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1

First Fourteen Years of Lake Mead  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This circular summarizes the results of recent studies of Lake Mead and its environs. Area-capacity tables, prepared on the basis of a hydrographic survey of the lake in 1948-49, show that the capacity of the reservoir was reduced 4.9 percent during the first 14 years after Hoover Dam was completed, but the usable capacity was reduced only 3.2 percent. Practically all of this reduction was caused by accumulation of sediment in the reservoir. Studies of inflow and outflow indicate that the reservoir has a total storage capacity about 12 percent greater than that shown by the area-capacity table, because of 'bank' storage, or ground-water storage in the bottom and sides of the reservoir. Thus the total capacity in 1949 was greater than the quantity shown by the original area-capacity table, even though large quantities of sediment had been deposited in the reservoir during the 14 years. According to computations of the volume and weight of the accumulated sediment, about 2,000 million tons were deposited in the reservoir by the Colorado River in 14 years; this is within 2 percent of the amount calculated from measurements of the suspended sediment carried by the in flowing rivers. It is estimated that the sediment capacity of the reservoir, when filled to the level of the permanent spillway crest, is about 75,000 million tons. The sediment contributed by the Colorado River averages about 45 percent sand and 55 percent silt and clay. If the sediment carried by the river in the years 1926-50 represents the long-term average rate of accumulation in Lake Mead, it will be a century before the sediment at the dam reaches the level of the lowest gates in the intake towers, and more than 4 centuries before the reservoir is filled with sediment to the level of the permanent spillway crest. The rate of sedimentation since the first year of Lake Mead (1935) has been about 20 percent lower, and if that rate continues in the future, the life of the reservoir will be correspondingly greater. Construction of upstream reservoirs to capture some of the inflowing sediment, or transportation of sediment in the outflow through Hoover Dam, would also increase the life of the reservoir. In the first 12 years of Lake Mead, the dissolved mineral matter in the outflowing water was significantly greater than the average in the in flowing water, owing in part to solution of gypsum and rock salt from the bed of the reservoir. Currently the increased dissolved solids in the outflowing water can be accounted for almost entirely by evaporation from the reservoir, which is about 5 fo 7 percent of the annual inflow. The water from Lake Mead is habitually of better quality than that diverted from the river for irrigation prior to regulation by Hoover Dam, because it represents an average of the poor water of low stages and the excellent water from melting snow. Geodetic surveys of the Lake Mead area show that the weight of water has caused subsidence of the earth's crust amounting to about 120 millimeter at Hoover Dam, and an even greater amount in the principal area of storage in the reservoir.

Thomas, Harold E.

1954-01-01

2

Artificial stapes - a fourteen-year report.  

PubMed

This paper is based on 3,500 cases of otosclerosis operated on during the past 14 years restoring the continuity of the ossicular chain by means of an artificial stapes. Eighty percent showed practically a closure of the air-bone gap. There was no hearing gain in 17 percent of the patients, many of which showed reversal to preoperative levels. Three percent of the patients suffered sensori-neural hearing loss and 1 percent cophosis. Necrosis of the incus occurred in 0.3 percent of the patients and perilymphatic fistula in 0.2 percent. Only one case of inflammatory granuloma was observed as a complication of stapedectomy. PMID:1168886

Mercandino, E C; Tarasido, J C

1975-01-01

3

29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS...May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions § 779.507 Fourteen-year...limits. Under the provisions of Child Labor Regulations, subpart...

2013-07-01

4

Anodontia of the permanent dentition: fourteen years after initial diagnosis.  

PubMed

The congenital absence of teeth, total anodontia, may involve both the primary and permanent dentitions. This paper updates the dental history of a twenty-eight-year-old Greek-American woman first reported in 1977 by Herman and Moss, when she was fourteen. Five complete sets of dentures had been made for her in thirteen years. Treatment was more complex due to an underdeveloped maxilla and a prognathic mandible. PMID:2319058

Scherer, W; Cooper, H; Haray, R

1990-01-01

5

Four-billion-year chill on Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short article from the BBC News summarizes recent geochemical studies of Martian meteorites. Researchers have concluded that the climate of Mars has been cold and dry for the past four billion years, and that erosional features visible on the planet's surface must have occurred during brief warmer, wetter periods.

Whitehouse, David; News, Bbc

6

Pill method failures in women seeking abortion: fourteen years experience.  

PubMed

Predisposing factors to oral contraceptive (OC) failure in reliable pill takers were investigated in a survey of 769 women who presented to Wellington (New Zealand) Hospital in 1981-95 for induced abortion. More than one predisposing factor was found in the majority of cases of pill failure. The highest percentage (37%) of pill failures occurred in women 20-24 years of age. The most common risk factor was diarrhea and/or vomiting, present around the time of conception in 39% of women. Another 21% took antibiotics during this period. Menstrual disturbance prior to the pregnancy occurred in 37.1%--a rate higher than that expected from studies of pill use. A history of previous pill failure was present in 27.8%. Smoking was a risk factor in users of combined OCs. 33.7% of women using the progestogen-only pill and 34.2% of combined OC users were under severe stress at the time pregnancy occurred. As expected, progestogen-only pill users experienced a higher rate of failure relative to the market share, but excess weight and the time of pill taking were not risk factors. These findings suggest a need for careful counseling about the potential of gastrointestinal illness and interacting medications to compromise pill effectiveness. PMID:9830420

Sparrow, M J

1998-10-01

7

Cavernous sinus hemangioma: a fourteen year single institution experience.  

PubMed

Cavernous sinus hemangioma (CSH) is a rare extra-axial vascular neoplasm that accounts for 2% to 3% of all cavernous sinus tumors. Their location, propensity for profuse bleeding during surgery, and relationship to complex neurovascular structures are factors which present difficulty in excising these lesions. The authors describe their experience of 22 patients with CSH over 14 years at a tertiary care center. Patients were managed with microsurgical resection using a purely extradural transcavernous approach (13 patients) and with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS; Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) (nine patients). Retrospective data analysis found headache and visual impairment were the most common presenting complaints, followed by facial hypesthesia and diplopia. All but one patient had complete tumor excision in the surgical series. Transient ophthalmoparesis (complete resolution in 6-8 weeks) was the most common surgical complication. In the GKRS group, marked tumor shrinkage (>50% tumor volume reduction) was achieved in two patients, slight shrinkage in five and no change in two patients, with symptom improvement in the majority of patients. To our knowledge, we describe one of the largest series of CSH managed at a single center. Although microsurgical resection using an extradural transcavernous approach is considered the treatment of choice in CSH and allows complete excision with minimal mortality and long-term morbidity, GKRS is an additional tool for treating residual symptomatic lesions or in patients with associated comorbidities making surgical resection unsuitable. PMID:24524951

Bansal, Sumit; Suri, Ashish; Singh, Manmohan; Kale, Shashank Sharad; Agarwal, Deepak; Sharma, Manish Singh; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

2014-06-01

8

Circadian biology: a 2.5 billion year old clock.  

PubMed

A recent study suggests that circadian clocks may have evolved at the time of the Great Oxidation Event 2.5 billion years ago in order to drive detoxification of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22835791

Loudon, Andrew S I

2012-07-24

9

[The summa of fourteen years usage for a medical linear accelerator].  

PubMed

This article sum up the fourteen years experience of usage for a linear accelerator in our hospital. The goal is to ensure the secure usage and reduce the damage accidence and attain the rules of quality assurance in radiotherapy by WHO. The ultimate aim is to raise economic benefit and social benefit by linear accelerator. PMID:20391933

Jie, Hu; Jianmin, Tao; Guangrong, Sun; Ying, Zhang; Ying, Zhang

2010-01-01

10

Cosmic rays and the biosphere over 4 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in the flux of cosmic rays (CR) at Earth during the last 4.6 billion years are constructed from information about the star formation rate in the Milky Way and the evolution of the solar activity. The constructed CR signal is compared with variations in the Earths biological productivity as recorded in the isotope ?13C, which spans more than 3 billion years. CR and fluctuations in biological productivity show a remarkable correlation and indicate that the evolution of climate and the biosphere on the Earth is closely linked to the evolution of the Milky Way.

Svensmark, H.

2006-11-01

11

Arthroscopic arthrodesis of the shoulder: Fourteen-year follow-up  

PubMed Central

Shoulder arthrodesis is indicated in infections, brachial paralysis, irreparable rotator cuff tears, osteoarthritis without indication of prosthesis, rescue after arthroplasty, or after surgery for cancer. Arthroscopic arthrodesis is exceptional. Our aim is presenting our result after 14 years of follow-up of one patient. We present a case report of a 17-year-old male patient. He suffered fracture of left scapula (type V, Ideberg), fracture of left clavicle (type I, Craig), and fracture of left distal ulna. We realized osteosynthesis of clavicle (plate and screws) with the aim of treating this floating shoulder. Electromyography showed partial axonotmesis of axilar nerve. After 7 months of follow-up, axonotmesis was still present. We realized arthroscopic shoulder arthrodesis (three cannulated screws). Fourteen years later, shoulder movement was as follows: Flexion, 0-90°; maximum abduction, 40° with shoulder atrophy; Constant, 47 points; and UCLA, 17 points, without pain. Arthrodesis with screws reaches a subjective benefit in 82% of patients. Percentage of pseudarthrosis is less than in patients treated with plates, although the risks of infections, fractures, and material removal are greater than in patients treated with plates. Shoulder arthroscopic arthrodesis is exceptional, but it allows minimal surgical aggression.

Jimenez-Martin, Antonio; Perez-Hidalgo, Santiago

2011-01-01

12

Arthroscopic arthrodesis of the shoulder: Fourteen-year follow-up.  

PubMed

Shoulder arthrodesis is indicated in infections, brachial paralysis, irreparable rotator cuff tears, osteoarthritis without indication of prosthesis, rescue after arthroplasty, or after surgery for cancer. Arthroscopic arthrodesis is exceptional. Our aim is presenting our result after 14 years of follow-up of one patient. We present a case report of a 17-year-old male patient. He suffered fracture of left scapula (type V, Ideberg), fracture of left clavicle (type I, Craig), and fracture of left distal ulna. We realized osteosynthesis of clavicle (plate and screws) with the aim of treating this floating shoulder. Electromyography showed partial axonotmesis of axilar nerve. After 7 months of follow-up, axonotmesis was still present. We realized arthroscopic shoulder arthrodesis (three cannulated screws). Fourteen years later, shoulder movement was as follows: Flexion, 0-90°; maximum abduction, 40° with shoulder atrophy; Constant, 47 points; and UCLA, 17 points, without pain. Arthrodesis with screws reaches a subjective benefit in 82% of patients. Percentage of pseudarthrosis is less than in patients treated with plates, although the risks of infections, fractures, and material removal are greater than in patients treated with plates. Shoulder arthroscopic arthrodesis is exceptional, but it allows minimal surgical aggression. PMID:21897586

Jiménez-Martín, Antonio; Pérez-Hidalgo, Santiago

2011-04-01

13

Probing Cosmic Magnetic Fields Over Ten Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faraday rotation is a powerful potential probe of how magnetic fields in the Universe have evolved. In particular, a statistical ensemble of extragalactic radio sources with both rotation measures (RMs) and redshifts can trace the evolution of galactic magnetic fields over cosmic time, because magnetic fields in galaxy-scale intervenors will manifest themselves as a trend in the distribution of background RMs as a function of z. Recent studies of large samples of extragalactic RMs indicate that some distant sources have very high RMs, while overall there is a deficit of very small RMs for the highest redshift sources. These effects suggest that galaxies just a few billion years old already had field strengths comparable to that seen in the Milky Way today. Here we present new Faraday rotation observations of a large sample of extragalactic sources taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. This data-set doubles the sample of sources with RMs at z > 1, and also extends such studies to higher z than was previously available. We discuss the extent to which these new data confirm the dependence of RM with redshift seen in existing data. We also use these measurements to search for an evolution of galactic magnetic fields as a function of time out to z 4. These data, along with deeper upcoming surveys with the next generation of radio telescopes, can provide direct constraints on the time scale for magnetic field amplification as galaxies evolve. B.M.G. acknowledges the support of a Federation Fellowship from the Australian Research Council through grant FF0561298. P.P.K. acknowledges support from the DOE, and from NSERC (Canada).

Gaensler, Bryan M.; Kronberg, P. P.; Tanna, A.; Harvey-Smith, L.

2009-01-01

14

A SWIRE Picture is Worth Billions of Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: SWIRE View of Distant Galaxies [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3 Figure 4

These spectacular images, taken by the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Legacy project, encapsulate one of the primary objectives of the Spitzer mission: to connect the evolution of galaxies from the distant, or early, universe to the nearby, or present day, universe.

The Tadpole galaxy (main image) is the result of a recent galactic interaction in the local universe. Although these galactic mergers are rare in the universe's recent history, astronomers believe that they were much more common in the early universe. Thus, SWIRE team members will use this detailed image of the Tadpole galaxy to help understand the nature of the 'faint red-orange specks' of the early universe.

The larger picture (figure 2) depicts one-sixteenth of the SWIRE survey field called ELAIS-N1. In this image, the bright blue sources are hot stars in our own Milky Way, which range anywhere from 3 to 60 times the mass of our Sun. The fainter green spots are cooler stars and galaxies beyond the Milky Way whose light is dominated by older stellar populations. The red dots are dusty galaxies that are undergoing intense star formation. The faintest specks of red-orange are galaxies billions of light-years away in the distant universe.

Figure 3 features an unusual ring-like galaxy called CGCG 275-022. The red spiral arms indicate that this galaxy is very dusty and perhaps undergoing intense star formation. The star-forming activity could have been initiated by a near head-on collision with another galaxy.

The most distant galaxies that SWIRE is able to detect are revealed in a zoom of deep space (figure 4). The colors in this feature represent the same objects as those in the larger field image of ELAIS-N1.

The observed SWIRE fields were chosen on the basis of being 'empty' or as free as possible from the obscuring dust, gas, and stars of our own Milky Way. Because Earth is located within the Milky Way galaxy, there is always a screen of Milky Way objects blocking our view of the rest of the universe. In some places, our view of the larger universe is less obscured than others and for the most part is considered 'empty.' These are prime observing spots for astronomers interested in studying objects beyond the Milky Way. ELAIS-N1 is only one of six SWIRE survey fields. The full survey covers 49 square degrees of the sky, equivalent to the area covered by about 250 full moons.

The SWIRE images are 3-channel false-color composites, where blue represents visible green light (light that would appear to be blue/green to the human eye), green captures infrared light of 3.6 microns, and red represents infrared emissions of 8 microns. The infrared data are from Spitzer's infrared array camera and the visible-light data are from the Isaac Newton Telescope, Spain.

2005-01-01

15

Fourteen years’ experience in voluntary female sterilization through minilaparotomy in Jos, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between January 1985 and December 1998, 2913 female sterilizations through minilaparotomy were performed. The mean (±SD) age was 36.4 ± 4.2 years and 68% of the women were between the ages of 30 and 39 years. The mean (±SD) parity distribution was 8.0 ± 2.0; 59.5% of the patients were para ?8, and the mean (±SD) number of living children

A. O Aisien; I. A. O Ujah; J. T Mutihir; F Guful

1999-01-01

16

A plastic whistle incarcerated in bronchus diagnosed fourteen years after 'swallowed': a case report  

PubMed Central

Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common disease in pre-school children but easily overlooked by physicians. In this article, we report a case with bronchial stenosis that is not typical and misdiagnosed for 14 years, in the end bronchoscopy retrieval was successfully performed after adequate preparation. Pitfalls and recommendations in diagnosis and management of FBA are briefly included.

Wang, Xin

2014-01-01

17

Fourteen-Year Experience of Prenatal Diagnosis of Thalassemia in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 14 years, Iranian scientists have worked to develop a national thalassemia prevention program. Although historically abortion was considered unacceptable in Iran, intensive consultations led to the clerical approval of induced abortion in cases with ?-thalassemia major in 1997, and a nationwide prevention program with screening, counseling and prenatal diagnosis (PND) networks has been developed. This paper reports the experience

Hossein Najmabadi; Alireza Ghamari; Farhad Sahebjam; Roxana Kariminejad; Valeh Hadavi; Talayeh Khatibi; Ashraf Samavat; Elaheh Mehdipour; Bernadette Modell; Mohammand Hassan Kariminejad

2006-01-01

18

Fourteen years follow up after Lisfranc fracture-dislocation: functional and radiological results.  

PubMed

Injuries to the Lisfranc joint have a high potential for chronic disability. Posttraumatic arthritis remains the most common complication but not all patients who develop degenerative radiographic changes are symptomatic. A cohort of 32 patients with a Lisfranc fracture dislocation was reviewed. Initial reduction and secondary displacement were measured by the Myerson scale. Radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis (OA) was also investigated. Long-term radiographical data were classified as good, fair or poor results. Functional outcome was measured using several different scales. Mean follow up was 14 years. Seventeen patients with anatomic close reduction but instability were treated with closed reduction and K-wire fixation followed by cast immobilisation. Eight patients with stable anatomic close reduction were treated with closed reduction and cast. Seven patients with unacceptable closed reduction were treated with open reduction and K-wire stabilisation. The analysis of radiological long-term data showed 15 patients with good results, 8 with fair results and 9 with poor results. Final mean AOFAS score was 91.7/100. There was no statistically significant difference between overall PFS scores and different type of treatment, Hardcastle long-term radiological scores or Hardcastle type of fracture (p >0.05). Overall, there was a poor association between the extent of radiological arthritis and clinical scores. We advocate that for the evaluation of long-term outcome of these injuries functional parameters should be the focus of assessment, instead of radiological changes. PMID:23622999

Marín-Peña, Oliver R; Viloria Recio, Fernando; Sanz Gómez, Tomas; Larrainzar Garijo, Ricardo

2012-12-01

19

1. Fourteen Years Of Diffuse CO2 Monitoring At Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

7. Cerro Negro is an active basaltic volcano belonging to the active Central American Volcanic Belt, which includes a 1,100 Km long chain of 41 active volcanoes from Guatemala to Panama. Cerro Negro first erupted in 1850 and has experienced 21 eruptive eruptions with inter eruptive average periods between 7 and 9 years. Since the last eruption occurred on 5 August 1999, with erupted lava flows and ash clouds together with gas emissions, a collaborative research program between INETER and ITER was established for monitoring diffuse CO2 emissions from this volcano. Until 2012, twelve soil CO2 emission surveys covering an area of 0,6 km2 have been performed by means of the accumulation chamber method to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 degassing rate in relation to the eruptive cycle of Cerro Negro. A total diffuse CO2 emission output of 1,869 t•d-1 was estimated for the 1999 survey; just 3 months after the 1999 eruption which can be considered within the post-eruptive phase. For the April, 2002 and March, 2008 surveys, considered within the inter-eruptive phase, a clear decreasing tendency on the total diffuse CO2 output was observed, with estimates of 431 and 10 t•d-1, respectively, except a small increment in 2004, to 256 t d-1, associated with an anomalous seismic activity. The higher anomalies are located around the crater of 1995 and 1999. An increasing on the total CO2 emission has been observed, from December 2008 to February 2011, with total diffuse CO2 output estimates from 12 t•d-1 to 43 t•d-1, respectively. These temporal variations show a close relationship between diffuse CO2 emission and the eruptive cycle at Cerro Negro. This relationship indicates that monitoring CO2 emission is an important geochemical tool for the volcanic surveillance at Cerro Negro. References: (1) Rodríguez et al. (2009) AGU Fall Meeting 2009. EOS, AGU,V21-2017 . (2) Padilla et al. (2008). IV Reunión de la Red Española de Volcanología, Almagro 2008. (3) Melián et al. (2003). EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 84, 46, F11514. (4) Parkinson K. J. (1981). Journal of Applied Ecology 18, 221-228. (5) Salazar et al. (2001). Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 22, 4275 - 4278.

Barrancos Martinez, Jose; Melián, Gladys; Ibarra, Martha; Álvarez, Julio; Rodríguez, Fátima; Nolasco, Dácil; Padilla, Germán; Calvo, David; Dionis, Samara; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Iñigo; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Muñoz, Angélica

2013-04-01

20

Paleomagnetic and paleointensity investigations of a 3.6 billion-year-old granite from India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of a dynamo during Paleoarchean and older times is important because of the role played by the geomagnetic field in shielding Earth from intense radiation from the rapidly-rotating young Sun. Dacites 3.45 billion-years-old from South Africa record a geomagnetic field (Tarduno et al., 2010), and some models for the thermal evolution of Earth suggest a relatively strong field shortly after core formation. However, other models suggest a delayed dynamo onset, to ages as young as 3.6 Ga. Here, we present an initial investigation of a 3.6 billion-year-old granite from the Bastar Craton, India. The granite is undeformed and has experienced only greenschist-grade metamorphism; therefore it potentially records information on the presence/absence of a geodynamo. We focus on analyses of quartz phenocrysts, as such minerals have been shown to host minute magnetic minerals suitable for the preservation of remanent magnetizations on time scales of billions of years (e.g. Tarduno et al., 2007). In prior work, the principal magnetic inclusion identified in quartz phenocrysts from Archean plutonic rocks has been magnetite. We find that some quartz grains from the Bastar Craton also contain hematite grains in the single domain size range, occurring as isolated particles. These hematite particles have the potential to provide an additional unblocking temperature range useful in testing for the presence of an ancient geomagnetic field. We will present preliminary rock magnetic, paleomagnetic and paleointensity analyses on the quartz phenocrysts.

Voronov, J.; Tarduno, J. A.; Mukul, M.; Cottrell, R. D.

2010-12-01

21

Electron microscopy reveals unique microfossil preservation in 1 billion-year-old lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron microscopy was applied to the study of 1 billion-year-old microfossils from northwest Scotland in order to investigate their 3D morphology and mode of fossilization. 3D-FIB-SEM revealed high quality preservation of organic cell walls with only minor amounts of post-mortem decomposition, followed by variable degrees of morphological alteration (folding and compression of cell walls) during sediment compaction. EFTEM mapping plus SAED revealed a diverse fossilizing mineral assemblage including K-rich clay, Fe-Mg-rich clay and calcium phosphate, with each mineral occupying specific microenvironments in proximity to carbonaceous microfossil cell walls.

Saunders, M.; Kong, C.; Menon, S.; Wacey, D.

2014-06-01

22

Increased subaerial volcanism and the rise of atmospheric oxygen 2.5 billion years ago.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that the establishment of a permanently oxygenated atmosphere at the Archaean-Proterozoic transition (approximately 2.5 billion years ago) occurred when oxygen-producing cyanobacteria evolved is contradicted by biomarker evidence for their presence in rocks 200 million years older. To sustain vanishingly low oxygen levels despite near-modern rates of oxygen production from approximately 2.7-2.5 billion years ago thus requires that oxygen sinks must have been much larger than they are now. Here we propose that the rise of atmospheric oxygen occurred because the predominant sink for oxygen in the Archaean era-enhanced submarine volcanism-was abruptly and permanently diminished during the Archaean-Proterozoic transition. Observations are consistent with the corollary that subaerial volcanism only became widespread after a major tectonic episode of continental stabilization at the beginning of the Proterozoic. Submarine volcanoes are more reducing than subaerial volcanoes, so a shift from predominantly submarine to a mix of subaerial and submarine volcanism more similar to that observed today would have reduced the overall sink for oxygen and led to the rise of atmospheric oxygen. PMID:17728754

Kump, Lee R; Barley, Mark E

2007-08-30

23

MIT BLOSSOMS - Geologic Time: The Ticking of Our Planetâs 4.6 Billion Year Clock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth is 4.6 billion years old. That's a hard number to conceptualize. What does 4.6 billion look like, and what happened during all those hundreds of millions of years between the formation of our planet and now? This BLOSSOMS lesson will help students conceptualize the enormity of geologic time and learn about important events in Earth's history. Students will also learn how geologic time can help explain seemingly incomprehensible processes, like the formation of the Himalayan Mountains from a flat plain to their current height, and the evolution of a tiny group of reptiles into enormous dinosaurs. The lesson will take approximately 45 minutes. Students should have a basic understanding of biology, and a familiarity with geology is helpful but not necessary. The supplies required include a measuring tape that is at least 5 meters long, a 5 meter long piece of string, ribbon, or rope, index cards or other stiff pieces of paper, and calculators. During the breaks, students will construct a geologic timeline of their own in the classroom and do simple calculations to determine how long amounts of time can lead to impressive changes in the height of the Himalayan Mountains and the size of a group of reptiles.

Blossoms, Mit

2011-07-18

24

States' Spending on Colleges Rises 19 Pct. in 2 Years, Nears $31-Billion for'85-86.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. states' expenditures to nearly $31 billion in tax money mark a continuing recovery in support for higher education. Shaping this year's appropriations levels were concerns about tuition and efforts to promote economic development. (MLW)

Evangelauf, Jean

1985-01-01

25

Missing billions.  

PubMed

This article discusses funding of population programs that support the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development's Plan of Action. The Plan of Action calls for a quadrupling of annual financial commitments for population programs to $17 billion by the year 2000 and $22 billion by 2015. The increased expenditures would cover the increased demand for services from unmet need and population growth. Donor countries are expected to increase their share from the current 25% to about 33%, or $5.7 billion by the year 2000. The estimates are in 1993 constant dollars. $17 billion is less than the $40 billion that is spent worldwide on playing golf. During 1993-94, general donor support increased to $1.2 billion. Denmark, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States increased their support. The United States doubled its support for population programs during 1992-95 to $583 million. During 1996-97 the US Congress cut funding back to the 1995 level. France, Italy, Spain, Belgium, and Austria have lagged in support for population programs in the present and the past. Equal burden sharing would require the US to increase funding to $1.9 billion. Developed country assistance declined to the lowest share of combined gross national product since 1970. This shifts the burden to multilateral sources. The European Union is committed to increasing its funding, and the World Bank increased funding for population and reproductive health to about $600 million in 1996 from $424 million in 1994. Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey spent 85% of all government expenditures on family planning in developing countries. External donors in Africa are the main support of family planning. Private consumers in Latin America pay most of the costs of family planning. External assistance will be needed for some time. PMID:12321013

Conly, S

1997-01-01

26

Atmospheric carbon dioxide: a driver of photosynthetic eukaryote evolution for over a billion years?  

PubMed

Exciting evidence from diverse fields, including physiology, evolutionary biology, palaeontology, geosciences and molecular genetics, is providing an increasingly secure basis for robustly formulating and evaluating hypotheses concerning the role of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Such studies span over a billion years of evolutionary change, from the origins of eukaryotic algae through to the evolution of our present-day terrestrial floras, and have relevance for plant and ecosystem responses to future global CO(2) increases. The papers in this issue reflect the breadth and depth of approaches being adopted to address this issue. They reveal new discoveries pointing to deep evidence for the role of CO(2) in shaping evolutionary changes in plants and ecosystems, and establish an exciting cross-disciplinary research agenda for uncovering new insights into feedbacks between biology and the Earth system. PMID:22232760

Beerling, David J

2012-02-19

27

Atmospheric carbon dioxide: a driver of photosynthetic eukaryote evolution for over a billion years?  

PubMed Central

Exciting evidence from diverse fields, including physiology, evolutionary biology, palaeontology, geosciences and molecular genetics, is providing an increasingly secure basis for robustly formulating and evaluating hypotheses concerning the role of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Such studies span over a billion years of evolutionary change, from the origins of eukaryotic algae through to the evolution of our present-day terrestrial floras, and have relevance for plant and ecosystem responses to future global CO2 increases. The papers in this issue reflect the breadth and depth of approaches being adopted to address this issue. They reveal new discoveries pointing to deep evidence for the role of CO2 in shaping evolutionary changes in plants and ecosystems, and establish an exciting cross-disciplinary research agenda for uncovering new insights into feedbacks between biology and the Earth system.

Beerling, David J.

2012-01-01

28

An Exhumation History of Continents over Billion-Year Time Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continental lithosphere contains the oldest and most stable structures on Earth, where fragments of ancient material have eluded destruction by tectonic and surface processes operating over billions of years. Although present-day erosion of these remnants is slow, a record of how they have uplifted, eroded, and cooled over Earth’s history can provide insight into the physical properties of the continents and the forces operating to exhume them over geologic time. We constructed a continuous record of ancient lithosphere cooling with the use of uranium-lead (U-Pb) thermochronology on volcanically exhumed lower crustal fragments. Combining these measurements with thermal and Pb-diffusion models constrains the range of possible erosion histories. Measured U-Pb data are consistent with extremely low erosion rates persisting over time scales approaching the age of the continents themselves.

Blackburn, Terrence J.; Bowring, Samuel A.; Perron, J. Taylor; Mahan, Kevin H.; Dudas, Francis O.; Barnhart, Katherine R.

2012-01-01

29

A change in the geodynamics of continental growth 3 billion years ago.  

PubMed

Models for the growth of continental crust rely on knowing the balance between the generation of new crust and the reworking of old crust throughout Earth's history. The oxygen isotopic composition of zircons, for which uranium-lead and hafnium isotopic data provide age constraints, is a key archive of crustal reworking. We identified systematic variations in hafnium and oxygen isotopes in zircons of different ages that reveal the relative proportions of reworked crust and of new crust through time. Growth of continental crust appears to have been a continuous process, albeit at variable rates. A marked decrease in the rate of crustal growth at ~3 billion years ago may be linked to the onset of subduction-driven plate tectonics. PMID:22422979

Dhuime, Bruno; Hawkesworth, Chris J; Cawood, Peter A; Storey, Craig D

2012-03-16

30

Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

2012-01-01

31

New research indicates that asteroids barraged the Earth's surface for an additional two billion years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ancient asteroids kept on cominghttp://www.nature.com/news/ancient-asteroids-kept-on-coming-1.10504Dinosaurs were declining before asteroid struck, say scientistshttp://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2012/0501/Dinosaurs-were-declining-before-asteroid-struck-say-scientists-videoTriceratops was already on road to extinction before asteroid wiped out dinosaurshttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/dinosaurs/9238658/Triceratops-was-already-on-road-to-exctinction-before-asteroid-wiped-out-dinosaurs.htmlBBC Nature: Prehistoric Life: Dinosaurshttp://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/life/DinosaurDinobasehttp://dinobase.gly.bris.ac.uk/It is generally believed that a massive asteroid impact some 65 million years ago killed off the dinosaurs, ending their long reign as the dominant vertebrates on the planet. However, a recent pair of studies has revealed that such occurrences were much more common than previously thought. Before now, scientists thought that the intense period of asteroid impacts ended almost 3.7 billion years ago. Both of these new studies seem to indicate that over 70 asteroid impacts at least as severe as the one that likely killed off the dinosaurs continued over an additional period of 2 billion years. The scientists think that the potential culprits were asteroids originating from the E belt, which is quite small in the present day. Of course, there is some dissent between the two studies about the range of speeds at which the asteroids were traveling before impact, and both groups of scientists will continue to compare their respective findings. The first link leads to a podcast and article on this recent discovery from the Scientific American's "60-Second Space" series. The second link will whisk users away to a detailed piece by Nature's Helen Thompson which provides additional insights into the recently published studies on the asteroids. The third link takes interested parties to a nice piece from The Christian Science Monitor about those groups of dinosaurs that were already in decline before a massive meteor struck the Earth's surface some 65 million years ago. Moving on, the fourth link leads to a piece from this Tuesday's Telegraph about this steady decline, with a focus on the Hadrosaurs and the Triceratops. The fifth link leads to a site created by the BBC about the world of the dinosaurs. Here visitors can look over renderings of these fabulous creatures, and learn more about them in sections such as When they lived, What their world was like, and Behaviours. The final link leads to a wonderful database of photos, blogs, forums and so on (annotated in this week's Scout Report) from the University of Bristol on the subject of dinosaurs.

Grinnell, Max

2012-05-04

32

Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by ?-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

Lowenstern, J. B.; Evans, W. C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, A. G.

2014-02-01

33

The controversial "Cambrian" fossils of the Vindhyan are real but more than a billion years older  

PubMed Central

The age of the Vindhyan sedimentary basin in central India is controversial, because geochronology indicating early Proterozoic ages clashes with reports of Cambrian fossils. We present here an integrated paleontologic–geochronologic investigation to resolve this conundrum. New sampling of Lower Vindhyan phosphoritic stromatolitic dolomites from the northern flank of the Vindhyans confirms the presence of fossils most closely resembling those found elsewhere in Cambrian deposits: annulated tubes, embryo-like globules with polygonal surface pattern, and filamentous and coccoidal microbial fabrics similar to Girvanella and Renalcis. None of the fossils, however, can be ascribed to uniquely Cambrian or Ediacaran taxa. Indeed, the embryo-like globules are not interpreted as fossils at all but as former gas bubbles trapped in mucus-rich cyanobacterial mats. Direct dating of the same fossiliferous phosphorite yielded a Pb–Pb isochron of 1,650 ± 89 (2?) million years ago, confirming the Paleoproterozoic age of the fossils. New U–Pb geochronology of zircons from tuffaceous mudrocks in the Lower Vindhyan Porcellanite Formation on the southern flank of the Vindhyans give comparable ages. The Vindhyan phosphorites provide a window of 3-dimensionally preserved Paleoproterozoic fossils resembling filamentous and coccoidal cyanobacteria and filamentous eukaryotic algae, as well as problematic forms. Like Neoproterozoic phosphorites a billion years later, the Vindhyan deposits offer important new insights into the nature and diversity of life, and in particular, the early evolution of multicellular eukaryotes.

Bengtson, Stefan; Belivanova, Veneta; Rasmussen, Birger; Whitehouse, Martin

2009-01-01

34

The controversial "Cambrian" fossils of the Vindhyan are real but more than a billion years older.  

PubMed

The age of the Vindhyan sedimentary basin in central India is controversial, because geochronology indicating early Proterozoic ages clashes with reports of Cambrian fossils. We present here an integrated paleontologic-geochronologic investigation to resolve this conundrum. New sampling of Lower Vindhyan phosphoritic stromatolitic dolomites from the northern flank of the Vindhyans confirms the presence of fossils most closely resembling those found elsewhere in Cambrian deposits: annulated tubes, embryo-like globules with polygonal surface pattern, and filamentous and coccoidal microbial fabrics similar to Girvanella and Renalcis. None of the fossils, however, can be ascribed to uniquely Cambrian or Ediacaran taxa. Indeed, the embryo-like globules are not interpreted as fossils at all but as former gas bubbles trapped in mucus-rich cyanobacterial mats. Direct dating of the same fossiliferous phosphorite yielded a Pb-Pb isochron of 1,650 +/- 89 (2sigma) million years ago, confirming the Paleoproterozoic age of the fossils. New U-Pb geochronology of zircons from tuffaceous mudrocks in the Lower Vindhyan Porcellanite Formation on the southern flank of the Vindhyans give comparable ages. The Vindhyan phosphorites provide a window of 3-dimensionally preserved Paleoproterozoic fossils resembling filamentous and coccoidal cyanobacteria and filamentous eukaryotic algae, as well as problematic forms. Like Neoproterozoic phosphorites a billion years later, the Vindhyan deposits offer important new insights into the nature and diversity of life, and in particular, the early evolution of multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:19416859

Bengtson, Stefan; Belivanova, Veneta; Rasmussen, Birger; Whitehouse, Martin

2009-05-12

35

Constraints on the first billion years of the geodynamo from paleointensity studies of zircons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several lines of reasoning, including new ideas on core thermal conductivity, suggest that onset of a strong geomagnetic field might have been delayed by one billion years (or more) after the lunar forming event. Here we extend the Proterozoic/Archean to Paleoarchean record of the geomagnetic field constrained by single crystal paleointensity (SCP) analyses (Tarduno et al., Science, 2010) to older times using zircons containing minute magnetic inclusions. Specifically, we focus on samples from the Jack Hills (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia). We employ a CO2 laser demagnetization system and a small bore (6.3 mm) 3-component DC SQUID magnetometer; the latter offers the highest currently available moment resolution. Sample age is analyzed using SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology. Preliminary data support the presence of a relatively strong Paleoarchean field produced by a core dynamo, extending the known record by at least 100 million years, to approximately 3.55 Ga. These data only serve to exacerbate the apparent problem posed by the presence of a Paleoarchean dynamo. Alternative dynamo driving mechanisms, or efficient core/lowermost mantle heat loss processes unique to the Paleoarchean (and older times) might have been at work. We will discuss these processes, and our efforts to study even older Eoarchean-Hadean zircons.

Tarduno, John; Cottrell, Rory; Davis, William

2014-05-01

36

A Fourteen Year Case Study To Rear Bilingual Children in Monolingual America: The Effect of Adolescence on Language Preference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tracked the language preference of three French/English bilingual children, twin girls aged 12.8 and a boy 14.8, over a five year period. Their parents, who are also the authors, actively worked to raise them bilingual. The girls were enrolled in a school French immersion program throughout the study. Their brother had only one semester…

Caldas, Stephen J.; Caron-Caldas, Suzanne

37

The Impact of Timing of Puberty on Psychosomatic Symptoms among Fourteen- to Sixteen-Year-Old Finnish Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied whether pubertal age affects reports of psychosomatic symptoms among 14- to 16-year-old girls. Considered whether differences in dating and alcohol use might be mediating factors in the relation between pubertal age and psychosomatic symptoms. Subjects were 935 Finnish eighth-grade pupils who completed questionnaires three times during a…

Aro, Hillevi; Taipale, Vappu

1987-01-01

38

Enhanced cellular preservation by clay minerals in 1 billion-year-old lakes.  

PubMed

Organic-walled microfossils provide the best insights into the composition and evolution of the biosphere through the first 80 percent of Earth history. The mechanism of microfossil preservation affects the quality of biological information retained and informs understanding of early Earth palaeo-environments. We here show that 1 billion-year-old microfossils from the non-marine Torridon Group are remarkably preserved by a combination of clay minerals and phosphate, with clay minerals providing the highest fidelity of preservation. Fe-rich clay mostly occurs in narrow zones in contact with cellular material and is interpreted as an early microbially-mediated phase enclosing and replacing the most labile biological material. K-rich clay occurs within and exterior to cell envelopes, forming where the supply of Fe had been exhausted. Clay minerals inter-finger with calcium phosphate that co-precipitated with the clays in the sub-oxic zone of the lake sediments. This type of preservation was favoured in sulfate-poor environments where Fe-silicate precipitation could outcompete Fe-sulfide formation. This work shows that clay minerals can provide an exceptionally high fidelity of microfossil preservation and extends the known geological range of this fossilization style by almost 500?Ma. It also suggests that the best-preserved microfossils of this time may be found in low-sulfate environments. PMID:25068404

Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Roberts, Malcolm; Menon, Sarath; Green, Leonard; Kong, Charlie; Culwick, Timothy; Strother, Paul; Brasier, Martin D

2014-01-01

39

A billion years of environmental stability and the emergence of eukaryotes: New data from northern Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon isotopes through 6 km of fully cored drill holes in 1.7 to 1.5 Ga carbonates of the Mount Isa and McArthur basins, Australia (which host the earliest known eukaryote biomarkers) provide the most comprehensive and best-dated ?13C stratigraphy yet obtained from such ancient rocks. Both basins reveal remarkably stable temporal ?13C trends (mean of -0.6‰ ± 2‰ PDB [Peedee belemnite]) and confirm the impression of ?13C stasis between 2.0 and 1.0 Ga, which, together with other evidence, suggest a prolonged period of stability in crustal dynamics, redox state of surface environments, and planetary climate. This ?13C stasis is consistent with great stability in the carbon cycle controlled, we suggest, by P limitation of primary productivity. Recent evidence shows that P depletion is a major factor in obligate associations between photosymbionts and host cells. We argue that a billion years of stability in the carbon and nutrient cycles may have been the driving force that propelled prokaryotes toward photosymbiosis and the emergence of the autotrophic eukaryote cell.

Brasier, M. D.; Lindsay, J. F.

1998-06-01

40

Evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis half a billion years before the Great Oxidation Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early Earth was characterized by the absence of oxygen in the ocean-atmosphere system, in contrast to the well-oxygenated conditions that prevail today. Atmospheric concentrations first rose to appreciable levels during the Great Oxidation Event, roughly 2.5-2.3 Gyr ago. The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis is generally accepted to have been the ultimate cause of this rise, but it has proved difficult to constrain the timing of this evolutionary innovation. The oxidation of manganese in the water column requires substantial free oxygen concentrations, and thus any indication that Mn oxides were present in ancient environments would imply that oxygenic photosynthesis was ongoing. Mn oxides are not commonly preserved in ancient rocks, but there is a large fractionation of molybdenum isotopes associated with the sorption of Mo onto the Mn oxides that would be retained. Here we report Mo isotopes from rocks of the Sinqeni Formation, Pongola Supergroup, South Africa. These rocks formed no less than 2.95 Gyr ago in a nearshore setting. The Mo isotopic signature is consistent with interaction with Mn oxides. We therefore infer that oxygen produced through oxygenic photosynthesis began to accumulate in shallow marine settings at least half a billion years before the accumulation of significant levels of atmospheric oxygen.

Planavsky, Noah J.; Asael, Dan; Hofmann, Axel; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Knudsen, Andrew; Wang, Xiangli; Ossa Ossa, Frantz; Pecoits, Ernesto; Smith, Albertus J. B.; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Bekker, Andrey; Johnson, Thomas M.; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Rouxel, Olivier J.

2014-04-01

41

The Unusual Evolution of Billion-Year Old Asteroid Families by the Yarkovsky and YORP Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interesting application of the coupled Yarkovsky and YORP effects (YY) is how they can be used to determine asteroid family ages. After an asteroid disruption event, smaller fragments drift faster than the larger ones on average, producing a characteristic “V”-shape in semimajor axis, absolute magnitude (or asteroid diameter) space. If properly modeled, the “V” can be used as a clock to date the time of the break-up and constrain the migration of the family’s fragments into the NEA population (Vokrouhlicky et al. 2006). Curiously, while our existing YY models work well for younger families (< 300 My), they fail for older ones. The reason is that small asteroids spinning up or down by YORP eventually reach an endstate: they spin so fast that they shed mass, or they spin so slowly that they enter into a tumbling rotation state. These “YORP cycles” can change an asteroid’s Yarkovsky drift direction by flipping the orientation of its spin pole. Thus, YORP cycles cause asteroids to random walk in Yarkovsky drift direction. Over time, YORP cycles should turn families from V’s into blobs in semimajor axis, diameter space. This is observed for ancient families (e.g., Maria, Koronis). The question is why we do not see it for middle-aged families (e.g., Eulalia, Flora), where most of their observed members should have experienced multiple YORP cycles. A possible solution is a mechanism we call “variable YORP”. Statler (2009) found that tiny shape changes to small asteroids (e.g., boulder movement, small crater formation) can alter the strength and direction of an asteroid’s YORP torques. This allows asteroid spin rates but not obliquities to random walk over time. We find the inclusion of variable YORP slows down the onset of YORP cycles, allowing middle-aged families to maintain their V-shapes. Using an asteroid evolution model that includes a formulation of variable YORP, we will show how we can, for the first time, compute accurate formation ages for roughly billion-year old families such as Eulalia, Flora, and New Polana.

Bottke, William; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Nesvorny, D.; Walsh, K.; Delbo, M.; Lauretta, D.; Connolly, H.; OSIRIS-REx Team

2013-10-01

42

Earliest microbially mediated pyrite oxidation in ~ 3.4 billion-year-old sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyrite (FeS 2) oxidation in modern sedimentary environments is neither a purely chemical nor purely microbial process, but it is significantly enhanced by the activity of microorganisms that use reduced forms of iron and sulphur in their metabolisms. On the early Earth, where oxygen levels were thought to be < 10 -5 of the present atmospheric level and chemical oxidants scarce, such biological mediation may have been critical in the redox cycles of iron and sulphur. Here, we show that detrital sedimentary pyrite grains in a ~ 3.4 billion-year-old sandstone were colonised by microbial communities. The detrital pyrite comes from the basal quartz arenite member of the 3.43-3.35 Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) in the East Strelley greenstone belt of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. Rock chips and petrographic thin sections of black sandstones occurring on two ridges close to the SPF type locality of Strelley Pool were investigated using optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, laser Raman and NanoSIMS. The detrital pyrite grains exhibit laminated carbonaceous coatings of early Archean age, with localised enrichments of nitrogen that are interpreted as the in situ remains of biofilms growing on these nutrient-rich minerals. Pyrite surfaces contain spherical pits, chains of pits and channels that are morphologically distinct from abiotic alteration features. The pits and channels are widespread, have a clustered distribution typical of microbial colonisation, and are closely comparable to biologically mediated microstructures in the younger rock record and those created by extant Fe- and S-oxidising microbes in the laboratory. They are thus interpreted as trace fossils formed by the attachment of bacteria to the pyrite surfaces. A nano-layer and discreet nano-grains of secondary mineral precipitates, namely Fe-oxides belonging to the magnetite-maghaemite group, attest to pyrite oxidation. These are intimately associated with the biofilms and trace fossils, and are interpreted to represent the fossilised mineral products of biologically mediated pyrite oxidation. These data extend the geological range of microbes capable of metabolising reduced Fe and/or S compounds back to the early Archean and indicate that pyrite-rich sedimentary rocks provide promising targets in the search for extraterrestrial life.

Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Brasier, Martin D.; Kilburn, Matt R.

2011-01-01

43

Evidence for Oxygenic Photosynthesis Half a Billion Years Before the Great Oxidation Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite detailed investigations over the past 50 years, there is still intense debate about when oxygenic photosynthesis evolved. Current estimates span over a billion years of Earth history, ranging from prior to 3.7 Ga, the age of the oldest sedimentary rocks, to 2.4-2.3 Ga, coincident with the rise of atmospheric oxygen ("The Great Oxidation Event" or GOE). As such, a new, independent perspective is needed. We will provide such a perspective herein by using molybdenum (Mo) isotopes in a novel way to track the onset of manganese(II)oxidation and thus biological oxygen production. The oxidation of Mn(II) in modern marine setting requires free dissolved oxygen. Mn is relatively unique in its environmental specificity for oxygen as an electron acceptor among the redox-sensitive transition metals, many of which, like Fe, can be oxidized under anoxic conditions either through a microbial pathway and/or with alternative oxidants such as nitrate. There are large Mo isotope fractionations associated with the sorption of Mo (as a polymolybdate complex) onto Mn-oxyhydroxides, with an approximately -2.7‰ fractionation in d98Mo associated with Mo sorption onto Mn-oxyhydroxides (e.g., birnessite, vernadite). In contrast, sorption of Mo onto the Fe-oxyhydroxide (e.g., ferrihydrite) results in a fractionation of only -1.1‰ or less. Because of this difference in Mo isotope fractionation, Mo isotope values should become lighter with increasing Mn content, if Mn oxidation occurred during deposition and is an important vector of Mo transfer to the sediment. We find a strong positive correlation between d98Mo values and Fe/Mn ratios in iron formations deposited before and after the Great Oxidation Event. Most strikingly, Mo isotope data and Fe/Mn ratios correlate over a 2.5‰ range in d98Mo values in the Mn-rich (0.1 - 6%) iron formation of the 2.95 Ga Sinqeni Formation, South Africa. The large isotopic shifts occur over a relatively thin (3 meter thick) horizon, reflecting short-term variations in the degree of Mn oxidation that are consistent with localized oxygen generation and rapid consumption in a geochemical backdrop that was otherwise reducing. The observed range in d98Mo values and the correlation between d98Mo values and Fe/Mn ratios is statistically identical to that found in the ca. 1.89 Ga iron formations from the Lake Superior region, Animikie basin, which were deposited well after the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Our work and other recent geochemical work on the Pongola Supergroup reconcile geochemical and molecular records for the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and provide strong evidence that there was biological oxygen production well before its permanent accumulation in the atmosphere around 2.4-2.3 Ga.

Planavsky, Noah; Reinhard, Chris; Asael, Dan; Lyons, Tim; Hofmann, Axel; Rouxel, Olivier

2014-05-01

44

Switching to less expensive blindness drug could save medicare part B $18 billion over a ten-year period.  

PubMed

The biologic drugs bevacizumab and ranibizumab have revolutionized treatment of diabetic macular edema and neovascular age-related macular degeneration, leading causes of blindness. Ophthalmologic use of these drugs has increased and now accounts for roughly one-sixth of the Medicare Part B drug budget. The two drugs have similar efficacy and potentially minor differences in adverse-event rates; however, at $2,023 per dose, ranibizumab costs forty times more than bevacizumab. Using modeling methods, we predict ten-year (2010-20) population-level costs and health benefits of using bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Our results show that if all patients were treated with the less expensive bevacizumab instead of current usage patterns, savings would amount to $18 billion for Medicare Part B and nearly $5 billion for patients. With an additional $6 billion savings in other health care expenses, the total savings would be almost $29 billion. Altering patterns of use with these therapies by encouraging bevacizumab use and hastening approval of biosimilar therapies would dramatically reduce spending without substantially affecting patient outcomes. PMID:24889941

Hutton, David; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Tavag, Mrinalini; Zacks, David; Stein, Joshua

2014-06-01

45

Emplacement of a large igneous province as a possible cause of banded iron formation 2.45 billion years ago  

Microsoft Academic Search

LATEST Archaean and earliest Palaeoproterozoic times (from 2.6 to 2.2 billion years ago) have generally been viewed as a largely quiescent period of Earth history; the geological record indicates the very slow deposition of pelagic and chemical sediments1,2, and bears only a limited record of magmatic and tectonic activity3-5. Such quiescence is consistent with the contention that the Earth's main

M. E. Barley; A. L. Pickard; P. J. Sylvester

1997-01-01

46

$17 billion needed for population programme to year 2000: Dr. Nafis Sadik launches State of World Population Report.  

PubMed

Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), in her address on July 11 to the Foreign Press Association in London on the occasion of the release of the "1995 State of the World Population Report," stated that governments needed to invest in people, and that the estimated amount needed to reduce population numbers in developing countries was $17 billion for the year 2000. Two-thirds of the cost would be supplied by the developing countries. She said that coordinating population policies globally through such documents as the Programme of Action from the Cairo Conference would aid in slowing population growth. World population, currently 5.7 billion, is projected to reach 7.1-7.83 billion in 2015 and 7.9-11.9 billion in 2050. She also noted that certain conditions faced by women bear upon unsustainable population growth. The cycle of poverty continues in developing countries because very young mothers, who face higher risks in pregnancy and childbirth than those who delay childbearing until after the age of 20, are less likely to continue their education, more likely to have lower-paying jobs, and have a higher rate of separation and divorce. The isolation of women from widespread political participation and the marginalization of women's concerns from mainstream topics has resulted in ineffective family planning programs, including prevention of illness or impairment related to pregnancy or childbirth. Women, in most societies, cannot fully participate in economic and public life, have limited access to positions of influence and power, have narrower occupational choices and lower earnings than men, and must struggle to reconcile activities outside the home with their traditional roles. Sustainable development can only be achieved when social development expands opportunities for individuals (men and women), and their families, empowering them in the attainment of their social, economic, political, and cultural aspirations. PMID:12290527

1995-01-01

47

Microfossils of sulphur-metabolizing cells in 3.4-billion-year-old rocks of Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulphur isotope data from early Archaean rocks suggest that microbes with metabolisms based on sulphur existed almost 3.5 billion years ago, leading to suggestions that the earliest microbial ecosystems were sulphur-based. However, morphological evidence for these sulphur-metabolizing bacteria has been elusive. Here we report the presence of microstructures from the 3.4-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation in Western Australia that are associated with micrometre-sized pyrite crystals. The microstructures we identify exhibit indicators of biological affinity, including hollow cell lumens, carbonaceous cell walls enriched in nitrogen, taphonomic degradation, organization into chains and clusters, and ?13C values of -33 to -46‰ Vienna PeeDee Belemnite (VPDB). We therefore identify them as microfossils of spheroidal and ellipsoidal cells and tubular sheaths demonstrating the organization of multiple cells. The associated pyrite crystals have ?33S values between -1.65 and +1.43‰ and ?34S values ranging from -12 to +6‰ Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite (VCDT). We interpret the pyrite crystals as the metabolic by-products of these cells, which would have employed sulphate-reduction and sulphur-disproportionation pathways. These microfossils are about 200 million years older than previously described microfossils from Palaeoarchaean siliciclastic environments.

Wacey, David; Kilburn, Matt R.; Saunders, Martin; Cliff, John; Brasier, Martin D.

2011-10-01

48

An age difference of two billion years between a metal-rich and a metal-poor globular cluster.  

PubMed

Globular clusters trace the formation history of the spheroidal components of our Galaxy and other galaxies, which represent the bulk of star formation over the history of the Universe. The clusters exhibit a range of metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium), with metal-poor clusters dominating the stellar halo of the Galaxy, and higher-metallicity clusters found within the inner Galaxy, associated with the stellar bulge, or the thick disk. Age differences between these clusters can indicate the sequence in which the components of the Galaxy formed, and in particular which clusters were formed outside the Galaxy and were later engulfed along with their original host galaxies, and which were formed within it. Here we report an absolute age of 9.9?±?0.7 billion years (at 95 per cent confidence) for the metal-rich globular cluster 47?Tucanae, determined by modelling the properties of the cluster's white-dwarf cooling sequence. This is about two billion years younger than has been inferred for the metal-poor cluster NGC?6397 from the same models, and provides quantitative evidence that metal-rich clusters like 47?Tucanae formed later than metal-poor halo clusters like NGC?6397. PMID:23903747

Hansen, B M S; Kalirai, J S; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J R; King, I R; Reitzel, D; Stetson, P B

2013-08-01

49

Magnetite 3D colloidal crystals formed in the early solar system 4.6 billion years ago.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional colloidal crystals made of ferromagnetic particles, such as magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), cannot be synthesized in principle because of the strong attractive magnetic interaction. However, we discovered colloidal crystals composed of polyhedral magnetite nanocrystallites of uniform size in the range of a few hundred nanometers in the Tagish Lake meteorite. Those colloidal crystals were formed 4.6 billion years ago and thus are much older than natural colloidal crystals on earth, such as opals, which formed about 100 million years ago. We found that the size of each individual magnetite particle determines its morphology, which in turn plays an important role in deciding the packing structure of the colloidal crystals. We also hypothesize that each particle has a flux-closed magnetic domain structure, which reduces the interparticle magnetic force significantly. PMID:21563777

Nozawa, Jun; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; van Enckevort, Willem; Nakamura, Tomoki; Kimura, Yuki; Miura, Hitoshi; Satoh, Hisao; Nagashima, Ken; Konoto, Makoto

2011-06-15

50

States' Tax Funds for Colleges Top $28-Billion, Up 16 Pct. in 2 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of an annual national survey of state appropriations for higher education are analyzed and discussed and it is suggested that the 16 percent increase in a two-year period may mark the beginning of a recovery for tax support of higher education. (MSE)

Evangelauf, Jean

1984-01-01

51

Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years ago: evidence at kolar, South India.  

PubMed

The Archean Kolar Schist Belt, south India, is a suture zone where two gneiss terranes and at least two amphibolite terranes with distinct histories were accrted. Amphibolites from the eastern and western sides of the schist belt have distinct incompatible element and isotopic characteristics sugesting that their volcanic protoliths were derived from dint mantle sources. The amphibolite and gneiss terranes were juxtaposed by horizontal compression and shearing between 2530 and 2420 million years ago (Ma) along a zone marked by the Kolar Schist Belt. This history of accretion of discrete crustal terranes resembles those of Phanerozoic convergent margins and thus suggests that plate tectonics operated on Earth by 2500 Ma. PMID:17808265

Krogstad, E J; Balakrishnan, S; Mukhopadhyay, D K; Rajamani, V; Hanson, G N

1989-03-10

52

Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years ago - Evidence at Kolar, south India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Archean Kolar Schist Belt, south India, is a suture zone where two gneiss terranes and at least two amphibolite terranes with distinct histories were accreted. Amphibolites from the eastern and western sides of the schist belt have distinct incompatible element and isotopic characteristics suggesting that their volcanic protoliths were derived from different mantle sources. The amphibolite and gneiss terranes were juxtaposed by horizontal compression and shearing between 2530 and 2420 million years ago (Ma) along a zone marked by the Kolar Schist Belt. This history of accretion of discrete crustal terranes resembles those of Phanerozoic convergent margins and thus suggests that plate tectonics operated on earth by 2500 Ma.

Krogstad, E. J.; Hanson, G. N.; Balakrishnan, S.; Rajamani, V.; Mukhopadhyay, D. K.

1989-01-01

53

HETDEX: Evolution and Drivers of Cosmic Star Formation Over 12 Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in 2012, the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) survey will map 300 square degrees of the sky in blind spectroscopic mode using the VIRUS IFU. Over the last 5 Gyr out to z<0.5, HETDEX will enable us to map the evolution of the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density in different environments, the relation between SFR and stellar mass, and the factors driving star formation, including the contribution of galaxy mergers. Over the 28 square degree area, which will have HETDEX spectra, along with deep optical (DES) and near-infrared (Spitzer) images, at z<0.5 we expect to measure stellar masses down to 109 solar masses, detect over 60,000 [O II] emitters, cross-correlate different tracers of SF, and trace SFR down to 0.5 solar masses per year. This will allow us to overcome numerous limitations of earlier studies, such as small number statistics, the use of SF tracers detected in only the most actively star-forming systems, and the predominant use of photometric redshifts. At higher redshifts 1.9

Jogee, Shardha; Gebhardt, K.; Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C.; Khochfar, S.; Finkelstein, S.; Overzier, R.; Papovich, C.; Weinzirl, T.; Song, M.; Finkelstein, K.; Evans, N.; Drory, N.; Mentuch, E.; HETDEX Team

2012-01-01

54

Hematite formation by oxygenated groundwater more than 2.76 billion years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geoscientific drilling in the Marble Bar area of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, resulted in the discovery of locally abundant hematite in Archean basalts ~ 200 m below the present land surface. The hematized basalts occurring along a bedding-parallel shear zone are cross-cut by pyrite veinlets (< 3 mm in width) and contain euhedral pyrite grains (10-500 µm in diameter) with sharp crystal edges, indicating that the hematite formed before the pyrite. We have dated the pyrite in the veinlets at 2.763 ± 0.016 Ga using the Re-Os method. Therefore, the hematite formed prior to 2.763 Ga. The basalts containing the hematite belong to the Apex Basalt of the Warrawoona Group, and were erupted onto the Archean seafloor at 3.46 Ga. Due to 2.9 Ga orogenic deformation and subsequent deep erosion, the Apex Basalt was exposed at the surface of a continental landmass prior to 2.77 Ga. Sometime in the period between ~ 2.9 Ga and 2.77 Ga, the basalt section we describe was less than 200 m below the Late Archean land surface, and within range of groundwater percolation through the shear zone in the basalts. Geological, mineralogical and geochemical lines of evidence strongly suggest that the infiltration of O 2-rich groundwater through the bedding-parallel shear in the basalts formed hematite prior to 2.76 Ga, and hence oxygenated surface environments, at least localized and/or short-lived, emerged more than 300 million years before the widely accepted Great Oxidation Event during 2.45 and 2.32 Ga.

Kato, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Kentaro; Hickman, Arthur H.; Nedachi, Munetomo; Kusakabe, Minoru; Bevacqua, David C.; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

2009-02-01

55

Global resurfacing of Mercury 4.0-4.1 billion years ago by heavy bombardment and volcanism.  

PubMed

The most heavily cratered terrains on Mercury have been estimated to be about 4 billion years (Gyr) old, but this was based on images of only about 45 per cent of the surface; even older regions could have existed in the unobserved portion. These terrains have a lower density of craters less than 100 km in diameter than does the Moon, an observation attributed to preferential resurfacing on Mercury. Here we report global crater statistics of Mercury's most heavily cratered terrains on the entire surface. Applying a recent model for early lunar crater chronology and an updated dynamical extrapolation to Mercury, we find that the oldest surfaces were emplaced just after the start of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) about 4.0-4.1 Gyr ago. Mercury's global record of large impact basins, which has hitherto not been dated, yields a similar surface age. This agreement implies that resurfacing was global and was due to volcanism, as previously suggested. This activity ended during the tail of the LHB, within about 300-400 million years after the emplacement of the oldest terrains on Mercury. These findings suggest that persistent volcanism could have been aided by the surge of basin-scale impacts during this bombardment. PMID:23823793

Marchi, Simone; Chapman, Clark R; Fassett, Caleb I; Head, James W; Bottke, W F; Strom, Robert G

2013-07-01

56

Onset of inner core growth before 2.2 billion years ago: Insight from secular variation and paleointensity analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While estimates for the onset of solid inner core nucleation range from times younger than 1 Ga to 3.5 Ga, many models for the thermal evolution of Earth predict a relatively late start of inner core growth (<1 Ga). We test these models by examining the latitudinal dependence of paleosecular variation (PSV) data derived from high-quality paleomagnetic data collected from Proterozoic and Neoarchean rocks. When compared with data for the last 5 million years, the Precambrian data suggest a more dipolar field. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that a Neoarchean geomagnetic field that was more dipolar than that during Proterozoic times, suggesting onset of inner core nucleation before 2.2 billion years ago. We propose a model, constrained by PSV and paleointensity data and consistent with available geodynamic modeling results, that links evolution of the core, mantle and crust. The relatively old inner core age implied by our analyses favors low power solutions to the geodynamo, low present-day core-mantle boundary heat flow, and radioactive heat sources in the core.

Smirnov, A. V.; Tarduno, J. A.; Evans, D. A.

2010-12-01

57

A large population of galaxies 9 to 12 billion years back in the history of the Universe.  

PubMed

To understand the evolution of galaxies, we need to know as accurately as possible how many galaxies were present in the Universe at different epochs. Galaxies in the young Universe have hitherto mainly been identified using their expected optical colours, but this leaves open the possibility that a significant population remains undetected because their colours are the result of a complex mix of stars, gas, dust or active galactic nuclei. Here we report the results of a flux-limited I-band survey of galaxies at look-back times of 9 to 12 billion years. We find 970 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts between 1.4 and 5. This population is 1.6 to 6.2 times larger than previous estimates, with the difference increasing towards brighter magnitudes. Strong ultraviolet continua (in the rest frame of the galaxies) indicate vigorous star formation rates of more than 10-100 solar masses per year. As a consequence, the cosmic star formation rate representing the volume-averaged production of stars is higher than previously measured at redshifts of 3 to 4. PMID:16177783

Le Fèvre, O; Paltani, S; Arnouts, S; Charlot, S; Foucaud, S; Ilbert, O; McCracken, H J; Zamorani, G; Bottini, D; Garilli, B; Le Brun, V; Maccagni, D; Picat, J P; Scaramella, R; Scodeggio, M; Tresse, L; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Cappi, A; Ciliegi, P; Contini, T; Franzetti, P; Gavignaud, I; Guzzo, L; Iovino, A; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; Mazure, A; Meneux, B; Merighi, R; Pellò, R; Pollo, A; Pozzetti, L; Radovich, M; Zucca, E; Arnaboldi, M; Bondi, M; Bongiorno, A; Busarello, G; Gregorini, L; Lamareille, F; Mathez, G; Mellier, Y; Merluzzi, P; Ripepi, V; Rizzo, D

2005-09-22

58

How Obama's $12-Billion Could Change 2-Year Colleges: An In-Depth Look at Ways the President's Proposal Might Play Out  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Obama announced a plan to spend an unprecedented $12-billion over 10 years to improve programs, courses, and facilities at community colleges. The money, the president said, will position two-year institutions to produce five million more graduates over the next decade and to play a leading role in rebuilding the economy. But after the…

Fischer, Karin; Parry, Marc

2009-01-01

59

Fourteen Times the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO HARPS Instrument Discovers Smallest Ever Extra-Solar Planet Summary A European team of astronomers [1] has discovered the lightest known planet orbiting a star other than the sun (an "exoplanet"). The new exoplanet orbits the bright star mu Arae located in the southern constellation of the Altar. It is the second planet discovered around this star and completes a full revolution in 9.5 days. With a mass of only 14 times the mass of the Earth, the new planet lies at the threshold of the largest possible rocky planets, making it a possible super Earth-like object. Uranus, the smallest of the giant planets of the Solar System has a similar mass. However Uranus and the new exoplanet differ so much by their distance from the host star that their formation and structure are likely to be very different. This discovery was made possible by the unprecedented accuracy of the HARPS spectrograph on ESO's 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, which allows radial velocities to be measured with a precision better than 1 m/s. It is another clear demonstration of the European leadership in the field of exoplanet research. PR Photo 25a/04: The HARPS Spectrograph and the 3.6m Telescope PR Photo 25b/04: Observed Velocity Variation of mu Arae (3.6m/HARPS, 1.2m Swiss/CORALIE, AAT/UCLES) PR Photo 25c/04: Velocity Variation of mu Arae Observed by HARPS (3.6m/HARPS) PR Photo 25d/04: "Velocity Curve" of mu Arae A unique planet hunting machine ESO PR Photo 25a/04 ESO PR Photo 25a/04 The HARPS Spectrograph and the 3.6m Telescope [Preview - JPEG: 602 x 400 pix - 211k] [Normal - JPEG: 1202 x 800 pix - 645k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 25a/04 represents a montage of the HARPS spectrograph and the 3.6m telescope at La Silla. The upper left shows the dome of the telescope, while the upper right illustrates the telescope itself. The HARPS spectrograph is shown in the lower image during laboratory tests. The vacuum tank is open so that some of the high-precision components inside can be seen. Since the first detection in 1995 of a planet around the star 51 Peg by Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz from the Geneva Observatory (Switzerland), astronomers have learned that our Solar System is not unique, as more than 120 giant planets orbiting other stars were discovered mostly by radial-velocity surveys (cf. ESO PR 13/00, ESO PR 07/01, and ESO PR 03/03). This fundamental observational method is based on the detection of variations in the velocity of the central star, due to the changing direction of the gravitational pull from an (unseen) exoplanet as it orbits the star. The evaluation of the measured velocity variations allows to deduce the planet's orbit, in particular the period and the distance from the star, as well as a minimum mass [2]. The continued quest for exoplanets requires better and better instrumentation. In this context, ESO undoubtedly took the leadership with the new HARPS spectrograph (High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher) of the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (see ESO PR 06/03). Offered in October 2003 to the research community in the ESO member countries, this unique instrument is optimized to detect planets in orbit around other stars ("exoplanets") by means of accurate (radial) velocity measurements with an unequalled precision of 1 metre per second. HARPS was built by a European Consortium [3] in collaboration with ESO. Already from the beginning of its operation, it has demonstrated its very high efficiency. By comparison with CORALIE, another well known planet-hunting optimized spectrograph installed on the Swiss-Euler 1.2-m telescope at La Silla (cf ESO PR 18/98, 12/99, 13/00), the typical observation times have been reduced by a factor one hundred and the accuracy of the measurements has been increased by a factor ten. These improvements have opened new perspectives in the search for extra-solar planets and have set new standards in terms of instrumental precision. The planetary system around mu Arae The star mu Arae is about 50 light years away. This solar-like star is located in the sout

2004-08-01

60

Evidence from massive siderite beds for a CO2-rich atmosphere before ~ 1.8 billion years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally thought that, in order to compensate for lower solar flux and maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth, methane must have been an important greenhouse gas before ~2.2 billion years (Gyr) ago. This is based upon a simple thermodynamic calculation that relates the absence of siderite (FeCO3) in some pre-2.2-Gyr palaeosols to atmospheric CO2 concentrations that would have been too low to have provided the necessary greenhouse effect. Using multi-dimensional thermodynamic analyses and geological evidence, we show here that the absence of siderite in palaeosols does not constrain atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Siderite is absent in many palaeosols (both pre- and post-2.2-Gyr in age) because the O2 concentrations and pH conditions in well-aerated soils have favoured the formation of ferric (Fe3+)-rich minerals, such as goethite, rather than siderite. Siderite, however, has formed throughout geological history in subsurface environments, such as euxinic seas, where anaerobic organisms created H2-rich conditions. The abundance of large, massive siderite-rich beds in pre-1.8-Gyr sedimentary sequences and their carbon isotope ratios indicate that the atmospheric CO2 concentration was more than 100 times greater than today, causing the rain and ocean waters to be more acidic than today. We therefore conclude that CO2 alone (without a significant contribution from methane) could have provided the necessary greenhouse effect to maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth.

Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yumiko; Kumazawa, Kazumasa

2004-05-01

61

Evidence from massive siderite beds for a CO2-rich atmosphere before approximately 1.8 billion years ago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is generally thought that, in order to compensate for lower solar flux and maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth, methane must have been an important greenhouse gas before approximately 2.2 billion years (Gyr) ago. This is based upon a simple thermodynamic calculation that relates the absence of siderite (FeCO3) in some pre-2.2-Gyr palaeosols to atmospheric CO2 concentrations that would have been too low to have provided the necessary greenhouse effect. Using multi-dimensional thermodynamic analyses and geological evidence, we show here that the absence of siderite in palaeosols does not constrain atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Siderite is absent in many palaeosols (both pre- and post-2.2-Gyr in age) because the O2 concentrations and pH conditions in well-aerated soils have favoured the formation of ferric (Fe3+)-rich minerals, such as goethite, rather than siderite. Siderite, however, has formed throughout geological history in subsurface environments, such as euxinic seas, where anaerobic organisms created H2-rich conditions. The abundance of large, massive siderite-rich beds in pre-1.8-Gyr sedimentary sequences and their carbon isotope ratios indicate that the atmospheric CO2 concentration was more than 100 times greater than today, causing the rain and ocean waters to be more acidic than today. We therefore conclude that CO2 alone (without a significant contribution from methane) could have provided the necessary greenhouse effect to maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth.

Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yumiko; Kumazawa, Kazumasa

2004-01-01

62

Air density 2.7 billion years ago limited to less than twice modern levels by fossil raindrop imprints.  

PubMed

According to the 'Faint Young Sun' paradox, during the late Archaean eon a Sun approximately 20% dimmer warmed the early Earth such that it had liquid water and a clement climate. Explanations for this phenomenon have invoked a denser atmosphere that provided warmth by nitrogen pressure broadening or enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. Such solutions are allowed by geochemical studies and numerical investigations that place approximate concentration limits on Archaean atmospheric gases, including methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen. But no field data constraining ground-level air density and barometric pressure have been reported, leaving the plausibility of these various hypotheses in doubt. Here we show that raindrop imprints in tuffs of the Ventersdorp Supergroup, South Africa, constrain surface air density 2.7 billion years ago to less than twice modern levels. We interpret the raindrop fossils using experiments in which water droplets of known size fall at terminal velocity into fresh and weathered volcanic ash, thus defining a relationship between imprint size and raindrop impact momentum. Fragmentation following raindrop flattening limits raindrop size to a maximum value independent of air density, whereas raindrop terminal velocity varies as the inverse of the square root of air density. If the Archaean raindrops reached the modern maximum measured size, air density must have been less than 2.3?kg?m(-3), compared to today's 1.2?kg?m(-3), but because such drops rarely occur, air density was more probably below 1.3?kg?m(-3). The upper estimate for air density renders the pressure broadening explanation possible, but it is improbable under the likely lower estimates. Our results also disallow the extreme CO(2) levels required for hot Archaean climates. PMID:22456703

Som, Sanjoy M; Catling, David C; Harnmeijer, Jelte P; Polivka, Peter M; Buick, Roger

2012-04-19

63

Visiting the cinema, concerts, museums or art exhibitions as determinant of survival: a Swedish fourteen-year cohort follow-up.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to ascertain the possible influence of attending various kinds of cultural events or visiting cultural institutions as a determinant of survival. A cohort of individuals aged 25-74 years from a random sample were interviewed by trained non-medical interviewers in 1982 and 1983. The interviews covered standard-of-living variables. Our independent variables covered visiting cultural institutions and attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, and music making. The non-response rate was about 25%. The cohort was followed with respect to survival for 14 years up to 31st December 1996. The background covariates that were used for control purposes were age, sex, cash buffer, educational standard, long-term disease, smoking, and physical exercise. Our setting was the Swedish survey of living conditions among the adult Swedish population aged 25-74 years. About 10,609 individuals were interviewed in 1982 and 1983. The outcome measure was survival until 31st December 1996. In all, 916 men and 600 women died during this period. We found a higher mortality risk for those people who rarely visited the cinema, concerts, museums, or art exhibitions compared with those visiting them most often. The significant relative risks ranging between RR 1.14 (95% CI. 1.01-1.31) of attending art exhibitions, and RR 1.42 (CI. 1.25-1.60) of attending museums, when adjusting for the nine other variables. Visits to the cinema and concerts gave significant RR in between. We could not discern any beneficial effect of attending the theatre, church service or sports event as a spectator or any effect of reading or music making. Our conclusion is that attendance at certain kinds of cultural events may have a beneficial effect on longevity. PMID:11045748

Konlaan, B B; Bygren, L O; Johansson, S E

2000-09-01

64

Fourteen Years of Assessment: Regents' Testing Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1972, the Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia instituted the Regents' Testing Program (RTP) to provide systemwide information on the status of student competence in reading and writing and to provide a uniform means of identifying those students who fail to attain minimum levels of competence in these areas. Since 1972, some…

Bridges, Jean Bolen

65

Exceptional preservation of aragonite in a circa 3.3 billion year old microbial mat from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exceptional preservation of aragonite in a circa 3.3 billion year old microbial mat from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa Frances Westall, Barbara Cavalazzi, Laurence Lemelle, Yves Marrocchi, Jean-Noël Rouzaud, Alexandre Simionovici, Murielle Salomé, Smail Mostefaoui, Caroline Andreazza, Frédéric Foucher, Jan Toporski, Andrea Jauss, Volker Thiel, Axel Hofmann, Anders Meibom, François Robert Aragonite occurs as a biologically-formed mineral precipitate within modern calcifying microbial mats. It is, however, rarely preserved in the geological record because, as one of the least stable polymorphs of calcium carbonate, it readily converts to calcite in present environmental conditions at the Earth's surface. In an in situ investigation at the micro- to nanometer-scale, we show that 5-10 nm sized nanocrystals of aragonite are preserved within the organic framework of a partially calcified microbial mat from the ~ 3.3 billion year-old Josefsdal Chert in the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa. Transformation of the aragonite to calcite was blocked by a combination of chemical inhibitors within the crystal lattice, organic molecules coating the nanocrystals and, in particular, to the precocious permeation of the mat by hydrothermal silica. Apart from its exceptional preservation for 3.3 billion years, the identification of aragonite in the Josefsdal microbial mat is the earliest evidence for in situ calcification of a microbial mat. Furthermore, the indications of associated sulphur-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity with calcification strongly support a photosynthetic origin for the mat. This is the most direct evidence for photosynthesis in early Archaean rocks.

Westall, Frances; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Lemelle, Laurence; Marrochhi, Yves; Rouzaud, Jean-Noel; Simionovici, Alexandre; Andreazza, Caroline; Foucher, Frédéric; Thiel, Volker; Hofmann, Axel

2010-05-01

66

State Funds for Higher Education Total $34-Billion; 11-Pct. Biennial Rise Equals Lowest in 29 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tight state budgets and regional economic difficulties have prompted a sharp drop in the rate that state appropriations for higher education have increased over the past two years. New England fares well while farm and oil states suffer. (MLW)

Jaschik, Scott

1987-01-01

67

HubbleSite NewsCenter 1996-01: Hubble's Deepest View of the Universe Unveils Bewildering Galaxies across Billions of Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hubble Telescope's "deepest-ever view of the universe" is available for viewing. "Several hundred never before seen galaxies are visible in this 'deepest-ever' view of the universe, called the Hubble Deep Field (HDF), made with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Besides the classical spiral and elliptical shaped galaxies, there is a bewildering variety of other galaxy shapes and colors that are important clues to understanding the evolution of the universe. Some of the galaxies may have formed less that one billion years after the Big Bang." Photos are available in low and high resolution, black & white and color, and are accompanied with a detailed explanatory caption, press release, and background information.

1996-01-01

68

Upward Shallowing Platform Cycles: A Response to 2.2 Billion Years of Low-Amplitude, High-Frequency (Milankovitch Band) Sea Level Oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow-water carbonate platforms, characterized by sequences of small-scale upward shallowing cycles, are common in the Phanerozoic and Proterozoic stratigraphic record. Proterozoic small-scale cycles are commonly 1 to 10 m thick, have asymmetrically arranged facies, and are strikingly similar to Phanerozoic platform cycles. In some platform sequences (eg. Rocknest, Wallace, and Helena formations of early to middle Proterozoic age), it can be demonstrated that the lateral distribution of facies within cycles relates to systematic variations in platform paleogeography and topography. In the Rocknest formation, cycles with intervals of tepees and pisolitic breccia formed on a topographic high (shoal complex) near the shelf edge rim, and provide evidence for eustatic falls in sea level at the end of each cycle. The presence of these facies in other Proterozoic cyclic platforms also suggests that eustatic sea level falls may have been important in the development of each cycle. Proterozoic upward shallowing cycles appear to have had periods of between 20,000 and 100,000 years, and probably formed during eustatic oscillations in sea level with amplitudes of less than 10 m. This suggests that cyclicity may have been regulated by Milankovitch band climatic forcing, perhaps influencing global sea level through minor changes related to small-scale continental or alpine glaciation. It is possible, then, that Milankovitch band climatic forcing has occurred for at least the last 2.2 billion years of earth history.

Grotzinger, J. P.

1986-12-01

69

Two-phase increase in the maximum size of life over 3.5 billion years reflects biological innovation and environmental opportunity  

PubMed Central

The maximum size of organisms has increased enormously since the initial appearance of life >3.5 billion years ago (Gya), but the pattern and timing of this size increase is poorly known. Consequently, controls underlying the size spectrum of the global biota have been difficult to evaluate. Our period-level compilation of the largest known fossil organisms demonstrates that maximum size increased by 16 orders of magnitude since life first appeared in the fossil record. The great majority of the increase is accounted for by 2 discrete steps of approximately equal magnitude: the first in the middle of the Paleoproterozoic Era (?1.9 Gya) and the second during the late Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic eras (0.6–0.45 Gya). Each size step required a major innovation in organismal complexity—first the eukaryotic cell and later eukaryotic multicellularity. These size steps coincide with, or slightly postdate, increases in the concentration of atmospheric oxygen, suggesting latent evolutionary potential was realized soon after environmental limitations were removed.

Payne, Jonathan L.; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Finnegan, Seth; Kowalewski, Michal; Krause, Richard A.; Lyons, S. Kathleen; McClain, Craig R.; McShea, Daniel W.; Novack-Gottshall, Philip M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stempien, Jennifer A.; Wang, Steve C.

2009-01-01

70

The Next Billion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"In 1999 the world population passed the 6 billion mark. In this lesson, students predict when it will reach 7 billion. Students discuss the reliability of their predictions, compare them to past trends, and discuss social factors that can affect population growth." from NCTM Illuminations.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2009-12-08

71

A reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on molecular fossils from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old Mount Bruce Supergroup, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitumens extracted from 2.7 to 2.5 billion-year-old (Ga) shales of the Fortescue and Hamersley Groups in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, contain traces of molecular fossils. Based on a combination of molecular characteristics typical of many Precambrian bitumens, their consistently and unusually high thermal maturities, and their widespread distribution throughout the Hamersley Basin, the bitumens can be characterized as ‘probably

Jochen J Brocks; Roger Buick; Roger E Summons; Graham A Logan

2003-01-01

72

Unsuccessful therapy with adefovir and entecavir-tenofovir in a patient with chronic hepatitis B infection with previous resistance to lamivudine: a fourteen-year evolution of hepatitis B virus mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Complex mutants can be selected under sequential selective pressure by HBV therapy. To determine hepatitis B virus genomic\\u000a evolution during antiviral therapy we characterized the HBV quasi-species in a patient who did no respond to therapy following\\u000a lamivudine breakthrough for a period of 14 years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case Presentation  The polymerase and precore\\/core genes were amplified and sequenced at determined intervals in a

Lucila Cassino; Silvina Benetti; Fabian Fay; Hugo Tanno; Jorge Quarleri

2011-01-01

73

29 CFR 570.119 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS...Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards...1938, as Amended Oppressive Child Labor § 570.119...

2013-07-01

74

Where Have All the Billions Gone?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing a basis to help Alaskans determine future spending levels and priorities, this report traces how the state spent more than $26 billion in general funds from fiscal years 1981 through 1986 before oil prices crashed and brought state revenues tumbling down with them. Figures indicate that cumulative general fund expenditures over the…

Leask, Linda; And Others

1987-01-01

75

Analysis of the Basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea Reveals Conservation of the Core Meiotic Expression Program over Half a Billion Years of Evolution  

PubMed Central

Coprinopsis cinerea (also known as Coprinus cinereus) is a multicellular basidiomycete mushroom particularly suited to the study of meiosis due to its synchronous meiotic development and prolonged prophase. We examined the 15-hour meiotic transcriptional program of C. cinerea, encompassing time points prior to haploid nuclear fusion though tetrad formation, using a 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray. As with other organisms, a large proportion (?20%) of genes are differentially regulated during this developmental process, with successive waves of transcription apparent in nine transcriptional clusters, including one enriched for meiotic functions. C. cinerea and the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe diverged ?500–900 million years ago, permitting a comparison of transcriptional programs across a broad evolutionary time scale. Previous studies of S. cerevisiae and S. pombe compared genes that were induced upon entry into meiosis; inclusion of C. cinerea data indicates that meiotic genes are more conserved in their patterns of induction across species than genes not known to be meiotic. In addition, we found that meiotic genes are significantly more conserved in their transcript profiles than genes not known to be meiotic, which indicates a remarkable conservation of the meiotic process across evolutionarily distant organisms. Overall, meiotic function genes are more conserved in both induction and transcript profile than genes not known to be meiotic. However, of 50 meiotic function genes that were co-induced in all three species, 41 transcript profiles were well-correlated in at least two of the three species, but only a single gene (rad50) exhibited coordinated induction and well-correlated transcript profiles in all three species, indicating that co-induction does not necessarily predict correlated expression or vice versa. Differences may reflect differences in meiotic mechanisms or new roles for paralogs. Similarities in induction, transcript profiles, or both, should contribute to gene discovery for orthologs without currently characterized meiotic roles.

Burns, Claire; Stajich, Jason E.; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Casselton, Lorna; Hanlon, Sean E.; Wilke, Sarah K.; Savytskyy, Oleksandr P.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lilly, Walt W.; Lieb, Jason D.; Zolan, Miriam E.; Pukkila, Patricia J.

2010-01-01

76

ANALYSIS OF CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE FOR FOURTEEN CITIES USING HAPEM-MS3 (FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes results and findings of applying the Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM) for mobile sources, Version 3. This version is formally known as HAPEM-MS3. The application is to fourteen urban areas for calendar year 1990. The urban areas modeled inclu...

77

BOILER HOUSE, INTERIOR. BOILERS TWELVE, THIRTEEN AND FOURTEEN TO THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BOILER HOUSE, INTERIOR. BOILERS TWELVE, THIRTEEN AND FOURTEEN TO THE RIGHT, BAGASSE STORAGE AREA TO THE LEFT. VIEW FROM WEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

78

BOILER HOUSE, INTERIOR. BOILERS TWELVE, THIRTEEN AND FOURTEEN TO THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BOILER HOUSE, INTERIOR. BOILERS TWELVE, THIRTEEN AND FOURTEEN TO THE RIGHT. VIEW FROM NORTHWEST FROM CATWALK IN BAGASSE STORAGE AREA - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

79

Palaeoclimates: the first two billion years  

PubMed Central

Earth's climate during the Archaean remains highly uncertain, as the relevant geologic evidence is sparse and occasionally contradictory. Oxygen isotopes in cherts suggest that between 3.5 and 3.2?Gyr ago (Ga) the Archaean climate was hot (55–85?°C); however, the fact that these cherts have experienced only a modest amount of weathering suggests that the climate was temperate, as today. The presence of diamictites in the Pongola Supergroup and the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa suggests that by 2.9?Ga the climate was glacial. The Late Archaean was relatively warm; then glaciation (possibly of global extent) reappeared in the Early Palaeoproterozoic, around 2.3–2.4?Ga. Fitting these climatic constraints with a model requires high concentrations of atmospheric CO2 or CH4, or both. Solar luminosity was 20–25% lower than today, so elevated greenhouse gas concentrations were needed just to keep the mean surface temperature above freezing. A rise in O2 at approximately 2.4?Ga, and a concomitant decrease in CH4, provides a natural explanation for the Palaeoproterozoic glaciations. The Mid-Archaean glaciations may have been caused by a drawdown in H2 and CH4 caused by the origin of bacterial sulphate reduction. More work is needed to test this latter hypothesis.

Kasting, James F; Ono, Shuhei

2006-01-01

80

Ultra-dense billion year memory chip  

SciTech Connect

This video shows an iron nanoparticle shuttle moving through a carbon nanotube in the presence of a low voltage electrical current. The shuttles position inside the tube can function as a high-density nonvolatile memory element. (Courtesy of /Zettl Research Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California at Berkeley.)

None

2009-01-01

81

Ultra-dense billion year memory chip  

ScienceCinema

This video shows an iron nanoparticle shuttle moving through a carbon nanotube in the presence of a low voltage electrical current. The shuttles position inside the tube can function as a high-density nonvolatile memory element. (Courtesy of /Zettl Research Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California at Berkeley.)

82

Escalating energy costs threaten health care for critically ill and homebound seniors: home care nurses, aides and therapists drive 4.8 billion miles per year to reach shut-in patients.  

PubMed

The rapidly rising cost of fuel has had a profound impact on the home care and hospice industry. In an effort to quantify the increased burden, the National Association for Home Care & Hospice's (NAHC) Foundation for Hospice and Home Care conducted a study showing that home care and hospice providers drive over 5 billion miles per year to deliver services --about two-and-a-half times the number driven by United Parcel Service, the international delivery service. The findings garnered significant interest by the media and elected officials. Reprinted in this issue of CARING Magazine are the press release that NAHC issued regarding the study, as well as a graphic representation of the study's findings that was circulated to the National Conference of State Legislatures at its most recent meeting in July. Also represented on these pages is a reprint from the Congressional Record of July 11, 2008, in which Senator Debbie Stabenow (D-MI), one of the highest ranking Democrats in the US. Senate, entered into the record an article from the front page of the New York Times of July 5, 2008, that covered the mileage study. PMID:18795535

2008-08-01

83

The nonprofit sector's $100 billion opportunity.  

PubMed

Imagine what an extra $100 billion a year could do for philanthropic and other nonprofit institutions. According to a new study, the nonprofit sector could free that amount--maybe even more--by making five changes in the way it operates. The study asked two central questions: Does the sector's money flow from its source to its ultimate use as efficiently and effectively as possible? If not, where are the big opportunities to increase social benefit? According to former senator Bill Bradley and McKinsey's Paul Jansen and Les Silverman, nonprofits could save roughly $25 billion a year by changing the way they raise funds. By distributing funds more quickly, they could put an extra $30 billion to work. Organizations could generate more than $60 billion a year by streamlining and restructuring the way in which they provide services and by reducing administrative costs. And they could free up even more money--an amount impossible to estimate--by better allocating funds among service providers. The authors admit that making those changes won't be easy. The nonprofit world, historically seen as a collection of locally focused charities, has become an enormous sector, but it lacks the managerial processes and incentives that help keep the for-profit world on track. And when the baby boomers start to retire in less than a decade, public budgets will be squeezed even more than they are today. If the nonprofit sector is to help the nation cope with the stresses ahead, it must become more efficient and challenge its traditional concepts of stewardship. PMID:12747166

Bradley, Bill; Jansen, Paul; Silverman, Les

2003-05-01

84

Medicare Could Collect Billions if Pharmaceutical Manufacturers were Required to Pay Rebates for Part B Drugs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Statutorily mandated rebates enabled Medicaid to recoup a substantial percentage of the $28 billion spent on prescription drugs in 2011. That same year, Medicare Part B expenditures exceeded $16 billion on prescription drugs; however, no similar rebate au...

2013-01-01

85

Fourteen new microsatellite markers for Atlantic herring Clupea harengus.  

PubMed

Fourteen new microsatellite loci were developed and tested on Atlantic herring Clupea harengus with 39 individuals from Iceland and 49 individuals from Norway. The microsatellites, which contain di, tri and tetranucleotide repeats, are polymorphic (7-30 alleles), with observed heterozygosity ranging between 0·69 and 1·00 and expected heterozygosity between 0·55 and 0·97. PMID:22957880

Libungan, L A; Ólafsdóttir, G; Skírnisdóttir, S; Pálsson, S; Pampoulie, C; Björnsdóttir, S H; Ólafsson, K; Óskarsson, G J; Daníelsdóttir, A K

2012-09-01

86

A reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on molecular fossils from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old Mount Bruce Supergroup, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bitumens extracted from 2.7 to 2.5 billion-year-old (Ga) shales of the Fortescue and Hamersley Groups in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, contain traces of molecular fossils. Based on a combination of molecular characteristics typical of many Precambrian bitumens, their consistently and unusually high thermal maturities, and their widespread distribution throughout the Hamersley Basin, the bitumens can be characterized as 'probably of Archean age'. Accepting this interpretation, the biomarkers open a new window on Archean biodiversity. The presence of hopanes in the Archean rocks confirms the antiquity of the domain Bacteria, and high relative concentrations of 2?-methylhopanes indicate that cyanobacteria were important primary producers. Oxygenic photosynthesis therefore evolved > 2.7 Ga ago, and well before independent evidence suggests significant levels of oxygen accumulated in the atmosphere. Moreover, the abundance of cyanobacterial biomarkers in shales interbedded with oxide-facies banded iron formations (BIF) indicates that although some Archean BIF might have been formed by abiotic photochemical processes or anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, those in the Hamersley Group formed as a direct consequence of biological oxygen production. Biomarkers of the 3?-methylhopane series suggest that microaerophilic heterotrophic bacteria, probably methanotrophs or methylotrophs, were active in late Archean environments. The presence of steranes in a wide range of structures with relative abundances like those from late Paleoproterozoic to Phanerozoic sediments is convincing evidence for the existence of eukaryotes in the late Archean, 900 Ma before visible fossil evidence indicates that the lineage arose. Sterol biosynthesis in extant eukaryotes requires molecular oxygen. The presence of steranes together with biomarkers of oxygenic photosynthetic cyanobacteria suggests that the concentration of dissolved oxygen in some regions of the upper water column was equivalent to at least ˜1% of the present atmospheric level (PAL) and may have been sufficient to support aerobic respiration.

Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Summons, Roger E.; Logan, Graham A.

2003-11-01

87

Investigation of allegations made in a fourteen-page document  

SciTech Connect

The fourteen-page document anonymously submitted to the Office of Government Ethics makes five allegations concerning Mr. Leslie Daly. These allegations fall into three categories: (1) three allegations concerning Mr. Daly's relationship with Northrop Corporation, his former employer; (2) an allegation concerning Mr. Daly's travel to California while a DOE employee; and (3) a final allegation concerning the hiring of Mr. Daly's daughter by the International Energy Agency in Paris. Investigative efforts addressed all allegations but found no substantive violations. (PSB)

Not Available

1981-07-02

88

Congress Gives Colleges a Billion-Dollar Bonanza.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that Congress has earmarked a record amount of money (more than $1 billion) for projects involving specific colleges in the 2000 fiscal year. Notes that such "pork-barrel" spending has tripled since 1996. Charts show trends in earmarks since 1989, year 2000 earmarks by agency, the top 20 recipients of earmarked grants, and ranking of…

Brainard, Jeffrey; Southwick, Ron

2000-01-01

89

Use of fourteen gauge angiocatheter needle in orthopaedics  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds Wide-bore angiocatheter is readily available in the hospital in pre-sterilized packed form. There are various uses in medical and surgical field apart from its use for transfusion. Here we are outlining its various uses in orthopaedic surgeries. Method Fourteen gauge angiocatheter which internal diameter is 1.3 mm is used in fracture of patella, olecranon to pass the stainless steel (SS) wire, in scaphoid fracture fixation and hip arthroscopy and its efficacy is noted. Result Surgical procedure assisted by 14 gauge angiocatheter reduces surgical time, and soft tissues damage and it also helped in scaphoid fixation and hip arthroscopy. Conclusion Passing SS-wire through soft tissues and bone causes lots of trouble and time consuming. With the help of angiocatheter it overcomes these problems. So, its use in orthopaedic surgeries are rewarding.

Lal, Hitesh; Singh, Satya Prakash; Tanwar, Yashwant Singh; Habib, Masood

2013-01-01

90

Life with Four Billion Atoms  

SciTech Connect

Today it is commonplace to design and construct single silicon chips with billions of transistors. These are complex systems, difficult (but possible) to design, test, and fabricate. Remarkably, simple living systems can be assembled from a similar number of atoms, most of them in water molecules. In this talk I will present the current status of our attempts at full understanding and complexity reduction of one of the simplest living systems, the free-living bacterial species Mesoplasma florum. This 400 nm diameter cell thrives and replicates every 40 minutes with a genome of only 800 kilobases. Our recent experiments using transposon gene knockouts identified 354 of 683 annotated genes as inessential in laboratory culture when inactivated individually. While a functional redesigned genome will certainly not remove all of those genes, this suggests that roughly half the genome can be removed in an intentional redesign. I will discuss our recent knockout results and methodology, and our future plans for Genome re-engineering using targeted knock-in/knock-out double recombination; whole cell metabolic models; comprehensive whole cell metabolite measurement techniques; creation of plug-and-play metabolic modules for the simplified organism; inherent and engineered biosafety control mechanisms. This redesign is part of a comprehensive plan to lay the foundations for a new discipline of engineering biology. Engineering biological systems requires a fundamentally different viewpoint from that taken by the science of biology. Key engineering principles of modularity, simplicity, separation of concerns, abstraction, flexibility, hierarchical design, isolation, and standardization are of critical importance. The essence of engineering is the ability to imagine, design, model, build, and characterize novel systems to achieve specific goals. Current tools and components for these tasks are primitive. Our approach is to create and distribute standard biological parts, organisms, assembly techniques, and measurement techniques as a way of enabling this new field.

Knight, Thomas [Ginkgo Bioworks, Inc.

2013-04-10

91

Colleges' Billion-Dollar Campaigns Feel the Economy's Sting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economy's collapse has caught up with the billion-dollar campaign. In the past 12 months, the amount of money raised by a dozen of the colleges engaged in higher education's biggest fund-raising campaigns fell 32 percent from the year before. The decline, which started before the worst of the recession, has forced colleges to postpone…

Masterson, Kathryn

2009-01-01

92

Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

93

Billion shot flashlamp for spaceborne lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A billion-shot flashlamp developed under a NASA contract for spaceborne laser missions is presented. Lifetime-limiting mechanisms are identified and addressed. Two energy loadings of 15 and 44 Joules were selected for the initial accelerated life testing. A fluorescence-efficiency test station was used for measuring the useful-light output degradation of the lamps. The design characteristics meeting NASA specifications are outlined. Attention is focused on the physical properties of tungsten-matrix cathodes, the chemistry of dispenser cathodes, and anode degradation. It is reported that out of the total 83 lamps tested in the program, 4 lamps reached a billion shots and one lamp is beyond 1.7 billion shots, while at 44 Joules, 4 lamps went beyond 100 million shots and one lamp reached 500 million shots.

Richter, Linda; Schuda, Felix; Degnan, John

1990-01-01

94

Initial Costs vs. Operational Costs. A Study of Building Improvement Projects in Fourteen Schools in the School District of Greenville County, South Carolina.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether initial facility improvement costs were paid back by the reduced operational costs resulting from the improvement projects, this study examined the relationship between initial costs and operational costs of fourteen school buildings improved during the 1978-79 school year in Greenville County, South Carolina. With energy…

Chan, Tak Cheung

95

Thyroid Follicular Carcinoma in a Fourteen-year-old Girl with Graves' Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Here we present the case of a 14-yr-old girl who developed thyroid follicular carcinoma accompanied by Graves’ disease. She was diagnosed with Graves’ disease at 10 yr of age and soon achieved a euthyroid state after starting treatment. When she was 13 yr of age, her hyperthyroidism and goiter worsened despite medical therapy. Multiple nodules were found in her enlarged thyroid gland by ultrasonography. Her serum Tg level seemed within the normal range. She underwent near-total thyroidectomy for control of thyroid function. Histopathological study demonstrated that multiple oxyphilic follicular neoplasms were surrounded by the thyroid tissue compatible with Graves’ disease. Capsular invasion was identified in one of the nodules, and thus the histological diagnosis was minimally invasive follicular carcinoma. She did not have signs suggesting metastasis, and has had no relapse for 18 mo after the operation. Although some previous studies showed a high prevalence of thyroid cancer with an aggressive nature in adult patients with Graves’ disease, few reports about thyroid cancer accompanied by Graves’ disease are available in children. The present case, however, suggests that careful investigation is needed when we detect thyroid nodules or progressive thyroid enlargement, especially in children with Graves’ disease.

Kojima-Ishii, Kanako; Ihara, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kazuhiro; Matsuo, Terumichi; Toda, Naoko; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Kono, Shinji; Hara, Toshiro

2014-01-01

96

Personnel radiation exposure analysis in a radiotherapy center: fourteen year retrospective study  

SciTech Connect

The radiation exposure to the staff in the Ontario Cancer Institute between 1964-1977 was analyzed based on data from personnel film monitors. The annual collective dose equivalent was found to vary from 320 to 720 person-mSv. Of this, about 75% was attributable to the use of radionuclides for intracavitary and interstitial therapy, about 17% the use of external radiation therapy equipment, and the remaining, about 8% was equally attributable to diagnostic x ray and a mixture of many radiation sources used in research. The most influential factor to the annual collective dose equivalent was the number of patients treated with intracavitary and interstitial therapy. The dose per such application to this population was about .70 mSv, and was further broken down into .48 mSv to nurses in the wards where these patients were admitted, .11 mSv to personnel who handle these sources, .08 mSv to the operating room staff, and .04 mSv to the others. The collective dose per external radiation daily treatment was about .0008 mSv. For a course of 20 treatments, the collective dose equivalent will be in the order of .02 mSv. For diagnostic radiology, the collective dose per patient visit was in the order of 0.0003 mSv.

Leung, P.M.K.

1983-11-01

97

Herbicide treatment effects on properties of mountain big sagebrush soils after fourteen years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of sagebrush conversion on the soil properties of a high-elevation portion of the Western Intermountain Sagebrush Steppe (West, 1983) are described. Changes were found in only a few soil chemical properties after conversion to grassland. It was found that surface concentrations of N were lower under grass vegetation than under undisturbed vegetation. Undershrub net N mineralization rates were higher under shrubs in the sagebrush vegetation than under former shrubs in the grass vegetation.

Burke, I. C.; Reiners, W. A.; Sturges, D. L.; Matson, P. A.

1987-01-01

98

Fourteen-Year Trend of Tuberculosis Dynamics in the Northwest of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in different countries as estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) vary from 23\\/100,000 and less in industrialized countries, 191\\/100,000 in Africa and 237\\/100,000 in South East Asia. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the dynamics of TB in the northwest of Turkey, between 1988 and 2001. Methods: All pulmonary TB

Levent Kart; Deniz Akduman; Remzi Altin; Meltem Tor; Murat Unalacak; Fusun Begendik; Funda Erdem; Umit Alparslan

2003-01-01

99

STATUS OF EUONYMUS SCALE IN MASSACHUSETTS FOURTEEN YEARS AFTER RELEASE OF CHILOCORUS KUWANAE (COLEOPTERA: COCCINELLIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chilocorus kuwanae (Silvestri) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was imported to the United States from Korea in the 1980s and established in the Washington, D.C. area for control of euonymus scale, Unaspis euonymi (Comstock) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) (Drea & Carlson 1987). Limited re- leases of this population were made in Massachu- setts in 1988 and 1989. In 1990, additional adults of C. kuwanae were

C. N UNN

100

Thyroid Follicular Carcinoma in a Fourteen-year-old Girl with Graves' Disease.  

PubMed

Here we present the case of a 14-yr-old girl who developed thyroid follicular carcinoma accompanied by Graves' disease. She was diagnosed with Graves' disease at 10 yr of age and soon achieved a euthyroid state after starting treatment. When she was 13 yr of age, her hyperthyroidism and goiter worsened despite medical therapy. Multiple nodules were found in her enlarged thyroid gland by ultrasonography. Her serum Tg level seemed within the normal range. She underwent near-total thyroidectomy for control of thyroid function. Histopathological study demonstrated that multiple oxyphilic follicular neoplasms were surrounded by the thyroid tissue compatible with Graves' disease. Capsular invasion was identified in one of the nodules, and thus the histological diagnosis was minimally invasive follicular carcinoma. She did not have signs suggesting metastasis, and has had no relapse for 18 mo after the operation. Although some previous studies showed a high prevalence of thyroid cancer with an aggressive nature in adult patients with Graves' disease, few reports about thyroid cancer accompanied by Graves' disease are available in children. The present case, however, suggests that careful investigation is needed when we detect thyroid nodules or progressive thyroid enlargement, especially in children with Graves' disease. PMID:24790388

Kojima-Ishii, Kanako; Ihara, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kazuhiro; Matsuo, Terumichi; Toda, Naoko; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Kono, Shinji; Hara, Toshiro

2014-04-01

101

Rheumatoid arthritis and bronchiectasis. A retrospective study of fourteen cases.  

PubMed

Since 1928, 288 cases of rheumatoid arthritis and bronchiectasis have been reported in the medical literature. The interactions between these two conditions and the etiopathogenic mechanisms they involve remain unclear. During a retrospective study of 100 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 80 bronchiectasis patients, we identified 14 additional patients with both conditions. There were 10 females and four males (ratio 2.5/1). Bronchiectasis was confirmed either by computed tomography of the chest or by bronchography. The respiratory manifestations antedated the joint disease in 12 patients, by a mean interval of 28.5 years. An infectious cause was identified in six cases. Neither the age at onset nor the duration of rheumatoid arthritis were influenced by the presence of bronchiectasis. Seven patients had 15 extraarticular manifestations suggesting potentially severe joint disease. The flares of joint and respiratory symptoms were concomitant in six patients. In six patients, the respiratory manifestations worsened after onset of the joint disease. Tests for rheumatoid factors were positive in 73% of cases. Panhypogammaglobulinemia was found in one case. Ten patients underwent lung function tests, which showed evidence of nonspecific obstructive disease. Overall, our findings are consistent with previous reports in the literature. In patients with predisposing immunogenetic factors, bronchiectasis may be involved in the genesis of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:9010967

Despaux, J; Polio, J C; Toussirot, E; Dalphin, J C; Wendling, D

1996-12-01

102

Beyond Six Billion: Forecasting the World's Population  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of their continuing practice of making recently published titles available in their entirety online, the National Academy Press last month posted Beyond Six Billion: Forecasting the World's Population, written by the National Research Council's Panel on Population Projections. The study examines national and global population projections from such agencies as the United Nations Population Division, the World Bank, and the US Census Bureau. The panel assesses the "assumptions behind the projections of these various agencies, estimates their accuracy and uncertainty, evaluates the implications of current demographic research, and recommends changes in protocol and new research that might improve projections."

103

Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis.  

PubMed

Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for Mycosphaerella fijiensis, a fungus causing the black sigatoka disease in banana. The sequenced genome of M. fijiensis was screened for sequences with single sequence repeats (SSRs) using a Perl script. Fourteen SSR loci, evaluated on 48 M. fijiensis isolates from Hawaii, were identified to be highly polymorphic. These markers revealed two to 19 alleles, with an average of 6.43 alleles per locus. The estimated gene diversity ranged from 0.091 to 0.930 across the 14 microsatellite loci. The SSR markers developed would be useful for population genetics studies of M. fijiensis. PMID:21585927

Yang, Bao Jun; Zhong, Shao Bin

2008-07-01

104

Mixing Ratios or Parts per Million, Billion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will gain experience with very small amounts, known as mixing ratios, using the technique of serial dilution. Measurements such as parts per million can be expressed in terms of volume or mass. With gases in the atmosphere, we usually think in terms of volume and may express this as parts per million by volume (ppmv). One can also use the units parts per billion by volume (ppbv), and parts per trillion by volume (pptv). Measurements such as ppmv, ppbv, and pptv are called mixing ratios. The student guide has an overall description of the activity, a list of materials, the procedure, and observations and questions. The teacher's guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

105

Simulating Billion-Task Parallel Programs  

SciTech Connect

In simulating large parallel systems, bottom-up approaches exercise detailed hardware models with effects from simplified software models or traces, whereas top-down approaches evaluate the timing and functionality of detailed software models over coarse hardware models. Here, we focus on the top-down approach and significantly advance the scale of the simulated parallel programs. Via the direct execution technique combined with parallel discrete event simulation, we stretch the limits of the top-down approach by simulating message passing interface (MPI) programs with millions of tasks. Using a timing-validated benchmark application, a proof-of-concept scaling level is achieved to over 0.22 billion virtual MPI processes on 216,000 cores of a Cray XT5 supercomputer, representing one of the largest direct execution simulations to date, combined with a multiplexing ratio of 1024 simulated tasks per real task.

Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL] [ORNL; Park, Alfred J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

106

PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA611. STRUCTURAL DETAILS. FACE PLATE. FOURTEEN OPENINGS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA-611. STRUCTURAL DETAILS. FACE PLATE. FOURTEEN OPENINGS LABELED FOR PLUGS FROM SPECIFIC SIZE GROUPS IN THE MTR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-811-2, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0611-00-098-100694, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

107

Winter and Summer PM2.5 Chemical Compositions in Fourteen Chinese Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

PM2.5 in fourteen of China's large cities achieves high concentrations in both winter and summer with averages > 100 ?g m being common occurrences. A grand average of 115 ?g m was found for all cities, with minimum of 27 ?g m measured at Qingdao during summer and a maximum of 356 ?g m at Xi'an during winter. Both primary

Jun-Ji Cao; Zhen-Xing Shen; Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson; Shun-Cheng Lee; Xue-Xi Tie; Kin-Fai Ho; Ge-Hui Wang; Yong-Ming Han

2012-01-01

108

Fourteen Villas with Low Energy Consumptions at Umeaa, Sweden, Studied During the Period of Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fourteen identical houses with low energy consumption were built at Umeaa, Sweden, by seven different companies. The aim was that the house producers develop and build houses of such a type which could be used in their ordinary production. Already tested ...

J. A. Jonson

1978-01-01

109

Teacher training and the integration of handicapped pupils: some findings from a fourteen nation UNESCO study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly introduces a study of teacher training for integration and teacher experience of handicapped pupils in the ordinary school, which was carried out across fourteen countries in five UNESCO World Regions. Extracts from data on types of available teacher training and on teacher attitudes to integration are presented as an introduction to later, more detailed accounts.

Irene Bowman

1986-01-01

110

Agroecohydrology: Key to Feeding 9 Billion?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural production necessary to feed 9 billion people in 2050 depends on increased production on existing croplands, and expanding onto 'marginal' lands. A high proportion of these lands are marginal because they are too steep or too dry to reliably support crop production. These same characteristics increase their susceptibility to accelerated erosion, leading (for most soil profiles) to further reductions in plant available water as infiltration and soil profile water holding capacity decline. Sustaining production on these marginal lands will require careful land use planning. In this paper, we present a land use planning framework that integrates 4 elements: (1) potential production (based on soil profile characteristics), (2) edaphic, topographic and climatic limitations to production, (3) soil resistance to degradation, and (4) resilience. This framework expands existing land capability classification systems through the integration of biophysical feedbacks and thresholds. State and transition models, similar to those currently applied to rangelands in the United States and other countries, are used to organize and communicate knowledge about the sustainability of different land use changes and management actions at field to regional scales. This framework emphasizes hydrologic characteristics of soil profiles and landscapes over fertility because fertility declines are more easily addressed through increased inputs. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of how research in ecohydrology can be more effectively focused to support sustainable food production in the context of increasingly rapid social and economic changes throughout the world.

Herrick, J.

2011-12-01

111

Food and Labor Costs, Menu Quality and Client Participation in Fourteen Illinois Title III Nutrition Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food and Labor Costs, number of nutrients in the menu below one-third of the RDA and client participation were analyzed in fourteen Title 111 nutrition programs for the elderly. Food and labor costs were directly related with fifty percent of the facilities being under the monthly median of $2,801 and $3,862 respectively. In all sites menus were deficient in vitamin

Patricia K Welch; Lorna J Bush

1987-01-01

112

Combustion of fourteen different vegetable oils in two different diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A baseline DF-2 and fourteen different vegetable oils were tested at eight different speed-load conditions in two different heavy-duty diesel engines. The independent variables of the experiment were fuel, fuel temperature, speed, and load. The dependent variables included fuel consumption, Ihp, dQ\\/d = f( ), Q\\/sub t\\/, (anti x, anti y) various temperatures, and the gaseous exhaust emissions.

T. W. Ryan; T. J. Callahan; C. A. Moses

1983-01-01

113

Cancer costs projected to reach at least $158 billion in 2020;  

Cancer.gov

Based on growth and aging of the U.S. population, medical expenditures for cancer in the year 2020 are projected to reach at least $158 billion (in 2010 dollars) – an increase of 27 percent over 2010, according to a National Institutes of Health analysis.

114

$70 billion in the black: America’s black consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

$70 Billion in the Black: America's Black Consumers is a marketing analysis of the income and spending habits of black Americans as revealed by census data and studies made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the 1970s. This book is a revised and updated edition of D. Parke Gibson's earlier work, The $30 Billion Negro, which was published in

Aurelia Toyer Miller

1979-01-01

115

An Estimated $84.9 Billion In Uncompensated Care Was Provided In 2013; ACA Payment Cuts Could Challenge Providers.  

PubMed

Millions of uninsured people use health care services every year. We estimated providers' uncompensated care costs in 2013 to be between $74.9 billion and $84.9 billion. We calculated that in the aggregate, at least 65 percent of providers' uncompensated care costs were offset by government payments designed to cover the costs. Medicaid and Medicare were the largest sources of such government payments, providing $13.5 billion and $8.0 billion, respectively. Anticipating fewer uninsured people and lower levels of uncompensated care, the Affordable Care Act reduces certain Medicare and Medicaid payments. Such cuts in government funding of uncompensated care could pose challenges to some providers, particularly in states that have not adopted the Medicaid expansion or where implementation of health care reform is proceeding slowly. PMID:24799578

Coughlin, Teresa A; Holahan, John; Caswell, Kyle; McGrath, Megan

2014-05-01

116

Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People  

ScienceCinema

Daniel Nocera, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor whose recent research focuses on solar-powered fuels, presents a Brookhaven Science Associates Distinguished Lecture, titled "Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People -- One at a Time."

Daniel Nocera

2013-07-19

117

Academic Pork Barrel Tops $2-Billion for the First Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how, despite the growing budget deficit, Congress directed a record $2 billion to college projects in 2003, many of them dealing with security and bioterrorism. Includes data tables on the earmarks. (EV)

Brainard, Jeffrey; Borrego, Anne Marie

2003-01-01

118

Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People  

SciTech Connect

Daniel Nocera, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor whose recent research focuses on solar-powered fuels, presents a Brookhaven Science Associates Distinguished Lecture, titled "Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People -- One at a Time."

Daniel Nocera

2011-09-12

119

300 billion watts, 24 hours a day  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cosmic solution to the world's upcoming energy crunch and one man's persistent drive to realize a workable and acceptable concept is described. Photovoltaic cells ,the same equipment that for 30 years has converted sunlight to electricity for communication satellites are at the core of the proposal. Once a series of 'sunsats' reach geosynchronous orbit, the cells, arranged in huge grids, are bathed in almost perpetual sunlight. Each grid is equipped with devices for converting the electricity produced by the solar cells into microwaves and transmitting them to receiving stations on earth. The rectifying antennas, or rectennas, convert the microwaves into direct-current electricity, which is fed into the local utility's power supply. The status of proposal, development and opposition to solar power satellites is discussed. Relevant technologies associated with laser development, the SDI, moon-based solar stations, and those evolving from research in other countries continue to lend credence to eventually developing a practical solar power satellite program.

Shiner, Linda

1990-07-01

120

Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of fourteen wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

A total of fourteen (14) species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso were analyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities using the DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic and total flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana and Lannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the other fruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit also showed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with high antioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents. There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidant activities. PMID:18463567

Lamien-Meda, Aline; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Compaoré, Moussa M Y; Meda, Roland N T; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Zeba, Boukare; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

2008-01-01

121

Winglets Save Billions of Dollars in Fuel Costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The upturned ends now featured on many airplane wings are saving airlines billions of dollars in fuel costs. Called winglets, the drag-reducing technology was advanced through the research of Langley Research Center engineer Richard Whitcomb and through flight tests conducted at Dryden Flight Research Center. Seattle-based Aviation Partners Boeing -- a partnership between Aviation Partners Inc., of Seattle, and The Boeing Company, of Chicago -- manufactures Blended Winglets, a unique design featured on Boeing aircraft around the world. These winglets have saved more than 2 billion gallons of jet fuel to date, representing a cost savings of more than $4 billion and a reduction of almost 21.5 million tons in carbon dioxide emissions.

2010-01-01

122

Embryo Culture in Teratological Surveillance and Serum Proteins in Development. Comprehensive Fourteen Year Report, 1968-1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A testing procedure is being developed which may reduce the incidence of birth defects. The procedure uses in vitro cultures of whole rat embryos. Early studies on the nutrition of embryos involved attempts to culture whole chick embryos on protein-free c...

N. W. Klein

1982-01-01

123

Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Comprehensive fourteen year report, 1968-1982  

SciTech Connect

A testing procedure is being developed which may reduce the incidence of birth defects. The procedure uses in vitro cultures of whole rat embryos. Early studies on the nutrition of embryos involved attempts to culture whole chick embryos on protein-free chemically defined media. Media containing proteins from whole egg were superior. No single protein would support growth and development, at least two proteins were required. One protein was a transferrin, the second protein could be either ovalbumin or lipovitellin. To determine the path taken by nutrient proteins from medium to embryo, radioactive ovalbumin was prepared. The results showed that intact ovalbumin was taken up by the extra-embryonic yolk-sac and degraded to constituent amino acids within this structure. This observation was difficult to reconcile with the observed responses of the embryo to nutrient proteins. Consideration was given to yolk-sac function. When isolated yolk-sacs were incubated in Ringer's salt solution, they synthesized and secreted a distinct group of proteins. Yolk-sacs cultured on media containing various protein constituents synthesized serum proteins in relative amounts that were distinct for each medium. This suggested that the embryo responses to various culture media were mediated by changes in the relative synthesis of serum proteins. This hypothesis led to two lines of experimentation: what are the mechanisms regulating the relative synthesis of serum proteins by the yolk-sac; and do serum proteins actually provide signals of developmental significance. The first question led to studies with cultures of endodermal cells while the second question led to work on the development of a test for teratological surveillance. (ERB)

Klein, N.W.

1982-07-01

124

Skeptics Say Billions for Education Won't Stimulate Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skeptics question whether infusion of billions of dollars for education in the economic-stimulus bill before Congress would actually give a healthy jolt to the economy. The bill would help thousands of students pay for college and could give colleges money to fix crumbling buildings. Some members of Congress are calling for the removal of…

Field, Kelly

2009-01-01

125

Towards simulating billions of agents in thousands of seconds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building multiagent systems that can scale up to very large number of agents is a challenging research problem. In this paper, we present Distributed Multi Agent System Framework (DMASF), a system which can simulate billions of agents in thousands of seconds. DMASF utilizes distributed computation to gain performance as well as a database to manage the agent and environment state.

I. V. Aprameya Rao; Manish Jain; Kamalakar Karlapalem

2007-01-01

126

Citizenship and Education in Twenty-Eight Countries: Civic Knowledge and Engagement at Age Fourteen. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an Executive Summary for "Citizenship and Education in Twenty-eight Countries: Civic Knowledge and Engagement at Age Fourteen," the first report of the results of the second phase of the Civic Education Study conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). The Executive Summary briefly…

Torney-Purta, Judith; Lehmann, Rainer; Oswald, Hans; Schulz, Wolfram

127

BLINK: Billion Lines INdexing in a clicK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coming generation of sky surveys are going to provide measurements for properties of a number of objects like never have been reached before. Astronomical databases will have to deal with requests on several billions of entries at once, and therefore a new computational framework is vital for the next generation of Data-Centers. As part of the efforts linked to the setting up of the Taiwan Extragalactic Astronomical Data Center (TWEA-DC), Billion Lines INdexing in a clicK (BLINK) is developed to satisfy this role. BLINK is a framework that aims to ease access to large amount of data and share analysis software amongst users. BLINK is also designed to be parallelized and distributed on large amount of heterogeneous resources. BLINK will propose at first a very fast indexing algorithm and cross-matching capability, enabling to gather multiwavelength information of large chunk of the sky in a very limited period of time.

Kamennoff, N.; Foucaud, S.; Reybier, S.; Tsai, M.-F.; Tang, C.-H.

2012-09-01

128

Software Model Checking Improving Security of a Billion Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

I will present a form of software model checking that has improved the security of a billion computers (and has saved Microsoft\\u000a millions of dollars). This form of software model checking is dubbed whitebox fuzz testing, and builds upon recent advances\\u000a in systematic dynamic test generation (also known as DART) and constraint solving. Starting with a well-formed input, whitebox\\u000a fuzzing

Patrice Godefroid

2009-01-01

129

How to Bring Solar Energy to Seven Billion People  

SciTech Connect

April 6, 2009 Science at the Theater talk: By exploiting the powers of nanotechnology and taking advantage of non-toxic, Earth-abundant materials, Berkeley Lab's Cyrus Wadia has fabricated new solar cell devices that have the potential to be several orders of magnitude less expensive than conventional solar cells. And by mastering the chemistry of these materials—and the economics of solar energy—he envisions bringing electricity to the 1.2 billion people now living without it.

Cyrus Wadia

2009-04-16

130

How to Bring Solar Energy to Seven Billion People  

ScienceCinema

April 6, 2009 Science at the Theater talk: By exploiting the powers of nanotechnology and taking advantage of non-toxic, Earth-abundant materials, Berkeley Lab's Cyrus Wadia has fabricated new solar cell devices that have the potential to be several orders of magnitude less expensive than conventional solar cells. And by mastering the chemistry of these materials?and the economics of solar energy?he envisions bringing electricity to the 1.2 billion people now living without it.

Cyrus Wadia

2010-01-08

131

Report to the Congress on candidate sites for expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared in response to the Senate Report No. 101-534 accompanying the bill which was enacted as the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 1991. Senate Report 101-534 requested the Department of Energy to initiate construction planning for an expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels and to report to the Committees on Appropriations by March 15, 1991, regarding recommended storage sites, the proposed method of storage, a conceptual plan for storage and distribution facilities, and preliminary construction cost estimates. The Department of Energy's 1989 Report to the Congress entitled Report to Congress on Expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to One Billion Barrels provides a background and point of departure for this report. An analysis of expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve has been directed toward the expected US petroleum market and likely crude oil distribution systems in the Year 2000. The projections in this report do not assume implementation of the National Energy Strategy (NES). The Department has initiated an environmental review process in accordance with NEPA and completed an analysis of the 1976 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and its 1979 Supplement which addressed expansion of the Reserve to one billion barrels. The analysis concludes that another supplement to the Reserve's Programmatic EIS likely will not be required to support its expansion to one billion barrels. The appropriate site-specific NEPA document will be prepared. 72 refs., 27 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1991-03-01

132

Academic R&D Doubled During Past Decade, Reaching $40 Billion in FY 2003  

NSF Publications Database

... 61.7 percent) is at its highest level since FY 1985. In contrast, R&D expenditures funded by ... Field and Federal Agency The medical sciences ($12.8 billion) and biological sciences ($7.4 billion ...

133

CDC Study Finds Annual Cost of Motor Vehicle Crashes Exceeds $99 Billion  

MedlinePLUS

... billion – with the cost of direct medical care accounting for $17 billion, according to a study by ... an important role in reducing the human and economic toll of motor vehicle-related injuries by supporting ...

134

The continuing cost of privatization: extra payments to Medicare Advantage plans jump to $11.4 billion in 2009.  

PubMed

The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 explicitly increased Medicare payments to private Medicare Advantage (MA) plans. As a result, MA plans have, for the past six years, been paid more for their enrollees than they would be expected to cost in traditional fee-for-service Medicare. Payments to MA plans in 2009 are projected to be 13 percent greater than the corresponding costs in traditional Medicare--an average of $1,138 per MA plan enrollee, for a total of $11.4 billion. Although the extra payments are used to provide enrollees additional benefits, those benefits are not available to all beneficiaries-- but they are financed by general program funds. If payments to MA plans were instead equal to the spending level under traditional Medicare, the more than $150 billion in savings over 10 years could be used to finance improved benefits for the low-income elderly and disabled, or for expanding health-insurance coverage. PMID:19449498

Biles, Brian; Pozen, Jonah; Guterman, Stuart

2009-05-01

135

R&D Spending to Top $38 Billion in 1976. Science Resources Studies Highlights, May 21, 1976.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data compiled as part of a comprehensive program to measure and analyze the nation's resources expended for research and development. R&D spending in the United States is expected to reach $38.1 billion in 1976, 8 percent above the 1975 level. For the first time in three years, R&D funds are expected to increase in terms of…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

136

European cogeneration market estimated at $12 billion by 1995  

SciTech Connect

A new study by an international market research firm projects that European companies will install some $12 billion worth of cogeneration equipment by 1995. Products for waste heat recovery, steam and turbine generators made up a $993 million cogeneration market in 1986 in Europe. West Germany is expected to account for nearly a quarter of all volume throughout the 1986-95 period. In 1986, industry there spent some $218 million on cogeneration equipment. France and the U.K. are expected to account for another 17% and 16% of sales, respectively. The report discusses the various industrial end users, and on average finds that commercial/institutional establishments; food, beverage and tobacco producers; fuels processors; and the pulp and paper industry each represent between 10% and 15% of cogeneration purchases.

Not Available

1987-09-01

137

Gap5--editing the billion fragment sequence assembly  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Existing sequence assembly editors struggle with the volumes of data now readily available from the latest generation of DNA sequencing instruments. Results: We describe the Gap5 software along with the data structures and algorithms used that allow it to be scalable. We demonstrate this with an assembly of 1.1 billion sequence fragments and compare the performance with several other programs. We analyse the memory, CPU, I/O usage and file sizes used by Gap5. Availability and Implementation: Gap5 is part of the Staden Package and is available under an Open Source licence from http://staden.sourceforge.net. It is implemented in C and Tcl/Tk. Currently it works on Unix systems only. Contact: jkb@sanger.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Bonfield, James K.; Whitwham, Andrew

2010-01-01

138

Marine Gastrotricha of the Near East: 1. Fourteen new species of Macrodasyida and a redescription of Dactylopodola agadasys Hochberg, 2003.  

PubMed

The near eastern geographical region is almost devoid of reports of macrodasyidan gastrotrichs, the exceptions themselves being part of this study. Here, as Part 1 are described fourteen new Macrodasyida from countries of the Near East (Cyprus, Egypt and Israel, representing both the Mediterranean and the Red Seas), and a redescription of the previously described Dactylopodolidae: Dactylopodola agadasys Hochberg, 2002. The new species are: Cephalodasyidae (2) - Cephalodasys dolichosomus; Cephalodasys saegailus; Dactylopodolidae (1) Dendrodasys rubomarinus; Macrodasyidae (5) - Macrodasys imbricatus; Macrodasys macrurus; Macrodasys nigrocellus; Macrodasys scleracrus; Urodasys toxostylus; Thaumastodermatidae(4) - Tetranchyroderma corallium; Tetranchyroderma rhopalotum; Tetranchyroderma sinaiensis; Tetranchyroderma xenodactylum; Turbanellidae(2) - Paraturbanella levantia; Turbanella erythrothalassia - spp. n. PMID:21594074

Hummon, William D

2011-01-01

139

Bigger, Better Catalog Unveils Half a Billion Celestial Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These frames are samples from the photographic sky surveys, which have been digitized by a technical team at the Space Telescope Science Institute to support the Hubble Space Telescope operations. The team processed these images to create a new astronomical catalog, called the Guide Star Catalog II. This project was undertaken by the Space Telescope Science Institute as an upgrade to an earlier sky survey and catalog (DSS-I and GSC-I), initially done to provide guide stars for pointing the Hubble Space Telescope. By virtue of its sheer size, the DSS-II and GSC-II have many research applications for both professional and amateur astronomers. [Top] An example from the DSS-II shows the Rosette Nebula, (originally photographed by the Palomar Observatory) as digitized in the DSS-I (left) and DSS-II (right). The DSS-II includes views of the sky at both red and blue wavelengths, providing invaluable color information on about one billion deep-sky objects. [Bottom] This blow-up of the inset box in the raw DSS-I scan shows examples of the GSC-I and the improved GSC-II catalogs. Astronomers extracted the stars from the scanned plate of the Rosette and listed them in the catalogs. The new GSC-II catalog provides the colors, positions, and luminosities of nearly half a billion stars -- over 20 times as many as the original GSC-I. The GSC-II contains information on stars as dim as the 19th magnitude. Credit: NASA, the DSS-II and GSC-II Consortia (with images from the Palomar Observatory-STScI Digital Sky Survey of the northern sky, based on scans of the Second Palomar Sky Survey are copyright c 1993-1999 by the California Institute of Technology)

2002-01-01

140

Co-occurrence of monoclonal gammopathy and myelodysplasia: a retrospective study of fourteen cases.  

PubMed

We report a series of 14 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) accompanied by a monoclonal gammopathy unrelated to therapy. Twelve of these had monoclonal gammopathy of undermined significance (MGUS) and two had smoldering multiple myeloma. These cases represent 10.2 % of all MDS cases seen at our institution over a 14-year period (January 2000 to December 2013). The incidence of MGUS was determined to be significantly higher in MDS than in age-matched concurrent controls by ? (2) test. Absence of prior chemotherapy and simultaneous presentation of MDS and MGUS in most cases suggest true co-occurrence of the two disorders. MGUS was found in all WHO subtypes of MDS with a wide range of risk factors. However, 11 out of the 12 MDS cases accompanied with MGUS had relatively low karyotypic risks. In addition, serum M protein levels remained largely unchanged in 4 cases of MGUS for which serial determinations were performed. These findings indicate that MGUS may not affect the prognosis of MDS. PMID:24687918

Yoshida, Yataro; Oguma, Shigeru; Ohno, Hitoshi; Nakabo, Yukiharu; Katsurada, Tatsuya; Kawahara, Masahiro; Kawabata, Hiroshi

2014-06-01

141

Fuel efficient stoves for the poorest two billion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 2 billion people cook their daily meals on generally inefficient, polluting, biomass cookstoves. The fuels include twigs and leaves, agricultural waste, animal dung, firewood, and charcoal. Exposure to resulting smoke leads to acute respiratory illness, and cancers, particularly among women cooks, and their infant children near them. Resulting annual mortality estimate is almost 2 million deaths, higher than that from malaria or tuberculosis. There is a large diversity of cooking methods (baking, boiling, long simmers, brazing and roasting), and a diversity of pot shapes and sizes in which the cooking is undertaken. Fuel-efficiency and emissions depend on the tending of the fire (and thermal power), type of fuel, stove characteristics, and fit of the pot to the stove. Thus, no one perfect fuel-efficient low-emitting stove can suit all users. Affordability imposes a further severe constraint on the stove design. For various economic strata within the users, a variety of stove designs may be appropriate and affordable. In some regions, biomass is harvested non-renewably for cooking fuel. There is also increasing evidence that black carbon emitted from stoves is a significant contributor to atmospheric forcing. Thus improved biomass stoves can also help mitigate global climate change. The speaker will describe specific work undertaken to design, develop, test, and disseminate affordable fuel-efficient stoves for internally displaced persons (IDPs) of Darfur, Sudan, where the IDPs face hardship, humiliation, hunger, and risk of sexual assault owing to their dependence on local biomass for cooking their meals.

Gadgil, Ashok

2012-03-01

142

Neon identifies two billion year old fluid component in Kaapvaal Craton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep gold mines of the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa have gained recent attention not only because of investigations of the deep fracture water and associated CH4- and H2-rich gases found there, but because of recent reports of deep microbial communities persisting to depths of almost 3km — an exotic outpost of the Earth's deep biosphere. While shallower fluids in

Johanna Lippmann-Pipke; Barbara Sherwood Lollar; Samuel Niedermann; Nicole A. Stroncik; Rudolf Naumann; Esta van Heerden; Tullis C. Onstott

2011-01-01

143

4.4 billion years of crustal maturation: oxygen isotope ratios of magmatic zircon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of ?18O in igneous zircons of known age traces the evolution of intracrustal recycling and crust-mantle interaction through time.\\u000a This record is especially sensitive because oxygen isotope ratios of igneous rocks are strongly affected by incorporation\\u000a of supracrustal materials into melts, which commonly have ?18O values higher than in primitive mantle magmas. This study summarizes data for ?18O in

J. W. Valley; J. S. Lackey; A. J. Cavosie; C. C. Clechenko; M. J. Spicuzza; M. A. S. Basei; I. N. Bindeman; V. P. Ferreira; A. N. Sial; E. M. King; W. H. Peck; A. K. Sinha; C. S. Wei

2005-01-01

144

4.4 billion years of crustal maturation: oxygen isotope ratios of magmatic zircon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of delta18O in igneous zircons of known age traces the evolution of intracrustal recycling and crust-mantle interaction through time. This record is especially sensitive because oxygen isotope ratios of igneous rocks are strongly affected by incorporation of supracrustal materials into melts, which commonly have delta18O values higher than in primitive mantle magmas. This study summarizes data for delta18O in

J. W. Valley; J. S. Lackey; A. J. Cavosie; C. C. Clechenko; M. J. Spicuzza; M. A. S. Basei; I. N. Bindeman; V. P. Ferreira; A. N. Sial; E. M. King; W. H. Peck; A. K. Sinha; C. S. Wei

2005-01-01

145

The Last Eight-Billion Years of Intergalactic C IV Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We surveyed the Hubble Space Telescope UV spectra of 49 low-redshift quasars for z < 1 C IV candidates, relying solely on the characteristic wavelength separation of the doublet. After consideration of the defining traits of C IV doublets (e.g., consistent line profiles, other associated transitions, etc.), we defined a sample of 38 definite (group G = 1) and five likely (G = 2) doublets with rest equivalent widths Wr for both lines detected at ? 3?_{W_{r}}. We conducted Monte Carlo completeness tests to measure the unblocked redshift (?z) and co-moving path length (?X) over which we were sensitive to C IV doublets of a range of equivalent widths and column densities. The absorber line density of (G = 1+2) doublets is {d}{N}_{{C IV}}/{d}X= 4.1^{+0.7}_{-0.6} for log N(C+3) >= 13.2, and {d}{N}_{{C IV}}/{d}X has not evolved significantly since z = 5. The best-fit power law to the G = 1 frequency distribution of column densities f(N({C}^{+3})) ? k(N({C}^{+3})/N_{0})^{?_{N}} has coefficient k = 0.67+0.18 -0.16 × 10-14 cm2 and exponent ? N = -1.50+0.17 -0.19, where N 0 = 1014 cm-2. Using the power-law model of f(N(C+3)), we measured the C+3 mass density relative to the critical density: ? _{{C}^{+3}}= (6.20^{+1.82}_{-1.52}) × 10^{-8} for 13 <= log N(C+3) <= 15. This value is a 2.8 ± 0.7 increase in ? _{{C}^{+3}} compared to the error-weighted mean from several 1 < z < 5 surveys for C IV absorbers. A simple linear regression to ?_{{C}^{+3}} over the age of the universe indicates that ?_{{C}^{+3}} has slowly but steadily increased from z = 5 ? 0, with {d}?_{{C}^{+3}}/ {d}t_age = (0.42± 0.2)× 10^{-8} Gyr^{-1}.

Cooksey, Kathy L.; Thom, Christopher; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Chen, Hsiao-Wen

2010-01-01

146

On the origin, evolution, and nature of programmed cell death: a timeline of four billion years.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death is a genetically regulated process of cell suicide that is central to the development, homeostasis and integrity of multicellular organisms. Conversely, the dysregulation of mechanisms controlling cell suicide plays a role in the pathogenesis of a wide range of diseases. While great progress has been achieved in the unveiling of the molecular mechanisms of programmed cell death, a new level of complexity, with important therapeutic implications, has begun to emerge, suggesting (i) that several different self-destruction pathways may exist and operate in parallel in our cells, and (ii) that molecular effectors of cell suicide may also perform other functions unrelated to cell death induction and crucial to cell survival. In this review, I will argue that this new level of complexity, implying that there may be no such thing as a 'bona fide' genetic death program in our cells, might be better understood when considered in an evolutionary context. And a new view of the regulated cell suicide pathways emerges when one attempts to ask the question of when and how they may have become selected during evolution, at the level of ancestral single-celled organisms. PMID:11965491

Ameisen, J C

2002-04-01

147

The controversial ``Cambrian'' fossils of the Vindhyan are real but more than a billion years older  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age of the Vindhyan sedimentary basin in central India is controversial, because geochronology indicating early Proterozoic ages clashes with reports of Cambrian fossils. We present here an integrated paleontologic-geochronologic investigation to resolve this conundrum. New sampling of Lower Vindhyan phosphoritic stromatolitic dolomites from the northern flank of the Vindhyans confirms the presence of fossils most closely resembling those found

Stefan Bengtson; Veneta Belivanova; Birger Rasmussen; Martin Whitehouse

2009-01-01

148

ON THE LAST 10 BILLION YEARS OF STELLAR MASS GROWTH IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

The star formation rate-stellar mass relation (SFR-M{sub *}) and its evolution (i.e., the SFR main sequence) describe the growth rate of galaxies of a given stellar mass and at a given redshift. Assuming that present-day star-forming galaxies (SFGs) were always star forming in the past, these growth rate observations can be integrated to calculate average star formation histories (SFHs). Using this Main Sequence Integration (MSI) approach, we trace present-day massive SFGs back to when they were 10%-20% of their current stellar mass. The integration is robust throughout those epochs: the SFR data underpinning our calculations are consistent with the evolution of stellar mass density in this regime. Analytic approximations to these SFHs are provided. Integration-based results reaffirm previous suggestions that current SFGs formed virtually all of their stellar mass at z < 2. It follows that massive galaxies observed at z > 2 are not the typical progenitors of SFGs today. We also check MSI-based SFHs against those inferred from analysis of the fossil record-from spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of SFGs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of resolved stars in dwarf irregular galaxies. Once stellar population age uncertainties are accounted for, the main sequence is in excellent agreement with SED-based SFHs (from VESPA). Extrapolating SFR main sequence observations to dwarf galaxies, we find differences between MSI results and SFHs from CMD analysis of Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury and Local Group galaxies. Resolved dwarfs appear to grow much slower than main sequence trends imply, and also slower than slightly higher mass SED-analyzed galaxies. This difference may signal problems with SFH determinations, but it may also signal a shift in star formation trends at the lowest stellar masses.

Leitner, Samuel N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2012-02-01

149

The violent youth of bright and massive cluster galaxies and their maturation over 7 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate the formation and evolution mechanisms of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) over cosmic time. At high redshift (z ˜ 0.9), we selected BCGs and most massive cluster galaxies (MMCGs) from the Cl1604 supercluster and compared them to low-redshift (z ˜ 0.1) counterparts drawn from the MCXC meta-catalogue, supplemented by Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging and spectroscopy. We observed striking differences in the morphological, colour, spectral, and stellar mass properties of the BCGs/MMCGs in the two samples. High-redshift BCGs/MMCGs were, in many cases, star-forming, late-type galaxies, with blue broad-band colours, properties largely absent amongst the low-redshift BCGs/MMCGs. The stellar mass of BCGs was found to increase by an average factor of 2.51 ± 0.71 from z ˜ 0.9 to z ˜ 0.1. Through this and other comparisons, we conclude that a combination of major merging (mainly wet or mixed) and in situ star formation are the main mechanisms which build stellar mass in BCGs/MMCGs. The stellar mass growth of the BCGs/MMCGs also appears to grow in lockstep with both the stellar baryonic and total mass of the cluster. Additionally, BCGs/MMCGs were found to grow in size, on average, a factor of ˜3, while their average Sérsic index increased by ˜0.45 from z ˜ 0.9 to z ˜ 0.1, also supporting a scenario involving major merging, though some adiabatic expansion is required. These observational results are compared to both models and simulations to further explore the implications on processes which shape and evolve BCGs/MMCGs over the past ˜7 Gyr.

Ascaso, B.; Lemaux, B. C.; Lubin, L. M.; Gal, R. R.; Kocevski, D. D.; Rumbaugh, N.; Squires, G.

2014-07-01

150

The Sandvik peridotite, Gurskøy, Norway: Three billion years of mantle evolution in the Baltica lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sandvik ultramafic body, Island of Gurskøy, Western Gneiss Region, Norway, is a mantle fragment that contains polymetamorphic mineral assemblages and affords a unique view into the response of subcontinental lithospheric mantle to repeated orogenic/magmatic events. The Sandvik peridotite body and nearby outcrops record four paragenetic stages: 1) pre-exsolution porphyroclasts of ol + grt + opx (high-Ca ) + cpx (low-Ca), which equilibrated at 1100-1200 °C and 6.5-7.0 GPa; 2) kelyphite containing ol + grt + spl +opx (low-Ca) + am (high-Al), as well as exsolved pyroxene containing opx + cpx + spl in equilibrium with matrix olivine, at 725 °C and 1.5 GPa; 3) granoblastic matrix of ol + spl + opx (low-Ca) + am (high-Al), at 700 °C and 1.0 GPa. A nearby outcrop contains a fourth assemblage consisting of ol + chl + opx + am. Lu-Hf and Re-Os model ages of garnet peridotite indicate melt depletion at 3.3 Ga [Beyer, E.E., Brueckner, H.K., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., Graham, S., 2004. Archean mantle fragments in Proterozoic crust, Western Gneiss Region, Norway. Geology 32, 609-612.; Lapen, T.J., Medaris, L.G. Jr., Johnson, C.M., and Beard, B.L., 2005. Archean to Middle Proterozoic evolution of Baltica subcontinental lithosphere: evidence from combined Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of the Sandvik ultramafic body, Norway. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 150, 131-145.], marking the time of separation from the convecting mantle. Lu-Hf whole rock and mineral isochron ages of constituent garnet peridotite and garnet pyroxenite layers in the Sandvik body reflect cooling and emplacement at ~ 1.25 Ga and ~ 1.18 Ga, respectively, whereas Sm-Nd whole rock and mineral ages of the garnet pyroxenite layers and the garnet peridotite are consistent with metasomatic alteration at ~ 1.15 Ga [Lapen, T.J., Medaris, L.G. Jr., Johnson, C.M., and Beard, B.L., 2005. Archean to Middle Proterozoic evolution of Baltica subcontinental lithosphere: evidence from combined Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of the Sandvik ultramafic body, Norway. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 150, 131-145.]. The isochron ages likely record lithospheric modification associated with the 1.25-1.00 Ga Sveconorwegian orogeny and represent the youngest age of the Stage 1 mineral assemblage equilibration. A 606 ± 39 Ma Sm-Nd isochron age of the Stage 2 kelyphite assemblage is consistent with partial re-equilibration of the porphyroclastic assemblage during continental rifting associated with opening of the Iapetus Ocean between Baltica and Laurentia at ~ 600 Ma, or extension between Baltica and Siberia that may have been associated with opening of the Ægir Sea. The age of kelyphite, therefore, places the Sandvik peridotite in the uppermost mantle prior to Silurian shortening between the Baltic and Laurentian continents.

Lapen, Thomas J.; Medaris, L. Gordon, Jr.; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

2009-05-01

151

Networks of bZIP protein-protein interactions diversified over a billion years of evolution*  

PubMed Central

Differences in biomolecular sequence and function underlie dramatic ranges of appearance and behavior among species. We studied the basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors and quantified bZIP dimerization networks for 5 metazoan and 2 single-cell species, measuring interactions in vitro for 2,891 protein pairs. Metazoans have a higher proportion of heteromeric bZIP interactions and more network complexity than the single-cell species. The metazoan bZIP interactomes have broadly similar structures, but there has been extensive rewiring of connections compared to the last common ancestor, and each species network is highly distinct. Many metazoan bZIP orthologs and paralogs have strikingly different interaction specificities, and some differences arise from minor sequence changes. Our data show that a shifting landscape of biochemical functions related to signaling and gene expression contributes to species diversity.

Reinke, Aaron W.; Baek, Jiyeon; Ashenberg, Orr; Keating, Amy E.

2014-01-01

152

The intergalactic medium over the last 10 billion years - I. Ly? absorption and physical conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intergalactic medium (IGM) is the dominant reservoir of baryons at all cosmic epochs. In this paper, we investigate the evolution of the IGM from z = 2 -> 0 in (48h-1Mpc)3, 110-million particle cosmological hydrodynamic simulations using three prescriptions for galactic outflows. We focus on the evolution of IGM physical properties, and how such properties are traced by Ly? absorption as detectable using Hubble's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). Our results broadly confirm the canonical picture that most Ly? absorbers arise from highly ionized gas tracing filamentary large-scale structure. Growth of structure causes gas to move from the diffuse photoionized IGM into other cosmic phases, namely stars, cold and hot gas within galaxy haloes, and the unbound and shock-heated warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). By today, baryons are comparably divided between bound phases (35 per cent in our favoured outflow model), the diffuse IGM (41 per cent) and the WHIM (24 per cent). Here we (re)define the WHIM as gas with overdensities lower than that in haloes ( today) and temperatures T > 105 K, to more closely align it with the `missing baryons' that are not easily detectable in emission or Ly? absorption. Strong galactic outflows can have a noticeable impact on the temperature of the IGM, though with our favoured momentum-driven wind scalings they do not. When we (mildly) tune our assumed photoionizing background to match the observed evolution of the Ly? mean flux decrement, we obtain line count evolution statistics that broadly agree with available (pre-COS) observations. We predict a column density distribution slope of for our favoured wind model, in agreement with recent observational estimates, and it becomes shallower with redshift. Winds have a mostly minimal impact, but they do result in a shallower column density slope and more strong lines. With improved statistics, the frequency of strong lines can be a valuable diagnostic of outflows, and the momentum-driven wind model matches existing data significantly better than the two alternatives we consider. The relationship between column density and physical density broadens mildly from z = 2 -> 0, and evolves as for diffuse absorbers, consistent with previous studies. Linewidth distributions are quite sensitive to spectral resolution; COS should yield significantly broader lines than higher resolution data. Thermal contributions to linewidths are typically subdominant, so linewidths only loosely reflect the temperature of the absorbing gas. This will hamper attempts to quantify the WHIM using broad Ly? absorbers, though it may still be possible to do so statistically. Together, COS data and simulations such as these will provide key insights into the physical conditions of the dominant reservoir of baryons over the majority of cosmic time.

Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Katz, Neal; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Weinberg, David H.

2010-11-01

153

Geomagnetic field strength 3.2 billion years ago recorded by single silicate crystals.  

PubMed

The strength of the Earth's early geomagnetic field is of importance for understanding the evolution of the Earth's deep interior, surface environment and atmosphere. Palaeomagnetic and palaeointensity data from rocks formed near the boundary of the Proterozoic and Archaean eons, some 2.5 Gyr ago, show many hallmarks of the more recent geomagnetic field. Reversals are recorded, palaeosecular variation data indicate a dipole-dominated morphology and available palaeointensity values are similar to those from younger rocks. The picture before 2.8 Gyr ago is much less clear. Rocks of the Archaean Kaapvaal craton (South Africa) are among the best-preserved, but even they have experienced low-grade metamorphism. The variable acquisition of later magnetizations by these rocks is therefore expected, precluding use of conventional palaeointensity methods. Silicate crystals from igneous rocks, however, can contain minute magnetic inclusions capable of preserving Archaean-age magnetizations. Here we use a CO2 laser heating approach and direct-current SQUID magnetometer measurements to obtain palaeodirections and intensities from single silicate crystals that host magnetite inclusions. We find 3.2-Gyr-old field strengths that are within 50 per cent of the present-day value, indicating that a viable magnetosphere sheltered the early Earth's atmosphere from solar wind erosion. PMID:17410173

Tarduno, John A; Cottrell, Rory D; Watkeys, Michael K; Bauch, Dorothy

2007-04-01

154

On the origin, evolution, and nature of programmed cell death: a timeline of four billion years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmed cell death is a genetically regulated process of cell suicide that is central to the development, homeostasis and integrity of multicellular organisms. Conversely, the dysregulation of mechanisms controlling cell suicide plays a role in the pathogenesis of a wide range of diseases. While great progress has been achieved in the unveiling of the molecular mechanisms of programmed cell death,

J C Ameisen

2002-01-01

155

A Powerful Toolkit for Synthetic Biology: Over 3.8 Billion Years of Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combination of evolutionary with engineering principles will enhance synthetic biology. Conversely, synthetic biology has the potential to enrich evolutionary biology by explaining why some adaptive space is empty, on Earth or elsewhere. Synthetic biology, the design and construction of artificial biological systems, substitutes bio-engineering for evolution, which is seen as an obstacle. But because evolution has produced the complexity and diversity of life, it provides a proven toolkit of genetic materials and principles available to synthetic biology. Evolution operates on the population level, with the populations composed of unique individuals that are historical entities. The source of genetic novelty includes mutation, gene regulation, sex, symbiosis, and interspecies gene transfer. At a phenotypic level, variation derives from regulatory control, replication and diversification of components, compartmentalization, sexual selection and speciation, among others. Variation is limited by physical constraints such as diffusion, and chemical constraints such as reaction rates and membrane fluidity. While some of these tools of evolution are currently in use in synthetic biology, all ought to be examined for utility. A hybrid approach of synthetic biology coupled with fine-tuning through evolution is suggested

Rothschild, Lynn J.

2010-01-01

156

Hematite formation by oxygenated groundwater more than 2.76 billion years ago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geoscientific drilling in the Marble Bar area of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, resulted in the discovery of locally abundant hematite in Archean basalts ~200 m below the present land surface. The hematized basalts occurring along a bedding-parallel shear zone are cross-cut by pyrite veinlets (<3 mm in width) and contain euhedral pyrite grains (10–500 µm in diameter) with sharp crystal edges, indicating

Yasuhiro Kato; Katsuhiko Suzuki; Kentaro Nakamura; Arthur H. Hickman; Munetomo Nedachi; Minoru Kusakabe; David C. Bevacqua; Hiroshi Ohmoto

2009-01-01

157

The First Billion Years of Martian History as Seen from the SNC Meteorites: A Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are currently 28 known, distinct samples of Mars that have been liberated from that planet by impacts and subsequently delivered to the Earth. The formation ages of these samples range from 4.5 b.y. to 180 m.y. Collectively, these samples are called SNC meteorites after the major petrologic subdivisions: Shergottite, Nakhlite, Chassigny. Texturally, most of these meteorites are cumulates or partial cumulates. However, a few may represent real melt compositions: EET79001B, Y9800459, QUE94201, and the groundmass of EET79001A.

Jones, J. H.

2004-01-01

158

THE CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES OVER THE LAST 11 BILLION YEARS  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the stellar mass-metallicity relation at five epochs ranging to z {approx} 2.3. We quantify evolution in the shape of the mass-metallicity relation as a function of redshift; the mass-metallicity relation flattens at late times. There is an empirical upper limit to the gas-phase oxygen abundance in star-forming galaxies that is independent of redshift. From examination of the mass-metallicity relation and its observed scatter, we show that the flattening at late times is a consequence of evolution in the stellar mass where galaxies enrich to this empirical upper metallicity limit; there is also evolution in the fraction of galaxies at a fixed stellar mass that enrich to this limit. The stellar mass where metallicities begin to saturate is {approx}0.7 dex smaller in the local universe than it is at z {approx} 0.8.

Zahid, H. Jabran; Kewley, Lisa J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Kurtz, Michael J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-07-10

159

Phylogeny of fourteen Culex mosquito species, including the Culex pipiens complex, inferred from the internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA.  

PubMed

Ribosomal DNA sequence divergence in the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS-1 and ITS-2) was examined for fourteen species and four subgenera (sixty-two clones) in the mosquito genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae). A neighbour-joining tree produced with Kimura 2-parameter distances showed that each of the four subgenera was monophyletic at confidence probabilities of 70-99%. Culex (Lutzia) formed the sister group of Cx. (Culex). Two major clades, a Cx. pipiens complex-Cx. torrentium assemblage and a Cx. restuans-Cx. salinarius-Cx. erythrothorax assemblage, formed monophyletic groups. Cx. torrentium was closely related to members of the Cx. pipiens complex. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences from members of the Cx. pipiens complex separated populations from northern latitudes and southern latitudes, but did not support the traditional taxa as monophyletic units. PMID:8673266

Miller, B R; Crabtree, M B; Savage, H M

1996-05-01

160

Stimulus Plan Aids Education: House Bill Could Provide $100 Billion to K-12 Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cash-strapped school districts could see an unprecedented $100 billion infusion of federal aid under a massive economic-stimulus package unveiled by House Democrats this week. The overall measure, put forth January 15 by the House Appropriations Committee, is aimed at providing a $825 billion jolt to the stumbling U.S. economy, and to help avert…

Klein, Alyson

2009-01-01

161

U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass within the contiguous ...

B. J. Stokes R. D. Perlack

2011-01-01

162

[Implementation of the program of "Collaborative Development of Advanced Practical Education to Train Pharmacists in Leadership" under the joint operation of the pharmaceutical departments in fourteen national universities].  

PubMed

"Collaborative Development of Advanced Practical Education Program to Train Pharmacists with Leadership" applied jointly by the pharmaceutical departments of fourteen national universities was selected to receive the special expenditure support of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for fiscal year 2010 under "the Training of Highly Skillful Professionals and Improvement of the Quality of the Function of Professional Education". This project is to promote the collaborative development of the educational program which will make it possible to further advance and substantiate the education of pharmacists in the six year course of the pharmaceutical department for the ultimate purpose to introduce pharmacists with leadership who can play an active role and fill in a leadership position in a wide range of responsibilities into the society which, more and more, has come to expect pharmacy to take the initiative in acting against health hazards caused by infections, foods and environmental pollution as well as to meet the diversification of healthcare. To be more specific, this project is to try and evaluate the following programs repeatedly based on the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle: 1) Practical medical and pharmaceutical education program; 2) Program concerning research on long term themes and advanced education; 3) Program concerning training and education of SPs (standardized patients or simulated patients) and PBL (problem-based learning) tutorial education; and 4) Program concerning the method of evaluation of education. Through this repeated trial and evaluation, this project ultimately seeks to construct a highly effective practical educational program which integrates each university's achievements and educational attempts rich in originality. PMID:22382840

Hirata, Kazumasa; Tamura, Satoru; Kobayashi, Motomasa

2012-01-01

163

Michael Elliott's billion dollar crystals and other discoveries in insecticide chemistry.  

PubMed

The crowning achievement for Michael Elliott came in 1973 when his most outstanding candidate insecticide from 25 years of research crystallized from hexane solution. The stereochemically pure crystalline compound was the most potent synthetic insecticide ever made until that time, and it was highly selective for insects compared with mammals. It was given the name deltamethrin. Sequential stereospecific crystallization to isolate the most potent epimer and base-catalyzed racemization of the remaining less active isomer could be used to produce deltamethrin efficiently on a large scale; it became the billion dollar crystals. Elliott's discoveries at Rothamsted in England with Norman Janes and David Pulman of resmethrin, permethrin, cypermethrin and ultimately deltamethrin provided crop protection and malaria control for millions of people. Michael also laid the background for lipophilic amide, dithiane and other insecticides and nerve probes that are not involved in pyrethroid cross-resistance. Some aspects of these investigations were best conducted at Berkeley, where Michael studied pyrethrins in 1969, synthetic pyrethroids in 1974 and alternative insecticides in 1986-1988. This review considers Michael's seminal discoveries in insecticide chemistry, with emphasis on his Berkeley years. PMID:20552666

Casida, John E

2010-11-01

164

Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people  

SciTech Connect

Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

2003-06-01

165

The Population of China. One Billion, Eight Million People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several programs have been instituted in China over the past 30 years in order to slow the birth rate. The population, set at 1,008,175,288 people by a 1982 census, is by far the largest of any nation. A 10-year family planning program, begun in 1957, caused the birth rate to drop considerably through the mid-1960's. In 1971, "wan xi shao," the…

Murphy, Elaine M.; Cancellier, Patricia

1983-01-01

166

How much is a million? How big is a billion?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We constructed a geologic timeline along a 5K road-race route across the MSU campus at a scale of 1 meter = 1 million years, using signage to mark important eventsin the history of life. In addition to over 1500 race participants, numerous casual observers were exposed to the timeline. This project works well in the classroom at a scale of 1 mm = 1 million years, and as a manageable one-day outdoor sidewalk chalk activity at a scale of 1" = 1 million years. Timelines drawn to scale lead the observer to the inescapable conclusions that "simple" life appeared early in Earth history; that it took the bulk of Earth history to achieve the next, multi-cellular stage of development; and that once the metazoan threshold was crossed, subsequent biological diversification-and the resulting fossil record-followed in rapid succession.

Brandt, Danita

167

Environmental Monitoring Report for Calendar Year 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are reported of the environmental monitoring program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) for Calendar Year 1976. The Fermilab facility is a proton synchrotron with a design energy of 200 GeV (billion electron volts); however, the e...

S. I. Baker

1977-01-01

168

Offshore Tax Evasion: IRS Has Collected Billions of Dollars, but May be Missing Continued Evasion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tax evasion by individuals with unreported offshore financial accounts was estimated by one IRS commissioner to be several tens of billions of dollars, but no precise figure exists. IRS has operated four offshore programs since 2003 that offered incentive...

2013-01-01

169

Total Stock of Academic Research Instruments Tops $6 Billion in 1993  

NSF Publications Database

Total Stock of Academic Research Instruments Tops $6 Billion in 1993(June 6, 1997) This SRS Data ... findings from the 1993 Survey of Academic Research Instruments and Instrumentation Needs concerning ...

170

Corporations Give Record $1.6 Billion to Colleges and Universities in 1984-85; Total Giving Reaches $6.3 Billion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from the publication, "Voluntary Support of Education 1984-85," are summarized. The survey report includes contributions to 1,114 colleges and universities. Highlights of findings show that: total estimated voluntary support was $6.32 billion in 1984-1985; for the first time, corporations contributed more than any other donor group ($1.57…

CFAE Newsletter, 1986

1986-01-01

171

Indian farmers need help to feed over 1.5 billion people in 2030.  

PubMed

In view of the enormous challenge and pressure on farmers to feed 9 billion plus people and billions of animals who are going to be living in our planet in 2050, new technologies must be invented, assessed and adapted. Farmer welfare and provision of resources required for their work is of paramount importance. India has benefited from Bt cotton technology and will certainly benefit from other biotech crops that have been carefully developed and assessed for consumption and environmental safety. PMID:22538225

Jagadish, Mittur N

2012-01-01

172

1-billion-color TFT LCD TV with full HD format  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop data driver LSIs for over a 1-billion-color TFT-LCD TV with full HD (1920×1080) format, key issues in the driver architecture as well as circuit design and TFT-LCD panel issues for realizing true 1024 gray level images are discussed. We present our recent results of the 10-bit gray scale TFT-LCD data driver applied to 42-inch diagonal 1-billion-color TFT-LCD TV

Jin-Ho Kim; Byong-Deok Choi; Oh-Kyong Kwon

2005-01-01

173

The Effects of Augmented Verbal Information Feedback in the Motor Skill Learning of Totally Blind Subjects Fourteen to Twenty-one Years of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of Knowledge of Results, Knowledge of Performance and a combination of the two in the learning of a novel motor task by totally blind subjects. Thirty-three totally blind subjects tossed a velcro ball dart at a target while receiving augmented verbal information feedback. Each subject completed three learning…

Joseph, Daniel P.

174

Fourteen years of applying zero and conventional tillage, crop rotation and residue management systems and its effect on physical and chemical soil quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil management systems may negatively affect the quality of the soil. Policymakers and farmers need scientific information to make appropriate land management decisions. Conventional (CT) and zero tillage (ZT) are two common soil management systems. Comparative field studies under controlled conditions are required to determine the impact of these systems on soil quality and yields. The research presented studied plant

Mariela Fuentes; Bram Govaerts; Fernando De León; Claudia Hidalgo; Luc Dendooven; Ken D. Sayre; Jorge Etchevers

2009-01-01

175

Determination of Fluorine in Fourteen Microanalytical Geologic Reference Materials using SIMS, EPMA, and Proton Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE) Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine (F) is a volatile constituent of magmas and hydrous minerals, and trace amounts of F are incorporated into nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine and clinopyroxene. Microanalytical techniques are routinely used to measure trace amounts of F at both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution in glasses and crystals. However, there are few well-established F concentrations for the glass standards routinely used in microanalytical laboratories, particularly standards of low silica, basaltic composition. In this study, we determined the F content of fourteen commonly used microanalytical glass standards of basaltic, intermediate, and rhyolitic composition. To serve as calibration standards, five basaltic glasses with ~0.2 to 2.5 wt% F were synthesized and characterized. A natural tholeiite from the East Pacific Rise was mixed with variable amounts of CaF2. The mixture was heated in a 1 atmosphere furnace to 1440 °C at fO2 = NNO for 30 minutes and quenched in water. Portions of the run products were studied by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The EPMA used a 15 µm diameter defocused electron beam with a 15 kV accelerating voltage and a 25 nA primary current, a TAP crystal for detecting FK? X-rays, and Biotite 3 as the F standard. The F contents by EPMA agreed with the F added to the basalts after correction for mass loss during melting. The SIMS analyses used a primary beam of 16O- and detection of low-energy negative ions (-5 kV) at a mass resolution that resolved 18OH. Both microanalytical techniques confirmed homogeneity, and the SIMS calibration defined by EPMA shows an excellent linear trend with backgrounds of 2 ppm or less. Analyses of basaltic glass standards based on our synthesized calibration standards gave the following F contents and 2? errors (ppm): ALV-519 = 83 ± 3; BCR-2G = 359 ± 6; BHVO-2G = 322 ± 15; GSA-1G = 10 ± 1; GSC-1G = 11 ± 1; GSD-1G = 19 ± 2; GSE-1G = 173 ± 1; KL2G (MPI-DING) = 101 ± 1; ML3B-G (MPI-DING) = 49 ± 17. These values are lower than published values for BCR-2 and BHVO-2 (unmelted powders) and the “information values” for the MPI-DING glass standards. Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) was tested for the high silica samples. PIGE analyses (1.7 MeV Tandem Accelerator; reaction type: 19F(p, ??)16O; primary current = 20-30 nA; incident beam voltage = 1.5 MeV) were calibrated with a crystal of fluor-topaz (F = 20.3 wt%) and gave F values of: NIST 610 = 266 ± 14 ppm; NIST 620 = 54 ± 5 ppm; and UTR-2 = 1432 ± 32 ppm. SIMS calibration defined by the PIGE analyses shows an excellent linear trend with low background similar to the basaltic calibration. The F concentrations of intermediate MPI-DING glasses were determined based on SIMS calibration generated from the PIGE analysis above. The F concentrations and 2? errors (ppm) are: T1G = 219.9 ± 6.8; StHs/680-G = 278.0 ± 2.0 ppm. This study revealed a large matrix effect between the high-silica and basaltic glasses, thus requiring the use of appropriate standards and separate SIMS calibrations when analyzing samples of different compositions.

Guggino, S. N.; Hervig, R. L.

2010-12-01

176

Passing the one-billion limit in full configuration-interaction (FCI) calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full configuration-interaction calculations have been carried out using more than one-billion determinants. Such large eigenvalue calculations are possible because of advances in the direct CI technology and in the iterative technique used to solve the eigenvalue equations. The CPU time per direct CI iteration varies approximately linearly with the dimension of the matrix from one million to more than one billion. One direct CI iteration is found to take about 1.2-1.4 min per million determinants on an IBM 3090/VF.

Olsen, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Poul; Simons, Jack

1990-06-01

177

Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy  

ScienceCinema

April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

178

Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy  

ScienceCinema

April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

Daniel Sperling

2010-01-08

179

Development of an Acetylene Monitor at the Part Per Billion Level.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this contract was to develop instrumentation for the collection and analysis of atmospheric acetylene at the part per billion level. The reason for measuring acetylene is that it comes primarily from vehicular exhausts and thus can be used ...

W. Dencker M. Robinson R. Villalobos

1974-01-01

180

News from Los Angeles: Billions for Schools and Who Is Watching? Proposition BB and Architects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of Los Angeles Unified School District's Proposition BB Blue Ribbon Citizens' Oversight Committee, charged with overseeing $4 billion in school construction, and particularly the role of the American Institute of Architects of Los Angeles within the board. (EV)

Lehrer, Michael B.

1999-01-01

181

The $1. 5 billion question: Can the US Global Change Research Program deliver on its promises  

Microsoft Academic Search

President Clinton has continued the funding for scientific investigations of global climatic change, increasing funds to a total of $1.5 billion spread amoung 11 different agencies. However, a growing number of critics warn that the program appears heading toward failure. The main issue is relevancy. Almost every agrees that the research effort will support important scientific work over the next

Monastersky

1993-01-01

182

Super scalar architecture for billion device combinational and sequential circuit test design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of ATPG algorithms exist for testing digital systems. ATPG being an NP complete process; application of these for testing billion device chips will be a terrible task. In general, the test generation time grows exponentially with die area. To overcome this, emulators have been proposed. But these emulation systems are targeted only towards a specific method, like serial

N. Venkateswaran; V. Balaji; V. Mahalingam; T. L. Rajaprabhu

2003-01-01

183

Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy  

SciTech Connect

April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

Daniel Sperling

2009-04-15

184

The rapid assembly of an elliptical galaxy of 400 billion solar masses at a redshift of 2.3.  

PubMed

Stellar archaeology shows that massive elliptical galaxies formed rapidly about ten billion years ago with star-formation rates of above several hundred solar masses per year. Their progenitors are probably the submillimetre bright galaxies at redshifts z greater than 2. Although the mean molecular gas mass (5?×?10(10) solar masses) of the submillimetre bright galaxies can explain the formation of typical elliptical galaxies, it is inadequate to form elliptical galaxies that already have stellar masses above 2?×?10(11) solar masses at z???2. Here we report multi-wavelength high-resolution observations of a rare merger of two massive submillimetre bright galaxies at z = 2.3. The system is seen to be forming stars at a rate of 2,000 solar masses per year. The star-formation efficiency is an order of magnitude greater than that of normal galaxies, so the gas reservoir will be exhausted and star formation will be quenched in only around 200 million years. At a projected separation of 19?kiloparsecs, the two massive starbursts are about to merge and form a passive elliptical galaxy with a stellar mass of about 4?×?10(11) solar masses. We conclude that gas-rich major galaxy mergers with intense star formation can form the most massive elliptical galaxies by z???1.5. PMID:23698363

Fu, Hai; Cooray, Asantha; Feruglio, C; Ivison, R J; Riechers, D A; Gurwell, M; Bussmann, R S; Harris, A I; Altieri, B; Aussel, H; Baker, A J; Bock, J; Boylan-Kolchin, M; Bridge, C; Calanog, J A; Casey, C M; Cava, A; Chapman, S C; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Cox, P; Farrah, D; Frayer, D; Hopwood, R; Jia, J; Magdis, G; Marsden, G; Martínez-Navajas, P; Negrello, M; Neri, R; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Pérez-Fournon, I; Schulz, B; Scott, D; Smith, A; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J L; Zemcov, M

2013-06-20

185

Medicare overpayments to private plans, 1985-2012: shifting seniors to private plans has already cost Medicare US$282.6 billion.  

PubMed

Previous research has documented Medicare overpayments to the private Medicare Advantage (MA) plans that compete with traditional fee-for-service Medicare. This research has assessed individual categories of overpayment for, at most, a few years. However, no study has calculated the total overpayments to private plans since the program's inception. Prior to 2004, selective enrollment of healthier seniors was the major source of excess payments. We estimate this has added US$41 billion to Medicare's costs since 1985. Medicare adopted a risk-adjustment scheme in 2004, but this has not curbed private plans' ability to game the payment system. This has added US$122.5 billion to Medicare's costs since 2004. Congress mandated increased payment to private plans in the 2003 Medicare Modernization Act, which was mitigated, to a degree, by the subsequent Affordable Care Act. In total, we find that Medicare has overpaid private insurers by US$282.6 billion since 1985. Risk adjustment does not work in for-profit MA plans, which have a financial incentive, the data, and the ingenuity to game whatever system Medicare devises. It is time to end Medicare's costly experiment with privatization. The U.S. needs to adopt a single-payer national health insurance program with effective methods for controlling costs. PMID:23821907

Hellander, Ida; Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

2013-01-01

186

In Brief: A record year for extreme weather losses; Climate change and Inuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A record year for extreme weather losses The year 2004 also likely will be the most expensive for the insurance industry worldwide, due to weather related natural disasters, according to figures released on 15 December by the United Nations Environment Program. Between January-October 2004, natural disasters have cost the insurance industry more than $35 billion, compared to $16 billion in

Randy Showstack

2005-01-01

187

Residence Life Programs and the First-Year Experience. The Freshman Year Experience. Monograph Series No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph contains papers which suggest means of implementing residential programs, services, and facilities that will help to meet the needs of first-year college students. Fourteen papers are presented and are as follows: "Reflections on the First Year Residential Experience" (John N. Gardner); "The Role of Residential Programs in the…

Zeller, William, Ed.; And Others

188

Early HIV treatment led to life expectancy gains valued at $80 billion for people infected in 1996-2009.  

PubMed

In late 2009 US guidelines for HIV treatment were revised to recommend the initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) earlier in the course of the disease. We analyzed the life expectancy gains of people infected with HIV between the introduction of cART in 1996 and the 2009 guideline revisions. Compared to people who initiated cART late (defined as having a CD4 cell count of less than 350 per cubic millimeter of blood), those who initiated treatment early (with a CD4 count of 350-500) could expect to live 6.1 years longer, and the earliest initiators (with a CD4 count of more than 500) could expect an extra 9.0 years of life. The total value of life expectancy gains to the early and earliest initiators of treatment was $80 billion, with each life-year valued at $150,000. The value of the survival gains was more than double the increase in drug manufacturers' revenues from early cART initiation. Our results clarify the economic implications of adherence to treatment guidelines. PMID:24590933

Romley, John A; Juday, Timothy; Solomon, Matthew D; Seekins, Daniel; Brookmeyer, Ronald; Goldman, Dana P

2014-03-01

189

U.S. Wind projected to Be $60 billion business by 2013  

SciTech Connect

A recent U.S. Department of Energy report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to meeting 20 percent of U.S. electricity generation from wind by 2030, but identified upgrading of the transmission grid as a major challenge, requiring a $60+ billion investment. One major obstacle is the highly fragmented ownership of the 200,000-mile network among some 500 diverse, intensely territorial entities.

NONE

2008-11-15

190

Feeding the extra billions: strategies to improve crops and enhance future food security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to feed an expanding world population poses one of the greatest challenges to mankind in the future. Accompanying\\u000a the increased demand for food by the expected nine billion inhabitants of Earth in 2050 will be a continual decrease in arable\\u000a land area, together with a decline in crop yield due to a variety of stresses. For these formidable

Petra Stamm; Rengasamy Ramamoorthy; Prakash P. Kumar

2011-01-01

191

How to Bring Solar Energy to Seven Billion People (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

ScienceCinema

By exploiting the powers of nanotechnology and taking advantage of non-toxic, Earth-abundant materials, Berkeley Lab's Cyrus Wadia has fabricated new solar cell devices that have the potential to be several orders of magnitude less expensive than conventional solar cells. And by mastering the chemistry of these materials?and the economics of solar energy?he envisions bringing electricity to the 1.2 billion people now living without it.

Wadia, Cyrus

2011-04-28

192

Vanadyls ions in the 3.5 billion-year-old Apex Basalt chert: relics of a primitive metabolism?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of physico-chemical signatures of primitive life on Earth is a challenging issue, as it is extremely difficult to determine whether the carbonaceous matter preserved in the most ancient rocks is biogenic or abiotic. Indeed, organic matter of both origins always give the same type of macromolecular, acid resistant and insoluble carbonaceous matter during geologic evolution, with similar structures and spectroscopic signatures. There is still a lack of consensus in the scientific community on which observables could be considered as reliable biosignatures, and at present there is no physico-chemical marker, which could help to determine the origin of an ancient mineralized carbonaceous matter. Therefore, the determination of stable and reliable biosignatures is a fundamental issue in the search of primitive life on Earth and on Mars. Metalloporphyrins are important biomarkers as all living organisms, including the most primitive bacteria, use porphyrin derivatives in their metabolism. Complexes of vanadyl (VO++) porphyrins (VO-P) are particularly interesting as they are universally found within biogenic terrestrial carbonaceous materials. Therefore these complexes should constitute ideal biomarkers for the search of traces of primitive life in the most ancient (Lower Archean) geological materials and possibly in some Martian rocks. Vanadium in +4 oxidation state [V(IV)] in the Apex Basalt chert of the Warrawoona group in Western Australia is studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The biogenic origin of the carbonaceous microstructures fossilized in these cherts has been recently opened to question. More than 95% of V(IV) detected in the chert are in the form of VO++ with oxygenated ligands. To test the possibility that these oxygenated vanadyl species originate from the degradation of vanadyl porphyrin complex, we studied by EPR the thermal stability and the degradation mechanism of vanadyl porphyrins encapsulated in SiO2. We observed that degradation occurs by transferring the vanadyl ion from the porphyrin to an oxygenated environment within the SiO2 network, forming a complex very similar to that observed in Apex Basalt chert. We conclude that vanadyl complexes of the Apex Basalt chert likely originate from the degradation of vanadyl porphyrins formed during the precipitation of the silica. As porphyrins are found in all living systems, oxygenated vanadyl complexes in Archean cherts may thus constitute second order biomarkers for early life.

Binet, Laurent; Delpoux, Olivier; Gourier, Didier; Skrzypczak-Bonduelle, Audrey; Vezin, Herve; Derenne, Sylvie

193

Massive Galaxies Near and Far: The Evolution of an Unbiased Population Over the Last Ten Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent deep near-infrared surveys have extended the study of the buildup of stellar mass in galaxies to ever-increasing redshifts. We present a new photometric redshift code, EAZY, which provides precise redshift estimates that allow us to exploit the full depth of surveys that frequently reach much fainter than is currently feasible for large spectroscopic campaigns. EAZY includes a carefully-determined template set and a novel "template error function" that accounts for systematic differences between the templates and true galaxy SEDs. We present results from the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey, a 75-night program recently undertaken with the Mayall 4-m, that uses 5 medium-width NIR filters designed to measure precise photometric redshifts and rest-frame colors at z > 1.5. We find that the color bimodality between "red and dead" and blue star-forming galaxies, prominent at lower redshifts, persists to at least z ˜ 2.5. The separation of the two populations is greatly improved after accounting for the effects of dust-reddening of star-forming galaxies. The existence of apparently "dead" galaxies at these high redshifts is remarkable, given the large gas reservoir available at early times and the fact that the average star formation rate in the Universe was much higher than it is today. The mass density of quiescent galaxies with M > 10^11 M? increases by ˜1 dex from z = 2.2 to the present day, whereas the mass density in star-forming galaxies is flat or decreases over the same time periods. Using a simple toy model, we show that modest mass growth (i.e., a factor of two) of individual galaxies can explain much of the strong density evolution of quiescent galaxies, due to the steepness of the exponential end of the mass function. We argue that mergers are a primary mechanism for building up the massive quiescent galaxy population, while less massive quiescent galaxies are continuously formed by transforming galaxies from the star-forming population. We conclude with a case study of a M = 4 × 10^11 M? quiescent galaxy at z = 1.902 using spatially-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy with the WFC3 grism on the Hubble Space Telescope , demonstrating the promise of this technique for further bridging the gap between photometric and spectroscopic surveys.

Brammer, Gabriel Barnes

2010-08-01

194

Pre-4.0 billion year weathering on Mars constrained by Rb-Sr geochronology on meteorite ALH84001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing and nature of aqueous alteration of meteorite ALH84001 has important implications for the history of water on early Mars, the evolution of the Martian atmosphere, and the potential for early Mars habitability. Rubidium-Sr isotope analyses of mineral separates from igneous-textured and carbonate-rich aliquots of Martian meteorite ALH84001 constrain the age of alteration and the source of fluids. The carbonate-rich aliquot defines a precise Rb-Sr isochron between maskelynite, orthopyroxene, and chromite of 3952±22 Ma, and this is interpreted to represent a shock resetting event that was broadly coeval with carbonate precipitation. Carbonate, bulk rock, and multi-mineral separates all have high 87Sr/86Sr ratios that can only have been produced by alteration via a fluid derived through interaction with high Rb/Sr phyllosilicates that were produced prior to 3950 Ma. These data confirm that the source of Sr in the fluids was previously altered crustal rock, consistent with fluids that underwent low-temperature water-rock interaction (Eiler et al., 2002; Halvey et al., 2011). These results therefore provide evidence for wet, clay-rich conditions on the surface of Mars prior to ˜4.2 Ga.

Beard, Brian L.; Ludois, James M.; Lapen, Thomas J.; Johnson, Clark M.

2013-01-01

195

The intergalactic medium over the last 10 billion years - II. Metal-line absorption and physical conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the metallicity evolution and metal content of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and galactic halo gas from z= 2 to 0 using 110-million-particle cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We focus on the detectability and physical properties of ultraviolet resonance metal-line absorbers observable with Hubble's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). We confirm that galactic superwind outflows are required to enrich the IGM to observed levels down to z= 0 using three wind prescriptions contrasted to a no-wind simulation. Our favoured momentum-conserved wind prescription deposits metals closer to galaxies owing to its moderate energy input, while the more energetic constant wind model enriches the warm-hot IGM 6.4 times more. Despite these significant differences, all wind models produce metal-line statistics within a factor of 2 of existing observations. This is because ?, ?, ? and ? absorbers primarily arise from T < 105 K, photoionized gas that is enriched to similar levels in the three feedback schemes. ? absorbers trace the diffuse phase with ?, which is enriched to ˜1/50 Z? at z= 0, although the absorbers themselves usually exceed 0.3 Z? and arise from inhomogeneously distributed, unmixed winds. Turbulent broadening is required to match the observed equivalent width and column density statistics for ?. ? and ? absorbers trace primarily T˜ 104 K gas inside haloes (?), although there appear to be too many ? absorbers relative to observations. We predict the COS will observe a population of ? photoionized absorbers tracing T < 105 K, ? gas with equivalent widths of 10-20 mÅ. ? and ? are rarely detected in COS signal-to-noise ratio 30 simulated sight-lines (dn/dz? 1), although simulated ? detections trace halo gas at T= 106-107 K. In general, the IGM is enriched in an outside-in manner, where wind-blown metals released at higher redshift reach lower overdensities, resulting in higher ionization species tracing lower density, older metals. At z= 0, 90 per cent of baryons outside galaxies are enriched to ?, but 65 per cent of unbound baryons in the IGM have ? and contain only 4 per cent of all metals, a large decline from 20 per cent at z= 2, because metals from early winds often re-accrete on to galaxies while later winds are less likely to escape their haloes. We emphasize that our results are sensitive to how metal mixing is treated in the simulations, and argue that the lack of mixing in our scheme may be the largest difference from other similar publications.

Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Davé, Romeel; Katz, Neal; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Weinberg, David H.

2012-02-01

196

Molecular analysis of the HEXA gene in Italian patients with infantile and late onset Tay-Sachs disease: detection of fourteen novel alleles.  

PubMed

Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a recessively inherited disorder caused by the hexosaminidase A deficiency. We report the molecular characterization performed on 31 Italian patients, 22 with the infantile, acute form of TSD and nine patients with the subacute juvenile form, biochemically classified as B1 Variant. Of the 29 different alleles identified, fourteen were due to 15 novel mutations, two being in-cis on a new complex allele. The new alleles caused four frameshifts, three premature stop codons, three amino acid changes, two amino acid deletions and two splicing alterations. As previously reported, the c.533G>A (p.R178H) mutation was present either in homozygosity or as compound heterozygote, in all the patients with the late onset TSD form (B1 Variant); the allele frequency in this group is discussed by comparison with that found in infantile TSD. PMID:16088929

Montalvo, Anna Lisa E; Filocamo, Mirella; Vlahovicek, Kristian; Dardis, Andrea; Lualdi, Susanna; Corsolini, Fabio; Bembi, Bruno; Pittis, Maria Gabriela

2005-09-01

197

Quality evaluation of commercial Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang based on simultaneous determination of fourteen major chemical constituents using high performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT), comprising Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Phellodendri Cortex and Gardeniae Fructus, is one of the commonly used Chinese medicine formulas for clearing heat and detoxifying. Quality control of the herbal complex like Chinese medicine formulas still remains a challenge. The successful approval of botanical drug Veregen by FDA indicated the importance of quantitative analysis in quality control of herbal medicines. In this study, an effective quantitative method based on conventional HPLC-DAD was developed for simultaneous determination of fourteen major ingredients (seven alkaloids, four flavonoids, three terpenes) in HLJDT. The established method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability and then successfully applied to quality evaluation of commercial HLJDT samples. The developed method can quantitatively determine up to 70% of the chemicals of commercial HLJDT sample and effectively revealed the significant variation in the quality of the commercial HLJDT samples collected from different locations. PMID:23973454

Kwok, Ka-Yan; Xu, Jun; Ho, Hing-Man; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Min; Lang, Yan; Han, Quan-Bin

2013-11-01

198

The $1. 5 billion question: Can the US Global Change Research Program deliver on its promises  

SciTech Connect

President Clinton has continued the funding for scientific investigations of global climatic change, increasing funds to a total of $1.5 billion spread amoung 11 different agencies. However, a growing number of critics warn that the program appears heading toward failure. The main issue is relevancy. Almost every agrees that the research effort will support important scientific work over the next decade, but it will not necessarily provide the information policymakers need to address the threat of climatic change, ozone depletion, deforestation, desertification, and similiar issues. This article summarizes the concerns and comments of critics, and the gap between the climate scientists and governmental policymakers.

Monastersky, R.

1993-09-04

199

Utilities ponder $3 billion annual price tag for scrubber sludge disposal  

SciTech Connect

If the Environmental Protection Agency determines that scrubber sludge and fly ash are hazardous, disposal costs to utilities could triple to the $3 billion lvel to provide synthetic membrane liners at waste sites. Wet sludge makes up about 90 to 95% of utility solid waste, which is currently placed in wet ponds in arid regions and dewatered, stabilized by blending with fly ash, or chemically fixed elsewhere. Experts disagree on whether sludge can be oxidized to form gypsum and whether sludge gypsum is a marketable product. 1 table. (DCK)

Not Available

1983-02-01

200

2 Years of Science, One-of-a-Kind Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen years ago, Bruce A. Jackson was doing his postdoctoral work at the Boston University School of Medicine and working nights teaching at nearby Roxbury Community College. But his exhausting shuttle between two colleges was about to come to an end. Mr. Jackson, a biochemist, had recently received word from the National Science Foundation…

Ashburn, Elyse

2007-01-01

201

Meniscus Allograft Transplantation: Ten-Year Results of Cryopreserved Allografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We report the results of cryopreserved meniscus allograft transplantations with 10 or more years of follow-up. Methods: Fourteen medial and 8 lateral meniscus allografts were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 141 months (range, 115 to 167 months). The clinical outcome and failure rate was evaluated by use of a Lysholm score and modified pain score in 22 patients.

Jan Pieter Hommen; Gregory R. Applegate; Wilson Del Pizzo

2007-01-01

202

A stimulating conversation. Healthcare organizations praise the economic stimulus law, start considering ways to use the $150 billion in relief.  

PubMed

The industry eagerly awaits its $150 billion under the stimulus package, but not everyone will win, experts say. Still, "The initial stimulus package was a very solid start," said system exec Conway Collis, left. PMID:19274819

Lubell, Jennifer

2009-02-23

203

77 FR 15052 - Dataset Workshop-U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Dataset (1980-2011): Assessing Dataset Strengths...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Dataset Workshop--U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Dataset (1980- 2011): Assessing Dataset Strengths and Weaknesses for a Pathway to an Improved Dataset AGENCY:...

2012-03-14

204

Project Solo; Newsletter Number Fourteen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Revised material from earlier Project Solo newsletters is presented here. The revised material updates programs to explain the law of sines and cosines and to apply the idea of rectangular coordinates approach to aircraft navigation systems such as VORTAC. A brief discussion of the value of off-line as opposed to on-line activity is also…

Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Project Solo.

205

Lightcurve Analysis of Fourteen Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightcurve period and amplitude are reported for the following asteroids observed at Carbuncle Hill Observatory and other sites between December 2006 and March 2007: 1806 Derice, 2472 Bradman, 2480 Popanov, 2768 Gorky, 2874 Jim Young, 3314 Beals, 4936 Butakov, 5676 Voltaire, 6709 Hiromiyuki, 6737 Okabayashi, 9368 Eshashi, 13497 Ronstone, (14142) 1998 SG10 and (46598) 1993 FT2.

Pray, Donald P.; Galad, Adrian; Husarik, Marek; Oey, Julian

2008-03-01

206

Fourteen Ways To Save Money.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts have come up with some money-saving practices that include auditing utility bills, turning off lights, installing light fixtures that are more cost-efficient, keeping track of what the district owns, and shopping for better deals with utilities. (MLF)

Jones, Rebecca

1998-01-01

207

Military Operations: Fiscal Year 2003 Obligations Are Substantial, but May Result in Less Obligations Than Expected.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Global War on Terrorism (GWOT)-principally involving operations in Afghanistan and Iraq-is being funded in fiscal year 2003 by Congress's appropriation of almost $69 billion, including almost $16 billion in a transfer fund called the Iraqi Freedom Fun...

2003-01-01

208

A solar origin for the large lunar magnetic field at 4.0 billion yr ago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method (Shaw, 1974) for paleointensity determination has been applied to three subsamples of one polymict breccia, 72215 (of age 4.0 billion yr) to yield an average paleointensity of 0.41 Oe at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon around the time of breccia formation. Of the present models for lunar magnetism, only the Sonett and Runcorn (1974) model of a central iron core dynamo can explain the presence of such a large field in early lunar history. However, because of the similarity in size of this field and that for the early solar system deduced from carbonaceous chondrites, we draw attention to an apparently little-considered possibility: that the large magnetic field in early lunar history was external and solar in origin, and emanated from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri stage sun. Therefore, there should be no record of such a large magnetic field in lunar rocks younger than approximately 4.0 billion yr.

Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.

1976-01-01

209

On the constancy of the lunar cratering flux over the past 3.3 billion yr  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Utilizing a method that minimizes random fluctuations in sampling crater populations, it can be shown that the ejecta deposit of Tycho, the floor of Copernicus, and the region surrounding the Apollo 12 landing site have incremental crater size-frequency distributions that can be expressed as log-log linear functions over the diameter range from 0.1 to 1 km. Slopes are indistinguishable for the three populations, probably indicating that the surfaces are dominated by primary craters. Treating the crater populations of Tycho, the floor of Copernicus, and Apollo 12 as primary crater populations contaminated, but not overwhelmed, with secondaries, allows an attempt at calibration of the post-heavy bombardment cratering flux. Using the age of Tycho as 109 m.y., Copernicus as 800 m.y., and Apollo 12 as 3.26 billion yr, there is no basis for assuming that the flux has changed over the past 3.3 billion yr. This result can be used for dating intermediate aged surfaces by crater density.

Guinness, E. A.; Arvidson, R. E.

1977-01-01

210

A Fifteen-billion Solar Mass Black Hole at the End of Reionzation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of luminous quasars at z>6 indicates a rapid growth of supermasive black holes (BHs) in the early universe. Here we request to carry out GNIRS Near-IR spectroscopy of a newly discovered ultra-luminous quasar J0100+2802 at z=6.30. At z_AB=18.4, it is the most luminous object ever discovered at z>6 and ten times brighter than an average SDSS quasar at this redshift. We find a lower limit on the BH mass of fifteen billion solar masses, derived from its bolometric luminosity assuming Eddington accretion. Because of the quasar's high luminosity, with only one hour of integration using GNIRS, we will be able to detect and measure the properties of all major board emission lines. The CIV and MgII line width will allow us to accurate determine the quasar BH mass and Eddington ratio. The new observation will confirm whether we have discovered the first BH exceeding 10 billion solar masses at z>6, thus shed light on the nature of extreme BH accretion at the end of reionization. Emission line ratios will also be used the determine the chemical abundance within quasar broad emission line region and constrain star formation and chemical enrichment in the quasar environment.

Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; Mcgreer, Ian; Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Bian, Fuyan; Wang, Ran

2014-08-01

211

U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry  

SciTech Connect

The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small-diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result of a burgeoning worldwide demand and concerns about long-term supplies. By the end of the summer, oil pri

Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

2011-08-01

212

Investigation of Radar Propagation in Buildings: A 10 Billion Element Cartesian-Mesh FETD Simulation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper large scale full-wave simulations are performed to investigate radar wave propagation inside buildings. In principle, a radar system combined with sophisticated numerical methods for inverse problems can be used to determine the internal structure of a building. The composition of the walls (cinder block, re-bar) may effect the propagation of the radar waves in a complicated manner. In order to provide a benchmark solution of radar propagation in buildings, including the effects of typical cinder block and re-bar, we performed large scale full wave simulations using a Finite Element Time Domain (FETD) method. This particular FETD implementation is tuned for the special case of an orthogonal Cartesian mesh and hence resembles FDTD in accuracy and efficiency. The method was implemented on a general-purpose massively parallel computer. In this paper we briefly describe the radar propagation problem, the FETD implementation, and we present results of simulations that used over 10 billion elements.

Stowell, M L; Fasenfest, B J; White, D A

2008-01-14

213

The strongest matter: “Einsteinon” could be one billion times stronger than carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The controversy about the feasibility of space elevator cables is summarized, emphasizing the huge strength-to-density ratio needed for the megacable material, comparable only to that of defect-free carbon nanotubes. In spite of this, the existence of an hypothetical matter, that we have called "Einsteinon", with strength-to-density ratio one billion times higher than that of carbon nanotubes, is shown to be compatible with Relativity. Einsteinon would be the strongest material, having cracks propagating at the speed of light. A very simple argument is also introduced for a rough unification of the gravitational and nuclear forces, suggesting that such a material would probably be based on sub-nuclear-like interactions.

Pugno, Nicola M.

2008-09-01

214

Billion-atom synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of critical 3D Ising systems  

SciTech Connect

An extension of the synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo (spkMC) algorithm developed by Martinez et al. [J. Comp. Phys. 227 (2008) 3804] to discrete lattices is presented. The method solves the master equation synchronously by recourse to null events that keep all processors' time clocks current in a global sense. Boundary conflicts are resolved by adopting a chessboard decomposition into non-interacting sublattices. We find that the bias introduced by the spatial correlations attendant to the sublattice decomposition is within the standard deviation of serial calculations, which confirms the statistical validity of our algorithm. We have analyzed the parallel efficiency of spkMC and find that it scales consistently with problem size and sublattice partition. We apply the method to the calculation of scale-dependent critical exponents in billion-atom 3D Ising systems, with very good agreement with state-of-the-art multispin simulations.

Martinez, E. [IMDEA-Materiales, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Monasterio, P.R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Marian, J., E-mail: marian1@llnl.go [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

2011-02-20

215

Enumeration of 166 billion organic small molecules in the chemical universe database GDB-17.  

PubMed

Drug molecules consist of a few tens of atoms connected by covalent bonds. How many such molecules are possible in total and what is their structure? This question is of pressing interest in medicinal chemistry to help solve the problems of drug potency, selectivity, and toxicity and reduce attrition rates by pointing to new molecular series. To better define the unknown chemical space, we have enumerated 166.4 billion molecules of up to 17 atoms of C, N, O, S, and halogens forming the chemical universe database GDB-17, covering a size range containing many drugs and typical for lead compounds. GDB-17 contains millions of isomers of known drugs, including analogs with high shape similarity to the parent drug. Compared to known molecules in PubChem, GDB-17 molecules are much richer in nonaromatic heterocycles, quaternary centers, and stereoisomers, densely populate the third dimension in shape space, and represent many more scaffold types. PMID:23088335

Ruddigkeit, Lars; van Deursen, Ruud; Blum, Lorenz C; Reymond, Jean-Louis

2012-11-26

216

Evaluation testing of a portable vapor detector for Part-Per-Billion (PPB) level UDMH and N2H4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace level detection of hydrazine (N2H4), monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) has been receiving increased attention over the past several years. In May 1995 the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) lowered their acceptable threshold limit value (TLV) from 100 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 10 ppb. Several types of ppb-level detectors are being developed by the United States Air Force (USAF) Space and Missile Systems Center (SMSC). A breadboard version of a portable, lightweight hydrazine detection sensor was developed and produced by Giner Corp. for the USAF. This sensor was designed for ppb level UDMH and N2H4 vapor detection in near real-time. This instrument employs electrochemical sensing, utilizing a three electrode cell with an anion-exchange polymer electrolyte membrane as the only electrolyte in the system. The sensing, counter and reference electrodes are bonded to the membrane forming a single component. The only liquid required to maintain the sensor is deionized water which hydrates the membrane. At the request of the USAF SMSC, independent testing and evaluation of the breadboard instrument was performed at NASA's Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) for response to ppb-level N2H4 and UDMH and MMH. The TVDL, located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the unique ability to generate calibrated sample vapor streams of N2H4, UDMH, and MMH over a range from less than 10 ppb to thousands of parts per million (ppm) with full environmental control of relative humidity (0-90%) and temperature (0-50 C). The TVDL routinely performs these types of tests. Referenced sensors were subjected to extensive testing, including precision, linearity, response/recovery times, zero and span drift, humidity and temperature effects as well as ammonia interference. Results of these tests and general operation characteristics are reported.

Curran, Dan; Lueck, Dale E.

1995-01-01

217

K-12 Budget Picture: Lean Years Ahead. Education Outlook. No. 10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While educators are eager to forget the financial woes of the past two years and return to the familiar routine of steady budget increases, the fiscal outlook for America's fourteen thousand school districts is bleak--not just for next year, but for a half decade or more. This calls for a new mindset among educators and an unfamiliar,…

Hess, Frederick M.; Downs, Whitney

2010-01-01

218

FTO Biology and Obesity: Why Do a Billion of Us Weigh 3 kg More?  

PubMed Central

Few would dispute that the current obesity epidemic has been driven by lifestyle and environmental changes. However, it is clear that individuals respond differently to these “obesigenic” changes and this variation in response has a strong genetic element. Genome-wide association studies have revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms in Fat mass and obesity-associated transcript (FTO) are robustly associated with body mass index and obesity. Although the effect of these risk alleles are modest, with heterozygous and homozygous carriers weighing approximately 1.5 and 3?kg more respectively, there are an estimated one billion homozygous carriers in the world, spanning multiple different ethnicities and populations. Yet despite its broad impact, the biological function of FTO, particularly its role in controlling energy balance, remains unknown. Although the study of severe Mendelian obesity has been invaluable in illuminating critical pathways controlling food intake, the major burden of disease is carried by those of us with “common obesity,” which to date has resisted yielding meaningful biological insights. FTO has at last given us a handle on a huge, worldwide, common problem. In this review, we focus on the available genetic and in vivo evidence to date that implicates FTO in the control of energy balance.

Cheung, Man-Ka Marcella; Yeo, Giles S. H.

2011-01-01

219

Bioinspired architecture approach for a one-billion transistor smart CMOS camera chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper we present a massively parallel VLSI architecture for future smart CMOS camera chips with up to one billion transistors. To exploit efficiently the potential offered by future micro- or nanoelectronic devices traditional on central structures oriented parallel architectures based on MIMD or SIMD approaches will fail. They require too long and too many global interconnects for the distribution of code or the access to common memory. On the other hand nature developed self-organising and emergent principles to manage successfully complex structures based on lots of interacting simple elements. Therefore we developed a new as Marching Pixels denoted emergent computing paradigm based on a mixture of bio-inspired computing models like cellular automaton and artificial ants. In the paper we present different Marching Pixels algorithms and the corresponding VLSI array architecture. A detailed synthesis result for a 0.18 ?m CMOS process shows that a 256×256 pixel image is processed in less than 10 ms assuming a moderate 100 MHz clock rate for the processor array. Future higher integration densities and a 3D chip stacking technology will allow the integration and processing of Mega pixels within the same time since our architecture is fully scalable.

Fey, Dietmar; Komann, Marcus

2007-06-01

220

Microprocessor-based air analyzer unit for sub parts per billion level measurements of hydrogen peroxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microprocessor (?P)-based sampler analyzer has been designed and used for measurements of atmospheric hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) concentration at levels of sub parts per billion (ppbV) and higher. With improved sampling and analysis techniques, the output data, with their linear variation over five orders of H 2O 2 concentration, allow accurate measurements in the presence of other oxidants like ozone and nitrogen oxides. The sampling (preconcentration) of atmospheric H 2O 2 is done in specially purified water using an impinger with an efficiency of ? 100%. The background level of H 2O 2 in this medium allows measurement of its atmospheric concentrations at the level of 0.1 ppbV with peak S/N value of ?10. The analysis of the aqueous H 2O 2 involves the selective detection and measurement of the chemiluminescence (CL) output of its reaction with alkaline luminol. With on line precalibration, absolute measurement of the H 2O 2 concentration for each sampling event is obtained. Additional features include the facility to check the time dependence of the CL output profile and record of the daily minimum and maximum values for reference. The ?P control of these sequential operations and subsequent data handling with an IBM compatible PC/XT allows long-time unattended operation for a selected number of cycles and subsequently provides the concentration profile plot on the printer. Ambient solar actinic irradiance is also recorded simultaneously for correlation studies of atmospheric chemical reactions.

Kumar, V.; Vora, H. S.; Das, T. N.; Kumbhare, M. N.; Koul, R.

221

Approaching the one billion transistor logic product: process and design challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microprocessor product density and performance trends have continued to follow the course predicted by Moore's Law. To support the trends in the future and build logic products approaching one billion or more transistors before the end of the decade, several challenges must be met. These challenges include: (1) maintaining transistor/interconnect feature scaling, (2) the increasing power density dilemma, (3) increasing relative difficulty of 2D feature resolution and general critical dimension control, (4) identifying cost effective solutions to increasing process and design database complexity. The trend in transistor scaling can be maintained while addressing the power density issue with new transistor structures exemplified by the Depleted Substrate Transistor incorporating a raised source-drain and high-K gate dielectric. The general 2D patterning and resolution control problems will require several solution approaches both through design and technology e.g. reduce design degrees of freedom, use of simpler arrayed structures, improved uniformity, improved tools, etc. The data base complexity/cost problem will require solutions likely to involve use of improved data structure, improved use of hierarchy, and improved software and hardware solutions.

Sery, George E.

2002-07-01

222

Reagan Seeks a Record $8.8-Billion for Aid to Students: $9.2-Billion Would Go to University R&D, Up 13 Pct.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Reagan abandoned his seven-year effort to make drastic reductions in federal spending on education, recommending record high amounts for programs aiding colleges and students. However, the administration suggested curtailments in some programs, including college construction and renovation. (MSE)

Wilson, Robin; And Others

1988-01-01

223

Industrial R&D Spending Reached $26.6 Billion in 1976. Science Resources Studies Highlights, May 5, 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data compiled as part of a comprehensive program to measure and analyze the nation's resources expended for research and development (R&D). Industry, which carries out 69% of the R&D in the United States, spent $26.6 billion on these activities in 1976, 10% above the 1975 level. In constant dollars, this presents an increase…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

224

A Highly Functional Synthetic Phage Display Library Containing over 40 Billion Human Antibody Clones  

PubMed Central

Several synthetic antibody phage display libraries have been created and used for the isolation of human monoclonal antibodies. The performance of antibody libraries, which is usually measured in terms of their ability to yield high-affinity binding specificities against target proteins of interest, depends both on technical aspects (such as library size and quality of cloning) and on design features (which influence the percentage of functional clones in the library and their ability to be used for practical applications). Here, we describe the design, construction and characterization of a combinatorial phage display library, comprising over 40 billion human antibody clones in single-chain fragment variable (scFv) format. The library was designed with the aim to obtain highly stable antibody clones, which can be affinity-purified on protein A supports, even when used in scFv format. The library was found to be highly functional, as >90% of randomly selected clones expressed the corresponding antibody. When selected against more than 15 antigens from various sources, the library always yielded specific and potent binders, at a higher frequency compared to previous antibody libraries. To demonstrate library performance in practical biomedical research projects, we isolated the human antibody G5, which reacts both against human and murine forms of the alternatively spliced BCD segment of tenascin-C, an extracellular matrix component frequently over-expressed in cancer and in chronic inflammation. The new library represents a useful source of binding specificities, both for academic research and for the development of antibody-based therapeutics.

Weber, Marcel; Bujak, Emil; Putelli, Alessia; Villa, Alessandra; Matasci, Mattia; Gualandi, Laura; Hemmerle, Teresa; Wulhfard, Sarah; Neri, Dario

2014-01-01

225

Layout finishing of a 28nm, 3 billions transistors, multi-core processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing a fully new 256 cores processor is a great challenge for a fabless startup. In addition to all architecture, functionalities and timing issues, the layout by itself is a bottleneck due to all the process constraints of a 28nm technology. As developers of advanced layout finishing solutions, we were involved in the design flow of this huge chip with its 3 billions transistors. We had to face the issue of dummy patterns instantiation with respect to design constraints. All the design rules to generate the "dummies" are clearly defined in the Design Rule Manual, and some automatic procedures are provided by the foundry itself, but these routines don't take care of the designer requests. Such a chip, embeds both digital parts and analog modules for clock and power management. These two different type of designs have each their own set of constraints. In both cases, the insertion of dummies should not introduce unexpected variations leading to malfunctions. For example, on digital parts were signal race conditions are critical on long wires or bus, introduction of uncontrolled parasitic along these nets are highly critical. For analog devices such as high frequency and high sensitivity comparators, the exact symmetry of the two parts of a current mirror generator should be guaranteed. Thanks to the easily customizable features of our dummies insertion tool, we were able to configure it in order to meet all the designer requirements as well as the process constraints. This paper will present all these advanced key features as well as the layout tricks used to fulfill all requirements.

Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Beisser, Eric

2013-06-01

226

Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country's present petroleum consumption--the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

Perlack, R.D.

2005-12-15

227

Recovery Act Put $2.5 Billion in Ohioans' Pockets A County-by-County Review of Direct Benefits in 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

he $787 billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) was split between formula funding for state and local government programs, competitive grants, and direct benefits to Americans. The State of Ohio is expected to receive $8.2 billion in formula funding, and competitive grants in excess of $817 million have al- ready been awarded to Ohio entities. This report

Emily Campbell

228

Overbank Sedimentation in the Delaware River Valley during the Last 6000 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thick sequence of floodplain sediments has accumulated in the Delaware River Valley by the process of overbank deposition. Textures in the sediments indicate that the sequence contains no point-bar deposits and is unbroken by periods of erosion. Fourteen radiocarbon dates show that deposition began at least 6000 years ago and has continued to the present. Because the Delaware River

Dale F. Ritter; W. Fred Kinsey III; Marvin E. Kauffman

1973-01-01

229

Environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported of the environmental monitoring program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) for Calendar Year 1976. The Fermilab facility is a proton synchrotron with a design energy of 200 GeV (billion electron volts); however, the energy reached 500 GeV in 1976 and operation at 400 GeV is now routine. Operation of the accelerator produces some radiation which penetrates

1977-01-01

230

Survey of ocular irritation predictive capacity using Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test historical data for 319 personal care products over fourteen years.  

PubMed

The Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test are widely used to predict ocular irritation potential for consumer-use products. These in vitro assays do not require live animals, produce reliable predictive data for defined applicability domains compared to the Draize rabbit eye test, and are rapid and inexpensive. Data from 304 CAMVA and/or BCOP studies (319 formulations) were surveyed to determine the feasibility of predicting ocular irritation potential for various formulations. Hair shampoos, skin cleansers, and ethanol-based hair styling sprays were repeatedly predicted to be ocular irritants (accuracy rate=0.90-1.00), with skin cleanser and hair shampoo irritation largely dependent on surfactant species and concentration. Conversely, skin lotions/moisturizers and hair styling gels/lotions were repeatedly predicted to be non-irritants (accuracy rate=0.92 and 0.82, respectively). For hair shampoos, ethanol-based hair stylers, skin cleansers, and skin lotions/moisturizers, future ocular irritation testing (i.e., CAMVA/BCOP) can be nearly eliminated if new formulations are systematically compared to those previously tested using a defined decision tree. For other tested product categories, new formulations should continue to be evaluated in CAMVA/BCOP for ocular irritation potential because either the historical data exhibit significant variability (hair conditioners and mousses) or the historical sample size is too small to permit definitive conclusions (deodorants, make-up removers, massage oils, facial masks, body sprays, and other hair styling products). All decision tree conclusions should be made within a conservative weight-of-evidence context, considering the reported limitations of the BCOP test for alcohols, ketones, and solids. PMID:21147215

Donahue, D A; Kaufman, L E; Avalos, J; Simion, F A; Cerven, D R

2011-03-01

231

Survey of ocular irritation predictive capacity using Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test historical data for 319 personal care products over fourteen years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test are widely used to predict ocular irritation potential for consumer-use products. These in vitro assays do not require live animals, produce reliable predictive data for defined applicability domains compared to the Draize rabbit eye test, and are rapid and inexpensive. Data from 304 CAMVA and\\/or BCOP

D. A. Donahue; L. E. Kaufman; J. Avalos; F. A. Simion; D. R. Cerven

2011-01-01

232

A Content Analysis and Comparison of Themes in Fiction with the Subject of an Alcoholic Parent Written for Children Ages Ten to Fourteen Years in the Sixties and in the Eighties. A Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the themes in children's fiction with the subject of an alcoholic parent and evaluated the treatment of the subject in novels from the 1960s and the 1980s. It was hypothesized that, compared to writings from the 1960s, writings from the 1980s would more often contain references to the disease concept of alcoholism, would more…

Van Opdorp, Beth McMenamin

233

Analysis of the President's Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal Year 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On February 6, 1997, the President submitted to the Congress a budget for fiscal year 1998. Administration estimates that, if the economy performs as it expects, the basic policies proposed in the budget will produce a surplus of $17 billion in 2002. The ...

J. Horney J. Hung D. Kowalski R. Kasten J. Holland

1997-01-01

234

Private Donations to Colleges Rise for 4th Consecutive Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Backed by a strong economy and a growing stock market, American colleges and universities raised an estimated $29.8-billion in the 2007 fiscal year, the highest total ever recorded, according to a report released last week by the Council for Aid to Education. But the country's recent economic troubles have some fund-raising experts concerned that…

Wolverton, Brad

2008-01-01

235

Updated Budget Projections: Fiscal Years 2013-2023.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

If the current laws that govern federal taxes and spending do not change, the budget deficit will shrink this year to $642 billion, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimates, the smallest shortfall since 2008. Relative to the size of the economy, th...

2013-01-01

236

Evaluation of a multiresidue method for measuring fourteen chemical groups of pesticides in water by use of LC-MS-MS.  

PubMed

European Council Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption brought a new challenge for water-quality control routine laboratories, mainly on pesticides analysis. Under the guidelines of ISO/IEC 17025:2005, a multiresidue method was developed, validated, implemented in routine, and studied with real samples during a one-year period. The proposed method enables routine laboratories to handle a large number of samples, since 28 pesticides of 14 different chemical groups can be quantitated in a single procedure. The method comprises a solid-phase extraction step and subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The accuracy was established on the basis of participation in interlaboratory proficiency tests, with encouraging results (majority |z-score| <2), and the precision was consistently analysed over one year. The limits of quantitation (below 0.050 microg L(-1)) are in agreement with the enforced threshold value for pesticides of 0.10 microg L(-1). Overall method performance is suitable for routine use according to accreditation rules, taking into account the data collected over one year. PMID:18758762

Carvalho, J J; Jerónimo, P C A; Gonçalves, C; Alpendurada, M F

2008-11-01

237

Performance as Promised: How the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Accomplished one of NASA's most Challenging Missions for Billions of Dollars Less than originally Planned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the nation looks toward bold new ventures in space, the Chandra X-ray Observatory program offers an example of how billion-dollar missions can be successfully developed within tightening fiscal constraints. Chandra experienced many of challenges facing bold space programs (state-of-the-art technical requirements and budget-induced slips and restructurings), and yet the Chandra team achieved nearly all the originally envisioned performance for dramatically lower cost. This was accomplished by a combination of team- work, systems engineering, advanced technology insertion, and effective approaches for program implementation. A thorough tradeoff of science utility vs. cost led to the selection of a highly elliptical orbit with uncrewed robotic delivery, deployment, and maintenance. Progressive, focused technology demonstrations were accomplished prior to commitment of major resources to critical elements of the system design, such as the high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA). Pathfinder hardware was developed to reduce risks. A variety of schedule risk reduction measures were implemented and resulted in the X-ray calibration taking place exactly within five days of its originally planned date after after five years of development. The team worked together in an effective manner to contain requirements creep. reductions such as the ACIS-2 chip device. It is estimated that the above combination of measures achieved the avoidance of over $4B in costs, while enabling a highly successful mission.

Davidson, Greg; Hefner, Keith

2004-01-01

238

White-light demonstration of one hundred parts per billion irradiance suppression in air by new starshade occulters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mission concept for direct imaging of exo-solar planets called New Worlds Observer (NWO) has been proposed. It involves flying a meter-class space telescope in formation with a newly-conceived, specially-shaped, deployable star-occulting shade several meters across at a separation of some tens of thousands of kilometers. The telescope would make its observations from behind the starshade in a volume of high suppression of incident irradiance from the star around which planets orbit. For an efficacious mission, the required level of irradiance suppression by the starshade is of order 0.1 to 10 parts per billion in broadband light. We discuss an experiment to accurately measure the irradiance suppression ratio at the null position behind candidate starshade forms to these levels. We also present results of broadband measurements which demonstrated suppression levels of less than 100 parts per billion in air using the Sun as a light source. A simulated spatial irradiance distribution surrounding the null from an analytical model developed for starshades is compared with a photograph of actual irradiance captured in situ behind a candidate starshade.

Leviton, Douglas B.; Cash, Webster C.; Gleason, Brian; Kaiser, Michael J.; Levine, Sarah A.; Lo, Amy S.; Schindhelm, Eric; Shipley, Ann F.

2007-09-01

239

A simple change to the medicare part D low-income subsidy program could save $5 billion.  

PubMed

Medicare Part D provides a subsidy to beneficiaries with incomes below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. Enrollees with the low-income subsidy accounted for 75 percent of the $60 billion in total federal Part D spending in 2013. The government randomly assigns any new beneficiary who automatically qualifies for the subsidy, or who successfully applies for it without indicating a preferred plan, to a stand-alone Part D plan whose premium is equal to or below the average premium for the basic Part D benefit in the region. We used an intelligent reassignment algorithm and 2008-09 Part D drug use and spending data to match enrollees to available plans according to their medication needs. We found that such a reassignment approach could have saved the federal government over $5 billion in 2009, for mean government savings of $710 (median: $368) per enrollee with a low-income subsidy. Implementing that simple change to reassign beneficiaries would have also lowered the proportion of prescriptions that required utilization review from 29 percent to 20 percent, and the proportion of prescriptions with quantity limits from 27 percent to 19 percent. PMID:24889942

Zhang, Yuting; Zhou, Chao; Baik, Seo Hyon

2014-06-01

240

White Light Demonstration of One Hundred Parts per Billion Irradiance Suppression in Air by New Starshade Occulters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new mission concept for the direct imaging of exo-solar planets called the New Worlds Observer (NWO) has been proposed. The concept involves flying a meter-class space telescope in formation with a newly-conceived, specially-shaped, deployable star-occulting shade several meters across at a separation of some tens of thousands of kilometers. The telescope would make its observations from behind the starshade in a volume of high suppression of incident irradiance from the star around which planets orbit. The required level of irradiance suppression created by the starshade for an efficacious mission is of order 0.1 to 10 parts per billion in broadband light. This paper discusses the experimental setup developed to accurately measure the suppression ratio of irradiance produced at the null position behind candidate starshade forms to these levels. It also presents results of broadband measurements which demonstrated suppression levels of just under 100 parts per billion in air using the Sun as a light source. Analytical modeling of spatial irradiance distributions surrounding the null are presented and compared with photographs of irradiance captured in situ behind candidate starshades.

Levinton, Douglas B.; Cash, Webster C.; Gleason, Brian; Kaiser, Michael J.; Levine, Sara A.; Lo, Amy S.; Schindhelm, Eric; Shipley, Ann F.

2007-01-01

241

Survey of lands held for uranium exploration, development, and production in fourteen western states in the six month period ending June 30, 1979  

SciTech Connect

The statistics set forth for the period covered by this report are based on data gathered from records available to the public. These data were derived from public county records of mining claim locations, from the public reports of state and Federal land offices, from commercial reporting services, and from annual reports to stockholders of land companies. Accordingly, if any fee land has been acquired in a private transaction which has not been entered into a public record or report, that land will not be accounted for in this report. The figures for the acreage controlled at the beginning of the calendar year are those that were published for that date in the publication entitled Statistical Data of the Uranium Industry GJO-100(78).

Not Available

1980-01-01

242

Reaction and spontaneity: the influence of meaning from everyday language on fourth year undergraduates’ interpretations of some simple chemical phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen fourth?year undergraduate chemistry students were interviewed in the context of some simple chemical phenomena to find out their concepts of ‘reaction’ and ‘spontaneous’. The students were asked to discuss and to decide in four situations whether or not a chemical reaction had taken place and then, if one had, to decide whether or not the reaction was spontaneous. The

M. Gabriela; T. C. Ribeiro; Duarte J. V. Costa Pereira; Roger Maskill

1990-01-01

243

Combined Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Parent Training for Childhood Depression: 2- to 3-Year Follow-up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen children with significant depressive symptoms from an open clinical trial of Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training augmented with Caregiver-Child Relationship Enhancement Training, participated in a 2- to 3-year follow-up assessment. The results suggested that the significant decreases in depressive symptoms observed at…

Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

2013-01-01

244

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2011  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Budget includes three new robust exploration programs: (1) Technology demonstration program, $7.8 five years. Funds the development and demonstration of technologies that reduce the cost and expand the capabilities of future exploration activities, including in-orbit refueling and storage. (2) Heavy-Lift and Propulsion R&D, $3.1 billion over five years. Funds R&D for new launch systems, propellants, materials, and combustion processes. (3) Robotic precursor missions, $3.0 billion over five years. Funds cost-effective means to scout exploration targets and identify hazards and resources for human visitation and habitation. In addition, the Budget enhances the current Human Research Program by 42%; and supports the Participatory Exploration Program at 5 million per year for activities across many NASA programs.

2010-01-01

245

Survey of lands held for uranium exploration, development, and production in fourteen western states in the six-month period ending June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The statistics set forth for the period covered in this report are based on data gathered from records available to the public. The county records of mining claim locations, reports of state and federal land offices, and commercial reporting services furnish the data for this report. Accordingly, if any fee land has been acquired in a private transaction not entered into a public record or report, that land transaction will not be accounted for in this report. Manpower is not available to survey, acquire, and evaluate data from each available source in each reporting period. Therefore, in any given report, the figures quoted for one or more land categories in a given state may be identical to the figures shown in earlier reports even though some changes probably have occurred. Such changes will be shown on subsequent reports. The figures used for acreage controlled at the beginning of the calendar year are those published for that date in Statistical Data of the Uranium Industry GJ0-100 published and distributed by the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy.

Not Available

1981-01-01

246

Nonfatal Bathroom Injuries Among Persons Aged Plus or Minus 15 Years: United States, 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Volume 60, No. 22, June 10, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2008, approximately 21.8 million persons aged .15 years sustained nonfatal, unintentional injuries, resulting in approximately $67.3 billion in lifetime medical costs. Information about where injuries occur is limited, but bathrooms commonly are believ...

2011-01-01

247

LoCuSS: The Steady Decline and Slow Quenching of Star Formation in Cluster Galaxies over the Last Four Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of the levels and evolution of star formation activity in a representative sample of 30 massive galaxy clusters at 0.15 < z < 0.30 from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey, combining wide-field Spitzer/MIPS 24 ?m data with extensive spectroscopy of cluster members. The specific SFRs of massive ( {M} \\gtrsim 10^{10}\\ {M}_{\\odot }) star-forming cluster galaxies within r 200 are found to be systematically ~28% lower than their counterparts in the field at fixed stellar mass and redshift, a difference significant at the 8.7? level. This is the unambiguous signature of star formation in most (and possibly all) massive star-forming galaxies being slowly quenched upon accretion into massive clusters, their star formation rates (SFRs) declining exponentially on quenching timescales in the range 0.7-2.0 Gyr. We measure the mid-infrared Butcher-Oemler effect over the redshift range 0.0-0.4, finding rapid evolution in the fraction (f SF) of massive (MK < - 23.1) cluster galaxies within r 200 with SFRs > 3 M ? yr-1, of the form f SFvprop(1 + z)7.6 ± 1.1. We dissect the origins of the Butcher-Oemler effect, revealing it to be due to the combination of a ~3 × decline in the mean specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies since z ~ 0.3 with a ~1.5 × decrease in number density. Two-thirds of this reduction in the specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies is due to the steady cosmic decline in the specific SFRs among those field galaxies accreted into the clusters. The remaining one-third reflects an accelerated decline in the star formation activity of galaxies within clusters. The slow quenching of star formation in cluster galaxies is consistent with a gradual shut down of star formation in infalling spiral galaxies as they interact with the intracluster medium via ram-pressure stripping or starvation mechanisms. The observed sharp decline in star formation activity among cluster galaxies since z ~ 0.4 likely reflects the increased susceptibility of low-redshift spiral galaxies to gas removal mechanisms as their gas surface densities decrease with time. We find no evidence for the build-up of cluster S0 bulges via major nuclear starburst episodes.

Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Smith, G. P.; Egami, E.; Sanderson, A. J. R.; Babul, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Merluzzi, P.; Busarello, G.; Rawle, T. D.; Okabe, N.

2013-10-01

248

Defense Funds to Colleges and Non-Profit Groups Total $2.6-Billion for 1986, Up 7.3 Pct. in a Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defense Department contracts to colleges, universities, and other non-profit organizations were for research, development, testing, and evaluation for military projects and for civilian water-resource projects. A list of those with contracts of $500,000 or more is presented. (MLW)

Chronicle of Higher Education, 1987

1987-01-01

249

Toward constraining the long-term reversing behavior of the geodynamo: A new “Maya” superchron ˜1 billion years ago from the magnetostratigraphy of the Kartochka Formation (southwestern Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new magnetostratigraphic data obtained from the Late Mesoproterozoic (˜1 Ga) Kartochka Formation in the East Angara terrane of the Yenisey Ridge region (southwestern Siberian platform). A ˜200 m-thick section encompassing the carbonate Kartochka Formation was densely sampled and another more limited outcrop several kilometers away was sampled in order to conduct a paleomagnetic fold test between the two sites. Paleomagnetic analyses revealed the existence of two magnetization components. A low unblocking temperature component, which likely has a viscous origin, was first isolated below 200 °C. A characteristic component, carried either by magnetite or by a mixture of magnetite and hematite, was then isolated in the medium to high temperature range (up to 565-585 °C or 680 °C). The hematite-bearing component has a shallower inclination than the magnetite component showing that magnetite was less sensitive to flattening. A positive paleomagnetic fold test was obtained between the two studied sections indicating that the characteristic magnetization was likely acquired during or very soon after sediment deposition. This primary origin was further verified by comparison between the paleomagnetic poles derived for the Kartochka Formation and other late Mesoproterozoic Siberian sections. All data from the Kartochka Formation contain a single magnetic polarity assumed to be normal. This long normal polarity interval is consistent with the polarity zonation previously determined from magnetostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data from the Siberian Uchur Maya region. The new data fortify evidence of a normal polarity superchron spanning the ˜1000 Ma old Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary, which we propose to call the Maya superchron. These data confirm the occurrence of sharp transitions between a frequently reversing regime and a non-reversing regime of the geodynamo. This behavior, also observed in other regions, may represent a consistent property of the Proterozoic geomagnetic field. Together with changes in the amount of time spent in the superchron regime, they may testify to a different field behavior during the late Precambrian than during the Phanerozoic. This difference could reflect a stronger influence of the heterogeneous heat flux patterns at the core-mantle boundary during the Precambrian, possibly as a consequence of the inner core not yet being nucleated at this time.

Gallet, Yves; Pavlov, Vladimir; Halverson, Galen; Hulot, Gauthier

2012-07-01

250

The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey: Final Public Release of ~ 35 000 Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei Covering 13 Billion Years of Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) final and public data release offers an excellent opportunity to revisit galaxy evolution with a sample of 35 016 galaxies and active galactic nuclei covering the redshift range 0 < z < 6.7. The VVDS includes three tiered surveys, the wide, deep and ultra-deep surveys, covering up to 8.7 square degrees, and each magnitude-selected with limits iAB = 22.5, 24 and 24.75 respectively. The VVDS redshifts, spectra, and all associated multi-wavelength data are available at http://cesam.lam.fr/vvds. The highlights and scientific legacy of the VVDS are summarised.

Le Fèvre, O.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Le Brun, V.; Lemaux, B.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Maccagni, D.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Mellier, Y.; Merighi, R.; Merluzzi, P.; Moreau, C.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Vettolani, G.; Zamorani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Zucca, E.

2014-03-01

251

Sedimentology of the Onverwacht Group (3.4 Billion Years), Transvaal, South Africa, and Its Bearing on the Characteristics and Evolution of the Early Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strata of the upper part of the Onverwacht Group (3.4 b.y.), Transvaal, South Africa, are composed mainly of chert representing silicified quartz-poor volcaniclastic detritus. Layers of carbonate, silicified carbonate, volcaniclastic debris, and possible primary silica make up minor parts of most sections. Deposition took place largely in shallow water, but no evidence was found to indicate whether the water was

Donald R. Lowe; L. P. Knauth

1977-01-01

252

A 4.2 billion year old impact basin on the Moon: U-Pb dating of zirconolite and apatite in lunar melt rock 67955  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sharp rise in the flux of asteroid-size bodies traversing the inner Solar System at 3.9 Ga has become a central tenet of recent models describing planetary dynamics and the potential habitability of early terrestrial environments. The prevalence of ˜3.9 Ga crystallization ages for lunar impact-melt breccias and U-Pb isotopic compositions of lunar crustal rocks provide the primary evidence for a short-lived, cataclysmic episode of late heavy bombardment at that time. Here we report U-Pb isotopic compositions of zirconolite and apatite in coarse-grained lunar melt rock 67955, measured by ion microprobe, that date a basin-scale impact melting event on the Moon at 4.22±0.01 Ga followed by entrainment within lower grade ejecta from a younger basin approximately 300 million yr later. Significant impacts prior to 3.9 Ga are also recorded by lunar zircons although the magnitudes of those events are difficult to establish. Other isotopic evidence such as 40Ar-39Ar ages of granulitic lunar breccias, regolith fragments, and clasts extracted from fragmental breccias, and Re-Os isotopic compositions of lunar metal is also suggestive of impact-related thermal events in the lunar crust during the period 4.1-4.3 Ga. We conclude that numerous large impactors hit the Moon prior to the canonical 3.9 Ga cataclysm, that some of those pre-cataclysm impacts were similar in size to the younger lunar basins, and that the oldest preserved lunar basins are likely to be significantly older than 3.9 Ga. This provides sample-based support for dynamical models capable of producing older basins on the Moon and discrete populations of impactors. An extended period of basin formation implies a less intense cataclysm at 3.9 Ga, and therefore a better opportunity for preservation of early habitable niches and Hadean crust on the Earth. A diminished cataclysm at 3.9 Ga suggests that the similarity in the age of the oldest terrestrial continental crust with the canonical lunar cataclysm is likely to be coincidental with no genetic significance.

Norman, Marc D.; Nemchin, Alexander A.

2014-02-01

253

A TALE OF DWARFS AND GIANTS: USING A z = 1.62 CLUSTER TO UNDERSTAND HOW THE RED SEQUENCE GREW OVER THE LAST 9.5 BILLION YEARS  

SciTech Connect

We study the red sequence in a cluster of galaxies at z = 1.62 and follow its evolution over the intervening 9.5 Gyr to the present day. Using deep YJK{sub s} imaging with the HAWK-I instrument on the Very Large Telescope, we identify a tight red sequence and construct its rest-frame i-band luminosity function (LF). There is a marked deficit of faint red galaxies in the cluster that causes a turnover in the LF. We compare the red-sequence LF to that for clusters at z < 0.8, correcting the luminosities for passive evolution. The shape of the cluster red-sequence LF does not evolve between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 but at z < 0.6 the faint population builds up significantly. Meanwhile, between z = 1.62 and 0.6 the inferred total light on the red sequence grows by a factor of {approx}2 and the bright end of the LF becomes more populated. We construct a simple model for red-sequence evolution that grows the red sequence in total luminosity and matches the constant LF shape at z > 0.6. In this model the cluster accretes blue galaxies from the field whose star formation is quenched and who are subsequently allowed to merge. We find that three to four mergers among cluster galaxies during the 4 Gyr between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 match the observed LF evolution between the two redshifts. The inferred merger rate is consistent with other studies of this cluster. Our result supports the picture that galaxy merging during the major growth phase of massive clusters is an important process in shaping the red-sequence population at all luminosities.

Rudnick, Gregory H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Malott room 1082, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Tran, Kim-Vy; Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Momcheva, Ivelina [Observatories, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Willmer, Christopher, E-mail: grudnick@ku.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2012-08-10

254

Symbolic Density Models of One-in-a-Billion Statistical Tails via Importance Sampling and Genetic Programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the application of symbolic regression for building models of probability distributions in which the accuracy at the distributions' tails is critical. The problem is of importance to cutting-edge industrial integrated circuit design, such as designing SRAM memory components (bitcells, sense amps) where each component has extremely low probability of failure. A naive approach is infeasible because it would require billions of Monte Carlo circuit simulations. This paper demonstrates a flow that efficiently generates samples at the tails using importance sampling, then builds genetic programming symbolic regression models in a space that captures the tails - the normal quantile space. These symbolic density models allow the circuit designers to analyze the tradeoff between high-sigma yields and circuit performance. The flow is validated on two modern industrial problems: a bitcell circuit on a 45nm TSMC process, and a sense amp circuit on a 28nm TSMC process.

McConaghy, Trent

255

The APPA Journey and RMA Fourteeners Club  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The APPA journey represents a continuum through one's career in educational facilities management. Early in one's career, APPA can assist with professional development such as the Facilities Drive-In Workshop, the Supervisor's Toolkit, the APPA Institute for Facilities Management, and the APPA Leadership Academy. APPA provides for both…

Morris, John P.

2012-01-01

256

Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery: a 6-year experience with 714 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This study analyzes a single institutional experience with minimally invasive mitral valve operations of 6 years, reviewing short-term morbidity and mortality and long-term echocardiographic follow-up data.Methods. Seven hundred fourteen consecutive patients had minimally invasive mitral valve procedures between November 1995 and November 2001; concomitant procedures included 91 multiple valves and 18 coronary artery bypass grafts. Of these 714 patients,

Eugene A Grossi; Aubrey C Galloway; Angelo LaPietra; Greg H Ribakove; Patricia Ursomanno; Julie Delianides; Alfred T Culliford; Costas Bizekis; Rick A Esposito; F. Gregory Baumann; Marc S Kanchuger; Stephen B Colvin

2002-01-01

257

Effect of Additives on the Determination of Parts Per Billion Lead in JP-4, JP-5, JP-7, and JP-8.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The noninterference of presently allowed jet fuel additives on the determination of parts per billion lead in JP-4, JP-5, JP-7, and JP-8 by the new iodine monochloride-spectrophotometric dithizone method of Campbell and Moss is described. (Author)

M. J. Borchers W. G. Scribner

1969-01-01

258

New Schools, Overcrowding Relief, and Achievement Gains in Los Angeles--Strong Returns from a $19.5 Billion Investment. Policy Brief 12-2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aiming to relieve overcrowded schools operating on multiple tracks, the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) has invested more than $19 billion to build 130 new facilities over the past decade. District leaders asked researchers at Berkeley to estimate the achievement effects of this massive initiative--benefits that may stem from entering…

Welsh, William; Coghlan, Erin; Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke

2012-01-01

259

Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use

Patrick Laney

2005-01-01

260

Reconstructing Environmental Changes over the Last 3 Million Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since the Earth's creation, some 5 billion years ago, environmental change has been a defi ning characteristic of our\\u000a planet. At fi rst these changes were purely inorganic in nature: weathering and erosion of the Earth's surface, and tectonic\\u000a processes beneath the crust. As life forms began to develop, though, a new, organic infl uence came to be exerted

A. M. Mannion

261

Development and validation of a rapid multi-class method for the confirmation of fourteen prohibited medicinal additives in pig and poultry compound feed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A confirmatory method has been developed to allow for the analysis of fourteen prohibited medicinal additives in pig and poultry compound feed. These compounds are prohibited for use as feed additives although some are still authorised for use in medicated feed. Feed samples are extracted by acetonitrile with addition of sodium sulfate. The extracts undergo a hexane wash to aid with sample purification. The extracts are then evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in initial mobile phase. The samples undergo an ultracentrifugation step prior to injection onto the LC-MS/MS system and are analysed in a run time of 26 min. The LC-MS/MS system is run in MRM mode with both positive and negative electrospray ionisation. The method was validated over three days and is capable of quantitatively analysing for metronidazole, dimetridazole, ronidazole, ipronidazole, chloramphenicol, sulfamethazine, dinitolimide, ethopabate, carbadox and clopidol. The method is also capable of qualitatively analysing for sulfadiazine, tylosin, virginiamycin and avilamycin. A level of 100 microg kg(-1) was used for validation purposes and the method is capable of analysing to this level for all the compounds. Validation criteria of trueness, precision, repeatability and reproducibility along with measurement uncertainty are calculated for all analytes. PMID:20643524

Cronly, Mark; Behan, P; Foley, B; Malone, E; Earley, S; Gallagher, M; Shearan, P; Regan, L

2010-12-01

262

Billions of basepairs of recently expanded, repetitive sequences are eliminated from the somatic genome during copepod development  

PubMed Central

Background Chromatin diminution is the programmed deletion of DNA from presomatic cell or nuclear lineages during development, producing single organisms that contain two different nuclear genomes. Phylogenetically diverse taxa undergo chromatin diminution — some ciliates, nematodes, copepods, and vertebrates. In cyclopoid copepods, chromatin diminution occurs in taxa with massively expanded germline genomes; depending on species, germline genome sizes range from 15 – 75 Gb, 12–74 Gb of which are lost from pre-somatic cell lineages at germline – soma differentiation. This is more than an order of magnitude more sequence than is lost from other taxa. To date, the sequences excised from copepods have not been analyzed using large-scale genomic datasets, and the processes underlying germline genomic gigantism in this clade, as well as the functional significance of chromatin diminution, have remained unknown. Results Here, we used high-throughput genomic sequencing and qPCR to characterize the germline and somatic genomes of Mesocyclops edax, a freshwater cyclopoid copepod with a germline genome of ~15 Gb and a somatic genome of ~3 Gb. We show that most of the excised DNA consists of repetitive sequences that are either 1) verifiable transposable elements (TEs), or 2) non-simple repeats of likely TE origin. Repeat elements in both genomes are skewed towards younger (i.e. less divergent) elements. Excised DNA is a non-random sample of the germline repeat element landscape; younger elements, and high frequency DNA transposons and LINEs, are disproportionately eliminated from the somatic genome. Conclusions Our results suggest that germline genome expansion in M. edax reflects explosive repeat element proliferation, and that billions of base pairs of such repeats are deleted from the somatic genome every generation. Thus, we hypothesize that chromatin diminution is a mechanism that controls repeat element load, and that this load can evolve to be divergent between tissue types within single organisms.

2014-01-01

263

Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 1997-98.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents national and state information on public education finances, including revenues by source, current expenditures by function, and current expenditures per pupil. About $326 billion of revenues were raised by local, state, and federal governments to finance public education through grade 12 in school year 1997-1998. (Author/SLD)

Johnson, Frank

2000-01-01

264

Trade with the oil-exporters: a five-year perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the recent past is any guide to the future, the United States will be in substantial deficit in its trade with OPEC for some time to come. As a result of oil price increases recently announced by OPEC, US outlays for imported petroleum may quickly rise from $42 billion last year to an annual rate of more than $60

Fieleke

1979-01-01

265

An Evaluation of the Initial Year of Zero-Base Budgeting in the Federal Government  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) process during the initial year of its implementation in the Federal Government. The evaluation includes ten Departments and six agencies of the Federal Government representing 74 percent of the total budget authority of 560 billion dollars. It is based on the information received in

Virendra S. Sherlekar; Burton V. Dean

1980-01-01

266

3. Solar System Formation and Early Evolution: the First 100 Million Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar system, as we know it today, is about 4.5 billion years old. It is widely believed that it was essentially completed 100 million years after the formation of the Sun, which itself took less than 1 million years, although the exact chronology remains highly uncertain. For instance: which, of the giant planets or the terrestrial planets, formed first, and how? How

Thierry Montmerle; Jean-Charles Augereau; Marc Chaussidon; Mathieu Gounelle; Bernard Marty; Alessandro Morbidelli

2006-01-01

267

Ivermectin: 25 years and still going strong.  

PubMed

Ivermectin is a drug that many people will never have heard of. Yet thousands of villagers of all ages in communities scattered throughout the remotest parts of Africa and Latin America know its name, and some experts regard it as one of the greatest health interventions of the past 50 years. Ivermectin was brought to the commercial market place for multi-purpose use in animal health in 1981. Six years later it was registered for human use. This remarkable compound has improved the lives and productivity of billions of humans, livestock and pets around the globe, and promises to help consign to the history books two devastating and disfiguring diseases that have plagued people throughout the tropics for generations--while new uses for it are continually being found. PMID:18037274

Omura, S

2008-02-01

268

Effects of 5 years of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy on cardiac parameters and physical performance in adults with GH deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 5 years of GH substitution on cardiac structure and function, physical\\u000a work capacity and blood pressure levels in adults with GH deficiency (GHD). Fourteen patients were clinically assessed every\\u000a 3 months for 5 years. Transthoracic echocardiography and exercise test were performed at baseline, 24, 48 and 60 months. Blood\\u000a pressure (BP) was measured

Maria Claudia Peixoto Cenci; Débora Vieira Soares; Luciana Diniz Carneiro Spina; Rosane Resende de Lima Oliveira Brasil; Priscila Marise Lobo; Vera Aleta Mansur; Jaime Gold; Eduardo Michmacher; Mario Vaisman; Flávia Lúcia Conceição

2009-01-01

269

The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: Health Impact after 8 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In its first 8 years, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) achieved an unprecedentedly rapid scale-up: .1.9 billion treatments with anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine) were provided via yearly mass drug administration (MDA) to a minimum of 570 million individuals living in 48 of the 83 initially identified LF-endemic countries. Methodology: To assess the health impact

Eric A. Ottesen; Pamela J. Hooper; Mark Bradley; Gautam Biswas

2008-01-01

270

School Districts' Perspectives on the Economic Stimulus Package: Teaching Jobs Saved in 2009-10 but Teacher Layoffs Loom for Next School Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2009, school districts began receiving the first wave of federal economic stimulus money from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). Totaling about $100 billion over two years--more than double the fiscal year 2009 budget for the U.S. Department of Education (ED)--the education portion of the stimulus package…

Kober, Nancy; Scott, Caitlin; Rentner, Diane Stark; McMurrer, Jennifer; Dietz, Shelby

2010-01-01

271

Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992  

SciTech Connect

During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

Not Available

1992-12-31

272

Technical challenges, past and future, in implementing THERESA: a one million patient, one billion item computer-based patient record and decision support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Challenges in implementing a computer-based patient record (CPR)--such as absolute data integrity, high availability, permanent on-line storage of very large complex records, rapid search times, ease of use, commercial viability, and portability to other hospitals and doctor's offices--are given along with their significance, the solutions, and their successes. The THERESA CPR has been used sine 1983 in direct patient care by a public hospital that is the primary care provider to 350,000 people. It has 1000 beds with 45,000 admissions and 750,000 outpatient visits annually. The system supports direct provider entry, including by physicians, of complete medical `documents'. Its demonstration site currently contains 1.1 billion data items on 1 million patients. It is also a clinical decision-aiding tool used for quality assurance and cost containment, for teaching as faculty and students can easily find and `thumb through' all cases similar to a particular study, and for research with over a billion medical items that can be searched and analyzed on-line within context and with continuity. The same software can also run in a desktop microcomputer managing a private practice physician's office.

Camp, Henry N.

1996-02-01

273

Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993  

SciTech Connect

During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program`s oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994.

Not Available

1993-12-31

274

River Protection Project FY 2000 Multi Year Work Plan Summary  

SciTech Connect

The River Protection Project (RPP), formerly the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), is a major part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP). The ORP was established as directed by Congress in Section 3139 of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The ORP was established to elevate the reporting and accountability for the RPP to the DOE-Headquarters level. This was done to gain Congressional visibility and obtain support for a major $10 billion high-level liquid waste vitrification effort.

LENSEIGNE, D.L.

1999-08-27

275

53 Persei Observations, 14 Years of Persistence Rewarded  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the analysis of fourteen years of observations of the non-radially pulsating star, 53 Persei, obtained with the Four-College Consortium Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT). We previously discussed analyses of four (AAS 185th meeting, #80.07, 1994) and ten seasons (AAS 197th meeting, #46.11, 2000) respectively. In this paper we present a summary of the analysis of the entire fourteen seasons of data. We have eliminated observations not passing various observational checks that have been devised to eliminate APT observations obtained under non-photometric conditions. Our current data set runs from the fall of 1990 through the spring of 2004. Our analysis of these observations shows that the two frequencies (0.46 c d-1 and 0.59 c d-1) identified by Smith, et. al. (Ap. J. 282, 226, 1984) and confirmed by Huang, et. al. (Ap. J. 431, 850, 1994) are present. In addition to the four other frequencies we earlier reported we now extend our list to eleven frequencies. Five of these are apparently combination terms. The complete list is f1=0.4612 c d-1, f2=0.5939 c d-1, f3=0.4715 c d -1, f4=0.5689 c d-1, f5=0.2593 c d-1, f6=0.6636 c d-1, f1+f2=1.05517 c d -1, 2f5=0.5186 c d-1, f1+f4 =0.9328 c d-1, f1 +f2+f5 = 1.31 c d-1, and f4-2f5=0.05 c d-1. Some of the combination terms are stronger than some of the main frequencies. For terms of sufficient strength to permit adequate phase determination their position on the amplitude ratio versus phase difference plot for Stromgren photometry from the models of Townsend (MNRAS, 330, 855, 2002) indicate that these are all l =1, g-modes. Finally, the strongest frequencies show a significant (u-b) color variation. There is also some indication of either a frequency splitting in the strongest terms and/or a slight change in these frequencies over the fourteen years of observation. This work has been supported in part by NSF grants #AST86-16362, #AST91-15114, #AST95-28906, and #AST-0071260 to the College of Charleston.

Dukes, R. J., Jr.; Mills, L. R.

2004-12-01

276

Small business report to Congress for fiscal year 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the various programs of the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization designed to ensure small businesses have an equitable opportunity to do business with the Department of Energy. In addition, this report covers 33 organizational components of the Department and details the extent to which small business firms are participating in the procurement process as well as efforts taken to ensure continued involvement. During fiscal year 1992, the Department met or exceeded its percentage and dollar goals for 8(a) concerns, labor surplus area set-asides, and for-subcontracting to small businesses. The Department`s contract awards to small businesses totaled $3.1 billion (17.3 percent of the 18.1 billion the Department spent on contracts), which consisted of Departmental prime contracts and management and operating contracts. During fiscal year 1992, the Department awarded contracts totaling $307 million to small disadvantaged businesses under Section 8(a) of the U.S. Small Business Act. This total represents 1.7 percent of all prime contracts over $25,000 awarded by the Department during that period. The Department and its management and operating contractors awards to women-owned businesses and labor surplus area set-asides totaled $327 million and $596 million, respectively. The achievements in small business subcontracting for fiscal year 1992 was $234 million, including $23 million to small disadvantaged firms.

Not Available

1994-02-01

277

The federal medical loss ratio rule: implications for consumers in year 2.  

PubMed

For the past two years, the Affordable Care Act has required health insurers to pay out a minimum percentage of premiums in the form of medical claims or quality improvement expenses--known as a medical loss ratio (MLR). Insurers with MLRs below the minimum must rebate the difference to consumers. This issue brief finds that total rebates for 2012 were $513 million, half the amount paid out in 2011, indicating greater compliance with the MLR rule. Spending on quality improvement remained low, at less than 1 percent of premiums. Insurers continued to reduce their administrative and sales costs, such as brokers' fees, without increasing profit margins, for a total reduction in overhead of $1.4 billion. In the first two years under this regulation, total consumer benefits related to the medical loss ratio--both rebates and reduced overhead--amounted to more than $3 billion. PMID:24881098

McCue, Michael J; Hall, Mark A

2014-05-01

278

Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis  

SciTech Connect

In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

NONE

1996-01-01

279

Galaxy Evolution Explorer Celebrates Five Years in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

Since its launch five years ago, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has photographed hundreds of millions of galaxies in ultraviolet light. M106 is one of those galaxies, and from 22 light years away, it strikes a pose in blue and gold for this new commemorative portrait.

The galaxy's extended arms are the blue filaments that curve around its edge, creating its outer disk. Tints of blue in M106's arms reveal hot, young massive stars. Traces of gold toward the center show an older stellar population and indicate the presence of obscuring dust.

From 24 million light-years away, neighboring galaxy NGC 4248 also makes a memorable appearance, sitting just right of M106. The irregular galaxy looks like a yellow smudge, with a bluish-white bar in the center. The galaxy's outer golden glow indicates a population of older stars, while the blue central region shows a younger stellar demographic.

Dwarf galaxy UGC 7365 emerges at the bottom center of this image, as a faint yellow smudge directly below M106. This galaxy is not forming any new stars, and looks much smaller than M106 despite being closer to Earth, at 14 million light-years away.

Over the past five years, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has imaged half a billion objects over 27,000 square degrees of sky equivalent to an area that would be covered by 138,000 full moons. The telescope orbits Earth every 94 minutes and travels approximately 408,470 million miles per day. Its overarching question is: how do galaxies grow and change over 10 billion years of cosmic history?

M106, also known as NGC 4258, is located in the constellation Canes Venatici. This image is a two-color composite, where far-ultraviolet light is blue, and near-ultraviolet light is red.

2008-01-01

280

Using Methane 14C to Determine the Origin of the Rapid Methane Rise at the End of the Younger Dryas 11,600 Years Ago: Increased Wetland Production or Methane Hydrates? A Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmospheric methane concentration rose from about 500 parts per billion (ppb) to about 750 ppb over a period of just 150 years at the termination of the Younger Dryas cold period 11,600 years ago, as indicated by Greenland ice core records. The start of this rapid methane increase was synchronous with an even more rapid climate warming -- Greenland

V. V. Petrenko; J. Severinghaus; E. Brook; N. Reeh

2002-01-01

281

Using Methane 14C to Determine the Origins of the Rapid Methane Rise at the End of the Younger Dryas 11,600 Years Ago: Increased Wetland Production Only or a Contribution From Methane Hydrates? A Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global atmospheric methane concentration rose from about 500 parts per billion (ppb) to about 750 ppb over a period of just 150 years at the termination of the Younger Dryas cold interval 11,600 years ago, as indicated by Greenland ice core records. The start of this rapid methane increase was synchronous with an even more rapid climate warming --

V. V. Petrenko; J. Severinghaus; E. Brook; N. Reeh; D. Lowe; A. Smith; D. Etheridge; R. Weiss

2003-01-01

282

Knee extensor function before and 1 year after simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty: is there asymmetry between limbs?  

PubMed

One year after unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA), there is interlimb knee extensor function asymmetry. In the study reported here, we investigated whether there was knee extensor function "asymmetry" between limbs 1 year after simultaneous bilateral TKA. Fourteen patients volunteered to participate in this study before undergoing simultaneous bilateral TKA secondary to knee osteoarthritis. One year after surgery, 8 patients agreed to participate in follow-up testing. Torque production, work, and range of motion of knee extensors were assessed isokinetically at 1.047 radians . second(-1). Before surgery, there was no difference between limbs in peak torque, work, or range of motion during isokinetic testing. One year after surgery, this pattern persisted. The strength asymmetry evident in patients 1 year after unilateral TKA did not exist in patients who underwent simultaneous bilateral TKA. There is a symmetrical pattern between limbs for knee extensor function 1 year after the bilateral procedure. PMID:21720583

Rossi, Mark D; Brown, Lee E; Whitehurst, Michael

2011-01-01

283

Millions and Billions of Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the Harvard SETI group is inextricably linked with the history of Paul Horowitz. Horowitz became enamored with SETI as a student at Harvard, reading Ed Purcell's paper "Radio Astronomy and Communication Through Space" (Purcell, 1960), discussing with his roommates a class that Carl Sagan was teaching there using a draft of Shklovskii and Sagan's "Intelligent Life in the Universe" (Shklovskii and Sagan, 1966) as a text, and finally attending a Loeb Lecture series at Harvard by Frank Drake (Drake, 1969). The series was officially about pulsars but Drake did manage to slip in one inspiring talk about SETI. Horowitz says that "It was this lecture that launched me into this field; it was a revelation that you could go beyond idle speculation - you could actually calculate stuff."

Leigh, Darren; Horowitz, Paul

284

The Four Billion Dollar Lunch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses problems with the National School Lunch Program, including the high proportion of food thrown away by students, problems with food preparation, nutritional standards, and competition from junk foods. Suggestions for nutrition education are offered and organizations and books for further reference are listed. (JMB)

Sautter, R. Craig

1978-01-01

285

Short Reference Years - Test Reference Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Test Reference Year (TRY) is a collection of hourly weather data for a specific location and for 365 days arranged as 8760 sets of simultaneous weather parameters. A Short Reference Year (SRY) is correspondingly a similar collection of data for less tha...

H. Lund

1984-01-01

286

Follow the money: How the billions of dollars that flow from smokers in poor nations to companies in rich nations greatly exceed funding for global tobacco control and what might be done about it  

PubMed Central

The business of selling cigarettes is increasingly concentrated in the hands of five tobacco companies that collectively control almost 90% of the world's cigarette market, four of which are publicly traded corporations. The economic activities of these cigarette manufacturers can be monitored through their reports to shareholders and other public documents. Reports for 2008 show that the revenues of these five companies exceeded $300 billion, of which more than $160 billion was provided to governments as taxes, and that corporate earnings of the four publicly traded companies were over $25 billion, of which $14 billion was retained after corporate income taxes were paid. By contrast, funding for domestic and international tobacco control is not reliably reported. Estimated funding for global tobacco control in 2008, at $240 million, is significantly lower than resources provided to address other high-mortality global health challenges. Tobacco control has not yet benefited from the innovative finance mechanisms that are in place for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The Framework Convention On Tobacco Control (FCTC) process could be used to redirect some of the earnings from transnational tobacco sales to fund FCTC implementation or other global health efforts.

2010-01-01

287

Experimental Program for the Development of Peat Gasification. Interim Report No. 5: Process Design and Cost Estimates for a 250 Billion Btu/Day SNG from Peat Plant by He PEATGAS Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a process design and cost estimate of a plant for the production of 250 billion Btu's of SNG per stream day from a Minnesota peat by the PEATGAS Process. The plant is self-sufficient, generating all steam and power (including that nee...

C. L. Tsaros J. L. Arora

1979-01-01

288

Pregnancy and childbirth among females aged 10-19 years - United States, 2007-2010.  

PubMed

Pregnancy and childbirth among females aged <20 years have been the subject of long-standing concern among the public, the public health community, and policy makers. Teenagers who give birth are much more likely than older women to deliver a low birthweight or preterm infant, and their babies are at higher risk for dying in infancy. The annual public costs associated with births among teenage girls are an estimated $10.9 billion. According to the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), an estimated 77% of births to teenagers aged 15-19 years were unintended. PMID:24264493

Ventura, Stephanie J; Hamilton, Brady E; Mathews, T J

2013-11-22

289

An Extraordinary Year for Managing Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It's wonderful to be back home again in Indiana. I am honored to be here with you today to share two important results of effective technology management. The first is the indirect return on investment that Americans get from NASA's relatively lean annual budget, and the second is the direct economic benefits that the great state of Indiana and businesses nationwide realize through multiple contracts with NASA. As a proud Purdue graduate and deputy director of one of NASA's highest-priority, multi-billion dollar projects, I have a vested interest in this conference and in the outcome of this work. My goal today is to help you better understand the types of work in which NASA engages and to provide avenues for you to pursue opportunities with America's space Agency, if that is a good fit for your company. You may already know that NASA and various Indiana businesses and universities are partners in the pursuit of improving life on Earth through scientific discoveries that pay dividends in terms of expanded knowledge, as well as big-picture conveniences and a multitude of spin-offs. Whether your organization is large or small, NASA offers numerous opportunities to participate. Before I provide some motivating facts and figures about the aerospace industry and its economic impact, I want to set the stage by sharing several notable examples of how 2005 was an extraordinary year for technology management at NASA, a subject that I can speak about firsthand.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2006-01-01

290

Leap Year Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A significant number of programs incorrectly treats the year 2000 as a non-leap year. We list 21 real life code fragments illustrating the large variety of ways that are used to determine whether a given year is a leap year or not. Some of these fragments...

A. Van Deursen

1998-01-01

291

Discovery of 3.2 Billion-Years-Old Sulfidic Black Shales: A Progress Report of the Dixon Island-Cleaverville (DXCL) Drilling Project in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Dixon Island - Cleaverville Drilling Project (DXCL-DP), we drilled three holes; CL1 and CL2 (organic-rich massive black shales) and DX (very finely laminated black shales with lamination and veins of pyrite), all from the 3.2 Ga Cleaverville Group.

Yamaguchi, K. E.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.

2010-04-01

292

The Economic Benefits Resulting from the First 8 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000–2007)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBetween 2000–2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 4–6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF

Brian K. Chu; Pamela J. Hooper; Mark H. Bradley; Deborah A. McFarland; Eric A. Ottesen

2010-01-01

293

Bisphosphonates: the first 40 years.  

PubMed

The first full publications on the biological effects of the diphosphonates, later renamed bisphosphonates, appeared in 1969, so it is timely after 40years to review the history of their development and their impact on clinical medicine. This special issue of BONE contains a series of review articles covering the basic science and clinical aspects of these drugs, written by some of many scientists who have participated in the advances made in this field. The discovery and development of the bisphosphonates (BPs) as a major class of drugs for the treatment of bone diseases has been a fascinating story, and is a paradigm of a successful journey from 'bench to bedside'. Bisphosphonates are chemically stable analogues of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and it was studies on the role of PPi as the body's natural 'water softener' in the control of soft tissue and skeletal mineralisation that led to the need to find inhibitors of calcification that would resist hydrolysis by alkaline phosphatase. The observation that PPi and BPs could not only retard the growth but also the dissolution of hydroxyapatite crystals prompted studies on their ability to inhibit bone resorption. Although PPi was unable to do this, BPs turned out to be remarkably effective inhibitors of bone resorption, both in vitro and in vivo experimental systems, and eventually in humans. As ever more potent BPs were synthesised and studied, it became apparent that physico-chemical effects were insufficient to explain their biological effects, and that cellular actions must be involved. Despite many attempts, it was not until the 1990s that their biochemical actions were elucidated. It is now clear that bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption by being selectively taken up and adsorbed to mineral surfaces in bone, where they interfere with the action of the bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Bisphosphonates are internalised by osteoclasts and interfere with specific biochemical processes. Bisphosphonates can be classified into at least two groups with different molecular modes of action. The simpler non-nitrogen containing bisphosphonates (such as etidronate and clodronate) can be metabolically incorporated into non-hydrolysable analogues of ATP, which interfere with ATP-dependent intracellular pathways. The more potent, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (including pamidronate, alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate and zoledronate) are not metabolised in this way but inhibit key enzymes of the mevalonate/cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. The major enzyme target for bisphosphonates is farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), and the crystal structure elucidated for this enzyme reveals how BPs bind to and inhibit at the active site via their critical N atoms. Inhibition of FPPS prevents the biosynthesis of isoprenoid compounds (notably farnesol and geranylgeraniol) that are required for the post-translational prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins (which are also GTPases) such as rab, rho and rac, which are essential for intracellular signalling events within osteoclasts. The accumulation of the upstream metabolite, isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), as a result of inhibition of FPPS may be responsible for immunomodulatory effects on gamma delta (??) T cells, and can also lead to production of another ATP metabolite called ApppI, which has intracellular actions. Effects on other cellular targets, such as osteocytes, may also be important. Over the years many hundreds of BPs have been made, and more than a dozen have been studied in man. As reviewed elsewhere in this issue, bisphosphonates are established as the treatments of choice for various diseases of excessive bone resorption, including Paget's disease of bone, the skeletal complications of malignancy, and osteoporosis. Several of the leading BPs have achieved 'block-buster' status with annual sales in excess of a billion dollars. As a class, BPs share properties in common. However, as with other classes of drugs, there are obvious chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological differences among the various BPs. Each BP

Russell, R Graham G

2011-07-01

294

Phase II trial of clofarabine and daunorubicin as induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia patients greater than or equal to 60 years of age.  

PubMed

We designed a phase II study evaluating the upfront combination of clofarabine and daunorubicin in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients?60 years old. The median age of the 21 patients was 69 (range 60-85) years. Fourteen patients (67%) had unfavorable risk features. The principal toxicities were grade ?3 infections and prolonged myelosuppression. Three (14%) deaths occurred from infectious complications. Six (28.6%) patients achieved complete remission including three (21.4%) of 14 patients with unfavorable AML. The median disease-free survival was 6.8 months and the median overall survival was 11.2 months. PMID:24011826

Vigil, Carlos E; Tan, Wei; Deeb, George; Sait, Sheila N; Block, Annemarie W; Starostik, Petr; Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Thompson, James E; Greene, Jessica D; Ford, Laurie A; Wang, Eunice S; Wetzler, Meir

2013-11-01

295

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the differences in the weather in each season? Students will identify the seasons of the year. Also, describing the seasonal changes in the weather. All 4 Season of the Year. Spring. Summer. Fall. Winter. ...

Thompson, Miss

2010-03-25

296

Finishing the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NCTM Tips for Teachers provides suggestions for focusing on student growth and ending the school year on a positive note. The article includes suggestions for end of year activities, guest speakers, and end of year reflections by teachers and students.

2014-01-01

297

Twenty years after Giotto - ESA's pioneering mission to comet Halley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost exactly twenty years ago, on 14 March 1986, ESA's Giotto spacecraft made its historic fly-by of comet Halley at a distance of about 596 km. This close encounter represented a major milestone of planetary science in general, but also gave an important boost to the European planetary-science community that is still having an impact today. Besides its scientific importance, it was also the first big mission-related media event for ESA. The "Night of the Comet" at ESOC in Darmstadt (D) was relayed by Eurovision, with 56 TV stations from 37 countries reporting the encounter live, attracting a television audience of more than 1.5 billion. The images sent back by Giotto's Halley Multicolour Camera radically transformed everyone's ideas about what the nucleus of a comet really looked like.

Schwehm, Gerhard

2006-02-01

298

Curriculum Design for Consumer Education, Kindergarten through Grade Fourteen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring the economic-psychological-sociological questions related to the purchase of goods, the publication is intended as a foundation on which comprehensive local programs of consumer education can be built. It provides a conceptual framework drawn from the academic disciplines. Focusing on three major concepts (the individual consumer, the…

California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

299

Updating and Maintaining Fourteen Bibliometric Data Series through 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the extension of the Science Indicators Literature Data Base to include data through the 1986 Science Citations Index of the Institute for Scientific Information. The report discusses the assignment of journals to scientific fields, t...

K. A. Stevens

1990-01-01

300

Key results from the first fourteen months of ISUAL experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) is a scientific payload onboard the FORMOSAT-2 satellite. The ISUAL payload contains three sensor packages; an ICCD imager, a six-channel spectrophotometer, and a duel-band array photometer. As the FORMOSAT-2 motions from the southern to the northern night hemisphere, ISUAL looks across the track toward the local mid-night region to monitor the activity of transient luminous events (TLEs; sprites, elves, blue jets, gigantic jets, etc). In a given day, the field-of-view of ISUAL sweeps through most of the Earth's tropical and sub-tropical regions. With the long term and global observation data, ISUAL experiment strives to elucidate the characteristics, occurrence frequency, and global distribution of TLEs from space. After the first light on 1 July 2004, ISUAL has registered approximately two thousands TLE events as of the end of August 2005. In the talk, key results based on these data will be presented; including the major hot TLE zones, the spectroscopic characteristics of TLEs (sprites, elves, and jets), the electric characteristics of TLEs, the meteorological conditions for the occurrence of TLEs, etc.

Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Chen, A. B.; Lee, L.; Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Fukunishi, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Kuo, C.

2005-12-01

301

Five-color band ultraviolet photometry of fourteen close binaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photometric observations obtained with the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite in five ultraviolet wavelength regions for 14 close binaries are presented. Strong excess far-ultraviolet flux is detected in four objects. The binaries TT Hya, RX Cas, and SX Cas exhibit a pronounced excess of far-ultraviolet flux, which is thought to be the result of mass transfer phenomena in these systems. Observations of the binary R Ara show very peculair variations; its far ultraviolet flux at 1550 A brightened by 0.4 mag between phases 0.7 and 0.8, while its near ultraviolet flux at 3300 A decreased by 0.5 mag over this same half-day interval. The A0 II-III component in the system RZ Sct is seen to dominate the ultraviolet spectrum.

Kondo, Y.; Mccluskey, G. E.; Wu, C.-C.

1981-01-01

302

Total Quality Management in Higher Education: Applying Deming's Fourteen Points.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents guidelines to aid administrators of institutions of higher education in applying the 14 principles of Total Quality Management. The principles stress understanding process improvements, handling variation, fostering prediction, and using psychology to capitalize on human resources. (DB)

Masters, Robert J.; Leiker, Linda

1992-01-01

303

Evaluation of radon reduction techniques in fourteen basement houses  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the preliminary results of a study of radon control techniques in 14 homes in New Jersey. The study is part of a project initiated to: investigate the fundamentals of soil gas flow and radon entry into buildings and the factors that influence the entry rate; develop a diagnostic procedure for specifying appropriate and effective remedial measures; and better understand the operation of certain mitigation techniques and the parameters that affect them. Reported is a description of the radon control work that was conducted in the houses and a summary of the results of that work.

Turk, B.H.; Sextro, R.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA (US)); Harrison, J. (US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. (US)); Hubbard, L.M.; Gadsby, K.J. (Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (US)); Matthews, T.G.; Dudney, C.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US))

1988-01-01

304

Fourteen Steps to More Effective Cash Flow Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managing cash flow is an incredibly important skill for a center director. Even a center with an annual budget showing a healthy surplus may experience brief periods where funds in the checkbook are insufficient to pay all the bills. To discover how successful directors manage cash flow in tight times, the author surveyed members of the "Exchange…

Neugebauer, Roger

2004-01-01

305

Key results from the first fourteen months of ISUAL experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) is a scientific payload onboard the FORMOSAT-2 satellite. The ISUAL payload contains three sensor packages; an ICCD imager, a six-channel spectrophotometer, and a duel-band array photometer. As the FORMOSAT-2 motions from the southern to the northern night hemisphere, ISUAL looks across the track toward the local mid-night region to monitor the activity

H. Su; R. Hsu; A. B. Chen; L. Lee; S. B. Mende; H. U. Frey; H. Fukunishi; Y. Takahashi; C. Kuo

2005-01-01

306

Fourteen-Month-Old Infants Learn Similar-Sounding Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can infants, in the very first stages of word learning, use their perceptual sensitivity to the phonetics of speech while learning words? Research to date suggests that infants of 14 months cannot learn two similar-sounding words unless there is substantial contextual support. The current experiment advances our understanding of this failure by…

Yoshida, Katherine A.; Fennell, Christopher T.; Swingley, Daniel; Werker, Janet F.

2009-01-01

307

Fourteen-month-old infants learn similar sounding words  

PubMed Central

Can infants, in the very first stages of word learning, use their perceptual sensitivity to the phonetics of speech while learning words? Research to date suggests that infants of 14 months cannot learn two similar sounding words unless there is substantial contextual support. The current experiment advances our understanding of this failure by testing whether the source of infants’ difficulty lies in the learning or testing phase. Infants were taught to associate two similar sounding words with two different objects, and tested using a visual choice method rather than the standard Switch task. The results reveal that 14-month-olds are capable of learning and mapping two similar sounding labels; they can apply phonetic detail in new words. The findings are discussed in relation to infants’ concurrent failure, and the developmental transition to success, in the Switch task.

Yoshida, Katherine A.; Fennell, Christopher T.; Swingley, Daniel; Werker, Janet F.

2010-01-01

308

The International Academic Profession: Portraits of Fourteen Countries. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis of the academic profession in 14 nations was based on responses received from an international survey of nearly 20,000 college and university faculty members from Australia, Brazil, Chile, England, West Germany, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, and the United States. Data were analyzed and…

Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

309

100 patient-years of ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed Central

More than 100 patient-years' experience has been acquired in the treatment of 133 patients with ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition (TPN) between May 1974 and December 1983. Indications for chronic or permanent home TPN include short bowel syndrome, malabsorption, scleroderma, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide syndrome. Indications for acute or temporary home TPN include Crohn's disease, malignancies, gastrointestinal fistulas, ulcerative colitis, anorexia nervosa, and numerous other disorders. Eighty-two patients in the acute group were treated primarily with percutaneously placed standard subclavian catheters and 51 patients in the chronic group have been treated thus far with implanted silicone rubber, Dacron-cuffed catheters for a cumulative total of 38,939 patient days. Of the 125 implanted catheters, 115 were placed in the superior vena cava and ten in the inferior vena cava for an average duration of 250 catheter-days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for more than 8 1/2 years. Catheter-related sepsis occurred 33 times with the implanted catheters, or once every 2.6 catheter-years. One hundred and fourteen temporary catheters were placed percutaneously in the superior vena cava via a subclavian vein for an average duration of 68 days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for 213 days. Catheter-related sepsis occurred seven times, equivalent to one episode per 3 catheter-years. Total catheter-related complications were quite infrequent and were directly related to duration of catheterization. They included venous thrombosis (12), clotted catheter (11), catheter failure or rupture (8), catheter compression (5) and inadvertent catheter removal (4). Twenty-six catheters were repaired or spliced in situ when the external segment was accidentally damaged or deteriorated secondary to long-term material fatigue. One remarkable patient has been maintained exclusively by TPN originally as an inpatient and subsequently as an outpatient for the entire 13 years of his life. Images Fig. 1. Figs. 2A and B. Figs. 3A-C.

Dudrick, S J; O'Donnell, J J; Englert, D M; Matheny, R G; Blume, E R; Nutt, R E; Hickey, M S; Barroso, A O

1984-01-01

310

Family Contribution Schedule for the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Program, 1981. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, on Examination of the Family Contribution Schedule for the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Program for the Academic Year 1982-1983.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testimonies are presented from U.S. Senate hearings on the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Program (Pell grant program) for the 1982-1983 academic year. The proposed schedule is tied to an expected appropriation of $2.187 billion for Pell grants for fiscal year 1982. The administration's alternative involving no statutory changes would require…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities.

311

Nanoelectronics and Plasma Processing --- The Next 15 Years and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of transistors per chip has doubled every 2 years since 1959, and this doubling will continue over the next 15 years as transistor sizes shrink. There has been a 25 million-fold decrease in cost for the same performance. There are now as many as 1.5 billion transistors on-chip, with gate lengths as small as 37 nm (120 atoms) and oxide thicknesses as small as 1.5 nm (5 atoms). The smallest working transistor has a 5 nm (17 atoms) gate length, close to the limiting gate length, from simulations, of about 4 nm. Plasma discharges are used to fabricate hundreds of billions of these nano-size transistors on a silicon wafer. These discharges have evolved from a first generation of ``low density'' reactors capacitively driven by a single source, to a second generation of ``high density'' reactors (inductive and electron cyclotron resonance) having two rf power sources, in order to control independently the ion flux and ion bombarding energy to the substrate. A third generation of ``moderate density'' reactors, driven capacitively by one high and one low frequency rf source, is now widely used. Recently, triple frequency and combined dc/dual frequency discharges have been investigated, to further control processing characteristics, such as ion energy distributions, uniformity, and plasma etch selectivities. There are many interesting physics issues associated with these discharges; an example of electromagnetics effects will be described. Beyond the 4 nm transistor limit lies a decade of further performance improvements for conventional nanoelectronics, and beyond that, a dimly-seen future of spintronics, single-electron transistors, cross-bar latches, and molecular electronics.

Lieberman, Michael A.

2007-06-01

312

Epicurious Eating: New Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The holidays 'Tis the time of year for cooking, hosting, and feasting, and this site offers tips, recipes, and ideas that are useful no matter what the holiday. epicurious, an online food magazine, celebrates the New Year with recipes, menus, cocktails, food history, and menus for the morning after.

313

The first year  

Microsoft Academic Search

My team and I have spent the last ten years developing an alternative approach to teaching computing and programming in first-year courses. Unlike conventional approaches, ours focuses on program design in a systematic manner. The syntax of the underlying programming language (both Java and Scheme) is only discussed as needed.Field tests with over 200 high schools and almost a dozen

Matthias Felleisen

2005-01-01

314

Celebrating 50 Years!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author congratulates members of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) on celebrating the 50th anniversary of their annual conference. These conferences have kept the spirit alive from the early years, especially the engagement in investigative, collaborative, and reasoning activities. In the 50th year as an association, the author…

Kristjansdottir, Anna

2011-01-01

315

Exotic minerals in 3,500 million year old rocks: Evidence for large meteorite impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relatively small area of mountainous terrain in southern Africa provides scientists from all over the world a look at what the surface of the earth was like three and a half billion years ago. The Barberton Mountains lie astride the borders of the Republic of South Africa, Mozambique, and the Kingdom of Swaziland. The discovery of several widely distributed deposits that were likely formed by major terrestrial impacts of large extraterrestrial bodies during this early period of earth's history is reported. The Barberton impact deposits are being studied by electron microscopy. The impact deposits were examined for minerals that show the effects of shock metamorphism or compositions unusual in terrestrial rocks.

Byerly, G. R.; Lowe, D. R.; Asaro, F.

316

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 1999  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. They also locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consists of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The operational rate for the first quarter of FY99 for stations in the HSN was 99.8%. There were 121 triggers during the first quarter of fiscal year 1999. Fourteen triggers were local earthquakes; seven (50%) were in the Columbia River Basalt Group, no earthquakes occurred in the pre-basalt sediments, and seven (50%) were in the crystalline basement. One earthquake (7%) occurred near or along the Horn Rapids anticline, seven earthquakes (50%) occurred in a known swarm area, and six earthquakes (43%) were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometer during the first quarter of FY99.

DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

1999-05-26

317

NATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM DURING THE ARRA PERIOD: PROGRAM YEARS 2009-2011  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the third major evaluation of the Program, encompassing program years 2009 to 2011. In this report, this period of time is referred to as the ARRA Period. This is a special period of time for the Program because the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 has allocated $5 billion of funding for the Program. In normal program years, WAP s annual appropriation is in the range of $200-250 million, supporting the weatherization of approximately 100,000 homes. With the addition of ARRA funding during these program years, the expectation is that weatherization activity will exceed 300,000 homes per year. In addition to saving energy and reducing low-income energy bills, expanded WAP funding is expected to stimulate the economy by providing new jobs in the weatherization field and allowing low-income households to spend more money on goods and services by spending less on energy.

Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Rose, Erin M [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL; Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL

2012-08-01

318

7.RP Comparing Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Historically, different people have defined a year in different ways. For example, an Egyptian year is 365 days long, a Julian year is 365$\\frac14$ day...

319

Vitamins: preparing for the next 100 years.  

PubMed

The insights gained from the last 100 years of vitamin research and applications have contributed substantially to our fundamental understanding of biology and importantly to the promotion of human health. There is no reason to think that the next 100 years will be any less fruitful if we are committed to preparing for them, particularly by changing four critical nutrition paradigms. First, we must move beyond the concept of preventing vitamin deficiencies and inadequacies to establishing health and, further, to creating optimal physiological functions. Each essential vitamin possesses different concentration thresholds for its variety of effects and the required balance necessary to achieving each has yet to be fully defined. Second, we must apply the research approaches and methods of ?-omics,? systems biology, and imaging technologies to define the dynamic role of vitamins and their broad array of genomic, molecular, biochemical, and functional interactions. Such work is necessary to understand the multiplicity of vitamin actions and ultimately apply them directly at the level of the individual. Third, we must revise the concept of evidence-based nutrition away from its current hierarchical system to recognize in a comprehensive and integrated way the attributes of each type of approach to research. To adhere to a single gold standard of the randomized clinical trial ignores both how we have moved forward so productively during the last 100 years and the vital information to be gained from basic research and other human studies; further, it acts to stifle innovation in both scientific and regulatory affairs. Fourth, we must understand that changes in the supply and distribution of food during the next century are likely to be at least as dramatic as those which have occurred over this last one. For example, inevitable environmental constraints will require more food protein be derived from plant than animal sources, a shift that will directly impact the dietary sources for vitamins. To meet the challenge of achieving global health in 2113 among a population of 9 billion people, effectively managing these four changes demands new and creative ways in which those in academia, government and non-government organizations, and industry must work together. PMID:23798056

Blumberg, Jeffrey B

2012-10-01

320

SDO: Year 2  

NASA Video Gallery

April 21, 2012 marks the two-year anniversary of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) First Light press conference, where NASA revealed the first images taken by the spacecraft. This video highligh...

321

Fiscal Year 2003  

Cancer.gov

The Nation’s Investment in Cancer Research A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 P re p a r ed by the Dir e c t o r National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 . . . bringing together the resources to stimulate and support scientific discovery and its application to achieve a future when all cancers are uncommon and easily treated.

322

Five years and counting.  

PubMed

Oncology professionals are fully aware that the five-year mark of being disease-free after the diagnosis of cancer is not a magical number. Cancer is now considered a chronic disease and recurrence can happen at any time, which is unexpected and frightening. Yet, for me, and for many other cancer survivors, the five-year mark is one to be celebrated. PMID:23715715

Bush, Nancy Jo

2013-06-01

323

State Spending on Higher Education Rises 6.7% in 1998-99 to a Total of $52.8 Billion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout the South, and to a lesser extent throughout the country, state budgets for higher education are the healthiest since 1990. In 1998 to 1999, state budgets for higher education are 6.7% more than the previous year. Community colleges, distance learning, and student aid will enjoy large gains. Three states (Alaska, Hawaii, South Carolina)…

Schmidt, Peter

1998-01-01

324

Senate Rejects President's Call to Cut Early College Awareness Programs: Instead Votes to Provide an Extra $5 Billion for Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates for minority-serving institutions and increased financial aid prevailed in one battle but lost another as Congress continues to send mixed signals on the prospect of more higher education funding next year. The Senate secured a major victory with a 51-49 vote rejecting President Bush's call for cuts in early college awareness programs,…

Dervarics, Charles

2005-01-01

325

Emergent technologies: 25 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

Rising, Hawley K.

2013-03-01

326

One-year treatment costs of trauma care in the USA.  

PubMed

Although injuries are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA, few prior studies exist on the costs of trauma care. This article estimates treatment costs of care for 12 months following injury. Primary and secondary data were collected on over 5000 moderate-to-severely injured patients 18-84 years of age discharged from 69 US hospitals. Acute and post-acute costs of care were estimated from a combination of data sources: UB92 hospital bills, patient surveys, medical record abstracts, and where available, Medicare claims. Key analysis variables were demographic characteristics, insurance status and nature and severity of injury. Mean 1-year cost per patient of trauma care in our population was $75,210. On average, 58% of cost was accounted for by the index hospitalization. Total 1-year treatment cost of adult major trauma in the USA was conservatively estimated to be US$27 billion annually (2005). PMID:20384565

Weir, Sharada; Salkever, David S; Rivara, Frederick P; Jurkovich, Gregory J; Nathens, Avery B; Mackenzie, Ellen J

2010-04-01

327

150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

328

Recasting the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators consider the final year of high school to be a "vast wasteland," an epidemic of disengagement. Although high schools across the country have struggled with senioritis, responses to the problem have largely fallen into vertical acceleration, in which schools typically offer an array of AP courses or dual enrollment opportunities;…

Dreis, Janice; Rehage, Larry

2008-01-01

329

NAFTA: 10 Years Later.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the first time since NAFTA was implemented, the U.S. Department of Commerce has ten-year statistics on trade and other economic indicators. This provides the opportunity to consider how trade, investment, and employment have changed over the past deca...

2004-01-01

330

1981 5-Year Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Swedish State Power Board generates about 45 % of the electric power generated in the country. A five-year plan for research and development is produced annually. The R and D activities are broken down into five main areas, each of which comprises a n...

1981-01-01

331

Tenth Year Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet presents the minimum material for which students are responsible on the Tenth Year Regents examination of the state of New York. The syllabus is an attempt to integrate plane geometry with arithmetic, algebra and numerical trigonometry brought about by: (1) greater use of fractions and percents in mensuration problems; (2) use of…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

332

Fifty Years of Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

thispaper: the importance of complementing macroeconomic, trade, and capital accountreform, with institutional development -- in this case, development of the institutions formonitoring, regulating, and supervising banks, other financial institutions and creditmarkets.A fundamental international development of the past ten years is the end of theCold War and the rise of democratic political institutions worldwide. There have beenmajor democratic revolutions in virtually

Paul Collier; David Dollar; Nicholas Stern

2000-01-01

333

ISME Celebrates 50 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When members of the International Society for Music Education (ISME) met in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain in July for the 26th ISME World Conference, the gathering was an opportunity to share music from around the world, and to attend music education workshops. It was also an opportunity for its members to look back on the rich 50-year history…

Teaching Music, 2004

2004-01-01

334

50 Years in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past 50 years, America has experienced all of man's triumphs and tragedies in Space. Some of you may remember December 1958, when President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent his Christmas greeting to the world from the Army's Project SCORE (Signal Comm...

K. T. Campbell

2008-01-01

335

20 Years of ECM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Elliptic Curve Method for integer factorization (ECM) was invented by H. W. Lenstra, Jr., in 1985 (14). In the past 20 years, many improvements of ECM were proposed on the mathematical, algo- rithmic, and implementation sides. This paper summarizes the current state-of-the-art, as implemented in the GMP-ECM software.

Paul Zimmermann; Bruce Dodson

2006-01-01

336

Recasting the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators consider the final year of high school to be a "vast wasteland," an epidemic of disengagement. Although high schools across the country have struggled with senioritis, their approaches to the problem have largely fallen into one of three types of responses: vertical acceleration; remediation; and structured containment. New Trier…

Drels, Janice; Rehage, Larry

2008-01-01

337

Smog - the learning years  

SciTech Connect

35 years of continuous work by government and industry and the public have led to a very sophisticated system of emission controls. This paper is intended to recall and perhaps to honor those who participated in the hectic early period, when instrumentation, basic knowledge, and primitive devices competed for the attention of these pioneers with strident demands from policitians.

Heinen, C.M.; Fagley, W.S. Jr.

1989-01-01

338

Eleventh Year Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This outline for Eleventh Year Mathematics in New York adheres closely to the recommendations of The Commission of Mathematics of the College Entrance Examination Board and thus presents a unified development of certain aspects of algebra, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. Its aim is both as a terminal course in mathematics and as a solid…

Buchman, Aaron; Zimmerman, Robert

339

The Lost Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thousands of children were deprived of schooling in the difficult aftermath of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq five years ago. During those times, more than 2 million Iraqis have fled their homeland, mainly to Jordan and Syria. Even though the schoolchildren who came to these neighboring Arab lands with their families are now given seats in…

Zehr, Mary Ann; Mousa, Yasmine

2008-01-01

340

Chinese New Year Dragons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

Balgemann, Linda

2000-01-01

341

Interim Years of Cyberspace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyber power will be as revolutionary to warfare as airpower, but the current vectoring of the domain will determine which nation will hold cyber dominance and to what effect. In the early years of the cyberspace domain, the United States primarily conside...

R. M. Lee

2013-01-01

342

European Music Year 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

1984-01-01

343

Books of the Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It's that time of year again and "Adults Learning" has once more asked some of the outstanding authors who have contributed to the journal over the past 12 months to nominate their best and most valuable reads of 2004. The authors are: (1) Judith Summers; (2) Thomas Sticht; (3) Alison Wolf; (4) Tom Schuller; (5) Linden West; (6) Brian Groombridge;…

Adults Learning, 2004

2004-01-01

344

A Year Without Procedures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Step-by-step instructions in the chemistry lab often eliminate opportunities for inquiry, higher levels of thinking, and the sense of accomplishment students find through independent discovery. However, removing procedures from chemistry labs creates opportunities for student inquiry. This article describes a chemistry-based experimental year without procedures, but the concept can be applied to any scientific discipline.

Backus, Lisa

2005-10-01

345

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover,

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-01-01

346

Rocky Flats 10 year plan: over 500 structures to be demolished  

SciTech Connect

Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has prepared a Ten Year Plan (Plan) that demonstrates how the Site would achieve accelerated cleanup and rapidly reduce the risks the Site currently poses to its workers, the public, and the environment. A major element of the Plan is the decontamination and demolition of over 500 Site facilities, including all of the former nuclear production facilities, by the end of 2006. Facilities used for the storage of plutonium, treatment of low-level mixed waste, and several office building would remain until the plutonium is removed or there is no longer a need for the facility, in which case it would be demolished. While the Plan considers all aspects of the cleanup and closure, this paper focuses on the challenges posed by the removal of highly contaminated equipment and the demolition of structures. This paper describes near- term decommissioning projects as well as the long range plans and budgets. Cash flow ultimately controls schedule, and sharing of budget priorities among processing of special nuclear material, disposing of waste, and cleaning up the environment has to be juggled carefully to attain the goals of the Plan. The total cost of the Plan exceeds $5 billion, and over $1 billion will be spent on decommissioning activities. Following removal of the plutonium and the demolition of the plutonium storage and remaining Site facilities by the end of 2015, the cost to perform the long-term environmental monitoring at the Site is estimated to be $10 million per year.

Evans, B. [Kaiser-Hill L.L.C., Rocky Flats, CO (United States); Bengel, P. [Rocky Mountain Remediation Services, L.L.C., Rocky Flats, CO (United States)

1997-03-01

347

Table set thinly as Food Summit pledges to halve world hunger in 20 years.  

PubMed

By 2030, global population will grow from the current size of 5.7 billion to 8.7 billion. Just maintaining current levels of food availability will require rapid and sustainable production gains, for supplies must be increased by more than 75% without destroying the planet's natural resources. At current levels of food availability, however, 840 million people worldwide are chronically undernourished because they are unable to acquire enough food to meet their body's energy or nutrient requirements. More than 200 million children under age 5 years suffer from basic protein and energy deficiencies, while millions suffer from diseases and retarded development related to diet deficiencies. Each year, almost 13 million children die unnecessarily as a direct or indirect result of hunger and malnutrition. The World Food Summit took place in Rome during November 13-17, 1996. 9863 delegates from 186 countries participated in charting the course toward achieving universal food security by adopting the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the World Food Summit Plan of Action. The documents also pledge efforts to halve the number of hungry in the world no later than 2015. PMID:12348018

1996-01-01

348

The Economic Benefits Resulting from the First 8 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000-2007)  

PubMed Central

Background Between 2000–2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 4–6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. Methodology To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization Principal Findings An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. Conclusions/Significance MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with favorable program implementation costs (largely a result of the sustained commitments of donated drugs from the pharmaceutical industry) it is clear that the economic rate of return of the GPELF is extremely high and that this Programme continues to prove itself an excellent investment in global health.

Chu, Brian K.; Hooper, Pamela J.; Bradley, Mark H.; McFarland, Deborah A.; Ottesen, Eric A.

2010-01-01

349

Developmental milestones record - 4 years  

MedlinePLUS

Normal childhood growth milestones - 4 years; Growth milestones for children - 4 years; Childhood growth milestones - 4 years ... care provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR During the fourth year, a child typically: Gains weight at the rate ...

350

Developmental milestones record - 3 years  

MedlinePLUS

Normal childhood growth milestones - 3 years; Growth milestones for children - 3 years; Childhood growth milestones - 3 years ... provider. Physical and motor milestones for a typical 3-year-old may include: Gains about 4 - 5 ...

351

International Year of Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA) is a year long celebration of astronomical and scientific milestones. The U.S. website of the IYA offers a host of information about the learning opportunities, community events, and celebrations planned for the IYA in the U.S. Visitors interested in the IYA outside of the U.S. can click on the link "International Homepage" on the right side of the homepage. The cornerstone of the IYA is the 100 Hours of Astronomy project that is touted on the website as the largest science public outreach program. For numerous links to websites dedicated to the program, visitors should scroll down to the heading "100 Hours is Coming!" Visitors shouldn't miss checking out the "Get Involved" tab at the top of the page to find information about how to participate in the events of IYA. The ways to participate are divided up by who wants to get involved, such as an Astronomy Enthusiast, Amateur Astronomer, Teacher, Homeschooler, Parent or Grandparent, Professor, or Planetarium. Each category has a pdf of a printable flyer that has all the resources and tips on it to make the most of the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

2011-09-19

352

Reauthorization of the National Science Foundation, 1985. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United State Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on Examining the Reauthorization of Appropriations for the National Science Foundation for Fiscal Year 1985 (April 4, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These hearings focused on the reauthorization of appropriations for the National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 1985. (The Reagan administration's request for the NSF was $1.5 billion, an increase of 13.6 percent over the FY 1984 budget.) The hearings include a prepared statement from Edward Knapp (NSF director) which provides an…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

353

Cloud fraction at the ARM SGP site. Instrument and sampling considerations from 14 years of ARSCL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site has a rich history of actively sensed cloud observations. Fourteen years (1997-2010) of observations from the Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR), Micropulse Lidar (MPL), and Belfort/Vaisala Ceilometers are used to understand how instrument selection and sampling impacts estimates of Cloud Fraction (CF) at this location. Although all instruments should be used in combination for the best estimates of CF, instrument downtime limits available samples and increases observational errors, demanding that users make sacrifices when calculating CF at longer intervals relevant to climate studies. Selection of MMCR or MMCR + MPL cloud masks changes very little in the overall understanding of total CF. Addition of the MPL increases the 14-year average CF by 9 %, mainly through an increase in optically thin high clouds year-round, and mid-level clouds during the summer months. Splitting the period into two equal 7-year periods reveals negligible change in MMCR + MPL CF. For the MMCR, however, CF deceases by 6.1 %. This sudden change in CF occurs around the time the radar was upgraded, suggesting that this decrease is tied to hardware sensitivity or scanning strategy changes. Users must be cognizant of this and other issues when calculating CF from the variety of observations available at the ARM SGP site.

Kennedy, Aaron D.; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike

2014-01-01

354

Results of revision total hip arthroplasty with Anatomic BR stem: 10-year minimum follow-up.  

PubMed

Twenty cementless total hip revision arthroplasties using Anatomic BR stems were performed in 20 patients. Fourteen patients, with a mean age of 62.6 years (range 41-74 years) at time of revision surgery, were followed retrospectively for a minimum of 10 years (range 11-15 years). Clinical function and radiographic evidence of implant stability were evaluated. Preoperative femoral deficiencies were evaluated radiographically and classified according to Paprosky type as follows: four Type-II, four Type-IIIA, four Type-IIIB, and two Type-IV femurs. Mean preoperative Harris hip score was 46.3 points (range 29-58 points) and improved to 68.8 points (range 45-90 points) at the most recent follow-up examination. Of the 14 patients followed, six had radiographic evidence of subsidence (axial shift of more than 2 mm after revision with long-stem components). Component fixation showed bone ingrowth in three (21%) patients, inconclusive evidence of ingrowth in six (43%) patients, suboptimal but stable fixation in three (21%) patients, and unstable fixation in two (14%) patients. Based on these we results, we conclude that even with circumferential proximal porous coating and improved proximal geometry, nonmodular femoral implant stability remains unpredictable following total hip arthroplasty revision. PMID:21373799

Tsukeoka, Tadashi; Lee, Tae Hyun; Tsuruoka, Hiroaki; Murata, Tadao; Suzuki, Masahiko

2011-10-01

355

Fruits of 20 Years of Highway Safety Legislative Advocacy in the United States  

PubMed Central

This paper models the effects on crash fatalities and costs of 20 years of legislative actions resulting from Federal and state advocacy efforts. We catalogued road safety laws passed between 1990 and 2009 and motorcycle helmet law repeals that advocacy efforts narrowly defeated. We used NHTSA’s estimates of lives saved by airbags and published estimates of the percentage reduction in related crash fatalities associated with each type of law. State by state and year by year, from the actual fatality count for the year, we modeled how many fatalities each state's laws averted. We assumed, somewhat shakily, that the percentage reduction in nonfatal injury costs would mirror the fatality reduction. We used crash cost estimates for 10 years between 1990 and 2008 to estimate total crash costs from 1990–2009. The costs were built from NHTSA’s estimates of cost per crash. The state laws passed included 113 occupant protection laws, 131 impaired driving laws, and 76 teen driving laws, plus a Federal airbag mandate. These laws saved an estimated 120,000 lives. The life-saving benefits accelerated as the number of laws in force grew. By 2009, they resulted in 25% fewer crash fatalities. The largest life-saving benefits sprang from airbag, belt use, and impaired driving laws. Laws that affect narrow subpopulations had more modest impacts. The laws reduced insurance costs by more than $210 billion and saved government an estimated $42 billion. Including the value of lost quality of life, estimated savings exceeded $1.3 trillion. Legislative advocacy is truly a spark plug in the safety engine.

Miller, Ted R.; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard

2011-01-01

356

TRMM 3-Year Anniversary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ever wonder about the rain? Beyond the practicality of needing an umbrella, climate researchers have wondered about the science of rainfall for a long time. But it's only in the past few years that they've begun to roll back some of its secrets. One of their tools for doing so is a powerful satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, or TRMM. Now, after three years of continual operation, project scientists have released dramatic new maps of rainfall patterns gathered across a wide band of the Earth. And with measurements from one of the satellite's advanced sensors, meteorologists are now able to calibrate ground-based rain monitoring systems with greater precision than ever before. A complete accounting of the world's total rainfall has long been a major goal of climate researchers. Rain acts as the atmosphere's fundamental engine for heat exchange; every time a raindrop falls, the atmosphere gets churned up and latent heat flows back into the total climate system. Considering that rainfall is the primary driving force of heat in the atmosphere, and that two thirds of all rain falls in the tropics, these measurements are significant for our understanding of overall climate. The above image shows a one month average of rainfall measurements taken by the TRMM's unique precipitation radar during January of 1998. Areas of low rainfall are colored light blue, while regions with heavy rainfal are colored orange and red. TRMM began collecting data in December of 1997, and continues today. For more information about TRMM's 3-year anniversary, read Maps of Falling Water To learn more about the TRMM mission or order TRMM data, see the TRMM Home Page. Image courtesy TRMM Science team and the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

2002-01-01

357

500 years after Columbus.  

PubMed

The astonishing range of plants and animals of Central America's 7 countries (Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama) is disappearing, as 60% of its forests have been cut for lumber and firewood as well as for cotton, cattle, or subsistence crops. Up to 5 million Mayans lived sustainably for thousands of years in an area now being destroyed by a few hundred thousand inhabitants. The Spanish colonization that started 500 years ago was concentrated in Panama, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. The majority of the English-speaking country of Belize are descended from the black slave population whose culture spread down the coast to Central America. Panama's service economy is based on the Panama Canal and trade and finance. Costa Rica benefits from a tourist industry based on its natural beauty, however, it also has the highest rate of deforestation and its fast population growth could jeopardize earlier social and economic progress. In El Salvador and Guatemala long periods of civil conflict have taken their toll on the economy and the environment. El Salvador has a mountainous territory and limited natural resources and industrialization, while the best land is in the hands of a few families. Honduras and Nicaragua retain the highest proportion of forest cover of the countries in the region, despite Nicaragua's years of tyranny, then revolution and the Contra war, and Honduras's own turmoils. Belize has achieved some stability, and is now strengthening its Central American links. Its coral reefs and coastal areas offer potential for sustainable development through fishing and tourism. Central American countries face the challenges of their fragile environments and major social problems. PMID:12317700

Imbach, A

1992-01-01

358

Fifty years of stacking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common-Mid-Point (CMP) stacking is a major process to enhance signal-to-noise ratio in seismic data. Since its appearance fifty years ago, CMP stacking has gone through different phases of prosperity and negligence within the geophysical community. During those times, CMP stacking developed from a simple process of averaging into a sophisticated process that involves complicated mathematics and state-of-the-art computation. This article summarizes the basic principles, assumptions, and violations related to the CMP stacking technique, presents a historical overview on the development stages of CMP stacking, and discusses its future potentiality.

Rashed, Mohamed

2014-06-01

359

20 Years of AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), May 31 marked the 20-year anniversary of the first discovery of AIDS. Perhaps not surprisingly, the Web has seen a corresponding flurry of activity devoted to the history and current status of research on the disease. The CDC has posted this site, which collects research findings from the Centers' Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, videos covering the epidemic's history and current status, and CDC bulletins and commentary. For further sites devoted to AIDS/HIV see the June 6, 2001 Scout Report for Science & Engineering).

2001-01-01

360

NAS: The first year  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed are the capabilities of NASA's Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program and its application as an advanced supercomputing system for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research. First, the paper describes the NAS computational system, called the NAS Processing System Network, and the advanced computational capabilities it offers as a consequence of carrying out the NAS pathfinder objective. Second, it presents examples of pioneering CFD research accomplished during NAS's first operational year. Examples are included which illustrate CFD applications for predicting fluid phenomena, complementing and supplementing experimentation, and aiding in design. Finally, pacing elements and future directions for CFD and NAS are discussed.

Bailey, F. R.; Kutler, Paul

1988-01-01

361

International Year of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations has declared the year 2010 as the year of biodiversity, and none too soon. The definition and importance of biodiversity is explained on the "About" page, but in brief, it's a "rich diversity [in nature which] is being lost at a greatly accelerated rate because of human activities. This...weakens the ability of the living systems, on which we depend, to resist growing threats such as climate change." The list of "Major Upcoming Celebrations" is on the middle of the homepage below the written and video "Welcome Messages" from various representatives of national governments and large non-profits. Some of the celebrations include an International Art Exhibition by young people. Visitors can click on "More Celebrations" to be taken to an interactive map of celebrations "By Countries", "Calendar" or "Success Stories". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Red List", which can be found on the homepage or in the "About" section. The "Red List of Threatened Species" highlights one species of plant or animal each day, with a photo and a couple of paragraphs on its location, vulnerability, origins, etc. The current month is shown, but visitors can view the species of the days for the "Previous Months" of 2010 as well.

UN. General Assembly (61st sess. : 2006-2007)

362

In Brief: O'Keefe to leave NASA; Record year for temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sean O'Keefe, who became NASA administrator in December 2001, submitted his resignation on 13 December 2004. O'Keefe is one of a number of officials departing from the Bush Administration as U.S. President George W. Bush prepares to begin his second term of office. O'Keefe's departure comes after the agency has begun to implement its new Vision for Space Exploration. He leaves NASA on good fiscal footing, with a fiscal year 2005 budget of $16.2 billion. However, U.S. Rep. Bart Gordon (D-Tenn.), the ranking member of the House of Representatives Science Committee said the next administrator will need to deal with ``reconciling the agency's goals with the constrained budgets it is likely to be facing in the years ahead.''

Showstack, Randy

2004-12-01

363

TIPS: 25 years later.  

PubMed

In the 25 years since the first TIPS intervention has been performed, technical standards, indications, and contraindications have been set up. The previous considerable problem of shunt failure by thrombosis or intimal proliferation in the stent or in the draining hepatic vein has been reduced considerably by the availability of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents resulting in reduced rebleeding and improved survival. Unfortunately, most clinical studies have been performed prior to the release of the covered stent and, therefore, do not represent the present state of the art. In spite of this, TIPS has gained increasing acceptance in the treatment of the various complications of portal hypertension and vascular diseases of the liver. PMID:23811307

Rössle, Martin

2013-11-01

364

Year of Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The importance of fluency in a second language is sometimes underappreciated, and the work of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) is designed to promote just that. As such, 2005 is being celebrated as "The Year of Languages", and the ACTFL is taking this opportunity "to focus America's attention on the academic, social and economic benefits of studying other languages and cultures from around the world." On the organization's website, visitors can learn about some of its latest initiatives, peruse a calendar of events, and look through a series of informational factsheets on various languages. Educators will appreciate the section dedicated to providing helpful ideas for activities and events and looking over a template for creating lessons that integrate culture successfully.

365

Another slow year  

SciTech Connect

This article is a review of the petroleum activity in the Middle East. The article is accompanied by a detailed color map showing the activity in the area. Highlights of the article include the fact that Saudi Arabia's drilling and development activity has sunk to its lowest level in many years. The article also points out that discoveries are increasing production in North and South Yemen as well as in Syria. The article also highlights the fact that Qatar is beginning work on its massive North gas field in the Gulf. Also attention is paid to the effects of the Iranian and Iraq war on each other's oil and gas activities. The article also mentions the drilling activity of Dubai and Oman.

Not Available

1987-08-01

366

Language Development: 2 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... Language Development: 2 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Language Development: 2 Year Olds Article Body Your two-year- ... this. At this time, there’s more variation in language development than in any other area. While some preschoolers ...

367

Fiscal year 2013 energy department budget: Proposed investments in clean energy research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy and environmental research programs generally fared well in President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the Department of Energy (DOE) for fiscal year (FY) 2013. In his State of the Union address, Obama called for the United States to pursue an “all of the above” energy strategy that includes fossil fuels, as well as a variety of renewable sources of energy. The DOE budget request supports that strategy, Energy Secretary Steven Chu said in a 13 February press briefing announcing the budget proposal. The proposed budget gives DOE $27.2 billion overall, a 3.2% increase from the FY 2012 enacted budget (see Table 1). This budget “reflects some tough choices,” Chu said. The proposed budget would cut $4 billion in subsidies for oil and gas companies; many Republican members of Congress have already indicated that they oppose such cuts, suggesting that congressional approval of this budget may run into stumbling blocks. The budget would also cut funding for research and development projects that are already attracting private-sector investment or that are not working, and would reduce some of the department's operational costs.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-03-01

368

Cementless Hip Arthroplasty in Paget's Disease at Long-Term Follow-Up (Average of 12.3 Years).  

PubMed

We present a long-term follow-up report of 33 cementless total hip arthroplasties in 27 patients who have an established diagnosis of Paget's disease. The medium term results of this series were reported in 2007 (Lusty et al. Journal of Arthroplasty. 2007;22:692). Fourteen cases were available for follow-up at an average of 12.3years (range 10-17). Harris Hip scores improved from 56/100 preoperatively (16-98/100) to 83/100 post operatively (72-90/100). All surviving components were radiographically ingrown. Based on these findings, cementless total hip arthroplasty has a good long-term outcome in Paget's disease. PMID:24268583

Imbuldeniya, Arjuna M; Tai, Stephen M; Aboelmagd, Tariq; Walter, William L; Walter, William K; Zicat, Bernard A

2014-05-01

369

Forty years of antiprotons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of the antiproton some 40 years ago and the almost synchronous fall of parity (P) and charge conjugation (C) symmetries were soon followed by the realization that CPT rather than C invariance is the fundamental symmetry connecting matter and antimatter, and that consequently any measurement of the antiproton's properties can be interpreted as a test of that symmetry. It is the latter view of the antiproton, as an object of study in its own right, rather than as a means to such other ends as the production of gauge bosons and meson resonances, that is presented here. The authors review the technical steps that have led from the handful of antiprotons observed by Chamberlain, Segrè, Wiegand, and Ypsilantis to the intense, high-quality beams available today and show how the state of rest and isolation required for high precision measurements of their properties can be achieved by confining them in electromagnetic traps or in their microscopic counterparts, exotic atoms. The test bench role of antiprotons and antihydrogen atoms for both CPT symmetry and the gravitational weak equivalence principle is discussed, and the body of experimental results obtained since 1955 critically reviewed from this standpoint. Future experiments are then discussed in the light of the closure of the CERN Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR), its replacement in 1999 by the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), and the likely antiproton source at the Japan Hadron Facility.

Eades, J.; Hartmann, F. J.

1999-01-01

370

Secretin, 100 years later.  

PubMed

One hundred years have elapsed since the discovery of secretin by Bayliss and Starling in 1902. In the past century, the research of secretin has gone by many milestones including isolation, purification and structural determination, chemical synthesis, establishment of its hormonal status by radioimmunoassay and immunoneutralization, identification of the specific receptor, cloning of secretin and its receptor, and identification of a secretin-releasing peptide. It has become clear that secretin is a hormone-regulating pancreatic exocrine secretion of fluid and bicarbonate, gastric acid secretion, and gastric motility. The release and actions of secretin is regulated by hormone-hormonal and neurohormonal interactions. The vagus nerve, particularly its afferent pathway, plays an essential role in the physiological actions of secretin. Substantial information about the property of the secretin receptor has been accumulated, but a potent secretin receptor-specific antagonist remains to be formulated. The neural regulatory mechanisms of the release and action of secretin await further elucidation. The physiological role of secretin in intestinal secretions and motility and extragastrointestinal organs remains to be defined. The presence of secretin and its receptor in the central nervous system is well documented, but its function as a neuropeptide has been recognized gradually and requires extensive study in the future. PMID:14673718

Chey, William Y; Chang, Ta-Min

2003-01-01

371

Aminoglycosides--50 years on.  

PubMed Central

1. The aminoglycoside antibiotics are 50 years old. Their success and continuing use can be attributed to various factors including rapid concentration-dependent bactericidal effect, synergism with beta-lactam antibiotics, clinical effectiveness, a low rate of true resistance and low cost. 2. The aminoglycosides remain drugs of choice in many circumstances including septicaemia, other serious infections due to Gram negative bacilli, and bacterial endocarditis. 3. Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity have been the main drawbacks clinically for the aminoglycosides. 4. There has been an evolution in dosing strategies largely aimed at reducing toxicity. Therapeutic drug monitoring has been used extensively to assist dosing, and target concentrations have been advocated, such as peak concentrations of between 6 and 10 mg l-1 and through concentrations of < 2 mg l-1 for gentamicin, tobramycin and netilmicin. 5. Recently there has been a minor revolution in the approach to aminoglycoside dosing, with a change to larger doses, given less frequently. In its most convenient form this is 'Once-daily aminoglycoside dosing'. It offers the hope of better efficacy, less toxicity, and easier administration and monitoring. 6. This article summarises the background of aminoglycoside usage, leading up to the recent changes in dosing strategy.

Begg, E J; Barclay, M L

1995-01-01

372

Projects of the year  

SciTech Connect

The Peabody Hotel, Orlando, Florida was the site of Power Engineering magazine's 2006 Projects of the Year Awards Banquet, which kicked-off the Power-Gen International conference and exhibition. The Best Coal-fired Project was awarded to Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association Inc., owner of Springenville Unit 3. This is a 400 MW pulverized coal plant in Springeville, AZ, sited with two existing coal-fired units. Designed to fire Powder River Basin coal, it has low NOx burners and selective catalytic reduction for NOx control, dry flue gas desulfurization for SO{sub 2} control and a pulse jet baghouse for particulate control. It has a seven-stage feedwater heater and condensers to ensure maximum performance. Progress Energy-Carolinas' Asheville Power Station FGD and SCR Project was awarded the 2006 coal-fired Project Honorable Mention. This plant in Skyland, NC was required to significantly reduce NOx emissions. When completed, the improvements will reduce NOx by 93% compared to 1996 levels and SO{sub 2} by 93% compared to 2001 levels. Awards for best gas-fired, nuclear, and renewable/sustainable energy projects are recorded. The Sasyadko Coal-Mine Methane Cogeneration Plant near Donezk, Ukraine, was given the 2006 Honorable Mention for Best Renewable/Sustainable Energy Project. In November 2004, Ukraine was among 14 nations to launch the Methane to Markets partnership. The award-winning plant is fuelled by methane released during coal extraction. It generates 42 MW of power. 4 photos.

Hansen, T.

2007-01-15

373

The International Heliophysical Year  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is now widely recognized that evolution in the solar system proceeds through a set of Universal Processes, i.e. reconnection, particle acceleration, plasma wave generation and propagation, etc. By studying these Universal Processes together, in diverse environments, and in a comparative way, new scientific insights will be gained. This is perhaps best understood by citing a few examples: (I) Shocks are observed in situ in the interplanetary medium, shocks are believed to play a role in the acceleration of particles in the solar corona, and standing bow shocks and termination shocks separate the major regions in the heliosphere. Shock formation, and particle acceleration are universal processes. (2) Aurorae are observed on Earth, Saturn, and Jupiter, and Jovian auroral "footprints" have been observed on 10, Ganymede and Europa. The formation of aurorae is observed to be the universal response of a magnetized body in the solar wind. The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) specifically highlights the cross-disciplinary study of universal physical processes in the solar system, observed in a variety of settings. The study of these processes will provide new insights that will lead to a better understanding of the universal processes in the solar system that affect the interplanetary and planetary environments, and pave the way for safe human space travel to the Moon and planets in the future, and it will serve to inspire the next generation of space physicists.

Davila, Joseph M.; Gopalswamy, Nat; Thompson, Barbara

2008-01-01

374

TFTR Twenty Year Perspective  

SciTech Connect

Deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with core parameters almost identical to those expected in the core of ignited plasmas in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) have served as a test bed to carry out the first detailed studies of D-T plasma physics, including the first observations of alpha-particle heating and alpha-driven instabilities. TFTR operated above the original engineering design requirements and with high availability in D-T until experimental operation was terminated due to U.S. fusion budget cutbacks. A most valuable lesson learned was that D-T operation of a large experimental device is feasible, as TFTR operation could have continued many more years while remaining within tritium and neutron activation limits. The flexibility and control of plasma parameters (e.g., plasma rotation) and the comprehensive diagnostic system enabled TFTR to make seminal contributions to tokamak plasma science, such as first confirmation of the bootstrap current in a tokamak, detailed turbulence studies leading to a new paradigm for transport understanding, first observations of neoclassical tearing modes, and detailed measurements and modeling of plasma disruptions. Recent advances in understanding the fundamental processes controlling plasma transport provide new opportunities for improving tokamak plasma performance. Implementation of recent knowledge could lead to D-T operating regimes with strong alpha heating with modest extensions of the TFTR operating regimes.

D.M. Meade

1998-04-01

375

URAT: year 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USNO Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) is now in the third year of observing. Survey observing began in April 2012 at the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS). URAT has taken over 50,000 exposures of the northern sky with multiple overlaps, 28 sq. degrees with a single exposure at 0.9"/pixel resolution. Raw data processing, quality control, and scheduling are performed automatically. In normal survey mode URAT covers stars in the R = 10.5 to 18.0 magnitude range. Utilizing an objective grating and the clocked anti blooming feature of the 4 CCD chips results in a bright limit of 3rd magnitude. Exposures taken on the east and west side of the pier enable the calibration of potentially significant systematic errors.URAT mean positions are predicted to be on the 5 to 20 mas level depending on brightness and sky coverage. URAT will also provide proper motions and parallaxes for nearby stars, independent of any selection criteria. We are currently working on the reduction pipeline and a first astrometric catalog is expected to be released in 2014.

Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; DiVittorio, Mike; Ferguson, Eric; Harris, Hugh C.; Harris, Fred; Kilian, Chris; Rafferty, Ted; Rhodes, Albert; Schultheis, Michael; Subasavage, John; Tilleman, Trudy; Wieder, Gary

2014-05-01

376

Infective Endocarditis in the Pediatric Patient: A 60-Year Single-Institution Review  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the epidemiology of infective endocarditis (IE) presenting in pediatric patients during a 60-year period at our institution. Patients and Methods In this retrospective medical record review, we extracted demographic characteristics, diagnostic variables, and outcomes for patients less than 20 years of age diagnosed with IE from January 1, 1980, to June 30, 2011. We compared this cohort with a previously reported cohort of pediatric patients with IE from our institution diagnosed from 1950 to 1979. Results We identified 47 patients (24 males; mean ± SD age at diagnosis, 12.3±5.5 years [range, 1 day to 18.9 years]) who had 53 episodes of IE. The most common isolated organisms were viridans streptococci (17 of 53 episodes [32%]) and Staphylococcus aureus (12 of 53 episodes [23%]). Of the 47 patients, 36 (77%) had congenital heart disease, 24 of whom had cardiac surgery before their first episode of IE (mean ± SD time to IE diagnosis after surgery, 4.2±3.2 years [range, 64 days to 11.3 years]). Fourteen patients (30%) required valve replacement because of valvular IE, and 16 (34%) had complications, including mycotic aneurysm, myocardial abscess, or emboli. Vegetations were identified using echocardiography in 37 of the 53 unique episodes of IE (70%). Endocarditis-related mortality occurred in 1 patient. Compared with the historical (1950-1979) cohort, there were no differences in patient demographic characteristics, history of congenital heart disease, or infecting organisms. One-year mortality was significantly lower in the modern cohort (4%) compared with the historical cohort (38%) (P<.001). Conclusion Most pediatric episodes of IE occur in patients with congenital heart disease. Mortality due to endocarditis has decreased in the modern era.

Johnson, Jennifer A.; Boyce, Thomas G.; Cetta, Frank; Steckelberg, James M.; Johnson, Jonathan N.

2012-01-01

377

The epidemiology of injury in a rural state: 5,322 cases over 6 years.  

PubMed

Presently, descriptions of rural trauma are complications of national sample statistics and local data from states projected to rural areas. This study reviews all hospital discharges (36,866) for children (aged 0 to 18 years) from January 1985 through December 1990 in an entirely rural state. Fourteen percent of admissions (5,322) were due to traumatic injury and 63% of these occurred in boys. Injury rates were age dependent with children 15 to 18 years experiencing an incidence of 110/10,000; 10 to 14 years 55/10,000; 5 to 9 years 39/10,000; 1 to 4 years 35/10,000; and < 1 year 39.5/10,000. Mean age for the entire population was 11.4 +/- 5.7 years. Thirty-five percent of children had more than one major site of injury. Sixty-three percent of admissions were for blunt trauma and only 4.8% were penetrating. The remainder were due to burns, hanging, ingestion, and other toxic agents. Falls constituted the most prevalent cause of injury in this population occurring in 25.9%, motor vehicle accidents 22.9%, struck by an object 9.6%, suicide attempts 8.5%, poisoning 4.7%, fire 1.2%, drowning 0.7%, and farm machinery 0.3%. The vast majority of motor vehicle accidents involved the child as an operator or occupant of the vehicle. Less than 10% involved a pedestrian being struck and less than 5% involved a child being struck while on a bicycle. Less than 6% of all injuries involved a bicycle. Child maltreatment was recorded in less than 2% of this population. Only 3.3% of injured children required transfer to another acute care facility (1/3 because of a motor vehicle accident and 1/4 because of a fall).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8263690

Vane, D W; Spanknebel, K; Murphy, E T; Wald, S L; Rogers, F B; Shackford, S R

1993-10-01

378

Tank waste remediation system multi-year work plan  

SciTech Connect

The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) documents the detailed total Program baseline and was constructed to guide Program execution. The TWRS MYWP is one of two elements that comprise the TWRS Program Management Plan. The TWRS MYWP fulfills the Hanford Site Management System requirement for a Multi-Year Program Plan and a Fiscal-Year Work Plan. The MYWP addresses program vision, mission, objectives, strategy, functions and requirements, risks, decisions, assumptions, constraints, structure, logic, schedule, resource requirements, and waste generation and disposition. Sections 1 through 6, Section 8, and the appendixes provide program-wide information. Section 7 includes a subsection for each of the nine program elements that comprise the TWRS Program. The foundation of any program baseline is base planning data (e.g., defendable product definition, logic, schedules, cost estimates, and bases of estimates). The TWRS Program continues to improve base data. As data improve, so will program element planning, integration between program elements, integration outside of the TWRS Program, and the overall quality of the TWRS MYWP. The MYWP establishes the TWRS baseline objectives to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The TWRS Program will complete the baseline mission in 2040 and will incur costs totalling approximately 40 billion dollars. The summary strategy is to meet the above objectives by using a robust systems engineering effort, placing the highest possible priority on safety and environmental protection; encouraging {open_quotes}out sourcing{close_quotes} of the work to the extent practical; and managing significant but limited resources to move toward final disposition of tank wastes, while openly communicating with all interested stakeholders.

Not Available

1994-09-01

379

Runaway Children Twelve Years Later: A Follow-Up.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen young men and women, who as teenagers had run away from home, were subjects of an intensive clinical case study which was a followup of a larger-scale survey of runaways conducted in the early 1960s. A major purpose of the research was to determine how the former runaways had fared as adults and whether or not their early behavior had…

Olson, Lucy; And Others

380

The Early Years: Focus on the Young Child and Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen brief articles focus on the young handicapped child and his family. Articles have the following titles and authors: "Elements of Early Care and Education" (W. Fowler); "Mothers and Fathers--The Special Child's Special Resources" (M. Lamb); "Child Development--Knowledge and the Special Educator" (A. Honig); "The Handicapped Child in the…

Cataldo, Christine, Ed.

1981-01-01

381

Visual test of subparts per billion-level copper(ii) by Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle-based solid phase extraction coupled with a functionalized gold nanoparticle probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By combining Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle-based solid phase extraction with a gold nanoparticle-based visual test, a novel method was developed for the field assay of Cu(ii) in environmental water at subparts per billion-levels within 30 min. When a 200 mL water sample was treated with 12.5 mg L-1 Fe3O4 nanoparticles by the proposed procedure, the detection limit with the naked eye was 0.2 ?g L-1 Cu(ii). The proposed method is very specific to Cu(ii), with tolerance against at least 100-fold amounts of other environmentally relevant metal ions except for Hg(ii) (25-fold), and was successfully applied to the detection of trace Cu(ii) in tap water, river water, and treated wastewater, and results agreed well with that determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).By combining Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle-based solid phase extraction with a gold nanoparticle-based visual test, a novel method was developed for the field assay of Cu(ii) in environmental water at subparts per billion-levels within 30 min. When a 200 mL water sample was treated with 12.5 mg L-1 Fe3O4 nanoparticles by the proposed procedure, the detection limit with the naked eye was 0.2 ?g L-1 Cu(ii). The proposed method is very specific to Cu(ii), with tolerance against at least 100-fold amounts of other environmentally relevant metal ions except for Hg(ii) (25-fold), and was successfully applied to the detection of trace Cu(ii) in tap water, river water, and treated wastewater, and results agreed well with that determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, synthesis, and characterization of Cys-AuNPs and Fe3O4 NPs, magnetic-solid phase extraction and colorimetric test procedures, and effects of parameters on the extraction efficiency. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31753b

Tan, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Jing-Fu; Jiang, Gui-Bin

2012-10-01

382

Giant tumefactive perivascular spaces that expanded and became symptomatic 14 years after initial surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Perivascular spaces (PVSs) or Virchow–Robin spaces in the brain are pial-lined interstitial fluid (ISF)-filled structures surrounding the penetrating arteries and arterioles. These spaces appear as 1- to 2-mm in diameter, round, oval, or curvilinear smooth-walled structures on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Typical PVSs are asymptomatic. Occasionally, they become enlarged and cause specific clinical manifestations that depend on location and the degree of tissue compression. In this case, they are referred to as giant tumefactive PVSs. To our knowledge, there have been no reported cases in which giant PVSs increased remarkably in number and size during both the natural course and postoperative course. We describe a rare progression of giant tumefactive PVSs 14 years after initial surgery. Case Description: On first admission at age 17, endoscopic ventriculocystostomy and third ventriculostomy were performed to relieve hydrocephalus caused by cysts compressing the cerebral aqueduct. Fourteen years later, the multicystic lesion reappeared with an increase in both cyst number and size. The patient showed no hydrocephalus but presented with oculomotor and trochlear nerve palsies, which were caused by a mass effect on the midbrain. Endoscopic ventriculocystostomy was performed and symptoms improved. Conclusion: This is the first case report in which giant PVSs increased significantly in number and size.

Fujimoto, Kenji; Kuroda, Jun-ichiro; Hide, Takuichiro; Hasegawa, Yu; Yano, Shigetoshi; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

2012-01-01

383

Quality of life after open-heart surgery in patients over 75 years old.  

PubMed

In a postal study we used the Nottingham Health Profile questionnaire to assess the quality of life of elderly survivors of open-heart surgery. From January 1984 to October 1993, 146 patients over 75 years of age underwent open-heart surgery in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery at Beasançon (France). Eleven patients (7. 5%) died in the immediate post-operative course. Patients' mean follow-up was 3.4 +/- 2.4 years. Fourteen patients died during follow-up. One hundred and four completed Nottingham Health Profile questionnaires were returned. Five per cent of the patients lived in an old people's home. Six per cent of the patients were unable to walk at all. One patient out of five felt isolated. Fifteen per cent of the patients were in constant pain. Half of the patients took sleeping pills. Conversely, 87% of the patients felt an improvement after surgery. Sixty-two per cent continued to drive. Ninety-seven patients (92%) did at least one of the following three activities: watched television, listened to the radio, read books or magazines. Fifty-eight patients (56%) walked on a regular basis. The different types of pathology, of surgical procedures and whether or not a pacemaker was implanted during the post-operative course were not reflected in the quality of life (QOL) scores. After cardiac surgery, most of the patients were physically autonomous and related to their exterior world. PMID:8670522

Chocron, S; Rude, N; Dussaucy, A; Leplege, A; Clement, F; Alwan, K; Viel, J F; Etievent, J P

1996-01-01

384

20-Year CCOP Research Bases  

Cancer.gov

Community Clinical Oncology Program Celebrates 20 Years of Research 20-Year CCOP Research Bases Research Bases develop and implement the cancer prevention and control clinical trials of the CCOP program. The following Research Bases have been a continuous

385

100 Years of Mathematics Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Mathematics Teacher" (MT) is celebrating 100 years of publication. Help commemorate this centennial with this special issue of MT, filled with information on the journal's history, with notable articles and fresh perspectives on mathematics education from the past 100 years.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2007

2007-01-01

386

Appalachia: Twenty Years of Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special issue traces 20-year history and mission of Appalachian Regional Commission. Outlines changes in highways, transportation, education, health, child development, community building, housing, enterprise development, energy, natural resources, environment, leadership, economy, and development diversity. Presents 15-year economic outlook,…

Appalachia, 1985

1985-01-01

387

Beyond Six Billion: Forecasting the World's Population.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Future trends in population size, age structure, births, and other demographic variables are of interest to a wide range of analysts, including policymakers, scientists, and planners in industry and government. For example, global and national trends in p...

J. Bongaarts R. A. Bulatao

2000-01-01

388

A 10 Billion MeV Cyclotron  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the design of a device which serves to demonstrate the principle of acceleration and phase stability by accelerating gravitationally a ball bearing along a spiral groove. Application of the design principle to the acceleration aspect of a linear accelerator is recommended. (CC)

Edge, R. D.

1974-01-01

389

100,000 miles, $146 billion. [Pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the building of natural gas, crude oil, refined products, natural gas liquids, carbon dioxide, and slurry pipelines in various countries. Notes that new construction has slowed because of lessened economic activity, an increased supply of oil and gas, high interest rates, inflation, and armed conflicts. It presents a table on international pipeline construction (type of line, miles

Hale

1982-01-01

390

Chinese TV: Better Broadcasting for the Billion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chinese television started in 1958 but variety in programming and production of sets priced within reach of individuals were slowed by the Cultural Revolution. Since the economic and political reform movement began in 1979, Chinese television has been maturing as an important cultural and political force. The People's Republic of China is a Third…

Hollstein, Milton

391

Assessment and 2-Year Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a national study of the current availability and use of commercially and institutionally developed educational assessment instruments. Indicates that two-year institutions reported less activity than four-year institutions in assessing the major fields of study but that 77% of all two-year institutions assessed basic skills. (MAB)

Bradley, Jama L.; And Others

1994-01-01

392

The breakup of a main-belt asteroid 450 thousand years ago.  

PubMed

Collisions in the asteroid belt frequently lead to catastrophic breakups, where more than half of the target's mass is ejected into space. Several dozen large asteroids have been disrupted by impacts over the past several billion years. These impact events have produced groups of fragments with similar orbits called asteroid families. Here we report the discovery of a very young asteroid family around the object 1270 Datura. Our work takes advantage of a method for identification of recent breakups in the asteroid belt using catalogs of osculating (i.e., instantaneous) asteroid orbits. The very young families show up in these catalogs as clusters in a five-dimensional space of osculating orbital elements. PMID:16763141

Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Bottke, William F

2006-06-01

393

Rapid variations in atmospheric methane concentration during the past 110,000 years  

SciTech Connect

A methane record from the GISP2 ice core reveals that millennial-scale variations in atmospheric methane concentration characterized much of the past 110,00 years. As previously observed in a shorter record from central Greenland, abrupt concentration shifts of about 50 to 300 parts per billion by volume were coeval with most of the interstadial warming events (better known as Dansgaard-Oeschger events) recorded in the GISP2 ice core throughout the last glacial period. The magnitude of the rapid concentration shifts varied on a longer time scale in a manner consistent with variations in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, which suggest that insolation may have modulated the effects of interstadial climate change on the terrestrial biosphere. 38 refs., 2 figs.

Brook, E.J.; Orchardo, J. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States); Sowers, T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1996-08-23

394

Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope - Science Highlights for the First Two Years on Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fermi science objectives cover probably everything in high energy astrophysics: How do super massive black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei create powerful jets of material moving at nearly light speed? What are the jets made of? What are the mechanisms that produce Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) explosions? What is the energy budget? How does the Sun generate high-energy gamma-rays in flares? How do the pulsars operate? How many of them are around and how different are they? What are the unidentified gamma-ray sources found by EGRET? What is the origin of the cosmic rays that pervade the Galaxy? What is the nature of dark matter? Fermi LAT successfully operates on the orbit for more than 2 years and demonstrates excellent performance, which is continuously monitored and calibrated. LAT collected> 100 billion on-orbit triggers

Moiseev, Alexander

2011-01-01

395

Prevalence of Past Year Assault among Inner-City ED Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives 1) To determine the rates of past year non-partner violent assault (NPV), both victimization and aggression. 2) To assess variables associated with NPV, particularly with regards to substance use. Method A cross sectional computerized standardized survey study was conducted to assess NPV, physical and mental health, and substance use among patients presenting to an inner-city ED over two years. Patients (age 19–60) with normal vital signs in an urban ED from 9am–11pm were eligible; pregnant patients and those with a chief complaint of psychiatric evaluation were excluded. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict any NPV Results 10,744 patients were enrolled (80 % response rate); 14% of the sample reported any past year NPV (9% perpetration; 11% victimization). Findings from regression analyses found participants with any past year NPV (victimization or aggression) were more likely than their counterparts to be younger (OR 1.1), male (2.2), single (1.5), unemployed (1.1), present to the ED for injury (1.9), report poor physical health (1.32) poor mental health (1.9). They were less likely to be African-American (0.8). Alcohol use (1.7), marijuana use (2.4), cocaine use (3.1), prescription drug use (1.4) and past treatment (1.7) were associated with experiencing past year NPV. Conclusions Fourteen percent of patients seeking care in this inner-city ED experience violence with a non-partner. Substance use and cocaine specifically, was the strongest predictor of any NPV.

Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Murray, Regan; Walton, Maureen A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Wojnar, Marcin; Wozniak, Piotr; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.

2010-01-01

396

Hydrogen Engine Performance Analysis Project. First Quarterly Report, Second Year of Program, March 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objective is to obtain the design data-base covering performance, operational and emissions characteristics of prototype hydrogen-fueled, air-breathing engines for automotive use. Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines were divided into fourteen subg...

R. R. Adt M. R. Swain J. M. Pappas

1978-01-01

397

The Great War: 80 Years On: BBC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

November 11 marks the 80th anniversary of the armistice that ended "the war to end all wars," a conflict which took as many as ten million lives, wiped out a generation of young men in Europe, and helped to spark a revolution in Russia. This new site from the BBC commemorates the war and offers users a number of interesting resources. Multimedia offerings include a ten-minute video collage of photos and newsreel footage produced by the Imperial War Museum and a selection of fascinating and poignant audio interviews of veterans, including one man who was just fourteen when he left to fight in France. The site also contains a selection of soldiers' letters home, overviews of four major battles (Gallipoli, Verdun, the Somme, and Passchendaele), and a number of topical articles.

398

Chandra Sees Shape of Universe During Formative, Adolescent Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have taken a snapshot of the adolescent universe from about five billion years ago when the familiar web-like structure of galaxy chains and voids first emerged. The observation reveals distant and massive galaxies dotting the sky, clustered together under the gravitational attraction of deep, unseen pockets of dark matter. This provides important clues of how the universe matured from its chaotic beginnings to its elegant structure we see today. These results are presented today in a press conference at the meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society at Mt. Tremblant, Quebec. "Piece by piece, we are assembling a photo album of the universe through the ages," said Yuxuan Yang, a doctorate candidate at the University of Maryland, College Park, who conducted the analysis. "Last month we saw a picture of the infant universe taken with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Now we can add a snapshot of its adolescence." The Chandra observation traced a patch of sky known as the Lockman Hole in the constellation Ursa Major (containing the Big Dipper). Chandra saw a rich density of active galaxies, seven times denser than what has been detected in previous optical and radio surveys at similar distances. This provides the clearest picture yet at the large-scale structure of the universe at such distances (and age), according to Dr. Richard Mushotzky of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., who led the observation. Lockman Hole JPEG, TIFF, PS An image that has been "blurred" to allow better view of the structures outlined by the X-ray sources. The color represents the spectra of the AGN. The red color indicates the sources on average radiates at longer wavelength while green and blue colors indicates the sources radiates at shorter wavelength. The Green and blue regions appear to form a wall, or shows more lumpiness than the "red" sources. If one could capture the universe in a box, scientists say that the large scale structure -- that is, galaxies, galaxy clusters and voids of seemingly empty space -- takes the appearance of a web. Galaxies and intergalactic gas are strung like pearls on unseen filaments of dark matter, which comprises over 85 percent of all matter. Galaxies are attracted to dark matter's gravitational potential. Dark matter does not shine, like ordinary matter made of atoms, and may very well be intrinsically different. Chandra's observation of distant galaxies in the Lockman Hole, spread out over several billion light years from Earth, essentially maps the distribution of dark matter. This provides clues to how the universe grew. "We are seeing the universe during its formative years," said Mushotzky. "This is billions of years after galaxies were born, during a period when the universe began to take on the trappings of an adult." The galaxies that the team saw with Chandra were either dim or altogether undetectable with optical and radio telescopes. This may be because they are enshrouded in dust and gas, which blocks radio waves and optical light. X-rays, a higher-energy form of light, can penetrate this shroud. "Chandra is the only X-ray telescope with a spatial resolution comparable to the optical telescopes," according to Dr. Amy Barger of University of Wisconsin at Madison, who led the optical follow-up with the 10-meter Keck telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. "This is critical to unambiguously identify the optical counterparts of the X-ray sources and measuring distances, or redshifts. This allows scientists to create a three-dimensional image of the large-scale structure." The additive effect of future deep and long Chandra surveys over the next few years will provide an even sharper picture of the young universe. Other scientists who participated in this observation include Drs. Len Cowie and Dave Sanders of the University of Hawaii, and Ph.D. student Aaron Steffen of the University of Wisconsin at Madison. NASA's Mar

2003-03-01

399

Ten Years in the Limelight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now in its 10th year, the National Superintendent of the Year Award recognizes outstanding executive leadership, based on candidates' prowess at meeting students' needs, communication skills, administrative knowledge, and community involvement. The nine previous winners are still working in education, regard the award as a career highlight, and…

Pardini, Priscilla

1997-01-01

400

PROJECT ABLE, THE FIRST YEAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SIXTEEN PROGRAMS CONDUCTED IN THE FIRST YEAR OF A 5 YEAR PROJECT INCLUDED CITY, VILLAGE, SUBURBAN, AND RURAL SCHOOLS FROM THE ELEMENTARY THROUGH SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL. THE STUDENTS IN DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS--WERE FROM DETERIORATING SLUM AREAS OF LARGE CITIES, WERE CHILDREN OF FAMILIES OF RECENT IN-MIGRANTS FROM THE SOUTH OR PUERTO RICO, WERE…

KAPLAN, BERNARD A.

401

Outlook: The Next Twenty Years  

SciTech Connect

I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

Murayama, Hitoshi

2003-12-07

402

LYMMO BRT: 15 Years Later.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a follow-up of the initial evaluation of LYMMO conducted in 2003. Average daily ridership on LYMMO has fallen three years in a row since 2010, and 2012 ridership was lower than the opening year ridership. The drop in ridership is partially ...

S. Randolph

2013-01-01

403

Lasers: The Next Fifty Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This year marks the 50th anniversary of the laser — the first coherent radiation source in the optical domain. This anniversary of this historic development is being celebrated this year through “Laserfest” in which the Optical Society is a major partner. The laser enabled a straightforward extension of the scientific methods and technologies pioneered at microwave wavelengths, in the preceding

Franz Kärtner; Markus Pollnau; Ken-Ichi Ueda; Henry van Driel

2010-01-01

404

Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.  

PubMed

Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide. PMID:23842443

2013-07-12

405

Canada Year Book Historical Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about Canada's past just became a bit easier with the Canada Year Book Historical Collection website. The site provides access to one hundred years worth of the annual "Canada Year Book". These books cover the years 1867 to 1967, and visitors will get the opportunity to learn about social and economic history from across the provinces. Visitors can browse by year or topic, and looking over the topics, which include "Occupations" and Economic Gains" is a good way to start. Additionally, visitors can also browse tables, charts, and maps as they see fit. Educators will want to look through the "Tools and Reference" area, as it contains lesson plans and a set of links to related sites.

406

Evaluation of radon mitigation systems in 14 houses over a two-year period.  

PubMed

Fourteen single-family detached houses in Spokane, Washington, and Coeur D'Alene, Idaho, were monitored for two years after high concentrations of indoor radon had been mitigated. Each house was monitored quarterly using mailed alpha-track radon detectors deployed in each zone of the structure. To assess performance of mitigation systems during the second heating season after mitigation, radon concentrations in seven houses were monitored continuously for several weeks, mitigation systems in all houses were inspected, and selected other measurements were taken. In addition, occupants were also interviewed regarding their maintenance, operation, and subjective evaluation of the radon mitigation systems. Quarterly alpha-track measurements showed that radon levels had increased in most of the homes during many follow-up measurement periods when compared with concentrations measured immediately after mitigation. Mitigation-system performance was adversely affected by (1) accumulated outdoor debris blocking the outlets of subsurface pressurization pipes; (2) fans being turned off (e.g., because of excessive noise or vibration); (3) air-to-air heat exchanger, basement pressurization, and subsurface ventilation fans being turned off and fan speeds reduced; and (4) crawl-space vents being closed or sealed. PMID:2354048

Prill, R J; Fisk, W J; Turk, B H

1990-05-01

407

The chemical composition and sources of PM2.5 during the 2009 Chinese New Year's holiday in Shanghai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China is virtually shut down during the week-long Chinese New Year's holiday. This implies that the anthropogenic emissions would be greatly decreased during the period thus providing an opportunity to study the air quality in China under reduced emissions, and the drastic emission changes during a short period of time allows the comparison of source contributions under significantly different conditions. Seventeen PM2.5 samples were collected during the 2009 Chinese New Year's holiday in Shanghai to study the composition and sources of the fine particles. Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), eight water-soluble ions, fourteen metals and solvent extractable organic compounds (SEOC) including alkanes, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fatty acids were measured. Diagnostic PAH ratios, correlation analysis of OC, EC, n-alkanes, hopanes and PAHs showed that vehicle emissions were the main source of n-alkanes and EC, and an important source of the locally emitted particulate PAHs in urban Shanghai, while coal burning should be the main source of the transported PAHs from the inland areas. The composition of n-fatty acids also provided some clue on the significance of the contribution by kitchen activities. In the New Year's Eve's sample, 75% of the particle mass was estimated to be from fireworks, and K+, SO42 -, Cl-, OC, Al and Ba were the main components. Firework fine particles had high OC/EC ratio and low NO3-/SO42 - ratio.

Feng, Jialiang; Sun, Peng; Hu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Minghong; Fu, Jiamo

2012-11-01

408

[Ten fractures in 21 years].  

PubMed

A 78 year old woman had suffered ten spontaneous bone fractures, the first occurring when she was 57 years old. She is now wheel-chair bound. After 21 years, the underlying osteomalacia due to oligosymptomatic celiac disease with malabsorption was diagnosed. The treatment consists of a gluten free diet and substitution of calcium and vitamin D until there is a normalisation of calcium, vitamin D and alkaline phosphatase. Any spontaneous fracture deserves a careful search for metabolic bone disease. An elevation of alkaline phosphatase indicates osteomalacia rather than osteoporosis. PMID:15925967

Fritzsch, J; Hennicke, G; Tannapfel, A

2005-11-01

409

World Year of Physics 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1905 a 26-year-old patent clerk named Albert Einstein published four exceedingly strange research papers-and gave us a whole new way to think about light, matter, energy, space and time. Indeed, his ideas about atoms, quanta and relativity laid the foundations for most of modern physics, not to mention microchips, lasers and a host of modern technologies. In 2005 the National Science Foundation celebrated the centennial of that miraculous year, an event known across the globe as the World Year of Physics. Explore what Einstein actually did in 1905-and all that has come of it since...

410

NHRC Report, Calendar Year 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following report documents scientific activities for Calendar Year 1978. Naval Health Research Center (NHRC), which is one of eight Navy medical research laboratories, is under the Naval Medical Research and Development Command, Bethesda, Maryland. Th...

1978-01-01

411

DECADE Organizes Years of Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new computer program, DECADE, enabled the administration of Wabash College to experiment with rates for tuition, admission, faculty appointments, and to gauge their effects on a simulation model of the college over a 10-year period. (Author/PG)

Warden, James A.

1974-01-01

412

Katrina Retrospective: 5 Years Later  

NASA Video Gallery

Five years after Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast, NASA revisits the storm with a short video that shows Katrina as captured by satellites. Before and during the hurricane's landfall, NASA p...

413

Celebrating 20 Years of Hubble  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope began a remarkable journey of discovery on April 24, 1990. After 20 years in space, the observatory has shown humanity more of the universe than ever before. With the ...

414

25 Years of Landsat 5  

NASA Video Gallery

Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

415

Accountability report - fiscal year 1997  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

NONE

1998-04-01

416

Sixty years of genome biology  

PubMed Central

Sixty years after Watson and Crick published the double helix model of DNA's structure, thirteen members of Genome Biology's Editorial Board select key advances in the field of genome biology subsequent to that discovery.

2013-01-01

417

Comprehensive Plan. Fiscal Year 1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Substantive provisions (Goals and objectives; Existing law enforcement systems and available resources; Needs, problems and priorities; Multi-year plan; Annual action program); Administrative provisions (Agency organization; Agency operations an...

1970-01-01

418

Ewing Sarcoma of the Bone in Children under 6 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumours (ESFT) are rare in early childhood. The aim of this study was to report the clinical characteristics and outcome of children under 6 years of age affected by ESFT of the bone in Italy. Methods The records of all the children diagnosed with osseous ESFT in centres members of the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed. The Kaplan–Meier method was used for estimating overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS) curves; multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results This study includes 62 patients. An axial primary localization was present in 66% of patients, with the primary site in the chest wall in 34%. Fourteen (23%) patients presented metastatic disease. The 5-year OS and PFS were 73% (95% confidence interval, CI, 58–83%) and 72% (95% CI 57–83%) for patients with localized disease and 38% (95% CI 17–60%) and 21% (95% CI 5–45%) for patients with metastatic disease. Metastatic spread, skull/pelvis/spine primary localization, progression during treatment and no surgery predicted worse survival (P<0.01), while patients treated in the last decade had better survival (P ?=?0.002). In fact, the 5-year OS and PFS for patients diagnosed in the period 2000–2008 were 89% (95% CI 71–96%) and 86% (95% CI 66–94%), respectively. Conclusion The axial localization is the most common site of ESFT in pre-scholar children. Patients treated in the most recent period have an excellent outcome.

De Ioris, Maria Antonietta; Prete, Arcangelo; Cozza, Raffaele; Podda, Marta; Manzitti, Carla; Pession, Andrea; Schiavello, Elisabetta; Contoli, Benedetta; Balter, Rita; Fagioli, Franca; Bisogno, Gianni; Amoroso, Loredana

2013-01-01

419

EDITORIAL: Welcome to the New Year!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have the privilege of taking over from Professor Gordon Donaldson as Editor-in-Chief of Superconductor Science and Technology (SuST) for the next two years. During the last ten years, he has refereed several thousand papers and ensured that SuST has the highest impact factor of any specialist journal in the field. It is a pleasure to take this opportunity to thank him on behalf of our whole community. It is a great time to be involved with superconductivity. Following the physics Nobel prize in 2003 for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductivity and superfluidity, many of us hope that another Nobel prize will be awarded for contributions to superconductivity when the mechanism that causes high temperature superconductivity (HTS) is explained. The mechanism for HTS currently provides one of the most important challenges for basic science. We also have the successes associated with large-scale superconducting systems including the LHC and the $10 billion ITER fusion tokomak to look forward to. Since the management of energy resources will be one of the critical issues in the 21st century, superconductivity will have an important contribution to make to the development of new technologies. It is one of the exciting and rewarding aspects of research in superconductivity where many world-class basic and applied research groups collaborate. In this context, SuST is well-positioned to broaden the scope and appeal of the journal and publish the best papers in both the science and technology of superconductivity. I would like to encourage scientists in all fields of superconductivity to submit their papers to the journal. Here are three reasons why SuST has already become the leading specialist journal in superconductivity: The average publication time, if your paper is accepted, is around 80 days from submission to online publication; All papers published are free to download from the web for 30 days from publication; SuST has the highest impact factor of all journals specialising in superconductivity. Further improvements, implemented from this January issue onwards, include: The introduction of article numbering which will speed up the publication process. Papers in different issues can be published online as soon as they are ready, without having to wait for a whole issue or section to be allocated page numbers. This will improve submission to publication times. Bringing the journal into line with other IOP journals so that reports from two referees are required for each paper prior to an acceptance/rejection decision. Refreshing the design of SuST's cover, modernising the typography and creating a consistent look and feel across the range of journals. Naturally we have also been asking how SuST and IOP Publishing can help the superconductivity community meet the challenges of the future and maintain the broad international readership that supports SuST. Clearly a specialist journal like SuST has a very different role in our community from general science journals such as Science and Nature. However the superconductivity community would benefit if publication in SuST brought with it the prestige of a yet higher impact factor, comparable to the very best physics, chemistry and engineering journals. In this context, I have identified the following aims for the Editorial Board: To increase the impact factor of SuST; To broaden the scope and size of the journal by increasing its profile and publishing the best papers in superconductivity— both in basic science and in technology; To improve the refereeing process by eliminating the tail of low impact papers submitted to SuST and reducing the time from submission to online availability; To make SuST the natural place to publish invited papers from the best of the community's pure and applied conferences and workshops; To improve the effectiveness of the Editorial Board; To improve the services that IOP Publishing provides for the superconductivity community. I am looking forward to working with IOP— one of the fabulous (not-for-profit) learned societies in th

Hampshire, D. P.

2008-01-01

420

U.S. Department of Energy clean cities five-year strategic plan.  

SciTech Connect

Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program, which is part of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Working with its network of about 100 local coalitions and more than 6,500 stakeholders across the country, Clean Cities delivers on its mission to reduce petroleum consumption in on-road transportation. In its work to reduce petroleum use, Clean Cities focuses on a portfolio of technologies that includes electric drive, propane, natural gas, renewable natural gas/biomethane, ethanol/E85, biodiesel/B20 and higher-level blends, fuel economy, and idle reduction. Over the past 17 years, Clean Cities coalitions have displaced more than 2.4 billion gallons of petroleum; they are on track to displace 2.5 billion gallons of gasoline per year by 2020. This Clean Cities Strategic Plan lays out an aggressive five-year agenda to help DOE Clean Cities and its network of coalitions and stakeholders accelerate the deployment of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles, while also expanding the supporting infrastructure to reduce petroleum use. Today, Clean Cities has a far larger opportunity to make an impact than at any time in its history because of its unprecedented $300 million allocation for community-based deployment projects from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) (see box below). Moreover, the Clean Cities annual budget has risen to $25 million for FY2010 and $35 million has been requested for FY2011. Designed as a living document, this strategic plan is grounded in the understanding that priorities will change annually as evolving technical, political, economic, business, and social considerations are woven into project decisions and funding allocations. The plan does not intend to lock Clean Cities into pathways that cannot change. Instead, with technology deployment at its core, the plan serves as a guide for decision-making at both the national and local levels of Clean Cities over the next five years. The plan recognizes the need for flexibility and sets out a strategic direction that will build on the progress of current technologies and new opportunities presented in emerging fuels and technologies, such as hydrogen and fuel cells, as well as new niche markets such as off-road applications that build additional throughput at existing alternative fuel stations.

Cambridge Concord Associates

2011-02-15

421

Eastern Germany in the fifth year - investment hammering in the basement?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rebuilding the capital stock will play the decisive role in the adjustment process in the eastern German economy. Investment increased from DM 92 billion in 1991 to 157 billion in 1994 (in current prices). It amounted to 60 percent of GDP. Investment has been heavily concentrated in buildings; only one-third has gone to machinery and equipment. Less than 20 percent

Horst Siebert

1995-01-01

422

First Year Results from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After one year of survey observations and more than 70 billion triggers, Fermi is revealing an unprecedented view of the high energy gamma-ray sky. The observatory .carries two instruments, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GB, 8 keV - 40 MeV) and the Large Area Telescope (LAT, 20 MeV greater than or equal to 300 GeV), which in combination cover over 7 orders of magnitude in energy for transient phenomena. The LAT provides substantially more sensitivity than previous instruments in this waveband and has opened up the energy window from 10-100 GeV. The first year has produced many important results, from detections of extremely energetic and distant gamma-ray bursts, to monitoring daily variations in emission caused by massive black holes at the cores of galaxies, to identifying a new population of gamma-ray bright pulsars, to measuring the spectrum of diffuse emission from our own. Galaxy and the spectrum of the local cosmic electrons. I'll review highlights from the first year and discuss how the data are answering questions from the past and raising new ones for the future.

Hays, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

423

1992 five year battery forecast  

SciTech Connect

Five-year trends for automotive and industrial batteries are projected. Topic covered include: SLI shipments; lead consumption; automotive batteries (5-year annual growth rates); industrial batteries (standby power and motive power); estimated average battery life by area/country for 1989; US motor vehicle registrations; replacement battery shipments; potential lead consumption in electric vehicles; BCI recycling rates for lead-acid batteries; US average car/light truck battery life; channels of distribution; replacement battery inventory end July; 2nd US battery shipment forecast.

Amistadi, D.

1992-12-01

424

Ten Thousand Years of Solitude  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Benford, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Pasqualetti, M.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

1991-03-01

425

Once in a Million Years: Teaching Geologic Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors advocate that students frequently lack fundamental numerical literacy on the order of millions or billions, and that this comprehension is critical to grasping key evolutionary concepts related to the geologic time scale, the origin and diversification of life on earth, and other concepts such as the national debt, human population…

Lewis, Susan E.; Lampe, Kristen A.; Lloyd, Andrew J.

2005-01-01

426

Cove Point LNG terminal: its first year of operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As of mid-Nov. 1978, the Cove Point LNG terminal, jointly owned by Columbia LNG Corp. and Consolidated System LNG Co., has received 13 shiploads of LNG from Algeria, delivering 30 billion cu ft of gas to regional distribution systems without significant operating or safety problems. Although the terminal has not yet reached its design throughput, performance has been very satisfactory.

Levy

1979-01-01

427

The Year of the Pond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water gardens became popular in China during the Tang Dynasty and goldfish were domesticated more than 1000 years ago. Beyond being beautiful and tranquil, water gardens have the potential for much learning in an educational setting, especially for learning through art. In this article, the author shares how he collaborated with another teacher in…

Hinshaw, Craig

2010-01-01

428

Thirty years of psychosexual nursing  

Microsoft Academic Search

December 2005 marks thirty years since the end of the first experimental psychosexual seminar training scheme provided specifically for nurses in the United Kingdom. This pilot study, which ran from January 1974 until December 1975, was funded by the Department of Health and Social Security and run under the auspices of the Family Planning Association. It provided psychosexual training for

2006-01-01

429

International Literacy Year (ILY), 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information is presented in recognition of the United Nations General Assembly proclamation of 1990 as International Literacy Year (ILY). It is shown that, in 1985, there were an estimated 889 million adult illiterates in the world (more than 25% of the adult population), and more than 100 million children of primary school age in developing…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

430

Enhance ONE Year of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substitute teachers are responsible for over 1 full year of every child's education, but research shows that only 10 percent of school districts provide more than 2 hours of substitute teacher training, and 53 percent of school districts provide no training. There is a tremendous need to implement effective training programs that will ultimately…

Longhurst, Max L.; Smith, Geoffrey G.; Sorenson, Blaine L.

431

Extramural Activities, Fiscal Year 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Adult Development and Aging Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development supports research and training relevant to the biological and behavioral changes that occur in humans with increasing age from the adult years through maturity and old age. Supported are research projects, training projects, special and…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

432

Integral:. 4 Years in Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After 4 years of operation, ESA's INTEGRAL mission has produced a remarkable portfolio of results, ranging from the inventory of the high energy sources, to the discovery of dozens of variable sources to the mapping of the Al and annihilation line in the Galaxy. A brief review of the most dramatic achievements of the mission is presented.

Ubertini, Pietro; Caraveo, Patrizia

2007-10-01

433

The Year of Leo Lionni.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the picture books of Leo Lionni and describes how Vivian Gussin Paley, a Chicago elementary school teacher, used his books for an entire year's curriculum in her kindergarten class. Highlights include children's engagement with literature, and other learning activities based on the books. (LRW)

McQuade, Molly

1998-01-01

434

60 Years of Bristol Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some of the most significant engineering achievements and historical events that have shaped the Bristol engine factory as it is known today are discussed. A tribute is paid to the late Sir Roy Fedden. Additionally, developments over the last 60 years are...

G. M. Lewis

1990-01-01

435

Fuel ethanol after 25 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 25 years, Brazil and North America are still the only two regions that produce large quantities of fuel ethanol, from sugar cane and maize, respectively. The efficiency of ethanol production has steadily increased and valuable co-products are produced, but only tax credits make fuel ethanol commercially viable because oil prices are at an all-time low. The original motivation for

Alan E Wheals; Luiz C Basso; Denise M. G Alves; Henrique V Amorim

1999-01-01

436

2012: A Year in Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When historians review 2012 for its noteworthy moments, events and milestones, they will find the year was a trying one for the American higher education system, despite its being able to educate and enlighten thousands in search of more choices and preparation for adult self-sufficiency. Many academicians and students worked for and celebrated…

Stuart, Reginald

2012-01-01

437

1974 is World Population Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a special issue of the Asian Population Programme News. This particular publication is concerned with population year 1974. Highlights from the thirtieth session of the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) are presented. World, regional, and country population news are included in separate sections. A listing…

Asian Population Programme News, 1974

1974-01-01

438

Attempted Suicides--35 Years Afterward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most follow-up studies of suicides are made after a relatively short period of time. The present study involved 229 attempted suicides hospitalized during the years 1933-1942. The incidence of suicide long after the original attempt, at least in the case of the women, statistically exceeds the expected incidence. (Author)

Dahlgren, K. G.

1977-01-01

439

Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1983.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As mandated by Congress, this annual report from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) describes its activities in the past fiscal year (FY). Secretary of Education, T. H. Bell, summarizes ED accomplishments in FY 1983 in such areas as excellence in education, citing the findings and impact of the report "A Nation at Risk"; the implementation of…

Department of Education, Washington, DC.

440

The Year of Secret Assignments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The path to "novelist" was a convoluted one for Moriarty, who began writing fiction as doctoral student at Cambridge University. Her interest in young adults stems from an appreciation for the "troubles, strengths, and surprises of that age group." Now, in a uniquely formatted book titled "The Year of Secret Assignments," we peek inside the mind…

Moriarty, Jaclyn

2004-01-01

441

Digital holography: 30 years later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital holography is analysis, synthesis and simulation of wave fields by means of digital computers and processors. Since first publications in digital holography, more than 30 years have passed. From then on, the ideas of digital holography formulated at that time has found quite a number of applications and implementations; but not all of them. Some old dreams such as

Leonid P. Yaroslavsky

2002-01-01

442

Aqua 10 Years After Launch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A little over ten years ago, in the early morning hours of May 4, 2002, crowds of spectators stood anxiously watching as the Delta II rocket carrying NASA's Aqua spacecraft lifted off from its launch pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 2:55 ...

C. L. Parkinson

2013-01-01

443

25 Years Down the Line  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this final of three Special 25th Anniversary Reports, the authors attempt to paint a picture of what the future of education should, could, or might be. They asked readers, industry experts, authors, tech gurus and scientists, "What will "school" look like in the year 2030?" This compendium reflects their varied predictions, hopes, cautions,…

McLester, Susan

2005-01-01

444

2007: A Year In Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most high-profile story of the year touching the higher education community was undisputedly the killings at Virginia Tech in April when student Seung-Hui Cho opened fire, leaving 33 people dead, including himself. To date, it is the deadliest campus shooting in U.S. history. However, in September, the Delaware State University (DSU) community…

Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2007

2007-01-01

445

"Lake Woebegone," Twenty Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost 20 years ago, the author wrote--and then privately published--the two "Lake Woebegone" reports, named after Garrison Keillor's mythical Minnesota town where "all the women are strong, all the men are good-looking, and all the children are above average." The first "Lake Woebegone" report documented that all 50 states were testing above the…

Cannell, John Jacob

2006-01-01

446

Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote

2002-05-01

447

Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

Thiel, E.C.; Fuhrman, P.W.

2002-05-30

448

Functional and muscle morphometric effects of ACL reconstruction. A prospective CT study with 1 year follow-up.  

PubMed

Computed tomography (CT) was used to explore if changes in muscle cross-sectional area and quality after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction would be related to knee function. Fourteen females and 23 males (16-54?years) underwent clinical tests, subjective questionnaires, and CT 1?week before and 1 year after ACL surgery with semitendinosus-gracilis (STG) graft and rehabilitation. Postoperatively, knee laxity was decreased and functional knee measures and subjective patient scores improved. The most obvious remaining deficit was the quadriceps atrophy, which was significantly larger if the right leg was injured. Right-leg injury also tended to cause larger compensatory hypertrophy of the combined knee flexor and tibial internal rotator muscles (preoperatively). The quadriceps atrophy was significantly correlated with the scores and functional tests, the latter also being related to the remaining size of the gracilis muscle. Biceps femoris hypertrophy and, in males only, semimembranosus hypertrophy was observed following the ACL reconstruction. The lack of semimembranosus hypertrophy in the women could, via tibial internal rotation torque deficit, contribute to the less favorable functional and subjective outcome recorded for the women. The results indicate that the quadriceps, the combined knee flexor/tibial internal rotator muscles, side of ACL injury, and sex are important to consider in rehabilitation after STG graft. PMID:22107159

Lindström, M; Strandberg, S; Wredmark, T; Felländer-Tsai, L; Henriksson, M

2013-08-01

449

Surgical correction of Madelung's deformity by combined corrective radioulnar osteotomy: 14 cases with four-year minimum follow-up  

PubMed Central

Fourteen wrists in 11 girls, mean age 13.3 years (range 9–16) at surgery, were treated for Madelung’s deformity. The presenting complaint was incapacitating pain. All were treated by radial closing wedge osteotomy and ulnar shortening osteotomy. The dorsal retinaculum was also surgically repaired in six cases. At a mean follow-up of 5.1 years (range 4–8.75), we observed improved range of motion in both flexion/extension and pronation/supination and absence of pain during daily activity. Radiographically, positioning of the distal radial articular surface and lunate subsidence were improved. Union was obtained after all osteotomies without secondary procedures. Posterior displacement of the ulnar head persisted in two wrists. Combined radioulnar osteotomy restored the anatomy to as near normal as possible. This technique provides satisfactory and encouraging results and does not compromise the surgical future of the wrist. However, longer follow-up is required to assess recurrence or possible long-term degenerative consequences.

Abid, Abdelaziz; Accadbled, Frank; Knor, Gorka; Sales de Gauzy, Jerome; Cahuzac, Jean-Philippe

2008-01-01

450

Surgical correction of Madelung's deformity by combined corrective radioulnar osteotomy: 14 cases with four-year minimum follow-up.  

PubMed

Fourteen wrists in 11 girls, mean age 13.3 years (range 9-16) at surgery, were treated for Madelung's deformity. The presenting complaint was incapacitating pain. All were treated by radial closing wedge osteotomy and ulnar shortening osteotomy. The dorsal retinaculum was also surgically repaired in six cases. At a mean follow-up of 5.1 years (range 4-8.75), we observed improved range of motion in both flexion/extension and pronation/supination and absence of pain during daily activity. Radiographically, positioning of the distal radial articular surface and lunate subsidence were improved. Union was obtained after all osteotomies without secondary procedures. Posterior displacement of the ulnar head persisted in two wrists. Combined radioulnar osteotomy restored the anatomy to as near normal as possible. This technique provides satisfactory and encouraging results and does not compromise the surgical future of the wrist. However, longer follow-up is required to assess recurrence or possible long-term degenerative consequences. PMID:19099303

Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Abid, Abdelaziz; Accadbled, Frank; Knör, Gorka; Sales de Gauzy, Jérôme; Cahuzac, Jean-Philippe

2009-12-01

451

Modelfest: year one results and plans for future years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust model of the human visual system (HVS) would have a major practical impact on the difficult technological problems of transmitting and storing digital images. Although most HVS models exhibit similarities, they may have significant differences in predicting performance. Different HVS models are rarely compared using the same set of psychophysical measurements, so their relative efficacy is unclear. The Modelfest organization was formed to solve this problem and accelerate the development of robust new models of human vision. Members of Modelfest have gathered psychophysical threshold data on the year one stimuli described at last year's SPIE meeting. Modelfest is an exciting new approach to modeling involving the sharing of resources, learning from each other's modeling successes and providing a method to cross-validate proposed HVS models. The purpose of this presentation is to invite the Electronic Imaging community to participate in this effort and inform them of the developing database, which is available to all researchers interested in modeling human vision. In future years, the database will be extended to other domains such as visual masking, and temporal processing. This Modelfest progress report summarizes the stimulus definitions and data collection methods used, but focuses on the results of the phase one data collection effort. Each of the authors has provided at least one dataset from their respective laboratories. These data and data collected subsequent to the submission of this paper are posted on the WWW for further analysis and future modeling efforts.

Carney, Thom; Tyler, Christopher W.; Watson, Andrew B.; Makous, Walter; Beutter, Brent; Chen, Chien-Chung; Norcia, Anthony M.; Klein, Stanley A.

2000-06-01

452

Endophthalmitis after open globe injuries: changes in microbiological spectrum and isolate susceptibility patterns over 14 years  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiologic spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates in post-traumatic endophthalmitis and compare with our earlier published report. A retrospective review was conducted on 581 consecutive patients with culture-proven post-traumatic endophthalmitis at L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, India, from January 2006 to March 2013. Findings A total of 620 isolates from 581 patients were identified (565 bacteria and 55 fungi). The most common isolate was Bacillus spp. (106/620, 17.1%) closely followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (105/620, 16.9%), and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (97/620, 15.6%). In our earlier report, the commonest bacteria included Streptococcus spp. (30/139, 21.6%) and gram-positive coagulase-negative micrococci (26/139, 18.7%). Gram-positive isolates were usually susceptible to vancomycin (98.2%). Gram-negative isolates were generally susceptible to gatifloxacin (92.9%), ofloxacin (89.4%), chloramphenicol (88.6%, Pseudomonas isolates were often resistant), amikacin (83.5%), and ceftazidime (77.2%). Fourteen years ago, the most sensitive antibiotic was ciprofloxacin for both gram-positive bacteria (95.12%) and gram-negative bacteria (100%). Conclusions The microbiological spectrum of post-traumatic endophthalmitis has remained unchanged over the last 14 years, and Bacillus spp. continues as the most common infecting organism. Vancomycin is the drug of choice for empiric coverage of gram-positive bacteria. Susceptibility of gram-negative bacteria to commonly used antimicrobials (amikacin and ciprofloxacin) has decreased by 10% - 15% and to ceftazidime has increased by 10.5%.

2014-01-01

453

Preschoolers (3-5 Years Old)  

MedlinePLUS

... Information For... Media Policy Makers  National Center Homepage Preschoolers (3-5 years of age) Language: English ... years 4 years 5 and 6 years Choose My Plate- Preschoolers The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides ...

454

The International Year of Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics is a subject for all seasons and years, but 2013 is the International Year of Statistics, a designation supported by almost 1,850 organizations. The primary movers behind this noble activity include the American Statistical Association, the International Biometric Society, and the Royal Statistical Society. The goal of this initiative is to promote "the importance of statistics to the scientific community, business and government data users, the media," and a range of other users. On the website, visitors can make their way through four main sections, including What is Statistics?, Statistics as a Career, Teacher Resources, and Statistics 2013 Posters. The Teacher Resources area is a real pip, as it features teacher resources for over two dozen countries, along with statistics education videos from the United States and Mexico. The site also includes a Statistic of the Day, a quote of the week, and a most efficacious Statistical Word of the Week.

2013-01-01

455

Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to s