the last few years from 'early infantile autism' to 'an autistic spectrum'. Autism and related contact disorders are grouped together under 'pervasive developmental disorders' or 'autistic spectrum disorders'. The autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Rett's disorder and the childhood disintegrative disorder all belong to this group. People with an autistic spectrum disorder have severe difficulties in the integration of perceived stimuli into a meaningful entity. More than two-thirds of the people with the autistic disorder (classical autism) are also mentally retarded. Although autism can still only be diagnosed at the behavioural level, there is considerable consensus regarding an underlying organic aetiology. Autism is clearly a multifactorial condition. Autism cannot be cured, but adequate intervention can significantly improve the quality of life of people with this disorder. Diagnosis and intervention are highly interrelated. In the intervention, a distinction is made between family-oriented and child-oriented strategies. Augmentative communication plays a key role in the treatment. People with autism need a lot of structure, clarity and predictability, also when they have become adults. PMID:15185436

  13. WMAP First Year Results

    E-print Network

    E. L. Wright

    2003-06-05

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) science team has released results from the first year of operation at the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point. The maps are consistent with previous observations but have much better sensitivity and angular resolution than the COBE DMR maps, and much better calibration accuracy and sky coverage than ground-based and balloon-borne experiments. The angular power spectra from these ground-based and balloon-borne experiments are consistent within their systematic and statistical uncertainties with the WMAP results. WMAP detected the large angular-scale correlation between the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB caused by electron scattering since the Universe became reionized after the "Dark Ages", giving a value for the electron scattering optical depth of 0.17+/-0.04. The simplest Lambda-CDM model with n=1 and Omega_tot=1 provides an adequate fit to the WMAP data and gives parameters which are consistent with determinations of the Hubble constant and observations of the accelerating Universe using supernovae. The time-ordered data, maps, and power spectra from WMAP can be found at http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov along with 13 papers by the WMAP science team describing the results in detail.

  14. Feasibility of atlantoaxial pedicle screws' placement in children 6-8 years of age: a cadaveric and tomographic study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bin; Xu, Yang; Guo, Zhi-Min; Liu, Hui; Chen, Zhi-Wen; He, Min-Chang

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the linear and angular dimensions of children's atlantoaxial pedicle using cadavers combined with axial computed tomography (CT) and to examine the feasibility of placing atlantoaxial pedicle screws (3.5 mm diameter) on the vertebrae of children 6-8 years of age. Fourteen cadaveric specimens, ranging in age from 6 to 8 years, were dissected to obtain their atlantoaxial vertebrae. We manually measured 12 linear anatomic parameters related to the atlantoaxial pedicle, its lateral mass, and the posterior arch under the vertebral artery groove. CT axial scanning of the atlantoaxial region was performed on 32 healthy children ranging in age from 6 to 8 years. The length of the atlantoaxial pedicles and the angle between the pedicle axis and the midline of the vertebral body were measured on the atlantoaxial transverse CT imaging. It is feasible to place a 3.5 mm screw in the atlantoaxial pedicle of children ranging in age from 6 to 8 years when the appropriate entry point and trajectory of the screw are chosen. PMID:23764758

  15. Thalidomide: 40 years on.

    PubMed

    Diggle, G E

    2001-11-01

    Thalidomide was marketed in the late-1950s as a sedative and tranquilliser of exceptionally low general toxicity, but in 1961 it was implicated separately by Lenz and MacBride as the cause of the epidemic of congenital malformations that had been puzzling the world for some years. It is a very potent teratogen in humans, but in few other mammalian species; damage to the embryo is produced at specific stages of gestation, but the mechanism of embryopathic action is still not understood. Following the withdrawal of the drug worldwide, it was consigned to the history of medical tragedies. In 1965, however, Sheskin discovered that it was effective in treating erythema nodosum leprosum, a distressing complication of leprosy. As the drug is neither an antibiotic nor an analgesic, its action was assumed to be immunosuppressive. In Brazil the drug was used widely with few regulatory controls, since when more than 100 cases of congenital malformation have appeared. Sheskin's discovery led to the experimental use of thalidomide in many other indications thought to possess some immunological component. In some cases, e.g. Behçet's syndrome, graft-versus-host disease and aphthous ulceration in HIV-positive patients, the drug has been shown to possess some efficacy. And there is some evidence that it inhibits the replication of one of the immunodeficiency viruses. The AIDS community in the US has exerted much pressure on the FDA to allow the drug on to the market, although the use of a potent immunosuppressive drug of unknown mechanism in an immunodeficiency condition raises further questions. Thalidomide is not always beneficial; its use is associated with an increased mortality in epidermal necrolysis. In 1991, D'Amato confirmed it possessed antiangiogenic properties and this led to further trials in malignant conditions. Results were mixed, but those in multiple myeloma gave some grounds for optimism. In 1998, the FDA announced its extraordinary decision to grant marketing approval for thalidomide. PMID:11770361

  16. Stretched Lens Array (SLA) Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Space Tug: SLA-SEP Offers Multi-Billion-Dollar Savings Delivering Lunar Exploration Cargo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O'Neill; M. Piszczor; H. Brandhorst; C. Carpenter; A. J. Mcdanal

    2006-01-01

    For the past three years, our team has been developing, refining, and maturing a unique solar array technology known as the Stretched Lens Array (SLA). SLA is a cost- effective, modular, scalable, and mass-producible space power technology, offering an unprecedented portfolio of near-term performance metrics, including >300 W\\/m2 power density, >300 W\\/kg specific power, >80 kW\\/m3 stowed power, and 300-600

  17. 50 Year Mark Guidelines Primary 50 Year Mark

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    ciencies of all materials executed with the UCI brand name. Adherence to the UCI 50 Year Mark and Color Primary and Secondary master brand logo. For all materials (digital and print) where the UCI 50 Year Mark will appear with the UCI Primary and Secondary master brand logo. Note: The Secondary UCI 50 Year Mark should

  18. A Modified School Year: Perspectives from the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Eileen C.

    2005-01-01

    A balanced or modified school year is a rearrangement of the traditional school calendar to provide more continuous learning throughout the school year. Students receive the same amount of instructional time as those on the traditional calendar but in-school time is more evenly balanced with out-of-school time throughout the year. It has been the…

  19. Nepal Migration Year Book 2011 Migration Year Book

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Nepal Migration Year Book 2011 1 #12;Nepal Migration Year Book 2011 NIDS NCCR North-South #12;Book Nepal Migration Year Book 2011 Publishers Nepal Institute of Development Studies (NIDS) G.P.O. Box: 7647, Kathmandu, Nepal Email: nids@mail.com.np Web: www.nids.org.np National Centre of Competence in Research

  20. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, L.E.

    1991-12-16

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program.

  1. 2004 YEAR IN TORNADOES: WHAT A YEAR IT WAS!

    E-print Network

    2004 YEAR IN TORNADOES: WHAT A YEAR IT WAS! Daniel McCarthy and Joseph Schaefer NOAA/NWS Storm Prediction Center, Norman, OK 1. INTRODUCTION 2004 will be known as the biggest tornado year since recordkeeping began in 1950. The sheer numbers of tornadoes were unprecedented: 1,819. This number eclipsed

  2. 20 Years of RECONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; RECONS

    2014-01-01

    RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) turns 20 in 2014, so we take this opportunity to review some of the highlights of the RECONS effort over the past two decades. Through comprehensive searches for new nearby stars, as well as characterization of the stars and exploration of their environments, the RECONS team has made significant contributions to our understanding of the solar neighborhood, and of our own place in the Universe. Here we highlight results detailed in more than 30 papers in The Solar Neighborhood series published in The Astronomical Journal, including: (1) a census indicating that at least 75% of all stars are red dwarfs, which have more real estate available for habitable planets than any other type of star, (2) more than 300 new stellar systems with accurate trigonometric parallaxes placing them within 25 pc, including 12 of the nearest 100 systems, (3) thousands of additional nearby star candidates identified through traditional proper motion searches and novel photometric searches for stars exhibiting minimal proper motions, (4) increases of more than 20% in the nearest white dwarf and cool subdwarf populations, (5) discovery of the nearest star, AP Col, younger than 100 million years, (6) knowledge that more than half of stellar systems contain only one star, dominated by the red dwarf multiplicity rate of only about 30%, (7) definition of the smallest main sequence star, with a radius only 9% that of the Sun (smaller than Jupiter) and a temperature of 2100K, and (8) a revelation that the smallest stars are rarely orbited by giant planets, including the elimination of planets down to half a Jupiter mass orbiting Proxima Centauri. As RECONS enters its third decade, we continue our reconnaissance of the solar neighborhood via a comprehensive survey to understand the nature of star formation by determining accurate luminosity and mass functions for the nearest stars. In addition, we are taking an inventory of nearby planets, including an astrometric search of several hundred of the nearest red dwarfs for planetary systems. This effort is supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402 and AST-1109445, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  3. Outcome of left heart mechanical valve replacement in West African children - A 15-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The West African sub-region has poor health infrastructure. Mechanical valve replacement in children from such regions raises important postoperative concerns; among these, valve-related morbidity and complications of lifelong anticoagulation are foremost. Little is known about the long-term outcome of mechanical valve replacement in West Africa. We sought to determine the outcome of mechanical valve replacement of the left heart in children from this sub-region. Method We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive left heart valve replacements in children (< 18 years old) from January 1993 - December 2008. The study end-points were mortality, valve-related morbidity, and reoperation. Results One hundred and fourteen patients underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR), aortic valve replacement (AVR) or mitral and aortic valve replacements (MAVR). Their ages ranged from 6-18 years (13.3 ± 3.1 years). All patients were in NYHA class III or IV. Median follow up was 9.1 years. MVR was performed in 91 (79.8%) patients, AVR in 13 (11.4%) and MAVR in 10 (8.8%) patients. Tricuspid valve repair was performed concomitantly in 45 (39.5%) patients. There were 6 (5.3%) early deaths and 6 (5.3%) late deaths. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction < 45%) was the most important factor contributing to both early and late mortality. Actuarial survival at 1 and 15 years were 98.1% and 94.0% respectively. Prosthetic valve thrombosis occurred in 5 patients at 0.56% per patient-year. There was 1(0.9%) each of major bleeding event and prosthetic valve endocarditis. Two reoperations were performed at 0.22% per patient-year. Actuarial freedom from reoperation was 99.1% at 1 and 10 years, and 85.1% at 15 years. Conclusion Mechanical valve replacement in West African children has excellent outcomes in terms of mortality, valve-related events, and reoperation rate. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction is the primary determinant of mortality within the first 2 years of valve replacement. The risk of valve-related complications is acceptably low. Anticoagulation is well tolerated with a very low risk of bleeding even in this socioeconomic setting. PMID:21504613

  4. Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds Article Body Throughout her second year, your ... for shelter. She may seem to change from one moment to the next, or she may seem ...

  5. The Breakup of a Main-Belt Asteroid 450 Thousand Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorny, D.; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Bottke, W. F.

    2006-06-01

    Collisions in the asteroid belt frequently lead to catastrophic breakups, where more than half of the target's mass is ejected into space. Several dozen large asteroids have been disrupted by impacts over the past several billion years. These impact events have produced groups of fragments with similar orbits called asteroid families. Here we report the discovery of a very young asteroid family around the object 1270 Datura. Our work takes advantage of a method for identification of recent breakups in the asteroid belt using catalogs of osculating (i.e., instantaneous) asteroid orbits. The very young families show up in these catalogs as clusters in a five-dimensional space of osculating orbital elements.

  6. Rapid variations in atmospheric methane concentration during the past 110,000 years

    SciTech Connect

    Brook, E.J.; Orchardo, J. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States); Sowers, T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-08-23

    A methane record from the GISP2 ice core reveals that millennial-scale variations in atmospheric methane concentration characterized much of the past 110,00 years. As previously observed in a shorter record from central Greenland, abrupt concentration shifts of about 50 to 300 parts per billion by volume were coeval with most of the interstadial warming events (better known as Dansgaard-Oeschger events) recorded in the GISP2 ice core throughout the last glacial period. The magnitude of the rapid concentration shifts varied on a longer time scale in a manner consistent with variations in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, which suggest that insolation may have modulated the effects of interstadial climate change on the terrestrial biosphere. 38 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Through the years with on-a-chip gas chromatography: a review.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, F; Talebpour, Z; Sanati-Nezhad, A

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, the need for measurement and detection of samples in situ or with very small volume and low concentration (low and sub-parts per billion) is a cause for miniaturizing systems via microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology. Gas chromatography (GC) is a common technique that is widely used for separating and measuring semi-volatile and volatile compounds. Conventional GCs are bulky and cannot be used for in situ analysis, hence in the past decades many studies have been reported with the aim of designing and developing chip-based GC. The focus of this review is to follow and investigate the development and the achievements in the field of chip-based GC and its components from the beginning up to the present. PMID:25994317

  8. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

  9. Providers issue brief: tobacco: excise taxes: year end report-2003.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Andrew

    2003-12-31

    All 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the federal government impose excise taxes on cigarettes and have done so for many years. State tobacco taxes range from a high of $2.05 per pack of cigarettes in New Jersey to a low of $0.03 in Virginia per pack. The federal government levies an excise tax that increased by $0.05 on Jan. 1, 2002, to $0.39 per package. Cigarette taxes are directed at the consumer, while taxes on other tobacco products focus on the wholesaler. In the 2002 legislative sessions, 33 states proposed increases in cigarette excise taxes as a means of addressing budget shortfalls; 20 states enacted increases. Increasing tobacco excise taxes may decrease tobacco usage and increase state revenue. Increasing cigarette taxes is a means of generating revenue that generally is supported by public opinion. For instance, a 2003 poll in Ohio found that 63 percent of the public favored increasing cigarette excise taxes as long as the revenue is used for health care purposes. Cigarette excise taxes was again an area of substantial legislative interest and activity due to continued state budget deficits. A February 2003 NCSL study of state budget shortfalls indicated that the current cumulative budget gap is approximately $25.7 billion for fiscal year (FY) 2003. State revenues were sluggish and generally most failed to meet budgeted levels. At least 30 states noted that general fund collections were below budgeted estimates, and 12 states reported that collections failed to meet revised levels. Although the additional tax revenue generated by raising excise taxes may not eliminate state budget shortfalls, the revenue may provide funds for specific state programs.This issue brief provides an overview of the policy issue, a brief history of tobacco taxation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, an overview of legislative activity in 2003, and a state-by-state map of state tobacco taxes. PMID:14870719

  10. The Great War: 80 Years On: BBC

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    November 11 marks the 80th anniversary of the armistice that ended "the war to end all wars," a conflict which took as many as ten million lives, wiped out a generation of young men in Europe, and helped to spark a revolution in Russia. This new site from the BBC commemorates the war and offers users a number of interesting resources. Multimedia offerings include a ten-minute video collage of photos and newsreel footage produced by the Imperial War Museum and a selection of fascinating and poignant audio interviews of veterans, including one man who was just fourteen when he left to fight in France. The site also contains a selection of soldiers' letters home, overviews of four major battles (Gallipoli, Verdun, the Somme, and Passchendaele), and a number of topical articles.

  11. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, L.E.

    1991-12-16

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven`s Medical Research Center program.

  12. Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2008-09-01

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, fourteen local earthquakes were recorded during the third quarter of fiscal year 2008. The largest event recorded by the network during the third quarter (May 18, 2008 - magnitude 3.7 Mc) was located approximately 17 km east of Prosser at a depth of 20.5 km. With regard to the depth distribution, five earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earthquakes were classified as random events. The largest event recorded by the network during the third quarter occurred on May 18 (magnitude 3.7 Mc) and was located approximately 17 km east of Prosser at a depth of 20.5 km. This earthquake was the highest magnitude event recorded in the 46-47 N. latitude / 119-120 W. longitude sector since 1975. The May 18 event, not reported as being felt on the Hanford site or causing any damage, was communicated to the PNNL Operations Center per HSAP communications procedures. The event is not considered to be significant with regard to site safety and not unprecedented given the site’s seismic history. The Hanford strong motion accelerometer (SMA) stations at the 200 East Area, 300 Area, and the 400 Area were triggered by the May 18 event. The reportable action level of 2% g for Hanford facilities is approximately 12 times larger than the peak acceleration (0.17%) observed at the 300 Area SMA station and no action was required.

  13. Chandra Sees Shape of Universe During Formative, Adolescent Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have taken a snapshot of the adolescent universe from about five billion years ago when the familiar web-like structure of galaxy chains and voids first emerged. The observation reveals distant and massive galaxies dotting the sky, clustered together under the gravitational attraction of deep, unseen pockets of dark matter. This provides important clues of how the universe matured from its chaotic beginnings to its elegant structure we see today. These results are presented today in a press conference at the meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society at Mt. Tremblant, Quebec. "Piece by piece, we are assembling a photo album of the universe through the ages," said Yuxuan Yang, a doctorate candidate at the University of Maryland, College Park, who conducted the analysis. "Last month we saw a picture of the infant universe taken with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Now we can add a snapshot of its adolescence." The Chandra observation traced a patch of sky known as the Lockman Hole in the constellation Ursa Major (containing the Big Dipper). Chandra saw a rich density of active galaxies, seven times denser than what has been detected in previous optical and radio surveys at similar distances. This provides the clearest picture yet at the large-scale structure of the universe at such distances (and age), according to Dr. Richard Mushotzky of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., who led the observation. Lockman Hole JPEG, TIFF, PS An image that has been "blurred" to allow better view of the structures outlined by the X-ray sources. The color represents the spectra of the AGN. The red color indicates the sources on average radiates at longer wavelength while green and blue colors indicates the sources radiates at shorter wavelength. The Green and blue regions appear to form a wall, or shows more lumpiness than the "red" sources. If one could capture the universe in a box, scientists say that the large scale structure -- that is, galaxies, galaxy clusters and voids of seemingly empty space -- takes the appearance of a web. Galaxies and intergalactic gas are strung like pearls on unseen filaments of dark matter, which comprises over 85 percent of all matter. Galaxies are attracted to dark matter's gravitational potential. Dark matter does not shine, like ordinary matter made of atoms, and may very well be intrinsically different. Chandra's observation of distant galaxies in the Lockman Hole, spread out over several billion light years from Earth, essentially maps the distribution of dark matter. This provides clues to how the universe grew. "We are seeing the universe during its formative years," said Mushotzky. "This is billions of years after galaxies were born, during a period when the universe began to take on the trappings of an adult." The galaxies that the team saw with Chandra were either dim or altogether undetectable with optical and radio telescopes. This may be because they are enshrouded in dust and gas, which blocks radio waves and optical light. X-rays, a higher-energy form of light, can penetrate this shroud. "Chandra is the only X-ray telescope with a spatial resolution comparable to the optical telescopes," according to Dr. Amy Barger of University of Wisconsin at Madison, who led the optical follow-up with the 10-meter Keck telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. "This is critical to unambiguously identify the optical counterparts of the X-ray sources and measuring distances, or redshifts. This allows scientists to create a three-dimensional image of the large-scale structure." The additive effect of future deep and long Chandra surveys over the next few years will provide an even sharper picture of the young universe. Other scientists who participated in this observation include Drs. Len Cowie and Dave Sanders of the University of Hawaii, and Ph.D. student Aaron Steffen of the University of Wisconsin at Madison. NASA's Mar

  14. From the Primitive Soup to Cyanobacteria: It May have Taken Less Than 10 Million Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Stanley L.; Lazcano, Antonio

    1996-01-01

    Most scientific discussions on the likelihood of extraterrestrial life have been constrained by the characteristics of life on our planet and the environmental conditions under which it may have emerged. Although it has been generally assumed that this process must have been extremely slow, involving hundreds of millions or even billions of years, a number of recent discoveries have led to a considerable compression of the time believed necessary for life to appear. It is now recognized that during its early history the Earth and other bodies of the inner Solar System went through a stage of intense collisions. Some of these impacts by large asteroids or comets may have raised the terrestrial surface to sterilizing temperatures and may have evaporated the oceans and killed off life as late as 3.8 x 10(exp 9) years ago. However, there is also ample paleontological evidence derived from the 3.5 x 10(exp 9) year old Warrawoona sediments showing that only 300 million years after the period of intense impacts ended, our planet was populated by phototactic, stromatolite-forming microorganisms. Although these discoveries are now generally interpreted to imply that the origin and early evolution of life were rapid, no attempts have been made to estimate the actual time required for these processes to occur.

  15. ADS on WWW: Doubling Yearly for Five Years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Kurtz; G. Eichhorn; A. Accomazzi; C. S. Grant; S. S. Murray

    1998-01-01

    It is now five years since the NASA ADS Abstract Service became available on the World Wide Web, in late winter of 1994. Following the explosive growth of the service (when compared with the old propriatory network access system) in the early months of WWW service, ADS growth has settled to doubling yearly. Currently ADS users make 440,000 queries per

  16. ANNA: 20 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Jordan, P S

    1989-05-01

    Editor's note--The year 1989 marks the 20th year of progress for the American Nephrology Nurses' Association (ANNA). In this special anniversary issue, Journal staff and advisors have taken time to reflect back on the historical events and leaders who helped form the association. This article examines ANNA's history year by year, from the struggles and visions of a small group of nephrology nurses who founded the organization in Atlantic City, New Jersey in April 1969 to the association's position today as a leader in professional nursing and as a promoter of quality care to nephrology patients. PMID:2658868

  17. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2014-12-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which strengthen the economy. This report quantifies these effects, providing detailed information on PNNL’s revenues and expenditures, as well as the impacts of its activities on the rest of the Washington State economy. This report also describes the impacts of the four closely related activities: health care spending, spinoff companies with roots in PNNL, visitors to the Laboratory, and PNNL retirees.

  18. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  19. Kyoto University 1 Year Contents

    E-print Network

    Takada, Shoji

    1949 Reorganized on four-year schooling basis (with the exception of six years for medicine) under the new education system. Faculty of Education established. Branch School established for general education of freshmen and sophomores. 1951 Disaster Prevention Research Institute established. 1953 Graduate

  20. Kyoto University 1 Year Contents

    E-print Network

    Takada, Shoji

    Renamed Kyoto University 1949 Reorganized on four-year schooling basis (with the exception of six years for medicine) under the new education system. Faculty of Education established. Branch School established for general education of freshmen and sophomores. 1951 Disaster Prevention Research Institute established

  1. Reaching First Year College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Kate Boyd-Byrnes; Dona McDermott

    2007-01-01

    In light of the new emphasis on information literacy, this research updates previous studies and explores current practices in first year library instruction and programming. Academic librarians are reaching out to freshmen seminar programs, first year orientations, Introduction to College courses, and English composition courses to integrate information-literacy instruction into the curriculum of these programs. This study will examine how

  2. Language Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 2 Year Olds Article Body Your two-year-old not only understands most of what you say to him, but also speaks with a rapidly growing vocabulary of fifty ... how he also is using language to describe ideas and information and to express ...

  3. Language Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 1 Year Olds Article Body Early in the second year, your toddler will ... Teach him the correct names of objects and body parts, and stop using cute substitutes ... By providing a good language model, you’ll help him learn to talk ...

  4. FISCAL YEAR 20032004 FINANCIAL REPORT

    E-print Network

    FISCAL YEAR 2003­2004 FINANCIAL REPORT to the board of overseers of HARVARD COLLEGE #12;2 Letter's fiscal 2004 financial report. This past year the University has made significant progress in examining from the President 4 Letter to the Board of Overseers 8 Analysis of financial results 16 Review

  5. A Global Need, a Global Resource Nuclear Power and the New Millennium: In Contrast to the 25 Billion Tons of Carbon Dioxide Emitted into the Atmosphere Each Year as Fossil Fuel Waste, the Spent Fuel Produced Yearly from All the World's Reactors Would Fit inside a Two-Story Structure Built on a Basketball Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    The technological literacy standards were developed to act as a beacon for educators to guide them in their quest to develop a population of technically literate citizens who possess the skills, abilities, and knowledge necessary to actively and constructively participate in the democratic, technologically dependent society of the United States.…

  6. Reindustrialization: East Tennessee Technology Park - a year later

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.W. [DOE Oak Ridge Operations, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    DOE`s Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) continues to be a vital part of the nation`s energy and defense complex. Accordingly ORO must continue to position itself to take advantage of unique strengths and capabilities developed over the past five decades. This repositioning must always occur in the context of national policy debates and sometimes harsh budget realities. One important fact needs to be reinforced, the long-term budget situation, which has been termed the billion-dollar challenge, is going to cast a long shadow over every strategic decision made at ORO. A little less than two years ago Jim Hall, Manager of Oak Ridge Operations, began an effort to refocus the long term goals of the DOE Oak Ridge Complex. He called this new road map for the future Oak Ridge Vision 2010, and this vision statement acknowledges DOE`s significant economic and technical ties in the East Tennessee region and its role in maintaining a vigorous economic climate. Reindustrialization, a key component in the Oak Ridge vision, has been defined as a method of accomplishment for decontamination and decommissioning, that uses the value of DOE assets in the form of surplus materials and underutilized equipment and facilities, to attract private sector investment in facility clean-up. Reindustrialization is one of the vehicles through which ORO is realizing its vision of transforming the Oak Ridge Complex into an economically viable integrated science, education, technology, and industrial complex operated in partnership with the private sector. Reindustrialization is also an opportunity for this region to `privatize` and reduce its dependence on an ever-decreasing federal budget.

  7. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently possible or economical.

  8. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Laney

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently possible or economical.

  9. Clinical features and follow up of 302 patients with Mycobacterium kansasii pulmonary infection: a 50 year experience

    PubMed Central

    Maliwan, N; Zvetina, J

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To analyse clinical features and treatment outcomes of patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection treated at Hines VA Hospital between 1952 and 1995, and followed up until 2003. Findings: 302 patients were confirmed to have M kansasii pulmonary infection; diagnosis was not made until death in 2%. The average age was 50 years old; 76% were white; all were men. Productive cough, dyspnoea, and chest pain were common; 16% were asymptomatic. Right sided, apical or subapical, thin walled cavitary infiltrate was the characteristic radiological feature. Heavy smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, alcoholism, peptic ulcer disease, coronary artery disease, prior tuberculosis, psychosis, prior pneumonia, and immunocompromising conditions were prevalent. Average follow up was 10 years and 2 months. PPD was positive in 58% of 179 tested. Two thirds of the patients required only first line drugs. Fourteen per cent required surgical intervention, none after 1977. Spontaneous resolution occurred in 1%. Aspergillosis developed in 4%. Bronchogenic carcinoma coexisted with M kansasii infection in 6% and followed it in 4%. Extrapulmonary malignancy coexisted with the infection in 4% and followed it in 6%; most involved head and neck. Eleven per cent of 224 deaths were attributed to M kansasii. Outcomes were affected by comorbidity, treatment compliance, rifampicin use, and extent of infection. Conclusions: Prognosis of M kansasii pulmonary infection is good if diagnosed and treated early, together with control of underlying conditions. Clinicians should be aware of atypical radiological manifestations of the disease when coexisting with other pulmonary or immunocompromising conditions. PMID:16085747

  10. Factors that predict financial sustainability of community coalitions: five years of findings from the PROSPER partnership project.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Johnson, Lesley E; Perkins, Daniel F; Welsh, Janet A; Spoth, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    This study is a longitudinal investigation of the Promoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) partnership model designed to evaluate the level of sustainability funding by community prevention teams, including which factors impact teams' generation of sustainable funding. Community teams were responsible for choosing, implementing with quality, and sustaining evidence-based programs (EBPs) intended to reduce substance misuse and promote positive youth and family development. Fourteen US rural communities and small towns were studied. Data were collected from PROSPER community team members (N?=?164) and prevention coordinators (N?=?10) over a 5-year period. Global and specific aspects of team functioning were assessed over six waves. Outcome measures were the total funds (cash and in-kind) raised to implement prevention programs. All 14 community teams were sustained for the first 5 years. However, there was substantial variability in the amount of funds raised, and these differences were predicted by earlier and concurrent team functioning and by team sustainability planning. Given the sufficient infrastructure and ongoing technical assistance provided by the PROSPER partnership model, local sustainability of EBPs is achievable. PMID:24706195

  11. Visualizing Twenty Years of Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Potel, Mike; Wong, Pak C.

    2014-11-01

    This issue of IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications marks the 20th anniversary of the Applications department as a regular feature of the magazine. We thought it might be interesting to look back at the 20 years of Applications department articles to assess its evolution over that time. By aggregating all twenty years of articles and applying a little statistical and visual analytics, we’ve uncovered some interesting characteristics and trends we thought we’d share to mark this 20 year milestone.

  12. Social Development:: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 2 Year Olds Article Body By nature, ... and they serve as valuable rehearsals for future social encounters. They’ll also help you appreciate the ...

  13. Today's Date_______/________/________ (Month) (Day) (Year)

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Today's Date_______/________/________ (Month) (Day) (Year) Private Swim Instruction Fees/Packages **Registrant must have current recreation membership to participate in private swim lessons** 1 Lesson $25 3_____________________________________________________________________________________ (Last) (First) (MI) UCard# __________________________________________ Age________________ Male Female

  14. First Year: Clear, cold day

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    First Year: A Gap [I] Clear, cold day Girl sitting on the corner Pile of stained napkins Bright red is invading my brain But Somewhere between the Knowing and Helping There is a gap. By Julia Armendariz, MS1

  15. Welcome to the New Year!

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damian P Hampshire

    2008-01-01

    I have the privilege of taking over from Professor Gordon Donaldson as Editor-in-Chief of Superconductor Science and Technology (SuST) for the next two years. During the last ten years, he has refereed several thousand papers and ensured that SuST has the highest impact factor of any specialist journal in the field. It is a pleasure to take this opportunity to

  16. EDITORIAL: Welcome to the New Year!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampshire, D. P.

    2008-01-01

    I have the privilege of taking over from Professor Gordon Donaldson as Editor-in-Chief of Superconductor Science and Technology (SuST) for the next two years. During the last ten years, he has refereed several thousand papers and ensured that SuST has the highest impact factor of any specialist journal in the field. It is a pleasure to take this opportunity to thank him on behalf of our whole community. It is a great time to be involved with superconductivity. Following the physics Nobel prize in 2003 for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductivity and superfluidity, many of us hope that another Nobel prize will be awarded for contributions to superconductivity when the mechanism that causes high temperature superconductivity (HTS) is explained. The mechanism for HTS currently provides one of the most important challenges for basic science. We also have the successes associated with large-scale superconducting systems including the LHC and the $10 billion ITER fusion tokomak to look forward to. Since the management of energy resources will be one of the critical issues in the 21st century, superconductivity will have an important contribution to make to the development of new technologies. It is one of the exciting and rewarding aspects of research in superconductivity where many world-class basic and applied research groups collaborate. In this context, SuST is well-positioned to broaden the scope and appeal of the journal and publish the best papers in both the science and technology of superconductivity. I would like to encourage scientists in all fields of superconductivity to submit their papers to the journal. Here are three reasons why SuST has already become the leading specialist journal in superconductivity: The average publication time, if your paper is accepted, is around 80 days from submission to online publication; All papers published are free to download from the web for 30 days from publication; SuST has the highest impact factor of all journals specialising in superconductivity. Further improvements, implemented from this January issue onwards, include: The introduction of article numbering which will speed up the publication process. Papers in different issues can be published online as soon as they are ready, without having to wait for a whole issue or section to be allocated page numbers. This will improve submission to publication times. Bringing the journal into line with other IOP journals so that reports from two referees are required for each paper prior to an acceptance/rejection decision. Refreshing the design of SuST's cover, modernising the typography and creating a consistent look and feel across the range of journals. Naturally we have also been asking how SuST and IOP Publishing can help the superconductivity community meet the challenges of the future and maintain the broad international readership that supports SuST. Clearly a specialist journal like SuST has a very different role in our community from general science journals such as Science and Nature. However the superconductivity community would benefit if publication in SuST brought with it the prestige of a yet higher impact factor, comparable to the very best physics, chemistry and engineering journals. In this context, I have identified the following aims for the Editorial Board: To increase the impact factor of SuST; To broaden the scope and size of the journal by increasing its profile and publishing the best papers in superconductivity— both in basic science and in technology; To improve the refereeing process by eliminating the tail of low impact papers submitted to SuST and reducing the time from submission to online availability; To make SuST the natural place to publish invited papers from the best of the community's pure and applied conferences and workshops; To improve the effectiveness of the Editorial Board; To improve the services that IOP Publishing provides for the superconductivity community. I am looking forward to working with IOP— one of the fabulous (not-for-profit) learned societies in th

  17. Assessment of crop yield losses in Punjab and Haryana using two years of continuous in-situ ozone measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, B.; Singh Sangwan, K.; Maurya, Y.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Chandra, B. P.; Sinha, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we use a high quality dataset of in-situ ozone measurements at a suburban site called Mohali in the state of Punjab to estimate ozone related crop yield losses for wheat, rice, cotton and maize for Punjab and the neighbouring state Haryana for the years 2011-2013. We inter-compare crop yield loss estimates according to different exposure metrics such as AOT40 and M7 for the two major crop growing seasons of Kharif (June-October) and Rabi (November-April) and establish a new crop yield exposure relationship for South Asian wheat and rice cultivars. These are a factor of two more sensitive to ozone induced crop yield losses compared to their European and American counterparts. Relative yield losses based on the AOT40 metrics ranged from 27-41% for wheat, 21-26% for rice, 9-11% for maize and 47-58% for cotton. Crop production losses for wheat amounted to 20.8 million t in fiscal year 2012-2013 and 10.3 million t in fiscal year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana jointly. Crop production losses for rice totalled 5.4 million t in fiscal year 2012-2013 and 3.2 million t year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana jointly. The Indian National Food Security Ordinance entitles ~ 820 million of India's poor to purchase about 60 kg of rice/wheat per person annually at subsidized rates. The scheme requires 27.6 Mt of wheat and 33.6 Mt of rice per year. Mitigation of ozone related crop production losses in Punjab and Haryana alone could provide >50% of the wheat and ~10% of the rice required for the scheme. The total economic cost losses in Punjab and Haryana amounted to USD 6.5 billion in the fiscal year 2012-2013 and USD 3.7 billion in the fiscal year 2013-2014. This economic loss estimate represents a very conservative lower limit based on the minimum support price of the crop, which is lower than the actual production costs. The upper limit for ozone related crop yield losses in entire India currently amounts to 3.5-20% of India's GDP. Mitigation of high surface ozone would require relatively little investment in comparison to economic losses incurred presently. Therefore, ozone mitigation can yield massive benefits in terms of ensuring food security and boosting the economy. Co-benefits of ozone mitigation also include a decrease in the ozone related mortality, morbidity and a reduction of the ozone induced warming in the lower troposphere.

  18. Quantitative Assessment of Destruxins from Strawberry and Maize in the Lower Parts per Billion Range: Combination of a QuEChERS-Based Extraction Protocol with a Fast and Selective UHPLC-QTOF-MS Assay.

    PubMed

    Taibon, Judith; Sturm, Sonja; Seger, Christoph; Strasser, Hermann; Stuppner, Hermann

    2015-06-17

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum is widely applied as a biological pest control agent. Consequently, its use has to be accompanied by a risk management approach, which includes the need to monitor the fate of its bioactive metabolites in the environment, for example, in treated crops. A fast and selective UHPLC-QTOF-MS method was developed to monitor the presence of secreted destruxins in two model food plants for the application of this fungal biocontrol agent, namely, strawberry and maize. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric assay for destruxin trace analysis is combined with a novel QuEChERS-based extraction protocol. The whole assay was optimized for the application in these crops, and it allows quantitative analysis of the major M. brunneum metabolites destruxin A, 1, destruxin B, 2, and destruxin E, 3, down to the parts per billion range. In strawberry, limits of quantitation (LOQs) were found to be <2.0 ppb for all analytes; in maize LOQs were found to be <3.2 ppb for destruxin A and destruxin B. Destruxin E showed a distinctive loss of recovery in maize and was excluded from further quantitative analysis in this crop. For both crops assay linearities ranged from the LOQs to 100 ppb, interassay repeatabilities (RSD) were found to be better than 16.4%, and accuracies ranged from 83.5 to 105.3% (assessed at four spiking levels between 5 and 75 ppb). PMID:26005897

  19. 35 years of DEB research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Jaap; Klok, Chris; Kearney, Michael R.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2014-11-01

    Research on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory started 35 years ago. Initially much emphasis was put on the development of a consistent theory. During recent years attention was paid on parameterizing DEB models for a huge collection of species. This enables the search for patterns in parameter values in an ecological and evolutionary context. This special issue presents some of the results of this quest, among other things focusing on the development of metabolic acceleration, combined with various applications of DEB theory in fisheries, aquaculture, climate science and ecotoxicology.

  20. Chinese TV: Better Broadcasting for the Billion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollstein, Milton

    Chinese television started in 1958 but variety in programming and production of sets priced within reach of individuals were slowed by the Cultural Revolution. Since the economic and political reform movement began in 1979, Chinese television has been maturing as an important cultural and political force. The People's Republic of China is a Third…

  1. Billions of Us: Scale and Population

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amy R. Taylor

    2009-04-01

    Population is increasingly important as both a scientific and a political subject. The world is getting more crowded. Providing students with the tools to understand population numbers is not only important for their basic understanding of their world, but it is also essential for their future navigation of social and political subjects ranging from energy use and the environment to globalization and the economy. How many people live in your city? Your state? Your country? Your world? How many people live in the United States versus China? This exercise helps students explore the magnitudes of populations and build familiarity with the scales of city, country, and world populations. A related exercise explores the connection between population and energy consumption by comparing the populations of various countries and their corresponding use of oil. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Introduction, and Index. As a special bonus, the chapter entitled, That's Hot! The Effect of Size on Rate of Heat Loss is also included.

  2. Food and Population: Beyond Five Billion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The principle cause of hunger and malnutrition is poverty. The extent of popular access to gainful employment, to arable land, to suitable technologies determines nutritional status more than aggregate food production. World food production is rising; but population is also increasing, along with the numbers of those who, either temporarily or…

  3. The "One in a Billion" Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, O. K.

    1985-01-01

    Recounts an incident in an Arizona high school where a student made a miraculous recovery from a near-death incident. Despite negative predictions from the treating physicians, the student leads a normal life again. (MD)

  4. Employment Initiatives. Third Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Human Resources, Baltimore.

    The third operational year of the Employment Initiatives (EI) saw expansion throughout Maryland with the addition of new projects in Anne Arundel, Allegany, Dorchester, Frederick, and Harford counties during October 1984. In July 1985, other projects were funded in Baltimore City, Southern Maryland, and Montgomery County. EI offered a package of…

  5. Employment Initiatives. Second Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Human Resources, Baltimore.

    During its second year, Maryland's Employment Initiatives (EI) program continued to help Aid for Dependent Children applicants and recipients obtain unsubsidized employment. It provided employment and training opportunities to Work Incentive Demonstration Program participants at two sites: Baltimore City (OPTIONS) and Wicomico County (Basic…

  6. EDITORIAL: Chernobyl20 years on

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Wakeford

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years ago on 26 April 2006, the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident occurred (or, more precisely, the explosion that marked the start of the accident occurred - the resultant fire lasted several days). This is by far the largest unintentional release of radioactive material into the environment and caused widespread contamination in Europe, which was sufficiently great in the vicinity

  7. Fifty Years of Aeronautical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains a detailed review of the aeronautical research conducted at Langley Research Center during the 50 years after its construction in 1917 as the first research laboratory for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The research is discussed in five parts, by decades: 1917-27, 1928-37, 1938-47, 1948-57, 1958-67.…

  8. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 01400 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 01300 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

  9. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 117 + BIOL 118 GENERAL BIOLOGY II and LAB Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 115 + BIOL 116 GENERAL BIOLOGY I and LAB Introductory Chemistry

  10. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BI 202 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BI 201 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY

  11. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 152 / BY 52 MODERN BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 150 / BY 50 MODERN BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

  12. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY SC 139 INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY: ANIMALS AND PLANTS Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY SC 135 INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY: MOLECULES AND CELLS Introductory Chemistry

  13. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 156 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 155 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

  14. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 116 GENERAL BIOLOGY 2 Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 115 GENERAL BIOLOGY 1 Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

  15. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

  16. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 220 BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 210 BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY I CHE 201

  17. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 110 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 109 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

  18. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 1520 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 1510 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

  19. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 1580 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 1570 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

  20. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 105 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 104 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

  1. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 132 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY 2 Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 131 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY 1 Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

  2. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 152 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 151 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

  3. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BI 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY 2 Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BI 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY 1 Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY

  4. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

  5. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 117 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 118 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY II Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

  6. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 106H GENERAL BIOLOGY II HONORS Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 105H GENERAL BIOLOGY I HONORS Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

  7. BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BI 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BI 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY

  8. Intestinal amoebiasis for 36 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Johnston; J. B. Stewart; D. M. Roberts

    1980-01-01

    A case is reported of amoebic dysentery in a former soldier who had symptoms of Entamoeba histolytica infection for 36 years. It emphasizes the need for careful search for parasites in the stools of any patient with bowel symptoms because the consequences of wrong diagnosis are potentially catastrophic.

  9. CEC Teacher of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Lynda

    1995-01-01

    This interview with Brenda Jean Robbins, a Florida music therapist and teacher selected as 1995 Teacher of the Year by the Council for Exceptional Children, reveals her views about music therapy, goals, relationship of music therapy to the special education classroom, musical performance, and getting parents involved. (DB)

  10. Extramural Activities, Fiscal Year 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The Adult Development and Aging Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development supports research and training relevant to the biological and behavioral changes that occur in humans with increasing age from the adult years through maturity and old age. Supported are research projects, training projects, special and…

  11. Children's Order 10 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Ten years ago I wrote an article on the Children's Order, which was coming into force in Northern Ireland in October 1996. I examined the principles behind the Children's Order and considered how these principles interacted with the practice of family mediation (at that stage I was Coordinator of the Family Mediation service). Since that date…

  12. Annual Report Fiscal Year 2013

    E-print Network

    Mission The Graduate Program in Genetics provides students with a working knowledge of human functionalAnnual Report Fiscal Year 2013 LSU Health Sciences Center Department of Genetics #12;DEPARTMENT OF GENETICS ANNUAL REPORT FY 2013 Table of Contents Mission Department of Genetics Mission

  13. Cryptographic technology: fifteen year forecast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Whitfield Diffie

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the forces driving public development of cryptography today and projects the course of the field over the next fifteen years with attention to the possible influence of government regulation.This paper was prepared, under contractual arrangements to CRC Systems, in support of the Commerce Department (National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Special Projects Office) response to a White House

  14. Yearbook 1988. IWGIA: 20 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Andrew

    The theme of this yearbook is the work of the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) during the 20 years of its existence and the enormous growth of the indigenous movement in that time. Section 1 traces IWGIA's history and includes the annual report for 1988. Section 2 is a global view of the main events in the indigenous world…

  15. Objectives Meds Year 2 Neurophysiology

    E-print Network

    Vilis, Tutis

    in Parkinson and Huntington's disease. · Compare the motor deficits in cerebellar diseases and those of the basal ganglia in Parkinson disease. 7. Auditory Physiology · What are the functions of the middle earObjectives Meds Year 2 Neurophysiology Tutis Vilis 1. The Eye · List at least four factors that can

  16. Columbine High: Five Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Marianne D.

    2004-01-01

    A few weeks before the fifth anniversary of the Columbine High School shootings on April 20, 1999, Principal Frank DeAngelis reflects on how his school has changed over the past five years. Much like the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States, "Columbine" carries a chilling meaning that resonates across the country. That…

  17. Fuel ethanol after 25 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan E Wheals; Luiz C Basso; Denise M. G Alves; Henrique V Amorim

    1999-01-01

    After 25 years, Brazil and North America are still the only two regions that produce large quantities of fuel ethanol, from sugar cane and maize, respectively. The efficiency of ethanol production has steadily increased and valuable co-products are produced, but only tax credits make fuel ethanol commercially viable because oil prices are at an all-time low. The original motivation for

  18. financial report fiscal year 2013

    E-print Network

    financial report fiscal year 2013 #12;tableofcontents 2 message from the president 3 financial overview 8 message from the ceo of harvard management company 13 independent auditor's report 14 financial statements 18 notes to financial statements #12;2 harvarduniversitymessagefromthepresident I write to report

  19. Bisphosphonates: The first 40 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Graham G. Russell

    2011-01-01

    The first full publications on the biological effects of the diphosphonates, later renamed bisphosphonates, appeared in 1969, so it is timely after 40years to review the history of their development and their impact on clinical medicine.This special issue of BONE contains a series of review articles covering the basic science and clinical aspects of these drugs, written by some of

  20. Natural Enemies Associated with Avocado Thrips in Ventura County Avocado Groves: Results of a pilot study and year one of a three-year survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Oevering; Ben Faber; Phil Phillips

    Fourteen avocado groves were surveyed by leaf samples, beat samples and sticky cards to assess avocado thrips (AT) and natural enemies (NE) populations in avocado trees in 2003. In the groves, the presence of NE and AT between January and September was only slightly affected by a single abamectin treatment, with Chrysopa sp. being the only NE significantly impacted. In

  1. Joint Honours BA in Communication and Political Science 120 credits (4 years) Total 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year

    E-print Network

    Sankoff, David

    Joint Honours BA in Communication and Political Science ­ 120 credits (4 years) Total 1st year 2nd Research Methods in Communication POL2156 Foundations of Research in Political Science CMN3105 Media Ethics CMN3109 Theories of Communication CMN3130 Communication Planning CMN3133 Political Communication 3

  2. INTRODUCTION Every year in the United States, about six mil-

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yuanzhu Peter

    to automobile crashes. In 2003 alone, these accidents account- ed for $230 billion in damaged property, 2 typically relies on the tail brake light of the car immedi- ately ahead to decide his or her own braking the vehicle ahead too closely, as is often the case, then they may not have enough time to apply the brake

  3. A Tough Year Ahead for Women at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Families across the country are facing hard times. With inflation rising much faster than earnings, unemployment stubbornly high and the government about to embark on the most severe programme of fiscal austerity since the Second World War, living standards are being squeezed and women are on the frontline. With 80 billion British pounds set to be…

  4. Determinants of government HIV/AIDS financing: a 10-year trend analysis from 125 low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Trends and predictors of domestic spending from public sources provide national authorities and international donors with a better understanding of the HIV financing architecture, the fulfillment of governments’ commitments and potential for long-term sustainability. Methods We analyzed government financing of HIV using evidence from country reports on domestic spending. Panel data from 2000 to 2010 included information from 647 country-years amongst 125 countries. A random-effects model was used to analyze ten year trends and identify independent predictors of public HIV spending. Results Low- and middle-income countries spent US$ 2.1 billion from government sources in 2000, growing to US$ 6.6 billion in 2010, a three-fold increase. Per capita spending in 2010 ranged from 5 cents in low-level HIV epidemics in the Middle East to US$ 32 in upper-middle income countries with generalized HIV epidemics in Southern Africa. The average domestic public spending per capita was US$ 2.55. The analysis found that GDP per capita and HIV prevalence are positively associated with increasing levels of HIV-spending from public sources; a 10 percent increase in HIV prevalence is associated with a 2.5 percent increase in domestic funding for HIV. Additionally, a 10 percent increase in GDP per capita is associated with an 11.49 percent increase in public spending for HIV and these associations were highly significant. Conclusion Domestic resources in low- and middle-income countries showed a threefold increase between 2000 and 2010 and currently support 50 percent of the global response with 41 percent coming from sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic spending in LMICs was associated with increased economic growth and an increased burden of HIV. Sustained increases in funding for HIV from public sources were observed in all regions and emphasize the increasing importance of government financing. PMID:23870494

  5. A First Year View of the Galaxy with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    After one year of survey observations and more than 70 billion triggers, Fermi is revealing an unprecedented view of the high energy gamma-ray sky. The observatory carries two instruments, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM, 8 keV - 40 MeV) and the Large Area Telescope (LAT, 20 MeV - X300 GeV), which in combination cover over 7 orders of magnitude in energy. The LAT provides substantially more sensitivity than previous instruments in this waveband and has opened up the energy window from 10-100 GeV. This is particularly relevant for the study of gamma-ray sources in the Galaxy. The first year data have revealed new classes of Galactic emitters as well as providing spectacular detail on some old friends. I'll review the fascinating range of Galactic emission now seen - from pulsars their nebulae to X-ray binaries and supernova remnants - with particular emphasis on the impact of the Fermi pulsars.

  6. Resectable carcinoma developing in the remnant pancreas 7 years and 10 months after distal pancreatectomy for invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, which represents 90% of pancreatic cancers, is one of the most lethal and aggressive malignancies. Operative resection remains the only treatment providing prolonged survival, however, recurrence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma occurs in up to 80% of patients with pancreatic cancer within 2 years of a potential curative resection. There are few reports of pancreatic carcinoma recurrence (primary second cancer) in the remnant pancreas after pancreatectomy. Case presentation A 52-year-old woman underwent a distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer in September 2004. Adjuvant chemotherapy was started after surgery and continued for 4 years. In March 2012, marked elevation of DUPAN-II was observed, followed by an irregular stenotic finding in the main duct. We performed an en bloc resection of the remnant pancreas in July 2012. Histologically, the tumor contained a second primary pancreatic carcinoma with lymph node metastasis. At follow-up 20 months after the second operation, the patient was alive without recurrence. Fourteen cases of resectable cancer developing in the remnant pancreas after a pancreatectomy for cancer have been reported; a minority of these was identified as second primary tumors. Therefore, our patient’s primary second cancer is a rare event. Conclusion The patient is considered to have shown a rare, unique pancreatic cancer recurrence. Persistent elevation of a tumor marker and extensive imaging led to proper diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25034035

  7. Arthroscopic removal of a fragment from an intercondylar eminence fracture of the tibia in a two-year-old horse.

    PubMed

    Mueller, P O; Allen, D; Watson, E; Hay, C

    1994-06-01

    A 2-year-old Standardbred colt was admitted because of lameness of the left hind limb. Physical examination revealed marked effusion of the left femoropatellar and femorotibial joints and grade IV/V lameness of the left hind limb. Radiography of the left stifle revealed a complete fracture of the medial tubercle of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia. Arthroscopy was used to provide diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic information. A cranial approach to the medial compartment of the femorotibial joint was performed. Manipulation of the medial tubercle revealed it to be unstable, but a direct view of the fracture was obscured by the cranial cruciate ligament. The fracture fragment was removed, and visual inspection revealed approximately half of the cranial cruciate ligament at its insertion on the intercondylar eminence to be compromised. Fourteen months after surgery, the horse had trained and had raced without lameness. Accurate evaluation of the intra-articular soft-tissue structures of the stifle is important because ligamentous and/or meniscal injuries often are the limiting factors in determining the potential for a successful outcome and future athletic performance. PMID:8063603

  8. Sports injuries in women: a one-year prospective follow-up study at an outpatient sports clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Kannus, P; Niittymäki, S; Järvinen, M

    1987-01-01

    A one-year prospective follow-up study of all patients visiting Tampere Research Station of Sports Medicine (TRSSM) was carried out in order to determine the specific features of women's sports injuries compared to those of men. During this period 334 women (31%) and 745 men (69%) visited the station. Women were significantly younger than men and the ten most usual sports events causing the injury differed from those of men. In women acute dislocations, contusions, and fractures were significantly less common in men, while women had more frequent stress-related sports injuries. In both sexes the most common sites of trouble were knee, ankle, and lower back, but in women as opposed to men, the metatarsal area, the toes, and the sole were among the ten most usual sites of the injury. Fourteen women (4%) and 49 men (6%) required operative treatment of the injury. The knee was the most common site of operation in both sexes, in women significantly more frequently than in men. PMID:3580728

  9. Clustering of developmental delays in Bavarian preschool children – a repeated cross-sectional survey over a period of 12 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While most children display a normal development, some children experience developmental delays compared to age specific development milestones assessed during school entry examination. Data exist on prevalence of delays in single areas, but there is lack of knowledge regarding the clustering patterns of developmental delays and their determinants. Methods During the observation period 1997-2008, 12 399 preschool children (5-7 years of age) in one district of Bavaria, Germany, were assessed in twelve schooling-relevant development areas. The co-occurrence of developmental delays was studied by means of Pearson’s correlation. Subsequently, a two-step cluster algorithm was applied to identify patterns of developmental delays, and multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify variables associated with the specific patterns. Results Fourteen percent of preschool children displayed developmental delays in one and 19% in two or more of the studied areas. Among those with at least two developmental delays, most common was the combination of delays in "fine motor skills"?+?"grapho-motor coordination" (in 9.1% of all children), followed by "memory/concentration"?+?"endurance" (5.8%) and "abstraction"?+?"visual perception" (2.1%). In the cluster analysis, five distinct patterns of delays were identified, which displayed different associations with male gender and younger age. Conclusions While developmental delays can affect single areas, clustering of multiple developmental delays is common. Such clustering should be taken into account when developing diagnostic tests, in pediatric practice and considering interventions to reduce delays. PMID:24450504

  10. Testing 8000 years of submarine paleoseismicity record offshore western Algeria : First evidence for irregular seismic cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratzov, G.; Cattaneo, A.; Babonneau, N.; Yelles, K.; Bracene, R.; Deverchere, J.

    2012-12-01

    It is commonly assumed that stress buildup along a given fault is proportional to the time elapsed since the previous earthquake. Although the resulting « seismic gap » hypothesis suits well for moderate magnitude earthquakes (Mw 4-5), large events (Mw>6) are hardly predictable and depict great variation in recurrence intervals. Models based on stress transfer and interactions between faults argue that an earthquake may promote or delay the occurrence of next earthquakes on adjacent faults by increasing or lowering the level of static stress. The Algerian margin is a Cenozoic passive margin presently inverted within the slow convergence between Africa and Eurasia plates (~3-6 mm/yr). The western margin experienced two large earthquakes in 1954 (Orléansville, M 6.7) and 1980 (El Asnam, M 7.3), supporting an interaction between the two faults. To get meaningful statistics of large earthquakes recurrence intervals over numerous seismic cycles, we conducted a submarine paleoseismicity investigation based on turbidite chronostratigraphy. As evidenced on the Cascadia subduction zone, synchronous turbidites accumulated over a large area and originated from independent sources are likely triggered by an earthquake. To test the method on a slowly convergent margin, we analyze turbidites from three sediment cores collected during the Maradja (2003) and Prisme (2007) cruises off the 1954-1980 source areas. We use X-ray radioscopy, XRF major elements counter, magnetic susceptibility, and grain-size distribution to accurately discriminate turbidites from hemipelagites. We date turbidites by calculating hemipelagic sedimentation rates obtained with radiocarbon ages, and interpolate the rates between turbidites. Finally, the age of events is compared with the only paleoseismic study available on land (El Asnam fault). Fourteen possible seismic events are identified by the counting and correlation of turbidites over the last 8 ka. Most events are correlated with the paleoseismic record of the El Asnam fault, but uncorrelated events suggest that other faults were active. Only the 1954 event (not the 1980) triggered a turbidity current, implying that the sediment buffer on the continental shelf could not be reloaded in 26 years, thus arguing for a minimum time resolution of our method. The new paleoseismic catalog shows a recurrence interval of 300-700 years for most events, but also a great interval of >1200 years without any major earthquake. This result suggests that the level of static stress may have drastically dropped as a result of three main events occurring within the 800 years prior the quiescence period.

  11. Economic transition FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP)/Fiscal Year Work Plan (FYWP) WBS 7.4.9

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenk, R.M.

    1994-09-01

    The mission of the WHC Economic Transition Center is to support Hanford`s cleanup mission and to leverage the assets of that mission to promote diversification and long-term sustainability of the regional economy and workforce. Conducting an economic transition program is imperative at sites such as Hanford, which are faced with transition from a defense production mission to a massive cleanup mission, followed by rampdown and site closure. At issue are the human and physical resources of the Site and the final disposition of those resources. Without an effective economic transition program, the federal government will have invested billions of dollars to achieve environmental regulatory compliance without generating any greater return on investment. With an effective economic transition program, the potential exists to redeploy the highly skilled, well-trained, and educated workforce developed and utilized during the Site`s cleanup mission and find productive uses for land, facilities, and equipment. The Economic Transition Center has been divided into the following business areas: outsourcing; spinoffs; technology acquisition; technology transfer; conversion; and cross-cutting partnerships. A work package has been developed for each of these business areas in this Fiscal Year Work Plan.

  12. A seven-year follow-up study of 343 adults with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Almind, M; Viskum, K; Evald, T; Dirksen, A; Kok-Jensen, A

    1992-12-01

    A study of 343 urban adult outpatients with a history of bronchial asthma was initiated in 1981. Asthma was verified by a reversibility in airflow obstruction of at least 0.5 1 in forced expiratory volume (FEV1) (70%). The rest of the 343 patients was included because of diurnal variations of at least 100 l/min in peak expiratory flow (PEF) (22%), or because of a characteristic history of asthma (8%). In 1988, a follow-up study was performed. Two hundred-fourteen patients replied (80%), 100 women and 114 men. Fifty-four did not respond, but were known to be alive. Twenty-one had emigrated; of these, the fate of five was unknown. The mortality rate was significantly raised among the men (Standard mortality rate (SMR) = 1.55). In 19%, the cause of death was pulmonary. Seventeen percent were found dead. In these, no cause of death was obvious, and they may have died from an exacerbation of their pulmonary disease. One hundred and forty-four had non-allergic and 69 allergic asthma verified retrospectively by positive skin prick test in 1988. One was not tested and not classified. Seventy-five percent of the whole group were smokers. An annual decline of approximately 90 ml per year in FEV1 was found in both groups and was only partially explained by smoking and ageing. The remaining observed decline in lung function may be caused by asthma. Reversibility of 0.5 l in FEV1 was only maintained in the allergic group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1468265

  13. The International Year of Statistics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    Statistics is a subject for all seasons and years, but 2013 is the International Year of Statistics, a designation supported by almost 1,850 organizations. The primary movers behind this noble activity include the American Statistical Association, the International Biometric Society, and the Royal Statistical Society. The goal of this initiative is to promote "the importance of statistics to the scientific community, business and government data users, the media," and a range of other users. On the website, visitors can make their way through four main sections, including What is Statistics?, Statistics as a Career, Teacher Resources, and Statistics 2013 Posters. The Teacher Resources area is a real pip, as it features teacher resources for over two dozen countries, along with statistics education videos from the United States and Mexico. The site also includes a Statistic of the Day, a quote of the week, and a most efficacious Statistical Word of the Week.

  14. Quantum Tomography twenty years later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, M.; Ibort, A.; Marmo, G.; Ventriglia, F.

    2015-06-01

    We show a sample of some relevant developments in classical and quantum tomography that have taken place over the last twenty years. We will present a general conceptual framework that provides a simple unifying mathematical picture for them and, as an effective use of it, three subjects have been chosen that offer a wide panorama of the scope of classical and quantum tomography: tomography along lines and submanifolds, coherent state tomography and tomography in the abstract algebraic setting of quantum systems.

  15. 5-Year Rate Changes Graph

    Cancer.gov

    This graph provides a quick look at which cancer sites have rising rates and which have falling rates over the most recent 5 years of data. The goal is for every cancer site to have falling mortality. Incidence is a more complex story that requires local knowledge and interpretation. For example, a successful screening program will result in a short term rise in incidence. The Historical Trends graph can be used to look at the trends in rates.

  16. 40 years of neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Frederick

    Wolfgang Pauli and Enrico Fermi pioneered the hypothesis and characteristics of the weak interaction and the elementary particle called the neutrino. Since its discovery some forty years ago the neutrino has been shown to be a fundamental constituent of matter with a surprisingly rich, and in very many ways unexpected, set of characteristics ranging from basic roles in the generation of energy in the sun to supernovæ.

  17. Light Year (l.y.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Murdin

    2000-01-01

    A unit of distance measurement equal to the distance traveled by a ray of light in vacuo in one year. Since light travels at a speed of 299 792 458 m s-1 (186 282 miles s-1), this distance is equivalent to 9.46×1012 km (i.e. 9.46 million million km) or 63 240 astronomical units. The unit is commonly used to express

  18. Richard Serra Sculpture: Forty Years

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    Richard Serra�s work has usually involved very large sculptures, and many of them have tested the limits of museum display techniques. Recently, the Museum of Modern Art mounted a forty-year survey of Serra�s work, and for those who can�t make it to New York, this online collection is a nice way to look at some of the pieces featured at the museum.

  19. Spirit Begins Third Martian Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    As it finished its second Martian year on Mars, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit was beginning to examine a group of angular rocks given informal names corresponding to peaks in the Colorado Rockies. A Martian year the amount of time it takes Mars to complete one orbit around the sun lasts for 687 Earth days. Spirit completed its second Martian year on the rover's 1,338th Martian day, or sol, corresponding to Oct. 8, 2007.

    Two days later, on sol 1,340 (Oct. 10, 2007), Spirit used its front hazard-identification camera to capture this wide-angle view of its robotic arm extended to a rock informally named 'Humboldt Peak.' For the rocks at this site on the southern edge of the 'Home Plate' platform in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills inside Gusev Crater, the rover team decided to use names of Colorado peaks higher than 14,000 feet. The Colorado Rockies team of the National League is the connection to the baseball-theme nomenclature being used for features around Home Plate.

    The tool facing Spirit on the turret at the end of the robotic arm is the Moessbauer spectrometer.

  20. Earth: 15 Million Years Ago

    E-print Network

    Masataka Mizushima

    2008-10-13

    In Einstein's general relativity theory the metric component gxx in the direction of motion (x-direction) of the sun deviates from unity due to a tensor potential caused by the black hole existing around the center of the galaxy. Because the solar system is orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s, the theory shows that the Newtonian gravitational potential due to the sun is not quite radial. At the present time, the ecliptic plane is almost perpendicular to the galactic plane, consistent with this modification of the Newtonian gravitational force. The ecliptic plane is assumed to maintain this orientation in the galactic space as it orbits around the galactic center, but the rotational angular momentum of the earth around its own axis can be assumed to be conserved. The earth is between the sun and the galactic center at the summer solstice all the time. As a consequence, the rotational axis of the earth would be parallel to the axis of the orbital rotation of the earth 15 million years ago, if the solar system has been orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s. The present theory concludes that the earth did not have seasons 15 million years ago. Therefore, the water on the earth was accumulated near the poles as ice and the sea level was very low. Geological evidence exists that confirms this effect. The resulting global ice-melting started 15 million years ago and is ending now.

  1. Thirty years through vanadium chemistry.

    PubMed

    Costa Pessoa, J

    2015-06-01

    The relevance of vanadium in biological systems is known for many years and vanadium-based catalysts have important industrial applications, however, till the beginning of the 80s research on vanadium chemistry and biochemistry did not receive much attention from the scientific community. The understanding of the broad bioinorganic implications resulting from the similarities between phosphate and vanadate(V) and the discovery of vanadium dependent enzymes gave rise to an enormous increase in interest in the chemistry and biological relevance of vanadium. Thereupon the last 30years corresponded to a period of enormous research effort in these fields, as well as in medicinal applications of vanadium and in the development of catalysts for use in fine-chemical synthesis, some of these inspired by enzymatic active sites. Since the 80s my group in collaboration with others made contributions, described throughout this text, namely in the understanding of the speciation of vanadium compounds in aqueous solution and in biological fluids, and to the transport of vanadium compounds in blood plasma and their uptake by cells. Several new types of vanadium compounds were also synthesized and characterized, with applications either as prospective therapeutic drugs or as homogeneous or heterogenized catalysts for the production of fine chemicals. The developments made are described also considering the international context of the evolution of the knowledge in the chemistry and bioinorganic chemistry of vanadium compounds during the last 30years. This article was compiled based on the Vanadis Award presentation at the 9th International Vanadium Symposium. PMID:25843361

  2. International Year of Freshwater 2003

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    Near the conclusion of the year 2000, the United Nations General Assembly created a resolution to proclaim 2002 as the International Year of Freshwater. Given the importance of freshwater to all human, plant, and animal life, this designation seems altogether fitting and timely. As the resolution notes, it is hoped that many governments and political actors will use the year to increase awareness of the importance of sustainable freshwater use, management, and protection. To this end, this helpful Web site provides a host of online resources designed to educate the web-browsing public about various events related to this overriding theme, along with presenting an online library of publications about freshwater. Visitors can read the online newsletter, Splash, along with browsing a water library, organized by themes (such as water and society and ecosystems), and geographic regions. Another compelling feature are the water proverbs taken from a number of areas, including the Middle East and Latin America. Given the global mission of the site it is refreshing to note that many of the materials are also available in French and Spanish. [KMG

  3. AIDS epidemiology: the past ten years, the next ten years.

    PubMed

    Crocchiolo, P R

    1991-01-01

    This article assesses the current seroprevalence of HIV worldwide, examines the patterns of infection over the past 10 years, and discusses the future impact of HIV. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 8 million people have become infected with HIV since the early 1980s. As of November 1990, WHO estimates that some 800,000 people have developed AIDS. 54% of the HIV infections have occurred in Africa, 35% in the Americas, and 8% in Western Europe. The main HIV transmission routes are: 1) sexual intercourse with an infected partner (accounting for 75% of all infections); 2) HIV-infected blood or blood products, which include blood transfusions (5%), IV drug use (10%), and other needle (0.1%); and 3) perinatal transmission from infected mother to infant (10%). The article describes the 3 patterns of HIV infection so far: 1) In industrialized countries and in Latin America, HIV infections appeared in the early 1980s among homosexual men or IV drug users and then spread to the heterosexual population; 2) In Eastern and Central Africa, where heterosexual sex has been the main transmission route, infections began in the late 1970s; 3) In the rest of the world, HIV was not introduced until the mid-1980s, and because of the low prevalence rate, the main transmission route has not yet been determined. By the year 2000, WHO expects some 15-20 million HIV infections among adults and some 5-6 million AIDS cases among adults. In some industrialized countries, AIDS could become the leading cause of death among 20-40 year olds during the 1990s. At the same time, AIDS will have a devastating effect on sub-Saharan Africa's urban population, which will see a great increase in child mortality rates and in the number of orphaned children. PMID:12284242

  4. CTIO: The Next 50 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. C.

    2015-05-01

    After 50 years of solid scientific productivity, CTIO has established a strong reputation as a world-leading international observatory. The next 50 years are filled with opportunities to build on this foundation, continuing to put CTIO at the forefront of astronomy. In the near term (the next 10 years) we will be taking advantage of the power of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to map the southern skies, both as part of Dark Energy Survey (DES) and as part of a wide variety of community projects spanning scientific areas from near-earth asteroids to the most distant gravitationally-lensed galaxies. In addition, we will add new spectroscopic capabilities, both in the optical, with COSMOS, and the near-infrared, with TripleSpec. With the combination of these new facilities with those coming to SOAR, including SAM, SIFS, and STELES, CTIO will provide a highly-efficient suite of capabilities to support astronomers for this decade. And of course we will be preparing for the next decade, which will be the decade of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). CTIO continues to play a central role in supporting the development of LSST during its construction on Cerro Pachón over the next 5 years. However, even more important will be the role CTIO facilities will play in the science of the LSST era. While astronomers will certainly be able to do many new and innovative projects with only the LSST database, a significant fraction of the scientific potential of LSST relies upon optical and infrared followup. The telescopes and instruments of CTIO, from the tenant 1m telescopes to the instruments on the Blanco and SOAR, will be a critical part of the newly rebalanced observing "system". Given that cutting-edge instrumentation can take 5-10 years to move from conception to first light, today is not too early to decide which new instruments we must start developing now in order to fulfill the needs of the community in the next decade.

  5. [Child psychiatric intervention in connection with district psychiatry. A 2-year experimental project with child psychiatric consultation].

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, A M; Gjerris, A

    1995-12-11

    The aim of the study was to describe the requirement for child psychiatric intervention in children of psychiatric patients treated within community psychiatry and to test the possibilities for intervention in practice. The study was carried out in a community psychiatric centre in Copenhagen, to which a child psychiatrist was associated as a consultant for two years. Assessment of known risk factors for child psychiatric illness was carried out in the families of all patients admitted to the centre who had children aged 0-14 years. Intervention was systematically carried out and described. The project was evaluated in a survey among the staff of the centre. Sixty-five patients, of which the majority were women, and 86 children were evaluated. The most frequent diagnoses were psychosis and personality disorder. More than half of the children were less than three years old. Fourteen children had no contact with their ill parent and 13 were placed in care. Ten families were referred to child psychiatric treatment. Primary intervention was carried out in six cases. A questionnaire among the members of the psychiatric staff showed that the project was well accepted and considered to be of great profit to the patients and their children. We conclude that a high frequency of risk factors for child psychiatric illness were identified in families of patients in community psychiatry. The community psychiatric setting made preventive intervention possible at a time where no such measures otherwise would have been taken. It is therefore recommended that child psychiatrists are integrated in community psychiatry as consultants. PMID:8545919

  6. Cognitive Experiences Reported by Borderline Patients and Axis II Comparison Subjects: A 16-year Prospective Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Wedig, Michelle M.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study assesses three main types of cognition: nonpsychotic thought (odd thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, and non-delusional paranoia), quasi-psychotic thought, and true-psychotic thought in borderline patients followed prospectively for 16 years. It also compares the rates of these disturbed cognitions to those reported by axis II comparison subjects. Method The cognitive experiences of 362 inpatients—290 borderline patients and 72 axis II comparison subjects—were assessed at study entry using the cognitive section of the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines. Their cognitive experiences were reassessed every two years using the same interview. Results Each of the five main types of thought studied was reported by a significantly higher percentage of borderline patients than axis II comparison subjects over time. Each of these types of thought, except true-psychotic thought, declined significantly over time for those in both groups. Eleven of the 17 more specific forms of thought studied were also reported by a significantly higher percentage of borderline patients over the years of follow-up: magical thinking, overvalued ideas, recurrent illusions, depersonalization, derealization, undue suspiciousness, ideas of reference, other paranoid ideation, quasi-psychotic delusions, quasi-psychotic hallucinations, and true-psychotic hallucinations. Fourteen specific forms of thought were found to decline significantly over time for those in both groups: all forms of thought mentioned above except true-psychotic hallucinations plus marked superstitiousness, sixth sense, telepathy, and clairvoyance. Conclusions Disturbed cognitions are common among borderline patients and distinguishing for the disorder. They also decline substantially over time but remain a problem, particularly those of a nonpsychotic nature. PMID:23558452

  7. Impact of the Active Healthy Kids Canada report card: a 10-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Barnes, Joel D; Cowie Bonne, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    For 20 years Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) has worked to inspire the country to engage all children and youth in physical activity (PA). The primary vehicle to achieve this is the AHKC Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, which has been released annually since 2005. Using 10 years of experience with this knowledge translation and synthesis mechanism, this paper aggregates and consolidates diverse evidence demonstrating the impact of the Report Card and related knowledge translation activities. Over the years many evaluations, consultations, assessments, and surveys have helped inform changes in the Report Card to improve its impact. Guided by a logic model, the various assessments have traversed areas related to distribution and reach, meeting stakeholder needs, use of the Report Card, its influence on policy, and advancing the mission of AHKC. In the past 10 years, the Report Card has achieved > 1 billion media impressions, distributed > 120,000 printed copies and > 200,000 electronic copies, and benefited from a collective ad value > $10 million. The Report Card has been replicated in 14 countries, 2 provinces, 1 state and 1 city. AHKC has received consistent positive feedback from stakeholders and end-users, who reported that the Report Card has been used for public awareness/education campaigns and advocacy strategies, to strengthen partnerships, to inform research and program design, and to advance and adjust policies and strategies. Collectively, the evidence suggests that the Report Card has been successful at powering the movement to get kids moving, and in achieving demonstrable success on immediate and intermediate outcomes, although the long-term goal of improving the PA of Canadian children and youth remains to be realized. PMID:25426911

  8. 45 CFR 153.220 - Collection of reinsurance contribution funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...plans for the 2014 benefit year, and by September 1 of the calendar year that is two...10 billion in 2014, $6 billion in 2015, and $4 billion in 2016; (2) U...2 billion in 2014, $2 billion in 2015, and $1 billion in 2016; and...

  9. Investigating First Year Education Students' Stress Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen; Midford, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the stress levels of first-year education students who undertake teaching practicum and theory units during their first year of teacher education program. First, 139 first-year and 143 other years' education students completed the PSS-10 scale, which measures perceived level of stress. Then, 147 first-year education…

  10. Fall Semester Year 1 required coursework for

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Year One Year Two Year Three Fall Semester Year 1 required coursework for PharmD, 18 credits PMBA 2100, 2 credits PMBA 2200, 2 credits Total semester credits = 20 Fall Semester Year 2 required coursework for PharmD, 18.5 credits MBA 8211, 2 credits PMBA 2400, 2 credits Total semester credits = 22

  11. Aging Baby Boomers and the Rising Cost of Chronic Back Pain: Secular Trend Analysis of Longitudinal Medical Expenditures Panel Survey Data for Years 2000 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Monica; Davis, Matthew A.; Stano, Miron; Whedon, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purposes of this study were to analyze data from the longitudinal Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS) to evaluate the impact of an aging population on secular trends in back pain and chronicity and to provide estimates of treatment costs for patients who used only ambulatory services. Methods Using the MEPS 2-year longitudinal data for years 2000 to 2007, we analyzed data from all adult respondents. Of the total number of MEPS respondent records analyzed (N = 71 838), we identified 12 104 respondents with back pain and further categorized 3842 as chronic cases and 8262 as nonchronic cases. Results Secular trends from the MEPS data indicate that the prevalence of back pain has increased by 29%, whereas chronic back pain increased by 64%. The average age among all adults with back pain increased from 45.9 to 48.2 years; the average age among adults with chronic back pain increased from 48.5 to 52.2 years. Inflation-adjusted (to 2010 dollars) biennial expenditures on ambulatory services for chronic back pain increased by 129% over the same period, from $15.6 billion in 2000 to 2001 to $35.7 billion in 2006 to 2007. Conclusion The prevalence of back pain, especially chronic back pain, is increasing. To the extent that the growth in chronic back pain is caused, in part, by an aging population, the growth will likely continue or accelerate. With relatively high cost per adult with chronic back pain, total expenditures associated with back pain will correspondingly accelerate under existing treatment patterns. This carries implications for prioritizing health policy, clinical practice, and research efforts to improve care outcomes, costs, and cost-effectiveness and for health workforce planning. PMID:23380209

  12. Vancomycin Revisited – 60 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Ethan; Keynan, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin is one of the older antibiotics that has been now in clinical use close to 60?years. Earlier on, vancomycin was associated with many side effects including vestibular and renal, most likely due to impurities contained in early vancomycin lots. Over the years, the impurities have been removed and the compound has now far less vestibular adverse effects, but still possesses renal toxicity if administered at higher doses rendering trough serum levels of >15?mcg/mL or if administered for prolonged periods of time. Vancomycin is effective against most Gram-positive cocci and bacilli with the exception of rare organisms as well as enterococci that became vancomycin resistant, mostly Enterococcus faecium. The major use of vancomycin today is for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and amoxicillin-resistant enterococci. In its oral form, vancomycin is used to treat diarrhea caused by Clsotridium difficile. With S. aureus, there are only a handful of vancomycin-resistant strains. Nevertheless, a “vancomycin creep” that is slow upward trending of vancomycin MIC from <1?mcg/mL to higher values has been noted in several parts of the world, but not globally, and strains that have MIC’s of 1.5–2?mcg/mL are associated with high therapeutic failure rates. This phenomenon has also been recently recognized in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). While vancomycin is relatively a safe agent adverse events include the “red man” syndrome, allergic reactions, and various bone marrow effects as well as nephrotoxicity. Vancomycin has been a very important tool in our therapeutic armamentarium that remained effective for many years, it is likely remain effective as long as resistance to vancomycin remains controlled. PMID:25401098

  13. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. (eds.) (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  14. AFI's 100 Years 100 Laughs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    On June 13, the American Film Institute (AFI) revealed its list of the 100 funniest movies as chosen by "leaders of the entertainment community" from a list of 500 nominated movies. At this site, users can view both the top 100 list and the 500 nominated films. Each listing links to a short description with principal cast, director, producer, and screenwriter. The list of the 500 nominated films may also be keyword searched by title, cast, director, producer, screenwriter, year, or description. Users can also make their own top ten list and submit it to the site.

  15. Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Lewis

    2009-10-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

  16. Fuel ethanol after 25 years.

    PubMed

    Wheals, A E; Basso, L C; Alves, D M; Amorim, H V

    1999-12-01

    After 25 years, Brazil and North America are still the only two regions that produce large quantities of fuel ethanol, from sugar cane and maize, respectively. The efficiency of ethanol production has steadily increased and valuable co-products are produced, but only tax credits make fuel ethanol commercially viable because oil prices are at an all-time low. The original motivation for fuel-ethanol production was to become more independent of oil imports; now, the emphasis is on its use as an oxygenated gasoline additive. There will only be sufficient, low-cost ethanol if lignocellulose feedstock is also used. PMID:10557161

  17. Exercise During the Childbearing Year

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Roger L.; Perkins, Jan; Parr, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Many women wish to continue to pursue an active lifestyle during pregnancy, while the pregnancy itself may provide the motivation for other more sedentary women to begin an exercise program for the sake of improved health/fitness. Also, female competitive athletes, upon becoming pregnant, may wish to continue sports performance and require careful monitoring to assure maternal-fetal safety. This review is designed to assist the perinatal educator who is in the position to advise the pregnant patient on the risks and benefits of physical activity during the childbearing year and provide suggestions for developing individualized exercise programs. PMID:17273187

  18. Teenagers (15-17 years of age)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Child Development Facts Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting Tips Infants (0-1 year) Toddlers (1-2 years) Toddlers (2-3 years) Preschoolers ( ...

  19. Middle Childhood (6-8 Years Old)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Child Development Facts Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting Tips Infants (0-1 year) Toddlers (1-2 years) Toddlers (2-3 years) Preschoolers ( ...

  20. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. (eds.) (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty years with nuclear fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  1. International Heliophysical Year: European Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, C.

    2007-08-01

    The First European General Assembly of the "International Heliophysical Year" (IHY) took place at the headquarters of the Centre Nationial de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris, France, 10-13 January 2006. There were 113 participants representing 27 nations. The science concerned with the International Heliophysical Year programme was first illustrated. Then, the status of current instruments as well as practical information on the campaign management policy was given. Twenty European National Coordinators described the progress of their IHY activities. Representatives from Egypt, Angola and the coordinator of the Balkan, Black and Caspian Sea Region also reported on the progress of IHY activities in their respective regions. People from the IHY Secretariat provided a summary of the global IHY efforts including the United Nations Basic Space Sciences Program. In the education and public outreach front, a variety of activities have been planned: TV and radio shows, board games on space weather, specific programmes for schools and universities, workshops for teachers are some of the actions that were presented by the delegates. Beyond of these national and individual initiatives, specific activities requiring European coordination were discussed. This paper provides an extended summary of the main talks and discussions that held during the meeting.

  2. International Year of Rice 2004

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The importance of rice as a basic foodstuff to over half of the world's populations can not be underestimated, and it was with this fact in mind that the International Rice Research Institute first developed the idea for the International Year of Rice in 1999. Working in tandem with the United Nations General Assembly, the Institute set up a number of partnerships, conferences, lectures, and research agendas to take place throughout the year 2004 and beyond. The site contains links to numerous important papers, such as the collection available here from the recent conference titled Rice in Global Markets and Sustainable Production Systems, which was held in Rome. Beyond various scholarly and policy-oriented resources, visitors can learn about the rice photography contest, submit recipes to a forthcoming rice-themed cookbook, and explore a kids section that offers some basic facts about rice, along with a short quiz. The site is available in a number of different languages, including Italian, Spanish, French, Arabic, and Japanese.

  3. [HTLV research 30th year].

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2011-12-01

    This year is 30th year since HTLV was first reported as a causative agent for ATL. From a series of extensive studies especially by Japanese researches, a variety of information is now available, such as characteristics of the virus, regulation of viral and/or cell gene expression by HTLV-encoded protein Tax and Rex, the pathway of activation machinery on cell growth, the mechanism of cell-to-cell transmission, and prevalence of HTLV carries. However, it remains unsolved how HIV-1 invades and enters into human, how HIV-1 replicates in vivo, how the tumor cells are selected during course of infection, and which cellular molecules contribute disease onset and progression. It was thought the mechanism of HTLV-related diseases, ATL and HAM, would be quickly revealed earlier time after HTLV discovery since the HTLV-related diseases show unique characteristics. Nevertheless, we do not have yet satisfied knowledge of the pathogenesis mechanism as well as the treatment. I describe the history and perspective. PMID:22916564

  4. Year 2000 (Y2K) News Clippings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Year 2000 Archives and news clippings site contains many useful articles on the Year 2000 problem. The Year 2000 problem is caused by the fact that most computer systems only recognize the last two digits of a year. As a result, when the year 2000 comes around, it will be stored as year "00." This will give rise to mathematical and logical errors in computer systems resulting in incorrect results or even system failures.

  5. 7 CFR 1205.320 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.320 Marketing year. Marketing year means a consecutive...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.320 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.320 Marketing year. Marketing year means a consecutive...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.320 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.320 Marketing year. Marketing year means a consecutive...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.320 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.320 Marketing year. Marketing year means a consecutive...

  9. EDITORIAL: 80 Years of Plasma 80 Years of Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, R. N.; Braithwaite, N. St J.

    2009-02-01

    Irving Langmuir proposed the term 'plasma' in a paper in 1928 (Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 14 627-637) to describe a 'region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons'. There does not appear to be any record of the thinking behind this proposal, so it is difficult to be definitive. One idea is that since the Greek word 'plasma' was used to describe a mouldable fluid, 'neon' lighting, with its almost limitless ability to provide colourful shapes, provided the inspiration. Another relates to the prior medical use in relation to blood with its variety of different 'corpuscles' and that the essential description of the positive column required one to recognize at least the role of the separate species of electrons, ions and gas atoms. Tonks, when questioned thirty years later, was inclined to the latter idea, but it is unlikely that we shall ever know for certain. (See postscript added December 2008.) Forty years ago most of the interest in terrestrial plasmas was centred on fusion and the prospect of thus solving the world's energy problems; the quest continues. However, since then a whole new industry has developed. It emerged in the 1970s as an imaginative way to remove the photoresist layers used in patterning semiconductor wafers. Slowly but steadily, plasma-based 'dry' processes began to displace the traditional wet chemistry processes of cleaning, etching and depositing by which the first generation of integrated circuits had been made. Plasma technology offered higher yields while accommodating the complexity of ever-shrinking feature size, driving the microelectronic revolution for almost four decades. Langmuir certainly ushered in an exciting branch of physics when he introduced the term plasma. We have included as Appendix I a condensed CV for Irving Langmuir to show, amongst other things, the early influences on his subsequent life. An interlude in Paris gave him a taste of the wider world of Europe. His subsequent schooling in the United States led to admission to Columbia University where he studied metallurgical engineering. After graduation, as was common at that time for able students, he was encouraged to go abroad for his doctoral work. He went to Göttingen, which was then one of the leading European universities in science, and studied under Nernst. Returning to the United States he obtained a post as a teaching assistant at the Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, but the atmosphere proved too hierarchical and uncongenial for a scientist who was wanting to spread his wings. Fortunately the General Electric Company (GEC) recognized his potential; he was recruited in 1909, and remained associated with the GEC for the next 48 years. He quickly established his credentials as a research scientist and was soon given the freedom to pursue his interests wherever they took him, consistent with the overall strategy of the company. His appointment as an Associate Director at the GEC came in the same year that he introduced the term 'plasma'. Interestingly, while the term gained rapid acceptance in Europe, the associated word 'sheath', which Langmuir had already been using for several years, was translated into French, German and Russian and suffered from confusion. That confusion was there in Langmuir's writings because this ion-rich region sometimes was a region with barely any electrons and sometimes it contained a significant quantity of negative charge. The structure of the plasma-sheath and its elucidation had to await new mathematical techniques and the impact of computers as evidenced by papers in this volume and those quoted therein. It is clear that Langmuir inspired and benefited from collaboration with co-workers at the GEC, notably Kingdon, Taylor, Mott-Smith, Compton, Jones, Found, Tonks and Blodgett. In several ways he was ahead of his time in his understanding of gas discharges, and a particular example is what has since come to be known as the Bohm criterion. More than once in his plasma papers published in the early 1930s Langmuir stated in words what was needed for a sheath to develop

  10. CROP RESPONSE IN A SIX-YEAR SPLIT-FIELD COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND CONSERVATIN TECHNOLOGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was conducted in an effort to assess, on a field scale, a combination of new crop growing technologies. In 1998, a fourteen acre field containing 7 different soils was divided roughly in half, with half of the field managed with innovative practices and half managed with traditional. ...

  11. Behavior characteristics of children during the first year of kindergarten attendance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edna Maria Marturano

    1980-01-01

    The field research reported in this paper was intended to detect changes occurring in the early behavioral repertoire of children during their first exposure to the classroom environment. Fourteen kindergarten children were observed during structured classroom activities in their first and seventh month of school attendance. Behaviors were videotaped and analysed according to a behavior catalogue which covered six broad

  12. ADS on WWW: Doubling Yearly for Five Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, M. J.; Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Murray, S. S.

    1998-12-01

    It is now five years since the NASA ADS Abstract Service became available on the World Wide Web, in late winter of 1994. Following the explosive growth of the service (when compared with the old propriatory network access system) in the early months of WWW service, ADS growth has settled to doubling yearly. Currently ADS users make 440,000 queries per month, and receive 8,000,000 bibliographic references and 70,000 full-text articles, as well as abstracts, citation histories, links to data, and links to other data centers. Of the 70,000 full-text articles accessed through ADS each month, already 30% are via pointers to the electronic journals. This number is certain to increase. It is difficult to determine the exact number of ADS users. We track usage by the number of unique ``cookies'' which access ADS, and by the number of unique IP addresses. There are difficulties with each technique. In addition many non-astronomers find ADS through portal sites like Yahoo, which skews the statistics. 10,000 unique cookies access the full-text articles each month, 17,000 make queries, and 30,000 visit the site. 91% of full-text users have cookies, but only 65% of site visitors. From another perspective the number of IP addresses from a single typical research site (STScI) which access the full-text data is within 5% of the number of unique cookies assiociated with full-text use from stsci.edu, and also within 5% of the number of AAS members listing an STScI address. The number of unique IP addresses from STScI which make any sort of query to ADS is 40% higher than this. Those who access the full-text average one article per day, those who make queries average two per day. We believe nearly all active astronomy researchers, as well as students and affiliated professionals use ADS on a regular basis.

  13. Twenty Years of Tevatron Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Theilacker, J.C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL, 60510 (United States)

    2004-06-23

    The superconducting Tevatron accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) has surpassed twenty years of operation. The Tevatron is still the highest energy particle accelerator in the world and will remain so until the commissioning of the LHC in Europe later this decade. The Tevatron has operated in a Fixed Target mode, accelerating a proton beam into stationary targets/detectors, as well as a Colliding Beam mode, continuously colliding counter rotating beams of protons and antiprotons. Upon completion, the Tevatron cryogenic system became the world's largest helium refrigeration system. In 1993, the Tevatron cryogenic system was given the designation of International Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The operational history, experiences and statistics of the Tevatron, with an emphasis on the cryogenic system, is presented. Improvements, upgrades and current challenges of the cryogenic system are discussed.

  14. Civil partnerships five years on.

    PubMed

    Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe. PMID:21987019

  15. [50 years of molecular biology].

    PubMed

    Trgovcevi?, Z

    1994-01-01

    In 1865, Johann Gregor Mendel laid the mathematical foundation of the science of genetics. His "elements of heredity" (later called genes) were postulated as pure algebraic units. At about the same time (1868), Friedrich Miescher extracted a gelationous substance from the nuclei of white blood cells found in pus. This substance was called nuclein; later it became known as nucleic acid. Fifty years ago, Oswald T. Avery and his colleagues showed that one type of nucleic acid--DNA mediates genetic transformation in pneumococci. This was the first demonstration that Miescher's nuclein is the repository of Mendel's hypothetical elements of heredity. The genes thus "materialized". Although not recognized by contemporaries, Avery's discovery may be considered as a landmark in the history of biology. The molecular era of genetics and biology has begun. Other events associated with the beginning of this new era (bacteriophage research, work on nutritional mutants in Neurospora) are also described in the present review. PMID:7715413

  16. [Pediatric aids, 30 years later].

    PubMed

    Blanche, S; Dollfus, C; Faye, A; Rouzioux, C; Mandelbrot, L; Tubiana, R; Warszawski, J

    2013-08-01

    Thirty years after the first descriptions of AIDS in children in May 1983, the risk of viral transmission from mother to child has been reduced to almost zero and the disease in infected children has become an asymptomatic condition, stable in the long-term, thanks to antiretroviral drugs. Unbelievable though it may have seemed until the mid-1990s, children infected during the perinatal period are now growing up to be adults in a chronic, stable, asymptomatic medical condition with often satisfactory personal, family, and social lives. The French perinatal epidemiological cohort, which was set up in 1984 and has included more than 18,000 mother-child pairs to date, traces the steps in this extraordinary revolution in the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection in children. PMID:23850051

  17. Forty years of TTG research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyen, Jean-François; Martin, Hervé

    2012-09-01

    TTGs (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) are one of the archetypical lithologies of Archaean cratons. Since their original description in the 1970s, they have been the subject of many studies and discussions relating to Archaean geology. In this paper, we review the ideas, concepts and arguments brought forward in these 40 years, and try to address some open questions — both old and new. The late 1960s and the 1970s mark the appearance of "grey gneisses" (TTG) in the scientific literature. During this period, most work was focused on the identification and description of this suite, and the recognition that it is a typical Archaean lithology. TTGs were already recognised as generated by melting of mafic rocks. This was corroborated during the next decade, when detailed geochemical TTG studies allowed us to constrain their petrogenesis (melting of garnet-bearing metamafic rocks), and to conclude that they must have been generated by Archaean geodynamic processes distinct from their modern counterparts. However, the geodynamic debate raged for the following 30 years, as many distinct tectonic scenarios can be imagined, all resulting in the melting of mafic rocks in the garnet stability field. The 1990s were dominated by experimental petrology work. A wealth of independent studies demonstrated that melting of amphibolites as well as of mafic eclogites can give rise to TTG liquids; whether amphibolitic or eclogitic conditions are more likely is still an ongoing debate. From 1990s onwards, one of the key questions became the comparison with modern adakites. As originally defined these arc lavas are reasonably close equivalents to Archaean TTGs. Pending issues largely revolve around definitions, as the name TTG has now been applied to most Archaean plutonic rocks, whether sodic or potassic, irrespective of their HREE contents. This leads to a large range of petrogenetic and tectonic scenarios; a fair number of which may well have operated concurrently, but are applicable only to some of the rocks lumped together in the ever-broadening TTG "bin".

  18. Forty years of canine vaccination.

    PubMed

    Appel, M J

    1999-01-01

    During the last 40 years vaccines have been developed that have greatly reduced the incidence of infectious diseases of dogs. In general, modified live products have been superior to inactivated vaccines for dogs. It can be expected that recombinant and/or DNA vaccines may dominate the market in the future. Although most vaccines on the market are safe and efficacious, there have been exceptions where disease was induced by vaccination or dogs were not protected. The failure of protection may in part be due to variations in individual vaccine batches. Only potency tests but not efficacy tests are required, which may not be sufficient. For example, a virus titer in a vaccine may be meaningless if the minimum protective dose is not known. Overattenuated virus (e.g., CDV-Ond or parvovirus in cat cells) may have a high titer in tissue culture but is not immunogenic. The question of frequency of vaccination of dogs should be addressed. Annual revaccinations for CDV, CPV, and CAV are probably not needed. However, it would be desirable to collect more data to support less frequent vaccinations. Annual immunization for bacterial diseases such as kennel cough, Lyme disease, and leptospirosis should continue. It also would be desirable to develop more oro/nasal vaccines, perhaps combined with newly developed vectors that are less likely to induce undesirable side effects that may be seen after parenteral vaccination. Finally a word of warning against homeopathic "nosodes" to replace tested canine vaccines. They will appear highly effective as long as the majority of dogs remain vaccinated. As soon as a nonvaccinated dog population is large enough to allow virulent agents to spread, disease outbreaks will occur and we will be back where we began 40 years ago. PMID:9890024

  19. Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterisation of Fourteen Esterases from Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongqiang; Coppin, Chris W.; Devonshire, Alan L.; Scott, Colin; East, Peter; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Esterases have recurrently been implicated in insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. We used a baculovirus system to express 14 of 30 full-length esterase genes so far identified from midgut cDNA libraries of this species. All 14 produced esterase isozymes after native PAGE and the isozymes for seven of them migrated to two regions of the gel previously associated with both organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in various strains. Thirteen of the enzymes obtained in sufficient yield for further analysis all showed tight binding to organophosphates and low but measurable organophosphate hydrolase activity. However there was no clear difference in activity between the isozymes from regions associated with resistance and those from elsewhere in the zymogram, or between eight of the isozymes from a phylogenetic clade previously associated with resistance in proteomic and quantitative rtPCR experiments and five others not so associated. By contrast, the enzymes differed markedly in their activities against nine pyrethroid isomers and the enzymes with highest activity for the most insecticidal isomers were from regions of the gel and, in some cases, the phylogeny that had previously been associated with pyrethroid resistance. Phospholipase treatment confirmed predictions from sequence analysis that three of the isozymes were GPI anchored. This unusual feature among carboxylesterases has previously been suggested to underpin an association that some authors have noted between esterases and resistance to the Cry1Ac toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis. However these three isozymes did not migrate to the zymogram region previously associated with Cry1Ac resistance. PMID:23799064

  20. Fourteen non-CODIS autosomal short tandem repeat loci multiplex data from Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Chang, Yih-Yuan; Lee, James Chun-I; Yin, Hsiang-Yi; Tseng, Li-Hui; Su, Yi-Ning; Ko, Tsang-Ming

    2011-03-01

    Interest in the development of polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers unlinked to the CODIS loci is growing among forensic practitioners. We developed a multiplex system in which14 autosomal STR (D3S1744, D4S2366, D8S1110, D12S1090, D13S765, D14S608, Penta E, D17S1294, D18S536, D18S1270, D20S470, D21S1437, Penta D, and D22S683) could be amplified in one single polymerase chain reaction. DNA samples from 572 unrelated Taiwanese Han subjects were analyzed using this 14 STR multiplex system. Thirty parent-child pairs of parentage testing cases with a combined paternity index (CPI) below 1,000 and 32 parent-child pairs with single-step mutations found in AmpF?STR Identifiler loci were also recruited for validation of the newly developed system. DNA sequencing was performed for novel STRs and novel alleles found in these subjects. The distributions of allelic frequencies for these autosomal STRs and sequence data, allele nomenclature for the STRs, and forensic parameters are presented. The discrimination power in our multiplex loci ranged from 0.6858 (D18S536) to 0.9168 (Penta E), with a combined discrimination power of 0.999999999. It provides additional power to distinguish the possible single-step mutations in parent-child pairs and improves the ability to prove parentage by increasing the CPI. The combined power of exclusion of these 14 loci in Taiwanese Han in this study was 0.9999995913. In conclusion, this 14-autosomal STRs multiplex system provides highly informative STR data and appears useful in forensic casework and parentage testing. PMID:20809099