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1

Your Ten- to Fourteen-Year-Old.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the basic growth changes for teenagers are the same as they were 20 or 30 years ago, the environment in which these changes occur has changed. This book describes the characteristic changes in human behavior which take place from year to year between the ages of 10 and 14. Part 1 of the book describes the longitudinal research, which…

Ames, Louise Bates; And Others

2

Open mitral valvotomy: fourteen years' experience.  

PubMed Central

During the period 1968 to 1980, 222 patients with mitral valve disease in which stenosis was the dominant lesion were admitted under the care of the senior author. All patients presented with severe dyspnoea (NYHA grades 3 or 4). One hundred and fifty seven (71%) patients were treated by open mitral valvotomy. One patient died within 30 days of operation (0.6% hospital mortality) and one suffered a transient cerebrovascular accident. One hundred and twenty four (70%) patients were followed up for one to 14 years (mean 7.5 years). There were seven late deaths. Actuarial curves predict the 90.2% 10 year survival after open mitral valvotomy. Eight patients required mitral valve replacement for restenosis corresponding to 16% at 10 years. The remaining patients are in NYHA grades 1 and 2. Images

Kay, P H; Belcher, P; Dawkins, K; Lennox, S C

1983-01-01

3

Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago.  

PubMed

It is widely assumed that atmospheric oxygen concentrations remained persistently low (less than 10(-5) times present levels) for about the first 2 billion years of Earth's history. The first long-term oxygenation of the atmosphere is thought to have taken place around 2.3 billion years ago, during the Great Oxidation Event. Geochemical indications of transient atmospheric oxygenation, however, date back to 2.6-2.7 billion years ago. Here we examine the distribution of chromium isotopes and redox-sensitive metals in the approximately 3-billion-year-old Nsuze palaeosol and in the near-contemporaneous Ijzermyn iron formation from the Pongola Supergroup, South Africa. We find extensive mobilization of redox-sensitive elements through oxidative weathering. Furthermore, using our data we compute a best minimum estimate for atmospheric oxygen concentrations at that time of 3?×?10(-4) times present levels. Overall, our findings suggest that there were appreciable levels of atmospheric oxygen about 3 billion years ago, more than 600 million years before the Great Oxidation Event and some 300-400 million years earlier than previous indications for Earth surface oxygenation. PMID:24067713

Crowe, Sean A; Døssing, Lasse N; Beukes, Nicolas J; Bau, Michael; Kruger, Stephanus J; Frei, Robert; Canfield, Donald E

2013-09-26

4

29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions § 779.507...of 14- and 15-year-old children in a limited number of occupations...limits. Under the provisions of Child Labor Regulations, subpart...performed on trains or any other media of transportation or at...

2013-07-01

5

Hospital-Acquired Infections Cost $10 Billion a Year  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital-Acquired Infections Cost $10 Billion a Year: Study Five most ... limited their investigation to infections picked up in hospitals. They didn't factor in infections acquired in other kinds of health care settings such ...

6

Thermal Evolution of the Earth During the First Billion Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is good evidence that life occurred on Earth during the first billion years of its history. Modelling the dynamics of\\u000a the Earth at this period of time is critical to understand the conditions of the emergence of life. These conditions are the\\u000a result of the coupling between the inner and outer envelopes of the Earth. Several processes such as

Christophe Sotin

2005-01-01

7

OPEC's maximum oil revenue will be $80 billion per year  

SciTech Connect

OPEC's income from oil is less than $80 billion this year, only one fourth its 1981 revenue. The optimum revenue OPEC can expect is 15 MBB/D at $15/barrel. Energy conservation will continue despite falling prices because consumers no longer feel secure that OPEC can deliver needed supplies. Eleven concepts which affect the future world economic outlook include dependence upon petroleum and petroleum products, the condition of capital markets, low energy and commodity prices, the growth in money supply without a corresponding growth in investment, and the high debt level of the US and the developing countries.

Steffes, D.W.

1986-01-01

8

BCG vaccination of children against leprosy: fourteen-year findings of the trial in Burma  

PubMed Central

The value of BCG vaccination in preventing leprosy among children was studied in an area of high leprosy endemicity in Burma through a controlled trial; one group of 13 066 children received BCG and another group of 13 176 served as controls. The overall protective effect of BCG, which was only about 20% over the 14-year period, was found to vary with the batch of vaccine, as well as age, sex, and contact status of the children. BCG protection was found to be independent of the initial tuberculin status of the children. The protective effect of BCG against the lepromatous type of leprosy could not be measured because of the low incidence. Protection was observed throughout the fourteen years of the study except for the first year. The results are compared with those of three other major BCG trials in leprosy. The trial has shown that BCG provides only a very modest level of protection and that BCG vaccination is not likely to be an important solution for leprosy control.

Lwin, Kyaw; Sundaresan, T.; Gyi, Mg Mg; Bechelli, L. M.; Tamondong, C.; Garbajosa, P. Gallego; Sansarricq, H.; Noordeen, S. K.

1985-01-01

9

Allergy in Patients Under Fourteen Years of Age in Alergológica 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Objective: To present the most signifi cant data obtained on patients younger than 14 years from the Alergológica-2005 study. Results: Nine hundred seventeen (18.3%) of the patients included in the study were under the age of 14 (average age 8 years with a similar distribution by gender) and were heavy users of healthcare resources. The most frequently diagnosed

JM Garde

10

Tuberculous arthritis — a fourteen-year experience at a tertiary teaching hospital in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: To characterize the clinical and microbiological features of tuberculous arthritis and to clarify the factors affecting treatment outcome. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 51 adult patients with a diagnosis of tuberculous arthritis at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linkou over a 14-year period. Results: There were 35 males and 16 females with a mean age of 58.9 years (range, 32

Tsung-Yu Huang; Ting-Shu Wu; Chien-Chang Yang; Ping-Cherng Chiang; Kuang-Hui Yu; Ming-Hsun Lee

11

Fourteen-Year Experience of Prenatal Diagnosis of Thalassemia in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 14 years, Iranian scientists have worked to develop a national thalassemia prevention program. Although historically abortion was considered unacceptable in Iran, intensive consultations led to the clerical approval of induced abortion in cases with ?-thalassemia major in 1997, and a nationwide prevention program with screening, counseling and prenatal diagnosis (PND) networks has been developed. This paper reports the experience

Hossein Najmabadi; Alireza Ghamari; Farhad Sahebjam; Roxana Kariminejad; Valeh Hadavi; Talayeh Khatibi; Ashraf Samavat; Elaheh Mehdipour; Bernadette Modell; Mohammand Hassan Kariminejad

2006-01-01

12

Food Web Changes over Fourteen Years Following Introduction of Rainbow Smelt into a Colorado Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainbow smelt Osmerus mordaxwere introduced into Horsetooth Reservoir, Colorado, in 1983 to increase prey availability for walleyes Stizostedion vitreum.The introduction was highly successful. Rainbow smelt abundance reached at least 0.4 fish\\/m 3 within 6 years, and walleye growth improved by 50%. Zooplankton sampling provided the first clues that the Horsetooth Reservoir food web was undergoing dramatic changes in response to

Brett M. Johnson; John P. Goettl

1999-01-01

13

Medicaid: States Reported Billions More in Supplemental Payments in Recent Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

States reported $32 billion in Medicaid supplemental payments during fiscal year 2010, but the exact amount of supplemental payments is unknown because state reporting was incomplete. On expenditure reports used to obtain federal funds filed with the Depa...

2012-01-01

14

Fourteen-year experience of prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia in Iran.  

PubMed

For 14 years, Iranian scientists have worked to develop a national thalassemia prevention program. Although historically abortion was considered unacceptable in Iran, intensive consultations led to the clerical approval of induced abortion in cases with beta-thalassemia major in 1997, and a nationwide prevention program with screening, counseling and prenatal diagnosis (PND) networks has been developed. This paper reports the experience from one of the two national PND reference laboratories. As one of the oldest reference laboratories, we performed a total of 906 PND in 360 couples at risk for thalassemia from 1990 to 2003. Direct and indirect mutation detection methods were applied for all cases. In total, 22 mutations were tested routinely, and an additional 30 rare mutations were identified. 208 fetuses were found to be normal, 215 fetuses had beta-thalassemia major, and 435 fetuses were carriers of the trait. In 40 cases, we only defined one allele. In 8 cases, we were unable to provide any diagnosis, corresponding to 0.9%. Our data support the functionality of the Iranian beta-thalassemia prevention program. The success of this system in Iran, a multiethnic and Islamic-based country, would mean that it might be applied as an adaptive system for neighboring and other Islamic countries. PMID:16612059

Najmabadi, Hossein; Ghamari, Alireza; Sahebjam, Farhad; Kariminejad, Roxana; Hadavi, Valeh; Khatibi, Talayeh; Samavat, Ashraf; Mehdipour, Elaheh; Modell, Bernadette; Kariminejad, Mohammand Hassan

2006-01-01

15

Birth of the Kaapvaal tectosphere 3.08 billion years ago.  

PubMed

The crustal remnants of Earth's Archean continents have been shielded from mantle convection by thick roots of ancient mantle lithosphere. The precise time of crust-root coupling (tectosphere birth) is poorly known but is needed to test competing theories of continental plate genesis. Our mapping and geochronology of an impact-generated section through the Mesoarchean crust of the Kaapvaal craton indicates tectosphere birth at 3.08 +/- 0.01 billion years ago, roughly 0.12 billion years after crust assembly. Growth of the southern African mantle root by subduction processes occurred within about 0.2 billion years. The assembly of crust before mantle may be common to the tectosphere. PMID:11161196

Moser, D E; Flowers, R M; Hart, R J

2001-01-19

16

3.4-Billion-Year-Old Biogenic Pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: Sulfur Isotope Evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (> > 10-13 of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Lowe, Donald R.

1993-10-01

17

3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence.  

PubMed

Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen. PMID:11539502

Ohmoto, H; Kakegawa, T; Lowe, D R

1993-10-22

18

Archean Rocks in Antarctica: 2.5-Billion-Year Uranium-Lead Ages of Pegmatites in Enderby Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium-lead isotopic data indicate that the granulite-facies Napier complex of Enderby Land, Antarctica, was cut by charnockitic pegmatites 2.5 billion years ago and by pegmatites lacking hypersthene 0.52 billion years ago. The 4-billion-year lead-lead ages (whole rock) reported for the Napier complex are rejected since these leads developed in three stages. Reconstructions of Gondwanaland suggest that the Napier complex may

Edward S. Grew; William I. Manton

1979-01-01

19

9$ billion wave of redemptions in municipal bond market expected to kick off new year.  

PubMed

More than $9 billion of municipal bonds could be redeemed on Jan. 1, which could translate into interest-rate savings for hospitals poised to issue new debt. The huge redemption is the result of the decline in interest rates since the early 1980s, which prompted a rush to issue bonds. Because much of that debt can be redeemed after 10 years, the first wave of redemptions is expected to occur in 1993. PMID:10122796

Nemes, J

20

“CAM-Brain” ATR's billion neuron artificial brain project: a three year progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on progress made in the first 3 years of ATR's CAM-Brain Project, which aims to use evolutionary engineering techniques to build\\/grow\\/evolve a RAM-and-cellular-automata based artificial brain consisting of thousands of interconnected neural network modules inside special hardware such as MIT's Cellular Automata Machine CAM-8, or NTT's Content Addressable Memory System CAM-System. The states of a billion (later

Hugo de Garis

1996-01-01

21

Geochemical evidence for terrestrial ecosystems 2.6 billion years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms have flourished in the oceans since at least 3.8 billion years (3.8Gyr) ago, but it is not at present clear when they first colonized the land. Organic matter in some Au/U-rich conglomerates and ancient soils of 2.3-2.7Gyr age has been suggested as remnants of terrestrial organisms. Some 2.7-Gyr-old stromatolites have also been suggested as structures created by terrestrial organisms. However, it has been disputed whether this organic matter is indigenous or exogenic, and whether these stromatolites formed in marine or fresh water. Consequently, the oldest undisputed remnants of terrestrial organisms are currently the 1.2-Gyr-old microfossils from Arizona, USA. Unusually carbonaceous ancient soils-palaeosols-have been found in the Mpumalanga Province (Eastern Transvaal) of South Africa. Here we report the occurrences, elemental ratios (C, H, N, P) and isotopic compositions of this organic matter and its host rocks. These data show that the organic matter very probably represents remnants of microbial mats that developed on the soil surface between 2.6 and 2.7Gyr ago. This places the development of terrestrial biomass more than 1.4 billion years earlier than previously reported.

Watanabe, Yumiko; Martini, Jacques E. J.; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

2000-11-01

22

Microfossils of sulphur-metabolizing cells in 3.4-billion-year-old rocks of Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulphur isotope data from early Archaean rocks suggest that microbes with metabolisms based on sulphur existed almost 3.5 billion years ago, leading to suggestions that the earliest microbial ecosystems were sulphur-based. However, morphological evidence for these sulphur-metabolizing bacteria has been elusive. Here we report the presence of microstructures from the 3.4-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation in Western Australia that are associated

David Wacey; Matt R. Kilburn; Martin Saunders; John Cliff; Martin D. Brasier

2011-01-01

23

The rapid evolution of dust content in galaxies over the last five billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Herschel-ATLAS (H-ATLAS) will provide an unrivalled sample of galaxies, probing the normal star-forming submillimetre population of galaxies for the first time. Here, we exploit the Science Demonstration Phase (SDP) data to model the evolution of the interstellar content of galaxies in recent history. The most massive H-ATLAS galaxies show a large increase in the dust content five billion years ago compared to the present epoch. These observations are difficult to explain using standard dust models, one possibility could be contributions from a non-stellar source of dust e.g. grain growth in dense clouds; this would imply that less than 10% of dust would be condensed in stellar atmospheres. Alternatively, an initial mass function which becomes top heavy at high star formation rate densities could also explain this discrepancy.

Gomez, H. L.; Dunne, L.; Smith, D. J. B.; da Cunha, E.

2013-03-01

24

Star Formation in Galaxy Clusters Over the Past 10 Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound systems in the universe and include the most massive galaxies in the universe; this makes galaxy clusters ideal laboratories for disentangling the nature versus nurture aspect of how galaxies evolve. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve in clusters continues to be a fundamental question in astronomy. The ages and assembly histories of galaxies in rich clusters test both stellar population models and hierarchical formation scenarios. Is star formation in cluster galaxies simply accelerated relative to their counterparts in the lower density field, or do cluster galaxies assemble their stars in a fundamentally different manner? To answer this question, I review multi-wavelength results on star formation in galaxy clusters from Coma to the most distant clusters yet discovered at look-back times of 10 billion years (z 2).

Tran, Kim-Vy

2012-01-01

25

An Exhumation History of Continents over Billion-Year Time Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continental lithosphere contains the oldest and most stable structures on Earth, where fragments of ancient material have eluded destruction by tectonic and surface processes operating over billions of years. Although present-day erosion of these remnants is slow, a record of how they have uplifted, eroded, and cooled over Earth’s history can provide insight into the physical properties of the continents and the forces operating to exhume them over geologic time. We constructed a continuous record of ancient lithosphere cooling with the use of uranium-lead (U-Pb) thermochronology on volcanically exhumed lower crustal fragments. Combining these measurements with thermal and Pb-diffusion models constrains the range of possible erosion histories. Measured U-Pb data are consistent with extremely low erosion rates persisting over time scales approaching the age of the continents themselves.

Blackburn, Terrence J.; Bowring, Samuel A.; Perron, J. Taylor; Mahan, Kevin H.; Dudas, Francis O.; Barnhart, Katherine R.

2012-01-01

26

A Change in the Geodynamics of Continental Growth 3 Billion Years Ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models for the growth of continental crust rely on knowing the balance between the generation of new crust and the reworking of old crust throughout Earth’s history. The oxygen isotopic composition of zircons, for which uranium-lead and hafnium isotopic data provide age constraints, is a key archive of crustal reworking. We identified systematic variations in hafnium and oxygen isotopes in zircons of different ages that reveal the relative proportions of reworked crust and of new crust through time. Growth of continental crust appears to have been a continuous process, albeit at variable rates. A marked decrease in the rate of crustal growth at ~3 billion years ago may be linked to the onset of subduction-driven plate tectonics.

Dhuime, Bruno; Hawkesworth, Chris J.; Cawood, Peter A.; Storey, Craig D.

2012-03-01

27

An exhumation history of continents over billion-year time scales.  

PubMed

The continental lithosphere contains the oldest and most stable structures on Earth, where fragments of ancient material have eluded destruction by tectonic and surface processes operating over billions of years. Although present-day erosion of these remnants is slow, a record of how they have uplifted, eroded, and cooled over Earth's history can provide insight into the physical properties of the continents and the forces operating to exhume them over geologic time. We constructed a continuous record of ancient lithosphere cooling with the use of uranium-lead (U-Pb) thermochronology on volcanically exhumed lower crustal fragments. Combining these measurements with thermal and Pb-diffusion models constrains the range of possible erosion histories. Measured U-Pb data are consistent with extremely low erosion rates persisting over time scales approaching the age of the continents themselves. PMID:22223803

Blackburn, Terrence J; Bowring, Samuel A; Perron, J Taylor; Mahan, Kevin H; Dudas, Francis O; Barnhart, Katherine R

2012-01-01

28

Atmospheric carbon dioxide: a driver of photosynthetic eukaryote evolution for over a billion years?  

PubMed

Exciting evidence from diverse fields, including physiology, evolutionary biology, palaeontology, geosciences and molecular genetics, is providing an increasingly secure basis for robustly formulating and evaluating hypotheses concerning the role of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Such studies span over a billion years of evolutionary change, from the origins of eukaryotic algae through to the evolution of our present-day terrestrial floras, and have relevance for plant and ecosystem responses to future global CO(2) increases. The papers in this issue reflect the breadth and depth of approaches being adopted to address this issue. They reveal new discoveries pointing to deep evidence for the role of CO(2) in shaping evolutionary changes in plants and ecosystems, and establish an exciting cross-disciplinary research agenda for uncovering new insights into feedbacks between biology and the Earth system. PMID:22232760

Beerling, David J

2012-02-19

29

A change in the geodynamics of continental growth 3 billion years ago.  

PubMed

Models for the growth of continental crust rely on knowing the balance between the generation of new crust and the reworking of old crust throughout Earth's history. The oxygen isotopic composition of zircons, for which uranium-lead and hafnium isotopic data provide age constraints, is a key archive of crustal reworking. We identified systematic variations in hafnium and oxygen isotopes in zircons of different ages that reveal the relative proportions of reworked crust and of new crust through time. Growth of continental crust appears to have been a continuous process, albeit at variable rates. A marked decrease in the rate of crustal growth at ~3 billion years ago may be linked to the onset of subduction-driven plate tectonics. PMID:22422979

Dhuime, Bruno; Hawkesworth, Chris J; Cawood, Peter A; Storey, Craig D

2012-03-16

30

An anoxic, Fe(II)-rich, U-poor ocean 3.46 billion years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxidation state of the atmosphere and oceans on the early Earth remains controversial. Although it is accepted by many workers that the Archean atmosphere and ocean were anoxic, hematite in the 3.46 billion-year-old (Ga) Marble Bar Chert (MBC) from Pilbara Craton, NW Australia has figured prominently in arguments that the Paleoarchean atmosphere and ocean was fully oxygenated. In this study, we report the Fe isotope compositions and U concentrations of the MBC, and show that the samples have extreme heavy Fe isotope enrichment, where ?56Fe values range between +1.5‰ and +2.6‰, the highest ?56Fe values for bulk samples yet reported. The high ?56Fe values of the MBC require very low levels of oxidation and, in addition, point to a Paleoarchean ocean that had high aqueous Fe(II) contents. A dispersion/reaction model indicates that O2 contents in the photic zone of the ocean were less than 10-3 ?M, which suggests that the ocean was essentially anoxic. An independent test of anoxic conditions is provided by U-Th-Pb isotope systematics, which show that U contents in the Paleoarchean ocean were likely below 0.02 ppb, two orders-of-magnitude lower than the modern ocean. Collectively, the Fe and U data indicate a reduced, Fe(II)-rich, U-poor environment in the Archean oceans at 3.46 billion years ago. Given the evidence for photosynthetic communities provided by broadly coeval stromatolites, these results suggests that an important photosynthetic pathway in the Paleoarchean oceans may have been anoxygenic photosynthetic Fe(II) oxidation.

Li, Weiqiang; Czaja, Andrew D.; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.; Beard, Brian L.; Roden, Eric E.; Johnson, Clark M.

2013-11-01

31

IRON AND {alpha}-ELEMENT PRODUCTION IN THE FIRST ONE BILLION YEARS AFTER THE BIG BANG  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of carbon, oxygen, silicon, and iron in quasar absorption systems existing when the universe was roughly one billion years old. We measure column densities in nine low-ionization systems at 4.7 < z < 6.3 using Keck, Magellan, and Very Large Telescope optical and near-infrared spectra with moderate to high resolution. The column density ratios among C II, O I, Si II, and Fe II are nearly identical to sub-damped Ly{alpha} systems (sub-DLAs) and metal-poor ([M/H] {<=} -1) DLAs at lower redshifts, with no significant evolution over 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 6. The estimated intrinsic scatter in the ratio of any two elements is also small, with a typical rms deviation of {approx}< 0.1 dex. These facts suggest that dust depletion and ionization effects are minimal in our z > 4.7 systems, as in the lower-redshift DLAs, and that the column density ratios are close to the intrinsic relative element abundances. The abundances in our z > 4.7 systems are therefore likely to represent the typical integrated yields from stellar populations within the first gigayear of cosmic history. Due to the time limit imposed by the age of the universe at these redshifts, our measurements thus place direct constraints on the metal production of massive stars, including iron yields of prompt supernovae. The lack of redshift evolution further suggests that the metal inventories of most metal-poor absorption systems at z {approx}> 2 are also dominated by massive stars, with minimal contributions from delayed Type Ia supernovae or winds from asymptotic giant branch stars. The relative abundances in our systems broadly agree with those in very metal-poor, non-carbon-enhanced Galactic halo stars. This is consistent with the picture in which present-day metal-poor stars were potentially formed as early as one billion years after the big bang.

Becker, George D.; Carswell, Robert F. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sargent, Wallace L. W. [Palomar Observatory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rauch, Michael, E-mail: gdb@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: acalver@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: wws@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: mr@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

2012-01-10

32

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report: Fourteen-Year-Old Youth Pulled Into Operating Wood Chipper in Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On July 6, 2000, a 14-year-old youth (the victim) working as part of a tree-trimming crew was fatally injured while feeding a limb into a drum-type wood chipper. The youth, accompanying his father to work, had been dragging limbs and branches to the wood ...

2001-01-01

33

Cooling and exhumation of continents at billion-year time scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oldest rocks on Earth are preserved within the continental lithosphere, where assembled fragments of ancient orogenic belts have survived erosion and destruction by plate tectonic and surface processes for billions of years. Though the rate of orogenic exhumation and erosion has been measured for segments of an orogenic history, it remains unclear how these exhumation rates have changed over the lifetime of any terrane. Because the exhumation of the lithospheric surface has a direct effect on the rate of heat loss within the lithosphere, a continuous record of lithosphere exhumation can be reconstructed through the use of thermochronology. Thermochronologic studies have typically employed systems sensitive to cooling at temperatures <300 °C, such as the (U-Th)/He and 40Ar/39Ar systems. This largely restricts their application to measuring cooling in rocks from the outer 10 km of the Earth's crust, resulting in a thermal history that is controlled by either upper crustal flexure and faulting and/or isotherm inflections related to surface topography. Combining these biases with the uplift, erosion and recycling of these shallow rocks results in a poor preservation potential of any long-term record. Here, an ancient and long-term record of lithosphere exhumation is constructed using U-Pb thermochronology, a geochronologic system sensitive to cooling at temperatures found at 20-50 km depth (400-650 °C). Lower crustal xenoliths provide material that resided at these depths for billions of years or more, recording a thermal history that is buried deep enough to remain insensitive to upper crustal deformation and instead is dominated by the vertical motions of the continents. We show how this temperature-sensitive system can produce a long-term integrated measure of continental exhumation and erosion. Preserved beneath Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks within Montana, USA, the Great Falls Tectonic Zone formed when two Archean cratons, the Wyoming Province and Medicine Hat Block collided at ~1.8 Ga. Rutile U-Pb data from multiple xenoliths, each exhumed from a different depth within the crustal column reveal a range of dates that varies as a function of xenolith residence depth. The shallowest mid- to lower crustal xenoliths (~25 km) cooled first, yielding the youngest dates and yet cooled at rates between 0.1-0.25 °C/Ma over 500 My or more. Deeper xenoliths record cooling at progressively younger times at similar rates and time-scales. From orogony to eruption of xenoliths onto the surface, the lithospheric thermal history constructed using this technique may exceed a billion years. Combining this cooling history with a lithosphere thermal model yields an estimate for the average integrated rate of craton erosion between 0.00-<0.0025 km/Ma across the orogen; a range far lower than the geologically recent to present day rates for continental erosion (<0.005-0.1 km/Ma). This marks the first ever determination of continental exhumation rates on time-scales that approach the age of the continents themselves and has implications for secular cooling of the asthenosphere.

Blackburn, T.; Bowring, S. A.; Perron, T.; Mahan, K. H.; Dudas, F. O.

2011-12-01

34

Iron and ?-element Production in the First One Billion Years after the Big Bang  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present measurements of carbon, oxygen, silicon, and iron in quasar absorption systems existing when the universe was roughly one billion years old. We measure column densities in nine low-ionization systems at 4.7 < z < 6.3 using Keck, Magellan, and Very Large Telescope optical and near-infrared spectra with moderate to high resolution. The column density ratios among C II, O I, Si II, and Fe II are nearly identical to sub-damped Ly? systems (sub-DLAs) and metal-poor ([M/H] <= -1) DLAs at lower redshifts, with no significant evolution over 2 <~ z <~ 6. The estimated intrinsic scatter in the ratio of any two elements is also small, with a typical rms deviation of <~ 0.1 dex. These facts suggest that dust depletion and ionization effects are minimal in our z > 4.7 systems, as in the lower-redshift DLAs, and that the column density ratios are close to the intrinsic relative element abundances. The abundances in our z > 4.7 systems are therefore likely to represent the typical integrated yields from stellar populations within the first gigayear of cosmic history. Due to the time limit imposed by the age of the universe at these redshifts, our measurements thus place direct constraints on the metal production of massive stars, including iron yields of prompt supernovae. The lack of redshift evolution further suggests that the metal inventories of most metal-poor absorption systems at z >~ 2 are also dominated by massive stars, with minimal contributions from delayed Type Ia supernovae or winds from asymptotic giant branch stars. The relative abundances in our systems broadly agree with those in very metal-poor, non-carbon-enhanced Galactic halo stars. This is consistent with the picture in which present-day metal-poor stars were potentially formed as early as one billion years after the big bang. The observations were made in part at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology and the University of California; it was made possible by the generous support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Based in part on observations made with the Very Large Telescope, operated by the European Southern Observatory at Paranal Observatory, Chile, under proposal ID 084.A-0574.

Becker, George D.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.; Rauch, Michael; Carswell, Robert F.

2012-01-01

35

A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang.  

PubMed

The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman alpha transition of neutral hydrogen, indicating that hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not been completely ionized at a redshift of z approximately 6.3, about one billion years after the Big Bang. Here we show that the IGM surrounding these quasars had a neutral hydrogen fraction of tens of per cent before the quasar activity started, much higher than the previous lower limits of approximately 0.1 per cent. Our results, when combined with the recent inference of a large cumulative optical depth to electron scattering after cosmological recombination therefore suggest the presence of a second peak in the mean ionization history of the Universe. PMID:14985754

Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

2004-02-26

36

The transition to a sulphidic ocean approximately 1.84 billion years ago.  

PubMed

The Proterozoic aeon (2.5 to 0.54 billion years (Gyr) ago) marks the time between the largely anoxic world of the Archean (> 2.5 Gyr ago) and the dominantly oxic world of the Phanerozoic (< 0.54 Gyr ago). The course of ocean chemistry through the Proterozoic has traditionally been explained by progressive oxygenation of the deep ocean in response to an increase in atmospheric oxygen around 2.3 Gyr ago. This postulated rise in the oxygen content of the ocean is in turn thought to have led to the oxidation of dissolved iron, Fe(II), thus ending the deposition of banded iron formations (BIF) around 1.8 Gyr ago. An alternative interpretation suggests that the increasing atmospheric oxygen levels enhanced sulphide weathering on land and the flux of sulphate to the oceans. This increased rates of sulphate reduction, resulting in Fe(II) removal in the form of pyrite as the oceans became sulphidic. Here we investigate sediments from the approximately 1.8-Gyr-old Animikie group, Canada, which were deposited during the final stages of the main global period of BIF deposition. This allows us to evaluate the two competing hypotheses for the termination of BIF deposition. We use iron-sulphur-carbon (Fe-S-C) systematics to demonstrate continued ocean anoxia after the final global deposition of BIF and show that a transition to sulphidic bottom waters was ultimately responsible for the termination of BIF deposition. Sulphidic conditions may have persisted until a second major rise in oxygen between 0.8 to 0.58 Gyr ago, possibly reducing global rates of primary production and arresting the pace of algal evolution. PMID:15356628

Poulton, Simon W; Fralick, Philip W; Canfield, Donald E

2004-09-01

37

Preservation of hydrocarbons and biomarkers in oil trapped inside fluid inclusions for >2 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil-bearing fluid inclusions occur in a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying deltaic McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of the oil reveal a wide range of compounds, including CH 4, CO 2, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, low molecular weight cyclic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring biomarkers. Maturity ratios show that the oil was generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. This is remarkable, given that the oils were exposed to upper prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism (280-350 °C) either during migration or after entrapment. The fluid inclusions are closed systems, with high fluid pressures, and contain no clays or other minerals or metals that might catalyse oil-to-gas cracking. These three attributes may all contribute to the thermal stability of the included oil and enable survival of biomarkers and molecular ratios over billions of years. The biomarker geochemistry of the oil in the Matinenda Formation fluid inclusions enables inferences about the organisms that contributed to the organic matter deposited in the Palaeoproterozoic source rocks from which the analysed oil was generated and expelled. The presence of biomarkers produced by cyanobacteria and eukaryotes that are derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before ca. 2.2 Ga is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution through Earth's early history that avoids the potential contamination problems affecting shale-hosted hydrocarbons.

George, Simon C.; Volk, Herbert; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger

2008-02-01

38

2 billion year old natural analogs for nuclear waste disposal: the natural nuclear fission reactors in Gabon (Africa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two billion years ago, the increase of oxygen in atmosphere and the high 235U\\/238U uranium ratio (>3%) made possible the occurrence of natural nuclear reactors on Earth. These reactors are considered to be a good natural analogue for nuclear waste disposal. Their preservation during such a long period of time is mainly due to the geological stability of the site,

François Gauthier-Lafaye

2002-01-01

39

Megascopic Eukaryotic Algae from the 2.1-Billion-Year-Old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of specimens of spirally coiled, megascopic, carbonaceous fossils resembling Grypania spiralis (Walcott), have been found in the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation at the Empire Mine, near Marquette, Michigan. This occurrence of Grypania is 700 million to 1000 million years older than fossils from previously known sites in Montana, China, and India. As Grypania appears to have been a photosynthetic alga,

Tsu-Ming Han; Bruce Runnegar

1992-01-01

40

The Unusual Evolution of Billion-Year Old Asteroid Families by the Yarkovsky and YORP Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interesting application of the coupled Yarkovsky and YORP effects (YY) is how they can be used to determine asteroid family ages. After an asteroid disruption event, smaller fragments drift faster than the larger ones on average, producing a characteristic “V”-shape in semimajor axis, absolute magnitude (or asteroid diameter) space. If properly modeled, the “V” can be used as a clock to date the time of the break-up and constrain the migration of the family’s fragments into the NEA population (Vokrouhlicky et al. 2006). Curiously, while our existing YY models work well for younger families (< 300 My), they fail for older ones. The reason is that small asteroids spinning up or down by YORP eventually reach an endstate: they spin so fast that they shed mass, or they spin so slowly that they enter into a tumbling rotation state. These “YORP cycles” can change an asteroid’s Yarkovsky drift direction by flipping the orientation of its spin pole. Thus, YORP cycles cause asteroids to random walk in Yarkovsky drift direction. Over time, YORP cycles should turn families from V’s into blobs in semimajor axis, diameter space. This is observed for ancient families (e.g., Maria, Koronis). The question is why we do not see it for middle-aged families (e.g., Eulalia, Flora), where most of their observed members should have experienced multiple YORP cycles. A possible solution is a mechanism we call “variable YORP”. Statler (2009) found that tiny shape changes to small asteroids (e.g., boulder movement, small crater formation) can alter the strength and direction of an asteroid’s YORP torques. This allows asteroid spin rates but not obliquities to random walk over time. We find the inclusion of variable YORP slows down the onset of YORP cycles, allowing middle-aged families to maintain their V-shapes. Using an asteroid evolution model that includes a formulation of variable YORP, we will show how we can, for the first time, compute accurate formation ages for roughly billion-year old families such as Eulalia, Flora, and New Polana.

Bottke, William; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Nesvorny, D.; Walsh, K.; Delbo, M.; Lauretta, D.; Connolly, H.; OSIRIS-REx Team

2013-10-01

41

Star-forming galaxies growing up over the last ten billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presented in this thesis investigates the evolution of star-forming galaxies over the last ten billion years. This time period encompasses nearly three-fourths of the age of the Universe, when a substantial fraction of the total stellar mass forms, and the sites of active star formation shift to lower-mass galaxies. The first study presented here combines galaxies from the spectroscopic datasets of the FORS Deep Field and the MUNICS Survey and provides the first significant investigation of the specific star formation rate (SSFR; star formation rate [SFR] per unit stellar mass) over a wide range of stellar masses and redshifts (reaching redshift z = 1.5). From [OII]-derived SFRs, we find that low-mass galaxies have higher SSFRs all the way to z = 1.5, implying that star formation contributes progressively more to the growth of stellar mass in low-mass galaxies than in high-mass galaxies. In the follow-up to this study, we combine several near-infrared-selected samples to create one of the largest collections of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts and morphologies from Hubble Space Telescope images, to characterize the stellar mass build up in galaxies since z = 1.6. The primary data comes from the FORS Deep Field, the MUNICS Survey, the GOODS-South field as observed by the K20 survey and ESO, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a local comparison sample. After bringing together extensive photometric and spectroscopic data sets from several publicly available surveys, we use identical methods to derive physical properties and investigate how galaxy populations evolve with time. Galaxy properties include stellar masses derived from multiwavelength photometry, star formation rates calculated from [OII]l3726Å emission lines, metallicity, color, and SSFRs. We find that the reddest, yet actively star-forming, disk-dominated galaxy population present at z ~ 1.3, decreases in number by z ~ 0.3 during the same timeframe when the bluest quiescent, disk-dominated galaxy population increases in number. We confirm the previously identified morphological separation in the SSFR versus M * plane found for local samples and for galaxies at z = 0.7: bulge-dominated galaxies are more massive and have lower SSFRs. We extend this relation for the first time to z = 1.6, showing that galaxies with high SSFRs and disk-dominated structures tend to shift to lower masses as redshift decreases. We identify an observed upper envelop in SSFR that lies roughly parallel to lines of constant SFR, decreases with time, and is unaffected by incompleteness among the samples. We apply common star formation histories (constant, exponential, and power law) to understand the evolving populations we see, but cannot simultaneously reproduce low-mass galaxies with high SSFRs and high-mass galaxies with low SSFRs at all redshifts and over our full mass range. Current semi-analytic models attempt to understand the mass at which galaxies stop forming stars through connections to Active Galactic Nuclei feedback, gas consumption, declining galaxy merger rates and/or changes in the incoming cold gas supply, but none can explain the gradual and constant decline of star formation consistent among all galaxies below this mass. We suggest a possible resolution where star formation histories of galaxies are dependent on morphology, in addition to the growing evidence for lower mass galaxies to begin forming stars at later times, and with lower initial SFRs than the initial SFRs experienced at earlier times by higher mass galaxies.

Bauer, Amanda Elaine

2008-12-01

42

Yates field, west Texas: thousands of caves, millions of years, billions of barrels  

SciTech Connect

Since its discovery in 1926, the Yates field has produced 1.04 billion bbl of oil from an estimated original oil in place of approximately 4 billion bbl. The reservoir produces from Upper Permian dolomites, siltstones, and sandstones at depths from 1000 to 1900 ft (305 to 580 m). Wells with extraordinary flow rates were common during the early life of the field. Of the 636 wells drilled before unitization of the field in 1976, 203 potentialed for more than 10,000 BOPD, 26 for more than 80,000 BOPD, and one for more than 200,000 BOPD. These remarkable early productivities were due to several geologic factors: (1) reservoir pressures that were considerably in excess of those needed to support flowing wells; (2) an immense network of reservoir pores, ranging in size from micropores to small caves, tied together by open fractures; and (3) an oil column that, at discovery, filled at least 350 ft (107 m) of closure in the broad Yates dome, which covers an area of 35 mi/sup 2/ (91 km/sup 2/).

Craig, D.H.

1987-11-01

43

Microfossils of sulphur-metabolizing cells in 3.4-billion-year-old rocks of Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulphur isotope data from early Archaean rocks suggest that microbes with metabolisms based on sulphur existed almost 3.5 billion years ago, leading to suggestions that the earliest microbial ecosystems were sulphur-based. However, morphological evidence for these sulphur-metabolizing bacteria has been elusive. Here we report the presence of microstructures from the 3.4-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation in Western Australia that are associated with micrometre-sized pyrite crystals. The microstructures we identify exhibit indicators of biological affinity, including hollow cell lumens, carbonaceous cell walls enriched in nitrogen, taphonomic degradation, organization into chains and clusters, and ?13C values of -33 to -46‰ Vienna PeeDee Belemnite (VPDB). We therefore identify them as microfossils of spheroidal and ellipsoidal cells and tubular sheaths demonstrating the organization of multiple cells. The associated pyrite crystals have ?33S values between -1.65 and +1.43‰ and ?34S values ranging from -12 to +6‰ Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite (VCDT). We interpret the pyrite crystals as the metabolic by-products of these cells, which would have employed sulphate-reduction and sulphur-disproportionation pathways. These microfossils are about 200 million years older than previously described microfossils from Palaeoarchaean siliciclastic environments.

Wacey, David; Kilburn, Matt R.; Saunders, Martin; Cliff, John; Brasier, Martin D.

2011-10-01

44

Magnetite 3D colloidal crystals formed in the early solar system 4.6 billion years ago.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional colloidal crystals made of ferromagnetic particles, such as magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), cannot be synthesized in principle because of the strong attractive magnetic interaction. However, we discovered colloidal crystals composed of polyhedral magnetite nanocrystallites of uniform size in the range of a few hundred nanometers in the Tagish Lake meteorite. Those colloidal crystals were formed 4.6 billion years ago and thus are much older than natural colloidal crystals on earth, such as opals, which formed about 100 million years ago. We found that the size of each individual magnetite particle determines its morphology, which in turn plays an important role in deciding the packing structure of the colloidal crystals. We also hypothesize that each particle has a flux-closed magnetic domain structure, which reduces the interparticle magnetic force significantly. PMID:21563777

Nozawa, Jun; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; van Enckevort, Willem; Nakamura, Tomoki; Kimura, Yuki; Miura, Hitoshi; Satoh, Hisao; Nagashima, Ken; Konoto, Makoto

2011-05-18

45

Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years ago - Evidence at Kolar, south India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Archean Kolar Schist Belt, south India, is a suture zone where two gneiss terranes and at least two amphibolite terranes with distinct histories were accreted. Amphibolites from the eastern and western sides of the schist belt have distinct incompatible element and isotopic characteristics suggesting that their volcanic protoliths were derived from different mantle sources. The amphibolite and gneiss terranes were juxtaposed by horizontal compression and shearing between 2530 and 2420 million years ago (Ma) along a zone marked by the Kolar Schist Belt. This history of accretion of discrete crustal terranes resembles those of Phanerozoic convergent margins and thus suggests that plate tectonics operated on earth by 2500 Ma.

Krogstad, E. J.; Hanson, G. N.; Balakrishnan, S.; Rajamani, V.; Mukhopadhyay, D. K.

1989-03-01

46

Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years ago: evidence at kolar, South India.  

PubMed

The Archean Kolar Schist Belt, south India, is a suture zone where two gneiss terranes and at least two amphibolite terranes with distinct histories were accrted. Amphibolites from the eastern and western sides of the schist belt have distinct incompatible element and isotopic characteristics sugesting that their volcanic protoliths were derived from dint mantle sources. The amphibolite and gneiss terranes were juxtaposed by horizontal compression and shearing between 2530 and 2420 million years ago (Ma) along a zone marked by the Kolar Schist Belt. This history of accretion of discrete crustal terranes resembles those of Phanerozoic convergent margins and thus suggests that plate tectonics operated on Earth by 2500 Ma. PMID:17808265

Krogstad, E J; Balakrishnan, S; Mukhopadhyay, D K; Rajamani, V; Hanson, G N

1989-03-10

47

Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11thFive-Year Plan  

SciTech Connect

China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious targetfor energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country sgross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and bindingtarget has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift inChina's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energydevelopment. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates intoan annual reduction of over one billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making theChinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in theworld today. While it is still too early to tell whether China willachieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend inenergy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options towardmeeting the 20 percent target using a detailed endues energymodel.

Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

2007-05-01

48

Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?  

SciTech Connect

China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

2007-07-01

49

Fourteen Times the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO HARPS Instrument Discovers Smallest Ever Extra-Solar Planet Summary A European team of astronomers [1] has discovered the lightest known planet orbiting a star other than the sun (an "exoplanet"). The new exoplanet orbits the bright star mu Arae located in the southern constellation of the Altar. It is the second planet discovered around this star and completes a full revolution in 9.5 days. With a mass of only 14 times the mass of the Earth, the new planet lies at the threshold of the largest possible rocky planets, making it a possible super Earth-like object. Uranus, the smallest of the giant planets of the Solar System has a similar mass. However Uranus and the new exoplanet differ so much by their distance from the host star that their formation and structure are likely to be very different. This discovery was made possible by the unprecedented accuracy of the HARPS spectrograph on ESO's 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, which allows radial velocities to be measured with a precision better than 1 m/s. It is another clear demonstration of the European leadership in the field of exoplanet research. PR Photo 25a/04: The HARPS Spectrograph and the 3.6m Telescope PR Photo 25b/04: Observed Velocity Variation of mu Arae (3.6m/HARPS, 1.2m Swiss/CORALIE, AAT/UCLES) PR Photo 25c/04: Velocity Variation of mu Arae Observed by HARPS (3.6m/HARPS) PR Photo 25d/04: "Velocity Curve" of mu Arae A unique planet hunting machine ESO PR Photo 25a/04 ESO PR Photo 25a/04 The HARPS Spectrograph and the 3.6m Telescope [Preview - JPEG: 602 x 400 pix - 211k] [Normal - JPEG: 1202 x 800 pix - 645k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 25a/04 represents a montage of the HARPS spectrograph and the 3.6m telescope at La Silla. The upper left shows the dome of the telescope, while the upper right illustrates the telescope itself. The HARPS spectrograph is shown in the lower image during laboratory tests. The vacuum tank is open so that some of the high-precision components inside can be seen. Since the first detection in 1995 of a planet around the star 51 Peg by Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz from the Geneva Observatory (Switzerland), astronomers have learned that our Solar System is not unique, as more than 120 giant planets orbiting other stars were discovered mostly by radial-velocity surveys (cf. ESO PR 13/00, ESO PR 07/01, and ESO PR 03/03). This fundamental observational method is based on the detection of variations in the velocity of the central star, due to the changing direction of the gravitational pull from an (unseen) exoplanet as it orbits the star. The evaluation of the measured velocity variations allows to deduce the planet's orbit, in particular the period and the distance from the star, as well as a minimum mass [2]. The continued quest for exoplanets requires better and better instrumentation. In this context, ESO undoubtedly took the leadership with the new HARPS spectrograph (High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher) of the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (see ESO PR 06/03). Offered in October 2003 to the research community in the ESO member countries, this unique instrument is optimized to detect planets in orbit around other stars ("exoplanets") by means of accurate (radial) velocity measurements with an unequalled precision of 1 metre per second. HARPS was built by a European Consortium [3] in collaboration with ESO. Already from the beginning of its operation, it has demonstrated its very high efficiency. By comparison with CORALIE, another well known planet-hunting optimized spectrograph installed on the Swiss-Euler 1.2-m telescope at La Silla (cf ESO PR 18/98, 12/99, 13/00), the typical observation times have been reduced by a factor one hundred and the accuracy of the measurements has been increased by a factor ten. These improvements have opened new perspectives in the search for extra-solar planets and have set new standards in terms of instrumental precision. The planetary system around mu Arae The star mu Arae is about 50 light years away. This solar-like star is located in the sout

2004-08-01

50

Emplacement of a large igneous province as a possible cause of banded iron formation 2.45 billion years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LATEST Archaean and earliest Palaeoproterozoic times (from 2.6 to 2.2 billion years ago) have generally been viewed as a largely quiescent period of Earth history; the geological record indicates the very slow deposition of pelagic and chemical sediments1,2, and bears only a limited record of magmatic and tectonic activity3-5. Such quiescence is consistent with the contention that the Earth's main banded iron formations (BIFs)-finely laminated chemical sedimentary rocks, rich in iron oxide-formed slowly as oxygen abundances in the oceans gradually increased, thus reducing the capacity of sea water to retain dissolved iron6-10. Here we show that a large igneous province, comprising >30,000km3 of dolerite, basalt and rhyolite, accompanied deposition of a Hamersley Province BIF 2,449 +/-3 million years ago. This observation indicates that Hamersley BIFs formed during a major tectono-magmatic event and were deposited very much faster than previously thought, at similar rates to (or faster than) modern pelagic sediments. Thus the largest Palaeoproterozoic BIFs, rather than simply reflecting a gradual increase in the oxygen content of the oceans during a period of tectonic quiescence, are more likely to have formed as a result of an increased supply of suboxic iron- and silica-rich sea water upwelling onto continental shelves during a pulse (or pulses) of increased submarine magmatic and hydrothermal activity.

Barley, M. E.; Pickard, A. L.; Sylvester, P. J.

1997-01-01

51

Global resurfacing of Mercury 4.0-4.1 billion years ago by heavy bombardment and volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most heavily cratered terrains on Mercury have been estimated to be about 4 billion years (Gyr) old, but this was based on images of only about 45 per cent of the surface; even older regions could have existed in the unobserved portion. These terrains have a lower density of craters less than 100 km in diameter than does the Moon, an observation attributed to preferential resurfacing on Mercury. Here we report global crater statistics of Mercury's most heavily cratered terrains on the entire surface. Applying a recent model for early lunar crater chronology and an updated dynamical extrapolation to Mercury, we find that the oldest surfaces were emplaced just after the start of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) about 4.0-4.1 Gyr ago. Mercury's global record of large impact basins, which has hitherto not been dated, yields a similar surface age. This agreement implies that resurfacing was global and was due to volcanism, as previously suggested. This activity ended during the tail of the LHB, within about 300-400 million years after the emplacement of the oldest terrains on Mercury. These findings suggest that persistent volcanism could have been aided by the surge of basin-scale impacts during this bombardment.

Marchi, Simone; Chapman, Clark R.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Head, James W.; Bottke, W. F.; Strom, Robert G.

2013-07-01

52

A large population of galaxies 9 to 12 billion years back in the history of the Universe.  

PubMed

To understand the evolution of galaxies, we need to know as accurately as possible how many galaxies were present in the Universe at different epochs. Galaxies in the young Universe have hitherto mainly been identified using their expected optical colours, but this leaves open the possibility that a significant population remains undetected because their colours are the result of a complex mix of stars, gas, dust or active galactic nuclei. Here we report the results of a flux-limited I-band survey of galaxies at look-back times of 9 to 12 billion years. We find 970 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts between 1.4 and 5. This population is 1.6 to 6.2 times larger than previous estimates, with the difference increasing towards brighter magnitudes. Strong ultraviolet continua (in the rest frame of the galaxies) indicate vigorous star formation rates of more than 10-100 solar masses per year. As a consequence, the cosmic star formation rate representing the volume-averaged production of stars is higher than previously measured at redshifts of 3 to 4. PMID:16177783

Le Fèvre, O; Paltani, S; Arnouts, S; Charlot, S; Foucaud, S; Ilbert, O; McCracken, H J; Zamorani, G; Bottini, D; Garilli, B; Le Brun, V; Maccagni, D; Picat, J P; Scaramella, R; Scodeggio, M; Tresse, L; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Cappi, A; Ciliegi, P; Contini, T; Franzetti, P; Gavignaud, I; Guzzo, L; Iovino, A; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; Mazure, A; Meneux, B; Merighi, R; Pellò, R; Pollo, A; Pozzetti, L; Radovich, M; Zucca, E; Arnaboldi, M; Bondi, M; Bongiorno, A; Busarello, G; Gregorini, L; Lamareille, F; Mathez, G; Mellier, Y; Merluzzi, P; Ripepi, V; Rizzo, D

2005-09-22

53

A decrease of the gas exchanges between galaxies and the intergalactic medium, from 12 to 6 billion years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a representative sample of 65 intermediate-mass galaxies at z˜ 0.6, we have investigated the interplay between the main ingredients of chemical evolution: metal abundance, gas mass, stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR). All quantities have been estimated using deep spectroscopy and photometry from ultraviolet to infrared and assuming an inversion of the Kennicutt-Schmitt law for the gas fraction. Six billion years ago, galaxies had a mean gas fraction of 32 ± 3 per cent, i.e. twice that of their local counterparts. Using higher redshift samples from the literature, we explore the gas phases and estimate the evolution of the mean gas fraction of distant galaxies over the last 11 Gyr. The gas fraction increases linearly at the rate of 4 per cent Gyr-1 from z˜ 0 to ˜2.2. We also demonstrate for a statistically representative sample that <4 per cent of the z˜ 0.6 galaxies are undergoing outflow events, in sharp contrast with z˜ 2.2 galaxies. The observed co-evolution of metals and gas over the past 6 Gyr favours a scenario in which the population of intermediate-mass galaxies evolved as closed systems, converting their own gas reservoirs into stars.

Rodrigues, M.; Puech, M.; Hammer, F.; Rothberg, B.; Flores, H.

2012-04-01

54

Evidence from massive siderite beds for a CO2-rich atmosphere before ~ 1.8 billion years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally thought that, in order to compensate for lower solar flux and maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth, methane must have been an important greenhouse gas before ~2.2 billion years (Gyr) ago. This is based upon a simple thermodynamic calculation that relates the absence of siderite (FeCO3) in some pre-2.2-Gyr palaeosols to atmospheric CO2 concentrations that would have been too low to have provided the necessary greenhouse effect. Using multi-dimensional thermodynamic analyses and geological evidence, we show here that the absence of siderite in palaeosols does not constrain atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Siderite is absent in many palaeosols (both pre- and post-2.2-Gyr in age) because the O2 concentrations and pH conditions in well-aerated soils have favoured the formation of ferric (Fe3+)-rich minerals, such as goethite, rather than siderite. Siderite, however, has formed throughout geological history in subsurface environments, such as euxinic seas, where anaerobic organisms created H2-rich conditions. The abundance of large, massive siderite-rich beds in pre-1.8-Gyr sedimentary sequences and their carbon isotope ratios indicate that the atmospheric CO2 concentration was more than 100 times greater than today, causing the rain and ocean waters to be more acidic than today. We therefore conclude that CO2 alone (without a significant contribution from methane) could have provided the necessary greenhouse effect to maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth.

Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yumiko; Kumazawa, Kazumasa

2004-05-01

55

Heavy carbon in two-billion-year-old marbles from Lofoten-Vesteralen, Norway: Implications for the Precambrian carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

High {delta}{sup 13}C values of up to 12{per thousand} (PDB) occur in two-billion-year-old high-grade marbles from Lofoten-Vesteralen, Norway. Correlations of high {delta}{sup 13}C with high {delta}{sup 18}O of up to 25{per thousand} (SMOW) suggest that premetamorphic {delta}{sup 13}C values were above 10{per thousand} (PDB) over a broad area. These marbles are associated with graphite rich schists, often containing in excess of 25 wt% carbon and having {delta}{sup 13}C {approximately} {minus}25{per thousand} (PDB). A compilation of data in the literature suggests that the deposition of limestones with isotopically heavy carbon was common at around 2.0 Ga. The data are consistent with worldwide or localized positive excursions in the {delta}{sup 13}C of marine bicarbonate. Positive excursions in {delta}{sup 13}C of seawater at this time may have coincided with a transition to a more oxidizing atmosphere and ocean.

Baker, A.J. (Grant Institute of Geology, Edinburgh (Scotland) Scottish Universities Reactor Research Centre, Glasgow (Scotland)); Fallick, A.E. (Scottish Universities Reactor Research Centre, Glasgow (Scotland))

1989-05-01

56

Mobile hydrocarbon microspheres from >2-billion-year-old carbon-bearing seams in the South African deep subsurface.  

PubMed

By ~2.9 Ga, the time of the deposition of the Witwatersrand Supergroup, life is believed to have been well established on Earth. Carbon remnants of the microbial biosphere from this time period are evident in sediments from around the world. In the Witwatersrand Supergroup, the carbonaceous material is often concentrated in seams, closely associated with the gold deposits and may have been a mobile phase 2 billion years ago. Whereas today the carbon in the Witwatersrand Supergroup is presumed to be immobile, hollow hydrocarbon spheres ranging in size from <1 ?m to >50 ?m were discovered emanating from a borehole drilled through the carbon-bearing seams suggesting that a portion of the carbon may still be mobile in the deep subsurface. ToF-SIMS and STXM analyses revealed that these spheres contain a suite of alkane, alkenes, and aromatic compounds consistent with the described organic-rich carbon seams within the Witwatersrand Supergroup's auriferous reef horizons. Analysis by electron microscopy and ToF-SIMS, however, revealed that these spheres, although most likely composed of biogenic carbon and resembling biological organisms, do not retain any true structural, that is, fossil, information and were formed by an abiogenic process. PMID:22901282

Wanger, G; Moser, D; Hay, M; Myneni, S; Onstott, T C; Southam, G

2012-08-20

57

Global resurfacing of Mercury 4.0-4.1 billion years ago by heavy bombardment and volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early work, based on Mariner 10 data, estimated that the most heavily cratered terrains on Mercury were about 4 billion years (Gyr) old. This conclusion was based on images of only about 45 per cent of the surface; even older regions could have existed in the unobserved portion. The most heavily cratered terrains have a lower density of craters less than 100 km in diameter than does the Moon, an observation attributed to preferential resurfacing on Mercury. In this work, we present global crater statistics of Mercury’s most heavily cratered terrains on the entire surface. Craters larger than 25 km diameter were measured on a global mosaic with a resolution of 500 meters per pixel based on MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) images obtained during its first year orbiting Mercury. Applying a recent model for early lunar crater chronology and an updated dynamical extrapolation to Mercury, we find that the oldest surfaces were emplaced just after the start of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) about 4.0-4.1 Gyr ago. Mercury’s global record of large impact basins, which has hitherto not been dated, yields a similar surface age. This agreement implies that resurfacing was global and was due to volcanism, as previously suggested. This activity ended during the tail of the LHB, within about 300-400 million years after the emplacement of the oldest terrains on Mercury. These findings suggest that persistent volcanism could have been aided by the surge of basin-scale impacts during this bombardment.

Marchi, Simone; Chapman, C. R.; Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Bottke, W. F.; Strom, R. G.

2013-10-01

58

Two-phase increase in the maximum size of life over 3.5 billion years reflects biological innovation and environmental opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum size of organisms has increased enormously since the initial appearance of life >3.5 billion years ago (Gya), but the pattern and timing of this size increase is poorly known. Consequently, controls underlying the size spectrum of the global biota have been difficult to evaluate. Our period-level compilation of the largest known fossil organisms demonstrates that maximum size increased

Jonathan L. Payne; Alison G. Boyer; James H. Brown; Seth Finnegan; Michal Kowalewski; Richard A. Krause; S. Kathleen Lyons; Craig R. McClain; Daniel W. McShea; Philip M. Novack-Gottshall; Felisa A. Smith; Jennifer A. Stempien; Steve C. Wang

2009-01-01

59

Fourteen-Year Follow-Up of Children with and without Speech/Language Impairments: Speech/Language Stability and Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 14-year prospective, longitudinal study of children with (n=114) and without (n=128) speech and/or language impairments found (1) high rates of continued communication difficulties; (2) considerable stability in language performance over time; and (3) better long-term outcomes for those with initial speech impairments than for those with…

Johnson, Carla J.; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Young, Arlene; Escobar, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Wilson, Beth; Brownlie, E. B.; Douglas, Lori; Taback, Nathan; Lam, Isabel; Wang, Min

1999-01-01

60

[Schnitzler syndrome--report on a fourteen-year course of the disease and an overview of information on the disease].  

PubMed

Schnitzler syndrome is a rare disease characterised by chronic urticaria and the presence of monoclonal IgM immunoglobulin, and by other symptoms. We report ourexperience with 14-year treatment of a patient. The first medical examination in our workplace was at the beginning of 1995 and the patient was diagnosed with the disease in 1996 (at the age of 52). Antihistaminics, the first medication used to relieve the symptoms of urticaria, had no subjective or objective effect. After the detection of osteolytic-osteosclerotic changes in the pelvic region, in areas with intense pain, we started treatment with pamidronate (90 mg at 28-day intervals), and the pain disappeared completely within 3 months of application of the drug. When the bisphosphonate therapy was interrupted, the pain recurred and receded completely after renewal of bisphosphonate administration. After the diagnosis, we gave the patient high doses of dexametazone (40 mg day 1-4, 10-13 and 20-23, at 28-day cycles). However, the therapy suppressed urticaria only on the days dexametasone was administered and the effect did not last when the drug was discontinued. Therefore we moved to continuous daily doses of prednisone (10-30 mg, depending on the intensity of problems), which was the only therapy with a long-term effect which was relatively well tolerated at the same time. Based on the excellent effect of 2-chlordeoxyadenosine in Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia, three cycles of this therapy were administered to the patient in 1996 (0.1 mg/kg/day, 7 days, at 28-day intervals). After the first infusion, urticarious lesions disappeared, but the positive effect on skin eruptions was limited in time and lasted only 14 days after the last infusion, i.e. the medication proved ineffective from a long-term point of view. The first improvement lasting for a longer period of time (partial remission) was achieved by regular application of interferon alpha (3 QU 3 times a week). However, adverse effects of interferon alpha prevailed after two years and the therapy was discontinued. Similarly phototherapy using the PUVA method resulted in partial regression of urticarious symptoms. Subsequently tested cyclosporine A (5 mg/kg/day) brought no benefit. Thalidomide (100 mg in the evening) administered on a continuous basis relieved pruritus and improved sleep disturbed by pruritus. However, adverse effects prevailed after 4 months and the therapy had to be discontinued, too. In 2005, we were hoping to achieve positive results with the most effective treatment for multiple myeloma of the time, a combination of bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1, 4, 8 and 11, thalidomide 100 mg daily and dexametazon 20 mg p.o. on days 1-4 and 8-11 in 21-day cycles --VTD). A total of 4 complete cycles and 4 cycles with bortezomib reduced by 50% were applied. Urticarious eruptions were reduced by at least 50% in the course of the therapy, and also the concentration of monoclonal immunoglobin decreased temporarily by more than 50%. However, after the therapy was discontinued, the symptoms returned with their original intensity, which means that VTD regime did not provide a long-term therapeutic response. In 2007, we started the anakinra (Kineret) therapy. Skin symptoms disappeared after the first injection and a dose of 100 mg/ day has kept the patient free of skin symptoms for 12 months by now. Also the CRP value which had been constantly high returned to normal, and haemoglobin values increased to achieve physiological range. In the course of 14 years, we confirmed partial therapeutic effect of glucocorticoids administered on a continuous basis, as well as a partial therapeutic effect of interferon alpha, thalidomide and PUVA, but all the therapies had to be discontinued due to adverse effects. A major turn, i.e. the complete disappearance of skin symptoms and normalisation of CRP and haemoglobin values, only came with anakinra which has become the drug of the first choice for the above syndrome. PMID:19140523

Adam, Z; Krejcí, M; Pour, L; Neubauer, J; Prásek, J; Hájek, R

2008-12-01

61

Dipolar geomagnetic field and low orbital obliquity during the last two billion years: Evidence from paleomagnetism of evaporite basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleomagnetism of climatically sensitive sedimentary rock types, such as glacial deposits and evaporites, can test the uniformitarianism of ancient geomagnetic fields and paleoclimatic zones. Precambrian glacial deposits laid down in near-equatorial paleomagnetic latitudes indicate a paleoclimatic paradox that can be explained either by Snowball Earth episodes, or high orbital obliquity, or dramatically non-uniformitarian geomagnetic fields. Here I present the first global paleomagnetic compilation of the Earth's entire basin-scale evaporite record. Evaporation exceeds precipitation in today's subtropical desert belts, generally within a zone of 15-35° from the equator. Assuming a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) magnetic field for Cenozoic- Mesozoic time, evaporite basins of the past 250 Myr have a volume-weighted mean paleolatitude of 23±4°, also squarely within the subtropics. Carboniferous-Permian evaporites have an indistinguishable weighted-mean paleolatitude of 22±4°, which does not change significantly when recently hypothesized octupolar field components are included in the calculations. Early Paleozoic (including late Ediacaran) evaporites are lower-latitude (weighted mean 10±5°), but detailed analyses of individual examples show this cannot be attributed solely to nondipolar field components or sedimentary inclination biases; the cause may be due to particular paleogeographic effects on regional tropical climates, or incomplete sampling by the paleomagnetic data. Proterozoic (pre-Ediacaran) evaporite basins have a volume- weighted mean inclination of 33±4°, which would correspond to a mean paleolatitude of 18±3° for a pure GAD field. This latter mean is indistinguishable, within error, from the Cenozoic-Mesozoic mean and demonstrates the success of the GAD model as a first-order description of the geomagnetic field for the last two billion years. Also, general circulation climate models of a high-obliquity Earth predict either no strong zonal trends in mean precipitation-evaporation, or a slight minimum at the rotational equator. The focused subtropical concentration of Proterozoic evaporite latitudes, as shown above, is inconsistent with the high- obliquity hypothesis for Precambrian Earth.

Evans, D. A.

2006-05-01

62

The thesis of stages fourteen years later  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author indicates the changes and additions he would make to his book ` The Quality of Education in Developing Countries' (1966) if he were re-writing it in 1980. He would make clearer that his primary interest is in a continuum of change, the process of growth of a school system, and that the `stages' are only a convenient non-mathematical artifact to make the thesis more useful to administrators and planners. In the light of more recent developments and experiences, he now gives new stress to the pluralism of objectives at the stage of Meaning, and discusses the political, social, cultural and financial reasons why a country may choose not to take the difficult step from stage III to stage IV. Recent forms of alternative education, particularly those embodying plans for lifelong education, offer some hope of bypassing his thesis of stages. More consideration is given to constraints other than that of teacher qualification, though the difficulty of changing the skills, habits, attitudes and purposes in the teaching profession remain the chief obstacle to qualitative growth. Particular attention is paid to `crash' programmes where processes that are, by their very nature, successive are compressed into simultaneous or almost simultaneous ones. Some implications of the thesis of stages for teacher training are briefly dealt with. Regarding the application of the thesis to secondary education, he maintains that a better model of growth would be one based on the capacity of secondary education to respond to the changing economic and social demands of the community. Finally, he suggests three methods of testing his hypotheses and pleads that more consideration be given to building up a body of educational, theory based on the experience of developing countries over the past three decades.

Beeby, C. E.

1980-12-01

63

The [sup 18]O/[sup 16]O ratio of 2-billion-year-old seawater inferred from ancient oceanic crust  

SciTech Connect

An oxygen isotope profile of the 2-billion-year-old Purtuniq ophiolite overlaps with similar profiles of younger ophiolites and the modern oceanic crust. This overlap implies (i) that there was a similar style of seawater-ocean crust interaction during the past 2 billion years; (ii) that the oxygen isotope composition of early Proterozoic seawater was similar to the modern value; (iii) that early Proterozoic sea-floor spreading rates were similar to, or greater than, average modern rates; and (iv) that early Proterozoic carbonate rocks and cherts with low [sup 18]O/[sup 16]O ratios do not reflect global-scale [sup 18]O depletion of early Proterozoic oceans. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Holmden, C.; Muehlenbachs, K. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

1993-03-19

64

Composition and syngeneity of molecular fossils from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old Mount Bruce Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shales of very low metamorphic grade from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old (Ga) Mount Bruce Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, were analyzed for solvent extractable hydrocarbons. Samples were collected from ten drill cores and two mines in a sampling area centered in the Hamersley Basin near Wittenoom and ranging 200 km to the southeast, 100 km to the southwest and

Jochen J Brocks; Roger Buick; Graham A Logan; Roger E Summons

2003-01-01

65

Legius Syndrome in Fourteen Families  

PubMed Central

Legius syndrome presents as an autosomal dominant condition characterized by café-au-lait macules with or without freckling and sometimes a Noonan-like appearance and/or learning difficulties. It is caused by germline loss-of-function SPRED1 mutations and is a member of the RAS-MAPK pathway syndromes. Most mutations result in a truncated protein and only a few inactivating missense mutations have been reported. Since only a limited number of patients has been reported up until now, the full clinical and mutational spectrum is still unknown. We report mutation data and clinical details in fourteen new families with Legius syndrome. Six novel germline mutations are described. The Trp31Cys mutation is a new pathogenic SPRED1 missense mutation. Clinical details in the 14 families confirmed the absence of neurofibromas, and Lisch nodules, and the absence of a high prevalence of central nervous system tumors. We report white matter T2 hyperintensities on brain MRI scans in 2 patients and a potential association between postaxial polydactyly and Legius syndrome. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Denayer, Ellen; Chmara, Magdalena; Brems, Hilde; Kievit, Anneke Maat; van Bever, Yolande; Van den Ouweland, Ans MW; Van Minkelen, Rick; de Goede-Bolder, Arja; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Lakeman, Phillis; Beert, Eline; Ishizaki, Takuma; Mori, Tomoaki; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Van den Ende, Jenneke; Mangold, Elisabeth; Peltonen, Sirkku; Brice, Glen; Rankin, Julia; Van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Legius, Eric

2011-01-01

66

Recrystallized Granite Surface Fissures Of The Wasatch Range, Produced Not Later Than 1/4 Billion Years Ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our studies of numerous recrystallized fissures in 4 granite plutons of Wasatch Range, namely, Mount Tuscarora-Wolverine-Millicent,^1,6,7 Bonanza Peak-Midway,^2 Little Cottonwood Canyon and Ferguson Canyon plutons, all of which formed magma chambers reaching Earth-atmosphere interface, establish that they resulted from high thermal gradients rather than passages of earthquake waves. Magma chambers formed, solidified during Permo-Caroniferous Ice Age(roughly, 1/3...1/4 billion yr ago, a time interval preceding period of extrusion of Rocky Mountains, 10^8 yr ago), and while fluid, belched lava flows^5 extending over its reservoir walls to run hundred of meters. We have shown how the magma melts, dilutes and replaces overlying metamorphic rock^7 to reach Earth's surface so that a pluton containing large amounts of dross(Fe-ores, etc.) had a short fluid lifetime. We also described how offshoots from a long-running main fissure form acute angles with that fissure.^3 Such recrystallized fissures, reaching depths of perhaps 100 m, have initial fractures near time of solidification of their uppermost portion of magma chamber while still hot(<= 1600^oF), a time when max. stresses occur near granite surface due to high thermal gradients, owing to snow coverage, cold water contacts due to rain, stream flow over granite surface, partial coverage by ocean, etc., wherever heat sinks might occur, during P-C ice age--when region of Wasatch Range existed at sea level, Salt Lake Valley being covered entirely by ocean water and region east of Wasatch Bouleuard rising gently above Pacific Ocean to elevations of possibly 500-1000 ft, say, at a distance of 10-15 mi to east. This fact is implied by Chinese Wall of white limestone on Grandeur Peak, unequivocally, and similarly another in Neff's Canyon running e. from n. ridge of 9200 ft. saddle-summit, as well as a dozen other ancient calcified stream beds emptying into ocean to w., in Salt Lake Valley. This existed prior to regional uplift(with uncontorted topography) of over 4000 ft. Details of how earthquake wave passages form an epicenter from which propagate a stress field in diametrically opposite directions to open up, by a few meters, the surface granite in forming a long running fissure^1 of km length, are unknown. Several examples of thermal fissures of 3-4 ft widths are known but one of 6ft width at epicenter running both n and s for only 50-75m to terminations is located on w spur of Maybird Gulch, and is seen when viewing w from trail leading to upper 2 small lakes. In contrast, a 12 ft wide fissure, 50-100m s of White Pine Lake,^1 resulted from earthquake waves. ^1K.L.McDonald, Bul. Am. Phys. Soc., 32(4),1124; ^235(9),2132; ^333(3),485; ^433(9),1982-3; ^536(9),2466; ^637(5),1256-7; ^738(1),740.

McDonald, Keith L.

2000-05-01

67

Unsuccessful therapy with adefovir and entecavir-tenofovir in a patient with chronic hepatitis B infection with previous resistance to lamivudine: a fourteen-year evolution of hepatitis B virus mutations  

PubMed Central

Background Complex mutants can be selected under sequential selective pressure by HBV therapy. To determine hepatitis B virus genomic evolution during antiviral therapy we characterized the HBV quasi-species in a patient who did no respond to therapy following lamivudine breakthrough for a period of 14 years. Case Presentation The polymerase and precore/core genes were amplified and sequenced at determined intervals in a period of 14 years. HBV viral load and HBeAg/Anti-HBe serological profiles as well as amino transferase levels were also measured. A mixture of lamivudine-resistant genotype A2 HBV strains harboring the rtM204V mutation coexisted in the patient following viral breakthrough to lamivudine. The L180M+M204V dominant mutant displayed strong lamivudine-resistance. As therapy was changed to adefovir, then to entecavir, and finally to entecavir-tenofovir the viral load showed fluctuations but lamivudine-resistant strains continued to be selected, with minor contributions to the HBV quasi-species composition of additional resistance-associated mutations. At the end of the 14-year follow up period, high viral loads were predominant, with viral strains harboring the lamivudine-resistance signature rtL180M+M204V. The precore/core frame A1762T and G1764A double mutation was detected before treatment and remaining in this condition during the entire follow-up. Specific entecavir and tenofovir primary resistance-associated mutations were not detected at any time. Plasma concentrations of tenofovir indicated adequate metabolism of the drug. Conclusions We report the selection of HBV mutants carrying well-defined primary resistance mutations that escaped lamivudine in a fourteen-year follow-up period. With the exception of tenofovir resistance mutations, subsequent unselected primary resistance mutations were detected as minor populations into the HBV quasispecies composition during adefovir or entecavir monotherapies. Although tenofovir is considered an appropriate therapeutic alternative for the treatment of entecavir-unresponsive patients, its use was not effective in the case reported here.

2011-01-01

68

5.5 billion -- and growing.  

PubMed

On World Population Day in 1992 the total world population reached 5.5 billion, 100 million more than on July 11, 1991, and it is expected to pass the 6 billion figure by 2000. In developed countries the average number of children is 2/family, while in developing countries the norm is 4 children, a substantial drop from 6 children in the 1960s. The 2 billion level was reached in 1930, the world population doubled from 1 billion in 100 years. The billion mark in 1960 took only 30 years, the 4 billion figure was reached in 1975 in only 15 years, and to grow to 5 billion in 1987 took only 12 years. A 20-year delay to reach replacement level adds another 1 billion to the population size. If the 2-children-per family size had been reached in 1990, the total would still have increased to 8 billion by 2100. Provided the present trend of 3.4 children/couple continues, there will be 102 billion people in 2100. Some claim that the resources of the Earth are already overtaxed with ever-worsening environmental pollution. Family planning information and services have to me made available to those millions who want to avoid pregnancy and ensure a better future for fewer children. PMID:12317568

Robey, B

1992-07-17

69

Spend Billions and They Will Come  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People look at one billion dollars in one of two ways: if it is the result of the long, hard effort of years of fundraising, they rejoice; if it signifies an astronomical budget deficit, they cringe. How, then, should people respond as a community to reaching the $1 billion mark ($1,242,436,438, to be exact) in this year's spending for public…

Fox, Bette-Lee

2004-01-01

70

Spend Billions and They Will Come  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|People look at one billion dollars in one of two ways: if it is the result of the long, hard effort of years of fundraising, they rejoice; if it signifies an astronomical budget deficit, they cringe. How, then, should people respond as a community to reaching the $1 billion mark ($1,242,436,438, to be exact) in this year's spending for public…

Fox, Bette-Lee

2004-01-01

71

Young mare volcanism in the Orientale region contemporary with the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) volcanism peak period ˜2 billion years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crater retention ages of the mare deposits within the Orientale multi-ring impact basin are investigated using 10-m resolution images obtained by the SELENE (Kaguya) spacecraft, in order to constrain the volcanic history of the Moon around the nearside-farside boundary. Precise crater-counting analyses reveal that mare deposits in the Orientale region are much younger than previously estimated: ˜2.9 Ga mare basalt in the eastern part of Mare Orientale and ˜1.8-2.2 Ga mare deposits in Lacus Veris and Lacus Autumni, maria along the northeastern rings of the basin. The latter age estimates indicate that the Orientale region experienced volcanic activities ˜2 billion years after the basin-formation impact. The dominance of a uniform surface age across the mare deposits in the peripheral regions strongly suggests that these volcanic eruptions are contemporary with the elevated volcanic activity episode proposed for the Procellarum KREEP Terrane on the lunar nearside at ˜2 Ga and that this activity peak is much more widespread than previously estimated. The longevity of mare volcanism in the Orientale region further suggests high initial temperatures and/or high content of heat-producing elements in the underlying mantle of this region.

Cho, Yuichiro; Morota, Tomokatsu; Haruyama, Junichi; Yasui, Minami; Hirata, Naru; Sugita, Seiji

2012-06-01

72

Two-phase increase in the maximum size of life over 3.5 billion years reflects biological innovation and environmental opportunity  

PubMed Central

The maximum size of organisms has increased enormously since the initial appearance of life >3.5 billion years ago (Gya), but the pattern and timing of this size increase is poorly known. Consequently, controls underlying the size spectrum of the global biota have been difficult to evaluate. Our period-level compilation of the largest known fossil organisms demonstrates that maximum size increased by 16 orders of magnitude since life first appeared in the fossil record. The great majority of the increase is accounted for by 2 discrete steps of approximately equal magnitude: the first in the middle of the Paleoproterozoic Era (?1.9 Gya) and the second during the late Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic eras (0.6–0.45 Gya). Each size step required a major innovation in organismal complexity—first the eukaryotic cell and later eukaryotic multicellularity. These size steps coincide with, or slightly postdate, increases in the concentration of atmospheric oxygen, suggesting latent evolutionary potential was realized soon after environmental limitations were removed.

Payne, Jonathan L.; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Finnegan, Seth; Kowalewski, Michal; Krause, Richard A.; Lyons, S. Kathleen; McClain, Craig R.; McShea, Daniel W.; Novack-Gottshall, Philip M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stempien, Jennifer A.; Wang, Steve C.

2009-01-01

73

Self-reversed magnetization held by martite in basalt flows from the 1.1-billion-year-old Keweenawan rift, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some basalt flows of the 1.1-billion-year-old Keweenawan Rift exposed at Mamainse Point, Ontario, there is a magnetic phase that holds a remanence antiparallel to the populations of magnetite and hematite that are typical of flows in the succession. The paleomagnetic and geological context of this component demonstrates that it is not a chemical overprint whose remanence is attributable to a subsequently reversed geomagnetic field, but that the component is a self-reversal of the primary magnetization. Here we use rock magnetic experiments and Mössbauer spectroscopy to show that this phase occurs in the most oxidized flows and is held by a fine-grained population of hematite that acquired its self-reversed remanence through interactions with a phase of lower blocking temperature. We propose that this self-reversed hematite is a manifestation of the self-reversal phenomena that has been observed to occur experimentally during the transformation of maghemite to hematite and that has been attributed to negative exchange coupling across the crystal lattices. We suggest that hematite formed in association with iron-silicates in the basalt flows carries a remanence reflective of the field in which it formed, but that martite (hematite pseudomorphed after magnetite) which formed through the progressive oxidation of magnetite to maghemite with subsequent inversion to hematite carries the self-reversed remanence. This study marks the second time that a naturally occurring self-reversed magnetization has been attributed to this mechanism and marks the oldest reported instance of any type of self-reversed remanence. The martite that forms through this process has the ability to retain a record of the negative exchange coupling from the time of its formation for hundreds of millions of years.

Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Berquó, Thelma S.; Maloof, Adam C.

2011-05-01

74

Capital Goods: The $20 Billion Trade Surplus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. trade surplus in capital goods grew more than $6.4 billion in 1974, reaching an all-time high of $20.4 billion -- providing an important offset to the sharp rise in the cost of U.S. oil imports. Considerable publicity in recent years has been acc...

1975-01-01

75

Two Billion Cars: Driving Toward Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, there are roughly a billion cars in the world. Yet within twenty years, the number will double to 2 billion, largely a consequence of China's and India's explosive growth. Given that greenhouse gases are already creating havoc with our climate and that violent conflict in unstable oil-rich nations is on the rise, does this mean that matters will

Daniel Sperling; Deborah Gordon

76

Composition and syngeneity of molecular fossils from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old Mount Bruce Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shales of very low metamorphic grade from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old (Ga) Mount Bruce Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, were analyzed for solvent extractable hydrocarbons. Samples were collected from ten drill cores and two mines in a sampling area centered in the Hamersley Basin near Wittenoom and ranging 200 km to the southeast, 100 km to the southwest and 70 km to the northwest. Almost all analyzed kerogenous sedimentary rocks yielded solvent extractable organic matter. Concentrations of total saturated hydrocarbons were commonly in the range of 1 to 20 ppm (?g/g rock) but reached maximum values of 1000 ppm. The abundance of aromatic hydrocarbons was ˜1 to 30 ppm. Analysis of the extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-MS metastable reaction monitoring (MRM) revealed the presence of n-alkanes, mid- and end-branched monomethylalkanes, ?-cyclohexylalkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, diamondoids, tri- to pentacyclic terpanes, steranes, aromatic steroids and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Neither plant biomarkers nor hydrocarbon distributions indicative of Phanerozoic contamination were detected. The host kerogens of the hydrocarbons were depleted in 13C by 2 to 21‰ relative to n-alkanes, a pattern typical of, although more extreme than, other Precambrian samples. Acyclic isoprenoids showed carbon isotopic depletion relative to n-alkanes and concentrations of 2?-methylhopanes were relatively high, features rarely observed in the Phanerozoic but characteristic of many other Precambrian bitumens. Molecular parameters, including sterane and hopane ratios at their apparent thermal maxima, condensate-like alkane profiles, high mono- and triaromatic steroid maturity parameters, high methyladamantane and methyldiamantane indices and high methylphenanthrene maturity ratios, indicate thermal maturities in the wet-gas generation zone. Additionally, extracts from shales associated with iron ore deposits at Tom Price and Newman have unusual polyaromatic hydrocarbon patterns indicative of pyrolytic dealkylation. The saturated hydrocarbons and biomarkers in bitumens from the Fortescue and Hamersley Groups are characterized as 'probably syngenetic with their Archean host rock' based on their typical Precambrian molecular and isotopic composition, extreme maturities that appear consistent with the thermal history of the host sediments, the absence of biomarkers diagnostic of Phanerozoic age, the absence of younger petroleum source rocks in the basin and the wide geographic distribution of the samples. Aromatic hydrocarbons detected in shales associated with iron ore deposits at Mt Tom Price and Mt Whaleback are characterized as 'clearly Archean' based on their hypermature composition and covalent bonding to kerogen.

Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Logan, Graham A.; Summons, Roger E.

2003-11-01

77

Six Billion and Beyond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the world population reached six billion (see the October 13, 1999 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). PBS offers this site as a companion to their timely airing this month of the documentary "Six Billion and Beyond." The site provides background information on the UN Summits on Population in 1994 and 1999, including interviews with prominent delegates such as Hillary Clinton and Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund. Also featured are sections focusing on population issues in six disparate nations -- the US, Mexico, India, China, Kenya, and Italy -- examining in each country the related topics of the environment, reproductive health, the economy, and women's status. Both the study guide and the library, which provides online resources, are quite useful, making the site substantial enough to serve as the basis, along with an available video of the documentary, for a complete unit on population issues in a high school or college social sciences course.

78

Fourteen years after the Shahid-Rajaei dam construction: an evaluation of morphometric and genetic differentiation between isolated up- and downstream populations of Capoeta capoeta gracilis (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in the Tajan River of Iran.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of the Shahid-Rajaei dam, 14 years after its construction, on morphometric and genetic divergence between up- and downstream populations of the Iranian fish Siah-Mahi (Capoeta capoeta gracilis). Sixty-six specimens were analyzed. There were significant differences between the 2 groups in the means of 16 morphometric characters (univariate analysis). In discriminant function analysis, the proportion of individuals classified into their original groups was 97 and 100% for up- and downstream populations, respectively. Principal component analysis of morphometric data demonstrated that the up- and downstream samples of Siah-Mahi are clearly distinct. In the genetic analysis, 6 informative primers produced 89 polymorphic bands with 95% polymorphism. In association analysis between morphological and genetic data, 63 of 89 genetic markers were significantly correlated with the 16 morphometric characters. We conclude that these are 2 morphologically and genetically distinct populations of C. c. gracilis, probably due to limited downstream dispersal and elimination of upstream migration. PMID:24065685

Anvarifar, Hossein; Farahmand, H; Silva, D M; Bastos, R P; Khyabani, A; Anvarifar, Hassan

2013-09-10

79

ICTs and the World's Bottom Billion  

Microsoft Academic Search

As informatics professionals, why should we care about these countries? And how might information and communication technologies (ICTs) best be used to help them? The bottom billion - a population akin to that of the US and Europe combined - live overwhelmingly in Sub-Saharan Africa or Central Asia. Life expectancy in these countries is just fifty years. One-in-seven children dies

Richard Heeks

80

Two Billion Cars: Driving Toward Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today there are over a billion vehicles in the world, and within twenty years, the number will double, largely a consequence of China's and India's explosive growth. Given that greenhouse gases are already creating havoc with our climate and that violent conflict in unstable oil-rich nations is on the rise, will matters only get worse? Or are there hopeful signs

Daniel Sperling; Deborah Gordon

81

Fourteen Djinns Migrate Across the Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study of an eight year old boy of Canadian-Egyptian origin and his family involved the interventions of a child psychiatry day treatment team, his school, and traditional healers from both Canada and the Middle East. Constructing meaningful interventions for this family involved a shifting location of illness meaning at the intersection of psychosocial, historical, and religious factors integrated

Jaswant Guzder

82

Evidence for a 3.45-billion-year-old magnetic remanence: Hints of an ancient geodynamo from conglomerates of South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses of ˜3445-million-year-old dacite conglomerate clasts and parent body rocks from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, define two dominant components of magnetization. One component, unblocked at low temperature, is an overprint acquired ˜180 million years ago. The other component is unblocked at high temperatures and passes a conglomerate test, indicating that this component is older than the depositional age of the conglomerate (˜3416 Ma). The high unblocking temperature component shows scatter in the parent body rocks that can be explained by the effects of modern lightning strikes, Archean overprinting, and the presence of multidomain magnetic grains that are conducive to carrying secondary magnetizations. Alternatively, this scatter can be explained by exotic magnetization scenarios in the absence of a dynamo, including magnetization by an external field related to solar wind interaction with the atmosphere. Such exotic mechanisms can be tested with the acquisition of paleointensity data. While more scattered than paleomagnetic data recording the more recent geomagnetic field, the high unblocking temperature component in the dacite parent body shows some consistency, and the simplest explanation of the data is that they reflect a geodynamo ˜3445 million years ago.

Usui, Yoichi; Tarduno, John A.; Watkeys, Michael; Hofmann, Axel; Cottrell, Rory D.

2009-09-01

83

Analysis of the Basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea reveals conservation of the core meiotic expression program over half a billion years of evolution.  

PubMed

Coprinopsis cinerea (also known as Coprinus cinereus) is a multicellular basidiomycete mushroom particularly suited to the study of meiosis due to its synchronous meiotic development and prolonged prophase. We examined the 15-hour meiotic transcriptional program of C. cinerea, encompassing time points prior to haploid nuclear fusion though tetrad formation, using a 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray. As with other organisms, a large proportion (?20%) of genes are differentially regulated during this developmental process, with successive waves of transcription apparent in nine transcriptional clusters, including one enriched for meiotic functions. C. cinerea and the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe diverged ?500-900 million years ago, permitting a comparison of transcriptional programs across a broad evolutionary time scale. Previous studies of S. cerevisiae and S. pombe compared genes that were induced upon entry into meiosis; inclusion of C. cinerea data indicates that meiotic genes are more conserved in their patterns of induction across species than genes not known to be meiotic. In addition, we found that meiotic genes are significantly more conserved in their transcript profiles than genes not known to be meiotic, which indicates a remarkable conservation of the meiotic process across evolutionarily distant organisms. Overall, meiotic function genes are more conserved in both induction and transcript profile than genes not known to be meiotic. However, of 50 meiotic function genes that were co-induced in all three species, 41 transcript profiles were well-correlated in at least two of the three species, but only a single gene (rad50) exhibited coordinated induction and well-correlated transcript profiles in all three species, indicating that co-induction does not necessarily predict correlated expression or vice versa. Differences may reflect differences in meiotic mechanisms or new roles for paralogs. Similarities in induction, transcript profiles, or both, should contribute to gene discovery for orthologs without currently characterized meiotic roles. PMID:20885784

Burns, Claire; Stajich, Jason E; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Casselton, Lorna; Hanlon, Sean E; Wilke, Sarah K; Savytskyy, Oleksandr P; Gathman, Allen C; Lilly, Walt W; Lieb, Jason D; Zolan, Miriam E; Pukkila, Patricia J

2010-09-23

84

ANALYSIS OF CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE FOR FOURTEEN CITIES USING HAPEM-MS3 (FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes results and findings of applying the Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM) for mobile sources, Version 3. This version is formally known as HAPEM-MS3. The application is to fourteen urban areas for calendar year 1990. The urban areas modeled inclu...

85

Palaeoclimates: the first two billion years.  

PubMed

Earth's climate during the Archaean remains highly uncertain, as the relevant geologic evidence is sparse and occasionally contradictory. Oxygen isotopes in cherts suggest that between 3.5 and 3.2 Gyr ago (Ga) the Archaean climate was hot (55-85 degrees C); however, the fact that these cherts have experienced only a modest amount of weathering suggests that the climate was temperate, as today. The presence of diamictites in the Pongola Supergroup and the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa suggests that by 2.9 Ga the climate was glacial. The Late Archaean was relatively warm; then glaciation (possibly of global extent) reappeared in the Early Palaeoproterozoic, around 2.3-2.4 Ga. Fitting these climatic constraints with a model requires high concentrations of atmospheric CO2 or CH4, or both. Solar luminosity was 20-25% lower than today, so elevated greenhouse gas concentrations were needed just to keep the mean surface temperature above freezing. A rise in O2 at approximately 2.4 Ga, and a concomitant decrease in CH4, provides a natural explanation for the Palaeoproterozoic glaciations. The Mid-Archaean glaciations may have been caused by a drawdown in H2 and CH4 caused by the origin of bacterial sulphate reduction. More work is needed to test this latter hypothesis. PMID:16754607

Kasting, James F; Ono, Shuhei

2006-06-29

86

For the billion people.  

PubMed

Humans need food to survive. The encroachment of deserts, losses of water and generic and cultural resources, as well as climatic changes, however, threaten our long-term survival. Desertification in the world's arid and semiarid regions is one of the most serious problems our planet and its people face. It is one of the principal barriers to sustainable food security and sustainable livelihoods. Moreover, desertification is not a future threat, but an active local reality which needs to be reversed. Since World War II, an area the size of China and India combined has experienced moderate to extreme soil deterioration. More than 75% of this degradation has occurred in developing regions, mostly in arid and semiarid regions. The author explains how the UN Development Program is strengthening its capacity to help countries address desertification as we face the challenge of tripling world food output over the next 50 years given likely population increases. PMID:12345684

Speth, J G

1994-06-01

87

Fourteen new microsatellite markers for Atlantic herring Clupea harengus.  

PubMed

Fourteen new microsatellite loci were developed and tested on Atlantic herring Clupea harengus with 39 individuals from Iceland and 49 individuals from Norway. The microsatellites, which contain di, tri and tetranucleotide repeats, are polymorphic (7-30 alleles), with observed heterozygosity ranging between 0·69 and 1·00 and expected heterozygosity between 0·55 and 0·97. PMID:22957880

Libungan, L A; Ólafsdóttir, G; Skírnisdóttir, S; Pálsson, S; Pampoulie, C; Björnsdóttir, S H; Ólafsson, K; Óskarsson, G J; Daníelsdóttir, A K

2012-08-10

88

Evaluation of fourteen direct-bonding orthodontic bases.  

PubMed

Design characteristics (area of bonding, mesh size, and type) and bond strength of fourteen commercial direct-bonding metal bases with commercially attached brackets were evaluated. Tensile bond strength was measured with two direct-bonding adhesives, using plastic and natural teeth as substrates. Statistically significant differences in bond strength were observed among the bases, but bond strength was independent of nominal area and mesh size of the bases. Bond failures occurred most frequently at the base-adhesive interface of the metal bases. Damage caused by spot-welding of brackets to bases was implicated as a factor affecting bond strength. PMID:7006404

Dickinson, P T; Powers, J M

1980-12-01

89

Downhole maintenance costs approach $2 billion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Producers will spend nearly $2 billion during 1977 to keep some 519,000 U.S. oil wells on stream. These costs do not include completing new wells or expenditures on gas wells. At least $753 million will be spent to repair failures of artificial lift and downhole tubulars. Another $1.1 billion will be spent to work over 105,000 producing oil wells for

Rothrock; R. Jr

1977-01-01

90

Seedling growth strategies and seed size effects in fourteen oak species native to different soil moisture habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedling growth and morphology are thought to reflect evolutionary responses to habitat or influences of seed size. To test\\u000a these hypotheses, we selected fourteen species of North American oaks differing in soil moisture habitat preference and seed\\u000a size. Seedlings were grown for 1?–?2 years with abundant soil water and moderate soil nutrition in pots placed outdoors and\\u000a in a common

T. J. Long; R. H. Jones

1996-01-01

91

Thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma (carcinoid): A clinicopathologic study of fourteen cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical records and histologic documents of 14 patients treated at our institution for a thymic carcinoid tumor were reviewed. There were 3 women and 11 men with an age range from 35 to 71 years. One patient had a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome; another had a neurofibromatosis. Twelve tumors were revealed by local symptoms and two were asymptomatic. One

Vincent Thomas de Montpréville; Paolo Macchiarini; Elisabeth Dulmet

1996-01-01

92

Spherule beds 3.47-3.24 billion years old in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa: a record of large meteorite impacts and their influence on early crustal and biological evolution.  

PubMed

Four layers, S1-S4, containing sand-sized spherical particles formed as a result of large meteorite impacts, occur in 3.47-3.24 Ga rocks of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Ir levels in S3 and S4 locally equal or exceed chondritic values but in other sections are at or only slightly above background. Most spherules are inferred to have formed by condensation of impact-produced rock vapor clouds, although some may represent ballistically ejected liquid droplets. Extreme Ir abundances and heterogeneity may reflect element fractionation during spherule formation, hydraulic fractionation during deposition, and/or diagenetic and metasomatic processes. Deposition of S1, S2, and S3 was widely influenced by waves and/or currents interpreted to represent impact-generated tsunamis, and S1 and S2 show multiple graded layers indicating the passage of two or more wave trains. These tsunamis may have promoted mixing within a globally stratified ocean, enriching surface waters in nutrients for biological communities. S2 and S3 mark the transition from the 300-million-year-long Onverwacht stage of predominantly basaltic and komatiitic volcanism to the late orogenic stage of greenstone belt evolution, suggesting that regional and possibly global tectonic reorganization resulted from these large impacts. These beds provide the oldest known direct record of terrestrial impacts and an opportunity to explore their influence on early life, crust, ocean, and atmosphere. The apparent presence of impact clusters at 3.26-3.24 Ga and approximately 2.65-2.5 Ga suggests either spikes in impact rates during the Archean or that the entire Archean was characterized by terrestrial impact rates above those currently estimated from the lunar cratering record. PMID:12804363

Lowe, Donald R; Byerly, Gary R; Kyte, Frank T; Shukolyukov, Alexander; Asaro, Frank; Krull, Alexandra

2003-01-01

93

Fourteen-Year Trend of Tuberculosis Dynamics in the Northwest of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in different countries as estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) vary from 23\\/100,000 and less in industrialized countries, 191\\/100,000 in Africa and 237\\/100,000 in South East Asia. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the dynamics of TB in the northwest of Turkey, between 1988 and 2001. Methods: All pulmonary TB

Levent Kart; Deniz Akduman; Remzi Altin; Meltem Tor; Murat Unalacak; Fusun Begendik; Funda Erdem; Umit Alparslan

2003-01-01

94

Are the green algae (phylum Viridiplantae) two billion years old?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his book, Life on a young planet, A.H. KNOLL states that the first documented fossils of green algae date back 750 Ma. However, according to B. TEYSSÈDRE's book, La vie invisible, they are much older. Using a method which combines paleontology and molecular phylogeny, this paper is an inquiry into the Precambrian fossils of some \\

Bernard TEYSSÈDRE

2006-01-01

95

F-LE In the Billions and Exponential Modeling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The data in the table below was taken from Wikipedia. Year World Population in Billions (Estimate) 1804 1 1927 2 1960 3 1974 4 1987 5 1999 6 2012 7 For...

96

Mixing Ratios or Parts per Million, Billion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will gain experience with very small amounts, known as mixing ratios, using the technique of serial dilution. Measurements such as parts per million can be expressed in terms of volume or mass. With gases in the atmosphere, we usually think in terms of volume and may express this as parts per million by volume (ppmv). One can also use the units parts per billion by volume (ppbv), and parts per trillion by volume (pptv). Measurements such as ppmv, ppbv, and pptv are called mixing ratios. The student guide has an overall description of the activity, a list of materials, the procedure, and observations and questions. The teacher's guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

97

Contemporary "Hoisan-wa" Language Maintenance in Northern California: Evidence from Fourteen Frog Story Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores uninvestigated issues in Cantonese and "Hoisan-wa" language maintenance from an ethnic Chinese diaspora point of view. Data come from a larger study looking at Frog Story narratives from 140 Cantonese-English bilingual children in California. Fourteen of these children were found to display uniquely "Hoisan-wa" phonology and…

Leung, Genevieve

2012-01-01

98

Contemporary "Hoisan-wa" Language Maintenance in Northern California: Evidence from Fourteen Frog Story Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores uninvestigated issues in Cantonese and "Hoisan-wa" language maintenance from an ethnic Chinese diaspora point of view. Data come from a larger study looking at Frog Story narratives from 140 Cantonese-English bilingual children in California. Fourteen of these children were found to display uniquely "Hoisan-wa" phonology and…

Leung, Genevieve

2012-01-01

99

College Fund Raising Reached Record $23.2-Billion in 1999-2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides data from a new report on college fund raising, which shows that colleges received a record $23.2 billion in gifts in the 1999-2000 academic year, an increase of 13.7 percent over the previous year. Includes tables on gifts by type of institution, and top 20s in total giving, alumni giving, corporate giving, and community college giving.…

Pulley, John L.

2001-01-01

100

Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding, FY2001-FY2005.  

PubMed

Over the past several years, the United States government has spent substantial resources on preparing the nation against a bioterrorist attack. This article analyzes the civilian biodefense funding by the federal government from fiscal years 2001 through 2005, specifically analyzing the budgets and allocations for biodefense at the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, the Department of Agriculture, the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Science Foundation, and the Department of State. In total, approximately $14.5 billion has been funded for civilian biodefense through FY2004, with an additional $7.6 billion in the President's budget request for FY2005. PMID:15225402

Schuler, Ari

2004-01-01

101

Direct determination of fourteen underivatized amino acids from Whitmania pigra by using liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection (RP-HPLC-ELSD) method has been developed for the direct determination of fourteen amino acids in Whitmania pigra, a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Simultaneous separation of these fourteen amino acids was achieved on a Prevail C18 column. Under the condition of gradient elution, the fourteen amino acids were separated

Dan Yan; Guo Li; Xiao-He Xiao; Xiao-Ping Dong; Zu-Lun Li

2007-01-01

102

Agroecohydrology: Key to Feeding 9 Billion?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural production necessary to feed 9 billion people in 2050 depends on increased production on existing croplands, and expanding onto 'marginal' lands. A high proportion of these lands are marginal because they are too steep or too dry to reliably support crop production. These same characteristics increase their susceptibility to accelerated erosion, leading (for most soil profiles) to further reductions in plant available water as infiltration and soil profile water holding capacity decline. Sustaining production on these marginal lands will require careful land use planning. In this paper, we present a land use planning framework that integrates 4 elements: (1) potential production (based on soil profile characteristics), (2) edaphic, topographic and climatic limitations to production, (3) soil resistance to degradation, and (4) resilience. This framework expands existing land capability classification systems through the integration of biophysical feedbacks and thresholds. State and transition models, similar to those currently applied to rangelands in the United States and other countries, are used to organize and communicate knowledge about the sustainability of different land use changes and management actions at field to regional scales. This framework emphasizes hydrologic characteristics of soil profiles and landscapes over fertility because fertility declines are more easily addressed through increased inputs. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of how research in ecohydrology can be more effectively focused to support sustainable food production in the context of increasingly rapid social and economic changes throughout the world.

Herrick, J.

2011-12-01

103

Uranium in Canada: A billion dollar industry  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer of uranium with an output of more than 12,400 MT of uranium in concentrates, worth $1.1 billion Canadian. As domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian production, most of the output was exported. With current implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade Agreement, the US has become Canada's major uranium export customer. With a large share of the world's known uranium resources, Canada remains the focus of international uranium exploration activity. In 1988, the uranium exploration expenditures in Canada exceeded $58 million Canadian. The principal exploration targets were deposits associated with Proterozoic unconformities in Saskatchewan and Northwest Territories, particularly those in the Athabasca and Thelon basin regions of the Canadian Shield. Major attention was also paid to polymetallic deposits in which uranium is associated with precious metals, such as gold and platinum group elements. Conceptual genetic models for these deposit types represent useful tools to guide exploration.

Ruzicka, V. (Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1989-12-01

104

A toxicity and hazard assessment of fourteen pharmaceuticals to Xenopus laevis larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of fourteen widely used human pharmaceuticals was determined using the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay–Xenopus (FETAX). Stage 9 Xenopus blastulae were exposed for 96 h to single concentrations of commonly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), statin blood lipid regulators, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, a stimulant, and an anti-epileptic. Toxicity, teratogenicity, minimum concentration to inhibit growth, and types and severity of

Sean M. Richards; Shaun E. Cole

2006-01-01

105

Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium requirements to support a multi-billion gallon biofuel industry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To accomplish the goals for biofuel and bioenergy production, 1 billion tons of biomass will need to be produced annually by the year 2030. Crop production data from a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) demonstrated how this goal could...

106

Universities Report $1.8-Billion in Earnings on Inventions in 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Universities and their inventors earned more than $1.8-billion from commercializing their academic research in the 2011 fiscal year, collecting royalties from new breeds of wheat, from a new drug for the treatment of HIV, and from longstanding arrangements over enduring products like Gatorade. Northwestern University earned the most of any…

Blumenstyk, Goldie

2012-01-01

107

Colleges Angle for Billions to Build Obama's Broadband Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the federal government prepares to pour billions of stimulus dollars into increased broadband Internet access, colleges are trying to claim much of the money and shape the emerging national networking policy. Their focus is $4.7-billion that will be doled out under a new grant program administered by a small Commerce Department agency called…

Parry, Marc

2009-01-01

108

Towards Billion Bit Optimization via Efficient Genetic Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a highly efficient, fully parallelized implementation of the compact ge- netic algorithm to solve very large scale problems with millions to billions of variables. The paper presents principled results demonstrating the scalable solution of a difficult test function on instances over a billion variables using a parallel implementation of compact genetic algo- rithm (cGA). The problem addressed

Kumara Sastry; David E. Goldberg; Xavier Llora

2007-01-01

109

Colleges Angle for Billions to Build Obama's Broadband Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the federal government prepares to pour billions of stimulus dollars into increased broadband Internet access, colleges are trying to claim much of the money and shape the emerging national networking policy. Their focus is $4.7-billion that will be doled out under a new grant program administered by a small Commerce Department agency called…

Parry, Marc

2009-01-01

110

Academic Pork Barrel Tops $2-Billion for the First Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how, despite the growing budget deficit, Congress directed a record $2 billion to college projects in 2003, many of them dealing with security and bioterrorism. Includes data tables on the earmarks. (EV)

Brainard, Jeffrey; Borrego, Anne Marie

2003-01-01

111

300 billion watts, 24 hours a day  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cosmic solution to the world's upcoming energy crunch and one man's persistent drive to realize a workable and acceptable concept is described. Photovoltaic cells ,the same equipment that for 30 years has converted sunlight to electricity for communication satellites are at the core of the proposal. Once a series of 'sunsats' reach geosynchronous orbit, the cells, arranged in huge

Linda Shiner

1990-01-01

112

$3.4 Billion Remains in Race to Top Fund  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By selecting just two states as first-round Race to the Top winners, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan is leaving $3.4 billion on the table for the remaining states to vie for in round two. Delaware and Tennessee beat out 14 other finalists last week to win the first grants awarded in the $4 billion Race to the Top Fund competition. Mr.…

Maxwell, Lesli A.; McNeil, Michele

2010-01-01

113

Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini) with description of fourteen new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: Berosus aragua sp. n., Berosus asymmetricus sp. n., Berosus capanaparo sp. n., Berosus castaneus sp. n., Berosus corozo sp. n., Berosus ebeninus sp. n., Berosus garciai sp. n., Berosus humeralis sp. n., Berosus jolyi sp. n., Berosus llanensis sp. n., Berosus megaphallus sp. n., Berosus ornaticollis sp. n., Berosus repertus sp. n., and Berosus tramidrum sp. n. The fifteenth new species, known from a single female, is left undescribed pending the collection of males. Twelve species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Berosus ambogynus Mouchamps, Berosus consobrinus Knisch, Berosus elegans Knisch, Berosus geayi d’Orchymont, Berosus ghanicus d’Orchymont, Berosus guyanensis Queney, Berosus holdhausi Knisch, Berosus marquardti Knisch, Berosus olivae Queney, Berosus reticulatus Knisch, Berosus wintersteineri Knisch, and Berosus zimmermanni Knisch.

Oliva, Adriana; Short, Andrew E. Z.

2012-01-01

114

Fourteen-month-old infants infer the continuous identity of objects on the basis of nonvisible causal properties.  

PubMed

Research on object cognition in infancy suggests that children from (at latest) 1 year of age are capable of individuating objects according to property/kind information. It remains unclear from previous work, however, whether infants in such studies truly apply sortal (kind) concepts or whether they merely track objects on the basis of superficial surface features. To clarify this question, we examined infants' flexibility in tracking property changes. In particular, we investigated which property changes infants see as diagnostic for kind changes and whether they can dynamically adapt this view as a function of prior knowledge. Fourteen-month-old infants were presented with a salient property transformation indicating a category change (i.e., a rabbit was placed in a box but a carrot was retrieved from it). Prior to the test, half of the infants saw how a stuffed animal could be transformed into another object by a simple mechanism. The other infants were unaware of this transformation. Only infants of the naive group interpreted the property change observed in the subsequent test as diagnostic for a change in identity and thus expected two objects to be present in the box. The results are discussed in the light of psychological essentialism, which can explain why infants treat some classes of property changes but not others as diagnostic for changes in identity. PMID:22906060

Cacchione, Trix; Schaub, Simone; Rakoczy, Hannes

2012-08-20

115

HUNDRED YEARS OF DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 100 years the world has seen the most profound social and ecological transformation ever. In 1908, world population was 1,7 billion, which is marginally more than that of China's population today, and only a quarter of today's total population of approximately 6,5 billion. Also, but especially in the last quarter century, our global population's seemingly insatiable demand

James Blignaut

2008-01-01

116

Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding, FY2009-FY2010.  

PubMed

Since 2001, the United States government has spent substantial resources on preparing the nation against a bioterrorist attack. Earlier articles in this series analyzed civilian biodefense funding by the federal government for fiscal years (FY) 2001 through 2009. This article updates those figures with budgeted amounts for FY2010, specifically analyzing the budgets and allocations for biodefense at the Departments of Health and Human Services, Defense, Homeland Security, Agriculture, and State; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the National Science Foundation. This year's article also provides an assessment of the proportion of the biodefense budget that serves multiple programmatic goals and benefits, including research into infectious disease pathogenesis and immunology, public health planning and preparedness, and disaster response efforts. The FY2010 federal budget for civilian biodefense totals $6.05 billion. Of that total, $4.96 billion is budgeted for programs that serve multiple goals and provide manifold benefits. PMID:19772453

Franco, Crystal

2009-09-01

117

300 billion watts, 24 hours a day  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cosmic solution to the world's upcoming energy crunch and one man's persistent drive to realize a workable and acceptable concept is described. Photovoltaic cells ,the same equipment that for 30 years has converted sunlight to electricity for communication satellites are at the core of the proposal. Once a series of 'sunsats' reach geosynchronous orbit, the cells, arranged in huge grids, are bathed in almost perpetual sunlight. Each grid is equipped with devices for converting the electricity produced by the solar cells into microwaves and transmitting them to receiving stations on earth. The rectifying antennas, or rectennas, convert the microwaves into direct-current electricity, which is fed into the local utility's power supply. The status of proposal, development and opposition to solar power satellites is discussed. Relevant technologies associated with laser development, the SDI, moon-based solar stations, and those evolving from research in other countries continue to lend credence to eventually developing a practical solar power satellite program.

Shiner, Linda

1990-07-01

118

Well servicing expenditures top the $4-billion mark  

SciTech Connect

Oil and gas producers spent more than $4 billion to service and work over their US wells in 1981. Results from Petrol Eng. Int.'s well survey found that well servicing expenses surged 25% over 1980's expenditures of $3.2 billion. Projections for 1982's well servicing budget approached $4.5 billion; however, because operators responded to the survey before the full effects of the present slowdown were felt, actual well servicing expenditures should be lower than first estimated. Climbing oil prices, brought about in part by decontrol, started the drilling and well servicing industries rolling in 1981. Due to increased profit margins, operators could afford to reevaluate marginal prospects and older fields. As in 1980, operators brought hundreds of abandoned wells back on production and made concerted efforts to increase productivity of marginal wells. The well servicing contractor, service company, and supplier all shared the influx of new funds.

Moore, S.D.

1982-07-01

119

Property Right Regimes and Sustainable Forest Management: Lessons from Fourteen years of Monitoring of Forest Resources in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Sub-Saharan Africa, deforestation and forest degradation have been the major problems facing natural forest resource management. Lack of clearly defined and enforced property rights, leading to a de facto open access situation have been pointed out as the major causes. National governments have been urged to remedy the situation through tenure changes such as privatisation and decentralization. This paper

Namaalwa Justine; Abwoli Banana; William Gombya-Ssembajwe

120

Generational versus ontogenetic components of change in adult cognitive behavior: A fourteen-year cross-sequential study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports results from a 2nd follow-up of 7-yr changes in adult cognitive behavior. The Primary Mental Abilities Test and the Test of Behavioral Rigidity were administered to 300 Ss 21-77 yrs old in 1956 and 1963, to 409 Ss 21-84 yrs old in 1963 and 1970, and to 161 Ss 21-84 yrs old at all 3 measurement points. Cohort *

K. Warner Schaie; Gisela Labouvie-Vief

1974-01-01

121

Fourteen chromosomal localizations and an update of the cytogenetic map of the rabbit.  

PubMed

In order to improve the informativeness of the cytogenetic map of the rabbit genome, fourteen markers were regionally mapped to individual chromosomes. The localizations comprise eleven gene loci (PRLR, GHR, HK1, ACE, TF, 18S+28S rDNA, CYP2C4, PMP2, TCRB, ALOX15 and MT1) and three microsatellite loci (Sat13, Sol33 and D1Utr6). Five of the genes contain known microsatellite sequences. To achieve these localizations, homologous and heterologous small insert clones, and clones from a rabbit Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments. Results indicate that especially BAC clones are a valuable tool for cytogenetic mapping. Some of the genes were selected for mapping on the basis of human- rabbit comparative painting data, to achieve localizations on gene-poor rabbit chromosomes. Our data are, in general, in agreement with the human-rabbit comparative painting data. By mapping microsatellite sequences that have also been used in linkage studies, links are provided between the genetic and physical maps of the rabbit genome. Linkage groups I, VI and XI could be assigned to chromosomes 1, 5 and 3 respectively. Moreover, in this paper we give an overview of the current status of the rabbit cytogenetic map. This map now comprises 62 physically mapped genes, which are scattered over all autosomes, except chromosome 2, and the X chromosome. PMID:12438713

Zijlstra, C; de Haan, N A; Korstanje, R; Rogel-Gaillard, C; Piumi, F; van Lith, H A; van Zutphen, L F M; Bosma, A A

2002-01-01

122

OPTIONS FOR JOBS LEGISLATION: PROVIDING $1 BILLION TO PREVENT HOMELESSNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary As part of the economic recovery act signed into law in February, Congress approved $1.5 billion in temporary housing assistance for families that are homeless or at risk of losing their homes due to job loss or other financial hardship. These resources, which the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) distributed to local agencies through the Homelessness Prevention

Douglas Rice

123

NASA Now Minute: Earth and Space Science: 100 Billion Planets  

NASA Video Gallery

Stephen Kane, co-author of the article, “Study Shows Our Galaxy has 100 Billion Planets” reveals details about this incredible study explains just how common planets are in our Milky Way galaxy. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2012-02-10

124

Expression of fourteen novel obesity-related genes in zucker diabetic fatty rats  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are useful to reveal an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and different measures of obesity. A multitude of new loci has recently been reported, but the exact function of most of the according genes is not known. The aim of our study was to start elucidating the function of some of these genes. Methods We performed an expression analysis of fourteen genes, namely BDNF, ETV5, FAIM2, FTO, GNPDA2, KCTD15, LYPLAL1, MCR4, MTCH2, NEGR1, NRXN3, TMEM18, SEC16B and TFAP2B, via real-time RT-PCR in adipose tissue of the kidney capsule, the mesenterium and subcutaneum as well as the hypothalamus of obese Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker lean (ZL) rats at an age of 22?weeks. Results All of our target genes except for SEC16B showed the highest expression in the hypothalamus. This suggests a critical role of these obesity-related genes in the central regulation of energy balance. Interestingly, the expression pattern in the hypothalamus showed no differences between obese ZDF and lean ZL rats. However, LYPLAL1, TFAP2B, SEC16B and FAIM2 were significantly lower expressed in the kidney fat of ZDF than ZL rats. NEGR1 was even lower expressed in subcutaneous and mesenterial fat, while MTCH2 was higher expressed in the subcutaneous and mesenterial fat of ZDF rats. Conclusion The expression pattern of the investigated obesity genes implies for most of them a role in the central regulation of energy balance, but for some also a role in the adipose tissue itself. For the development of the ZDF phenotype peripheral rather than central mechanisms of the investigated genes seem to be relevant.

2012-01-01

125

Fourteen short tandem repeat loci Y chromosome haplotypes: Genetic analysis in populations from northern Brazil.  

PubMed

Fourteen Y-STR loci (DYS458, DYS439, Y-GATA H4, DYS576, DYS447, DYS460, DYS456, YGATA A10, DYS437, DYS449, DYS570, DYS635 or Y-GATA C4, DYS448 and DYS438) were analysed in 873 males from eight northern Brazil populations: Belém (N=400), Santarém (N=69), Manaus (N=75), Macapá (N=65), Palmas (N=30), Rio Branco (N=32), Porto Velho (N=135) and Boa Vista (N=67). A total of 871 different haplotypes were identified, of which 869 were unique. The panel's estimated total haplotype diversity (HD) is 0.9988, and its discrimination capacity (DC) is 0.9980. The lowest estimates of genetic diversity correspond to markers Y-GATA H4 (0.550) and DYS460 (0.581), and the greatest (above 0.700) to markers DYS458, DYS576, DYS447, YS449, DYS570 and DYS635. The genetic parameters obtained were higher for the 14-Y-STR panel than that for the minimum haplotype set (HD=0.9969; DC=0.76) and the parameters were similar to those obtained with the panel of 17 YSTR of YHRD (HD=0.9987; DC=0. 9870). The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that most of the genetic variance is found within populations and a smaller, but significant part, is found among populations (R(ST)=0.027, p value=0.009). The data when compared with those from African, Amerindian and European populations have shown no significant genetic distance between northern Brazil populations and Europeans, but there is a significant genetic distance when compared to Africans and Amerindians. The discrimination capacity of the markers shows a high potential for forensic analysis. PMID:21873137

Palha, Teresinha; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Elzemar; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea; Santos, Sidney

2011-08-27

126

Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of Iodine Levels in Fourteen Seaweed Species from the Coastal Belt of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen seaweed species were sampled from October 1997 to May 1999 along the rocky shores of Ghana, which is being washed by the Gulf of Guinea (part of the Atlantic Ocean). Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to measure the iodine levels in the species, with the basic aim of selecting seaweed species that are rich in iodine and

Y. Serfor-Armah; B. J. B. Nyarko; D. Carboo; E. K. Osae; S. Anim-Sampong; E. H. K. Akaho

2000-01-01

127

How to Bring Solar Energy to Seven Billion People  

ScienceCinema

April 6, 2009 Science at the Theater talk: By exploiting the powers of nanotechnology and taking advantage of non-toxic, Earth-abundant materials, Berkeley Lab's Cyrus Wadia has fabricated new solar cell devices that have the potential to be several orders of magnitude less expensive than conventional solar cells. And by mastering the chemistry of these materials—and the economics of solar energy—he envisions bringing electricity to the 1.2 billion people now living without it.

128

A paradox of diversity: Billions invested, but women still leave  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005, women made up 46.4 percent of the United States labor force but only 1.6 percent of Fortune 500 CEOs (Catalyst 2006). Although gains have been made since the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964, there is clearly something stopping women from equal representation at the top. Since the late 1980s, businesses have spent billions of dollars

Rebekah S Heppner

2007-01-01

129

mu-Mesonic X-Ray Energies and Nuclear Radii for Fourteen Elements from Z=12 to 50  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise measurements of mu-mesonic x rays have been made using a NaI scintillation crystal spectrometer. The 2p-1s transition energies were determined for fourteen elements ranging from Z=12 (Mg) to Z=50 (Sn). The 3d-2p transition energies were also measured for seven of these elements. The results have been interpreted to give a measure of the radial extent of the nuclear charge

H. L. Anderson; C. S. Johnson; E. P. Hincks

1963-01-01

130

POLLEN GERMINATION, VIABILITY AND TUBE GROWTH IN FOURTEEN CULTIVATED AND WILD SPECIES OF CUCURBIT GROWN IN BANGLADESH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen germination, viability and tube growth in fourteen species of cucurbit were examined. All the male flowers had three anthers each. The highest number of pollen grain (917.00 ? 52.69) per anther was recorded in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch ex Poir.) whereas the lowest (479.00 ? 13.14) per anther was recorded in snake gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina L.). Viable pollen was

M. Rashed Zaman

131

Billion particle linac simulations for future light sources  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report on multi-physics, multi-billion macroparticle simulation of beam transport in a free electron laser (FEL) linac for future light source applications. The simulation includes a self-consistent calculation of 3D space-charge effects, short-range geometry wakefields, longitudinal coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wakefields, and detailed modeling of RF acceleration and focusing. We discuss the need for and the challenges associated with such large-scale simulation. Applications to the study of the microbunching instability in an FEL linac are also presented.

Ryne, R. D.; Venturini, M.; Zholents, A. A.; Qiang, J.

2008-09-25

132

High accuracy for China's 1990 Census: refuting a rumour about China's population topping 1.4 billion.  

PubMed

In response to newspaper reports that China's population had topped 1.4 billion, a spokesman from the Office of Population Census under the State Council issued a statement refuting the claim, pointing out that the highly accurate 1990 census estimates the population to be 1.13 billion. US newspapers, including the Boston Globe, and the Shijie ribao, a international daily in Chinese, recently cited reports from a Japanese newspaper claiming that China's population had exceeded 1.4 billion. But as the official explained, China has carefully monitored its population size. Every year since 1982, the country has carried out a sample survey on population change, and in 1988, it conducted a national 1% population sample survey on fertility and birth control. In 1982, a national census placed China's population at 1.0817 billion. So considering that the sample surveys over the past 8 years have indicated an annual net increase in population of about 17 million, it is impossible for China's population to have topped 1.4 billion. Furthermore, the 1990 census enumerated all the unplanned births not previously registered, and carefully monitored for possible underreporting for the floating population. 2 general checks for people without fixed living quarters took place on June 28 and 29. And on July 8 and 9, officials conducted a national make-up registration. Enumerators visited and registered floating persons who did have fixed living quarters. Furthermore, officials conducted a follow-up sample survey on the quality of the registration. This showed that the rate of underregistration in the 1990 census was 0.6/1000 population--a figure of 680,000 nationally. PMID:12284669

1991-02-01

133

Fourteen Facts About Human Tutoring: Food for Thought for ITS Developers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains 14 facts about the dialog that occurs in one-to-one human tutoring sessions. All of the facts are based on the empirical findings of our human tutoring research from the last 14 years. ITS developers are encouraged to consider these facts as they attempt to improve the dialog facilities and pedagogical effectiveness of their systems.

Natalie K. Person; Arthur C. Graesser

134

Ovarian malignancy in patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis: A retrospective analysis of fourteen cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dermatomyositis and polymyositis can be associated with an underlying malignancy. Objective: Our purpose was to describe a group of patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis in whom ovarian carcinoma was diagnosed and to evaluate further the characteristics of the association between these diseases. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective review identified 14 patients in a 45-year period (1950 to 1995) with dermatomyositis

Mark D. P. Davis; Iftikhar Ahmed

1997-01-01

135

Parametrization and Classification of 20 Billion LSST Objects: Lessons from SDSS  

SciTech Connect

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain, starting in 2015, multiple images of the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times during the anticipated 10 years of operations (distributed over six bands, ugrizy). Each 30-second long visit will deliver 5{sigma} depth for point sources of r {approx} 24.5 on average. The co-added map will be about 3 magnitudes deeper, and will include 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. We discuss various measurements that will be automatically performed for these 20 billion sources, and how they can be used for classification and determination of source physical and other properties. We provide a few classification examples based on SDSS data, such as color classification of stars, color-spatial proximity search for wide-angle binary stars, orbital-color classification of asteroid families, and the recognition of main Galaxy components based on the distribution of stars in the position-metallicity-kinematics space. Guided by these examples, we anticipate that two grand classification challenges for LSST will be (1) rapid and robust classification of sources detected in difference images, and (2) simultaneous treatment of diverse astrometric and photometric time series measurements for an unprecedentedly large number of objects.

Ivezic, Z.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Axelrod, T.; /Large Binocular Telescope, Tucson; Becker, A.C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Becla, J.; /SLAC; Borne, K.; /George Mason U.; Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Claver, C.F.; /NOAO, Tucson; Cook, K.H.; /LLNL, Livermore; Connolly, A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Gilmore, D.K.; /SLAC; Jones, R.L.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Juric, M.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study; Kahn, Steven M.; /SLAC; Lim, K-T.; /SLAC; Lupton, R.H.; /Princeton U.; Monet, D.G.; /Naval Observ., Flagstaff; Pinto, P.A.; /Arizona U.; Sesar, B.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard U.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis

2011-11-10

136

As its R D budget nears $2 billion Bayer rethinks priorities  

SciTech Connect

With a planned 1993 research and development budget of roughly DM3.2 billion ($1.95 billion), Bayer (Leverkusen) is the industry's biggest R D spender. But while the German giant lays out a healthy 7% of sales on R D, caution is clearly replacing the heady spending spurts of several years ago. And faced with an increasingly rigorous corporate business restructuring, Bayer - like others in the chemical industry - is rethinking its R D strategies. While Bayer's R D stress is clearly on life sciences, the company remains bullish on certain new materials, particularly inorganics. It has developed several engineering ceramics for use in automotive engines, with the most advanced - a silicon nitride - being road tested in Mercedes models. [open quotes]We have the materials and know their properties,[close quotes] says Hauke Fuerstenwerth, Bayer's head of R D coordination. The challenge now, he says, is to demonstrate a commercially attractive process for large-scale production. Bayer is also pursuing new silicon wafer technology. Already in small-scale production, the firm is testing an amorphous silicon that is intended to be far cheaper than existing crystalline silicon wafers, while maintaining suitable properties for applications such as solar collectors.

Rotman, D.

1993-03-17

137

United Nations Environment Programme: The Billion Tree Campaign  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Painters and poets throughout the millennia have explored the aesthetic beauty of trees in great detail, and in the past few centuries, humans have become intimately aware of how trees form the foundation of many natural systems. Recently, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) launched their major worldwide tree planting campaign, "Plant for the Planet: Billion Tree Campaign". One major component of their outreach efforts is this very fine website, which includes sections such as "Facts and Figures", "Trees and Humanity", and of course, "How to Plant a Tree". On the site, visitors also have the option to pledge their support for the project in a variety of ways. The "Facts and Figures" section is also helpful, as it contains answers to a number of basic questions such as "Where are forests found?" and some more specific information on the importance of this project.

138

Identification of a Testis-Enriched Heat Shock Protein and Fourteen Members of Hsp70 Family in the Swamp Eel  

PubMed Central

Background Gonad differentiation is one of the most important developmental events in vertebrates. Some heat shock proteins are associated with gonad development. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the teleost fish and its roles in sex differentiation are poorly understood. Methods and Findings We have identified a testis-enriched heat shock protein Hspa8b2 in the swamp eel using Western blot analysis and Mass Spectrometry (MS). Fourteen Hsp70 family genes were further identified in this species based on transcriptome information. The phylogenetic tree of Hsp70 family was constructed using the Maximum Likelihood method and their expression patterns in the swamp eel gonads were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conclusion There are fourteen gene members in the Hsp70 family in the swamp eel genome. Hsp70 family, particularly Hspa8, has expanded in the species. One of the family members Hspa8b2 is predominantly expressed in testis of the swamp eel.

He, Yan; Luo, Majing; Yi, Minhan; Sheng, Yue; Cheng, Yibin; Zhou, Rongjia; Cheng, Hanhua

2013-01-01

139

Implementing Total Quality Leadership within Naval Hospital Camp Pendleton Using the Fourteen Points of Dr. Deming's Philosophy (Final Report, July 1990-July 1991).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to develop a Total Quality Leadership (TQL) implementation model for Naval Hospital Camp Pendleton using the conceptual framework of Dr. W. Edwards Deming's Fourteen Points of Management. The model's foundation is built upon ...

P. J. Branco

1991-01-01

140

Fuel efficient stoves for the poorest two billion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 2 billion people cook their daily meals on generally inefficient, polluting, biomass cookstoves. The fuels include twigs and leaves, agricultural waste, animal dung, firewood, and charcoal. Exposure to resulting smoke leads to acute respiratory illness, and cancers, particularly among women cooks, and their infant children near them. Resulting annual mortality estimate is almost 2 million deaths, higher than that from malaria or tuberculosis. There is a large diversity of cooking methods (baking, boiling, long simmers, brazing and roasting), and a diversity of pot shapes and sizes in which the cooking is undertaken. Fuel-efficiency and emissions depend on the tending of the fire (and thermal power), type of fuel, stove characteristics, and fit of the pot to the stove. Thus, no one perfect fuel-efficient low-emitting stove can suit all users. Affordability imposes a further severe constraint on the stove design. For various economic strata within the users, a variety of stove designs may be appropriate and affordable. In some regions, biomass is harvested non-renewably for cooking fuel. There is also increasing evidence that black carbon emitted from stoves is a significant contributor to atmospheric forcing. Thus improved biomass stoves can also help mitigate global climate change. The speaker will describe specific work undertaken to design, develop, test, and disseminate affordable fuel-efficient stoves for internally displaced persons (IDPs) of Darfur, Sudan, where the IDPs face hardship, humiliation, hunger, and risk of sexual assault owing to their dependence on local biomass for cooking their meals.

Gadgil, Ashok

2012-03-01

141

Supernova / Acceleration Probe: GigaCAM - A Billion Pixel Imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key technology in the SNAP instrumentation is a large, one billion pixel camera with excellent sensitivity in the I and Z optical bands to maximize the discovery rate of high redshift supernovae. It is based on LBNL CCD and HgCdTe technologies. The camera is located in the one square degree field of view focal plane of a diffraction limited optic achieved with a 2-meter diameter, 3-mirror anastigmat telescope. We describe the current status of the LBNL CCD technology as well as the design of the GigaCAM. The CCDs are fabricated on high-resistivity n-type silicon, are 200-300 microns thick, are operated fully depleted. The technology is proving to be very tolerant to operation in a space radiation environment. These CCDs are four-side abuttable, making them ideal for a wide-field mosaic. With back illumination, the QE at 900nm is > 90% (at T=150K). The HgCdTe devices are based on Rockwell's technology for NGST. This research is supported by the Department of Energy Office of High Energy Physics, NSF AST and NASA.

Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amidei, D.; Astier, P.; Baden, A.; Bergstrom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Curtis, D.; Deustua, S.; Edwards, W.; Ellis, R.; Fruchter, A.; Frye, B.; Genat, J. F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Goodman, J.; Graham, J.; Hardin, D.; Harris, S.; Harvey, P.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Hook, I.; Huterer, D.; Kasen, D.; Kim, A.; Knop, R.; Lafever, R.; Lampton, M.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Levy, J.-M.; Lidman, C.; Lin, R.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Metzger, M.; Miquel, R.; Mourao, A.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pankow, D.; Pennypacker, C.; Perlmutter, S.; Refregier, A.; Rich, J.; Robinson, K.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schubnell, M.; Spadafora, A.; Smoot, G.; Sullivan, G.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch, A.; SNAP Collaboration

2001-12-01

142

Molecular evidence for life in the 3.5 billion year old Warrawoona chert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biological origin of organic matter in the oldest siliceous sediments (cherts) is still debated. To address this issue, the insoluble organic matter (kerogen) was isolated from a chert of the Warrawoona group. The chemical structure of the kerogen was investigated through a combination of analytical techniques including solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and pyrolysis. Although dominated by aromatic hydrocarbons, the pyrolysate comprises a homologous series of long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons characterized by odd-over-even carbon number predominance. This distribution is only consistent with a biological origin. As kerogen must be contemporaneous of the solidification of the chert, this observation should be regarded as an evidence for the presence of life on Earth, 3.5 By ago.

Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François; Skrzypczak-Bonduelle, Audrey; Gourier, Didier; Binet, Laurent; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël

2008-07-01

143

Detection of Pristine Gas Two Billion Years After the Big Bang  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current cosmological model, only the three lightest elements were created in the first few minutes after the Big Bang; all other elements were produced later in stars. To date, however, heavy elements have been observed in all astrophysical environments. We report the detection of two gas clouds with no discernible elements heavier than hydrogen. These systems exhibit the

Michele Fumagalli; John M. O'Meara; J. Xavier Prochaska

2011-01-01

144

Hydrocarbons of Biological Origin from a One-Billion-Year-Old Sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isoprenoid hydrocarbons, phytane (C20H42) and pristane (C19H40), are present in the oil seeping from the Precambrian Nonesuch formation at the White Pine Mine, Michigan. Gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry provide the isolation and identification procedures.

Geoffrey Eglinton; P. M. Scott; Ted Belsky; A. L. Burlingame; Melvin Calvin

1964-01-01

145

Connecting galaxy and supermassive black hole growth during the last 8 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has become increasingly clear that a complete picture of galaxy evolution requires a better understanding of the role of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). In particular, they could be responsible for regulating star formation and galaxy growth via feedback processes. There are also competing views about the main modes of stellar growth and supermassive black hole growth in galaxies that need to be resolved. With high infrared luminosities (thus star formation rates) and a frequent occurrence of AGN, galaxies selected in the far-infrared wavebands form an ideal sample to search for a connection between AGN and star formation. The first part of this thesis contains a detailed analysis of the molecular gas properties of nearby infrared luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs). We find that the enhanced molecular gas density in the most IR-luminous systems can be explained by major galaxy mergers, and that AGN are more likely to reside in higher-density systems. While the frequent concurrence of AGN and galaxy mergers in ULIRGs was already established, this work provides a coherent framework that explains trends observed with five molecular gas tracers with a broad range of critical densities, and a comparison with simulations that reproduce observed molecular line ratios without invoking AGN-induced chemistry. The second part of the thesis presents an analysis of the AGN content of intermediate redshift galaxies (0.3 < z < 1). However, identifying complete AGN samples at these redshift is challenging because it is difficult to find X-ray weak or absorbed AGN. To alleviate this problem, we developed the Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagram, which is applicable out to redshift of ˜ 1 with existing optical spectra. It improves the overall AGN census by detecting AGN that are missed in even the most sensitive X-ray surveys. The new diagnostic was used to study the concurrence of star formation and AGN in 70 micron-selected galaxies from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy survey. When multiple AGN diagnostics are combined, we find not only a high AGN fraction in FIR-selected galaxies (as high as for nearby FIR-selected galaxies), but a high incidence of X-ray absorbed AGN. These findings may have considerable implications for current views about the main mode of AGN growth.

Juneau, Stephanie

146

On the origin, evolution, and nature of programmed cell death: a timeline of four billion years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmed cell death is a genetically regulated process of cell suicide that is central to the development, homeostasis and integrity of multicellular organisms. Conversely, the dysregulation of mechanisms controlling cell suicide plays a role in the pathogenesis of a wide range of diseases. While great progress has been achieved in the unveiling of the molecular mechanisms of programmed cell death,

J C Ameisen

2002-01-01

147

Networks of bZIP protein-protein interactions diversified over a billion years of evolution.  

PubMed

Differences in biomolecular sequence and function underlie dramatic ranges of appearance and behavior among species. We studied the basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors and quantified bZIP dimerization networks for five metazoan and two single-cell species, measuring interactions in vitro for 2891 protein pairs. Metazoans have a higher proportion of heteromeric bZIP interactions and more network complexity than the single-cell species. The metazoan bZIP interactomes have broadly similar structures, but there has been extensive rewiring of connections compared to the last common ancestor, and each species network is highly distinct. Many metazoan bZIP orthologs and paralogs have strikingly different interaction specificities, and some differences arise from minor sequence changes. Our data show that a shifting landscape of biochemical functions related to signaling and gene expression contributes to species diversity. PMID:23661758

Reinke, Aaron W; Baek, Jiyeon; Ashenberg, Orr; Keating, Amy E

2013-05-10

148

Reducing US import oil dependence by one billion gallons of diesel fuel per year  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system of simple plates attached to the aft-end of a Ford Club Wagon passenger van was configured to significantly reduce the base drag of the van. When these results are scaled to tractor\\/semi-trailers or trailer vans it is shown that vehicle-drag reductions in excess of 10% are possible. Based on the current size of the U.S. semi-trailer van fleet,

A. J. Bilanin; G. G. Williamson; R. G. Geyer

1985-01-01

149

The Pilbara: one Billion Years of the Early Evolution of Earth's Surface Environments and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pilbara contains the most complete sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rocks dating from 3.5 to 2.4 Ga. Because many of these rocks have experienced only low-grade metamorphism it is our best available natural laboratory for studying the origins and early evolution of life on Earth (and other planets) and the environments it inhabited. Indeed discoveries of the oldest possible microfossils, stromatolites and molecular fossils, as well as key mineral, geochemical and isotopic evidence of surface environments and the biosphere have all been reported from Pilbara rocks. Unfortunately complex geology and deep weathering (since the Mesozoic) makes interpretation of some of this record ambiguous leading to heated debates over evidence for life and environmental conditions. It is not surprising then that the first stages of the Astrobiology Drilling Program have been drilled in the Pilbara to obtain samples of sedimentary rocks unaffected by modern weathering. The drill cores potentially provide the best evidence yet of when and how life evolved on Earth, the nature of the environments it inhabited and a template for evaluating possible evidence of life from Mars and other planets. This talk will briefly outline the evolution of the Pilbara as one of the Earth's first continents and the interpreted environmental settings of the range of sites being drilled by the Archean Biosphere and Deep Time Drilling Programs. These include 3.52 to 2.5 Ga submarine and lacustrine black shales, 3.45 Ga deep- and shallow-marine banded cherts, 2.72 Ga stromatolite reefs, an interpreted 2.76 Ga paleosol, and banded iron formations.

Barley, M. E.

2004-12-01

150

A high abundance of massive galaxies 3-6 billion years after the Big Bang.  

PubMed

Hierarchical galaxy formation is the model whereby massive galaxies form from an assembly of smaller units. The most massive objects therefore form last. The model succeeds in describing the clustering of galaxies, but the evolutionary history of massive galaxies, as revealed by their visible stars and gas, is not accurately predicted. Near-infrared observations (which allow us to measure the stellar masses of high-redshift galaxies) and deep multi-colour images indicate that a large fraction of the stars in massive galaxies form in the first 5 Gyr (refs 4-7), but uncertainties remain owing to the lack of spectra to confirm the redshifts (which are estimated from the colours) and the role of obscuration by dust. Here we report the results of a spectroscopic redshift survey that probes the most massive and quiescent galaxies back to an era only 3 Gyr after the Big Bang. We find that at least two-thirds of massive galaxies have appeared since this era, but also that a significant fraction of them are already in place in the early Universe. PMID:15241407

Glazebrook, Karl; Abraham, Roberto G; McCarthy, Patrick J; Savaglio, Sandra; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Crampton, David; Murowinski, Rick; Jørgensen, Inger; Roth, Kathy; Hook, Isobel; Marzke, Ronald O; Carlberg, R G

2004-07-01

151

Terranes of Mexico Revisited: A 1.3 Billion year Odyssey  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Precambrian and Paleozoic, Mexican terranes were either part of or proximal to Laurentia and Middle America (basements of Mesozoic Maya, Oaxaquia, and Chortis terranes that bordered Amazonia). Obduction of the Sierra Madre proximal terrane in the Late Ordovician was followed by Permo-Carboniferous amalgamation of all proximal terranes into Pangea. Middle Jurassic breakup of Pangea resulted in two continental

J. Duncan Keppie

2004-01-01

152

3.5 billion years of glass bioalteration: Volcanic rocks as a basis for microbial life?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alteration textures in volcanic glass from the seafloor fall into two classes, one suggestive of abiotic/diffusive hydration and chemical exchange, and another likely to be caused by microbial, cavity-forming, congruent dissolution. Glass bioalteration is common in submarine lavas throughout the world's ocean, dominant in the upper 300 m of the oceanic crust, and found in all well-preserved ophiolites and greenstone belts dating back to 3.5 Ga. It may yield a significant fraction of the global biomass and geochemical fluxes and is relevant to the development of the earliest life on Earth. We present a critical review concerning these glass bioalteration textures and present new data on their microchemical environment. We explore arguments for their biogenicity and further develop the prevalent model for their formation by relating corrosion morphology to the mechanism of microbial dissolution. Biological alteration produces conspicuous micron-scale granular and tubular textures. Granular glass alteration is well explained by colonizing microbes that selectively dissolve the glass in their contact area, forming a sponge-like interconnected network of micron-sized cavities along glass surfaces. Tubular alteration meanwhile, is more likely to be caused by filamentous cell extensions in a process similar to fungal tunneling of soil feldspars and marine carbonates. While we see clear functional similarities to fungal dissolution behavior, we do not know whether fungal or prokaryotic organisms are involved. However, this functional constraint may eventually help to identify potential microbes responsible for these features, potentially including eukaryotic or prokaryotic organisms. Yet, we caution that these organisms may be difficult to identify and to study, because they are likely to be sparsely distributed, slow growing, and difficult to cultivate.

Staudigel, Hubert; Furnes, Harald; McLoughlin, Nicola; Banerjee, Neil R.; Connell, Laurie B.; Templeton, Alexis

2008-08-01

153

The rapid formation of a large rotating disk galaxy three billion years after the Big Bang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations and theoretical simulations have established a framework for galaxy formation and evolution in the young Universe. Galaxies formed as baryonic gas cooled at the centres of collapsing dark-matter haloes; mergers of haloes and galaxies then led to the hierarchical build-up of galaxy mass. It remains unclear, however, over what timescales galaxies were assembled and when and how bulges and

R. Genzel; L. J. Tacconi; F. Eisenhauer; N. M. Förster Schreiber; A. Cimatti; E. Daddi; N. Bouché; R. Davies; M. D. Lehnert; D. Lutz; N. Nesvadba; A. Verma; R. Abuter; K. Shapiro; A. Sternberg; A. Renzini; X. Kong; N. Arimoto; M. Mignoli

2006-01-01

154

Detection of pristine gas two billion years after the Big Bang.  

PubMed

In the current cosmological model, only the three lightest elements were created in the first few minutes after the Big Bang; all other elements were produced later in stars. To date, however, heavy elements have been observed in all astrophysical environments. We report the detection of two gas clouds with no discernible elements heavier than hydrogen. These systems exhibit the lowest heavy-element abundance in the early universe, and thus are potential fuel for the most metal-poor halo stars. The detection of deuterium in one system at the level predicted by primordial nucleosynthesis provides a direct confirmation of the standard cosmological model. The composition of these clouds further implies that the transport of heavy elements from galaxies to their surroundings is highly inhomogeneous. PMID:22075722

Fumagalli, Michele; O'Meara, John M; Prochaska, J Xavier

2011-11-10

155

A high abundance of massive galaxies 3-6 billion years after the Big Bang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchical galaxy formation is the model whereby massive galaxies form from an assembly of smaller units. The most massive objects therefore form last. The model succeeds in describing the clustering of galaxies, but the evolutionary history of massive galaxies, as revealed by their visible stars and gas, is not accurately predicted. Near-infrared observations (which allow us to measure the stellar

Karl Glazebrook; Roberto G. Abraham; Patrick J. McCarthy; Sandra Savaglio; Hsiao-Wen Chen; David Crampton; Rick Murowinski; Inger Jørgensen; Kathy Roth; Isobel Hook; Ronald O. Marzke; R. G. Carlberg

2004-01-01

156

A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman

J. Stuart B. Wyithe; Abraham Loeb

2004-01-01

157

Evidence for a 3.45 Billion-Year-Old Geodynamo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of the early geomagnetic field is key for investigations of Earth's thermal history, evolution of its atmosphere and the development of life. A major obstacle to obtaining primary remanences from the oldest terrestrial rocks is ubiquitous low-grade metamorphism which has resulted in magnetic mineral alteration and magnetic overprints of varying age. Measurements on pristine single silicate crystals provide the oldest unambiguous paleomagnetic evidence of strong thermoremament magnetization from 3.2 Ga rocks (Tarduno et al., 2007). Specifically, these data indicate that Earth's magnetic field at 3.2 Ga was within 50% of the strength of the modern field. Here, we report rock magnetic and paleomagnetic analysis on ~3.45 Ga rocks from the Barberton Greenstone Belt. The data provides the first unambiguous evidence for a geodynamo at ~3.45 Ga. We focus on an exceptionally well-preserved dacitic intrusion of the Hooggenoeg Formation. This lithology is preserved in situ and as clasts comprising stratigraphically overlying conglomerates. Detailed progressive thermal demagnetization of the conglomerate clasts reveals a common overprint component of low unblocking temperature and a high unblocking temperature component which is directionally distinct for each clast. These data comprise a positive conglomerate test, providing paleomagnetic evidence that the high unblocking temperature component was acquired before the formation of the conglomerate. Theory and empirical data indicate that a thermoviscous overprint induced by low-grade metamorphism and carried by multi-domain grains cannot be completely thermally demagnetized, prohibiting the further use of the bulk rock to constrain the paleointensity of the ancient field. The positive conglomerate test also indicates that the underlying dacitic intrusion could hold a primary magnetization. Single-crystal paleointensity experiments on this lithology are underway.

Usui, Y.; Tarduno, J. A.; Watkeys, M. K.; Hofmann, A.; Cottrell, R. D.

2008-12-01

158

Nine Billion Years of Galaxy Evolution: Disentangling Recent Evolution and Selection Biases in Disk Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the status of current observations of the fundamental parameters of intermediate redshift (z < 1.3) disk galaxies. Modern instrumentation enables detailed measurements of galaxy luminosity, morphology, kinematics and mass, in both optical and the infrared passbands. By studying well known star formation indicators, the internal velocity structure and star formation rates of galaxies can be traced through this entire redshift regime. The combination of throughput and optimum seeing conditions yields spectra which can be combined with high resolution multiband imaging to explore the evolution of galaxies of various morphologies, and to place constraints on current models of galaxy formation and star formation histories. Out to redshifts of unity, these data form a high redshift Tully-Fisher relation that spans four magnitudes and extends to well below L_*, with no obvious change in shape or slope with respect to the local relation. A comparison of disk surface brightness between local and high redshift samples yields an offset in accordance with distance-dependent surface brightness selection effects, as can the apparent change in disk size with redshift for disks of a given mass. The effects of imaging and spectral selection are shown to be significant, dependent not only upon the broad-band luminosity and surface brightness of targets but also a strong function of emission line strength and spectral flux distributions. These results provide further evidence for modest increases in luminosity with lookback time for the bulk of the observed field spiral galaxy population.

Vogt, N. P.

2008-10-01

159

Geomagnetic field strength 3.2 billion years ago recorded by single silicate crystals.  

PubMed

The strength of the Earth's early geomagnetic field is of importance for understanding the evolution of the Earth's deep interior, surface environment and atmosphere. Palaeomagnetic and palaeointensity data from rocks formed near the boundary of the Proterozoic and Archaean eons, some 2.5 Gyr ago, show many hallmarks of the more recent geomagnetic field. Reversals are recorded, palaeosecular variation data indicate a dipole-dominated morphology and available palaeointensity values are similar to those from younger rocks. The picture before 2.8 Gyr ago is much less clear. Rocks of the Archaean Kaapvaal craton (South Africa) are among the best-preserved, but even they have experienced low-grade metamorphism. The variable acquisition of later magnetizations by these rocks is therefore expected, precluding use of conventional palaeointensity methods. Silicate crystals from igneous rocks, however, can contain minute magnetic inclusions capable of preserving Archaean-age magnetizations. Here we use a CO2 laser heating approach and direct-current SQUID magnetometer measurements to obtain palaeodirections and intensities from single silicate crystals that host magnetite inclusions. We find 3.2-Gyr-old field strengths that are within 50 per cent of the present-day value, indicating that a viable magnetosphere sheltered the early Earth's atmosphere from solar wind erosion. PMID:17410173

Tarduno, John A; Cottrell, Rory D; Watkeys, Michael K; Bauch, Dorothy

2007-04-01

160

THE LAST EIGHT-BILLION YEARS OF INTERGALACTIC C IV EVOLUTION  

SciTech Connect

We surveyed the Hubble Space Telescope UV spectra of 49 low-redshift quasars for z < 1 C IV candidates, relying solely on the characteristic wavelength separation of the doublet. After consideration of the defining traits of C IV doublets (e.g., consistent line profiles, other associated transitions, etc.), we defined a sample of 38 definite (group G = 1) and five likely (G = 2) doublets with rest equivalent widths W{sub r} for both lines detected at >=3sigma{sub W{sub r}}. We conducted Monte Carlo completeness tests to measure the unblocked redshift (DELTAz) and co-moving path length (DELTAX) over which we were sensitive to C IV doublets of a range of equivalent widths and column densities. The absorber line density of (G = 1+2) doublets is dN{sub C{sub IV}}/dX= 4.1{sup +0.7}{sub -0.6} for log N(C{sup +3}) >= 13.2, and dN{sub C{sub IV}}/dX has not evolved significantly since z = 5. The best-fit power law to the G = 1 frequency distribution of column densities f(N(C{sup +3}))ident tok(N(C{sup +3})/N{sub 0}){sup {alpha}{sub N}} has coefficient k = 0.67{sup +0.18}{sub -0.16} x 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} and exponent {alpha}{sub N} = -1.50{sup +0.17}{sub -0.19}, where N{sub 0} = 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Using the power-law model of f(N(C{sup +3})), we measured the C{sup +3} mass density relative to the critical density: OMEGA{sub C{sup +3}}= (6.20{sup +1.82}{sub -1.52})x10{sup -8} for 13 <= log N(C{sup +3}) <= 15. This value is a 2.8 +- 0.7 increase in OMEGA{sub C{sup +3}} compared to the error-weighted mean from several 1 < z < 5 surveys for C IV absorbers. A simple linear regression to OMEGA{sub C{sup +3}} over the age of the universe indicates that OMEGA{sub C{sup +3}} has slowly but steadily increased from z = 5 -> 0, with dOMEGA{sub C{sup +3}}/dt{sub age}= (0.42+-0.2)x10{sup -8} Gyr{sup -1}.

Cooksey, Kathy L.; Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Thom, Christopher; Chen, Hsiao-Wen, E-mail: kcooksey@space.mit.ed, E-mail: cthom@stsci.ed, E-mail: hchen@oddjob.uchicago.ed, E-mail: xavier@ucolick.or [Department of Astronomy, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2010-01-01

161

The rapid formation of a large rotating disk galaxy three billion years after the Big Bang.  

PubMed

Observations and theoretical simulations have established a framework for galaxy formation and evolution in the young Universe. Galaxies formed as baryonic gas cooled at the centres of collapsing dark-matter haloes; mergers of haloes and galaxies then led to the hierarchical build-up of galaxy mass. It remains unclear, however, over what timescales galaxies were assembled and when and how bulges and disks--the primary components of present-day galaxies--were formed. It is also puzzling that the most massive galaxies were more abundant and were forming stars more rapidly at early epochs than expected from models. Here we report high-angular-resolution observations of a representative luminous star-forming galaxy when the Universe was only 20% of its current age. A large and massive rotating protodisk is channelling gas towards a growing central stellar bulge hosting an accreting massive black hole. The high surface densities of gas, the high rate of star formation and the moderately young stellar ages suggest rapid assembly, fragmentation and conversion to stars of an initially very gas-rich protodisk, with no obvious evidence for a major merger. PMID:16915282

Genzel, R; Tacconi, L J; Eisenhauer, F; Schreiber, N M Förster; Cimatti, A; Daddi, E; Bouché, N; Davies, R; Lehnert, M D; Lutz, D; Nesvadba, N; Verma, A; Abuter, R; Shapiro, K; Sternberg, A; Renzini, A; Kong, X; Arimoto, N; Mignoli, M

2006-08-17

162

The First Billion Years project: proto-galaxies reionizing the Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of stars in galaxies to cosmic reionization depends on the star formation history in the Universe, the abundance of galaxies during reionization, the escape fraction of ionizing photons and the clumping factor of the intergalactic medium. We compute the star formation rate and clumping factor during reionization in a cosmological volume using a high-resolution hydrodynamical simulation. We post-process the output with detailed radiative transfer simulations to compute the escape fraction of ionizing photons. Together, this gives us the opportunity to assess the contribution of galaxies to reionization self-consistently. The strong mass and redshift dependence of the escape fraction indicates that reionization occurred between z = 15 and 10 and was mainly driven by proto-galaxies forming in dark matter haloes with masses between 107 and 108 M?. More massive galaxies that are rare at these redshifts and have significantly lower escape fractions contribute less photons to the reionization process than the more-abundant low-mass galaxies. Star formation in the low-mass haloes is suppressed by radiative feedback from reionization, therefore these proto-galaxies only contribute when the part of the Universe they live in is still neutral. After z ˜ 10, massive galaxies become more abundant and provide most of the ionizing photons. In addition, we find that Population III stars are too short-lived and not frequent enough to have a major contribution to reionization. Although the stellar component of the proto-galaxies that produce the bulk of ionizing photons during reionization is too faint to be detected by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), these sources are brightest in the H? and Ly? recombination lines, which will likely be detected by JWST in deep surveys.

Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Khochfar, Sadegh; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

2013-02-01

163

The Chemical Evolution of Star-forming Galaxies over the Last 11 Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the stellar mass-metallicity relation at five epochs ranging to z ~ 2.3. We quantify evolution in the shape of the mass-metallicity relation as a function of redshift; the mass-metallicity relation flattens at late times. There is an empirical upper limit to the gas-phase oxygen abundance in star-forming galaxies that is independent of redshift. From examination of the mass-metallicity relation and its observed scatter, we show that the flattening at late times is a consequence of evolution in the stellar mass where galaxies enrich to this empirical upper metallicity limit; there is also evolution in the fraction of galaxies at a fixed stellar mass that enrich to this limit. The stellar mass where metallicities begin to saturate is ~0.7 dex smaller in the local universe than it is at z ~ 0.8.

Zahid, H. Jabran; Geller, Margaret J.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Kurtz, Michael J.

2013-07-01

164

Turbulent lifestyle: Microbial mats on Earth's sandy beaches—Today and 3 billion years ago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archean Earth history is very difficult to reconstruct. Until recently, only bacterial cells preserved in chert, microborings, and stromatolites provided the few clues to ancient life. Now, siliciclastic \\

Nora Noffke

2008-01-01

165

Hematite formation by oxygenated groundwater more than 2.76 billion years ago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geoscientific drilling in the Marble Bar area of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, resulted in the discovery of locally abundant hematite in Archean basalts ~200 m below the present land surface. The hematized basalts occurring along a bedding-parallel shear zone are cross-cut by pyrite veinlets (<3 mm in width) and contain euhedral pyrite grains (10–500 µm in diameter) with sharp crystal edges, indicating

Yasuhiro Kato; Katsuhiko Suzuki; Kentaro Nakamura; Arthur H. Hickman; Munetomo Nedachi; Minoru Kusakabe; David C. Bevacqua; Hiroshi Ohmoto

2009-01-01

166

Molecular evidence for life in the 3.5 billion year old Warrawoona chert  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological origin of organic matter in the oldest siliceous sediments (cherts) is still debated. To address this issue, the insoluble organic matter (kerogen) was isolated from a chert of the Warrawoona group. The chemical structure of the kerogen was investigated through a combination of analytical techniques including solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and pyrolysis. Although dominated by aromatic hydrocarbons,

Sylvie Derenne; François Robert; Audrey Skrzypczak-Bonduelle; Didier Gourier; Laurent Binet; Jean-Noël Rouzaud

2008-01-01

167

Hydrocarbon shows and petroleum source rocks in sediments as old as 1.7 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of indigenous live oil in 1.4-Gyr-old rocks in the McArthur Basin of northern Australia is reported. Previously reported occurrences of indigenous Precambrian oil are less than 1 Gyr old. Potential petroleum source rocks in the McArthur Basin range in age from 1.4-1.7 Gyr and were deposited in marine and lacustrine environments. In parts of the basin they have been buried sufficiently deeply to have generated hydrocarbons. They span the period corresponding to the appearance of eukaryotic organisms, and because of their low degree of thermal alteration, they provide a valuable resource for the study of primitive biota through their hydrocarbon biomarkers. The hydrocarbon composition of the oil is consistent with a derivation from organic matter of prokaryotic origin. These results show that exploration of previously ignored mid-Proterozoic sediments may lead to the discovery of new reserves of oil.

Jackson, M. J.; Powell, T. G.; Summons, R. E.; Sweet, I. P.

1986-08-01

168

Ten Billion Years of Early-Type Galaxy Evolution with COMBO17 and GEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of massive early-type galaxies offers one of the clearest tests of galaxy models in a hierarchical CDM Universe, owing to the ongoing assembly of massive haloes. We use the 17 passband 25000-galaxy COMBO-17 photometric redshift survey in conjunction with the quarter square degree GEMS HST ACS mosaic to place unique and powerful constraints on the evolution of massive

E. F. Bell; C. Wolf; D. H. McIntosh

2003-01-01

169

The Universe as Viewed from Star Forming Galaxies over the Past Ten Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation talk, I will discuss my work to provide improved constraints on the star formation history of the universe by (1) using narrow-band filters to identify galaxies to z 2.2 and (2) extending the Lyman break technique to z=1.5-3. These techniques efficiently isolate a large population of star-forming galaxies and enable measurement of the star formation rate via emission line and ultraviolet indicators. With the SDF team, we have conducted a narrow-band optical survey which yields a sample of 5000 galaxies within 0.25 square degree to z 1.5 detected by H-alpha, [OIII], or [OII]. Diagnostics based on broad-band optical colors are developed to resolve ambiguities in emission-line identification. In addition, with the NEWFIRM H-alpha team, we are working to extend optical studies into the near-infrared with NEWFIRM. We target H-alpha emitting galaxies at z 0.8 and z 2.2, which probes a critical period in the history of the universe during which much of the star formation has occurred. The NEWFIRM H-alpha survey covers over 1 square degree. A total of 300 H-alpha emitting galaxies at z 0.8 has been identified for 60% of the survey volume. Preliminary results from the NEWFIRM H-alpha Survey will be discussed. Spectroscopy for both narrow-band surveys reveals a high reliability of the technique: contamination at the few percent level. Finally, I will describe the first Lyman break survey to select star-forming galaxies at z 2 (limiting magnitude of 27 AB), using deep, wide GALEX near-ultraviolet imaging. A total of 7000 LBGs was identified in 0.25 square degree. Spectroscopy indicates that the success of identifying z 2 galaxies is 80%. I will also compare different z 2 photometric techniques (BzK, DRG, BX/BM) to provide a more comprehensive view of the galaxy population, including dusty star-forming galaxies. The comparison reveals a good but imperfect ( 50%) overlap, indicating that these photometric techniques are complementary.

Ly, Chun; Malkan, M.; Lee, J. C.; Kashikawa, N.; Hayashi, M.; Motohara, K.; Subaru Deep Field Collaboration; NEWFIRM Narrow-band H-alpha Survey Team

2010-01-01

170

Fourteen Writing Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any science teacher who wants his or her students to be engaged in real science is going to engage them in real science writing. Writing in science should begin with clear, imaginative writing purposes and stimuli that are then scaffolded in such a way that students are able to find an organizational structure for their writing. Writing fluency is…

Turner, Thomas; Broemmel, Amy

2006-01-01

171

Stimulus Plan Aids Education: House Bill Could Provide $100 Billion to K-12 Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cash-strapped school districts could see an unprecedented $100 billion infusion of federal aid under a massive economic-stimulus package unveiled by House Democrats this week. The overall measure, put forth January 15 by the House Appropriations Committee, is aimed at providing a $825 billion jolt to the stumbling U.S. economy, and to help avert…

Klein, Alyson

2009-01-01

172

Towards billion-bit optimization via a parallel estimation of distribution algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a highly efficient, fully parallelized im- plementation of the compact genetic algorithm (cGA) to solve very large scale problems with millions to billions of variables. The paper presents principled results demonstrat- ing the scalable solution of a difficult test function on in- stances over a billion variables using a parallel implementa- tion of cGA. The problem addressed

Kumara Sastry; David E. Goldberg; Xavier Llorà

2007-01-01

173

Site geotechnical considerations for expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to one billion barrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight Gulf Coast salt domes have emerged as candidate sites for possible expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to one billion barrels. Two existing SPR sites, Big Hill, TX, and Weeks Island, LA, are among the eight that are being considered. To achieve the billion barrel capacity, some 25 new leached caverns would be constructed, and would probably be

J. T. Neal; D. W. Whittington; T. R. Magorian

1991-01-01

174

U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass within the contiguous ...

B. J. Stokes R. D. Perlack

2011-01-01

175

Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people  

SciTech Connect

Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

2003-06-01

176

Immigrants contributed an estimated $115.2 billion more to the Medicare Trust Fund than they took out in 2002-09.  

PubMed

Many immigrants in the United States are working-age taxpayers; few are elderly beneficiaries of Medicare. This demographic profile suggests that immigrants may be disproportionately subsidizing the Medicare Trust Fund, which supports payments to hospitals and institutions under Medicare Part A. For immigrants and others, we tabulated Trust Fund contributions and withdrawals (that is, Trust Fund expenditures on their behalf) using multiple years of data from the Current Population Survey and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. In 2009 immigrants made 14.7 percent of Trust Fund contributions but accounted for only 7.9 percent of its expenditures-a net surplus of $13.8 billion. In contrast, US-born people generated a $30.9 billion deficit. Immigrants generated surpluses of $11.1-$17.2 billion per year between 2002 and 2009, resulting in a cumulative surplus of $115.2 billion. Most of the surplus from immigrants was contributed by noncitizens and was a result of the high proportion of working-age taxpayers in this group. Policies that restrict immigration may deplete Medicare's financial resources. PMID:23720486

Zallman, Leah; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David; Bor, David; McCormick, Danny

2013-05-29

177

Billion here, a billion there - a review and analysis of synthetic-fuels development under Title I of the Energy Security Act  

SciTech Connect

Title I of the Energy Security Act launched a synthetic fuels program that could produce 2 billion barrels of fuel per day by 1992 and could cost $88 billion. A review of the Act's statutory language to see how implementation will take place and to identify potential problems and opportunities concludes that there is room for creative use of the money in the institutional structure. It will be up to those in charge of implementing the Act to seek out and develop these opportunities. 271 references.

Contratto, D.C.

1980-01-01

178

Towards the Genetic Programming of a Billion Neuron Artificial Brain which Grows\\/Evolves at Electronic Speeds in a Cellular Automata Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on progress made in the first year of an 8 year research project which aims to build\\/grow\\/ev olve (at electronic speeds) an artificial brain which contains a billion neurons inside a Cellular Automata Machine (CAM). This paper introduces the CAM-Brain concept, discusses some implementation issues, and justifies how it should be possible to build artificial brains containing

Hugo de GARIS

1994-01-01

179

Corporations Give Record $1.6 Billion to Colleges and Universities in 1984-85; Total Giving Reaches $6.3 Billion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Findings from the publication, "Voluntary Support of Education 1984-85," are summarized. The survey report includes contributions to 1,114 colleges and universities. Highlights of findings show that: total estimated voluntary support was $6.32 billion in 1984-1985; for the first time, corporations contributed more than any other donor group…

CFAE Newsletter, 1986

1986-01-01

180

Food Security: The Challenge of Feeding 9 Billion People  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the environment. The effects

H. Charles J. Godfray; John R. Beddington; Ian R. Crute; Lawrence Haddad; David Lawrence; James F. Muir; Jules Pretty; Sherman Robinson; Sandy M. Thomas; Camilla Toulmin

2010-01-01

181

Exploratory Analysis of Retail Sales of Billions of Items  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes several different approaches to analysis of a data set collected over the past year from a retail grocery chain containing hundreds of stores. Each record in the data set represents an individual item processed by an individual checkout laser scanner at a particular store at a particular time on a particular day. Each record contains additional information

Dunja Mladenic; William F. Eddy; Scott Ziolko

182

FLY ASH: A BILLION DOLLAR RESOURCE - WASTED SO FAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash is a finely divided residue resulting from the combustion of bituminous coal or lignite in a thermal power plant. Indian coals have on an average 45% ash content. Currently India generates around 95 million tonne of ash per year. It is likely to reach 125 million tonne mark by 2005 and 180 million by 2012. Research work of

Vimal Kumar; Mukesh Mathur; Preeti Sharma

183

Indian farmers need help to feed over 1.5 billion people in 2030.  

PubMed

In view of the enormous challenge and pressure on farmers to feed 9 billion plus people and billions of animals who are going to be living in our planet in 2050, new technologies must be invented, assessed and adapted. Farmer welfare and provision of resources required for their work is of paramount importance. India has benefited from Bt cotton technology and will certainly benefit from other biotech crops that have been carefully developed and assessed for consumption and environmental safety. PMID:22538225

Jagadish, Mittur N

2012-04-01

184

ICI bites demerger bullet, Zeneca guns for [Brit pounds]1. 3-billion rights issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any lingering doubts as to ICI's (London) intentions to follow through its demerger proposals were dispelled last week. The company will hive off its bioscience business into Zeneca Group plc, which will make a [Brit pounds]1.3-billion ($1.9 billion) rights issue in June 1993. Shareholders, whose approval for the historic move will be sought in late May, will receive one fully

D. Jackson; N. Alperowicz

1993-01-01

185

1-billion-color TFT LCD TV with full HD format  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop data driver LSIs for over a 1-billion-color TFT-LCD TV with full HD (1920×1080) format, key issues in the driver architecture as well as circuit design and TFT-LCD panel issues for realizing true 1024 gray level images are discussed. We present our recent results of the 10-bit gray scale TFT-LCD data driver applied to 42-inch diagonal 1-billion-color TFT-LCD TV

Jin-Ho Kim; Byong-Deok Choi; Oh-Kyong Kwon

2005-01-01

186

Another Record Year for Academic Pork.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how, fueled by the war on terrorism, Congress has awarded a record $1.8 billion in academic earmarks in the 2002 fiscal year. Profiles several recipient programs and includes a campus-by-campus list of projects. (EV)|

Brainard, Jeffrey

2002-01-01

187

If slow rate of health care spending growth persists, projections may be off by $770 billion.  

PubMed

Despite earlier forecasts to the contrary, US health care spending growth has slowed in the past four years, continuing a trend that began in the early 2000s. In this article we attempt to identify why US health care spending growth has slowed, and we explore the spending implications if the trend continues for the next decade. We find that the 2007-09 recession, a one-time event, accounted for 37 percent of the slowdown between 2003 and 2012. A decline in private insurance coverage and cuts to some Medicare payment rates accounted for another 8 percent of the slowdown, leaving 55 percent of the spending slowdown unexplained. We conclude that a host of fundamental changes--including less rapid development of imaging technology and new pharmaceuticals, increased patient cost sharing, and greater provider efficiency--were responsible for the majority of the slowdown in spending growth. If these trends continue during 2013-22, public-sector health care spending will be as much as $770 billion less than predicted. Such lower levels of spending would have an enormous impact on the US economy and on government and household finances. PMID:23650316

Cutler, David M; Sahni, Nikhil R

2013-05-01

188

Sex-Role Stereotyping in Television Commercials: A Review and Comparison of Fourteen Studies Done on Five Continents Over 25 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the pioneering content-analytic study byMcArthur and Resko (1975) on sex-role stereotyping oftelevision advertisements in America, many others haveused a similar methodology and coding scheme to examine similar stereotypes in their owncountries. This study compares and contrasts 14 studies,all using the McArthur and Resko (1975) scheme: 3 fromAmerica, 1 each from Australia, Denmark, and France, and 2 and one from

Adrian Furnham; Twiggy Mak

1999-01-01

189

F-LE In The Billions and Linear Modeling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The data in the table below was taken from Wikipedia. Year World Population (Estimate) 1804 1 1927 2 1960 3 1974 4 1987 5 1999 6 2012 7 Based on the da...

190

Determination of Fluorine in Fourteen Microanalytical Geologic Reference Materials using SIMS, EPMA, and Proton Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE) Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine (F) is a volatile constituent of magmas and hydrous minerals, and trace amounts of F are incorporated into nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine and clinopyroxene. Microanalytical techniques are routinely used to measure trace amounts of F at both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution in glasses and crystals. However, there are few well-established F concentrations for the glass standards routinely used in microanalytical laboratories, particularly standards of low silica, basaltic composition. In this study, we determined the F content of fourteen commonly used microanalytical glass standards of basaltic, intermediate, and rhyolitic composition. To serve as calibration standards, five basaltic glasses with ~0.2 to 2.5 wt% F were synthesized and characterized. A natural tholeiite from the East Pacific Rise was mixed with variable amounts of CaF2. The mixture was heated in a 1 atmosphere furnace to 1440 °C at fO2 = NNO for 30 minutes and quenched in water. Portions of the run products were studied by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The EPMA used a 15 µm diameter defocused electron beam with a 15 kV accelerating voltage and a 25 nA primary current, a TAP crystal for detecting FK? X-rays, and Biotite 3 as the F standard. The F contents by EPMA agreed with the F added to the basalts after correction for mass loss during melting. The SIMS analyses used a primary beam of 16O- and detection of low-energy negative ions (-5 kV) at a mass resolution that resolved 18OH. Both microanalytical techniques confirmed homogeneity, and the SIMS calibration defined by EPMA shows an excellent linear trend with backgrounds of 2 ppm or less. Analyses of basaltic glass standards based on our synthesized calibration standards gave the following F contents and 2? errors (ppm): ALV-519 = 83 ± 3; BCR-2G = 359 ± 6; BHVO-2G = 322 ± 15; GSA-1G = 10 ± 1; GSC-1G = 11 ± 1; GSD-1G = 19 ± 2; GSE-1G = 173 ± 1; KL2G (MPI-DING) = 101 ± 1; ML3B-G (MPI-DING) = 49 ± 17. These values are lower than published values for BCR-2 and BHVO-2 (unmelted powders) and the “information values” for the MPI-DING glass standards. Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) was tested for the high silica samples. PIGE analyses (1.7 MeV Tandem Accelerator; reaction type: 19F(p, ??)16O; primary current = 20-30 nA; incident beam voltage = 1.5 MeV) were calibrated with a crystal of fluor-topaz (F = 20.3 wt%) and gave F values of: NIST 610 = 266 ± 14 ppm; NIST 620 = 54 ± 5 ppm; and UTR-2 = 1432 ± 32 ppm. SIMS calibration defined by the PIGE analyses shows an excellent linear trend with low background similar to the basaltic calibration. The F concentrations of intermediate MPI-DING glasses were determined based on SIMS calibration generated from the PIGE analysis above. The F concentrations and 2? errors (ppm) are: T1G = 219.9 ± 6.8; StHs/680-G = 278.0 ± 2.0 ppm. This study revealed a large matrix effect between the high-silica and basaltic glasses, thus requiring the use of appropriate standards and separate SIMS calibrations when analyzing samples of different compositions.

Guggino, S. N.; Hervig, R. L.

2010-12-01

191

Definitions of Bullying: A Comparison of Terms Used, and Age and Gender Differences, in a Fourteen-Country International Comparison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used stick-figure cartoons depicting various peer social situations to investigate meanings given by children in 14 countries to native terms cognate to bullying. Found that 8-year- olds primarily discriminated nonaggressive and aggressive situations; 14-year-olds discriminated fighting versus physical bullying and verbal bullying versus social…

Smith, Peter K.; Cowie, Helen; Olafsson, Ragnar F.; Liefooghe, Andy P.D.

2002-01-01

192

OPEC's billions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A few financial markets and institutions have had the burden of redistributing financial assets of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) since the 1973 embargo, but indications are that financial instabilities from OPEC dollar surpluses are diminishing. Evidence for this conclusion is seen in the dwindling level of OPEC surpluses as imports to OPEC nations expand and world demand

MacLaury

2009-01-01

193

Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy  

ScienceCinema

April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

194

Development of an Acetylene Monitor at the Part Per Billion Level.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this contract was to develop instrumentation for the collection and analysis of atmospheric acetylene at the part per billion level. The reason for measuring acetylene is that it comes primarily from vehicular exhausts and thus can be used ...

W. Dencker M. Robinson R. Villalobos

1974-01-01

195

Conservation in a World of Six Billion: A Grassroots Action Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This grassroots action guide features a conservation initiative working to bring the impacts of human population growth, economic development, and natural resource consumption into balance with the limits of nature for the benefit of current and future generations. Contents include information sheets entitled "Six Billion People and Growing,""The…

Hren, Benedict J.

196

The Other Inconvenient Truth: Feeding 9 Billion While Sustaining the Earth System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the international community focuses on climate change as the great challenge of our era, we have been largely ignoring another looming problem — the global crisis in agriculture, food security and the environment. Our use of land, particularly for agriculture, is absolutely essential to the success of the human race: we depend on agriculture to supply us with food, feed, fiber, and, increasingly, biofuels. Without a highly efficient, productive, and resilient agricultural system, our society would collapse almost overnight. But we are demanding more and more from our global agricultural systems, pushing them to their very limits. Continued population growth (adding more than 70 million people to the world every year), changing dietary preferences (including more meat and dairy consumption), rising energy prices, and increasing needs for bioenergy sources are putting tremendous pressure on the world’s resources. And, if we want any hope of keeping up with these demands, we’ll need to double the agricultural production of the planet in the next 30 to 40 years. Meeting these huge new agricultural demands will be one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. At present, it is completely unclear how (and if) we can do it. If this wasn’t enough, we must also address the massive environmental impacts of our current agricultural practices, which new evidence indicates rival the impacts of climate change. Simply put, providing for the basic needs of 9 billion-plus people, without ruining the biosphere in the process, will be one of the greatest challenges our species has ever faced. In this presentation, I will present a new framework for evaluating and assessing global patterns of agriculture, food / fiber / fuel production, and their relationship to the earth system, particularly in terms of changing stocks and flows of water, nutrients and carbon in our planetary environment. This framework aims to help us manage the challenges of increasing global food security -- in the fact of dramatically increasing demand -- while greatly reducing the impact of agriculture on the earth system.

Foley, J. A.

2010-12-01

197

Four-Year State Colleges: The Scope of Collective Bargaining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined are the written collective bargaining agreements that existed during any part or all of the 1973-74 academic year between four-year state colleges and faculties who have chosen bargaining agents. All of the written agreements in effect at four-year state colleges, a total of fourteen covering thirty-seven institutions, were analyzed. The…

Kramer, Gerald H.; Creswell, John W.

198

In Brief: A record year for extreme weather losses; Climate change and Inuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A record year for extreme weather losses The year 2004 also likely will be the most expensive for the insurance industry worldwide, due to weather related natural disasters, according to figures released on 15 December by the United Nations Environment Program. Between January-October 2004, natural disasters have cost the insurance industry more than $35 billion, compared to $16 billion in

Randy Showstack

2005-01-01

199

IMF Approves SDR 15.5 Billion Stand-by Credit for Korea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "IMF Approves SDR 15.5 Billion Stand-by Credit for Korea" details the aid package put together for Korea and provides a background of the events and the objectives of the aid package. The beginning of the financial crisis in South Korea can be traced to the collapse of Hanbo Steel Corp., the first in a string of large corporate failures in South Korea. This was followed by the decline in the value of the Korean won against the dollar in October 1997, which persisted until November when the Central Bank of Korea stopped intervening to support the won. The continued decline in won forced the Korean government to seek financial assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). On December 3, the IMF announced a $55 billion aid package for South Korea.

1997-01-01

200

U.S. Wind projected to Be $60 billion business by 2013  

SciTech Connect

A recent U.S. Department of Energy report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to meeting 20 percent of U.S. electricity generation from wind by 2030, but identified upgrading of the transmission grid as a major challenge, requiring a $60+ billion investment. One major obstacle is the highly fragmented ownership of the 200,000-mile network among some 500 diverse, intensely territorial entities.

NONE

2008-11-15

201

How to Bring Solar Energy to Seven Billion People (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

SciTech Connect

By exploiting the powers of nanotechnology and taking advantage of non-toxic, Earth-abundant materials, Berkeley Lab's Cyrus Wadia has fabricated new solar cell devices that have the potential to be several orders of magnitude less expensive than conventional solar cells. And by mastering the chemistry of these materials—and the economics of solar energy—he envisions bringing electricity to the 1.2 billion people now living without it.

Wadia, Cyrus

2009-04-06

202

Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.  

PubMed

Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes. PMID:22158244

McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

2011-12-01

203

Fourteen X Fourteen Ccd Array for Optical Intersatellite Link Tracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Optical intersatellite links and the SILEX program are generalized. The main constraints of the acquisition and tracking system are described. The specifications of a charge coupled device array devoted to the tracking, with the capability of high images ...

J. C. Boutemy G. Boucharlat P. Dautriche

1988-01-01

204

Quantitation of fourteen urinary alpha-amino acids using isobutane gas chromatography chemical ionization mass spectrometry with 13C amino acids as internal standards.  

PubMed

Isobutane chemical ionization gas chromatography mass spectometry of the N-trifluoroacetyl-carboxy-n-butyl ester derivatives of amino acids, using a commercial per-13C-amino acid mixture as internal standards, provided a sensitive and specific method for quantitative analysis of fourteen urinary alpha-amino acids. A computer controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer was used in a selected ion monitoring mode to record the ion current due to the protonated molecular ions of each alpha-amino acid/13C analogue pair. BASIC programmes located peak maxima, and using previously established standard curves, calculated the amino acid content on the bases of both peak height and peak area ratios. Duplicate amino acid analyses are possible on 5 microliter of urine. Instrumental analysis required 25 minutes, automated data processing 10 minutes, and sample preparation 2 hours. Detection limits approached 1 ng with a typical mean standard deviation of 2% for the instrumental analysis. PMID:6452181

Finlayson, P J; Christopher, R K; Duffield, A M

1980-10-01

205

Quality evaluation of commercial Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang based on simultaneous determination of fourteen major chemical constituents using high performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT), comprising Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Phellodendri Cortex and Gardeniae Fructus, is one of the commonly used Chinese medicine formulas for clearing heat and detoxifying. Quality control of the herbal complex like Chinese medicine formulas still remains a challenge. The successful approval of botanical drug Veregen by FDA indicated the importance of quantitative analysis in quality control of herbal medicines. In this study, an effective quantitative method based on conventional HPLC-DAD was developed for simultaneous determination of fourteen major ingredients (seven alkaloids, four flavonoids, three terpenes) in HLJDT. The established method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability and then successfully applied to quality evaluation of commercial HLJDT samples. The developed method can quantitatively determine up to 70% of the chemicals of commercial HLJDT sample and effectively revealed the significant variation in the quality of the commercial HLJDT samples collected from different locations. PMID:23973454

Kwok, Ka-Yan; Xu, Jun; Ho, Hing-Man; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Min; Lang, Yan; Han, Quan-Bin

2013-08-05

206

Molecular analysis of the HEXA gene in Italian patients with infantile and late onset Tay-Sachs disease: detection of fourteen novel alleles.  

PubMed

Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a recessively inherited disorder caused by the hexosaminidase A deficiency. We report the molecular characterization performed on 31 Italian patients, 22 with the infantile, acute form of TSD and nine patients with the subacute juvenile form, biochemically classified as B1 Variant. Of the 29 different alleles identified, fourteen were due to 15 novel mutations, two being in-cis on a new complex allele. The new alleles caused four frameshifts, three premature stop codons, three amino acid changes, two amino acid deletions and two splicing alterations. As previously reported, the c.533G>A (p.R178H) mutation was present either in homozygosity or as compound heterozygote, in all the patients with the late onset TSD form (B1 Variant); the allele frequency in this group is discussed by comparison with that found in infantile TSD. PMID:16088929

Montalvo, Anna Lisa E; Filocamo, Mirella; Vlahovicek, Kristian; Dardis, Andrea; Lualdi, Susanna; Corsolini, Fabio; Bembi, Bruno; Pittis, Maria Gabriela

2005-09-01

207

30-Year-Old Foundation Center Keeps Track of Where the Money--$4.3 Billion of It--Goes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Foundation Center is a non-profit, independent organization formed and funded by grant-makers to keep track of how foundations use their money and to make the information available to the public. It will soon expand to publishing books to increase public understanding of philanthropy, develop electronic communication and computer-based…

Desruisseaux, Paul

1986-01-01

208

Massive Galaxies Near and Far: The Evolution of an Unbiased Population Over the Last Ten Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent deep near-infrared surveys have extended the study of the buildup of stellar mass in galaxies to ever-increasing redshifts. We present a new photometric redshift code, EAZY, which provides precise redshift estimates that allow us to exploit the full depth of surveys that frequently reach much fainter than is currently feasible for large spectroscopic campaigns. EAZY includes a carefully-determined template set and a novel "template error function" that accounts for systematic differences between the templates and true galaxy SEDs. We present results from the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey, a 75-night program recently undertaken with the Mayall 4-m, that uses 5 medium-width NIR filters designed to measure precise photometric redshifts and rest-frame colors at z > 1.5. We find that the color bimodality between "red and dead" and blue star-forming galaxies, prominent at lower redshifts, persists to at least z ˜ 2.5. The separation of the two populations is greatly improved after accounting for the effects of dust-reddening of star-forming galaxies. The existence of apparently "dead" galaxies at these high redshifts is remarkable, given the large gas reservoir available at early times and the fact that the average star formation rate in the Universe was much higher than it is today. The mass density of quiescent galaxies with M > 10^11 M? increases by ˜1 dex from z = 2.2 to the present day, whereas the mass density in star-forming galaxies is flat or decreases over the same time periods. Using a simple toy model, we show that modest mass growth (i.e., a factor of two) of individual galaxies can explain much of the strong density evolution of quiescent galaxies, due to the steepness of the exponential end of the mass function. We argue that mergers are a primary mechanism for building up the massive quiescent galaxy population, while less massive quiescent galaxies are continuously formed by transforming galaxies from the star-forming population. We conclude with a case study of a M = 4 × 10^11 M? quiescent galaxy at z = 1.902 using spatially-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy with the WFC3 grism on the Hubble Space Telescope , demonstrating the promise of this technique for further bridging the gap between photometric and spectroscopic surveys.

Brammer, Gabriel Barnes

209

Organic- and carbonate-rich soil formation ˜2.6 billion years ago at Schagen, East Transvaal district, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ˜17-m paleosol sequence at Schagen, South Africa, which developed on a serpentinized dunite intrusion in a granite-gneiss terrain ˜2.6 Ga ago, is characterized by an alternating succession of thick (˜1-3 m) carbonate-rich (dolomite and calcite) zones and silicate-rich (serpentines, talc, and quartz) zones; the upper ˜8 m section is especially rich in organic C (up to ˜1.4 wt.%). Petrologic and geochemical data suggest the upper ˜8 m section is composed of at least three soil profiles that developed on: (i) silicate-rich rock fragments (and minerals) that were transported from local sources (serpentinite and granite) by fluvial and/or eolian processes; and (ii) dolomite and calcite zones that formed by locally discharged groundwater. The Mg and Fe in the paleosol sequence were largely supplied from local sources (mostly serpentinite), but the Ca, Sr, and HCO 3- were supplied by groundwater that originated from a surrounding granite-gneiss terrain. In the uppermost soil profile, the (Fe is retained, the Fe 3+/Fe 2+ ratio increases, and ferri-stilpnomelane is abundant. These data suggest the atmospheric pO 2 was much greater than ˜10 -3.7 atm (>0.1% present atmospheric level [PAL]). The carbonaceous matter in the soils is intimately associated with clays (talc, chlorite, and ferri-stilpnomelane) and occurs mostly as seams (20 ?m to 1 mm thick) that parallel the soil horizons. These occurrences, crystallographic structures, H/C ratios, and ? 13C org values (-17.4 to -14.4‰ PDB) suggest that the carbonaceous matter is a remnant of in situ microbial mats, originally ˜1 to ˜20 mm thick. The microbial mats developed: (a) mostly on soil surfaces during the formation of silicate-rich soils, and (b) at the bottom of an evaporating, anoxic, alkaline pond during the precipitation of the Fe-rich dolomite. These ? 13C org values are difficult to be explained by a current popular idea of a methane- and organic haze-rich Archean atmosphere (Pavlov et al., 2001); these values, however, can be easily explained if the microbial mats were composed of cyanobacteria and heterotrophs that utilized the remnants of cyanobacteria in a strongly evaporating environment.

Watanabe, Yumiko; Stewart, Brian W.; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

2004-05-01

210

Bar Evolution over the Last 8 Billion Years: A Constant Fraction of Strong Bars in the GEMS Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-third of present-day spirals host optically visible strong bars that drive their dynamical evolution. However, the fundamental question of how bars evolve over cosmological times has yet to be resolved, and even the frequency of bars at intermediate redshifts remains controversial. We investigate the frequency of bars out to z ~ 1 drawing on a sample of 1590 galaxies from the Galaxy Evolution from Morphologies and SEDs survey, which provides morphologies from Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) two-band images and accurate redshifts from the COMBO-17 survey. We identify spiral galaxies using three independent techniques based on the Sersic index, concentration parameter, and rest-frame color. We characterize bar and disk features by fitting ellipses to F606W and F850LP images, using the two bands to minimize shifts in the rest-frame bandpass. We exclude highly inclined (i>60deg) galaxies to ensure reliable morphological classifications and apply different completeness cuts of MV<=-19.3 and -20.6. More than 40% of the bars that we detect have semimajor axes a<0.5" and would be easily missed in earlier surveys without the small point-spread function of ACS. The bars that we can reliably detect are fairly strong (with ellipticities e>=0.4) and have a in the range ~1.2-13 kpc. We find that the optical fraction of such strong bars remains at ~30%+/-6% from the present day out to look-back times of 2-6 Gyr (z~0.2-0.7) and 6-8 Gyr (z~0.7-1.0) it certainly shows no sign of a drastic decline at z>0.7. Our findings of a large and similar bar fraction at these three epochs favor scenarios in which cold gravitationally unstable disks are already in place by z~1 and where on average bars have a long lifetime (well in excess of 2 Gyr). The distributions of structural bar properties in the two slices are, however, not statistically identical and therefore allow for the possibility that the bar strengths and sizes may evolve over time.

Jogee, Shardha; Barazza, Fabio D.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Shlosman, Isaac; Barden, Marco; Wolf, Christian; Davies, James; Heyer, Inge; Beckwith, Steven V. W.; Bell, Eric F.; Borch, Andrea; Caldwell, John A. R.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dahlen, Tomas; Häussler, Boris; Heymans, Catherine; Jahnke, Knud; Knapen, Johan H.; Laine, Seppo; Lubell, Gabriel M.; Mobasher, Bahram; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Peng, Chien Y.; Ravindranath, Swara; Sanchez, Sebastian F.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Wisotzki, Lutz

2004-11-01

211

The Black Hills: a Keystone of North American Continental Evolution for over 2.6 Billion Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Black Hills region provides an excellent field laboratory to study numerous aspects of the continental evolution of North America from the Neoarchean to the Recent. The Neoarchean basement consists of 2.60- 2.56 Ga gneissic granitoids that formed during an early episode of convergent thermotectonism. In the Paleoproterozoic the region experienced rifting at 2.48-1.98 Ga and renewed convergence at 1.75-1.71

M. S. Hubbard; P. S. Dahl; G. Duke; E. F. Duke; P. I. Nabelek

2006-01-01

212

The Black Hills: a Keystone of North American Continental Evolution for over 2.6 Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Black Hills region provides an excellent field laboratory to study numerous aspects of the continental evolution of North America from the Neoarchean to the Recent. The Neoarchean basement consists of 2.60- 2.56 Ga gneissic granitoids that formed during an early episode of convergent thermotectonism. In the Paleoproterozoic the region experienced rifting at 2.48-1.98 Ga and renewed convergence at 1.75-1.71 Ga associated with early breakup and final reassembly of the Wyoming and Superior cratons, respectively. The product of this cratonic reconfiguration was a broad deformation zone known as the Trans-Hudson Orogen. Thermotectonic activity within the Dakota segment of this zone occurred at ~1820-1680 Ma compared to ~1860-1790 Ma in the Canadian segment. South of the Black Hills region the Yavapai (Central Plains) province was also accreted during the Precambrian. An extensive sequence of Cambrian through Cretaceous marine and continental sediments were laid down before the Black Hills were uplifted during the Laramide orogeny, which exposed the Precambrian crystalline core and its structures that record evidence for the major episodes of compressional deformation and intervening rifting events noted above. Laramide deformation may have actually localized along the Precambrian structures. Alkalic extrusive and intrusive activity occurred during late Laramide stages (~58 Ma) and continued up until ~46 Ma. Aeromagnetic evidence indicates that these mantle-derived magmas intruded along a N70°W trending fault with 50 km of left-lateral offset on the Precambrian surface. The Black Hills also sits astride the transition from the Rocky Mountain region to the northern Great Plains. South of the Black Hills there is evidence from fission track and stream deposition /erosion that the transition has been uplifting during the past 5 Ma. Other geophysical anomalies exist in the region including the North American Central Plains conductivity anomaly within the Trans Hudson Orogen and the South Dakota Gravity Low/High Heat Flow anomaly to the east of the Black Hills. These zones are possibly explained by ore deposition and fluid migration, respectively. Because of the extensive history of the Black Hills region, the exposure of an array of rock types/ages, and the presence of several anomalous geophysical zones, the Black Hills swath has been proposed as an area in which to establish a portion of the "geological framework" of North America through the integration of multiple geological and geophysical techniques during the EarthScope initiative.

Hubbard, M. S.; Dahl, P. S.; Duke, G.; Duke, E. F.; Nabelek, P. I.

2006-12-01

213

Half a billion years of reworking of Hadean mafic crust to produce the Nuvvuagittuq Eoarchean felsic crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt is dominated by mafic rocks, called the Ujaraaluk unit, that are mostly composed of cummingtonite-plagioclase-biotite with variable amounts of garnet. While the oldest zircons contained in thin intrusive trondhjemitic bands are ˜3.8 Ga, 146Sm-142Nd systematics suggest that the Ujaraaluk unit is as old as 4.4 Ga. The Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt is surrounded by Eoarchean TTGs that have geochemical and isotopic compositions consistent with their derivation by partial melting of a source similar in composition and age to the Ujaraaluk unit. New zircon dates reported here show the Nuvvuagittuq TTGs to consist at least of four distinct age units of 3.76 Ga, 3.66 Ga, 3.5-3.4 Ga and 3.35 Ga. The Hf isotopic compositions of zircons from the TTG are consistent with derivation from Hadean mafic crust. The 3.66 Ga to 3.35 Ga TTGs appear to have been formed primarily from melting of a source compositionally similar to the 4.4 Ga Ujaraaluk unit, whereas the more radiogenic Hf of the zircons from the 3.76 Ga TTGs may suggest derivation from melting of a source compositionally similar to 4.1 Ga intrusive gabbros. Alternatively, the distinct rare earth element patterns of the 3.76 Ga and 3.66 Ga TTGs suggest their derivation from sources with variable amounts of residual garnet and hence formation at different depths. The composition of the older TTGs is indicative of a deeper source that may have involved a greater interaction between the melt and the mantle to explain the more radiogenic Hf isotopic compositions of their zircons. Sources compositionally similar to the Ujaraaluk unit and intrusive gabbros appear to be the most likely candidates for the Hadean precursor of the Nuvvuagittuq TTGs.

O'Neil, Jonathan; Boyet, Maud; Carlson, Richard W.; Paquette, Jean-Louis

2013-10-01

214

Vanadyls ions in the 3.5 billion-year-old Apex Basalt chert: relics of a primitive metabolism?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of physico-chemical signatures of primitive life on Earth is a challenging issue, as it is extremely difficult to determine whether the carbonaceous matter preserved in the most ancient rocks is biogenic or abiotic. Indeed, organic matter of both origins always give the same type of macromolecular, acid resistant and insoluble carbonaceous matter during geologic evolution, with similar structures and spectroscopic signatures. There is still a lack of consensus in the scientific community on which observables could be considered as reliable biosignatures, and at present there is no physico-chemical marker, which could help to determine the origin of an ancient mineralized carbonaceous matter. Therefore, the determination of stable and reliable biosignatures is a fundamental issue in the search of primitive life on Earth and on Mars. Metalloporphyrins are important biomarkers as all living organisms, including the most primitive bacteria, use porphyrin derivatives in their metabolism. Complexes of vanadyl (VO++) porphyrins (VO-P) are particularly interesting as they are universally found within biogenic terrestrial carbonaceous materials. Therefore these complexes should constitute ideal biomarkers for the search of traces of primitive life in the most ancient (Lower Archean) geological materials and possibly in some Martian rocks. Vanadium in +4 oxidation state [V(IV)] in the Apex Basalt chert of the Warrawoona group in Western Australia is studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The biogenic origin of the carbonaceous microstructures fossilized in these cherts has been recently opened to question. More than 95% of V(IV) detected in the chert are in the form of VO++ with oxygenated ligands. To test the possibility that these oxygenated vanadyl species originate from the degradation of vanadyl porphyrin complex, we studied by EPR the thermal stability and the degradation mechanism of vanadyl porphyrins encapsulated in SiO2. We observed that degradation occurs by transferring the vanadyl ion from the porphyrin to an oxygenated environment within the SiO2 network, forming a complex very similar to that observed in Apex Basalt chert. We conclude that vanadyl complexes of the Apex Basalt chert likely originate from the degradation of vanadyl porphyrins formed during the precipitation of the silica. As porphyrins are found in all living systems, oxygenated vanadyl complexes in Archean cherts may thus constitute second order biomarkers for early life.

Binet, Laurent; Delpoux, Olivier; Gourier, Didier; Skrzypczak-Bonduelle, Audrey; Vezin, Herve; Derenne, Sylvie

215

Vanadyls ions in the 3.5 billion-year-old Apex Basalt chert: relics of a primitive metabolism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of physico-chemical signatures of primitive life on Earth is a challenging issue, as it is extremely difficult to determine whether the carbonaceous matter preserved in the most ancient rocks is biogenic or abiotic. Indeed, organic matter of both origins always give the same type of macromolecular, acid resistant and insoluble carbonaceous matter during geologic evolution, with similar structures

Laurent Binet; Olivier Delpoux; Didier Gourier; Audrey Skrzypczak-Bonduelle; Herve Vezin; Sylvie Derenne

2008-01-01

216

Fourteen Ways To Save Money.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School districts have come up with some money-saving practices that include auditing utility bills, turning off lights, installing light fixtures that are more cost-efficient, keeping track of what the district owns, and shopping for better deals with utilities. (MLF)|

Jones, Rebecca

1998-01-01

217

Genetic predisposition to obesity and lifestyle factors - the combined analyses of twenty-six known BMI- and fourteen known waist:hip ratio (WHR)-associated variants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.  

PubMed

Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci associated with BMI or the waist:hip ratio (WHR). However, evidence on gene-lifestyle interactions is still scarce, and investigation of the effects of well-documented dietary and other lifestyle data is warranted to assess whether genetic risk can be modified by lifestyle. We assessed whether previously established BMI and WHR genetic variants associate with obesity and weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, and whether the associations are modified by dietary factors or physical activity. Individuals (n 459) completed a 3 d food record and were genotyped for twenty-six BMI- and fourteen WHR-related variants. The effects of the variants individually and in combination were investigated in relation to obesity and to 1- and 3-year weight change by calculating genetic risk scores (GRS). The GRS were separately calculated for BMI and the WHR by summing the increasing alleles weighted by their published effect sizes. At baseline, the GRS were not associated with total intakes of energy, macronutrients or fibre. The mean 1- and 3-year weight changes were not affected by the BMI or WHR GRS. During the 3-year follow-up, a trend for higher BMI by the GRS was detected especially in those who reported a diet low in fibre (P for interaction = 0·065). Based on the present findings, it appears unlikely that obesity-predisposing variants substantially modify the effect of lifestyle modification on the success of weight reduction in the long term. In addition, these findings suggest that the association between the BMI-related genetic variants and obesity could be modulated by the diet. PMID:23668671

Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Paananen, Jussi; Lindström, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti

2013-05-14

218

Residence Life Programs and the First-Year Experience. The Freshman Year Experience. Monograph Series No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph contains papers which suggest means of implementing residential programs, services, and facilities that will help to meet the needs of first-year college students. Fourteen papers are presented and are as follows: "Reflections on the First Year Residential Experience" (John N. Gardner); "The Role of Residential Programs in the…

Zeller, William, Ed.; And Others

219

The $1. 5 billion question: Can the US Global Change Research Program deliver on its promises  

SciTech Connect

President Clinton has continued the funding for scientific investigations of global climatic change, increasing funds to a total of $1.5 billion spread amoung 11 different agencies. However, a growing number of critics warn that the program appears heading toward failure. The main issue is relevancy. Almost every agrees that the research effort will support important scientific work over the next decade, but it will not necessarily provide the information policymakers need to address the threat of climatic change, ozone depletion, deforestation, desertification, and similiar issues. This article summarizes the concerns and comments of critics, and the gap between the climate scientists and governmental policymakers.

Monastersky, R.

1993-09-04

220

77 FR 3075 - Resolution Plans Required for Insured Depository Institutions With $50 Billion or More in Total...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Financial Stability Oversight Council; or, alternatively, only if the savings association is over $50 billion and receives a CAMELS rating of 3 or worse or its parent receives an equivalent low rating. Additionally, this commenter suggests that the...

2012-01-23

221

Sixth Year of Unprecedented R&D Growth Expected in 2000  

NSF Publications Database

This Data Brief describes recent trends in National and International R&D expenditures. The six years between 1994 and 2000 may have witnessed the largest real (adjusted for inflation) raise in U.S. expenditures on R&D, from $169 billion to $264 billion. See Help for more information about viewing publications in different formats.

222

Investigation of Radar Propagation in Buildings: A 10 Billion Element Cartesian-Mesh FETD Simulation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper large scale full-wave simulations are performed to investigate radar wave propagation inside buildings. In principle, a radar system combined with sophisticated numerical methods for inverse problems can be used to determine the internal structure of a building. The composition of the walls (cinder block, re-bar) may effect the propagation of the radar waves in a complicated manner. In order to provide a benchmark solution of radar propagation in buildings, including the effects of typical cinder block and re-bar, we performed large scale full wave simulations using a Finite Element Time Domain (FETD) method. This particular FETD implementation is tuned for the special case of an orthogonal Cartesian mesh and hence resembles FDTD in accuracy and efficiency. The method was implemented on a general-purpose massively parallel computer. In this paper we briefly describe the radar propagation problem, the FETD implementation, and we present results of simulations that used over 10 billion elements.

Stowell, M L; Fasenfest, B J; White, D A

2008-01-14

223

Saving billions of dollars--and physicians' time--by streamlining billing practices.  

PubMed

The U.S. system of billing third parties for health care services is complex, expensive, and inefficient. Physicians end up using nearly 12 percent of their net patient service revenue to cover the costs of excessive administrative complexity. A single transparent set of payment rules for multiple payers, a single claim form, and standard rules of submission, among other innovations, would reduce the burden on the billing offices of physician organizations. On a national scale, our hypothetical modeling of these changes would translate into $7 billion of savings annually for physician and clinical services. Four hours of professional time per physician and five hours of practice support staff time could be saved each week. PMID:20430822

Blanchfield, Bonnie B; Heffernan, James L; Osgood, Bradford; Sheehan, Rosemary R; Meyer, Gregg S

2010-04-29

224

Enumeration of 166 billion organic small molecules in the chemical universe database GDB-17.  

PubMed

Drug molecules consist of a few tens of atoms connected by covalent bonds. How many such molecules are possible in total and what is their structure? This question is of pressing interest in medicinal chemistry to help solve the problems of drug potency, selectivity, and toxicity and reduce attrition rates by pointing to new molecular series. To better define the unknown chemical space, we have enumerated 166.4 billion molecules of up to 17 atoms of C, N, O, S, and halogens forming the chemical universe database GDB-17, covering a size range containing many drugs and typical for lead compounds. GDB-17 contains millions of isomers of known drugs, including analogs with high shape similarity to the parent drug. Compared to known molecules in PubChem, GDB-17 molecules are much richer in nonaromatic heterocycles, quaternary centers, and stereoisomers, densely populate the third dimension in shape space, and represent many more scaffold types. PMID:23088335

Ruddigkeit, Lars; van Deursen, Ruud; Blum, Lorenz C; Reymond, Jean-Louis

2012-11-01

225

One billion points in the cloud - an octree for efficient processing of 3D laser scans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated 3-dimensional modeling pipelines include 3D scanning, registration, data abstraction, and visualization. All steps in such a pipeline require the processing of a massive amount of 3D data, due to the ability of current 3D scanners to sample environments with a high density. The increasing sampling rates make it easy to acquire Billions of spatial data points. This paper presents algorithms and data structures for handling these data. We propose an efficient octree to store and compress 3D data without loss of precision. We demonstrate its usage for an exchange file format, fast point cloud visualization, sped-up 3D scan matching, and shape detection algorithms. We evaluate our approach using typical terrestrial laser scans.

Elseberg, Jan; Borrmann, Dorit; Nüchter, Andreas

2013-02-01

226

2 Years of Science, One-of-a-Kind Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fourteen years ago, Bruce A. Jackson was doing his postdoctoral work at the Boston University School of Medicine and working nights teaching at nearby Roxbury Community College. But his exhausting shuttle between two colleges was about to come to an end. Mr. Jackson, a biochemist, had recently received word from the National Science Foundation…

Ashburn, Elyse

2007-01-01

227

Meniscus Allograft Transplantation: Ten-Year Results of Cryopreserved Allografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We report the results of cryopreserved meniscus allograft transplantations with 10 or more years of follow-up. Methods: Fourteen medial and 8 lateral meniscus allografts were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 141 months (range, 115 to 167 months). The clinical outcome and failure rate was evaluated by use of a Lysholm score and modified pain score in 22 patients.

Jan Pieter Hommen; Gregory R. Applegate; Wilson Del Pizzo

2007-01-01

228

What is the global economic impact of Neospora caninum in cattle - the billion dollar question.  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is regarded as one of the most important infectious causes of abortions in cattle worldwide, yet the global economic impact of the infection has not been established. A systematic review of the economic impact of N. caninum infections/abortions was conducted, searching PubMed with the terms 'cattle' and 'Neospora'. This yielded 769 publications and the abstracts were screened for economically relevant information (e.g. abortion prevalence and risk, serological prevalence). Further analysis was restricted to countries with at least five relevant publications. In total, 99 studies (12.9%) from 10 countries contained data from the beef industry (25 papers (25.3%)) and 72 papers (72.8%) from the dairy industry (with the remaining two papers (2.0%) describing general abortion statistics). The total annual cost of N. caninum infections/abortions was estimated to range from a median US $1.1 million in the New Zealand beef industry to an estimated median total of US $546.3 million impact per annum in the US dairy population. The estimate for the total median N. caninum-related losses exceeded US $1.298 billion per annum, ranging as high as US $2.380 billion. Nearly two-thirds of the losses were incurred by the dairy industry (US $842.9 million). Annual losses on individual dairy farms were estimated to reach a median of US $1,600.00, while on beef farms these costs amounted to just US $150.00. Pregnant cows and heifers were estimated to incur, on average, a loss due to N. caninum of less than US $20.00 for dairy and less than US $5.00 for beef. These loss estimates, however, rose to ?US $110.00 and US $40.00, respectively, for N. caninum-infected pregnant dairy and beef cows. This estimate of global losses due to N. caninum, with the identification of clear target markets (countries, as well as cattle industries), should provide an incentive to develop treatment options and/or vaccines. PMID:23246675

Reichel, Michael P; Alejandra Ayanegui-Alcérreca, M; Gondim, Luís F P; Ellis, John T

2012-12-12

229

State Implementation and Perceptions of Title I School Improvement Grants under the Recovery Act: One Year Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), also known as the stimulus package, appropriated $100 billion for education and included $3 billion for school improvement grants (SIGs) to help reform low-performing schools. This amount was in addition to the $546 million provided by the regular fiscal year 2009 appropriations bill for…

McMurrer, Jennifer; McIntosh, Shelby

2012-01-01

230

FTO Biology and Obesity: Why Do a Billion of Us Weigh 3 kg More?  

PubMed Central

Few would dispute that the current obesity epidemic has been driven by lifestyle and environmental changes. However, it is clear that individuals respond differently to these “obesigenic” changes and this variation in response has a strong genetic element. Genome-wide association studies have revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms in Fat mass and obesity-associated transcript (FTO) are robustly associated with body mass index and obesity. Although the effect of these risk alleles are modest, with heterozygous and homozygous carriers weighing approximately 1.5 and 3?kg more respectively, there are an estimated one billion homozygous carriers in the world, spanning multiple different ethnicities and populations. Yet despite its broad impact, the biological function of FTO, particularly its role in controlling energy balance, remains unknown. Although the study of severe Mendelian obesity has been invaluable in illuminating critical pathways controlling food intake, the major burden of disease is carried by those of us with “common obesity,” which to date has resisted yielding meaningful biological insights. FTO has at last given us a handle on a huge, worldwide, common problem. In this review, we focus on the available genetic and in vivo evidence to date that implicates FTO in the control of energy balance.

Cheung, Man-Ka Marcella; Yeo, Giles S. H.

2011-01-01

231

Broadcasts for a billion: the growth of commercial television in China.  

PubMed

At present, Chinese television reaches 35% of the population (80-90% in urban areas) and is used by the government as a source of education and information. In recognition of the potential market represented by 1.1 billions consumers, Western advertisers have commissioned elaborate market research studies. Drama, sports, news, and movies are consistently identified as the favorite type of programming among Chinese television viewers. About 75% of Beijing adults watch television daily, making the medium both an important target for advertising campaigns and a way for Westerners to influence Chinese business and government leaders. Western advertisers have tended to concentrate their investments in the more urban, affluent regions where products have the greatest likelihood of being sold. There has been a recent trend, however, toward industrial commercials, with British and French companies buying television time to promote their image as partners in China's modernization. Key to the future of commercial advertising on Chinese Television. In many provinces, local television stations have developed a unique character and portray different sociocultural values than the national channel. Outside advertisers have sometimes experienced problems with local networks that substitute local advertising without informing the network. To correct this situation, the government is enacting pro-sponsor regulations that forbid the preemption of the national channel and its advertisements. At the same time, efforts are being made to improve relationships with local television stations by either paying them a fee or airing local commercials on the national network. PMID:12342936

Schmuck, C

1987-01-01

232

Biologic agents in rheumatology: unmet issues after 200 trials and $200 billion sales.  

PubMed

Anti-TNF agents and other biologic therapies are widely prescribed for a variety of indications, with total sales that exceed $200 billion to date. In rheumatic diseases, biologic agents have now been studied in more than 200 randomized clinical trials and over 100 subsequent meta-analyses; however, the information obtained does not always meet the needs of patients and clinicians. In this Review, we discuss the current issues concerning the evidence derived from such studies: potential biases favouring positive results; a paucity of head-to-head comparisons between biologically active agents; overwhelming involvement of manufacturer sponsors in trials and in the synthesis of the evidence; the preference for trials with limited follow-up; and the potential for spurious findings on adverse events, leading to endless debates about malignancy risk. We debate the responsibilities of regulatory authorities, the pharmaceutical industry and academia in attempting to solve these shortcomings and challenges. We propose that improvements in the evidence regarding biologic treatments that are continually being added to the therapeutic armamentarium for rheumatic diseases might require revisiting the design and conduct of studies. For example, trials with long-term follow-up that are independent of the pharmaceutical industry, head-to-head comparisons of therapeutic agents and the use of rigorous clinical outcomes should be considered, and public availability of raw data endorsed. PMID:23999553

Ioannidis, John P A; Karassa, Fotini B; Druyts, Eric; Thorlund, Kristian; Mills, Edward J

2013-09-03

233

How to make a billion-barrel oil field in offshore California commercial  

SciTech Connect

The major obstacles and challenges involved in exploration and development of a giant deep-water low-gravity oil field are exemplified in the undeveloped Sword field of offshore southern California. In 1979, Conoco Exploration identified a northeast-southwest-trending basement high in the 800 to 2,000-ft deep federal waters 12 mi southwest of Pt. Conception at the western end of the Santa Barbara Channel. The intended reservoir was fractured Miocene Monterey chert, silicic shales/siltstones,m and dolomites that are draped over the axially faulted structure. Drilling of the initial well in OCS P-0322 in 1982 resulted in discovering the giant Sword field. A confirmation well drilled in OCS P-0320 indicates in-place reserves of well over 1 billion bbl. while the discovered potential is significant, the low gravity (8.5/sup 0/-10.5/sup 0/ API) of the oils discovered to data, along with water depths in excess of 1,500 ft, currently pose economic challenges to successful field development.

Patterson, J.C.; Ballard, J.H.

1988-01-01

234

Simulating materials failure by using up to one billion atoms and the world's fastest computer: Work-hardening  

PubMed Central

We describe the second of two large-scale atomic simulation projects on materials failure performed on the 12-teraflop ASCI (Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative) White computer at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This investigation simulates ductile failure by using more than one billion atoms where the true complexity of the creation and interaction of hundreds of dislocations are revealed.

Abraham, Farid F.; Walkup, Robert; Gao, Huajian; Duchaineau, Mark; Diaz De La Rubia, Tomas; Seager, Mark

2002-01-01

235

$100 Billion: For Reform...or to Subsidize the Status Quo? Education Stimulus Watch. Special Report 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the first in a quarterly series of special reports on the K-12 education implications of the federal government's economic stimulus package, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). That the ARRA, which was signed into law in February, will pump nearly $100 billion--an unprecedented sum of federal money--into K-12 education is…

Smarick, Andy

2009-01-01

236

South Asia and US Interests: Peripheral, But Impossible to Ignore* (*1 Billion+ People Can Quickly Get Your Attention).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

South Asia, the land mass consists of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka has been a crossroads of civilization and history for centuries. The cradle of two or more world's religions, the home of one billion people, hun...

B. B. Alexander J. Boyle K. Milas

1996-01-01

237

EVALUATION OF PARTS-PER-BILLION (PPB) ORGANIC CYLINDER GASES FOR USE AS AUDITS DURING HAZARDOUS WASTE TRIAL BURN TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A repository of 14 gaseous organic compounds at parts-per-billion levels (7-430 ppb) in compressed gas cylinders has been established by the Environmental Protection Agency. This repository was established to provide audit materials for use in conducting performance audits to ass...

238

An Examination of Year-End Spending with Regard to Department of Defense Contract Awards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigations conducted by Congress and the General Accounting Office have indicated that a number of Federal agencies, including the Department of Defense (DOD), engage in a year-end spending practice which potentially wastes billions of tax dollars ann...

J. M. Farrell P. K. Spendley

1981-01-01

239

Layout finishing of a 28nm, 3 billions transistors, multi-core processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing a fully new 256 cores processor is a great challenge for a fabless startup. In addition to all architecture, functionalities and timing issues, the layout by itself is a bottleneck due to all the process constraints of a 28nm technology. As developers of advanced layout finishing solutions, we were involved in the design flow of this huge chip with its 3 billions transistors. We had to face the issue of dummy patterns instantiation with respect to design constraints. All the design rules to generate the "dummies" are clearly defined in the Design Rule Manual, and some automatic procedures are provided by the foundry itself, but these routines don't take care of the designer requests. Such a chip, embeds both digital parts and analog modules for clock and power management. These two different type of designs have each their own set of constraints. In both cases, the insertion of dummies should not introduce unexpected variations leading to malfunctions. For example, on digital parts were signal race conditions are critical on long wires or bus, introduction of uncontrolled parasitic along these nets are highly critical. For analog devices such as high frequency and high sensitivity comparators, the exact symmetry of the two parts of a current mirror generator should be guaranteed. Thanks to the easily customizable features of our dummies insertion tool, we were able to configure it in order to meet all the designer requirements as well as the process constraints. This paper will present all these advanced key features as well as the layout tricks used to fulfill all requirements.

Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Beisser, Eric

2013-06-01

240

Assessment of the Projected One Billion Ton Biomass for Cellulosic Biofuel Production and Its Potential Implications on Regional Water Quality and Availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DOE and USDA joint study, also commonly referred as the "Billion-Ton" study, assessed the cellulosic feedstock resources potential in the U.S. for producing second generation biofuel to replace 30 percent of the country's transportation fuels by year 2030. The available resource is expected to come from changing cropping pattern, increasing crop yield, harvesting agricultural and forest wood residues, and developing energy crops. Such large-scale changes in land use and crop managements are likely to affect the associated water quality and resources at both regional and local scales. To address the water sustainability associated with the projected biomass production in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), we have developed a SWAT watershed model that simulate the changes in water quality (nitrogen, phosphorus, and soil erosion) and resources (soil water content, evapotranspiration, and runoff) of the region due to future biomass production scenario estimated by the Billion-Ton study. The scenario is implemented by changing the model inputs and parameters at subbasin and hydrologic response unit levels, as well as by improving the SWAT model to represent spatially varying crop properties. The potential impacts on water quality and water availability were compared with the results obtained from a baseline simulation which represents current watershed conditions and existing level of feedstock production. The basin level results suggested mixed effects on the water quality. The projected large-scale biomass production scenario is expected to decrease loadings of total nitrogen and nitrate in the streams while increase total phosphorus and suspended sediment. Results indicate an increase in the rate of evapotranspiration and a decrease in the soil water content and in surface runoff. discharge to the streams. The impacts at the subbasin or local scale varies spatially and temporally depending on the types of land use change, their locations, and crop managements, suggesting needs to further optimize the sustainable biomass production from water resource perspective at both regional and local levels.

Demissie, Y. K.; Yan, E.; Wu, M.

2011-12-01

241

Surgical management of traumatic LASIK flap dislocation 14 years postoperatively with macrostriae and epithelial ingrowth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen years after uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), a 59-year-old woman presented after suffering blunt trauma to her left eye 5 weeks earlier. The injury resulted in traumatic flap dislocation, epithelial ingrowth, and significant macrostriae. The flap was deepithelialized and hydrated with sterile water, reducing the macrostriae and reapproximating the corneal flap without the need for suture placement. The

Derick G. Holt; Shameema Sikder; Mark D. Mifflin

242

K-12 Budget Picture: Lean Years Ahead. Education Outlook. No. 10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While educators are eager to forget the financial woes of the past two years and return to the familiar routine of steady budget increases, the fiscal outlook for America's fourteen thousand school districts is bleak--not just for next year, but for a half decade or more. This calls for a new mindset among educators and an unfamiliar,…

Hess, Frederick M.; Downs, Whitney

2010-01-01

243

Recovery Act Put $2.5 Billion in Ohioans' Pockets A County-by-County Review of Direct Benefits in 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

he $787 billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) was split between formula funding for state and local government programs, competitive grants, and direct benefits to Americans. The State of Ohio is expected to receive $8.2 billion in formula funding, and competitive grants in excess of $817 million have al- ready been awarded to Ohio entities. This report

Emily Campbell

244

Multimillion-to-billion atom molecular dynamics simulations of deformation, damage, nanoindentation, and fracture in silica glass and energetic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimillion-to-billion molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to study atomistic mechanisms of deformation, damage and failure in silica glass and energetic materials. The simulations are based on experimentally validated interatomic potentials and employ highly efficiently algorithms for parallel architectures. The onset of void-void interaction is investigated by performing MD simulations of amorphous silica under hydrostatic tension. The simulations reveal

Yi-Chun Chen

2008-01-01

245

Individual and Group Responses of Fourteen and Fifteen Year Olds to Short Stories, Novels, Poems, and Thematic Apperception Tests: Case Studies Based on Piagetian Genetic Epistemology and Freudian Psychoanalytic Ego Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A descriptive profile of adolescent response to literature is presented in this study, which also examines findings in terms of psychoanalytic concepts that relate response to life styles in terms of Piaget's genetic epistemology. There are two primary questions in this investigation: What is the psychological dynamic of response to literature?…

Petrosky, Anthony R.

246

FRESHMAN ENGLISH AT FOURTEEN TWO-YEAR COLLEGES--JUNIOR COLLEGE OF ALBANY, AMARILLO, BAKERSFIELD, BECKLEY, CALIFORNIA CONCORDIA, CAZENOVIA, GRAND VIEW, HARCUM, LAKEWOOD STATE, MIAMI-DADE, AND COLBY, JEFFERSON, MONROE COUNTY, AND PORTLAND COMMUNITY COLLEGES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FOR A REPORT ON FRESHMAN COMPOSITION PROGRAMS, THE ASSOCIATION OF DEPARTMENTS OF ENGLISH OBTAINED SYLLABI AND COURSE DESCRIPTIONS FROM DIRECTORS OF FRESHMAN COMPOSITION AT 66 COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. AMONG THE DATA ASSEMBELED FOR THE FULL REPORT (AVAILABLE AS TE 500 190) ARE THE DESCRIPTIONS, CONTAINED HERE, OF FRESHMAN ENGLISH PROGRAMS AT 14…

NELSON, BONNIE E., COMP.

247

Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 1997-98. Statistics in Brief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

About $326 billion of revenues were raised by local, state and federal governments to fund public education for grades pre-kindergarten through 12 in school year 1997-98. Current expenditures (those excluding construction, equipment and debt financing) ca...

2000-01-01

248

Revenues and Expenditures for Public ELementary and Secondary Education: School Year 1996-1997. Statistics in Brief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

About $305 billion of revenues were raised by local, state and federal governments to fund public education for grades prekindergarten through the 12th grade in school year 1996-1997. Current expenditures (those excluding construction, equipment and debt ...

F. Johnson

1999-01-01

249

Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a booster dose of a combined diphtheria, tetanus, and tricomponent acellular pertussis vaccine at fourteen to twenty-eight months of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The primary objective was to assess the nature and incidence of adverse events after a fourth dose of a tricomponent acellular pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus vaccine given in the second year of life after primary vaccination with the same vaccine at 3, 4, and 5 months of age. A secondary objective was to analyze the immunogenicity of the booster vaccination.Design: Of the

Heinz-J. Schmitt; Karin Beutel; Anne Schuind; Markus Knuf; Sabine Wagner; Simone Müschenborn; Hugues Bogaerts; Hans L. Bock; Ralf Clemens

1997-01-01

250

77 FR 16224 - Billion Auto, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...this period will become part of the public record. After thirty (30) days, the FTC will again review the...Part VIII is a provision ``sunsetting'' the order after twenty (20) years, with certain exceptions. The purpose of this...

2012-03-20

251

Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding, FY2008-FY2009.  

PubMed

Since 2001, the United States government has spent substantial resources on preparing the nation against a bioterrorist attack. Earlier articles in this series analyzed civilian biodefense funding by the federal government from fiscal years 2001 through 2008. This article updates those figures with budgeted amounts for fiscal year 2009, specifically analyzing the budgets and allocations for biodefense at the Departments of Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Defense, Agriculture, and State and the Environmental Protection Agency and the National Science Foundation. PMID:18582165

Franco, Crystal

2008-06-01

252

Three year follow-up of borderline congenital hypothyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether children with borderline hypothyroidism in the neonatal period had persistent hypothyroidism after 3 years of levothyroxine replacement therapy. Fourteen term infants with slightly abnormal newborn screening results (thyroxine 4.6 ?U\\/mL or a thyroid releasing hormone test result consistent with primary hypothyroidism), and levothyroxine was reinitiated. Only one patient had normal thyroid

Agnes L Daliva; Barbara Linder; Joan DiMartino-Nardi; Paul Saenger

2000-01-01

253

Millennium Challenge Corporation: Budget Justification, Fiscal Year 2008  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The President is requesting in his Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 Budget an appropriation of $3 billion for the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC). These funds are essential for building on MCC's track record of success and for furthering MCC's mission of redu...

2007-01-01

254

Fiscal Year 2006 Budget Summary and Background Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2006 U.S. President's budget request of $56.0 billion in discretionary appropriations for the Department of Education (ED), represents a decrease of $529.6 million, or 0.9 percent, from the 2005 level. Even after this small decrease, the Federal investment in education will have grown substantially over the past five years, with discretionary…

US Department of Education, 2005

2005-01-01

255

Private Donations to Colleges Rise for 4th Consecutive Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Backed by a strong economy and a growing stock market, American colleges and universities raised an estimated $29.8-billion in the 2007 fiscal year, the highest total ever recorded, according to a report released last week by the Council for Aid to Education. But the country's recent economic troubles have some fund-raising experts concerned that…

Wolverton, Brad

2008-01-01

256

Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding, FY2007-FY2008.  

PubMed

Since 2001, the U.S. government has spent substantial resources on preparing the nation against a bioterrorist attack. Earlier articles in this series analyzed civilian biodefense funding by the federal government from fiscal years 2001 through 2007. This article updates those figures with budgeted amounts for fiscal year 2008, specifically analyzing the budgets and allocations for biodefense at the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, the Department of Agriculture, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of State, and the National Science Foundation. PMID:17608598

Franco, Crystal; Deitch, Shana

2007-06-01

257

Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense budgeting, FY2005-FY2006.  

PubMed

Since 2001, the United States government has spent substantial resources on preparing the nation against a bioterrorist attack. An earlier article analyzed the civilian biodefense funding by the federal government from fiscal years 2001 through 2005. This article updates those figures with budgeted amounts for fiscal year 2006, specifically analyzing the budgets and allocations for biodefense at the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Agriculture, the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Science Foundation, and the Department of State. PMID:16000040

Schuler, Ari

2005-01-01

258

Survey of lands held for uranium exploration, development, and production in fourteen western states in the six month period ending June 30, 1979  

SciTech Connect

The statistics set forth for the period covered by this report are based on data gathered from records available to the public. These data were derived from public county records of mining claim locations, from the public reports of state and Federal land offices, from commercial reporting services, and from annual reports to stockholders of land companies. Accordingly, if any fee land has been acquired in a private transaction which has not been entered into a public record or report, that land will not be accounted for in this report. The figures for the acreage controlled at the beginning of the calendar year are those that were published for that date in the publication entitled Statistical Data of the Uranium Industry GJO-100(78).

Not Available

1980-01-01

259

$5.8 Billion and Change: An Exploration of Long-Term Budgetary Trends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the past 20 years, the share of Kentucky's general fund dollars spent on police and corrections, and health and human services, has increased. Meanwhile, the share spent on elementary and secondary education has not changed, while higher education funding has fallen. Compared to similar states, Kentucky spends less money per student at all…

Schirmer, Peter; Childress, Michael T.; Nett, Charles C.

260

With GI Bill's Billions at Stake, Colleges Compete to Lure Veterans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the Post-9/11 GI Bill nears its fourth year, with more than 550,000 veterans enrolled in thousands of institutions, advocacy groups, lawmakers, and President Obama warn that veterans are vulnerable in a higher-education marketplace eager for their GI Bill dollars--with some purveyors, particularly for-profits, recruiting aggressively. The…

Sander, Libby

2012-01-01

261

The natural link between Europe and Africa - 2.1 billion birds on migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Palaearctic–African migration system comprises enormous numbers of birds travelling between Europe and Africa twice each year. Migratory birds may form strong links between the two continents given they can act as both transport vehicles for parasites and diseases as well as temporary consumers with increased food demand to fuel their flight. Knowing the number of migrating birds is crucial

Steffen Hahn; Silke Bauer; Felix Liechti

2009-01-01

262

Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015,

Ashok J. Gadgil; Elisabeth A. Derby

2003-01-01

263

VALUE-ADDING 20 BILLION BY 2005: IMPACT AT THE ALBERTA FARM GATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction In recent years in Canada, direct support provided by governments to the agricultural sector has been decreasing due to international obligations under the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade\\/World Trade Organization (GATT\\/WTO) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Consequently, governments and the agriculture industry are exploring ways of generating and sustaining farmers' revenue from the marketplace. In

James R. Unterschultz; Scott R. Jeffrey; Kwamena K. Quagrainie

2000-01-01

264

Congressional Budget Office: Revised Baseline Budget Projections for Fiscal Years 1999-2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Revised Baseline Budget Projections for Fiscal Years 1999-2008 updates the baseline budget projections for fiscal years 1999-2008 by taking into account new information from the President's budget and other sources. The revised figures show that CBO expects a budget surplus of almost $8 billion for this year.

1998-01-01

265

White-light demonstration of one hundred parts per billion irradiance suppression in air by new starshade occulters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mission concept for direct imaging of exo-solar planets called New Worlds Observer (NWO) has been proposed. It involves flying a meter-class space telescope in formation with a newly-conceived, specially-shaped, deployable star-occulting shade several meters across at a separation of some tens of thousands of kilometers. The telescope would make its observations from behind the starshade in a volume of high suppression of incident irradiance from the star around which planets orbit. For an efficacious mission, the required level of irradiance suppression by the starshade is of order 0.1 to 10 parts per billion in broadband light. We discuss an experiment to accurately measure the irradiance suppression ratio at the null position behind candidate starshade forms to these levels. We also present results of broadband measurements which demonstrated suppression levels of less than 100 parts per billion in air using the Sun as a light source. A simulated spatial irradiance distribution surrounding the null from an analytical model developed for starshades is compared with a photograph of actual irradiance captured in situ behind a candidate starshade.

Leviton, Douglas B.; Cash, Webster C.; Gleason, Brian; Kaiser, Michael J.; Levine, Sarah A.; Lo, Amy S.; Schindhelm, Eric; Shipley, Ann F.

2007-09-01

266

Critical role of physiologist John A. Johnson in the origins of Minnesota's billion dollar pacemaker industry.  

PubMed

Complete heart block developed in more than 10% of C. Walton Lillehei's early patients undergoing closure of ventricular septal defects, and hospital mortality was 100% in this group of patients. This problem of early fatality from heart block was completely eliminated with the use of a myocardial electrode in combination with an external plug-in electric stimulator. This method of treatment, suggested by Dr John A. Johnson, a professor of physiology at the University of Minnesota, was first used by Dr Lillehei on January 30, 1957. The next 3 years would witness the development of a portable, external, battery-powered pacemaker, and then an implantable pacemaker available for thousands of patients susceptible to lethal Stokes-Adams attacks. Fifty years have passed, and in 2005, approximately 800,000 pacemakers were implanted worldwide. PMID:17184706

Gott, Vincent L

2007-01-01

267

Three-Year Follow-up Study of Children and Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa Initially Treated in a Continuum of Care Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa were treated in a new continuum of care program, and compared to a group previously treated in our traditional inpatient program. For 12 of the 14 patients, outcome was then assessed yearly at 1, 2, and 3 years following acute treatment. At the 3-year follow-up, 8 of 12 patients were at = 90%

David A. Waller; MONICA N. MUGAN; Tanya Morshed; Jessica Stetnick; MARIA CUMMINGS; LINDA S. HYNAN

2003-01-01

268

Distributing $800 billion: an early assessment of Medicare Part D risk adjustment.  

PubMed

The viability and stability of the Medicare Part D prescription drug program depend on accurate risk-adjusted payments. The current approach, prescription drug hierarchical condition categories (RxHCCs), uses diagnosis and demographic information to predict future drug costs. We evaluated the performance of multiple approaches for predicting 2006 Part D drug costs and plan liability. RxHCCs explain 12 percent of the variation in actual drug costs, overpredict costs for beneficiaries with low actual costs, and underpredict costs for beneficiaries with high actual costs. Combining RxHCCs with individual-level information on prior-year drug use greatly improves performance and decreases incentives for plans to select against bad risks. PMID:19124873

Hsu, John; Huang, Jie; Fung, Vicki; Price, Mary; Brand, Richard; Hui, Rita; Fireman, Bruce; Dow, William; Bertko, John; Newhouse, Joseph P

269

Symbolic Density Models of One-in-a-Billion Statistical Tails via Importance Sampling and Genetic Programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the application of symbolic regression for building models of probability distributions in which the accuracy at the distributions' tails is critical. The problem is of importance to cutting-edge industrial integrated circuit design, such as designing SRAM memory components (bitcells, sense amps) where each component has extremely low probability of failure. A naive approach is infeasible because it would require billions of Monte Carlo circuit simulations. This paper demonstrates a flow that efficiently generates samples at the tails using importance sampling, then builds genetic programming symbolic regression models in a space that captures the tails - the normal quantile space. These symbolic density models allow the circuit designers to analyze the tradeoff between high-sigma yields and circuit performance. The flow is validated on two modern industrial problems: a bitcell circuit on a 45nm TSMC process, and a sense amp circuit on a 28nm TSMC process.

McConaghy, Trent

270

Characterization of a 3.5 Billion Year Old Organic Matter: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Pyrolysis GC-MS, Tools to Assess Syngeneity and Biogenecity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of spectroscopic and analytical techniques applied to the kerogen of the Warrawoona chert (3.5 Byr) leads to new information on the controversial question of the origin of life especially the syngeneity of the archean organic matter.

Skrzypczak, A.; Derenne, S.; Binet, L.; Gourier, D.; Robert, F.

2005-03-01

271

A TALE OF DWARFS AND GIANTS: USING A z = 1.62 CLUSTER TO UNDERSTAND HOW THE RED SEQUENCE GREW OVER THE LAST 9.5 BILLION YEARS  

SciTech Connect

We study the red sequence in a cluster of galaxies at z = 1.62 and follow its evolution over the intervening 9.5 Gyr to the present day. Using deep YJK{sub s} imaging with the HAWK-I instrument on the Very Large Telescope, we identify a tight red sequence and construct its rest-frame i-band luminosity function (LF). There is a marked deficit of faint red galaxies in the cluster that causes a turnover in the LF. We compare the red-sequence LF to that for clusters at z < 0.8, correcting the luminosities for passive evolution. The shape of the cluster red-sequence LF does not evolve between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 but at z < 0.6 the faint population builds up significantly. Meanwhile, between z = 1.62 and 0.6 the inferred total light on the red sequence grows by a factor of {approx}2 and the bright end of the LF becomes more populated. We construct a simple model for red-sequence evolution that grows the red sequence in total luminosity and matches the constant LF shape at z > 0.6. In this model the cluster accretes blue galaxies from the field whose star formation is quenched and who are subsequently allowed to merge. We find that three to four mergers among cluster galaxies during the 4 Gyr between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 match the observed LF evolution between the two redshifts. The inferred merger rate is consistent with other studies of this cluster. Our result supports the picture that galaxy merging during the major growth phase of massive clusters is an important process in shaping the red-sequence population at all luminosities.

Rudnick, Gregory H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Malott room 1082, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Tran, Kim-Vy; Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Momcheva, Ivelina [Observatories, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Willmer, Christopher, E-mail: grudnick@ku.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2012-08-10

272

On the evolution of the velocity-mass-size relations of disc-dominated galaxies over the past 10 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the evolution of the scaling relations between the maximum circular velocity, stellar mass and optical half-light radius of star-forming disc-dominated galaxies in the context of ? cold dark matter-based galaxy formation models. Using data from the literature combined with new data from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) and All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) surveys, we show that there is a consistent picture for the evolution of these scaling relations from z˜ 2 to z= 0, both observationally and theoretically. The evolution of the observed stellar scaling relations is weaker than that of the virial scaling relations of dark matter haloes, which can be reproduced, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with a simple, cosmologically motivated model for disc evolution inside growing Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter haloes. In this model optical half-light radii are smaller, both at fixed stellar mass and at maximum circular velocity, at higher redshifts. This model also predicts that the scaling relations between baryonic quantities (baryonic mass, baryonic half-mass radii and maximum circular velocity) evolve even more weakly than the corresponding stellar relations. We emphasize, though, that this weak evolution does not imply that individual galaxies evolve weakly. On the contrary, individual galaxies grow strongly in mass, size and velocity but in such a way that they move largely along the scaling relations. Finally, recent observations have claimed surprisingly large sizes for a number of star-forming disc galaxies at z? 2, which has caused some authors to suggest that high-redshift disc galaxies have abnormally high spin parameters. However, we argue that the disc scalelengths in question have been systematically overestimated by a factor of ˜2 and that there is an offset of a factor of ˜1.4 between H? sizes and optical sizes. Taking these effects into account, there is no indication that star-forming galaxies at high redshifts (z? 2) have abnormally high spin parameters.

Dutton, Aaron A.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Faber, Sandra M.; Simard, Luc; Kassin, Susan A.; Koo, David C.; Bundy, Kevin; Huang, Jiasheng; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Cooper, Michael C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Mozena, Mark; Koekemoer, Anton M.

2011-01-01

273

Sedimentology of the Onverwacht Group (3.4 Billion Years), Transvaal, South Africa, and Its Bearing on the Characteristics and Evolution of the Early Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strata of the upper part of the Onverwacht Group (3.4 b.y.), Transvaal, South Africa, are composed mainly of chert representing silicified quartz-poor volcaniclastic detritus. Layers of carbonate, silicified carbonate, volcaniclastic debris, and possible primary silica make up minor parts of most sections. Deposition took place largely in shallow water, but no evidence was found to indicate whether the water was

Donald R. Lowe; L. P. Knauth

1977-01-01

274

Searching for fossil microbial biofilms on Mars: a case study using a 3.46 billion-year old example from the Pilbara in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the immanent arrival of three Mars landers, one of which (Beagle 2) is dedicated to the search for life on Mars, analogue studies that are of general relevance to the search for past life on Mars are timely. We are using a 3.46 Ga, fossiliferous, sedimentary rock as a reference sample. The rock consists of laminated sediments, whose components were derived from volcanic rocks (volcaniclastic) that were deposited in a shallow water basin. Microbial mats occur at the surfaces of the sediments. This rock formed in an environment and from materials that would have existed on early Mars. Preliminary observation with the Beagle 2 camera shows that it should be possible to identify sedimentary structures, such as ripple marks and laminations, in fine detail. A 2 mm high ministromatolite/thrombolite layer was also readily visible. Further analysis using the microscope and the spectrometers would provide additional information that would lead to the choice of suitable samples, such as the ministromatolite/thrombolite layer, for chemical study with the gas analysis package. In this way details concerning the nature (and biogenicity) of the carbonaceous matter.

Westall, Frances; Hofmann, Beda; Brack, André

2004-03-01

275

LoCuSS: The Steady Decline and Slow Quenching of Star Formation in Cluster Galaxies over the Last Four Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of the levels and evolution of star formation activity in a representative sample of 30 massive galaxy clusters at 0.15 < z < 0.30 from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey, combining wide-field Spitzer/MIPS 24 ?m data with extensive spectroscopy of cluster members. The specific SFRs of massive ( {M} \\gtrsim 10^{10}\\ {M}_{\\odot }) star-forming cluster galaxies within r 200 are found to be systematically ~28% lower than their counterparts in the field at fixed stellar mass and redshift, a difference significant at the 8.7? level. This is the unambiguous signature of star formation in most (and possibly all) massive star-forming galaxies being slowly quenched upon accretion into massive clusters, their star formation rates (SFRs) declining exponentially on quenching timescales in the range 0.7-2.0 Gyr. We measure the mid-infrared Butcher-Oemler effect over the redshift range 0.0-0.4, finding rapid evolution in the fraction (f SF) of massive (MK < – 23.1) cluster galaxies within r 200 with SFRs > 3 M ? yr–1, of the form f SFvprop(1 + z)7.6 ± 1.1. We dissect the origins of the Butcher-Oemler effect, revealing it to be due to the combination of a ~3 × decline in the mean specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies since z ~ 0.3 with a ~1.5 × decrease in number density. Two-thirds of this reduction in the specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies is due to the steady cosmic decline in the specific SFRs among those field galaxies accreted into the clusters. The remaining one-third reflects an accelerated decline in the star formation activity of galaxies within clusters. The slow quenching of star formation in cluster galaxies is consistent with a gradual shut down of star formation in infalling spiral galaxies as they interact with the intracluster medium via ram-pressure stripping or starvation mechanisms. The observed sharp decline in star formation activity among cluster galaxies since z ~ 0.4 likely reflects the increased susceptibility of low-redshift spiral galaxies to gas removal mechanisms as their gas surface densities decrease with time. We find no evidence for the build-up of cluster S0 bulges via major nuclear starburst episodes.

Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Smith, G. P.; Egami, E.; Sanderson, A. J. R.; Babul, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Merluzzi, P.; Busarello, G.; Rawle, T. D.; Okabe, N.

2013-10-01

276

Fourteen cases of imposed upper airway obstruction.  

PubMed Central

Imposed upper airway obstruction was diagnosed as the cause of recurrent and severe cyanotic episodes in 14 patients. Episodes started between 0.8 and 33 months of age (median 1.4) and occurred over a period of 0.8 to 20 months (median 3.5). Diagnosis was made by covert video surveillance, instituted after either (a) the observation that episodes began only in the presence of one person, or (b) characteristic findings on physiological recordings, lasting between 12 hours and three weeks, performed in hospital or at home. Surveillance was undertaken for between 15 minutes and 12 days (median 24 hours) and resulted in safety for the patient and psychiatric assessment of the parent: mother (n = 12), father (n = 1), and grandmother (n = 1). These revealed histories of sexual, physical, or emotional abuse (n = 11), self harm (n = 9), factitious illness (n = 7), eating disorder (n = 10), and previous involvement with a psychiatrist (n = 7). Management of the abusing parents is complex, but recognition of their psychosocial characteristics may allow earlier diagnosis. Imposed upper airway obstruction should be considered and excluded by physiological recordings in any infant or young child with recurrent cyanotic episodes. If physiological recordings fail to substantiate a natural cause for episodes, covert video surveillance may be essential to protect the child from further injury or death.

Samuels, M P; McClaughlin, W; Jacobson, R R; Poets, C F; Southall, D P

1992-01-01

277

Ptolemy's Almagest: Fourteen Centuries of Neglect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ptolemy's Almagest remained the ultimate in astronomical theory for more than a millennium. Yet Ptolemy's system contains internal inconsistencies so evident and disturbing as to raise the question of why the Copernican Revolution was so long delayed. Historical breaks in research in the Ptolemaic tradition, resulting in the interment and then the resurrection of that tradition, help to explain its seemingly long lifetime.

Hetherington, N. S.; Ronan, C. A.

1984-10-01

278

The APPA Journey and RMA Fourteeners Club  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The APPA journey represents a continuum through one's career in educational facilities management. Early in one's career, APPA can assist with professional development such as the Facilities Drive-In Workshop, the Supervisor's Toolkit, the APPA Institute for Facilities Management, and the APPA Leadership Academy. APPA provides for both…

Morris, John P.

2012-01-01

279

Quality Air Force and Deming's Fourteen Points.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a result of the changing international and domestic environments the United States Air Force is in the midst of the most significant change since the end of the World War II. This enormous effort is being led by the Air Force senior leadership with a g...

T. M. Kocon

1994-01-01

280

Defaults and Returns on High Yield Bonds: The Year 2002 in Review and the Market Outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The year 2002 was remarkably difficult on many fronts for most financial markets. For the high yield bond market, it was again a year of record amounts of defaults which contributed to low recovery rates and slightly negative absolute returns. The default rate registered a massive 12.8%, based on $757 billion outstanding. Despite these record default totals and rates, the

Edward I. Altman; Gaurav Bana

2003-01-01

281

Building a Better Criminal Justice System. Annual Report to Congress, Fiscal Year 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annual report describes the funding and technical assistance BJA provided to state and local criminal justice systems in fiscal year (FY) 1999. This past fiscal year, BJA administered $1.8 billion to state and local agencies to support and measure th...

2000-01-01

282

One Year of ALE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have been plagued for centuries by "atmospheric extinction” - scattering and absorption of light as it travels through Earth's night-time atmosphere for the last millisecond of its often billion-year journey. This effect is the principal limiting factor to the precision and accuracy of observations made with ground-based telescopes. In an effort to significantly enhance the precision of observations we have initiated a program to quantitatively measure the atmosphere in the direction a nearby astronomical telescope is pointed, and to do so contemporaneously with its scientific observations. The first instrument we have fielded to address this problem is the Astronomical Lidar for Extinction (ALE), a 527nm eye-safe elastic backscatter lidar that provides high precision extinction measurements when the atmosphere is clear and the majority of astronomical observations are being made. ALE is thus a "clear air lidar” primarily designed to make sub-1% measurements of atmospheric extinction every minute of time, and to make these measurements through an optical path sensibly the same as that through which astronomical observations are being made. The bulk of temporal and spatial variability that affects ground-based astronomical observations originates in the troposphere where aerosols and water vapor exhibit large variation. Therefore, ALE principally monitors the Rayleigh backscatter from the relatively stable stratosphere, and from the stratospheric measurements we deduce the transmission of lower layers. ALE was designed to gather approximately one million photons from above 20km per one minute scan under clear conditions, enabling the high precision we require. We describe ALE and present results from the first year of operations. We further discuss its astronomical applications and investigate the contributions to understanding Earth's atmosphere. Development of ALE was funded by NSF Grant 0421087.

Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J.; Gimmestad, G.; Roberts, D.; Smith, J.; Fitch, J.

2009-01-01

283

The Effect of Text Messaging on 9- and 10-Year-Old Children's Reading, Spelling and Phonological Processing Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an intervention study that considered the impact of text messaging on 9- to 10-year-old children's literacy skills. One hundred and fourteen children who had never owned a mobile phone before were recruited and randomly allocated to either the intervention or control conditions. All children were pre- and post-tested on a…

Wood, C.; Jackson, E.; Hart, L.; Plester, B.; Wilde, L.

2011-01-01

284

Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Annual Monitoring Status Report for Fiscal Year 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the status of Fiscal Year 2009 groundwater monitoring performed in Waste Area Group 10 at the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho National Laboratory Site, as identified in the Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan for Operable Unit 10-08. Twelve of the fourteen required wells were sampled, and all ten required intervals from the Westbay wells were sampled.

Howard Forsythe

2010-01-01

285

Immune thrombocytopenia in children less than 1 year of age: a single-institution 10-year experience.  

PubMed

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children less than one year of age is less well characterized compared to ITP in toddlers and school-age children. We performed a 10-year retrospective review of ITP patients in this age-cohort at our institution. Diagnosis and classification were made according to the 2009 International Working Group criteria. Fourteen infants were identified. Their bleeding scores were Grades 1 to 2 (79%), Grade 3 (22%), Grades 4 to 5 (0%). Eight patients received treatment with a 75% response rate. Three patients (21%) developed chronic ITP. These observations suggest that ITP in very young patients is similar to typical childhood ITP. PMID:22767132

Lo, Clara; Wong, Wendy; Glader, Bertil; Jeng, Michael

2013-07-01

286

What's a billion cubic meters among friends: The impacts of quantile mapping bias correction on climate projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consider two views of climate change, the percent change in precipitation from the GCMs and the percent change from the same GCMs as bias-corrected using quantile mapping. There is emerging evidence that quantile mapping, a commonly used bias correction method, can alter the projections of future precipitation in a way that leads to a systematicaly wetter future for the Colorado River than is indicated by the percent-changes in the GCMs. The difference, about 3% in precipitation, when put through hydrology models, amounts to roughly a 6% shift in the average flows at Lees Ferry, or a little over a billion cubic meters (a million acre feet). On the one hand, the quantile mapping does not add any new physics to the GCM water budget, so the shifts in the mean from could be viewed as an unintended statistical artifact. On the other, what is sacrosanct about the percent change in the (biased) GCM water budget as an indicator of the future climate? We investigate the reasons that this shift arises by taking a closer look at quantile mapping in theory and for idealized (Gamma and Weibull) probability distributions. Heuristics are developed to understand when the shift is likely to arise for more realistic distributions, and to connect the idealized statistical examples to hypothetical water budgets.

Barsugli, J. J.

2010-12-01

287

Multi million-to-Billion Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Cavitation-Induced Damage on a Silica Slab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation bubble collapse causes severe damage to materials. For example, cavitation erosion is a major threat to the safety of nuclear power plants. The cavitation bubbles may also be utilized for preventing stress corrosion cracking with water jet peening technology. We have performed multi million-to-billion atoms molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the shock-induced cavitation damage mechanism on an amorphous silica slab in water. The system consists of a 60nm thick silica slab immersed in water in an MD box of dimension 285 x 200 x 200 nm3. A nanobubble is created by removing water molecules within a sphere of radius 100 nm. To apply a planar shock, we assign a uniform particle velocity vp on the entire system towards a planar momentum mirror. We have performed the simulation with two kinds of bubbles, an empty bubble and a bubble filled with inert gas. The simulation results reveal nanojet formation during bubble collapse causing damage on the silica surface; however, the damage was significantly reduced in the case of the filled bubble. We will discuss the effect of the presence of inter gas inside the nanobubble on the pressure distribution, the extent of damage, and collapse behavior corresponding the shock front.

Shekhar, Adarsh; Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

2012-02-01

288

Small increases to employer premiums could shift millions of people to the exchanges and add billions to federal outlays.  

PubMed

The Affordable Care Act will expand insurance coverage to more than twenty-five million Americans, partly through subsidized private insurance available from newly created health insurance exchanges for people with incomes of 133-400 percent of the federal poverty level. The act will alter the financial incentive structure for employers and influence their decisions on whether or not to offer their employees coverage. These decisions, in turn, will affect federal outlays and revenues through several mechanisms. We model the sensitivity of federal costs for the insurance exchange coverage provision of the Affordable Care Act using the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data set. We assess revenues and subsidy outlays for premiums and cost sharing for individuals purchasing private insurance through exchanges. Our findings show that changing theoretical premium contribution levels by just $100 could induce 2.25 million individuals to transition to exchanges and increase federal outlays by $6.7 billion. Policy makers and analysts should pay especially careful attention to participation rates as the act's implementation continues. PMID:24019356

Austin, Daniel R; Luan, Anna; Wang, Louise L; Bhattacharya, Jay

2013-09-01

289

Record number of youth approaching childbearing years.  

PubMed

This article describes future population growth and fertility trends based on the 1998 "World Population Data Sheet" of the Population Reference Bureau. The 1998 report emphasizes that population growth reflects the number of women in their childbearing years. Questions about future population growth depend upon how many children today's youth will have when they enter their childbearing years. This critical cohort amounts to over 2 billion young persons aged under 20 years in developing countries, where 98% of population growth occurs. Every year 1% of women aged 15-19 years gave birth in Western Europe, compared to 18% in Middle Africa, and 5% in Southeast Asia. Future population growth appears to reflect high fertility in poor countries and low fertility in rich countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, births average 3 times replacement level fertility, which is 2 children/couple. Even if the total fertility rate declines in Africa, the proportion of women reaching their childbearing years (aged under 20 years) will amount to 52% of the total population and thus yield high fertility in the short term. At present, there are 4 times as many people in developing countries as developed ones. Demographers expect 3.5 billion additional people to be born during 2000-2050. Future individual decisions on fertility will depend upon unpredictable factors, such as family planning, life expectancy, and economic circumstances. Life expectancy in Russia is increasing for both sexes. The gender gap in life expectancy of 12 years is the largest in the world. Men live to 61 years and die from circulatory diseases and accidents. PMID:12321553

1998-05-01

290

Debt Collection. Improved Reporting Needed on Billions of Dollars in Delinquent Debt and Agency Collection Performance. Report to the Chairman, Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report examines the four program activities that account for two-thirds of delinquent debt owed to the Federal government: the Department of Education's Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) with $20 billion and the housing programs of the Departments of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Veterans Affairs (VA), and Agriculture that…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Accounting and Information Management Div.

291

STABILITY OF PARTS-PER-BILLION HAZARDOUS ORGANIC CYLINDER GASES AND PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS OF SOURCE TEST AND AMBIENT AIR MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS. STATUS REPORT 1  

EPA Science Inventory

A repository of 14 gaseous organic compounds at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels in compressed gas cylinders has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objectives of this on-going project are: (1) to provide accurate gas mixtures to EPA, sta...

292

STABILITY OF PARTS-PER-BILLION HAZARDOUS ORGANIC CYLINDER GASES AND PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS OF SOURCE TEST AND AMBIENT AIR MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS. STATUS REPORT 2  

EPA Science Inventory

A repository of 22 gaseous organic compounds at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels in compressed gas cylinders has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objectives of this ongoing project are: (1) to provide accurate gas mixtures to EPA, stat...

293

Effect of Additives on the Determination of Parts Per Billion Lead in JP-4, JP-5, JP-7, and JP-8.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The noninterference of presently allowed jet fuel additives on the determination of parts per billion lead in JP-4, JP-5, JP-7, and JP-8 by the new iodine monochloride-spectrophotometric dithizone method of Campbell and Moss is described. (Author)

M. J. Borchers W. G. Scribner

1969-01-01

294

Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: Child Development, Molecular Genetics, andWhat to Do With Genes Once They Are Found (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental research are still relevant today. The problem lies with the phrase “once they are found”: It has been much more difficult than expected to identify genes responsible for the heritability of complex traits and common disorders, the so-called missing heritability problem. The present article considers reasons for the missing heritability problem and possible solutions.

Plomin, Robert

2013-01-01

295

Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 1997-98.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents national and state information on public education finances, including revenues by source, current expenditures by function, and current expenditures per pupil. About $326 billion of revenues were raised by local, state, and federal governments to finance public education through grade 12 in school year 1997-1998. (Author/SLD)|

Johnson, Frank

2000-01-01

296

Multimillion-to-billion atom molecular dynamics simulations of deformation, damage, nanoindentation, and fracture in silica glass and energetic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multimillion-to-billion molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to study atomistic mechanisms of deformation, damage and failure in silica glass and energetic materials. The simulations are based on experimentally validated interatomic potentials and employ highly efficiently algorithms for parallel architectures. The onset of void-void interaction is investigated by performing MD simulations of amorphous silica under hydrostatic tension. The simulations reveal that nanocavities in amorphous silica (a-SiO2), which are linked to Si-O rings, play an important role in void-void coalescence and inter-void ligament failure. Nanocracks nucleated by the migration of three-fold coordinated Si and nonbridging O on ---Si-O-Si-O--- rings are observed in the multimillion MD simulations of a single void in amorphous silica subjected to a high shear rate. With the increase in shear strain, nanocracks appear on void surfaces and the voids deform into a threadlike structure. At a strain of 40%, the voids break into fragments. The results are similar to experimental and theoretical studies of bubble deformation and breakup under shear. Defects such as voids are known to be important in the detonation of energetic materials. To investigate deformation of a void in an RDX crystal under high shear rate, we have performed million-atom reactive force field (ReaxFF) MD simulations. Simulations reveal that without breaking a bond, the excess strain energy leads to translational and rotational motion of RDX molecules. At a strain of 13%, molecules with high kinetic energy collapse inward without affecting the rest of the system. MD simulations of nanoindentation in amorphous silica reveal migration of defects and their recombination in the densified plastic region under and the material pileup region around the indenter. The plastic flow of silica glass is related to the defect transport mechanism where a defect migrates a considerable distance via a chain of bond-switching events[44]. We obtained a hardness value of 7.2 GPa using a sharp indenter and 8.0 GPa for a slightly blunt indenter. We have also performed nanoindentation simulation on a (100) alpha-RDX crystal surface using ReaxFF. Simulation reveals localized melting and decomposition of RDX molecular fragments. We have found a distinct (210) plane boundary, where molecules above the (210) plane have displaced dramatically and molecules below the plane remain intact. Simulation also shows the fragmented RDX molecules diffuse from the substrate and walk on the indenter surface.

Chen, Yi-Chun

297

Million-to-Billion Atom Simulation of Chemical Reactions: Embedded Divide-and-Conquer and Hierarchical Cellular Decomposition Frameworks for Scalable Scientific Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulating chemical reactions involving billions of atoms has been a dream of scientists, with broad societal impacts. This paper realizes the dream through novel simulation methods, algorithms, and parallel computing and visualization techniques. We have designed O(N) embedded divide-and-conquer (EDC) algorithms for 1) first principles-based parallel reactive force-field (P-ReaxFF) molecular dynamics (MD), and 2) density functional theory (DFT) on adaptive

Aiichiro Nakano; Rajiv K. Kali; Ken-ichi Nomura; Ashish Sharma; Priya Vashishta; Fuyuki Shimojo; Adri C. T. van Duin; William A. Goddard; Rupak Biswas; Deepak Srivastava

298

Chemistry's year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Nations has proclaimed 2011 to be the International Year of Chemistry. Under this banner, chemists should seize the opportunity to highlight the rich history and successes of our subject to a much broader audience - and explain how it can help to solve the global challenges we face today and in the future.

2011-01-01

299

American Health Lawyers Association: the year in review 2002-2003.  

PubMed

Every year, the Practice Groups of the American Health Lawyers Association assemble a Year in Review summary of the leading developments in case law, legislation, and administrative actions affecting healthcare. This Article provides a comprehensive overview of these developments. The introduction presents a "Top Ten" list of the year's most noteworthy developments. The remainder of the Article is divided into fourteen topical areas, and offers a brief overview of issues in those areas. Overall, these various developments demonstrate society's efforts to balance accountability, efficiency, and affordability in the delivery of healthcare. PMID:14632379

Leibold, Peter

2003-01-01

300

Past Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Ancestry and early days; 2. Schooldays; 3. Relation with other boys at school; 4. Education; 5. Influence of the Royal Institution; 6. Later education in London; 7. Reminiscences of Bedford College; 8. Scientific work and friends in London; 9. Personal retrospect; 10. Romance; 11. Influence of the British Association; 12. Reminiscences of Coopers Hill and assistants and popular lectures; 13. Liverpool; 14. Scientific work at Liverpool; 15. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 16. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 17. Electric waves and the beginnings of wireless; 18. Other friends; 19. Family life; 20. Holidays; 21. Side issues; 22. Early experiences in psychical research; 23. Psychical research; 24. Further psychic adventures, and psycho-physical phenomena; 25. Reminiscences of my years at the university of Birmingham; 26. Birmingham friendships and recollections; 27. Scientific retrospect; 28. Apologia pro vita mea; Index.

Lodge, Oliver

2012-07-01

301

Annual report on Federal Government Energy Management, fiscal year 1983  

SciTech Connect

This report on Federal Energy Management for FY 1983 fulfills the Department of Energy's (DOE) reporting requirements under Executive Order 12003, which amended Executive Order 11912, and Title V, Part 3 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA) (Pub. L. 95-619), as amended. During FY 1983, the Government of the United States used 1.8 Quadrillion British Thermal Units (Quads) of energy to provide essential services to its citizens, including the defense of the nation. The 1.8 Quads reported is approximately 2.0 percent of all energy used in the United States. In aggregate total the Federal Government is the single largest energy consumer in the nation, although its pattern of consumption is widely disbursed at more than 8000 locations world wide. The total Federal energy consumption in FY 1983 was 4.8 percent less than FY 1975 - the base year against which energy usage is measured. Federal energy consumption in FY 1983 was 0.3 percent less than FY 1982. The cost of energy for FY 1983 was $12.6 billion or approximately 1.6 percent of the $796 billion Federal budget for FY 1983. The amount spent for energy in FY 1983 represented a decrease of approximately $1.0 billion from the $13.6 billion reported for FY 1982. This decrease derives primarily from a lower price of petroleum products in FY 1983. Federal agencies report on energy consumption for buildings and facilities as a category, and general operations separately. 3 figures, 3 tables.

Not Available

1984-08-01

302

School Districts' Perspectives on the Economic Stimulus Package: Teaching Jobs Saved in 2009-10 but Teacher Layoffs Loom for Next School Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the summer of 2009, school districts began receiving the first wave of federal economic stimulus money from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). Totaling about $100 billion over two years--more than double the fiscal year 2009 budget for the U.S. Department of Education (ED)--the education portion of the stimulus package…

Kober, Nancy; Scott, Caitlin; Rentner, Diane Stark; McMurrer, Jennifer; Dietz, Shelby

2010-01-01

303

Bureau of Justice Assistance Annual Report to Congress, Fiscal Year 1998. Working Together for Peace and Justice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annual report describes the funding and technical assistance provided to state and local criminal justice systems by Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) in FY 1998. This past fiscal year, BJA administered $1.7 billion to state and local agencies to su...

1999-01-01

304

Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992  

SciTech Connect

During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

Not Available

1992-12-31

305

River Protection Project FY 2000 Multi Year Work Plan Summary  

SciTech Connect

The River Protection Project (RPP), formerly the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), is a major part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP). The ORP was established as directed by Congress in Section 3139 of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The ORP was established to elevate the reporting and accountability for the RPP to the DOE-Headquarters level. This was done to gain Congressional visibility and obtain support for a major $10 billion high-level liquid waste vitrification effort.

LENSEIGNE, D.L.

1999-08-27

306

Six climate change-related events in the United States accounted for about $14 billion in lost lives and health costs.  

PubMed

The future health costs associated with predicted climate change-related events such as hurricanes, heat waves, and floods are projected to be enormous. This article estimates the health costs associated with six climate change-related events that struck the United States between 2000 and 2009. The six case studies came from categories of climate change-related events projected to worsen with continued global warming-ozone pollution, heat waves, hurricanes, infectious disease outbreaks, river flooding, and wildfires. We estimate that the health costs exceeded $14 billion, with 95 percent due to the value of lives lost prematurely. Actual health care costs were an estimated $740 million. This reflects more than 760,000 encounters with the health care system. Our analysis provides scientists and policy makers with a methodology to use in estimating future health costs related to climate change and highlights the growing need for public health preparedness. PMID:22068410

Knowlton, Kim; Rotkin-Ellman, Miriam; Geballe, Linda; Max, Wendy; Solomon, Gina M

2011-11-01

307

Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis  

SciTech Connect

In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

NONE

1996-01-01

308

What is the long-term benefit of constraint-induced movement therapy? A four-year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the long-term benefits of constraint-induced movement therapy in chronic stroke.Design: A four-year follow-up after constraint-induced group therapy assessing arm and hand function and self-reported daily hand use.Subjects: Fourteen post-stroke individuals (six women and eight men; mean age 59.6 ± 12.7 years, range 23—75 years) with mild to moderate impairments of hand function.Outcome measures: The Sollerman hand function

Christina Brogårdh; Ulla-Britt Flansbjer; Jan Lexell

2009-01-01

309

Overview 2012. A year of dialysis industry alignment and government enforcement.  

PubMed

All in all, in the health care industry, the Department of Justice, and related agencies increased enforcement activities in 2012. In December 2012 the Justice Department announced that it had secured $4.9 billion in settlements and judgments in civil cases involving fraud against the government in the fiscal year ending September 30, 2012. This figure is a record recovery for a single year, eclipsing the previous record by more than $1.7 billion. While this activity increased, in many False Claims Act cases, including those noted above in which the courts reached the merits of the cases, health care providers had some victories, including successful results at the trial and appellate levels. As a result, providers may take some comfort that the judicial skepticism towards the most aggressive False Claims Act prosecutions may be growing, and with it, the likelihood of providers' success in certain cases. PMID:23581175

Riley, James B; Greis, Jason S

2013-03-01

310

Meeting the food, energy, and water demands of nine billion people: Will climate change add a new dimension?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change will add a new stress to our ability to produce food and supply water and energy for the expanding population. There is an emerging gap between the current production trends in food commodities around the world and the projected needs to meet the demands for the world population. This also translates into a water gap as well because it will require an increasing amount of water to produce this food. There is emerging evidence that the rising temperatures will reduce our potential for increasing food production because the optimal temperature for plant growth will be exceeded. This will be accompanied by an increase in water use because of the increasing rates of water use by plants in a warming environment. These factors will further increase the gap between supply and demand. To offset these impacts will require comprehensive adaptation strategies linking food production systems to climate change. Climate change will create scenarios with increasing variability in both the spatial and temporal components of precipitation and temperature. The spatial variability in precipitation being experienced around the world in the past five years will be expected to increase and impact both food and water supplies. These trends along with an increase in extreme events will further exacerbate the stress on water availability and ultimately on food and energy production. The nexus of food, energy, and water demands of an increasing world population is complex because of the interactions among climate parameters and these demands. Considering the interactions among these parameters adds even more complexity to how we have to consider adaptation strategies to ensure an adequate food supply and efficient use of water and energy. Structuring policy to develop potential solutions to ensure an increasing food supply and more efficient use of water and energy will require a more integrated approach to understanding the dynamics of food, water, and energy systems across the backdrop of a changing climate and increasing world population.

Hatfield, J.

2011-12-01

311

A Year at the Moon on Chandrayaan-1: Moon Mineralogy Mapper Data in a Global Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper, M3, a high-fidelity high-resolution imaging spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1 has completed two of its four scheduled optical periods during its maiden year in lunar orbit, collecting over 4.6 billion spectra covering most of the lunar surface. These imaging periods (November 2008-February 2009 and April 2009-August 2009) correspond to times of equatorial solar zenith angle less than sixty

J. W. Boardman; C. M. Pieters; R. N. Clark; J. Combe; R. O. Green; P. Isaacson; S. Lundeen; E. Malaret; T. B. McCord; J. W. Nettles; N. E. Petro; M. Staid; P. Varanasi

2009-01-01

312

Year-by-Year Analysis of the Bush Tax Cuts Shows Growing Tilt to the Very Rich  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently released by the Citizens for Tax Justice (CTJ) and the Children's Defense Fund, this study examines those who are most likely to benefit from the 2001-enacted Bush tax cuts in each year from 2001 through 2010. According to the report, by 2010, (if Bush's tax reductions are still in effect) 52% of the total tax cuts will go to the richest one percent of the American population. In other words, of the estimated $234 billion in tax cuts scheduled for the year 2010, $121 billion will go to those individuals with an income of $1.5 million and above. In contrast, the vast majority of American taxpayers have already received most of their tax cuts from the 2001 legislation. "As a result, freezing the Bush tax cuts at their 2002 levels would have little or no effect on 99 percent of the taxpayers, whose tax cuts are already mostly or completely 'frozen.'" Viewable in HTML or Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format, this report is concise, easily readable, and requires no more than fifteen minutes of reading time.

2002-01-01

313

Billion-dollar dice roll  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drilling industry has concentrated more dollars and equipment more quickly in Oklahoma's Fletcher field than anywhere else in the onshore US. The target is deep, deregulated natural gas that sells at over 4 times the national average price due to market distortions caused by the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Technical problems plaguing the Fletcher play stem from

1982-01-01

314

Millions and Billions of Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the Harvard SETI group is inextricably linked with the history of Paul Horowitz. Horowitz became enamored with SETI as a student at Harvard, reading Ed Purcell's paper "Radio Astronomy and Communication Through Space" (Purcell, 1960), discussing with his roommates a class that Carl Sagan was teaching there using a draft of Shklovskii and Sagan's "Intelligent Life in the Universe" (Shklovskii and Sagan, 1966) as a text, and finally attending a Loeb Lecture series at Harvard by Frank Drake (Drake, 1969). The series was officially about pulsars but Drake did manage to slip in one inspiring talk about SETI. Horowitz says that "It was this lecture that launched me into this field; it was a revelation that you could go beyond idle speculation - you could actually calculate stuff."

Leigh, Darren; Horowitz, Paul

315

Discovery of 3.2 Billion-Years-Old Sulfidic Black Shales: A Progress Report of the Dixon Island-Cleaverville (DXCL) Drilling Project in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Dixon Island - Cleaverville Drilling Project (DXCL-DP), we drilled three holes; CL1 and CL2 (organic-rich massive black shales) and DX (very finely laminated black shales with lamination and veins of pyrite), all from the 3.2 Ga Cleaverville Group.

Yamaguchi, K. E.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.

2010-04-01

316

The oxygen isotope evolution of seawater: A critical review of a long-standing controversy and an improved geological water cycle model for the past 3.4 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controversy over the oxygen isotope composition of seawater began in the 1950's, since which time there has been no agreement over whether the oxygen isotope composition of the oceans has changed over time. Resolving this uncertainty would allow the ?18O values of demonstrably well preserved marine authigenic precipitates to be used to reconstruct surface climate trends back to early Archean times and would help towards a more quantitative description of Earth's global water cycle on geological time scales. Isotopic studies of marine carbonate and silica reveal a trend of increasing ?18O values with decreasing age since the Archean. This trend has been interpreted by some to reflect a progressive increase in seawater ?18O through time; however, it is generally accepted on the basis of ophiolite studies and theoretical considerations that seawater ?18O cannot change significantly because of the buffering effects of ocean crust alteration at mid-ocean ridges. As a result many alternative interpretations have been proposed, including meteoric alteration; warmer paleoclimates; higher seawater pH; salinity stratification and biased sampling. Here we review these interpretations in the light of an updated compilation of marine carbonate ?18O from around the world, covering the Phanerozoic and Precambrian rock records. Recent models of the geological water cycle demonstrate how long-term trends in chemical weathering and hydrothermal circulation can indeed influence the O-isotope composition of the global ocean to the extent necessary to explain the carbonate ?18O trend, with residual variation attributed to climatic fluctuations and post-depositional alteration. We present the further development of an existing model of the geological water cycle. In the model, seawater ?18O increased from about - 13.3‰ to - 0.3‰ over a period of 3.4 Ga, with average surface temperatures fluctuating between 10 °C to 33 °C, which is consistent with known biological constraints. Similar temperature variations are also obtained, although with higher starting seawater ?18O composition, when more conservative approaches are used that take into account the systematic effects of diagenetic alteration on mean calcite ?18O values. In contrast to much published opinion, the average ?18O value of ocean crust in the model remained relatively unchanged throughout all model runs. Invariable ophiolite ?18O values can, therefore, not be used as a definitive argument against changing seawater ?18O. The most likely explanation for the long-term trend in seawater ?18O invokes two stepwise increases in the ratio of high- to low-temperature fluid/rock interactions. An initial increase may have occurred close to the Archean-Proterozoic boundary, but a possibly more significant increase took place near the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary. Possible explanations for extremely low seawater ?18O during the Archean include higher continental weathering rates caused by a combination of higher atmospheric pCO 2 (necessarily combined with high CO 2 outgassing rates), a greater abundance of relatively easily weathered volcanic rocks in greenstone belts and partial emergence of spreading ridges. The second increase may have been caused by the suppression of low-temperature overprinting of ocean crust alteration by the formation of a thick sediment cover on ridge flanks due to the emergence of shelly plankton at the beginning of the Phanerozoic. Postulated increases in spreading ridge depths since the Archean would also have enhanced the efficiency of vertical heat flux and changed the depth at which hydrothermal fluids boil, both of which would favour high- over low-temperature interactions with time.

Jaffrés, Jasmine B. D.; Shields, Graham A.; Wallmann, Klaus

2007-07-01

317

The oxygen isotope evolution of seawater: A critical review of a long-standing controversy and an improved geological water cycle model for the past 3.4 billion years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy over the oxygen isotope composition of seawater began in the 1950's, since which time there has been no agreement over whether the oxygen isotope composition of the oceans has changed over time. Resolving this uncertainty would allow the ?18O values of demonstrably well preserved marine authigenic precipitates to be used to reconstruct surface climate trends back to early Archean

Jasmine B. D. Jaffrés; Graham A. Shields; Klaus Wallmann

2007-01-01

318

Dichloromethane Fourteen Day Range Finding Study in Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a subchronic toxicity study, male and female Charles River CD rats (5/sex/group) were exposed by oral gavage to dichloromethane at dose levels of 0, 100, 300, 600 or 1200 mg/kg/day for 14 consecutive days. There were significant differences between tre...

1982-01-01

319

Separate Whitening Effects on Enamel and Dentin After Fourteen Days  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of a bleaching agent, as it relates to enamel and dentin. Twenty-six extracted human molar teeth were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction and were randomly assigned to two groups. L*a*b* readings were taken with a spectrophotometer: on buccal surfaces of the crown, at enamel and dentin. The teeth

Gerard Kugel; Jason Petkevis; Sevil Gurgan; Eileen Doherty

2007-01-01

320

Isotopic analyses of krypton and xenon in fourteen stone meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations and isotopic compositions of Kr and Xe in twelve chondrites and two achondrites have been determined. In addition to the trapped component, Kr and Xe produced by spallation and (n, v.\\/) reactions as well as fission and radiogenic Xe have been found. Because of the chemical uniformity of the ordinary chondrites the concentrations of spallation-produced Kr and Xe

O. Eugster; P. Eberhardt; J. Geiss

1969-01-01

321

Fourteen Reasons Privacy Matters: A Multidisciplinary Review of Scholarly Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Librarians have long recognized the importance of privacy to intellectual freedom. As digital technology and its applications advance, however, efforts to protect privacy may become increasingly difficult. With some users behaving in ways that suggest they do not care about privacy and with powerful voices claiming that privacy is dead, librarians…

Magi, Trina J.

2011-01-01

322

Fourteen Reasons Privacy Matters: A Multidisciplinary Review of Scholarly Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Librarians have long recognized the importance of privacy to intellectual freedom. As digital technology and its applications advance, however, efforts to protect privacy may become increasingly difficult. With some users behaving in ways that suggest they do not care about privacy and with powerful voices claiming that privacy is dead,…

Magi, Trina J.

2011-01-01

323

Determining Work Culture Scores for Fourteen Developed Nations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As business relationships become increasingly global in nature, a new methodology for understanding the approach to work in various nations is needed. When involved in business dealings with international partners, it is crucial that the modern businessperson understand and empathize with the culture of the company with which he or she is…

Belote, Michael D.

2005-01-01

324

Evaluation of radon reduction techniques in fourteen basement houses  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the preliminary results of a study of radon control techniques in 14 homes in New Jersey. The study is part of a project initiated to: investigate the fundamentals of soil gas flow and radon entry into buildings and the factors that influence the entry rate; develop a diagnostic procedure for specifying appropriate and effective remedial measures; and better understand the operation of certain mitigation techniques and the parameters that affect them. Reported is a description of the radon control work that was conducted in the houses and a summary of the results of that work.

Turk, B.H.; Sextro, R.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA (US)); Harrison, J. (US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. (US)); Hubbard, L.M.; Gadsby, K.J. (Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (US)); Matthews, T.G.; Dudney, C.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US))

1988-01-01

325

The International Academic Profession: Portraits of Fourteen Countries. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This analysis of the academic profession in 14 nations was based on responses received from an international survey of nearly 20,000 college and university faculty members from Australia, Brazil, Chile, England, West Germany, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, and the United States. Data were analyzed and…

Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

326

Fourteen Steps to More Effective Cash Flow Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Managing cash flow is an incredibly important skill for a center director. Even a center with an annual budget showing a healthy surplus may experience brief periods where funds in the checkbook are insufficient to pay all the bills. To discover how successful directors manage cash flow in tight times, the author surveyed members of the "Exchange…

Neugebauer, Roger

2004-01-01

327

Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Fourteen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of the journal includes these papers on contrastive linguistics: "Violations of Frege's Principle and Their Significance for Contrastive Semantics" (Dafydd Gibbon); "Writing the Contrastive Grammar of English and Dutch. The Treatment of Modal Notions" (Flor Aarts and Herman Wekker); "The Theory and Methodology of Speech Science and…

Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

1982-01-01

328

Fourteen-Month-Old Infants Learn Similar-Sounding Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Can infants, in the very first stages of word learning, use their perceptual sensitivity to the phonetics of speech while learning words? Research to date suggests that infants of 14 months cannot learn two similar-sounding words unless there is substantial contextual support. The current experiment advances our understanding of this failure by…

Yoshida, Katherine A.; Fennell, Christopher T.; Swingley, Daniel; Werker, Janet F.

2009-01-01

329

Who Supports Terrorism? Evidence from Fourteen Muslim Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research note explores aspects of the demand for terrorism using data from the Pew Research Center. With these data from 7,849 adult respondents persons within 14 Muslim countries, this article explores who supports terrorism. It is shown that females, younger persons, and those who believe Islam is under threat are more likely to support terrorism. Very poor respondents and

C. Christine Fair; Bryan Shepherd

2006-01-01

330

Prolonged Unilateral Disuse Osteopenia 14 Years Post External Fixator Removal: A Case History and Critical Review  

PubMed Central

Disuse osteopenia is a complication of immobilisation, with reversal generally noted upon remobilisation. This case report focuses on a patient who was seen 18 years following a road traffic collision when multiple fractures were sustained. The patient had an external fixator fitted for a tibia and fibula fracture, which remained in situ for a period of 4 years. Following removal, the patient was mobilised but, still required a single crutch to aid walking. Fourteen years post removal of the fixator, the patient had a DXA scan which, demonstrated a T-score 2.5 SD lower on the affected hip. This places the patient at an increased risk of hip fracture on this side, which requires monitoring. There appear to be no current studies investigating prolonged disuse-osteopenia in patients following removal of long-term external fixators. Further research is required to quantify unilateral long-term effects to bone health and fracture risk in this population.

Knapp, Karen M.; Rowlands, Ann V.; Welsman, Joanne R.; MacLeod, Kenneth M.

2010-01-01

331

Mortality, morbidity and costs attributable to smoking in Germany: update and a 10-year comparison  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the negative health consequences and associated costs of cigarette smoking in Germany in 2003 and to compare them with the respective results from 1993. Methods The number of deaths, years of potential life lost (YPLL), direct medical and indirect costs caused by active cigarette smoking in Germany in 2003 is estimated from a societal perspective. The method is similar to that applied by Welte et al, who estimated the cost of smoking in Germany in 1993. Therefore, a direct comparison of the results was possible. Methodological and data differences between these two publications and their effect on the results are analysed. Results In 2003, 114?647 deaths and 1.6 million YPLL were attributable to smoking. Total costs were €21.0 billion, with €7.5 billion for acute hospital care, inpatient rehabilitation care, ambulatory care and prescribed drugs; €4.7 billion for the indirect costs of mortality; and €8.8 billion for costs due to work loss days and early retirement. From 1993 to 2003, the proportionate mortality attributable to smoking remained relatively stable, rising from 13.0% to 13.4%. The smoking?attributable deaths in men is lowered by 13.7% whereas that in women increased by 45.3%. Total real direct costs rose by 35.8%, and total real indirect costs declined by 7.1%, rendering an increase of 4.7% to real total costs. Accountable factors are changes in cigarette smoking prevalence and in disease?specific mortality and morbidity, as well as a rise in general healthcare expenditure. Conclusions Despite the growing knowledge about the hazards of smoking, the smoking?attributable costs increased in Germany. Further, female mortality attributable to smoking is much higher than it was in 1993.

Neubauer, Simone; Welte, Robert; Beiche, Alexandra; Koenig, Hans-Helmut; Buesch, Katharina; Leidl, Reiner

2006-01-01

332

Inhibition effect of SO 2 on NO x and VOCs during the photodegradation of synchronous indoor air pollutants at parts per billion (ppb) level by TiO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur-containing compounds are well-known catalyst poisons. To evaluate the feasibility of photocatalytic technology for indoor air purification, a typical atmospheric SO2 concentration of 200 parts per billion (ppb) was selected. In order to further evaluate the impact of SO2 on the photocatalytic activity of other typical indoor air pollutants, SO2 was co-injected with 200ppb NO and 20ppb benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene,

C. H. Ao; S. C. Lee; S. C. Zou; C. L. Mak

2004-01-01

333

Statistical year book of the electric-utility industry, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The 1981 yearbook covers generation, energy sales, customers and revenues, and other financial and economic data on the electric-utility industry. These data were collected and compiled from various sources. Data are presented for investor-owned electric utilities and the total electric utility industry in all sections except the Financial Section, which shows data for investor-owned utilities only. There was an overall 3.5% increase in generating capacity to nearly 635 million kilowatts during the year. Of the new units added, conventional steam accounted for 33, hydro five, nuclear steam 4, and internal-combustion 3. Dependence on foreign oil continued to decline. Revenues totaled $111.6 billion, an increase of 17%. 18 figures, 90 tables.

Not Available

1982-01-01

334

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the differences in the weather in each season? Students will identify the seasons of the year. Also, describing the seasonal changes in the weather. All 4 Season of the Year. Spring. Summer. Fall. Winter. ...

Thompson, Miss

2010-03-25

335

100 patient-years of ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed Central

More than 100 patient-years' experience has been acquired in the treatment of 133 patients with ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition (TPN) between May 1974 and December 1983. Indications for chronic or permanent home TPN include short bowel syndrome, malabsorption, scleroderma, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide syndrome. Indications for acute or temporary home TPN include Crohn's disease, malignancies, gastrointestinal fistulas, ulcerative colitis, anorexia nervosa, and numerous other disorders. Eighty-two patients in the acute group were treated primarily with percutaneously placed standard subclavian catheters and 51 patients in the chronic group have been treated thus far with implanted silicone rubber, Dacron-cuffed catheters for a cumulative total of 38,939 patient days. Of the 125 implanted catheters, 115 were placed in the superior vena cava and ten in the inferior vena cava for an average duration of 250 catheter-days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for more than 8 1/2 years. Catheter-related sepsis occurred 33 times with the implanted catheters, or once every 2.6 catheter-years. One hundred and fourteen temporary catheters were placed percutaneously in the superior vena cava via a subclavian vein for an average duration of 68 days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for 213 days. Catheter-related sepsis occurred seven times, equivalent to one episode per 3 catheter-years. Total catheter-related complications were quite infrequent and were directly related to duration of catheterization. They included venous thrombosis (12), clotted catheter (11), catheter failure or rupture (8), catheter compression (5) and inadvertent catheter removal (4). Twenty-six catheters were repaired or spliced in situ when the external segment was accidentally damaged or deteriorated secondary to long-term material fatigue. One remarkable patient has been maintained exclusively by TPN originally as an inpatient and subsequently as an outpatient for the entire 13 years of his life. Images Fig. 1. Figs. 2A and B. Figs. 3A-C.

Dudrick, S J; O'Donnell, J J; Englert, D M; Matheny, R G; Blume, E R; Nutt, R E; Hickey, M S; Barroso, A O

1984-01-01

336

Interim status of vertical calciner testing through calendar year 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A prototype vertical calciner was constructed and tested for use in converting plutonium solutions to dry plutonium dioxide in the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant. Six non-radioactive runs were completed in June and July, 1995. Fourteen runs with pluton...

J. A. Compton

1998-01-01

337

Outpatient Nonavailability Statement Procedures, Health Services Command Catchment Areas, Fourth Quarter and Fiscal Year 1992 and Full Fiscal Year 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is one in a series of Gateway Management Analysis Reports and presents detailed cost data for each of fourteen categories of Outpatient Nonavailability Statement (ONAS) procedures, grouped by inpatient and ambulatory professional services, per...

S. A. Optenberg A. Moon

1992-01-01

338

NATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM DURING THE ARRA PERIOD: PROGRAM YEARS 2009-2011  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the third major evaluation of the Program, encompassing program years 2009 to 2011. In this report, this period of time is referred to as the ARRA Period. This is a special period of time for the Program because the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 has allocated $5 billion of funding for the Program. In normal program years, WAP s annual appropriation is in the range of $200-250 million, supporting the weatherization of approximately 100,000 homes. With the addition of ARRA funding during these program years, the expectation is that weatherization activity will exceed 300,000 homes per year. In addition to saving energy and reducing low-income energy bills, expanded WAP funding is expected to stimulate the economy by providing new jobs in the weatherization field and allowing low-income households to spend more money on goods and services by spending less on energy.

Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Rose, Erin M [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL; Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL

2012-08-01

339

Military satellite communications: Opportunity to save billions of dollars. Report to the Chairman, Legislation, and National Security Subcommittee, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past several years, the Congress has been critical of DOD's management of satellite communications-a primary concern being high costs. In August 1989, the House Appropriations Committee expressed concern that DOD's satellite communications architecture was in a state of disarray. It directed DOD to provide a comprehensive plan, defining all satellite communications requirements and potential solutions to meet the requirements within realistic resource levels. In October 1990, during deliberations on the fiscal year 1991 defense appropriations bill, the conference committee expressed dissatisfaction with the plan that DOD had provided in March 1990. The committee was concerned about the lack of a comprehensive architecture and directed DOD to submit a clear and affordable plan with the fiscal year 1992 defense budget request.

1993-07-01

340

Gap year volunteer tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The valorisation of cross-cultural understanding and promotion of an ethic of global citizenship are at the forefront of the recent development and proliferation of international ‘gap year’ travel programs and policies. Governments and industry alike promote gap year travel uncritically as a guaranteed pathway to the development of inclusive ideologies associated with global citizenship. In this paper we examine how

Stephen Wearing; John Neil

341

Happy new year  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The European Physical Journal - D (EPJ D) is still young but rapidly maturing: 2002 is the 5th year of its publication - based of course on a tradition of\\u000a nearly a century of physics publishing in its parent journals, Il Nuovo Cimento (Section D), Journal de Physique and Zeitschrift für Physik D. It has been a healthy year for

F. T. Arecchi; G. Grynberg; I. V. Hertel

2002-01-01

342

Multi-year ice  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

ARCTIC OCEAN - A multi-year ice floe slides down the starboard side of the Coast Guard Cutter Healy Aug. 11, 2009, as the ship heads north into even thicker ice. "You can tell that this is a multi-year ice floe by the light blue melt ponds that have formed on top of the floe," said Pablo Clemente-Co...

2010-02-19

343

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does each season of the year effect what you wear? 1. Review the seasons of the year Four Seasons Review 2. Play a winter weather clothes matching game Game 3. Use the next 4 pictures to fill out your chart. Winter Spring Summer Fall ...

Dobbin, Miss

2010-03-24

344

Einstein's Years in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Albert Einstein left Germany, the country of his birth, in 1894 and moved to Switzerland in 1895. He studied, worked and taught there, except for a year's stay in Prague, until1914. That year he returned to Germany, where he lived until his emigration to the United States in 1933. In 1905, while living with his wife Mileva and their first

Hans S. Plendl

2005-01-01

345

Renovating the Freshman Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students first entering college as freshmen often find that they are to have the largest classes, the least experienced teachers, and the most boring coursework. Thus, many students do not continue their educations past the freshman year, if they even finish that year. Changes, both in academic and nonacademic areas, need to be made on college…

Robinson, Lora H.

346

1998--Human Rights Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Promotes teaching human rights at every educational level in conjunction with the United Nations-declared Human Rights Year. Provides World Wide Web addresses for resources on human rights and the Human Rights Year, including the United Nations and Amnesty International. Summarizes UN-suggested guidelines for human rights commemoration…

Mock, Karen R.

1998-01-01

347

Celebrating 50 Years!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author congratulates members of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) on celebrating the 50th anniversary of their annual conference. These conferences have kept the spirit alive from the early years, especially the engagement in investigative, collaborative, and reasoning activities. In the 50th year as an association, the author…

Kristjansdottir, Anna

2011-01-01

348

Office for Victims of Crime Reports on FYs 2009-10 Programs and Services. $1.2 Billion Supports Compensation and Assistance to 7 Million Victims.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) 2011 Report to the Nation-Rising to the Challenge: A New Era in Victim Services-summarizes the progress made in upholding victims' rights and providing assistance to victims of crime during fiscal years (FYs) 2009-10....

2012-01-01

349

Letting Billions Slip Through Your Fingers: Empirical Evidence and Legal Implications of the Failure of Financial Institutions to Participate in Securities Class Action Settlements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pilot study we published two years ago, we reported that nearly two-thirds of the institutional investors with financial losses in 53 settled securities class actions fail to submit claims. As a consequence of this failure substantial sums they were entitled to receive were given to others. This article presents the results of a much more extensive investigation of

James D. Cox; Randall S. Thomas

2005-01-01

350

Pictures of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the oldest and most prestigious photojournalism competitions, Pictures of the Year was established 58 years ago by a University of Missouri-Columbia photojournalism professor. This year's overall winners will be announced on April 19, but in the meantime, readers can view the winning photos and those that received the Award of Excellence in the three major categories: Newspaper, Magazine, and General. These images were selected from over 32,000 entries, and they run the full gamut of subject matter and emotion. Visitors will find images that are amusing, inspiring, beautiful, and heartbreaking. Highly recommended and well worth a visit.

351

7.RP Comparing Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Historically, different people have defined a year in different ways. For example, an Egyptian year is 365 days long, a Julian year is 365$\\frac14$ day...

352

p53 Research: the past thirty years and the next thirty years.  

PubMed

Thirty years of research on the p53 family of genes has generated almost fifty thousand publications. The first of these papers detected the p53 protein associated with a viral oncogene product in transformed cells and tumors and focused the field on cancer biology. Subsequent manuscripts have shown a wide variety of functions for the p53 family of genes and their proteins. These proteins are involved in reproduction, genomic repair, fidelity and recombination, the regulation of metabolic processes, longevity, surveillance of the stability of development, the production of stem cells and changes in epigenetic marks, the development of the nervous system (p73), the immune system (p73) and skin (p63), as well as the better known roles for the family in tumor suppression. The p53 family of genes has been found in the modern day ancestors of organisms with over one billion years of evolutionary history where they play a role in germ-line fidelity over that time span. As the body plan of the vertebrates emerged with the regeneration of tissues by stem cells over a lifetime, the p53 gene and its protein were adapted to be a tumor suppressor of somatic stem and progenitor cells complementing its' past functions in the germ line. Because the p53 family of genes has played a role in germ-line fidelity and preservation of the species, even in times of stress, these genes have been under constant selection pressure to change and adapt to new situations. This has given rise to this diversity of functions all working to preserve homeostatic processes that permit growth and reproduction in a world that is constantly challenging the fidelity of information transfer at each generation. The p53 family of gene products has influenced the rates of evolutionary change, just as evolutionary changes have altered the p53 family and its functions. PMID:20463001

Lane, David; Levine, Arnold

2010-05-12

353

Stretched Lens Array (SLA) Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Space Tug: SLA-SEP Offers Multi-Billion-Dollar Savings Delivering Lunar Exploration Cargo  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past three years, our team has been developing, refining, and maturing a unique solar array technology known as the Stretched Lens Array (SLA). SLA is a cost- effective, modular, scalable, and mass-producible space power technology, offering an unprecedented portfolio of near-term performance metrics, including >300 W\\/m2 power density, >300 W\\/kg specific power, >80 kW\\/m3 stowed power, and 300-600

M. O'Neill; M. Piszczor; H. Brandhorst; C. Carpenter; A. J. Mcdanal

2006-01-01

354

Fast Track (Prior Years)  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Fast Track (Prior Years). Fast Track Designation (FY 1998 - FY 2006). Within Goal, Overdue, FY, Granted, Denied, Total, Granted, ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/howdrugsaredevelopedandapproved

355

200 years to CIM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of manufacturing technology over the last 200 years is described. The stages identified in this evolution are the English system of manufacture, the American system of manufacture, scientific management, process improvement, numerical control, and computer integrated manufacture (CIM)

R. Jaikumar

1993-01-01

356

MoonYear Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet displays the phases of the Moon for calendar years 1971-2052 by month. Clicking on the day and phase gives the phase and lumination at local noon. A downloadable version is also available.

Giesen, Juergen

357

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the seasons of the year? First, watch this video about seasons. Video on seasons Next, paint a picture about the seasons. painting the seasons After you have painted a picture, play a game to identify the seasons. Game about seasons Now, go through a step by step guide about the seasons. Different seasons in a year Next, watch another video about the seasons. Video on seasons Last, fill out this chart about the seasons. In each block, ...

2012-04-05

358

The NEOUCOM Cooperative Cataloging Service: development and review of the first four years.  

PubMed Central

The Basic Medical Sciences Library of the Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine (NEOUCOM) provided a Cooperative Cataloging Service to fourteen of its affiliated hospitals' libraries since March 1978, using the OCLC system. Analysis of the first four years of service showed that the hospital libraries spent almost $30,000 to catalog more than 18,000 titles. Personnel expenses and other costs eclipsed the savings from a 31.3% duplication rate. Centralized bibliographic control control and the principal by-product of the service, a uniform, machine-related data base, provided the foundation for an on-line integrated library system to serve the consortium. The hospital libraries contributed 44% of the unique titles in this data base, which emphasis the need to share resources and continue cooperation.

Miller, D R

1983-01-01

359

The NEOUCOM Cooperative Cataloging Service: development and review of the first four years.  

PubMed

The Basic Medical Sciences Library of the Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine (NEOUCOM) provided a Cooperative Cataloging Service to fourteen of its affiliated hospitals' libraries since March 1978, using the OCLC system. Analysis of the first four years of service showed that the hospital libraries spent almost $30,000 to catalog more than 18,000 titles. Personnel expenses and other costs eclipsed the savings from a 31.3% duplication rate. Centralized bibliographic control control and the principal by-product of the service, a uniform, machine-related data base, provided the foundation for an on-line integrated library system to serve the consortium. The hospital libraries contributed 44% of the unique titles in this data base, which emphasis the need to share resources and continue cooperation. PMID:6860826

Miller, D R

1983-04-01

360

150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

361

Thirty years of IVF.  

PubMed

This paper captures the essence of a session of the Association of Clinical Embryologists' meeting held in Manchester in January 2008. This session was of special significance, since this year marks thirty years since the birth of Louise Brown -- the world's first IVF baby -- at Oldham General Hospital on 25 July 1978. Her birth was a turning point in world history, and launched a new era of scientific, ethical and clinical challenge and discovery, which is as fresh today as it was then. The session focused on historical events and the social climate in which they took place, as well as notable changes in the intervening years, heard from the mouths of those best able to interpret their significance. This paper places the speakers' contributions in context with contemporary and more recent events. PMID:18569062

Hartshorne, Geraldine

2008-06-01

362

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson demonstrates the link between the tilt of the Earth's axis to the plane of the ecliptic and seasons of the year, length of day, effectiveness of sunlight, and polar day and night. It discusses how the inclination of the Earth's rotation axis causes seasons of the year, by varying the length of the local day and the angle at which the Sun's rays arrive on the surface of the Earth, and to recognize that seasons in the southern hemisphere (at middle latitudes) occur at opposite parts of the year from seasons in the US and Europe. The student will also realize that the seasons in the middle-latitudes in US and Europe are quite different from seasons experienced near the equator and also know about the polar day, when the Sun never sets but just marches around the horizon, and the polar night, when it never rises.

Stern, David

363

Reauthorization of the National Science Foundation, 1985. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United State Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on Examining the Reauthorization of Appropriations for the National Science Foundation for Fiscal Year 1985 (April 4, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These hearings focused on the reauthorization of appropriations for the National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 1985. (The Reagan administration's request for the NSF was $1.5 billion, an increase of 13.6 percent over the FY 1984 budget.) The hearings include a prepared statement from Edward Knapp (NSF director) which provides an…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

364

SDO: Year 2  

NASA Video Gallery

April 21, 2012 marks the two-year anniversary of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) First Light press conference, where NASA revealed the first images taken by the spacecraft. This video highlights just some of the amazing events witnessed in SDO's second year as seen by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instruments. Segments in red and gold were taken by AIA in 304 and 171 wavelengths, respectively. The growing sunspot segment was recorded by the HMI instrument which views the solar photosphere and transition region.

gsfcvideo

2012-04-19

365

Beginning Your First Year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This month's column was contributed by fellow teacher Ingrid Novodvorsky from the University of Arizona in Tucson. Her advice is timely for new teachers who will be entering the classroom for the first time this fall. I encourage other teachers to share their suggestions for managing the challenges that first-year instructors face.

Novodvorsky, Ingrid

2003-09-01

366

Beginning Your First Year  

Microsoft Academic Search

This month's column was contributed by fellow teacher Ingrid Novodvorsky from the University of Arizona in Tucson. Her advice is timely for new teachers who will be entering the classroom for the first time this fall. I encourage other teachers to share their suggestions for managing the challenges that first-year instructors face.

Ingrid Novodvorsky

2003-01-01

367

Year-Round Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One avenue being explored as a way to cut costs while maintaining the quality of programs and services is year-round education (YRE). In most cases, the known benefits and drawbacks of an existing component of traditional scheduling must be weighed against the theoretical advantages and disadvantages of YRE. The five articles reviewed in this…

McChesney, Jim

1996-01-01

368

Recasting the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many educators consider the final year of high school to be a "vast wasteland," an epidemic of disengagement. Although high schools across the country have struggled with senioritis, responses to the problem have largely fallen into vertical acceleration, in which schools typically offer an array of AP courses or dual enrollment opportunities;…

Dreis, Janice; Rehage, Larry

2008-01-01

369

Redesigning the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The senior year by all reason should be the capstone of an individual's time in the K-12 system. It should carry not only academic rigor, but also a spirit of unrivaled engagement if it is truly going to be an appropriate culminating experience. For many 12th graders across the country, it is far from that. How can educators create an educational…

Dreis, Janice R.; Rehage, Larry D.

2011-01-01

370

Recasting the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many educators consider the final year of high school to be a "vast wasteland," an epidemic of disengagement. Although high schools across the country have struggled with senioritis, their approaches to the problem have largely fallen into one of three types of responses: vertical acceleration; remediation; and structured containment. New Trier…

Drels, Janice; Rehage, Larry

2008-01-01

371

The Lost Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thousands of children were deprived of schooling in the difficult aftermath of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq five years ago. During those times, more than 2 million Iraqis have fled their homeland, mainly to Jordan and Syria. Even though the schoolchildren who came to these neighboring Arab lands with their families are now given seats in…

Zehr, Mary Ann; Mousa, Yasmine

2008-01-01

372

First Year 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first year in the classroom is probably the most challenging of a science teacher's career. While many science and education classes are offered in college, they do not always teach the basics of getting started. Not only does the new teacher have to

Hensley, Lynn

2002-09-01

373

Redesigning the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The senior year by all reason should be the capstone of an individual's time in the K-12 system. It should carry not only academic rigor, but also a spirit of unrivaled engagement if it is truly going to be an appropriate culminating experience. For many 12th graders across the country, it is far from that. How can educators create an educational…

Dreis, Janice R.; Rehage, Larry D.

2011-01-01

374

Kinetin — 45 years on  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetin (N6-furfuryladenine) was the first cytokinin to be isolated almost 45 years ago from DNA as an artifactual rearrangement product of the autoclaving process. Since then its chemical structure and properties have been well described. Most importantly, a wide variety of biological effects of kinetin, including those on gene expression, on inhibition of auxin action, on stimulation of calcium flux,

Jan Barciszewski; Suresh I. S Rattan; Gunhild Siboska; Brian F. C Clark

1999-01-01

375

ISME Celebrates 50 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When members of the International Society for Music Education (ISME) met in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain in July for the 26th ISME World Conference, the gathering was an opportunity to share music from around the world, and to attend music education workshops. It was also an opportunity for its members to look back on the rich 50-year history…

Teaching Music, 2004

2004-01-01

376

Five Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author relates some of the bitter realizations he encountered during his student-teaching years when he realized that not all teachers were willing to help novice teachers. Some of them seemed to believe that teaching is as instinctive to a teacher as flight is to a bird. Despite these obstacles, the author states that he…

Hill, Jeremiah

2004-01-01

377

Black Studies Year One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Though Dubois tried to begin a series of scientific studies on the Negro problem in America more than 70 years ago, only recently have attempts been made to present a true history of the Black man in institutions of higher learning. Until that time, the experience of the Black man was defined in Euro-American terms, or in most cases was…

Long, Richard A.

378

Books of the Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It's that time of year again and "Adults Learning" has once more asked some of the outstanding authors who have contributed to the journal over the past 12 months to nominate their best and most valuable reads of 2004. The authors are: (1) Judith Summers; (2) Thomas Sticht; (3) Alison Wolf; (4) Tom Schuller; (5) Linden West; (6) Brian…

Adults Learning, 2004

2004-01-01

379

NAFTA: 10 Years Later.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the first time since NAFTA was implemented, the U.S. Department of Commerce has ten-year statistics on trade and other economic indicators. This provides the opportunity to consider how trade, investment, and employment have changed over the past deca...

2004-01-01

380

Interim Years of Cyberspace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyber power will be as revolutionary to warfare as airpower, but the current vectoring of the domain will determine which nation will hold cyber dominance and to what effect. In the early years of the cyberspace domain, the United States primarily conside...

R. M. Lee

2013-01-01

381

Tuskegee: 100 Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the history and accomplishments of Tuskegee Institute over the past 100 years. Highlights the role played by Booker T. Washington, and W. E. B. DuBois; discusses the career of the school's retiring president, Luther Foster. Provides information on the new president, Dr. Benjamin Payton, and discusses future directions for the college.…

Higgins, Renelda

1981-01-01

382

A Year Without Procedures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Step-by-step instructions in the chemistry lab often eliminate opportunities for inquiry, higher levels of thinking, and the sense of accomplishment students find through independent discovery. However, removing procedures from chemistry labs creates opportunities for student inquiry. This article describes a chemistry-based experimental year without procedures, but the concept can be applied to any scientific discipline.

Backus, Lisa

2005-10-01

383

The Prairie Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reflects on a cross-country trip in which he discovered one-room schools, some abandoned many years ago due to consolidation, others still in operation. In addition to the valuable role that one-room schools played in educating rural youth, these schools offer a rich reflection of local history, language, and cultural practices.…

Rose, Mike

1997-01-01

384

Mobility one year after unilateral lower limb amputation: a modern, UK institutional report.  

PubMed

The aim of this current retrospective study was to assess postoperative mobility one year after above knee (AKA) or below knee amputation (BKA) in a district general hospital. Data on patient demographics, diabetic status, risks for peripheral vascular disease, mortality and mobility at one year were recorded from the vascular database. Seventy-five patients underwent lower limb amputation over a 70-month period (AKA n=31, BKA n=44). Operative mortality was 10% and mortality at one year 13.7%. Fourteen out of the 31 patients (45.1%) who underwent AKA were mobile independently or with a walking stick compared to 54.5% (24/44) in the BKA group (P=0.44). Fifteen patients (48.3%) were diabetic in the AKA group compared to 26 patients (59.1%) in the BKA group (P=0.49). In the under 60 years group and over 60 years group there was no significant difference in type of amputation (P=0.64) or mobility (P=0.69). In this current series, there was no significant rehabilitation benefits in patients undergoing BKA compared to AKA. With an ageing population who inherently have increasing significant medical problems, the perceived benefit in preserving the knee joint may not be as significant as previously reported. PMID:18718957

Basu, Narendra Nath; Fassiadis, Nikolaos; McIrvine, Andrew

2008-08-21

385

Visual test of subparts per billion-level copper(II) by Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle-based solid phase extraction coupled with a functionalized gold nanoparticle probe.  

PubMed

By combining Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticle-based solid phase extraction with a gold nanoparticle-based visual test, a novel method was developed for the field assay of Cu(ii) in environmental water at subparts per billion-levels within 30 min. When a 200 mL water sample was treated with 12.5 mg L(-1) Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles by the proposed procedure, the detection limit with the naked eye was 0.2 ?g L(-1) Cu(ii). The proposed method is very specific to Cu(ii), with tolerance against at least 100-fold amounts of other environmentally relevant metal ions except for Hg(ii) (25-fold), and was successfully applied to the detection of trace Cu(ii) in tap water, river water, and treated wastewater, and results agreed well with that determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). PMID:23026855

Tan, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Jing-fu; Jiang, Gui-bin

2012-10-01

386

Fruits of 20 Years of Highway Safety Legislative Advocacy in the United States  

PubMed Central

This paper models the effects on crash fatalities and costs of 20 years of legislative actions resulting from Federal and state advocacy efforts. We catalogued road safety laws passed between 1990 and 2009 and motorcycle helmet law repeals that advocacy efforts narrowly defeated. We used NHTSA’s estimates of lives saved by airbags and published estimates of the percentage reduction in related crash fatalities associated with each type of law. State by state and year by year, from the actual fatality count for the year, we modeled how many fatalities each state's laws averted. We assumed, somewhat shakily, that the percentage reduction in nonfatal injury costs would mirror the fatality reduction. We used crash cost estimates for 10 years between 1990 and 2008 to estimate total crash costs from 1990–2009. The costs were built from NHTSA’s estimates of cost per crash. The state laws passed included 113 occupant protection laws, 131 impaired driving laws, and 76 teen driving laws, plus a Federal airbag mandate. These laws saved an estimated 120,000 lives. The life-saving benefits accelerated as the number of laws in force grew. By 2009, they resulted in 25% fewer crash fatalities. The largest life-saving benefits sprang from airbag, belt use, and impaired driving laws. Laws that affect narrow subpopulations had more modest impacts. The laws reduced insurance costs by more than $210 billion and saved government an estimated $42 billion. Including the value of lost quality of life, estimated savings exceeded $1.3 trillion. Legislative advocacy is truly a spark plug in the safety engine.

Miller, Ted R.; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard

2011-01-01

387

[Ryazan hospital--80 years].  

PubMed

In December 2011 marked 80 years of the founding of the Ryazan garrison hospital, originally housed in two buildings: "Redut housed"--a monument of architecture of the XVIII century and the former almshouses room "for the maimed in the war", was built in 1884 now Ryazan garrison hospital (from 2010--Branch No 6 FSI "in 1586 the district military hospital in the Western Military District", the Defense Ministry of Russia)--a multi-field medical preventive institution on the basis of which soldiers, military retirees, family members and military retirees from Ryazan, Moscow, Tambov regions are treated. Every year more than 7 thousand patients get treatment here. During the counterterrorism operations in Chechnya over 800 wounded were brought to the hospital from the battle area. PMID:22558855

Klimov, A S; Gromov, M F

2012-02-01

388

Eight years of AIRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft was launched in May of 2002. The AIRS Sounding Suit, AIRS along with AMSU-A and HSB, were designed to measure the atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles, the surface and the cloud parameters for climate research and for improvement in weather forecast. Over the last 8+ years AIRS has been operating extremely stable, far surpassing original design life of 4 - 5 years. Many exciting research papers on climate have been published with AIRS data. The AIRS data are assimilated by most NWP centers and have shown considerable improvement in forecast skill. We will describe the current status of the instruments as well as the new activity on the data processing software.

Lee, Sung-Yung; Pagano, Thomas; Chahine, Moustafa; Fetzer, Eric

2010-10-01

389

Twenty years of dendrotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrotoxins are small proteins that were isolated 20 years ago from mamba (Dendroaspis) snake venoms (Harvey, A.L., Karlsson, E., 1980. Dendrotoxin from the venom of the green mamba, Dendroaspis angusticeps: a neurotoxin that enhances acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 312, 1–6.). Subsequently, a family of related proteins was found in mamba venoms and shown to be homologous

Alan L Harvey

2001-01-01

390

Five Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, three groups of health sciences librarians—new library school graduates, those currently working at a medical library, and medical library directors—were interviewed about the status and future of medical reference librarianship. Five years later this follow-up article summarizes the responses from many of the same librarians about the biggest changes, newest trends, evolving roles, challenges, and hopes for the

Nancy W. Clemmons; Susan L. Clemmons

2005-01-01

391

100 Years of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through comparative socio-historical analysis of American school-based drug education, this review critically examines past perspectives and practices and how they shaped current pro grams. Among the key findings emerging from this analysis: Contrary to the popular belief that drug education began in the 1960s, its roots actually go back at least 115 years to the advent of compulsory temperance tnstruction.

Jerome Beck

1998-01-01

392

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You are going to watch some videos of the seasons of the year.Use your worksheet to help you remember the types of weather and the clothes we wear during the different seasons. What is different about each season? Seasons Chart 1. This is what you will click on to watch the video on winter. Winter Video 2. In the spring video make sure you notice the changes in weather Spring Video 3. Now watch the summer video Summer Video 4.This is what you will click on to watch the video on fall. Fall Video 5. Click here to watch a video ...

Larrimore, Ms.

2012-04-11

393

100 Years of Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Industrial Designers Society of America, this interesting site highlights some of the most influential people and groundbreaking products in this field. Titled 100 Years of Design, the site has content that spans the 20th century and "is a monthly installment of excerpts from a proposed book" along the same lines. Fifteen famous designers are profiled, along with over 50 products. One of the people mentioned is Harley Earl, the subject of a recent line of television commercials. Many of the products are related to the automobile, but other examples include the Polaroid camera and the Wurlitzer jukebox.

Gantz, Carroll.

2002-01-01

394

Stabilization Wedges and the Management of Global Carbon for the Next 50 Years  

SciTech Connect

More than 40 years after receiving a Ph.D. in physics, I am still working on problems where conservation laws matter. In particular, for the problems I work on now, the conservation of the carbon atom matters. I will tell the saga of an annual flow of 8 billion tons of carbon associated with the global extraction of fossil fuels from underground. Until recently, it was taken for granted that virtually all of this carbon will move within weeks through engines of various kinds and then into the atmosphere. For compelling environmental reasons, I and many others are challenging this complacent view, asking whether the carbon might wisely be directed elsewhere. To frame this and similar discussions, Steve Pacala and I introduced the 'stabilization wedge' in 2004 as a useful unit for discussing climate stabilization. Updating the definition, a wedge is the reduction of CO2 emissions by one billion tons of carbon per year in 2057, achieved by any strategy generated as a result of deliberate attention to global carbon. Each strategy uses already commercialized technology, generally at much larger scale than today. Implementing seven wedges should enable the world to achieve the interim goal of emitting no more CO2 globally in 2057 than today. This would place humanity, approximately, on a path to stabilizing CO2 at less than double the pre-industrial concentration, and it would put those at the helm in the following 50 years in a position to drive CO2 emissions to a net of zero in the following 50 years. Arguably, the tasks of the two half-centuries are comparably difficult.

Socolow, Robert (Princeton University)

2007-04-18

395

[25 years Mycotoxin workshop].  

PubMed

Mycotoxin research has a long tradition in Germany and is documented by a series of annual meetings which started 25 years ago. This paper gives an historical review on these Mycotoxin-Workshops. The first mycotoxin workshop in 1979 at the Federal Centre for Meat Research in Kulmbach was initiated by the former Federal Ministry of Agriculture and mainly thought to bring together scientists from the Federal research facilities. Main topics at that early time of mycotoxin research were food and feed safety, the mycology of toxin producers, the analysis and toxicology of mycotoxins. In the following years the Mycotoxin Workshop was influenced not only by working groups from the Federal research facilities but also from universities, state laboratories, other organisations and research scientists from outside Germany and with different disciplines. The number of participants increased from 19 at the beginning to more than 150 up to now and in order to organise these annual meetings at varying locations, in 1997 the society for mycotoxin research was founded. Since that time the Society for Mycotoxin Research (www.mykotoxin.de) is responsible for the organisation of the Mycotoxin Workshops.In addition the Society for Mycotoxin Research organizes the Brigitte Gedek science award, endowed with ¢ 10,000, and the Münchner Mycotoxin fellowship program, both intented to promote scientific research in mycotoxinology. PMID:23604758

Gareis, M

2003-06-01

396

Year of oceans?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

John V. Byrne, administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has proposed that 1984 be observed as the Year of the Oceans. The year should be devoted to defining and clarifying the U.S.'s ocean and coastal goals and “rallying the support to achieve them,” Byrne recently told oceanographers attending the Coastal Zone ?83 gathering in San Diego, Calif.“Today we see ferment in ocean and coastal concerns,” Byrne said. Among the examples he cited was the proclamation issued by President Reagan on March 10 declaring an exclusive economic zone within 200 miles of the coast where the United States will exercise jurisdiction for the purposes of exploring, exploiting, conserving, and managing natural resources (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402). In addition, “legislation has been introduced to define the outer continental shelf, deep seabed minerals, ocean thermal energy, marine pollution, fisheries, and other oceanic concerns,” Byrne said. “In both houses of the U.S. Congress, legislators are considering bills that would establish a National Oceans Policy Commission,” he added.

397

Einstein's Years in Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albert Einstein left Germany, the country of his birth, in 1894 and moved to Switzerland in 1895. He studied, worked and taught there, except for a year's stay in Prague, until1914. That year he returned to Germany, where he lived until his emigration to the United States in 1933. In 1905, while living with his wife Mileva and their first son Hans Albert in Bern and working as a technical expert at the Swiss Patent Office, he published his dissertation on the determination of molecular dimensions, his papers on Brownian Motion that helped to establish the Kinetic Theory of Heat and on the Photo-Electric Effect that validated the Quantum Theory of Light, and the two papers introducing the Special Theory of Relativity. How the young Einstein could help to lay the foundations of these theories while still working on his dissertation, holding a full-time job and helping to raise a family has evoked much discussion among his biographers. In this contribution, the extent to which living within Swiss society and culture could have made this feat possible will be examined. Old and recent photos of places in Switzerland where Einstein has lived and worked will be shown.

Plendl, Hans S.

2005-11-01

398

Physical activity and sedentary behavior during the early years in Canada: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity and sedentary behavior habits are established during early childhood, yet only recently has objectively measured data been available on children aged 5 years and younger. This study presents data on the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of Canadian children aged 3–5 years. Methods Data were collected as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey between 2009 and 2011. A nationally-representative sample (n?=?459) of children aged 3–5 years wore Actical accelerometers during their waking hours for 7 consecutive days. Data were collected in 60-sec epochs and respondents with ?4 valid days were retained for analysis. Parents reported their child’s physical activity and screen time habits in a questionnaire. Results Eighty-four percent of 3–4 year old children met the physical activity guideline of 180 minutes of total physical activity every day while 18% met the screen time target of <1 hour per day. Fourteen percent of 5 year old children met the physical activity guideline of 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) while 81% met the screen time target of <2 hours per day. Children aged 3–4 years accumulated an average of 352 min/d of total physical activity and 66 minutes of MVPA while 5 year old children accumulated an average of 342 min/d of total physical activity and 68 minutes of MVPA. Children were sedentary for approximately half of their waking hours and spent an average of 2 hours per day in front of screens. Only 15% of 3–4 year olds and 5% of 5 year olds are meeting both the physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines. Conclusions Promoting physical activity while reducing sedentary behavior is important at all stages of life. The findings of the present study indicate that there remains significant room for improvement in these behaviors among young Canadian children.

2013-01-01

399

TIPS: 25years later.  

PubMed

In the 25years since the first TIPS intervention has been performed, technical standards, indications, and contraindications have been set up. The previous considerable problem of shunt failure by thrombosis or intimal proliferation in the stent or in the draining hepatic vein has been reduced considerably by the availability of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents resulting in reduced rebleeding and improved survival. Unfortunately, most clinical studies have been performed prior to the release of the covered stent and, therefore, do not represent the present state of the art. In spite of this, TIPS has gained increasing acceptance in the treatment of the various complications of portal hypertension and vascular diseases of the liver. PMID:23811307

Rössle, Martin

2013-06-25

400

Another slow year  

SciTech Connect

This article is a review of the petroleum activity in the Middle East. The article is accompanied by a detailed color map showing the activity in the area. Highlights of the article include the fact that Saudi Arabia's drilling and development activity has sunk to its lowest level in many years. The article also points out that discoveries are increasing production in North and South Yemen as well as in Syria. The article also highlights the fact that Qatar is beginning work on its massive North gas field in the Gulf. Also attention is paid to the effects of the Iranian and Iraq war on each other's oil and gas activities. The article also mentions the drilling activity of Dubai and Oman.

Not Available

1987-08-01

401

A Productive YORP Year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the implications of the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect have been widely perceived as important for asteroid dynamics [1], the lack of a direct YORP detection was troublesome, until recently. Last year at this meeting a manuscript describing a robust YORP detection was circulated and discussed informally. Two publications emerged [2,3]. A change in the spin rate of asteroid (54509) was found in [2] by measuring the rate of change in lightcurve periods, and in [3] by a different analysis of the same data. The amplitude of the observed acceleration was shown to be in rough agreement with YORP predictions [3] and asteroid (54509) received the name YORP. Shortly after the meeting work started on the detection of YORP on (1862) Apollo [4]. A third YORP detection on asteroid (25143) Itokawa is now in hand [5]. YORP seems pervasive and significant enough that it complicates shape inversion efforts when data sets span several years, especially for small asteroids. Since the last meeting, work has continued on improving the formulation and modeling of the YORP effect acting on single asteroids [6], on examining the possible formation of binaries with YORP [7,8], and on understanding the effect of YORP in the best characterized binaries [9,10]. A summary of recent advances in the field will be presented at the meeting. [1] W. Bottke et al., AREPS 34, 2006. [2] S. C. Lowry et al., Science 316, 2007. [3] P. A. Taylor et al., Science 316, 2007. [4] M. Kaasalainen et al., Nature 446, 2007. [5] K. Kitazato et al., A&A, submitted. [6] D. Scheeres et al., Icarus 188, 2007. [7] M. Cuk, ApJL 659, 2007. [8] P. Pravec and A. Harris, Icarus, in press. [9] S. Ostro et al., Science 314, 2006. [10] D. Scheeres et al., Science 314, 2006.

Margot, Jean-Luc

2007-10-01

402

Developmental milestones record - 5 years  

MedlinePLUS

Normal childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Growth milestones for children - 5 years ... apologizing for mistakes Decreasing aggressive behavior Outgrowing earlier childhood fears Accepting other points of view (but may ...

403

A Global Need, a Global Resource Nuclear Power and the New Millennium: In Contrast to the 25 Billion Tons of Carbon Dioxide Emitted into the Atmosphere Each Year as Fossil Fuel Waste, the Spent Fuel Produced Yearly from All the World's Reactors Would Fit inside a Two-Story Structure Built on a Basketball Court  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The technological literacy standards were developed to act as a beacon for educators to guide them in their quest to develop a population of technically literate citizens who possess the skills, abilities, and knowledge necessary to actively and constructively participate in the democratic, technologically dependent society of the United States.…

Baird, Stephen L.

2004-01-01

404

Tri-Service Champus Statistical Database Project (TCSDP): Outpatient Nonavailability Statement Procedures Health Services Command Catchment Areas Fourth Quarter, Fiscal Year 1993 and Full Fiscal Year 1993 with Comparisons to Third Quarter, Fiscal Year 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents detailed cost data for each of fourteen categories of Outpatient Nonavailability Statement (ONAS) CPT-4 procedures, grouped by inpatient and ambulatory professional services, performed within assigned and unassigned Army billable medi...

S. A. Optenberg K. A. Moon

1993-01-01

405

Visual test of subparts per billion-level copper(ii) by Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle-based solid phase extraction coupled with a functionalized gold nanoparticle probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By combining Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle-based solid phase extraction with a gold nanoparticle-based visual test, a novel method was developed for the field assay of Cu(ii) in environmental water at subparts per billion-levels within 30 min. When a 200 mL water sample was treated with 12.5 mg L-1 Fe3O4 nanoparticles by the proposed procedure, the detection limit with the naked eye was 0.2 ?g L-1 Cu(ii). The proposed method is very specific to Cu(ii), with tolerance against at least 100-fold amounts of other environmentally relevant metal ions except for Hg(ii) (25-fold), and was successfully applied to the detection of trace Cu(ii) in tap water, river water, and treated wastewater, and results agreed well with that determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).By combining Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle-based solid phase extraction with a gold nanoparticle-based visual test, a novel method was developed for the field assay of Cu(ii) in environmental water at subparts per billion-levels within 30 min. When a 200 mL water sample was treated with 12.5 mg L-1 Fe3O4 nanoparticles by the proposed procedure, the detection limit with the naked eye was 0.2 ?g L-1 Cu(ii). The proposed method is very specific to Cu(ii), with tolerance against at least 100-fold amounts of other environmentally relevant metal ions except for Hg(ii) (25-fold), and was successfully applied to the detection of trace Cu(ii) in tap water, river water, and treated wastewater, and results agreed well with that determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, synthesis, and characterization of Cys-AuNPs and Fe3O4 NPs, magnetic-solid phase extraction and colorimetric test procedures, and effects of parameters on the extraction efficiency. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31753b

Tan, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Jing-Fu; Jiang, Gui-Bin

2012-10-01

406

25 years in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the launch by the U.S.S.R. of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik, on October 4, 1957, the space age was inaugurated. Now, a symposium will mark the 25th anniversary of that launch with a review of the origins, motivations, and progress of the era.The National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution's National Air & Space Museum will host ‘25 Years in Space’ on October 14. The day-long symposium, to be held at the Academy auditorium at 2100 C St., N.W., Washington, D.C., will feature three major sessions: motivations for space activity, the practical dimensions of space, and science and space. Also on the agenda is a special program on the space age and the arts. Harvey Brooks of Harvard University, Simon Ramo of TRW, Inc., and Freeman Dyson of Princeton's Institute for Advanced Study will lead these sessions. Closing remarks will be presented by Philip Morrison of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

407

Twenty years of dendrotoxins.  

PubMed

Dendrotoxins are small proteins that were isolated 20 years ago from mamba (Dendroaspis) snake venoms (Harvey, A.L., Karlsson, E., 1980. Dendrotoxin from the venom of the green mamba, Dendroaspis angusticeps: a neurotoxin that enhances acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 312, 1-6.). Subsequently, a family of related proteins was found in mamba venoms and shown to be homologous to Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, such as aprotinin. The dendrotoxins contain 57-60 amino acid residues cross-linked by three disulphide bridges. The dendrotoxins have little or no anti-protease activity, but they were demonstrated to block particular subtypes of voltage-dependent potassium channels in neurons. Studies with cloned K(+) channels indicate that alpha-dendrotoxin from green mamba Dendroaspis angusticeps blocks Kv1.1, Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 channels in the nanomolar range, whereas toxin K from the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis preferentially blocks Kv1.1 channels. Structural analogues of dendrotoxins have helped to define the molecular recognition properties of different types of K(+) channels, and radiolabelled dendrotoxins have also been useful in helping to discover toxins from other sources that bind to K(+) channels. Because dendrotoxins are useful markers of subtypes of K(+) channels in vivo, dendrotoxins have become widely used as probes for studying the function of K(+) channels in physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:10936620

Harvey, A L

2001-01-01

408

[A census of one billion people (summary)].  

PubMed

The national census which was conducted in 1982 has provided reliable population data for formulating policies and plans in China's modernization process. A great deal of experience has been acquired from this census. (1) The census was based upon China's practical situation and a unique system of methods suitable to China's situation was used. (2) Census workers have found appropriate methods through practical experience and also learned the skill of using computers in handling census data. (3) The general public was very cooperative and worked closely with the leadership and professional cadres. (4) Measures were taken to ensure the quantity and quality of the census work so that the goal of promoting the data's quantity and quality could be reached. (5) The spirit of patriotism was developed, and the people realized that the national census is a necessary measure to be taken for China's construction and modernization. The work of the 1982 national census was successful. The unfinished work which lies ahead is still very heavy. The census should keep on learning from the successful experience of foreign countries and try to overcome difficulties so that the work on China's population statistics may be pushed forward. PMID:12159340

Li, C

1984-05-29

409

A 10 Billion MeV Cyclotron  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the design of a device which serves to demonstrate the principle of acceleration and phase stability by accelerating gravitationally a ball bearing along a spiral groove. Application of the design principle to the acceleration aspect of a linear accelerator is recommended. (CC)|

Edge, R. D.

1974-01-01

410

A billion cars: The road ahead  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the global automobile explosion of the future and its potential effects on the quality of human life and the sustainability of all life. Discussed in some detail are the rush of the auto industry to take advantage of new market and the socio-economic reasons why the market for automobiles is increasing globally.

Tunali, O.

1996-01-01

411

Book Sales Total $3.5 Billion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Association of American Publishers' figures on book sales are presented in tables and graphs: estimated book publishing industry sales for 1963, 1967, and 1971-74 by publishing category and estimated industry sales of textbooks, educational materials and standardized tests 1966-1974 with breakdown by educational level. (JT)|

College Store Journal, 1975

1975-01-01

412

Quickly Generating Billion-Record Synthetic Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating database system performance often requires generating synthetic databases - ones having certain statistical properties but filled with dummy information. When evaluating different database designs, it is often necessary to generate several databases and evaluate each design. As database sizes grow to terabytes, generation often takes longer than evaluation. This paper presents several database generation techniques. In particular it discusses:

Jim Gray; Prakash Sundaresan; Susanne Englert; Kenneth Baclawski; Peter J. Weinberger

1994-01-01

413

All Elite Primes Up to 250 Billion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prime number p is called elite if only finitely many Fermat numbers 2^(2^n)+1 are quadratic residues of p. Previously only the interval up to 10^9 was systematically searched for elite primes and 16 such primes were found. We extended this research up to 2.5*10^11 and found five further elites, among which 1,151,139,841 is the smallest and 171,727,482,881 the largest.

Chaumont, Alain; Müller, Tom

2006-08-01

414

The $7-Billion Patch for Campus Maintenance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges are facing a growing deferred-maintenance problem, which at many public institutions adds up to repair bills in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Sometimes state legislatures have not supported those colleges at levels needed to maintain campus infrastructure. But at the same time, colleges continue to expand their campuses even as…

Carlson, Scott

2009-01-01

415

Effects of Fluoride Level in Drinking Water, Nutritional Status, and Socio- Economic Status on the Prevalence of Developmental Defects of Dental Enamel in Permanent Teeth in Saudi 14Year0ld Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen-year-old boys from three regions of Saudi Arabia were surveyed in 1992\\/3. These regions were Jeddah (which receives desalinated water containing 0.22 mgF\\/l) Riyadh (receiving water containing 0.78 mgF\\/l) and Qassim (2.66 mgF\\/l). For each of these urban communities an adjacent rural community was selected; these received water with 0.25, 0.80, and 2.71 mg\\/l, respectively. Subjects from the urban communities

A. J. Rugg-Gunn; S. M. Al-Mohammadi; T. J. Butler

1997-01-01

416

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-11-01

417

Rapid variations in atmospheric methane concentration during the past 110,000 years  

SciTech Connect

A methane record from the GISP2 ice core reveals that millennial-scale variations in atmospheric methane concentration characterized much of the past 110,00 years. As previously observed in a shorter record from central Greenland, abrupt concentration shifts of about 50 to 300 parts per billion by volume were coeval with most of the interstadial warming events (better known as Dansgaard-Oeschger events) recorded in the GISP2 ice core throughout the last glacial period. The magnitude of the rapid concentration shifts varied on a longer time scale in a manner consistent with variations in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, which suggest that insolation may have modulated the effects of interstadial climate change on the terrestrial biosphere. 38 refs., 2 figs.

Brook, E.J.; Orchardo, J. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States); Sowers, T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1996-08-23

418

Coral reefs in Saudi Arabia: 3.5 years after the Gulf War oil spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a consequence of the 1991 Gulf War, 6-8 million barrels of oil were released into the marine environment and a total of 1.12 billion barrels were burned in the Kuwaiti oil fields. In order to detect delayed effects of the Gulf War pollution, six permanent transect lines were placed on Saudi Arabian offshore and inshore reefs. A comparison of three sets of video recordings taken between 1992 and 1994 indicated a significant increase in live coral cover. Therefore, it has been concluded that corals in Saudi Arabia survived the largest oil spill on record remarkably unscathed, with no visible signs of immediate or late effects up to 3.5 years after the Gulf War.

Vogt, I. P.

1995-11-01

419

The breakup of a main-belt asteroid 450 thousand years ago.  

PubMed

Collisions in the asteroid belt frequently lead to catastrophic breakups, where more than half of the target's mass is ejected into space. Several dozen large asteroids have been disrupted by impacts over the past several billion years. These impact events have produced groups of fragments with similar orbits called asteroid families. Here we report the discovery of a very young asteroid family around the object 1270 Datura. Our work takes advantage of a method for identification of recent breakups in the asteroid belt using catalogs of osculating (i.e., instantaneous) asteroid orbits. The very young families show up in these catalogs as clusters in a five-dimensional space of osculating orbital elements. PMID:16763141

Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Bottke, William F

2006-06-01

420

A Modified School Year: Perspectives from the Early Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A balanced or modified school year is a rearrangement of the traditional school calendar to provide more continuous learning throughout the school year. Students receive the same amount of instructional time as those on the traditional calendar but in-school time is more evenly balanced with out-of-school time throughout the year. It has been the…

Winter, Eileen C.

2005-01-01

421

Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection  

SciTech Connect

This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program.

Farr, L.E.

1991-12-16

422

Underprepared Freshmen, 20 Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory research is a 20-year study of 52 underprepared first-year college students of 1976. Based on college records and interviews in 1980, 1986, and 1996, this article relates their achievements, challenges, aspirations, and reflections.

Mildred R. Steele

423

Advising First-Year Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshman year is a critical time of transition for college students. The potential for student attrition is especially high during this important first year. As a result, there is a clear need for institutions to \\

Nancy King

424

The Year 1999 in Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From the perspective of the field of adult literacy, the year 1999 is best seen not as the penultimate year of the millennium but as the year bookended by the reauthorization of the National Literacy Act in late 1998 and the National Literacy Summit of early 2000. Both of those events represent a huge milestone, and 1999 may be regarded as the…

Speights, Dave

2001-01-01

425

Advising First-Year Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first year is a critical time of transition for college students. The potential for student attrition is especially high after this first year. As a result, there is a pertinent need for institutions to explore viable resources in order to assist first-year students in making asuccessful transition. This topical session will assist participants in understanding the vital role an

Jo Anne Huber

426

Chandra Sees Shape of Universe During Formative, Adolescent Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have taken a snapshot of the adolescent universe from about five billion years ago when the familiar web-like structure of galaxy chains and voids first emerged. The observation reveals distant and massive galaxies dotting the sky, clustered together under the gravitational attraction of deep, unseen pockets of dark matter. This provides important clues of how the universe matured from its chaotic beginnings to its elegant structure we see today. These results are presented today in a press conference at the meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society at Mt. Tremblant, Quebec. "Piece by piece, we are assembling a photo album of the universe through the ages," said Yuxuan Yang, a doctorate candidate at the University of Maryland, College Park, who conducted the analysis. "Last month we saw a picture of the infant universe taken with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Now we can add a snapshot of its adolescence." The Chandra observation traced a patch of sky known as the Lockman Hole in the constellation Ursa Major (containing the Big Dipper). Chandra saw a rich density of active galaxies, seven times denser than what has been detected in previous optical and radio surveys at similar distances. This provides the clearest picture yet at the large-scale structure of the universe at such distances (and age), according to Dr. Richard Mushotzky of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., who led the observation. Lockman Hole JPEG, TIFF, PS An image that has been "blurred" to allow better view of the structures outlined by the X-ray sources. The color represents the spectra of the AGN. The red color indicates the sources on average radiates at longer wavelength while green and blue colors indicates the sources radiates at shorter wavelength. The Green and blue regions appear to form a wall, or shows more lumpiness than the "red" sources. If one could capture the universe in a box, scientists say that the large scale structure -- that is, galaxies, galaxy clusters and voids of seemingly empty space -- takes the appearance of a web. Galaxies and intergalactic gas are strung like pearls on unseen filaments of dark matter, which comprises over 85 percent of all matter. Galaxies are attracted to dark matter's gravitational potential. Dark matter does not shine, like ordinary matter made of atoms, and may very well be intrinsically different. Chandra's observation of distant galaxies in the Lockman Hole, spread out over several billion light years from Earth, essentially maps the distribution of dark matter. This provides clues to how the universe grew. "We are seeing the universe during its formative years," said Mushotzky. "This is billions of years after galaxies were born, during a period when the universe began to take on the trappings of an adult." The galaxies that the team saw with Chandra were either dim or altogether undetectable with optical and radio telescopes. This may be because they are enshrouded in dust and gas, which blocks radio waves and optical light. X-rays, a higher-energy form of light, can penetrate this shroud. "Chandra is the only X-ray telescope with a spatial resolution comparable to the optical telescopes," according to Dr. Amy Barger of University of Wisconsin at Madison, who led the optical follow-up with the 10-meter Keck telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. "This is critical to unambiguously identify the optical counterparts of the X-ray sources and measuring distances, or redshifts. This allows scientists to create a three-dimensional image of the large-scale structure." The additive effect of future deep and long Chandra surveys over the next few years will provide an even sharper picture of the young universe. Other scientists who participated in this observation include Drs. Len Cowie and Dave Sanders of the University of Hawaii, and Ph.D. student Aaron Steffen of the University of Wisconsin at Madison. NASA's Mar

2003-03-01

427

Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection  

SciTech Connect

This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven`s Medical Research Center program.

Farr, L.E.

1991-12-16

428

Sacral neuromodulation in Norway: clinical experience of the first three years.  

PubMed

We present our first three years' experience of sacral neromodulation as first line therapy in patients with a non-neurogenic refractory urge incontinence. In 53 patients, 45 women and 8 men with a mean age of 54 years (range 17-76 years), tested by subacute percutan nerve evaluation, 19 patients were declared as responders according to our programme. Fourteen patients, twelve women and two men with a mean age of 47 years (range 33-73 years), agreed to implantation of a neuroprosthesis (Medtronic Interstim Model 3031), which was placed in a subcutaneous buttock pocket in 12 patients. In the first two patients, the device was implanted subcutaneously corresponding to the lower quadrants of the abdominal wall. In two patients, the lead was repositioned from S:4 to S:3 six to twelve months after the primary implantation. In one woman with sensory urgency, the neuroprosthesis was removed six months after it was implanted because of failure. The patients were followed every six months using voiding diary, uroflowmetry, residual urine and cystometry. Eight patients reported total continence, and five declared >50% improvement. One woman has chronic bacteriuria and intermittently symptomatic urinary tract infection, which reduce the response to the chronic sacral nerve stimulation. Because of residual urine, four women are following an individual self-catheterisation programme. In conclusion, we have documented that sacral neuromodulation is an effective and safe procedure in patients with refractory urge incontinence depending on detrusor overactivity. We confirm the clinical results reported by other centres with long experience of sacral neuromodulation. PMID:12475023

Hedlund, Hans; Schultz, Alexander; Talseth, Trygve; Tonseth, Kim; van der Hagen, Arvid

2002-01-01

429

[Arterial hypertension as a complication of homocystinuria in a 14-year old boy].  

PubMed

A boy with homocystinuria diagnosed at the age of fourteen during arterial hypertension diagnostic procedures performed because of severe arterial hypertension. Hypertension was caused by thromboembolic changes within segmental branch of renal artery. PMID:7603802

Cichocka, E; Kubalska, J

1995-02-01

430

The Liturgical Year 2008: A Year to Remember?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 2007 there were Press accounts drawing attention to the transfer the next year of the celebration of St Patrick’s Day to Saturday March 15th. For all its strengths, the Roman Liturgical Calendar for any single year is not as uniform or regular as many may presume or expect. There are many variable factors, most prominently the so called

Russell Hardiman

2007-01-01

431

Partnerships Between Two-Year Colleges and Four Year Institutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presentation by Keith Clay, Edward Price and Mel Sabella at the 2012 PhysTEC Conference about the relationship between two-year colleges and four-year institutions. Each presents on the specific relationship at their institutions regarding teacher preparation, including challenges, successes and lessons learned.

Sabella, Mel; Clay, Keith; Price, Edward

2012-02-27

432

Clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic findings of choledochal sphincteroplasty. A 1 to 14 year follow-up study.  

PubMed

Sixty patients, who underwent choledochal sphincteroplasty and then yearly referred to the department for a diagnostic check-up, entered this study. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 14 years after surgery. Check-up examination included: 1) clinical assessment, 2) serum liver and pancreas function tests, and 3) ultrasonography. Good long-term clinical results were obtained in 50 cases. Seven patients complained of mild and temporary hepatic symptoms or digestive troubles. Three subjects developed severe symptoms: jaundice, fever, pain or ascites. The causes of the failures were: 1) recurrent stones in the distal portion of the common bile duct with cholangitis, 2) common hepatic duct stricture with recurrent stones and cholangitis, and 3) alcoholic cirrhosis. The following conclusions may be drawn: 1) Sphincteroplasty achieved a fourteen year success rate of 90% 2) Cholangitis, which supervened in 2 patients, was associated with bile duct strictures and recurrent stones. 3) The great majority of patients who had undergone sphincteroplasty, showed normal size of the bile ducts. However, 10% of patients still retained some degree of intrahepatic ductal dilatation. 4) Since recurrent bile duct stenoses occurred as far as 6 and 8 years after surgery, long-term follow-up is mandatory. PMID:3329162

Motta, G; Ratto, G B

1987-01-01

433

Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2004  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently possible or economical.

Not Available

2005-03-01

434

Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently possible or economical.

Patrick Laney

2005-03-01

435

Injuries from batteries among children aged <13 years--United States, 1995-2010.  

PubMed

Injuries to children caused by batteries have been documented in the medical literature and by poison control centers for decades. Of particular concern is the ingestion of button batteries, especially those ?20 mm in diameter (coin size), which can lodge in the esophagus, leading to serious complications or death. To estimate the number of nonfatal battery injuries among children aged <13 years, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) staff analyzed 1997-2010 data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). To identify fatal battery exposures, other CPSC databases covering 1995-2010 were examined, including the 1) Injury and Potential Injury Incident File; 2) Death Certificate Database (DTHS); and 3) In-Depth Investigation File (INDP). From 1997 to 2010, an estimated 40,400 children aged <13 years were treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs) for battery-related injuries, including confirmed or possible battery ingestions. Nearly three quarters of the injuries involved children aged ?4 years; 10% required hospitalization. Battery type was reported for 69% of cases, and of those, button batteries were implicated in 58%. Fourteen fatal injuries were identified in children ranging in age from 7 months to 3 years during 1995-2010. Battery type was reported in 12 of these cases; all involved button batteries. CPSC is urging the electronics industry and battery manufacturers to develop warnings and industry standards to prevent serious injuries and deaths from button batteries. Additionally, public health and health-care providers can encourage parents to keep button batteries and products containing accessible button batteries (e.g., remote controls) away from young children. PMID:22932299

2012-08-31

436

Review 08--A Year in  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Barack Obama's monumental presidential campaign took the nation by storm, a history-making and future-defining feat sure to keep academicians busy for many years to come. How America addresses race as a result of Obama's sweeping victory remains to be seen, but his election came in the same year New York state installed its first Black governor,…

Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2008

2008-01-01

437

Teaching in the Middle Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

North Carolina State University's Middle Years Education Degree Program offers eight courses specifically designed for the middle years, preparing prospective teachers in language arts, social studies, mathematics, or science. Course goals, content, rationale, instructional methods, materials, and evaluation are described. (CB)

Arnold, John

1988-01-01

438

Review 08--A Year in  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Barack Obama's monumental presidential campaign took the nation by storm, a history-making and future-defining feat sure to keep academicians busy for many years to come. How America addresses race as a result of Obama's sweeping victory remains to be seen, but his election came in the same year New York state installed its first Black governor,…

Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2008

2008-01-01

439

Thirty Years of Territorial Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, territorial politics was neglected in political science under the influence of a modernist paradigm according to which territory gives way to function as a principle of social and political organisation. In the last 30 years it has received more attention as territorial political movements have made an impact. This has provoked a reconsideration not just of the

Michael Keating

2008-01-01

440

Outlook: The Next Twenty Years  

SciTech Connect

I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

Murayama, Hitoshi

2003-12-07

441

Outlook:. the Next Twenty Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the big questions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

Murayama, H.

2004-02-01

442

Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, fourteen local earthquakes were recorded during the third quarter of fiscal year 2008. The largest event recorded by the network during the third quarter (May 18, 2008 - magnitude 3.7 Mc) was located approximately 17 km east of Prosser at a depth of 20.5 km. With regard to the depth distribution, five earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earthquakes were classified as random events. The largest event recorded by the network during the third quarter occurred on May 18 (magnitude 3.7 Mc) and was located approximately 17 km east of Prosser at a depth of 20.5 km. This earthquake was the highest magnitude event recorded in the 46-47 N. latitude / 119-120 W. longitude sector since 1975. The May 18 event, not reported as being felt on the Hanford site or causing any damage, was communicated to the PNNL Operations Center per HSAP communications procedures. The event is not considered to be significant with regard to site safety and not unprecedented given the site’s seismic history. The Hanford strong motion accelerometer (SMA) stations at the 200 East Area, 300 Area, and the 400 Area were triggered by the May 18 event. The reportable action level of 2% g for Hanford facilities is approximately 12 times larger than the peak acceleration (0.17%) observed at the 300 Area SMA station and no action was required.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2008-09-01

443

Ten year experience with use of Ilizarov bone transport for tibial defects.  

PubMed

Tibial defects greater than 4 cm and secondary to high-energy trauma or debridement for infected nonunion pose a significant challenge to the treating orthopaedic surgeon. Twelve patients who had been treated with Ilizarov bone transport for tibial defects over the past ten years were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were male with an average age of thirty-two. Ten of the twelve limbs were categorized as Grade IIIB fractures initially. The average tibial defect at initiation of bone transport was 9.45 cm (range 4 to 20 cm). The mean external fixator time (EFT) was 16.7 months with a mean external fixator index (EFI) of 2.0 months per centimeter. There were a total of 36 complications. Twenty were minor, fourteen were major without sequelae and two were major with sequelae. Overall bone results were good or excellent in nine patients. Overall functional results were good or excellent in eight patients. Ten patients achieved union after Ilizarov bone transport. Use of Ilizarov bone transport can be an effective tool for treating large tibial defects. However, the treatment time is lengthy with a considerable risk of complications. PMID:15156806

Bobroff, Gene D; Gold, Stuart; Zinar, Daniel

2003-01-01

444

Adolescent female volleyballers' (aged 13-15 years) body build classification and proficiency in competitions.  

PubMed

The present paper studies the body build and proficiency in the game of 74 female volleyballers aged 13-15 years from eight teams, who participated in Estonian championships. Fourteen anthropometric measurements were taken from the players, and these data were systematized into a 5 SD height-weight classification (small, medium, large, pyknomorphous and leptomorphous). The players participated in 28 matches, which were recorded in parallel with two computers equipped with the program Game. The girls' proficiency in the game was assessed in the same body build classes. For each class, the total number of serves, receptions, attacks and blocks, their mean values per player and percentage from elements performed during the whole tournament were calculated. In the same way, for each class the total number of points scored and separately the number of points scored in serve, attack and block were calculated. For each class the mean index of proficiency was calculated for serve, reception, attack and block. The results showed, that the most successful were the girls of class 3 with big height and weight. The small girls of class 1 were the least successful. The players belonging to the other classes formed an intermediate group. The authors recommend the use of the body build classification as it enables simultaneous assessment of body build and proficiency in competitions. PMID:17240960

Stamm, Raini; Stamm, Meelis; Koskel, Säde

2006-12-01

445

Sixty years of genome biology.  

PubMed

Sixty years after Watson and Crick published the double helix model of DNA's structure, thirteen members of Genome Biology's Editorial Board select key advances in the field of genome biology subsequent to that discovery. PMID:23651518

Doolittle, W Ford; Fraser, Peter; Gerstein, Mark B; Graveley, Brenton R; Henikoff, Steven; Huttenhower, Curtis; Oshlack, Alicia; Ponting, Chris P; Rinn, John L; Schatz, Michael C; Ule, Jernej; Weigel, Detlef; Weinstock, George M

2013-04-25

446

Accountability report - fiscal year 1997  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

NONE

1998-04-01

447

The First Year and Beyond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|John Gardner reflects on everything from current efforts to improve the first-year experience to the assessment movement, student expectations of college, professional preparation for student affairs, and more. (Author)|

Schroeder, Charles

2003-01-01

448

Preparing for year 2000--STAT!  

PubMed

Apocalypse or inconvenience? Will you be ready when the clock strikes for the first time in the Year 2000? Surviving the flip of calendar with systems intact is the dream of many CIOs. One hospital shares its plan. PMID:10187099

Rancourt, M; Keogh, D

1998-11-01

449

44 Years of "The Journal"  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review the 44-year history of theJournal of Athletic Training. Description: We examined the 179 issues of the Journal and selected 9 years (every 5 years beginning in 1957) for a page-by-page analysis of content. We interviewed 8 former Editors and Editors-in-Chief and drew upon our own experiences during a combined 56 years of association with the Journal. The Journal has undergone significant changes in both structure and quality; its growth mirrors the growth of the athletic training profession. During its infancy, the Journal relied greatly on reprints from other journals. Now, most authors are certified athletic trainers, sharing the results of their own scholarship. Conclusions: The Journal, like the athletic training profession, is alive and strong. It has become an independent leader in the dissemination of athletic health care information.

Knight, Kenneth L.; Thompson, Clint

1999-01-01

450

25 Years of Landsat 5  

NASA Video Gallery

Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the retreat of a Greenland glacier.

NASA - nasa.gov

2010-03-10

451

Cassini - 15 Years of Exploration  

NASA Video Gallery

This video highlights sights and sounds from the journey of NASA's Cassini spacecraft. Cassini launched 15 years ago and has been exploring the Saturn system since 2004. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech › Cassini's mission site

Anthony Greicius

2012-10-30

452

Dynamic cardiomyoplasty at seven years.  

PubMed

Since January 1985, the date of the first dynamic cardiomyoplasty, until April 1992, 52 patients with end-stage heart disease were operated on in our institution. Mean preoperative New York Heart Association functional class was 3.3 and ventricular ejection fraction 16% +/- 3%. Associated procedures in 23 patients comprised ventricular aneurysm resection (10), valve surgery (9), coronary artery bypass (8), and tumor resection (3). Thirty-eight patients had a ventricular reinforcement, 13 a ventricular substitution, and 1 an atrial reinforcement using the left latissimus dorsi muscle. Preassist mortality rate before full latissimus dorsi muscle stimulation was 7 of 13 patients (54%) in the 1985 to 1987 period and 5 of 39 (12%) in the 1988 to 1992 period. The causes of death were heart failure (4), multiorgan failure (4), septicemia (2), ventricular fibrillation (1), and sudden death (1). Multivariate analysis of factors influencing hospital mortality showed that age, cardiac suture technique, associated surgical procedures, biventricular heart failure, and hemodynamic instability plus inotropic drug support were predictors of unfavorable outcome. All patients were followed up for from 2 months to 7 years (mean 21 months). Postassist mortality rate was 8 of 40 (20%). Causes of death included heart failure (5), ventricular fibrillation (1), myocardial infarction (1), and gastric bleeding (1). Preoperative risk factors influencing long-term mortality were permanent New York Heart Association functional class IV, biventricular heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cardiothoracic ratio greater than 60%, and ejection fraction less than 15%. Actuarial survival at 7 years was 70.4% (preassist mortality excluded). Surviving patients were in a mean New York Heart Association functional class of 1.8 (preoperatively 3.3, p < 0.05). The average ejection fractions (rest/stress) were 25%/28% at 1 year, 26%/30% at 2 years, and 23%/28% at 3 years. Average cardiothoracic ratios were 57% +/- 3% at 1 year, 56% +/- 2% at 2 years, and 57% +/- 2.5% at 3 years. Catheterization obtained in 20 patients showed no significant changes at rest in capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and diastolic left ventricular pressure when compared with preoperative pressures. Average ejection fractions increased from 24% to 30.6%. Maximal oxygen consumption increased from 12.8 +/- 3.5 to 18.6 +/- 4 ml/min per kilogram. The number of rehospitalizations resulting from congestive heart failure was reduced to 0.4 hospitalizations per patient per year (preoperatively 2.4, p < 0.05). In 62% of the patients, pharmacologic therapy was diminished after the operation. Three patients required orthotopic heart transplantation 6 months, 4 years, and 5 years after cardiomyoplasty. PMID:8321004

Carpentier, A; Chachques, J C; Acar, C; Relland, J; Mihaileanu, S; Bensasson, D; Kieffer, J P; Guibourt, P; Tournay, D; Roussin, I

1993-07-01

453

Welcome to the New Year!  

Microsoft Academic Search

I have the privilege of taking over from Professor Gordon Donaldson as Editor-in-Chief of Superconductor Science and Technology (SuST) for the next two years. During the last ten years, he has refereed several thousand papers and ensured that SuST has the highest impact factor of any specialist journal in the field. It is a pleasure to take this opportunity to

Damian P Hampshire

2008-01-01

454

The National Year of Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the National Year of Reading effort in the UK (spearheaded by the National Literacy Trust to promote reading and literacy), the National Year of Reading site is meant to foster community participation in reading- and literacy-related events throughout the UK. A special resource section offers information and toolkits that can help a variety of different audiences (including libraries, teachers, and those with special needs) come up with innovative ways to implement local projects.

1998-01-01

455

EUDISED: Three-Year Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the request of the Council for Cultural Co-operation (CDCC) a 3-year plan (1989-1991) for EUDISED was drawn up by the Secretariat. The plan envisages that: (1) the EUDISED database will concentrate on educational research project information; (2) the rate of growth for the database will increase from 1,000 items a year to 2,500; (3) four issues…

Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

456

EUDISED: Three-Year Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At the request of the Council for Cultural Co-operation (CDCC) a 3-year plan (1989-1991) for EUDISED was drawn up by the Secretariat. The plan envisages that: (1) the EUDISED database will concentrate on educational research project information; (2) the rate of growth for the database will increase from 1,000 items a year to 2,500; (3) four…

Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

457

Ewing Sarcoma of the Bone in Children under 6 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background Ewing Sarcoma Family Tumours (ESFT) are rare in early childhood. The aim of this study was to report the clinical characteristics and outcome of children under 6 years of age affected by ESFT of the bone in Italy. Methods The records of all the children diagnosed with osseous ESFT in centres members of the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) from 1990 to 2008 were reviewed. The Kaplan–Meier method was used for estimating overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS) curves; multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results This study includes 62 patients. An axial primary localization was present in 66% of patients, with the primary site in the chest wall in 34%. Fourteen (23%) patients presented metastatic disease. The 5-year OS and PFS were 73% (95% confidence interval, CI, 58–83%) and 72% (95% CI 57–83%) for patients with localized disease and 38% (95% CI 17–60%) and 21% (95% CI 5–45%) for patients with metastatic disease. Metastatic spread, skull/pelvis/spine primary localization, progression during treatment and no surgery predicted worse survival (P<0.01), while patients treated in the last decade had better survival (P ?=?0.002). In fact, the 5-year OS and PFS for patients diagnosed in the period 2000–2008 were 89% (95% CI 71–96%) and 86% (95% CI 66–94%), respectively. Conclusion The axial localization is the most common site of ESFT in pre-scholar children. Patients treated in the most recent period have an excellent outcome.

De Ioris, Maria Antonietta; Prete, Arcangelo; Cozza, Raffaele; Podda, Marta; Manzitti, Carla; Pession, Andrea; Schiavello, Elisabetta; Contoli, Benedetta; Balter, Rita; Fagioli, Franca; Bisogno, Gianni; Amoroso, Loredana

2013-01-01

458

Yearly refinery construction indexes listed for 68 years  

SciTech Connect

Yearly values are presented for the Nelson-Farrar refinery inflation cost index since 1926. They are based on 1946 as 100, since that was the date of index inception. Values from 1926 to 1945 were back calculated. Data are presented on indexed cost of materials, labor, and miscellaneous equipment for 1926 through 1994. A second table of itemized refining cost indexes for the years 1954, 1972, 1992--1994, and the first eight months of 1995 is also presented. This table subdivides materials, labor, and equipment into component costs.

Farrar, G.

1996-01-01

459

Once in a Million Years: Teaching Geologic Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors advocate that students frequently lack fundamental numerical literacy on the order of millions or billions, and that this comprehension is critical to grasping key evolutionary concepts related to the geologic time scale, the origin and diversification of life on earth, and other concepts such as the national debt, human population…

Lewis, Susan E.; Lampe, Kristen A.; Lloyd, Andrew J.

2005-01-01

460

NYC subway system celebrates 100 years of operation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As Chicago's elevated "Loop" is so much a part of the gritty image of the City of Big Shoulders, the New York subway system is indelibly linked with the modern conurbation that is the Big Apple. It was 100 years ago on October 27, 1904, that the first subway trip on the new system took place, and the city is celebrating the system's centennial in style. Today the system has more miles of track than any underground system in the world and carries 4.5 million passengers daily throughout the city. Of course, the system has seen its ups and downs throughout the past decades, and to some who rode the trains in the 1960s and 1970s, the then graffiti-inscribed trains may have seemed to serve as a rather visible sign of urban decay. Currently, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (which was created in 1982 to oversee the subway system) is building a new $16 billion line that will follow Second Avenue as a way to relieve congestion. A comment made by one rider this past week as he exited the F train perhaps best sums up how many people feel about the system: "For New Yorkers, it's part of life."The first link offered here leads to a news piece from this week's Christian Science Monitor that talks about the historical development of New York's subway system in the early 20th century. The second link will take visitors to a New York Post article that talks about the new "Ms. Subways," Caroline Sanchez-Bernat. The contest fell out of favor in the mid-1970s, but was revived this year as part of the centennial celebration for the transit system. On a more sober note, the third link leads to an article from the Columbia (University) Spectator that talks about the massive debt problem faced by the Metropolitan Transit Authority. The fourth link is a nice special audio feature created by National Public Radio that explores the subway's presence in song and film over the past century. Visitors to the site can hear excerpts of such classics as Duke Ellington's "Take the A Train" and "New York's My Home," as sung by Sammy Davis Jr. The fifth link leads to a great site (maintained by David Pirmann) that contains copious amount of material about the vast subway system in New York, including historical transit maps, information about the subway train stock, and how the system operates. The final site leads to a site that provides ample information about the various ongoing events, museum exhibits, and talks that have been planned to celebrate the system's centennial.

461

Ocular Firework Injuries at New Year’s Eve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To prospectively study mechanisms and injury characteristics of ocular firework burns. Methods: A prospective analysis of all patients with firework injuries attending the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Vienna, between 1994 and 2001. We looked for classes of fireworks and mechanisms of injuries. The number of diagnoses was established and their severity classified. Results: During this period (8 years)

Stefan Sacu; Nikolaus Ségur-Eltz; Karin Stenng; Martin Zehetmayer

2002-01-01

462

Vulvar puritus for one year.  

PubMed

A 60-year-old menopausal female presented with vulvar itching for one year. She had noticed a whitish lesion on the vulva that slowly increased in size over the year. She had been unsuccessfully treated with oral fluconazole and topical clotrimazole-mometasone combinations and the plaque had gradually spread to involve the clitoris and peri-urethral area. She was neither diabetic nor hypertensive and had no other systemic complaints. Examination revealed a well-defined non-tender whitish plaque situated on her left labia minora and clitoris (Figure 1). A swab from the plaque did not grow any organism. Routine blood chemistry including a VDRL and HIV ELIZA were within normal limits. A punch biopsy from the lesion was taken and histopathology findings were as seen in (Figures 2 and 3). PMID:21062604

Madnani, Nina A; Bhalerao-Gandhi, Ashwini; Khan, Kaleem J

2010-10-15

463

Discovering Astronomy 50 Years Ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three years after graduating in astronomy from Bucharest University, I was finally recruited by the Bucharest Observatory to participate in the International Geophysical Year. I joined the Observatory as the third fellow of the Solar Department. There, I became an expert in satellite affairs thanks to a TV broadcast shot. I was in charge of adjusting the newly received solar instruments and contributed to the international campaign, including the solar patrol. Since it was absolutely impossible for me to start a thesis at that time, I moved to France and started a new career in the Solar Department of Paris-Meudon Observatory. My experience at the Bucharest Observatory was fundamental to the rest of my work over the following 50 years. My cooperation with the Bucharest Observatory increased after 1992 and still continues today.

Mouradian, Z.

2008-09-01

464

Ephedra: yesterday, DSHEA, and tomorrow--a ten year perspective on the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994.  

PubMed

The Dietary Supplement Heath and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA) established the regulatory framework for dietary supplements in the United States, triggering the growth of a multi-billion dollar industry. Ephedra is a dietary supplement used for weight loss. However, due to its sympathomimetic activity, it has caused stroke, cardiac arrhythmia, and death. Accordingly, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has prohibited its sale in the United States since April 12, 2004. Consequently, numerous other dietary supplements are attempting to fill the marketing void. An evaluation of these products demonstrates a general lack of efficacy and safety data. Thus, in the ten years since the passage of DSHEA, the dietary supplement industry remains controversial and a concern for consumer safety. PMID:16520299

Seamon, Matthew J; Clauson, Kevin A

2005-01-01

465

Kuru-fifty years later.  

PubMed

Kuru, the first human neurodegenerative disease classified as a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, prion disease or, in the past, slow unconventional virus disease, was first reported to Western medicine in 1957 by D. Carleton Gajdusek and Vincent Zigas. Thus, this year marks the 50th anniversary of kuru discovery, highlighted by the symposium The end of kuru: 50 years of research into an extraordinary disease organized by John Collinge and Michael Alpers at the Royal Society, London, November 11-12, 2007. In this review, we summarize some data on the epidemiology, neuropathology and clinical picture of kuru. PMID:18224577

Liberski, Pawe? P; Brown, Paul

466

Determinants of government HIV/AIDS financing: a 10-year trend analysis from 125 low- and middle-income countries  

PubMed Central

Background Trends and predictors of domestic spending from public sources provide national authorities and international donors with a better understanding of the HIV financing architecture, the fulfillment of governments’ commitments and potential for long-term sustainability. Methods We analyzed government financing of HIV using evidence from country reports on domestic spending. Panel data from 2000 to 2010 included information from 647 country-years amongst 125 countries. A random-effects model was used to analyze ten year trends and identify independent predictors of public HIV spending. Results Low- and middle-income countries spent US$ 2.1 billion from government sources in 2000, growing to US$ 6.6 billion in 2010, a three-fold increase. Per capita spending in 2010 ranged from 5 cents in low-level HIV epidemics in the Middle East to US$ 32 in upper-middle income countries with generalized HIV epidemics in Southern Africa. The average domestic public spending per capita was US$ 2.55. The analysis found that GDP per capita and HIV prevalence are positively associated with increasing levels of HIV-spending from public sources; a 10 percent increase in HIV prevalence is associated with a 2.5 percent increase in domestic funding for HIV. Additionally, a 10 percent increase in GDP per capita is associated with an 11.49 percent increase in public spending for HIV and these associations were highly significant. Conclusion Domestic resources in low- and middle-income countries showed a threefold increase between 2000 and 2010 and currently support 50 percent of the global response with 41 percent coming from sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic spending in LMICs was associated with increased economic growth and an increased burden of HIV. Sustained increases in funding for HIV from public sources were observed in all regions and emphasize the increasing importance of government financing.

2013-01-01

467

1000 years of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar activity has been observed to vary on decadal and centennial time scales. Recent evidence (Bond, 2002) points to a major semi-periodic variation of approximately 1,500 yrs. For this reason, and because high resolution proxy records are limited to the past thousand years or so, assessing the role of the sun's variability on climate change over this time f ame