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1

Fourteen years in resistance.  

PubMed

Resistance trends have changed greatly over the 14 years (1997-2011) whilst I was Director of the UK Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory (ARMRL). Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) first rose, then fell with improved infection control, although with the decline of one major clone beginning before these improvements. Resistant pneumococci too have declined following conjugate vaccine deployment. If the situation against Gram-positive pathogens has improved, that against Gram-negatives has worsened, with the spread of (i) quinolone- and cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, (ii) Acinetobacter with OXA carbapenemases, (iii) Enterobacteriaceae with biochemically diverse carbapenemases and (iv) gonococci resistant to fluoroquinolones and, latterly, cefixime. Laboratory, clinical and commercial aspects have also changed. Susceptibility testing is more standardised, with pharmacodynamic breakpoints. Treatments regimens are more driven by guidelines. The industry has fewer big profitable companies and more small companies without sales income. There is good and bad here. The quality of routine susceptibility testing has improved, but its speed has not. Pharmacodynamics adds science, but over-optimism has led to poor dose selection in several trials. Guidelines discourage poor therapy but concentrate selection onto a diminishing range of antibiotics, threatening their utility. Small companies are more nimble, but less resilient. Last, more than anything, the world has changed, with the rise of India and China, which account for 33% of the world's population and increasingly provide sophisticated health care, but also have huge resistance problems. These shifts present huge challenges for the future of chemotherapy and for the edifice of modern medicine that depends upon it. PMID:22386741

Livermore, David M

2012-04-01

2

ASTER TIR onboard calibration over fourteen years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ASTER Instrument is one of the five sensors on the NASA's Terra satellite on orbit since December 1999. After 14 years on orbit, ASTER VNIR and TIR are still taking Earth images of good quality. The TIR radiometer has five bands from 8 to 12 ?m with spatial resolution of 90 m. Each band has ten detectors. The detectors are cooled at 80 K precisely by using a Stirling cooler within 0.1 K. TIR is radiometrically calibrated by a single onboard blackbody. In the normal operation mode the blackbody is kept at 270 K, and once in 49 days the blackbody is heated up to 340 K for the gain calibration. The degradation at band 12 is largest and 48% and that at band 10 is smallest and 18%. One of the possible causes of the degradation is the contamination accretion by outgas of silicone SE9188 RTV used for TIR followed by the ultraviolet radiation. The absorption spectra of outgas of this silicon was measured at JAXA and the absorption spectra showed similar to the TIR degradation in the early days on orbit. ASTER science team is proposing the second lunar calibration at the end of terra mission for the estimation of the TIR optical characteristics. ASTER experienced first lunar calibration in April 2003 and many of the TIR bands were saturated. Due to the responsivity degradation the TIR dynamic range has extended to higher temperature. At least TIR four bands will not saturate in the next lunar calibration.

Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Tatsumi, Kenji; Ono, Hidehiko

2014-10-01

3

Four-billion-year chill on Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short article from the BBC News summarizes recent geochemical studies of Martian meteorites. Researchers have concluded that the climate of Mars has been cold and dry for the past four billion years, and that erosional features visible on the planet's surface must have occurred during brief warmer, wetter periods.

David Whitehouse

4

Book Review The Mermaid's Tale: Four Billion Years of Cooperation  

E-print Network

Book Review The Mermaid's Tale: Four Billion Years of Cooperation in the Making of Living Things.00 (cloth). The motivation for The Mermaid's Tale: Four Billion Years of Cooperation in the Making of Living from this book largely unconvinced and sometimes annoyed. The Mermaid's Tale is presented in three

Hochberg, Michael

5

Conservation of protein structure over four billion years  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Little is known with certainty about the evolution of protein structures in general and the degree of protein structure conservation over planetary time scales in particular. Here we report the X-ray crystal structures of seven laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins dating back up to ~4 billion years before present. Despite considerable sequence differences compared with extant enzymes, the ancestral proteins display the canonical thioredoxin fold while only small structural changes have occurred over 4 billion years. This remarkable degree of structure conservation since a time near the last common ancestor of life supports a punctuated-equilibrium model of structure evolution in which the generation of new folds occurs over comparatively short periods of time and is followed by long periods of structural stasis. PMID:23932589

Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Delgado-Delgado, Asuncion; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Fernandez, Julio M.; Gaucher, Eric A.; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.; Gavira, Jose A.

2013-01-01

6

Early Archean (3.3-billion to 3.5-billion-year-old) microfossils from Warrawoona Group, Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cellularly preserved filamentous and colonial fossil microorganisms have been discovered in bedded carbonaceous cherts from the Early Archean Apex Basalt and Towers Formation of northwestern Western Australia. The cell types detected suggest that cyanobacteria, and therefore oxygen-producing photosynthesis, may have been extant as early as 3.3 billion to 3.5 billion years ago. These fossils are among the oldest now known from the geologic record; their discovery substantiates previous reports of Early Archean microfossils in Warrawoona Group strata.

Schopf, J. W.; Packer, B. M.

1987-01-01

7

Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago.  

PubMed

Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ?1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment. PMID:25775605

Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U; Wang, Huajian; Costa, M Mafalda; Bjerrum, Christian J; Connelly, James N; Zhang, Baomin; Bian, Lizeng; Canfield, Donald E

2015-03-24

8

Constraining the geodynamo and magnetopause during Earth's first billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key parameter in determining solar-terrestrial interactions for the early Earth is the magnetopause standoff distance, determined by the balance between the geomagnetic field and solar wind pressure. The oldest constraints are for 3.45 Ga, during which the magnetopause standoff was less than half the distance of present-day, suggesting an environment where enhanced volatile loss (including water) from the atmosphere seems unavoidable (Tarduno et al., Science, 2010). As we look further back in time there are two vastly different, but currently viable models for the geodynamo. In one the dynamo started shortly after core formation, whereas in the other the dynamo was delayed by as much as 1 billion years by slow lower mantle cooling. A further uncertainty in standoff calculations is solar mass loss for the first 700 million years of the young Sun. Here we address both the uncertainties in solar winds and Earth's dipole moment. We constrain solar mass loss using a new model for the evolution of solar magnetic topology with time, allowing us to extend our prior calculations to the earliest Sun. Extant rocks suitable for paleomagnetic analysis are not available older than ca. 3.47 Ga, however, silicate minerals containing magnetic inclusions composing sedimentary rocks could preserve an ancient record of the geodynamo. Among these, the Jack Hills metaconglomerate (Yilgarn craton, Western Australia) is a promising unit because cobbles pass a conglomerate test (Tarduno and Cottrell, EPSL, 2013). Following our work on zircons and other single silicate crystals hosting magnetic inclusions in the Rochester laboratory since 1997, we discuss the first successful Thellier-Thellier paleointensity results on zircons measured in situ in quartz and as isolated crystals. We employ a CO2 laser demagnetization system and a small bore (6.3 mm) 3-component DC SQUID magnetometer; the latter offers the highest currently available moment resolution. We will discuss our related geochronological studies, and the implications for the early history of the geodynamo, atmospheric loss by solar wind erosion and planetary habitability.

Cottrell, R. D.; Tarduno, J. A.; Davis, W. J.; Mamajek, E.

2013-12-01

9

A plastic whistle incarcerated in bronchus diagnosed fourteen years after ‘swallowed’: a case report  

PubMed Central

Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common disease in pre-school children but easily overlooked by physicians. In this article, we report a case with bronchial stenosis that is not typical and misdiagnosed for 14 years, in the end bronchoscopy retrieval was successfully performed after adequate preparation. Pitfalls and recommendations in diagnosis and management of FBA are briefly included. PMID:24977017

Wang, Xin

2014-01-01

10

Behavioral outcomes for substance-exposed adopted children: fourteen years postadoption.  

PubMed

From a life course perspective, studies of cumulative disadvantage often identify early risk factors as predictors of poor outcomes. This study examined the influence of prenatal substance exposure on children's externalizing behaviors at 14 years postadoption. Using Wave 4 data from the California Long-Range Adoption Study, the authors employed growth curve modeling to examine behavioral trajectories of 275 children as influenced by foster care status, age at adoption, and gender. Outcomes are measured using a shortened Behavioral Problem Index. Prenatal exposure predicted elevated behavior problems that increased normatively compared with nonexposed children, and were not found to trigger the negative behavior sequelae once feared. Foster children tended to fare better over the life course than those adopted through other means, except for children adopted at older ages. Adopted children's problem behaviors may be directly associated with the success of their placements. The authors discuss implications for practice and future research. PMID:18444722

Crea, Thomas M; Barth, Richard P; Guo, Shenyang; Brooks, Devon

2008-01-01

11

A SWIRE Picture is Worth Billions of Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: SWIRE View of Distant Galaxies [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3 Figure 4

These spectacular images, taken by the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Legacy project, encapsulate one of the primary objectives of the Spitzer mission: to connect the evolution of galaxies from the distant, or early, universe to the nearby, or present day, universe.

The Tadpole galaxy (main image) is the result of a recent galactic interaction in the local universe. Although these galactic mergers are rare in the universe's recent history, astronomers believe that they were much more common in the early universe. Thus, SWIRE team members will use this detailed image of the Tadpole galaxy to help understand the nature of the 'faint red-orange specks' of the early universe.

The larger picture (figure 2) depicts one-sixteenth of the SWIRE survey field called ELAIS-N1. In this image, the bright blue sources are hot stars in our own Milky Way, which range anywhere from 3 to 60 times the mass of our Sun. The fainter green spots are cooler stars and galaxies beyond the Milky Way whose light is dominated by older stellar populations. The red dots are dusty galaxies that are undergoing intense star formation. The faintest specks of red-orange are galaxies billions of light-years away in the distant universe.

Figure 3 features an unusual ring-like galaxy called CGCG 275-022. The red spiral arms indicate that this galaxy is very dusty and perhaps undergoing intense star formation. The star-forming activity could have been initiated by a near head-on collision with another galaxy.

The most distant galaxies that SWIRE is able to detect are revealed in a zoom of deep space (figure 4). The colors in this feature represent the same objects as those in the larger field image of ELAIS-N1.

The observed SWIRE fields were chosen on the basis of being 'empty' or as free as possible from the obscuring dust, gas, and stars of our own Milky Way. Because Earth is located within the Milky Way galaxy, there is always a screen of Milky Way objects blocking our view of the rest of the universe. In some places, our view of the larger universe is less obscured than others and for the most part is considered 'empty.' These are prime observing spots for astronomers interested in studying objects beyond the Milky Way. ELAIS-N1 is only one of six SWIRE survey fields. The full survey covers 49 square degrees of the sky, equivalent to the area covered by about 250 full moons.

The SWIRE images are 3-channel false-color composites, where blue represents visible green light (light that would appear to be blue/green to the human eye), green captures infrared light of 3.6 microns, and red represents infrared emissions of 8 microns. The infrared data are from Spitzer's infrared array camera and the visible-light data are from the Isaac Newton Telescope, Spain.

2005-01-01

12

1. Fourteen Years Of Diffuse CO2 Monitoring At Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

7. Cerro Negro is an active basaltic volcano belonging to the active Central American Volcanic Belt, which includes a 1,100 Km long chain of 41 active volcanoes from Guatemala to Panama. Cerro Negro first erupted in 1850 and has experienced 21 eruptive eruptions with inter eruptive average periods between 7 and 9 years. Since the last eruption occurred on 5 August 1999, with erupted lava flows and ash clouds together with gas emissions, a collaborative research program between INETER and ITER was established for monitoring diffuse CO2 emissions from this volcano. Until 2012, twelve soil CO2 emission surveys covering an area of 0,6 km2 have been performed by means of the accumulation chamber method to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 degassing rate in relation to the eruptive cycle of Cerro Negro. A total diffuse CO2 emission output of 1,869 t•d-1 was estimated for the 1999 survey; just 3 months after the 1999 eruption which can be considered within the post-eruptive phase. For the April, 2002 and March, 2008 surveys, considered within the inter-eruptive phase, a clear decreasing tendency on the total diffuse CO2 output was observed, with estimates of 431 and 10 t•d-1, respectively, except a small increment in 2004, to 256 t d-1, associated with an anomalous seismic activity. The higher anomalies are located around the crater of 1995 and 1999. An increasing on the total CO2 emission has been observed, from December 2008 to February 2011, with total diffuse CO2 output estimates from 12 t•d-1 to 43 t•d-1, respectively. These temporal variations show a close relationship between diffuse CO2 emission and the eruptive cycle at Cerro Negro. This relationship indicates that monitoring CO2 emission is an important geochemical tool for the volcanic surveillance at Cerro Negro. References: (1) Rodríguez et al. (2009) AGU Fall Meeting 2009. EOS, AGU,V21-2017 . (2) Padilla et al. (2008). IV Reunión de la Red Española de Volcanología, Almagro 2008. (3) Melián et al. (2003). EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 84, 46, F11514. (4) Parkinson K. J. (1981). Journal of Applied Ecology 18, 221-228. (5) Salazar et al. (2001). Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 22, 4275 - 4278.

Barrancos Martinez, Jose; Melián, Gladys; Ibarra, Martha; Álvarez, Julio; Rodríguez, Fátima; Nolasco, Dácil; Padilla, Germán; Calvo, David; Dionis, Samara; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Iñigo; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Muñoz, Angélica

2013-04-01

13

Fourteen-year survival of a renal graft reused 2 years after initial transplantation: a case report.  

PubMed

We report on the successful regrafting of a transplanted kidney. The donor kidney was first transplanted into a 32-year-old patient with renal atrophy. More than 2 years later, he suffered from severe grand mal seizure with brain edema and the patient met the criteria for brain death. The well-functioning graft was recovered and subsequently transplanted into a 66-year-old woman with chronic glomerular nephritis. Neither the first nor the second recipient experienced any acute rejection. To date, more than 14 years later, she is in good health with excellent graft function. This case report implies that excellent long-term graft function is viable in a graft reused 2 years after the initial transplantation. PMID:20028494

Goralczyk, Armin D; Obed, Aiman; Lorf, Thomas

2010-06-01

14

3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence.  

PubMed

Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen. PMID:11539502

Ohmoto, H; Kakegawa, T; Lowe, D R

1993-10-22

15

3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

Ohmoto, H.; Kakegawa, T.; Lowe, D. R.

1993-01-01

16

Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal  

E-print Network

Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabo- lism that is complimentary to

Fischer, Woodward

17

For the first billion years of life on Earth,prokaryotes had the place to  

E-print Network

Feature For the first billion years of life on Earth,prokaryotes had the place to themselves. By the time the first eukary- otes and then, finally, multicellular or- ganisms arose and diversified,prokaryotic animals are thought to have some type of symbiotic prokaryote living inside them, although

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

18

Archean Rocks in Antarctica: 2.5-Billion-Year Uranium-Lead Ages of Pegmatites in Enderby Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium-lead isotopic data indicate that the granulite-facies Napier complex of Enderby Land, Antarctica, was cut by charnockitic pegmatites 2.5 billion years ago and by pegmatites lacking hypersthene 0.52 billion years ago. The 4-billion-year lead-lead ages (whole rock) reported for the Napier complex are rejected since these leads developed in three stages. Reconstructions of Gondwanaland suggest that the Napier complex may

Edward S. Grew; William I. Manton

1979-01-01

19

[The year 2000: one billion couples of child-bearing age].  

PubMed

Out of 1 billion couples there are only 124 million who use modern and effective contraceptives. World abortions number 33 million/year. 250 million sexually active women of child-bearing age in developing countries outside China do not use modern and effective contraceptives. Fertility control costs on the average US$2.5 billion a year in each developing country, 20% of which is assistance from developed countries. Expanding the family planning service to the 250 million sexually active child-bearing aged women costs an additional U.S. $5 billion yearly. A family planning accessibility survey was conducted by the Population Crisis Committee. PCC divided the countries into 2 categories: Developed and developing countries. The 110 countries (15 developed and 95 developing) covered 96% of the world population. The survey placed the countries in 5 classes according to accessibility levels: Excellent, good, fair, poor, very poor. The developed countries were analyzed according to effective contraceptive methods, service to the poor and minorities, sex education in the schools, and family planning information and advertisement. The developing countries were analyzed according to effective contraceptive methods, performance of service and distribution, public information and education, private sector participation, government finance and policies. Of the 15 developed countries, 43% were excellent, 22% good, 24% fair, and 2% poor. Of the 95 developing countries, 5 were excellent, 10 good, 16 fair, and 64 either poor or very poor countries in respect to family planning accessibility. In the face of a population explosion in the year 2000, many countries lack of government support for family planning programs. After 30 years of world effort in population control, half of the world population still has no effective family planning services. PMID:12343749

Lintong, L J

1988-04-01

20

Two Thousand Fourteen Faculty Distinction  

E-print Network

. Our faculty also received nine honorary degrees, five Guggenheim fellowships, and one Tony AwardTwo Thousand Fourteen Faculty Distinction Celebrating the awards, honors and recognition awards and honors. Over the course of the last academic year, four faculty members were elected

Qian, Ning

21

Evidence for arsenic metabolism and cycling by microorganisms 2.7 billion years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of microbes to metabolize arsenic may have emerged more than 3.4 billion years ago. Some of the modern environments in which prominent arsenic metabolism occurs are anoxic, as were the Precambrian oceans. Early oceans may also have had a relatively high abundance of arsenic. However, it is unclear whether arsenic cycling occurred in ancient environments. Here we assess the chemistry and nature of cell-like globules identified in salt-encrusted portions of 2.72-billion-year-old fossil stromatolites from Western Australia. We use Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence to show that the globules are composed of organic carbon and arsenic (As). We argue that our data are best explained by the occurrence of a complete arsenic cycle at this site, with As(III) oxidation and As(V) reduction by microbes living in permanently anoxic conditions. We therefore suggest that arsenic cycling could have occurred more widely in marine environments in the several hundred million years before the Earth’s atmosphere and shallow oceans were oxygenated.

Sforna, Marie Catherine; Philippot, Pascal; Somogyi, Andrea; van Zuilen, Mark A.; Medjoubi, Kadda; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Visscher, Pieter T.

2014-11-01

22

The Interstellar Medium In Galaxies Seen A Billion Years After The Big Bang  

E-print Network

Evolution in the measured rest frame ultraviolet spectral slope and ultraviolet to optical flux ratios indicate a rapid evolution in the dust obscuration of galaxies during the first 3 billion years of cosmic time (z>4). This evolution implies a change in the average interstellar medium properties, but the measurements are systematically uncertain due to untested assumptions, and the inability to measure heavily obscured regions of the galaxies. Previous attempts to directly measure the interstellar medium in normal galaxies at these redshifts have failed for a number of reasons with one notable exception. Here we report measurements of the [CII] gas and dust emission in 9 typical (~1-4L*) star-forming galaxies ~1 billon years after the big bang (z~5-6). We find these galaxies have >12x less thermal emission compared with similar systems ~2 billion years later, and enhanced [CII] emission relative to the far-infrared continuum, confirming a strong evolution in the interstellar medium properties in the early u...

Capak, P L; Jones, G; Casey, C M; Riechers, D; Sheth, K; Carollo, C M; Ilbert, O; Karim, A; LeFevre, O; Lilly, S; Scoville, N; Smolcic, V; Yan, L

2015-01-01

23

States' Spending on Colleges Rises 19 Pct. in 2 Years, Nears $31-Billion for'85-86.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. states' expenditures to nearly $31 billion in tax money mark a continuing recovery in support for higher education. Shaping this year's appropriations levels were concerns about tuition and efforts to promote economic development. (MLW)

Evangelauf, Jean

1985-01-01

24

Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism  

E-print Network

The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites ...

Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.

25

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope evidence for a temperate climate 3.42 billion years ago.  

PubMed

Stable oxygen isotope ratios (delta(18)O) of Precambrian cherts have been used to establish much of our understanding of the early climate history of Earth and suggest that ocean temperatures during the Archaean era ( approximately 3.5 billion years ago) were between 55 degrees C and 85 degrees C (ref. 2). But, because of uncertainty in the delta(18)O of the primitive ocean, there is considerable debate regarding this conclusion. Examination of modern and ancient cherts indicates that another approach, using a combined analysis of delta(18)O and hydrogen isotopes (deltaD) rather than delta(18)O alone, can provide a firmer constraint on formational temperatures without independent knowledge of the isotopic composition of ambient waters. Here we show that delta(18)O and deltaD sampled from 3.42-billion-year-old Buck Reef Chert rocks in South Africa are consistent with formation from waters at varied low temperatures. The most (18)O-enriched Buck Reef Chert rocks record the lowest diagenetic temperatures and were formed in equilibrium with waters below approximately 40 degrees C. Geochemical and sedimentary evidence suggests that the Buck Reef Chert was formed in shallow to deep marine conditions, so our results indicate that the Palaeoarchaean ocean was isotopically depleted relative to the modern ocean and far cooler (

Hren, M T; Tice, M M; Chamberlain, C P

2009-11-12

26

A massive galaxy in its core formation phase three billion years after the Big Bang  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores in early cosmic epochs. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes, but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we report a candidate core in the process of formation 11 billion years ago, at redshift z = 2.3. This galaxy, GOODS-N-774, has a stellar mass of 100 billion solar masses, a half-light radius of 1.0 kiloparsecs and a star formation rate of solar masses per year. The star-forming gas has a velocity dispersion of 317 +/- 30 kilometres per second. This is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, which are compact quiescent galaxies at z ~ 2 (refs 8, 9, 10, 11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 seem to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of this galaxy we infer that many star-forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.

Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha Förster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Leja, Joel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine; Wuyts, Stijn

2014-09-01

27

A massive galaxy in its core formation phase three billion years after the Big Bang.  

PubMed

Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores in early cosmic epochs. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes, but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we report a candidate core in the process of formation 11 billion years ago, at redshift z = 2.3. This galaxy, GOODS-N-774, has a stellar mass of 100 billion solar masses, a half-light radius of 1.0 kiloparsecs and a star formation rate of solar masses per year. The star-forming gas has a velocity dispersion of 317 ± 30 kilometres per second. This is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, which are compact quiescent galaxies at z ? 2 (refs 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 seem to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of this galaxy we infer that many star-forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys. PMID:25162527

Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha Förster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Leja, Joel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine; Wuyts, Stijn

2014-09-18

28

Fourteen Years of Pond Monitoring in Boreal Plain, northern Alberta, Canada: The effects of climate variability and harvesting practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Boreal forest of Canada is experiencing rapid increase in rates of cumulative impacts of disturbance for resource extraction, climate change and forest fires. To understand their sensitivity and response to multi-decadal natural and anthropogenic disturbances a long-term (1998-2013) and extensive pond ecosystem monitoring has been conducted on the Boreal Plains at the Utikuma Region Study Area (URSA) (56o N, 115o W). Hydrological, chemical and nutrient data were collected along a forest-peatland-pond transect in a paired catchment aspen harvest study in the area underlain by fine-grained till moraines glacial deposits. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrologic regime, specifically water level dynamics, both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured hydro-chemistry and nutrients; and (3) to provide evidence on how water quality conditions in the ponds are changing on long (multi-year to decadal) time scales in response to harvesting practices and climatic trends during wet and dry cycles. No difference in pond or catchment hydrologic and hydro-chemical response was observed between harvested and reference sites pre- or post- harvesting. Wetland and pond waters were not affected by the harvesting practices due to lack of hydrologic connectivity between pond and forest systems. The hydrologic relationship between forestlands and open-water wetlands is a response in their water balance differences driven by their storage characteristics. Temporal trends in ponds' water levels, chemical and nutrient concentrations during the 14 year record were most closely related to relative connectivity to groundwater systems and flow direction in response to climatic cycles and vegetation water use and were the most useful parameters for characterizing duration and type of connectivity during wet and dry cycles. Using empirical relationships from such long-term monitoring, this study (1) shows a unique set of responses in hydrologic and biogeochemical properties of Boreal Plain pond-wetland complexes to climate variation and harvesting practices; and (2) provides a valuable insight into hydrologic and hydro-chemical interactions between pond-wetland-forestland systems.

Abnizova, A.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.

2013-12-01

29

The impact of timing of puberty on psychosomatic symptoms among fourteen- to sixteen-year-old Finnish girls.  

PubMed

All eighth-grade pupils of secondary schools in a Finnish town completed questionnaires 3 times during a 17-month follow-up. A total of 935 girls were included in the study. The mean age of the girls at the start of the study was 14.5 years. The results showed that there were differences in psychosomatic symptoms, dating, and alcohol use by age of menarche. However, the results suggested that the differences by age of menarche were largely associated with pubertal development as such. After controlling for time since menarche, the impact of timing on psychosomatic symptoms was demonstrated only at the beginning of the study, not later. Differences in behavior also seemed to be related to pubertal development rather than timing. Differences in symptoms by age of menarche remained after controlling for dating and alcohol use. PMID:3816347

Aro, H; Taipale, V

1987-02-01

30

Extraterrestrial demise of banded iron formations 1.85 billion years ago  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Lake Superior region of North America, deposition of most banded iron formations (BIFs) ended abruptly 1.85 Ga ago, coincident with the oceanic impact of the giant Sudbury extraterrestrial bolide. We propose a new model in which this impact produced global mixing of shallow oxic and deep anoxic waters of the Paleoproterozoic ocean, creating a suboxic redox state for deep seawater. This suboxic state, characterized by only small concentrations of dissolved O2 (???1 ??M), prevented transport of hydrothermally derived Fe(II) from the deep ocean to continental-margin settings, ending an ???1.1 billion-year-long period of episodic BIF mineralization. The model is supported by the nature of Precambrian deep-water exhalative chemical sediments, which changed from predominantly sulfide facies prior to ca. 1.85 Ga to mainly oxide facies thereafter. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

Slack, J.F.; Cannon, W.F.

2009-01-01

31

A change in the geodynamics of continental growth 3 billion years ago.  

PubMed

Models for the growth of continental crust rely on knowing the balance between the generation of new crust and the reworking of old crust throughout Earth's history. The oxygen isotopic composition of zircons, for which uranium-lead and hafnium isotopic data provide age constraints, is a key archive of crustal reworking. We identified systematic variations in hafnium and oxygen isotopes in zircons of different ages that reveal the relative proportions of reworked crust and of new crust through time. Growth of continental crust appears to have been a continuous process, albeit at variable rates. A marked decrease in the rate of crustal growth at ~3 billion years ago may be linked to the onset of subduction-driven plate tectonics. PMID:22422979

Dhuime, Bruno; Hawkesworth, Chris J; Cawood, Peter A; Storey, Craig D

2012-03-16

32

An exhumation history of continents over billion-year time scales.  

PubMed

The continental lithosphere contains the oldest and most stable structures on Earth, where fragments of ancient material have eluded destruction by tectonic and surface processes operating over billions of years. Although present-day erosion of these remnants is slow, a record of how they have uplifted, eroded, and cooled over Earth's history can provide insight into the physical properties of the continents and the forces operating to exhume them over geologic time. We constructed a continuous record of ancient lithosphere cooling with the use of uranium-lead (U-Pb) thermochronology on volcanically exhumed lower crustal fragments. Combining these measurements with thermal and Pb-diffusion models constrains the range of possible erosion histories. Measured U-Pb data are consistent with extremely low erosion rates persisting over time scales approaching the age of the continents themselves. PMID:22223803

Blackburn, Terrence J; Bowring, Samuel A; Perron, J Taylor; Mahan, Kevin H; Dudas, Francis O; Barnhart, Katherine R

2012-01-01

33

Atmospheric carbon dioxide: a driver of photosynthetic eukaryote evolution for over a billion years?  

PubMed Central

Exciting evidence from diverse fields, including physiology, evolutionary biology, palaeontology, geosciences and molecular genetics, is providing an increasingly secure basis for robustly formulating and evaluating hypotheses concerning the role of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Such studies span over a billion years of evolutionary change, from the origins of eukaryotic algae through to the evolution of our present-day terrestrial floras, and have relevance for plant and ecosystem responses to future global CO2 increases. The papers in this issue reflect the breadth and depth of approaches being adopted to address this issue. They reveal new discoveries pointing to deep evidence for the role of CO2 in shaping evolutionary changes in plants and ecosystems, and establish an exciting cross-disciplinary research agenda for uncovering new insights into feedbacks between biology and the Earth system. PMID:22232760

Beerling, David J.

2012-01-01

34

Paleointensity, solar wind and magnetopause 3.45 billion years ago (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standoff of the solar wind by the magnetic field produced by a core dynamo defines atmospheric shielding and prevention of volatile loss important for the evolution of a habitable planet. Yet little is known about magnetic field strength for the earliest Earth. Therefore, the potential for intense radiation from the young, rapidly rotating Sun modifying the atmosphere is uncertain. We report Thellier paleointensity results from single silicate crystals bearing magnetic inclusions that indicate the presence of a Paleoarchean geodynamo between 3.40 and 3.45 billion years ago. The field is somewhat weaker than the current field and when combined with the a greater solar wind pressure suggest steady-state Paleoarchean magnetopause standoff distances similar to those observed during recent solar storms. We will discuss efforts to further extend the paleointensity record, using single crystals with magnetic inclusions, such as zircons, eroded from older igneous rocks and now found within Archean sedimentary units.

Tarduno, J. A.; Cottrell, R. D.; Watkeys, M. K.; Hofmann, A.; Doubrovine, P. V.; Nelson, J.; Usui, Y.

2009-12-01

35

Star Formation in Galaxy Clusters Over the Past 10 Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound systems in the universe and include the most massive galaxies in the universe; this makes galaxy clusters ideal laboratories for disentangling the nature versus nurture aspect of how galaxies evolve. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve in clusters continues to be a fundamental question in astronomy. The ages and assembly histories of galaxies in rich clusters test both stellar population models and hierarchical formation scenarios. Is star formation in cluster galaxies simply accelerated relative to their counterparts in the lower density field, or do cluster galaxies assemble their stars in a fundamentally different manner? To answer this question, I review multi-wavelength results on star formation in galaxy clusters from Coma to the most distant clusters yet discovered at look-back times of 10 billion years (z 2).

Tran, Kim-Vy

2012-01-01

36

Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

2012-01-01

37

IRON AND {alpha}-ELEMENT PRODUCTION IN THE FIRST ONE BILLION YEARS AFTER THE BIG BANG  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of carbon, oxygen, silicon, and iron in quasar absorption systems existing when the universe was roughly one billion years old. We measure column densities in nine low-ionization systems at 4.7 < z < 6.3 using Keck, Magellan, and Very Large Telescope optical and near-infrared spectra with moderate to high resolution. The column density ratios among C II, O I, Si II, and Fe II are nearly identical to sub-damped Ly{alpha} systems (sub-DLAs) and metal-poor ([M/H] {<=} -1) DLAs at lower redshifts, with no significant evolution over 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 6. The estimated intrinsic scatter in the ratio of any two elements is also small, with a typical rms deviation of {approx}< 0.1 dex. These facts suggest that dust depletion and ionization effects are minimal in our z > 4.7 systems, as in the lower-redshift DLAs, and that the column density ratios are close to the intrinsic relative element abundances. The abundances in our z > 4.7 systems are therefore likely to represent the typical integrated yields from stellar populations within the first gigayear of cosmic history. Due to the time limit imposed by the age of the universe at these redshifts, our measurements thus place direct constraints on the metal production of massive stars, including iron yields of prompt supernovae. The lack of redshift evolution further suggests that the metal inventories of most metal-poor absorption systems at z {approx}> 2 are also dominated by massive stars, with minimal contributions from delayed Type Ia supernovae or winds from asymptotic giant branch stars. The relative abundances in our systems broadly agree with those in very metal-poor, non-carbon-enhanced Galactic halo stars. This is consistent with the picture in which present-day metal-poor stars were potentially formed as early as one billion years after the big bang.

Becker, George D.; Carswell, Robert F. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sargent, Wallace L. W. [Palomar Observatory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rauch, Michael, E-mail: gdb@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: acalver@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: wws@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: mr@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

2012-01-10

38

Evidence for mature bulges and an inside-out quenching phase 3 billion years after the Big Bang  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most present-day galaxies with stellar masses ?1011 solar masses show no ongoing star formation and are dense spheroids. Ten billion years ago, similarly massive galaxies were typically forming stars at rates of hundreds solar masses per year. It is debated how star formation ceased, on which time scales, and how this “quenching” relates to the emergence of dense spheroids. We measured stellar mass and star-formation rate surface density distributions in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.2 with ~1-kiloparsec resolution. We find that, in the most massive galaxies, star formation is quenched from the inside out, on time scales less than 1 billion years in the inner regions, up to a few billion years in the outer disks. These galaxies sustain high star-formation activity at large radii, while hosting fully grown and already quenched bulges in their cores.

Tacchella, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Renzini, A.; Schreiber, N. M. Förster; Lang, P.; Wuyts, S.; Cresci, G.; Dekel, A.; Genzel, R.; Lilly, S. J.; Mancini, C.; Newman, S.; Onodera, M.; Shapley, A.; Tacconi, L.; Woo, J.; Zamorani, G.

2015-04-01

39

Galaxy evolution. Evidence for mature bulges and an inside-out quenching phase 3 billion years after the Big Bang.  

PubMed

Most present-day galaxies with stellar masses ?10(11) solar masses show no ongoing star formation and are dense spheroids. Ten billion years ago, similarly massive galaxies were typically forming stars at rates of hundreds solar masses per year. It is debated how star formation ceased, on which time scales, and how this "quenching" relates to the emergence of dense spheroids. We measured stellar mass and star-formation rate surface density distributions in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.2 with ~1-kiloparsec resolution. We find that, in the most massive galaxies, star formation is quenched from the inside out, on time scales less than 1 billion years in the inner regions, up to a few billion years in the outer disks. These galaxies sustain high star-formation activity at large radii, while hosting fully grown and already quenched bulges in their cores. PMID:25883353

Tacchella, S; Carollo, C M; Renzini, A; Förster Schreiber, N M; Lang, P; Wuyts, S; Cresci, G; Dekel, A; Genzel, R; Lilly, S J; Mancini, C; Newman, S; Onodera, M; Shapley, A; Tacconi, L; Woo, J; Zamorani, G

2015-04-17

40

New research indicates that asteroids barraged the Earth's surface for an additional two billion years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ancient asteroids kept on cominghttp://www.nature.com/news/ancient-asteroids-kept-on-coming-1.10504Dinosaurs were declining before asteroid struck, say scientistshttp://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2012/0501/Dinosaurs-were-declining-before-asteroid-struck-say-scientists-videoTriceratops was already on road to extinction before asteroid wiped out dinosaurshttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/dinosaurs/9238658/Triceratops-was-already-on-road-to-exctinction-before-asteroid-wiped-out-dinosaurs.htmlBBC Nature: Prehistoric Life: Dinosaurshttp://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/life/DinosaurDinobasehttp://dinobase.gly.bris.ac.uk/It is generally believed that a massive asteroid impact some 65 million years ago killed off the dinosaurs, ending their long reign as the dominant vertebrates on the planet. However, a recent pair of studies has revealed that such occurrences were much more common than previously thought. Before now, scientists thought that the intense period of asteroid impacts ended almost 3.7 billion years ago. Both of these new studies seem to indicate that over 70 asteroid impacts at least as severe as the one that likely killed off the dinosaurs continued over an additional period of 2 billion years. The scientists think that the potential culprits were asteroids originating from the E belt, which is quite small in the present day. Of course, there is some dissent between the two studies about the range of speeds at which the asteroids were traveling before impact, and both groups of scientists will continue to compare their respective findings. The first link leads to a podcast and article on this recent discovery from the Scientific American's "60-Second Space" series. The second link will whisk users away to a detailed piece by Nature's Helen Thompson which provides additional insights into the recently published studies on the asteroids. The third link takes interested parties to a nice piece from The Christian Science Monitor about those groups of dinosaurs that were already in decline before a massive meteor struck the Earth's surface some 65 million years ago. Moving on, the fourth link leads to a piece from this Tuesday's Telegraph about this steady decline, with a focus on the Hadrosaurs and the Triceratops. The fifth link leads to a site created by the BBC about the world of the dinosaurs. Here visitors can look over renderings of these fabulous creatures, and learn more about them in sections such as When they lived, What their world was like, and Behaviours. The final link leads to a wonderful database of photos, blogs, forums and so on (annotated in this week's Scout Report) from the University of Bristol on the subject of dinosaurs.

Grinnell, Max

2012-05-04

41

Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents1. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot2. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by ?-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Hunt, Andrew G.

2014-01-01

42

Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone.  

PubMed

Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by ?-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions. PMID:24553240

Lowenstern, J B; Evans, W C; Bergfeld, D; Hunt, A G

2014-02-20

43

Constraints on the first billion years of the geodynamo from paleointensity studies of zircons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several lines of reasoning, including new ideas on core thermal conductivity, suggest that onset of a strong geomagnetic field might have been delayed by one billion years (or more) after the lunar forming event. Here we extend the Proterozoic/Archean to Paleoarchean record of the geomagnetic field constrained by single crystal paleointensity (SCP) analyses (Tarduno et al., Science, 2010) to older times using zircons containing minute magnetic inclusions. Specifically, we focus on samples from the Jack Hills (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia). We employ a CO2 laser demagnetization system and a small bore (6.3 mm) 3-component DC SQUID magnetometer; the latter offers the highest currently available moment resolution. Sample age is analyzed using SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology. Preliminary data support the presence of a relatively strong Paleoarchean field produced by a core dynamo, extending the known record by at least 100 million years, to approximately 3.55 Ga. These data only serve to exacerbate the apparent problem posed by the presence of a Paleoarchean dynamo. Alternative dynamo driving mechanisms, or efficient core/lowermost mantle heat loss processes unique to the Paleoarchean (and older times) might have been at work. We will discuss these processes, and our efforts to study even older Eoarchean-Hadean zircons.

Tarduno, John; Cottrell, Rory; Davis, William

2014-05-01

44

The First Billion Years project: dark matter haloes going from contraction to expansion and back again  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effect of baryons on the inner dark matter profile of the first galaxies using the First Billion Years simulation between z = 16 and 6 before secular evolution sets in. Using a large statistical sample from two simulations of the same volume and cosmological initial conditions, one with and one without baryons, we are able to directly compare haloes with their baryon-free counterparts, allowing a detailed study of the modifications to the dark matter density profile due to the presence of baryons during the first billion years of galaxy formation. For each of the ?5000 haloes in our sample (3 × 107 M? ? Mtot ? 5 × 109 M?), we quantify the impact of the baryons using ?, defined as the ratio of dark matter mass enclosed in 100 pc in the baryonic run to its counterpart without baryons. During this epoch of rapid growth of galaxies, we find that many haloes of these first galaxies show an enhancement of dark matter in the halo centre compared to the baryon-free simulation, while many others show a deficit. We find that the mean value of ? is close to unity, but there is a large dispersion, with a standard deviation of 0.677. The enhancement is cyclical in time and tracks the star formation cycle of the galaxy; as gas falls to the centre and forms stars, the dark matter moves in as well. Supernova (SN) feedback then removes the gas, and the dark matter again responds to the changing potential. We study three physical models relating the motion of baryons to that of the dark matter: adiabatic contraction, dynamical friction, and rapid outflows. We find that dynamical friction plays only a very minor role, while adiabatic contraction and the rapid outflows due to feedback describe well the enhancement (or decrement) of dark matter. For haloes which show significant decrements of dark matter in the core, we find that to remove the dark matter requires an energy input between 1051 and 1053 erg. For our SN feedback proscription, this requires as a lower limit a constant star formation rate between 0.002 and 0.2 M? yr-1 for the previous 5 Myr. We also find that heating due to reionization is able to prevent the formation of strong cusps for haloes which at z ˜ 12 have ?108 M?. The lack of a strong cusp in these haloes remains down to z = 6, the end of our simulation.

Davis, Andrew J.; Khochfar, Sadegh; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

2014-09-01

45

A Massive Galaxy in Its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years After the Big Bang  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z = 2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0 × 10 (exp 11) solar mass, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90 (sup +45 / sub -20) solar mass/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317 plus or minus 30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z is approximately equal to 2 (exp 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.

Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha M. Forster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Leja, Joel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine; Wuyts, Stijn

2014-01-01

46

Atmospheric sulfur rearrangement 2.7 billion years ago: Evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass-independently fractionated sulfur isotopes (MIF-S) provide strong evidence for an anoxic atmosphere during the Archean. Moreover, the temporal evolution of MIF-S shows increasing magnitudes between 2.7 and 2.5 Ga until the start of the Great Oxidation Event (G.O.E.) at around 2.4 Ga. The conclusion of a completely anoxic atmosphere up to the G.O.E. is in contrast to recent studies on redox-sensitive elements, which suggest slightly oxidizing conditions during continental weathering already several hundred million years prior to the G.O.E. In order to investigate this apparent inconsistency, we present multiple sulfur isotopes for 2.71 Ga pyritic black shales derived from the Kidd Creek area, Ontario, Canada. These samples display high positive ?33S values up to 3.8‰ and the typical late Archean slope in ?36S/?33S of -0.9. In contrast, the time period before (3.2-2.73 Ga) is characterized by greatly attenuated MIF-S magnitudes and a slope in ?36S/?33S of -1.5. We attribute the increase in ?33S magnitude as well as the contemporaneous change in the slope of ?36S/?33S to changes in the relative reaction rate of different MIF-S source reactions and changes in atmospheric sulfur exit channels. Both of these are dependent on atmospheric CH4:CO2 and O2 mixing ratios. We propose a distinct change in atmospheric composition at 2.7 Ga resulting from increased fluxes of oxygen and methane as the best explanation for the observed Neoarchean MIF-S record. Our data and modeling results suggest that oxygenic photosynthesis was a major contributor to primary productivity 2.7 billion years ago.

Kurzweil, Florian; Claire, Mark; Thomazo, Christophe; Peters, Marc; Hannington, Mark; Strauss, Harald

2013-03-01

47

THE BIRTH OF THE SUN The solar system formed 4.54.6 billion years ago (Patterson  

E-print Network

THE BIRTH OF THE SUN The solar system formed 4.5­4.6 billion years ago (Patterson 1956) by collapse of many elements in these grains are vastly different from those of our solar system and provide the trigger. The for- mer presence of short-lived radionu- clides at the start of the solar system has been

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

48

1.3 Billion years of acritarch history: An empirical morphospace approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acritarchs are a group of organic-walled vesicular microfossils interpreted as protists, and are among the first eukaryotes preserved in the fossil record. Taxonomic inconsistencies amongst acritarch workers have made it difficult to address the evolutionary history of this group through more traditional methods (i.e., biodiversity through species counts). We have constructed an empirical morphospace to examine the first 1.3 billion

John Warren Huntley; Shuhai Xiao; Micha? Kowalewski

2006-01-01

49

Evidence for Oxygenic Photosynthesis Half a Billion Years Before the Great Oxidation Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite detailed investigations over the past 50 years, there is still intense debate about when oxygenic photosynthesis evolved. Current estimates span over a billion years of Earth history, ranging from prior to 3.7 Ga, the age of the oldest sedimentary rocks, to 2.4-2.3 Ga, coincident with the rise of atmospheric oxygen ("The Great Oxidation Event" or GOE). As such, a new, independent perspective is needed. We will provide such a perspective herein by using molybdenum (Mo) isotopes in a novel way to track the onset of manganese(II)oxidation and thus biological oxygen production. The oxidation of Mn(II) in modern marine setting requires free dissolved oxygen. Mn is relatively unique in its environmental specificity for oxygen as an electron acceptor among the redox-sensitive transition metals, many of which, like Fe, can be oxidized under anoxic conditions either through a microbial pathway and/or with alternative oxidants such as nitrate. There are large Mo isotope fractionations associated with the sorption of Mo (as a polymolybdate complex) onto Mn-oxyhydroxides, with an approximately -2.7‰ fractionation in d98Mo associated with Mo sorption onto Mn-oxyhydroxides (e.g., birnessite, vernadite). In contrast, sorption of Mo onto the Fe-oxyhydroxide (e.g., ferrihydrite) results in a fractionation of only -1.1‰ or less. Because of this difference in Mo isotope fractionation, Mo isotope values should become lighter with increasing Mn content, if Mn oxidation occurred during deposition and is an important vector of Mo transfer to the sediment. We find a strong positive correlation between d98Mo values and Fe/Mn ratios in iron formations deposited before and after the Great Oxidation Event. Most strikingly, Mo isotope data and Fe/Mn ratios correlate over a 2.5‰ range in d98Mo values in the Mn-rich (0.1 - 6%) iron formation of the 2.95 Ga Sinqeni Formation, South Africa. The large isotopic shifts occur over a relatively thin (3 meter thick) horizon, reflecting short-term variations in the degree of Mn oxidation that are consistent with localized oxygen generation and rapid consumption in a geochemical backdrop that was otherwise reducing. The observed range in d98Mo values and the correlation between d98Mo values and Fe/Mn ratios is statistically identical to that found in the ca. 1.89 Ga iron formations from the Lake Superior region, Animikie basin, which were deposited well after the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Our work and other recent geochemical work on the Pongola Supergroup reconcile geochemical and molecular records for the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and provide strong evidence that there was biological oxygen production well before its permanent accumulation in the atmosphere around 2.4-2.3 Ga.

Planavsky, Noah; Reinhard, Chris; Asael, Dan; Lyons, Tim; Hofmann, Axel; Rouxel, Olivier

2014-05-01

50

Study: Sun Will End Earthly Life in 2.8 Billion Years1 The planet will become too hot for even the hardiest microbes.2  

E-print Network

temperature for life on Earth, our aging sun will slowly warm over its lifetime. Within about five billionStudy: Sun Will End Earthly Life in 2.8 Billion Years1 The planet will become too hot for even years, the sun will exhaust7 its nuclear fuel and bloat into a "red giant" star that may even engulf our

South Bohemia, University of

51

Genetic Programming_______________________________________________________________ Fourteen Instances where  

E-print Network

Genetic Programming_______________________________________________________________ Fourteen Instances where Genetic Programming has Produced Results that are Competitive with Results Produced by Humans JOHN R. KOZA Stanford University Stanford, California 94305 koza@genetic-programming.com http

Fernandez, Thomas

52

Constraint on a Varying Proton-Electron Mass Ratio 1.5 Billion Years after the Big Bang  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, ? . A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to ? , yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of ? ? /? =(-9.5 ±5.4stat±5.3syst)×10-6 .

Bagdonaite, J.; Ubachs, W.; Murphy, M. T.; Whitmore, J. B.

2015-02-01

53

Constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio 1.5 billion years after the big bang.  

PubMed

A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, ?. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to ?, yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of ??/?=(-9.5±5.4_{stat}±5.3_{syst})×10^{-6}. PMID:25763949

Bagdonaite, J; Ubachs, W; Murphy, M T; Whitmore, J B

2015-02-20

54

A spin-down clock for cool stars from observations of a 2.5-billion-year-old cluster.  

PubMed

The ages of the most common stars--low-mass (cool) stars like the Sun, and smaller--are difficult to derive because traditional dating methods use stellar properties that either change little as the stars age or are hard to measure. The rotation rates of all cool stars decrease substantially with time as the stars steadily lose their angular momenta. If properly calibrated, rotation therefore can act as a reliable determinant of their ages based on the method of gyrochronology. To calibrate gyrochronology, the relationship between rotation period and age must be determined for cool stars of different masses, which is best accomplished with rotation period measurements for stars in clusters with well-known ages. Hitherto, such measurements have been possible only in clusters with ages of less than about one billion years, and gyrochronology ages for older stars have been inferred from model predictions. Here we report rotation period measurements for 30 cool stars in the 2.5-billion-year-old cluster NGC 6819. The periods reveal a well-defined relationship between rotation period and stellar mass at the cluster age, suggesting that ages with a precision of order 10 per cent can be derived for large numbers of cool Galactic field stars. PMID:25539085

Meibom, Søren; Barnes, Sydney A; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L; Latham, David W; Mathieu, Robert D

2015-01-29

55

An age difference of two billion years between a metal-rich and a metal-poor globular cluster.  

PubMed

Globular clusters trace the formation history of the spheroidal components of our Galaxy and other galaxies, which represent the bulk of star formation over the history of the Universe. The clusters exhibit a range of metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium), with metal-poor clusters dominating the stellar halo of the Galaxy, and higher-metallicity clusters found within the inner Galaxy, associated with the stellar bulge, or the thick disk. Age differences between these clusters can indicate the sequence in which the components of the Galaxy formed, and in particular which clusters were formed outside the Galaxy and were later engulfed along with their original host galaxies, and which were formed within it. Here we report an absolute age of 9.9?±?0.7 billion years (at 95 per cent confidence) for the metal-rich globular cluster 47?Tucanae, determined by modelling the properties of the cluster's white-dwarf cooling sequence. This is about two billion years younger than has been inferred for the metal-poor cluster NGC?6397 from the same models, and provides quantitative evidence that metal-rich clusters like 47?Tucanae formed later than metal-poor halo clusters like NGC?6397. PMID:23903747

Hansen, B M S; Kalirai, J S; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J R; King, I R; Reitzel, D; Stetson, P B

2013-08-01

56

MIT BLOSSOMS - Geologic Time: The Ticking of Our Planet’s 4.6 Billion Year Clock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth is 4.6 billion years old. That's a hard number to conceptualize. What does 4.6 billion look like, and what happened during all those hundreds of millions of years between the formation of our planet and now? This BLOSSOMS lesson will help students conceptualize the enormity of geologic time and learn about important events in Earth's history. Students will also learn how geologic time can help explain seemingly incomprehensible processes, like the formation of the Himalayan Mountains from a flat plain to their current height, and the evolution of a tiny group of reptiles into enormous dinosaurs. The lesson will take approximately 45 minutes. Students should have a basic understanding of biology, and a familiarity with geology is helpful but not necessary. The supplies required include a measuring tape that is at least 5 meters long, a 5 meter long piece of string, ribbon, or rope, index cards or other stiff pieces of paper, and calculators. During the breaks, students will construct a geologic timeline of their own in the classroom and do simple calculations to determine how long amounts of time can lead to impressive changes in the height of the Himalayan Mountains and the size of a group of reptiles.

MIT BLOSSOMS

2011-07-18

57

A spin-down clock for cool stars from observations of a 2.5-billion-year-old cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ages of the most common stars--low-mass (cool) stars like the Sun, and smaller--are difficult to derive because traditional dating methods use stellar properties that either change little as the stars age or are hard to measure. The rotation rates of all cool stars decrease substantially with time as the stars steadily lose their angular momenta. If properly calibrated, rotation therefore can act as a reliable determinant of their ages based on the method of gyrochronology. To calibrate gyrochronology, the relationship between rotation period and age must be determined for cool stars of different masses, which is best accomplished with rotation period measurements for stars in clusters with well-known ages. Hitherto, such measurements have been possible only in clusters with ages of less than about one billion years, and gyrochronology ages for older stars have been inferred from model predictions. Here we report rotation period measurements for 30 cool stars in the 2.5-billion-year-old cluster NGC 6819. The periods reveal a well-defined relationship between rotation period and stellar mass at the cluster age, suggesting that ages with a precision of order 10 per cent can be derived for large numbers of cool Galactic field stars.

Meibom, Søren; Barnes, Sydney A.; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Latham, David W.; Mathieu, Robert D.

2015-01-01

58

A spin-down clock for cool stars from observations of a 2.5-billion-year-old cluster  

E-print Network

The ages of the most common stars - low-mass (cool) stars like the Sun, and smaller - are difficult to derive because traditional dating methods use stellar properties that either change little as the stars age or are hard to measure. The rotation rates of all cool stars decrease substantially with time as the stars steadily lose their angular momenta. If properly calibrated, rotation therefore can act as a reliable determinant of their ages based on the method of gyrochronology. To calibrate gyrochronology, the relationship between rotation period and age must be determined for cool stars of different masses, which is best accomplished with rotation period measurements for stars in clusters with well-known ages. Hitherto, such measurements have been possible only in clusters with ages of less than about one billion years, and gyrochronology ages for older stars have been inferred from model predictions. Here we report rotation period measurements for 30 cool stars in the 2.5-billion-year-old cluster NGC 6819...

Meibom, Soren; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L; Latham, David W; Mathieu, Robert D

2015-01-01

59

Fourteen Times the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO HARPS Instrument Discovers Smallest Ever Extra-Solar Planet Summary A European team of astronomers [1] has discovered the lightest known planet orbiting a star other than the sun (an "exoplanet"). The new exoplanet orbits the bright star mu Arae located in the southern constellation of the Altar. It is the second planet discovered around this star and completes a full revolution in 9.5 days. With a mass of only 14 times the mass of the Earth, the new planet lies at the threshold of the largest possible rocky planets, making it a possible super Earth-like object. Uranus, the smallest of the giant planets of the Solar System has a similar mass. However Uranus and the new exoplanet differ so much by their distance from the host star that their formation and structure are likely to be very different. This discovery was made possible by the unprecedented accuracy of the HARPS spectrograph on ESO's 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, which allows radial velocities to be measured with a precision better than 1 m/s. It is another clear demonstration of the European leadership in the field of exoplanet research. PR Photo 25a/04: The HARPS Spectrograph and the 3.6m Telescope PR Photo 25b/04: Observed Velocity Variation of mu Arae (3.6m/HARPS, 1.2m Swiss/CORALIE, AAT/UCLES) PR Photo 25c/04: Velocity Variation of mu Arae Observed by HARPS (3.6m/HARPS) PR Photo 25d/04: "Velocity Curve" of mu Arae A unique planet hunting machine ESO PR Photo 25a/04 ESO PR Photo 25a/04 The HARPS Spectrograph and the 3.6m Telescope [Preview - JPEG: 602 x 400 pix - 211k] [Normal - JPEG: 1202 x 800 pix - 645k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 25a/04 represents a montage of the HARPS spectrograph and the 3.6m telescope at La Silla. The upper left shows the dome of the telescope, while the upper right illustrates the telescope itself. The HARPS spectrograph is shown in the lower image during laboratory tests. The vacuum tank is open so that some of the high-precision components inside can be seen. Since the first detection in 1995 of a planet around the star 51 Peg by Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz from the Geneva Observatory (Switzerland), astronomers have learned that our Solar System is not unique, as more than 120 giant planets orbiting other stars were discovered mostly by radial-velocity surveys (cf. ESO PR 13/00, ESO PR 07/01, and ESO PR 03/03). This fundamental observational method is based on the detection of variations in the velocity of the central star, due to the changing direction of the gravitational pull from an (unseen) exoplanet as it orbits the star. The evaluation of the measured velocity variations allows to deduce the planet's orbit, in particular the period and the distance from the star, as well as a minimum mass [2]. The continued quest for exoplanets requires better and better instrumentation. In this context, ESO undoubtedly took the leadership with the new HARPS spectrograph (High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher) of the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (see ESO PR 06/03). Offered in October 2003 to the research community in the ESO member countries, this unique instrument is optimized to detect planets in orbit around other stars ("exoplanets") by means of accurate (radial) velocity measurements with an unequalled precision of 1 metre per second. HARPS was built by a European Consortium [3] in collaboration with ESO. Already from the beginning of its operation, it has demonstrated its very high efficiency. By comparison with CORALIE, another well known planet-hunting optimized spectrograph installed on the Swiss-Euler 1.2-m telescope at La Silla (cf ESO PR 18/98, 12/99, 13/00), the typical observation times have been reduced by a factor one hundred and the accuracy of the measurements has been increased by a factor ten. These improvements have opened new perspectives in the search for extra-solar planets and have set new standards in terms of instrumental precision. The planetary system around mu Arae The star mu Arae is about 50 light years away. This solar-like star is located in the sout

2004-08-01

60

The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China craton: 2.505-billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle.  

PubMed

We report a thick, laterally extensive 2505 +/- 2.2-million-year-old (uranium-lead ratio in zircon) Archean ophiolite complex in the North China craton. Basal harzburgite tectonite is overlain by cumulate ultramafic rocks, a mafic-ultramafic transition zone of interlayered gabbro and ultramafic cumulates, compositionally layered olivine-gabbro and pyroxenite, and isotropic gabbro. A sheeted dike complex is rooted in the gabbro and overlain by a mixed dike-pillow lava section, chert, and banded iron formation. The documentation of a complete Archean ophiolite implies that mechanisms of oceanic crustal accretion similar to those of today were in operation by 2.5 billion years ago at divergent plate margins and that the temperature of the early mantle was not extremely elevated, as compared to the present-day temperature. Plate tectonic processes similar to those of the present must also have emplaced the ophiolite in a convergent margin setting. PMID:11349144

Kusky, T M; Li, J H; Tucker, R D

2001-05-11

61

Tracing the effects of an enormous meteorite impact 3 billion years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most well-known and popularized meteorite impact occurred 65 million years ago and left behind the Chicxulub crater, a feature more than 110 miles in diameter. Dust kicked up by the impact, which lingered in the atmosphere for years, may have helped kill all the nonavian dinosaurs along with three quarters of the world's plant and animal species.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-07-01

62

States' Tax Funds for Colleges Top $28-Billion, Up 16 Pct. in 2 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of an annual national survey of state appropriations for higher education are analyzed and discussed and it is suggested that the 16 percent increase in a two-year period may mark the beginning of a recovery for tax support of higher education. (MSE)

Evangelauf, Jean

1984-01-01

63

Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?  

SciTech Connect

China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

2007-07-01

64

Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11thFive-Year Plan  

SciTech Connect

China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious targetfor energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country sgross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and bindingtarget has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift inChina's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energydevelopment. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates intoan annual reduction of over one billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making theChinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in theworld today. While it is still too early to tell whether China willachieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend inenergy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options towardmeeting the 20 percent target using a detailed endues energymodel.

Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

2007-05-01

65

A constraint on a varying proton--electron mass ratio 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang  

E-print Network

A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10$\\%$ of the age of the universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton--electron mass ratio, $\\mu$. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443$+$2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to $\\mu$, yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of $\\Delta\\mu/\\mu=(-9.5\\pm5.4_{\\textrm{stat}} \\pm 5.3_{\\textrm{sys}})\\times 10^{-6}$.

Bagdonaite, J; Murphy, M T; Whitmore, J B

2015-01-01

66

Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years ago - Evidence at Kolar, south India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Archean Kolar Schist Belt, south India, is a suture zone where two gneiss terranes and at least two amphibolite terranes with distinct histories were accreted. Amphibolites from the eastern and western sides of the schist belt have distinct incompatible element and isotopic characteristics suggesting that their volcanic protoliths were derived from different mantle sources. The amphibolite and gneiss terranes were juxtaposed by horizontal compression and shearing between 2530 and 2420 million years ago (Ma) along a zone marked by the Kolar Schist Belt. This history of accretion of discrete crustal terranes resembles those of Phanerozoic convergent margins and thus suggests that plate tectonics operated on earth by 2500 Ma.

Krogstad, E. J.; Hanson, G. N.; Balakrishnan, S.; Rajamani, V.; Mukhopadhyay, D. K.

1989-01-01

67

HETDEX: Evolution and Drivers of Cosmic Star Formation Over 12 Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in 2012, the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) survey will map 300 square degrees of the sky in blind spectroscopic mode using the VIRUS IFU. Over the last 5 Gyr out to z<0.5, HETDEX will enable us to map the evolution of the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density in different environments, the relation between SFR and stellar mass, and the factors driving star formation, including the contribution of galaxy mergers. Over the 28 square degree area, which will have HETDEX spectra, along with deep optical (DES) and near-infrared (Spitzer) images, at z<0.5 we expect to measure stellar masses down to 109 solar masses, detect over 60,000 [O II] emitters, cross-correlate different tracers of SF, and trace SFR down to 0.5 solar masses per year. This will allow us to overcome numerous limitations of earlier studies, such as small number statistics, the use of SF tracers detected in only the most actively star-forming systems, and the predominant use of photometric redshifts. At higher redshifts 1.9

Jogee, Shardha; Gebhardt, K.; Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C.; Khochfar, S.; Finkelstein, S.; Overzier, R.; Papovich, C.; Weinzirl, T.; Song, M.; Finkelstein, K.; Evans, N.; Drory, N.; Mentuch, E.; HETDEX Team

2012-01-01

68

Global resurfacing of Mercury 4.0-4.1 billion years ago by heavy bombardment and volcanism.  

PubMed

The most heavily cratered terrains on Mercury have been estimated to be about 4 billion years (Gyr) old, but this was based on images of only about 45 per cent of the surface; even older regions could have existed in the unobserved portion. These terrains have a lower density of craters less than 100 km in diameter than does the Moon, an observation attributed to preferential resurfacing on Mercury. Here we report global crater statistics of Mercury's most heavily cratered terrains on the entire surface. Applying a recent model for early lunar crater chronology and an updated dynamical extrapolation to Mercury, we find that the oldest surfaces were emplaced just after the start of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) about 4.0-4.1 Gyr ago. Mercury's global record of large impact basins, which has hitherto not been dated, yields a similar surface age. This agreement implies that resurfacing was global and was due to volcanism, as previously suggested. This activity ended during the tail of the LHB, within about 300-400 million years after the emplacement of the oldest terrains on Mercury. These findings suggest that persistent volcanism could have been aided by the surge of basin-scale impacts during this bombardment. PMID:23823793

Marchi, Simone; Chapman, Clark R; Fassett, Caleb I; Head, James W; Bottke, W F; Strom, Robert G

2013-07-01

69

National expenditure for false-positive mammograms and breast cancer overdiagnoses estimated at $4 billion a year.  

PubMed

Populationwide mammography screening has been associated with a substantial rise in false-positive mammography findings and breast cancer overdiagnosis. However, there is a lack of current data on the associated costs in the United States. We present costs due to false-positive mammograms and breast cancer overdiagnoses among women ages 40-59, based on expenditure data from a major US health care insurance plan for 702,154 women in the years 2011-13. The average expenditures for each false-positive mammogram, invasive breast cancer, and ductal carcinoma in situ in the twelve months following diagnosis were $852, $51,837 and $12,369, respectively. This translates to a national cost of $4 billion each year. The costs associated with false-positive mammograms and breast cancer overdiagnoses appear to be much higher than previously documented. Screening has the potential to save lives. However, the economic impact of false-positive mammography results and breast cancer overdiagnoses must be considered in the debate about the appropriate populations for screening. PMID:25847639

Ong, Mei-Sing; Mandl, Kenneth D

2015-04-01

70

A One Billion Year Martian Climate Model: The Importance of Seasonally Resolved Polar Caps and the Role of Wind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind deflation and deposition are powerful agents of surface change in the present Mars climate regime. Recent studies indicate that, while the distribution of regions of potential deflation (or erosion) and deposition is remarkably insensitive to changes in orbital parameters (obliquity, timing of perihelion passage, etc.), rates of aeolian surface modification may be highly sensitive to these parameters even if the atmospheric mass remains constant. But previous work suggested the atmospheric mass is likely to be sensitive to obliquity, especially if a significant mass of carbon dioxide can be stored in the regolith or deposited in the form of massive polar caps. Deflation and erosion are highly sensitive to surface pressure, so feedback between orbit variations and surface pressure can greatly enhance the sensitivity of aeolian modification rates to orbital parameters. We used statistics derived from a 1 Gyr orbital integration of the spin axis of Mars, coupled with 3D general circulation models (GCMs) at a variety of orbital conditions and pressures, to explore this feedback. We also employed a seasonally resolved 1D energy balance model to illuminate the gross characteristics of the longterm atmospheric evolution, wind erosion and deposition over one billion years. We find that seasonal polar cycles have a critical influence on the ability for the regolith to release CO2 at high obliquities, and find that the atmospheric CO2 actually decreases at high obliquities due to the cooling effect of polar deposits at latitudes where seasonal caps form. At low obliquity, the formation of massive, permanent polar caps depends critically on the values of the frost albedo, A(sub frost), and frost emissivity, E(sub frost). Using our 1D model with values of A(sub frost) = 0.67 and E(sub frost) = 0.55, matched to the NASA Ames GCM results, we find that permanent caps only form at low obliquities (< 10 degrees). Thus, contrary to expectations, the Martian atmospheric pressure is remarkable static over time, and decreases both at high and low obliquity. Also, from our one billion year orbital model, we present new results on the fraction of time Mars is expected to experience periods of high and low obliquity. Finally, using GCM runs at a variety of pressures, we examine the likely role of wind erosion under an early more massive Martian atmosphere.

Armstrong, J. C.; Leovy, C. B.; Quinn, T. R.; Haberle, R. M.; Schaeffer, J.

2003-01-01

71

Fourteen years of plant proteomics reflected in Proteomics: Moving from model species and 2DE-based approaches to orphan species and gel-free platforms.  

PubMed

In this article, the topic of plant proteomics is reviewed based on related papers published in the journal Proteomics since publication of the first issue in 2001. In total, around 300 original papers and 41 reviews published in Proteomics between 2000 and 2014 have been surveyed. Our main objective for this review is to help bridge the gap between plant biologists and proteomics technologists, two often very separate groups. Over the past years a number of reviews on plant proteomics have been published . To avoid repetition we have focused on more recent literature published after 2010, and have chosen to rather make continuous reference to older publications. The use of the latest proteomics techniques and their integration with other approaches in the "systems biology" direction are discussed more in detail. Finally we comment on the recent history, state of the art, and future directions of plant proteomics, using publications in Proteomics to illustrate the progress in the field. The review is organized into two major blocks, the first devoted to provide an overview of experimental systems (plants, plant organs, biological processes) and the second one to the methodology. PMID:25487722

Jorrín-Novo, Jesus V; Pascual, Jesus; Sánchez-Lucas, Rosa; Romero-Rodríguez, M Cristina; Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel J; Lenz, Christof; Valledor, Luis

2015-03-01

72

Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology in Strain Development Every year, we consume about 27 billion barrels of fossil oil.  

E-print Network

billion barrels of fossil oil. This enormous amount of oil is used for fueling our cars and airplanes to synthesize DNA at low costs and to modularize and fine-tune gene structure and expression. Both disciplines

73

Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism  

PubMed Central

The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites contain laminae rich in organic carbon, interpreted as the fossil remains of ancient microbial mats. To better understand the biogeochemistry of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur, including both ?33S and . This approach allows us to tie physiological inference from isotope ratios directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabolism that is complimentary to, and independent from, inorganic proxies (e.g., pyrite). ?33S values of the kerogen reveal mass-anomalous fractionations expected of the Archean sulfur cycle, whereas values show large fractionations at very small spatial scales, including values below -15‰. We interpret these isotopic patterns as recording the process of sulfurization of organic matter by H2S in heterogeneous mat pore-waters influenced by respiratory S metabolism. Positive ?33S anomalies suggest that disproportionation of elemental sulfur would have been a prominent microbial process in these communities. PMID:22949693

Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Sessions, Alex L.; Allwood, Abigail C.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Grotzinger, John P.; Summons, Roger E.; Eiler, John M.

2012-01-01

74

Mobile hydrocarbon microspheres from >2-billion-year-old carbon-bearing seams in the South African deep subsurface.  

PubMed

By ~2.9 Ga, the time of the deposition of the Witwatersrand Supergroup, life is believed to have been well established on Earth. Carbon remnants of the microbial biosphere from this time period are evident in sediments from around the world. In the Witwatersrand Supergroup, the carbonaceous material is often concentrated in seams, closely associated with the gold deposits and may have been a mobile phase 2 billion years ago. Whereas today the carbon in the Witwatersrand Supergroup is presumed to be immobile, hollow hydrocarbon spheres ranging in size from <1 ?m to >50 ?m were discovered emanating from a borehole drilled through the carbon-bearing seams suggesting that a portion of the carbon may still be mobile in the deep subsurface. ToF-SIMS and STXM analyses revealed that these spheres contain a suite of alkane, alkenes, and aromatic compounds consistent with the described organic-rich carbon seams within the Witwatersrand Supergroup's auriferous reef horizons. Analysis by electron microscopy and ToF-SIMS, however, revealed that these spheres, although most likely composed of biogenic carbon and resembling biological organisms, do not retain any true structural, that is, fossil, information and were formed by an abiogenic process. PMID:22901282

Wanger, G; Moser, D; Hay, M; Myneni, S; Onstott, T C; Southam, G

2012-11-01

75

Heavy carbon in two-billion-year-old marbles from Lofoten-Vesteralen, Norway: Implications for the Precambrian carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

High {delta}{sup 13}C values of up to 12{per thousand} (PDB) occur in two-billion-year-old high-grade marbles from Lofoten-Vesteralen, Norway. Correlations of high {delta}{sup 13}C with high {delta}{sup 18}O of up to 25{per thousand} (SMOW) suggest that premetamorphic {delta}{sup 13}C values were above 10{per thousand} (PDB) over a broad area. These marbles are associated with graphite rich schists, often containing in excess of 25 wt% carbon and having {delta}{sup 13}C {approximately} {minus}25{per thousand} (PDB). A compilation of data in the literature suggests that the deposition of limestones with isotopically heavy carbon was common at around 2.0 Ga. The data are consistent with worldwide or localized positive excursions in the {delta}{sup 13}C of marine bicarbonate. Positive excursions in {delta}{sup 13}C of seawater at this time may have coincided with a transition to a more oxidizing atmosphere and ocean.

Baker, A.J. (Grant Institute of Geology, Edinburgh (Scotland) Scottish Universities Reactor Research Centre, Glasgow (Scotland)); Fallick, A.E. (Scottish Universities Reactor Research Centre, Glasgow (Scotland))

1989-05-01

76

Air density 2.7 billion years ago limited to less than twice modern levels by fossil raindrop imprints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, most numerical models have investigated the Archean atmosphere assuming a total atmospheric pressure of ~1 atm. However, there are good reasons why barometric pressure may have been different, owing to the negligible presence of oxygen in the early atmosphere, and the consequent changes in the redox-sensitive cycling of nitrogen. To investigate this issue, we have developed a new method of paleobarometry that uses raindrop imprint dimensions as a proxy for atmospheric density. The size of the raindrop imprints are controlled ultimately by the terminal velocity of the impacting drop, which is dependent on air density. However, the maximum size a raindrop can reach is independent of air density. We experimentally determine the relationship between imprint volume and area as a function of raindrop size in volcanic ash from the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull event (Iceland) and Pahala (Hawaii). These are modern analogs, in terms of grain size and approximate composition, of tuffs that preserve 2.7 billion year old raindrop imprints in the Ventersdorp Supergroup of South Africa. Using the experimental relationship between imprint dimension and raindrop size, and with precise topographical measurements of the Ventersdorp imprints, we can then place an upper bound on the late Archaean atmospheric density by assuming that the largest imprints were formed by the largest possible raindrop size. But in reality this maximum drop size is very rarely attained and using more normal raindrop size distributions appropriate for modern climates analogous to the inferred paleoclimate of the Ventersdorp tuffs allows additional constraints to be made.

Som, S.; Catling, D. C.; Harnmeijer, J.; Polivka, P.; Buick, R.

2012-12-01

77

Deposition of 1.88-billion-year-old iron formations as a consequence of rapid crustal growth.  

PubMed

Iron formations are chemical sedimentary rocks comprising layers of iron-rich and silica-rich minerals whose deposition requires anoxic and iron-rich (ferruginous) sea water. Their demise after the rise in atmospheric oxygen by 2.32?billion years (Gyr) ago has been attributed to the removal of dissolved iron through progressive oxidation or sulphidation of the deep ocean. Therefore, a sudden return of voluminous iron formations nearly 500?million years later poses an apparent conundrum. Most late Palaeoproterozoic iron formations are about 1.88?Gyr old and occur in the Superior region of North America. Major iron formations are also preserved in Australia, but these were apparently deposited after the transition to a sulphidic ocean at 1.84?Gyr ago that should have terminated iron formation deposition, implying that they reflect local marine conditions. Here we date zircons in tuff layers to show that iron formations in the Frere Formation of Western Australia are about 1.88?Gyr old, indicating that the deposition of iron formations from two disparate cratons was coeval and probably reflects global ocean chemistry. The sudden reappearance of major iron formations at 1.88?Gyr ago--contemporaneous with peaks in global mafic-ultramafic magmatism, juvenile continental and oceanic crust formation, mantle depletion and volcanogenic massive sulphide formation--suggests deposition of iron formations as a consequence of major mantle activity and rapid crustal growth. Our findings support the idea that enhanced submarine volcanism and hydrothermal activity linked to a peak in mantle melting released large volumes of ferrous iron and other reductants that overwhelmed the sulphate and oxygen reservoirs of the ocean, decoupling atmospheric and seawater redox states, and causing the return of widespread ferruginous conditions. Iron formations formed on clastic-starved coastal shelves where dissolved iron upwelled and mixed with oxygenated surface water. The disappearance of iron formations after this event may reflect waning mafic-ultramafic magmatism and a diminished flux of hydrothermal iron relative to seawater oxidants. PMID:22538613

Rasmussen, Birger; Fletcher, Ian R; Bekker, Andrey; Muhling, Janet R; Gregory, Courtney J; Thorne, Alan M

2012-04-26

78

Exceptional preservation of aragonite in a circa 3.3 billion year old microbial mat from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exceptional preservation of aragonite in a circa 3.3 billion year old microbial mat from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa Frances Westall, Barbara Cavalazzi, Laurence Lemelle, Yves Marrocchi, Jean-Noël Rouzaud, Alexandre Simionovici, Murielle Salomé, Smail Mostefaoui, Caroline Andreazza, Frédéric Foucher, Jan Toporski, Andrea Jauss, Volker Thiel, Axel Hofmann, Anders Meibom, François Robert Aragonite occurs as a biologically-formed mineral precipitate within modern calcifying microbial mats. It is, however, rarely preserved in the geological record because, as one of the least stable polymorphs of calcium carbonate, it readily converts to calcite in present environmental conditions at the Earth's surface. In an in situ investigation at the micro- to nanometer-scale, we show that 5-10 nm sized nanocrystals of aragonite are preserved within the organic framework of a partially calcified microbial mat from the ~ 3.3 billion year-old Josefsdal Chert in the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa. Transformation of the aragonite to calcite was blocked by a combination of chemical inhibitors within the crystal lattice, organic molecules coating the nanocrystals and, in particular, to the precocious permeation of the mat by hydrothermal silica. Apart from its exceptional preservation for 3.3 billion years, the identification of aragonite in the Josefsdal microbial mat is the earliest evidence for in situ calcification of a microbial mat. Furthermore, the indications of associated sulphur-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity with calcification strongly support a photosynthetic origin for the mat. This is the most direct evidence for photosynthesis in early Archaean rocks.

Westall, Frances; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Lemelle, Laurence; Marrochhi, Yves; Rouzaud, Jean-Noel; Simionovici, Alexandre; Andreazza, Caroline; Foucher, Frédéric; Thiel, Volker; Hofmann, Axel

2010-05-01

79

Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures Recording an Ancient Ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 Billion-Year-Old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) result from the response of microbial mats to physical sediment dynamics. MISS are cosmopolitan and found in many modern environments, including shelves, tidal flats, lagoons, riverine shores, lakes, interdune areas, and sabkhas. The structures record highly diverse communities of microbial mats and have been reported from numerous intervals in the geological record up to 3.2 billion years (Ga) old. This contribution describes a suite of MISS from some of the oldest well-preserved sedimentary rocks in the geological record, the early Archean (ca. 3.48 Ga) Dresser Formation, Western Australia. Outcrop mapping at the meter to millimeter scale defined five sub-environments characteristic of an ancient coastal sabkha. These sub-environments contain associations of distinct macroscopic and microscopic MISS. Macroscopic MISS include polygonal oscillation cracks and gas domes, erosional remnants and pockets, and mat chips. Microscopic MISS comprise tufts, sinoidal structures, and laminae fabrics; the microscopic laminae are composed of primary carbonaceous matter, pyrite, and hematite, plus trapped and bound grains. Identical suites of MISS occur in equivalent environmental settings through the entire subsequent history of Earth including the present time. This work extends the geological record of MISS by almost 300 million years. Complex mat-forming microbial communities likely existed almost 3.5 billion years ago. Key Words: Archean—Biofilms—Microbial mats—Early Earth—Evolution. Astrobiology 13, 1103–1124. PMID:24205812

Christian, Daniel; Wacey, David; Hazen, Robert M.

2013-01-01

80

Microbially induced sedimentary structures recording an ancient ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 billion-year-old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia.  

PubMed

Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) result from the response of microbial mats to physical sediment dynamics. MISS are cosmopolitan and found in many modern environments, including shelves, tidal flats, lagoons, riverine shores, lakes, interdune areas, and sabkhas. The structures record highly diverse communities of microbial mats and have been reported from numerous intervals in the geological record up to 3.2 billion years (Ga) old. This contribution describes a suite of MISS from some of the oldest well-preserved sedimentary rocks in the geological record, the early Archean (ca. 3.48 Ga) Dresser Formation, Western Australia. Outcrop mapping at the meter to millimeter scale defined five sub-environments characteristic of an ancient coastal sabkha. These sub-environments contain associations of distinct macroscopic and microscopic MISS. Macroscopic MISS include polygonal oscillation cracks and gas domes, erosional remnants and pockets, and mat chips. Microscopic MISS comprise tufts, sinoidal structures, and laminae fabrics; the microscopic laminae are composed of primary carbonaceous matter, pyrite, and hematite, plus trapped and bound grains. Identical suites of MISS occur in equivalent environmental settings through the entire subsequent history of Earth including the present time. This work extends the geological record of MISS by almost 300 million years. Complex mat-forming microbial communities likely existed almost 3.5 billion years ago. PMID:24205812

Noffke, Nora; Christian, Daniel; Wacey, David; Hazen, Robert M

2013-12-01

81

State Funds for Higher Education Total $34-Billion; 11-Pct. Biennial Rise Equals Lowest in 29 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tight state budgets and regional economic difficulties have prompted a sharp drop in the rate that state appropriations for higher education have increased over the past two years. New England fares well while farm and oil states suffer. (MLW)

Jaschik, Scott

1987-01-01

82

The Dawn of the Red: Star formation histories of group galaxies over the past 5 billion years  

E-print Network

, Physics Mulchaey, John; Carnegie Observatories Parker, Laura; McMaster University, Physics and Astronomy years Sean L. McGee1 , Michael L. Balogh1 , David J. Wilman2 , Richard G. Bower3 , John S. Mulchaey4 formation density of the universe has de- creased by at least a factor of 10 in the last 8 or 10 Gyrs (Lilly

Balogh, Michael L.

83

HubbleSite NewsCenter 1996-01: Hubble's Deepest View of the Universe Unveils Bewildering Galaxies across Billions of Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hubble Telescope's "deepest-ever view of the universe" is available for viewing. "Several hundred never before seen galaxies are visible in this 'deepest-ever' view of the universe, called the Hubble Deep Field (HDF), made with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Besides the classical spiral and elliptical shaped galaxies, there is a bewildering variety of other galaxy shapes and colors that are important clues to understanding the evolution of the universe. Some of the galaxies may have formed less that one billion years after the Big Bang." Photos are available in low and high resolution, black & white and color, and are accompanied with a detailed explanatory caption, press release, and background information.

1996-01-01

84

Evaluation of fourteen desktop data mining tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen desktop data mining tools (or tool modules) ranging in price from US$75 to $25,000 (median <$1,000) were evaluated by four undergraduates inexperienced at data mining, a relatively experienced graduate student, and a professional data mining consultant. The tools ran under the Microsoft Windows 95, Microsoft Windows NT, or Macintosh System 7.5 operating systems, and employed decision trees, rule induction,

Michel A. King; Brian Gomolka; Eric Schmidt; Marguerite Summers; Kevin Toop

1998-01-01

85

Two-phase increase in the maximum size of life over 3.5 billion years reflects biological innovation and environmental opportunity  

PubMed Central

The maximum size of organisms has increased enormously since the initial appearance of life >3.5 billion years ago (Gya), but the pattern and timing of this size increase is poorly known. Consequently, controls underlying the size spectrum of the global biota have been difficult to evaluate. Our period-level compilation of the largest known fossil organisms demonstrates that maximum size increased by 16 orders of magnitude since life first appeared in the fossil record. The great majority of the increase is accounted for by 2 discrete steps of approximately equal magnitude: the first in the middle of the Paleoproterozoic Era (?1.9 Gya) and the second during the late Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic eras (0.6–0.45 Gya). Each size step required a major innovation in organismal complexity—first the eukaryotic cell and later eukaryotic multicellularity. These size steps coincide with, or slightly postdate, increases in the concentration of atmospheric oxygen, suggesting latent evolutionary potential was realized soon after environmental limitations were removed. PMID:19106296

Payne, Jonathan L.; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Finnegan, Seth; Kowalewski, Micha?; Krause, Richard A.; Lyons, S. Kathleen; McClain, Craig R.; McShea, Daniel W.; Novack-Gottshall, Philip M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stempien, Jennifer A.; Wang, Steve C.

2009-01-01

86

The Next Billion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"In 1999 the world population passed the 6 billion mark. In this lesson, students predict when it will reach 7 billion. Students discuss the reliability of their predictions, compare them to past trends, and discuss social factors that can affect population growth." from NCTM Illuminations.

Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

2009-12-08

87

Redox stratification of the ocean 2.7 billion years ago: Preliminary results from Fe speciation analysis of shallow- and deep-facies black shales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rise of atmospheric oxygen, or as known as GOE (Great Oxidation Event: e.g., Holland, 1994), has been widely believed to have occurred at around 2.4 billion years ago. Contrary, however, some studies have suggested that such oxygenation could have occurred much earlier (e.g., Hoashi et al., 2009). Geochemical behaviors of Fe, a redox-sensitive element, have played crucial roles in constraining past redox environments and the timing of the inferred GOE. In order to examine if there was intra-basinal heterogeneity in the redox conditions before the inferred GOE, we applied Fe speciation analysis to two contrasting sets of pyrite-bearing black shales; WRL1 (deeper facies) and RHDH2A (shallow facies). Both of these semi-contemporaneous black shales, deposited about 2.7 billion years ago and recovered as drillcores in Pilbara, northwestern Australia, have been previously used by Brocks et al. (1999), Yamaguchi et al. (2005), and Eigenbrode and Freeman (2006). Chemical compositions of major and some minor elements were measured by a standard XRF method, S content by elemental analysis, and Fe speciation by the method of Poulton et al. (2005) and Leventhal and Taylor (1990). Contrasting Fe/Al ratios of the examined samples suggest that Fe in WRL1 and RHDH2A is mostly from submarine hydrothermal activity and continental weathering, respectively. Relationships between organic carbon (Corg) and S contents suggest that oxic, normal marine setting is favored for WRL1 and euxinic environment for RHDH2A (S/Corg > 0.37). Oxygen in deep environment (WRL1) must have been supplied by sinking of O2-rich surface water through ocean circulation, because there was no source of oxygen in deep sea. In the 2.7 Ga surface ocean, oxygenic photosynthetic organisms (e.g., cyanobacteria) are considered to have been active. A large amount of organic matter was produced and sank, consuming a large amount of dissolved oxygen for decomposition/respiration. This led to the formation of euxinic environment in the shallow water, such as those seen in the modern ocean. In the euxinic environment, bacterial sulfate reduction became popular and induced pyrite formation. Abundance of reactive Fe and highly reactive Fe and DOP (degree of pyritization) is also contrasting between WRL1 and RHDH2A, i.e., deep and shallow ocean sediments. Contrasting heterogeneities in the above geochemical parameters between shallow and deep Archean ocean suggest that the chemical structure of the 2.7 Ga ocean was not homogeneously anoxic or reducing as have been commonly believed, but possibly more variable, i.e., relatively anoxic in shallow ocean and oxic in deep ocean. References: Brocks et al. (1999) Sciecne 285, 1033-1036; Eigenbrode and Freeman (2006) PNAS 103, 15759-15764; Hoashi et al. (2009) Nature Geoscience 2, 301-306, Holland (1994) In Early Life on Earth, Columbia Univ. Press; Leventhal and Taylor (1990) J. Sed. Petrol. 58, 812-819; Poulton and Canfield (2005) 214, 209- 221; Yamaguchi et al. (2005) Chem. Geol 218, 135-169.

Abe, A.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Haraguchi, S.; Naraoka, H.; Yahagi, T. R.

2012-12-01

88

Psoriasis Costs Americans Up to $135 Billion Annually, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Psoriasis Costs Americans Up to $135 Billion Annually, Study Finds ... 135 billion a year in direct and indirect costs, a new study shows. According to data included ...

89

Composition and syngeneity of molecular fossils from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old Mount Bruce Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shales of very low metamorphic grade from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old (Ga) Mount Bruce Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, were analyzed for solvent extractable hydrocarbons. Samples were collected from ten drill cores and two mines in a sampling area centered in the Hamersley Basin near Wittenoom and ranging 200 km to the southeast, 100 km to the southwest and 70 km to the northwest. Almost all analyzed kerogenous sedimentary rocks yielded solvent extractable organic matter. Concentrations of total saturated hydrocarbons were commonly in the range of 1 to 20 ppm (?g/g rock) but reached maximum values of 1000 ppm. The abundance of aromatic hydrocarbons was ˜1 to 30 ppm. Analysis of the extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-MS metastable reaction monitoring (MRM) revealed the presence of n-alkanes, mid- and end-branched monomethylalkanes, ?-cyclohexylalkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, diamondoids, tri- to pentacyclic terpanes, steranes, aromatic steroids and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Neither plant biomarkers nor hydrocarbon distributions indicative of Phanerozoic contamination were detected. The host kerogens of the hydrocarbons were depleted in 13C by 2 to 21‰ relative to n-alkanes, a pattern typical of, although more extreme than, other Precambrian samples. Acyclic isoprenoids showed carbon isotopic depletion relative to n-alkanes and concentrations of 2?-methylhopanes were relatively high, features rarely observed in the Phanerozoic but characteristic of many other Precambrian bitumens. Molecular parameters, including sterane and hopane ratios at their apparent thermal maxima, condensate-like alkane profiles, high mono- and triaromatic steroid maturity parameters, high methyladamantane and methyldiamantane indices and high methylphenanthrene maturity ratios, indicate thermal maturities in the wet-gas generation zone. Additionally, extracts from shales associated with iron ore deposits at Tom Price and Newman have unusual polyaromatic hydrocarbon patterns indicative of pyrolytic dealkylation. The saturated hydrocarbons and biomarkers in bitumens from the Fortescue and Hamersley Groups are characterized as 'probably syngenetic with their Archean host rock' based on their typical Precambrian molecular and isotopic composition, extreme maturities that appear consistent with the thermal history of the host sediments, the absence of biomarkers diagnostic of Phanerozoic age, the absence of younger petroleum source rocks in the basin and the wide geographic distribution of the samples. Aromatic hydrocarbons detected in shales associated with iron ore deposits at Mt Tom Price and Mt Whaleback are characterized as 'clearly Archean' based on their hypermature composition and covalent bonding to kerogen.

Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Logan, Graham A.; Summons, Roger E.

2003-11-01

90

29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS...conditions which will not interfere with their health and well-being. Pursuant to this...particularly hazardous or detrimental to health or well-being by the...

2010-07-01

91

29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS...conditions which will not interfere with their health and well-being. Pursuant to this...particularly hazardous or detrimental to health or well-being by the...

2011-07-01

92

Fourteen Years of Bt Cotton Advances IPM in Arizona  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) first invaded Arizona in 1926 and has been a key pest of cotton since the early 1960’s. A broad range of tactics have been developed to manage this pest including a variety of cultural methods, mating disruption via pheromones, sterile insect re...

93

29 CFR 570.119 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...other than manufacturing and mining, the Secretary is...Reserved] (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations...convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: ...other than manufacturing and mining and in accordance with the...

2010-07-01

94

Fourteen Years of R/qtl: Just Barely Sustainable  

PubMed Central

R/qtl is an R package for mapping quantitative trait loci (genetic loci that contribute to variation in quantitative traits) in experimental crosses. Its development began in 2000. There have been 38 software releases since 2001. The latest release contains 35k lines of R code and 24k lines of C code, plus 15k lines of code for the documentation. Challenges in the development and maintenance of the software are discussed. A key to the success of R/qtl is that it remains a central tool for the chief developer's own research work, and so its maintenance is of selfish importance. PMID:25364504

Broman, Karl W.

2014-01-01

95

One in a Billion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you get students to understand a number as small as one-billionth? Through a hands-on dilution activity using food coloring, students will learn about parts per billion. A matching card game helps students further understand one-billionth by giving real examples, including nanoscale examples.

Amy R. Taylor

2007-01-01

96

Six Billion and Beyond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the world population reached six billion (see the October 13, 1999 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). PBS offers this site as a companion to their timely airing this month of the documentary "Six Billion and Beyond." The site provides background information on the UN Summits on Population in 1994 and 1999, including interviews with prominent delegates such as Hillary Clinton and Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund. Also featured are sections focusing on population issues in six disparate nations -- the US, Mexico, India, China, Kenya, and Italy -- examining in each country the related topics of the environment, reproductive health, the economy, and women's status. Both the study guide and the library, which provides online resources, are quite useful, making the site substantial enough to serve as the basis, along with an available video of the documentary, for a complete unit on population issues in a high school or college social sciences course.

97

ANALYSIS OF CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE FOR FOURTEEN CITIES USING HAPEM-MS3 (FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes results and findings of applying the Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM) for mobile sources, Version 3. This version is formally known as HAPEM-MS3. The application is to fourteen urban areas for calendar year 1990. The urban areas modeled inclu...

98

6 Billion Human Beings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as an online exhibit at the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, France, this fascinating Website provides a wonderful introduction to human population growth, using interactive (Shockwave) media to engage the viewer in a learning game. Available in English or French, 6 Billion Human Beings leads visitors through interesting facts (daily statistics on fertility rates, death rates, etc.) and uses their interactive answers (e.g., age) to generate statistics on certain population dynamics (e.g., birth rate). Also provided are numerous statistics for different global populations and thought-provoking questions about the future. This is an excellent site and could serve well as a teaching tool for an undergraduate course in population dynamics or introductory statistics.

99

The $200 billion question  

SciTech Connect

The desirability of retail wheeling of electric power is discussed. Perhaps the only fact everyone accepts is that if retail wheeling were implemented immediately without provisions for recovering the enormous costs such a change would create, the financial consequences for the investor-owned electric utility industry could be catastrophic. Aside from issues of fairness and reliability - and those are huge make-or-break issues - estimates of what`s at stake financially range as high as $150 to $200 billion. That makes the US electric utility industry`s potential exposure to stranded assets about 10 times greater than the total transition costs involved in the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry. Given the enormity of this potential, regardless of the desirability or inevitability of retail wheeling, now is the time to develop plans that could deal with transition costs clearly, fairly, equitably, and consistently.

Flaim, T.A.

1994-09-01

100

Where Have All the Billions Gone?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing a basis to help Alaskans determine future spending levels and priorities, this report traces how the state spent more than $26 billion in general funds from fiscal years 1981 through 1986 before oil prices crashed and brought state revenues tumbling down with them. Figures indicate that cumulative general fund expenditures over the…

Leask, Linda; And Others

1987-01-01

101

Analysis of the Basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea Reveals Conservation of the Core Meiotic Expression Program over Half a Billion Years of Evolution  

PubMed Central

Coprinopsis cinerea (also known as Coprinus cinereus) is a multicellular basidiomycete mushroom particularly suited to the study of meiosis due to its synchronous meiotic development and prolonged prophase. We examined the 15-hour meiotic transcriptional program of C. cinerea, encompassing time points prior to haploid nuclear fusion though tetrad formation, using a 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray. As with other organisms, a large proportion (?20%) of genes are differentially regulated during this developmental process, with successive waves of transcription apparent in nine transcriptional clusters, including one enriched for meiotic functions. C. cinerea and the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe diverged ?500–900 million years ago, permitting a comparison of transcriptional programs across a broad evolutionary time scale. Previous studies of S. cerevisiae and S. pombe compared genes that were induced upon entry into meiosis; inclusion of C. cinerea data indicates that meiotic genes are more conserved in their patterns of induction across species than genes not known to be meiotic. In addition, we found that meiotic genes are significantly more conserved in their transcript profiles than genes not known to be meiotic, which indicates a remarkable conservation of the meiotic process across evolutionarily distant organisms. Overall, meiotic function genes are more conserved in both induction and transcript profile than genes not known to be meiotic. However, of 50 meiotic function genes that were co-induced in all three species, 41 transcript profiles were well-correlated in at least two of the three species, but only a single gene (rad50) exhibited coordinated induction and well-correlated transcript profiles in all three species, indicating that co-induction does not necessarily predict correlated expression or vice versa. Differences may reflect differences in meiotic mechanisms or new roles for paralogs. Similarities in induction, transcript profiles, or both, should contribute to gene discovery for orthologs without currently characterized meiotic roles. PMID:20885784

Burns, Claire; Stajich, Jason E.; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Casselton, Lorna; Hanlon, Sean E.; Wilke, Sarah K.; Savytskyy, Oleksandr P.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lilly, Walt W.; Lieb, Jason D.; Zolan, Miriam E.; Pukkila, Patricia J.

2010-01-01

102

Palaeoclimates: the first two billion years  

PubMed Central

Earth's climate during the Archaean remains highly uncertain, as the relevant geologic evidence is sparse and occasionally contradictory. Oxygen isotopes in cherts suggest that between 3.5 and 3.2?Gyr ago (Ga) the Archaean climate was hot (55–85?°C); however, the fact that these cherts have experienced only a modest amount of weathering suggests that the climate was temperate, as today. The presence of diamictites in the Pongola Supergroup and the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa suggests that by 2.9?Ga the climate was glacial. The Late Archaean was relatively warm; then glaciation (possibly of global extent) reappeared in the Early Palaeoproterozoic, around 2.3–2.4?Ga. Fitting these climatic constraints with a model requires high concentrations of atmospheric CO2 or CH4, or both. Solar luminosity was 20–25% lower than today, so elevated greenhouse gas concentrations were needed just to keep the mean surface temperature above freezing. A rise in O2 at approximately 2.4?Ga, and a concomitant decrease in CH4, provides a natural explanation for the Palaeoproterozoic glaciations. The Mid-Archaean glaciations may have been caused by a drawdown in H2 and CH4 caused by the origin of bacterial sulphate reduction. More work is needed to test this latter hypothesis. PMID:16754607

Kasting, James F; Ono, Shuhei

2006-01-01

103

TWO BILLION CARSTWO BILLION CARSDRIVING TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY VOLATILE OIL PRICES.  

E-print Network

rapidly unfolds, will Lake Tahoe's environmentally sensitive communities be ready to drive-author of over 200 technical papers and 12 books, including Two Billion Cars. DR. TOM TURRENTINE Tom Turrentine is the Director of the UC Davis Plug-in Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Research Center. He has studied consumer

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

104

When the universe came into being 13.7 billion years ago, there was initially only radiation.A few hundred million years later, however, the space was filled with galaxies  

E-print Network

hundred million years later, however, the space was filled with galaxies ­ tremendously productive star into the cosmos: This section from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field shows the galaxies at the edge of space and time continue to do so. "The study of galaxies in the early phase of the universe will develop into a main area

105

Metabolic-flux and network analysis in fourteen hemiascomycetous yeasts.  

PubMed

In a quantitative comparative study, we elucidated the glucose metabolism in fourteen hemiascomycetous yeasts from the Genolevures project. The metabolic networks of these different species were first established by (13)C-labeling data and the inventory of the genomes. This information was subsequently used for metabolic-flux ratio analysis to quantify the intracellular carbon flux distributions in these yeast species. Firstly, we found that compartmentation of amino acid biosynthesis in most species was identical to that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Exceptions were the mitochondrial origin of aspartate biosynthesis in Yarrowia lipolytica and the cytosolic origin of alanine biosynthesis in S. kluyveri. Secondly, the control of flux through the TCA cycle was inversely correlated with the ethanol production rate, with S. cerevisiae being the yeast with the highest ethanol production capacity. The classification between respiratory and respiro-fermentative metabolism, however, was not qualitatively exclusive but quantitatively gradual. Thirdly, the flux through the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway was correlated to the yield of biomass, suggesting a balanced production and consumption of NADPH. Generally, this implies the lack of active transhydrogenase-like activities in hemiascomycetous yeasts under the tested growth condition, with Pichia angusta as the sole exception. In the latter case, about 40% of the NADPH was produced in the PP pathway in excess of the requirements for biomass production, which strongly suggests the operation of a yet unidentified mechanism for NADPH reoxidation in this species. In most yeasts, the PP pathway activity appears to be driven exclusively by the demand for NADPH. PMID:15780654

Blank, Lars M; Lehmbeck, Frank; Sauer, Uwe

2005-04-01

106

Congress Gives Colleges a Billion-Dollar Bonanza.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that Congress has earmarked a record amount of money (more than $1 billion) for projects involving specific colleges in the 2000 fiscal year. Notes that such "pork-barrel" spending has tripled since 1996. Charts show trends in earmarks since 1989, year 2000 earmarks by agency, the top 20 recipients of earmarked grants, and ranking of…

Brainard, Jeffrey; Southwick, Ron

2000-01-01

107

Colleges' Billion-Dollar Campaigns Feel the Economy's Sting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economy's collapse has caught up with the billion-dollar campaign. In the past 12 months, the amount of money raised by a dozen of the colleges engaged in higher education's biggest fund-raising campaigns fell 32 percent from the year before. The decline, which started before the worst of the recession, has forced colleges to postpone…

Masterson, Kathryn

2009-01-01

108

BOSTONIA WinterSpring 2014 and perhaps billions  

E-print Network

and on the ambient temperature during its million-year-long birthday. "The Earth is in the habitable zone; itBOSTONIA Winter­Spring 2014 and perhaps billions of habitable planets in our galaxy. Catherine telescopes orbiting Earth and trained on the disks, then feeds the information into computer models

Spence, Harlan Ernest

109

Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini) with description of fourteen new species  

E-print Network

The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: Berosus aragua sp. n., Berosus...

Oliva, Adriana; Short, Andrew E. Z.

2012-07-06

110

Eight billion asteroids in the Oort cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oort cloud is usually thought of as a collection of icy comets inhabiting the outer reaches of the Solar system, but this picture is incomplete. We use simulations of the formation of the Oort cloud to show that ˜4 per cent of the small bodies in the Oort cloud should have formed within 2.5 au of the Sun, and hence be ice-free rock-iron bodies. If we assume that these Oort cloud asteroids have the same size distribution as their cometary counterparts, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should find roughly a dozen Oort cloud asteroids during 10 years of operations. Measurement of the asteroid fraction within the Oort cloud can serve as an excellent test of the Solar system's formation and dynamical history. Oort cloud asteroids could be of particular concern as impact hazards as their high mass density, high impact velocity, and low visibility make them both hard to detect and hard to divert or destroy. However, they should be a rare class of object, and we estimate globally catastrophic collisions should only occur about once per billion years.

Shannon, Andrew; Jackson, Alan P.; Veras, Dimitri; Wyatt, Mark

2015-01-01

111

Our billion-dollar fix Marco Servetto  

E-print Network

@ecs.vuw.ac.nz Alex Potanin Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand alex@ecs.vuw.ac.nz Abstract "The Hoare called the introduction of null references "my billion-dollar mistake", however he recog- nised

Robbiano, Lorenzo

112

Costs of family planning programmes in fourteen developing countries by method of service delivery.  

PubMed

The cost effectiveness of several modes of family planning service delivery based on the cost per couple-year of protection (CYP), including commodity costs, is assessed for 1991-92 using programme and project data from fourteen developing countries (five in Africa, four in Asia, three in Latin America and two in the Middle East). More than 100 million CYP were provided through these family planning services during the 12 months studied. Sterilisation services provided both the highest volume (over 60% of total) and the lowest cost per CYP ($1.85). Social marketing programmes (CSM), delivering almost 9 million CYPs, had the next lowest cost per CYP on average ($2.14). Clinic-based services excluding sterilisation had an average cost of $6.10. The highest costs were for community-based distribution projects (0.7 million CYPs), which averaged $9.93, and clinic-based services with a community-based distribution component (almost 6 million CYPs), at a cost of $14.00 per CYP. Based on a weighted average, costs were lowest in the Middle East ($3.37 per CYP for all modes of delivery combined) and highest in Africa ($11.20). PMID:9881132

Barberis, M; Harvey, P D

1997-04-01

113

Fourteen years of mapped, permanent quadrats in a northern mixed prairie, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This historical dataset consists of 44 permanent 1-m2 quadrats located on northern mixed prairie in eastern Montana, USA. Individual plants in these quadrats were identified and mapped annually from 1932 through 1945. Quadrats were located in six pastures assigned to cattle grazing treatments with l...

114

THE PHYSICALCHEMICAL LIMNOLOGY OF A NEW RESERVOIR (Beaver) AND A FOURTEEN YEAR OLD  

E-print Network

PLEGA.TE Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Fayetteville, Arkansas ABSTRACT This paper compares limnologieal that these proc:esaes can be identified, predicted and subject to control. In the pursuit of this objective population densities, fish behavior, or a combination of thes~ factors. Construction of a aeries

115

Herbicide treatment effects on properties of mountain big sagebrush soils after fourteen years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of sagebrush conversion on the soil properties of a high-elevation portion of the Western Intermountain Sagebrush Steppe (West, 1983) are described. Changes were found in only a few soil chemical properties after conversion to grassland. It was found that surface concentrations of N were lower under grass vegetation than under undisturbed vegetation. Undershrub net N mineralization rates were higher under shrubs in the sagebrush vegetation than under former shrubs in the grass vegetation.

Burke, I. C.; Reiners, W. A.; Sturges, D. L.; Matson, P. A.

1987-01-01

116

The Women's Life-Paths Study: Role-Innovation over Fourteen Years. Symposium Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four symposium papers report the results of a longitudinal study of career development and life changes for a sample of 1,967 female college graduates in the Michigan Student Study who were studied in 1967, 1970 and 1981. The first of the papers, entitled "Where Are They Now? Career Outcomes for the Original Role-Innovators," by Sandra S. Tangri,…

Tangri, Sandra S.; And Others

117

Ubiquitous Supercritical Wing Design Cuts Billions in Fuel Costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Langley Research Center engineer’s work in the 1960s and ’70s to develop a wing with better performance near the speed of sound resulted in a significant increase in subsonic efficiency. The design was shared with industry. Today, Renton, Washington-based Boeing Commercial Airplanes, as well as most other plane manufacturers, apply it to all their aircraft, saving the airline industry billions of dollars in fuel every year.

2015-01-01

118

$2.5 billion new sales $2.5 billion investments  

E-print Network

the employment of lean manufacturing techniques and other productivity improvement tools. MEP's next generation$2.5 billion new sales $2.5 billion investments 61,139 jobs created/retained MEP · MANUFACTURING EXTENSION PARTNERSHIP NationalInstituteofStandardsandTechnology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Making

Perkins, Richard A.

119

Contemporary "Hoisan-wa" Language Maintenance in Northern California: Evidence from Fourteen Frog Story Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores uninvestigated issues in Cantonese and "Hoisan-wa" language maintenance from an ethnic Chinese diaspora point of view. Data come from a larger study looking at Frog Story narratives from 140 Cantonese-English bilingual children in California. Fourteen of these children were found to display uniquely "Hoisan-wa" phonology and…

Leung, Genevieve

2012-01-01

120

Discovering the Meaning of Unity of Purpose: A Case Study of Fourteen Accelerated Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings of a study that examined how teachers restructuring schools came to understand the meaning of the term "unity of purpose." Fourteen Louisiana schools, comprised primarily of high-risk student populations, implemented the accelerated-schools model of restructuring. The accelerated school model is based on three…

Davidson, Betty M.; Dell, Geralyn L.

121

Fourteen Light Tasks for Comparing Analogical and Phrase-based Machine Translation  

E-print Network

scripts. We imple- mented an analogical device and compared its performance to the state-of-the-art phrase. For the sake of reproducibility, we share the datasets used in this study. 1 Introduction A proportional for the translation of fourteen different testbeds. We also improve the state-of-the-art of analogical learning

Langlais, Philippe

122

ABUNDANCES OF THE FOURTEEN RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS, SCANDIUM, AND YTTRIUM IN METEORITIC AND TERRESTRIAL MATTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundances and isotopic ratios were determined for the fourteen rare-; earth elements (REE) (Pm excluded) plus Sc and Y by neutron-activation analysis ; in nineteen meteorites and in three terrestriai specimens. The meteorites ; investigated included eleven chondrites (1 carbonaceous, 2 pigeonitic, 2 ; hypersthenic, 3 bronzitic, and 3 enstatitic), two calcium-rich and three calcium-; poor achondrites, one mesosiderite and

R. A. Schmitt; R. H. Smith; J. E. Lasch; A. W. Mosen; D. A. Olehy; J. Vasilevskis

1963-01-01

123

Winter and Summer PM2.5 Chemical Compositions in Fourteen Chinese Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

PM2.5 in fourteen of China's large cities achieves high concentrations in both winter and summer with averages > 100 ?g m being common occurrences. A grand average of 115 ?g m was found for all cities, with minimum of 27 ?g m measured at Qingdao during summer and a maximum of 356 ?g m at Xi'an during winter. Both primary

Jun-Ji Cao; Zhen-Xing Shen; Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson; Shun-Cheng Lee; Xue-Xi Tie; Kin-Fai Ho; Ge-Hui Wang; Yong-Ming Han

2012-01-01

124

Spherule Beds 3.47-3.24 Billion Years Old in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa: A Record of Large Meteorite Impacts and Their Influence on Early Crustal and Biological Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four layers, S1-S4, containing sand-sized spherical particles formed as a result of large meteorite impacts, occur in 3.47-3.24 Ga rocks of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Ir levels in S3 and S4 locally equal or exceed chondritic values but in other sections are at or only slightly above background. Most spherules are inferred to have formed by condensation of impact-produced rock vapor clouds, although some may represent ballistically ejected liquid droplets. Extreme Ir abundances and heterogeneity may reflect element fractionation during spherule formation, hydraulic fractionation during deposition, and/or diagenetic and metasomatic processes. Deposition of S1, S2, and S3 was widely influenced by waves and/or currents interpreted to represent impact-generated tsunamis, and S1 and S2 show multiple graded layers indicating the passage of two or more wave trains. These tsunamis may have promoted mixing within a globally stratified ocean, enriching surface waters in nutrients for biological communities. S2 and S3 mark the transition from the 300-million-year-long Onverwacht stage of predominantly basaltic and komatiitic volcanism to the late orogenic stage of greenstone belt evolution, suggesting that regional and possibly global tectonic reorganization resulted from these large impacts. These beds provide the oldest known direct record of terrestrial impacts and an opportunity to explore their influence on early life, crust, ocean, and atmosphere. The apparent presence of impact clusters at 3.26-3.24 Ga and approx. 2.65-2.5 Ga suggests either spikes in impact rates during the Archean or that the entire Archean was characterized by terrestrial impact rates above those currently estimated from the lunar cratering record.

Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.; Kyte, Frank T.; Shukolyukov, Alexander; Asaro, Frank; Krull, Alexander

2003-01-01

125

$8.6 billion The U of M creates $8.6 billion in total economic impact annually.  

E-print Network

$8.6 billion The U of M creates $8.6 billion in total economic impact annually. · $4.1 billion for goods and services purchased by the U of M, its employees, students, and visitors · $4.5 billion in spending by the businesses that provide those goods and services $13.20Every dollar invested in the U of M

Minnesota, University of

126

12/13/13 14 Billion years of History  

E-print Network

birth 4) Galaxy maps: the galaxy web 5) Infant galaxies ­ wild 9mes. 6 Evolu9on; Young Galaxies Telescopes are a kind of time-machine. The Hubble Deep Fields #12;12/13/13 5 Deep fields are small 3 5 The HUDF includes galaxies

Whittle, Mark

127

Are the green algae (phylum Viridiplantae) two billion years old?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his book, Life on a young planet, A.H. KNOLL states that the first documented fossils of green algae date back 750 Ma. However, according to B. TEYSSÈDRE's book, La vie invisible, they are much older. Using a method which combines paleontology and molecular phylogeny, this paper is an inquiry into the Precambrian fossils of some \\

Bernard TEYSSÈDRE

2006-01-01

128

The first billion years of a warm dark matter universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of cosmological N-body hydrodynamic chemistry simulations of primordial structure growth and evolution in a scenario with warm dark matter (WDM) having a mass of 3 keV (thermal relic) and compare with a model consisting of standard cold dark matter (CDM). We focus on the high-redshift universe (z > 6), where the structure formation process should better reflect the primordial (linear) differences in terms of matter power spectrum. We find that early epochs can be exceptional probes of the dark matter nature. Non-linear WDM power spectra and mass functions are up to 2 dex lower than in CDM and show spreads of factor of a few persisting in the whole first Gyr. Runaway molecular cooling in WDM haloes results severely inhibited because of the damping of power at large k modes and hence cosmic (Populations III and II-I) star formation rate (SFR) is usually suppressed with respect to CDM predictions. Luminous objects formed in a WDM background are very rare at z > 10, due to the sparser and retarded evolution of early WDM minihaloes during the dark ages and their lack can be fitted with a simple analytical formula depending only on magnitude and redshift. Future high-z observations of faint galaxies have the potential to discriminate between CDM and WDM scenarios by means of cosmic stellar mass density and specific SFR, as well. When compared to the effects of alternative cosmologies (e.g. non-Gaussian or dark energy models) or of high-order corrections at large z (e.g. primordial streaming motions or changes in the pristine initial mass function) the ones caused by WDM are definitely more dramatic.

Maio, Umberto; Viel, Matteo

2015-01-01

129

F-LE In the Billions and Exponential Modeling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The data in the table below was taken from Wikipedia. Year World Population in Billions (Estimate) 1804 1 1927 2 1960 3 1974 4 1987 5 1999 6 2012 7 For...

2012-05-01

130

Beyond Six Billion: Forecasting the World's Population  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of their continuing practice of making recently published titles available in their entirety online, the National Academy Press last month posted Beyond Six Billion: Forecasting the World's Population, written by the National Research Council's Panel on Population Projections. The study examines national and global population projections from such agencies as the United Nations Population Division, the World Bank, and the US Census Bureau. The panel assesses the "assumptions behind the projections of these various agencies, estimates their accuracy and uncertainty, evaluates the implications of current demographic research, and recommends changes in protocol and new research that might improve projections."

131

Mixing Ratios or Parts per Million, Billion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will gain experience with very small amounts, known as mixing ratios, using the technique of serial dilution. Measurements such as parts per million can be expressed in terms of volume or mass. With gases in the atmosphere, we usually think in terms of volume and may express this as parts per million by volume (ppmv). One can also use the units parts per billion by volume (ppbv), and parts per trillion by volume (pptv). Measurements such as ppmv, ppbv, and pptv are called mixing ratios. The student guide has an overall description of the activity, a list of materials, the procedure, and observations and questions. The teacher's guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

132

Simulating Billion-Task Parallel Programs  

SciTech Connect

In simulating large parallel systems, bottom-up approaches exercise detailed hardware models with effects from simplified software models or traces, whereas top-down approaches evaluate the timing and functionality of detailed software models over coarse hardware models. Here, we focus on the top-down approach and significantly advance the scale of the simulated parallel programs. Via the direct execution technique combined with parallel discrete event simulation, we stretch the limits of the top-down approach by simulating message passing interface (MPI) programs with millions of tasks. Using a timing-validated benchmark application, a proof-of-concept scaling level is achieved to over 0.22 billion virtual MPI processes on 216,000 cores of a Cray XT5 supercomputer, representing one of the largest direct execution simulations to date, combined with a multiplexing ratio of 1024 simulated tasks per real task.

Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL] [ORNL; Park, Alfred J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

133

NOAA Budget Increases to $4.1 Billion, But Some Key Items Are Reduced  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bush administration has proposed a US$4.1 billion budget for fiscal year (FY) 2009 for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The proposed budget, which would be the agency's largest ever, is $202.6 million, or 5.2%, above the FY 2008 enacted budget. By topping $4 billion and the amount Congress passed for FY 2008, the budget proposal crosses into ``a new threshold,'' according Navy Vice Admiral Conrad Lautenbacher, undersecretary of commerce for oceans and atmosphere and NOAA administrator.

Showstack, Randy

2008-02-01

134

Universities Report $1.8-Billion in Earnings on Inventions in 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities and their inventors earned more than $1.8-billion from commercializing their academic research in the 2011 fiscal year, collecting royalties from new breeds of wheat, from a new drug for the treatment of HIV, and from longstanding arrangements over enduring products like Gatorade. Northwestern University earned the most of any…

Blumenstyk, Goldie

2012-01-01

135

Cancer costs projected to reach at least $158 billion in 2020;  

Cancer.gov

Based on growth and aging of the U.S. population, medical expenditures for cancer in the year 2020 are projected to reach at least $158 billion (in 2010 dollars) – an increase of 27 percent over 2010, according to a National Institutes of Health analysis.

136

Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the threatened Arnica montana (Asteraceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to investigate population genetic structure in the threatened species Arnica montana. • Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers with di-, tetra-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed for A. montana using 454 pyrosequencing without and with library-enrichment methods, resulting in 56,545 sequence reads and 14,467 sequence reads, respectively. All loci showed a high level of polymorphism, with allele numbers ranging from four to 11 in five individuals from five populations (25 samples) and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.192 to 0.648 across the loci. • Conclusions: This set of microsatellite markers is the first one described for A. montana and will facilitate conservation genetic applications as well as the understanding of phylogeographic patterns in this species. PMID:25606354

Duwe, Virginia K.; Ismail, Sascha A.; Buser, Andres; Sossai, Esther; Borsch, Thomas; Muller, Ludo A. H.

2015-01-01

137

Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini) with description of fourteen new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: Berosus aragua sp. n., Berosus asymmetricus sp. n., Berosus capanaparo sp. n., Berosus castaneus sp. n., Berosus corozo sp. n., Berosus ebeninus sp. n., Berosus garciai sp. n., Berosus humeralis sp. n., Berosus jolyi sp. n., Berosus llanensis sp. n., Berosus megaphallus sp. n., Berosus ornaticollis sp. n., Berosus repertus sp. n., and Berosus tramidrum sp. n. The fifteenth new species, known from a single female, is left undescribed pending the collection of males. Twelve species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Berosus ambogynus Mouchamps, Berosus consobrinus Knisch, Berosus elegans Knisch, Berosus geayi d’Orchymont, Berosus ghanicus d’Orchymont, Berosus guyanensis Queney, Berosus holdhausi Knisch, Berosus marquardti Knisch, Berosus olivae Queney, Berosus reticulatus Knisch, Berosus wintersteineri Knisch, and Berosus zimmermanni Knisch. PMID:22811607

Oliva, Adriana; Short, Andrew E. Z.

2012-01-01

138

Medical Science Fourteen wormian bones in an adult Indian skull – A rare case report  

E-print Network

Multiple wormian bones are the prominent features of various cranial dystosis. The wormian bones are formations associated with insufficient rate of suture closure and regarded as epigenetic and hypostotic traits. It was reported that there exists racial variability among the incidence of these bones. During the routine osteology demonstration classes for medical undergraduate students, a series of Wormian bones in the lambdoid suture was discovered. All together there were fourteen (14) wormian bones. There were six (6) sutural bones on the left half and two (2) sutural bones on the right half of the lambdoid suture. All the sutural bones were irregular in shape. The saggital suture was very wavy. The edges of many wormian bones showed serpiginous appearance while others were plane. There were six (6) interparietal bones. A similar case has not yet been reported in the world literature.

139

Colleges Angle for Billions to Build Obama's Broadband Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the federal government prepares to pour billions of stimulus dollars into increased broadband Internet access, colleges are trying to claim much of the money and shape the emerging national networking policy. Their focus is $4.7-billion that will be doled out under a new grant program administered by a small Commerce Department agency called…

Parry, Marc

2009-01-01

140

The Billion Dollar Eigenvector The mathematics behind Google's  

E-print Network

The Billion Dollar Eigenvector The mathematics behind Google's pagerank algorithm Dan Christensen #12;The Web Google came to prominence, and became a multi-billion dollar corporation, because and Tanya Leise at http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~bryan/google.html Or just put "google eigenvector

Christensen, Dan

141

The Billion Dollar Eigenvector The mathematics behind Google's  

E-print Network

The Billion Dollar Eigenvector The mathematics behind Google's pagerank algorithm Dan Christensen #12;The Web Google came to prominence, and became a multi-billion dollar corporation, because of Middlesex College, or the excellent article by Kurt Bryan and Tanya Leise at http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~bryan/google

Christensen, Dan

142

Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Comprehensive fourteen year report, 1968-1982  

SciTech Connect

A testing procedure is being developed which may reduce the incidence of birth defects. The procedure uses in vitro cultures of whole rat embryos. Early studies on the nutrition of embryos involved attempts to culture whole chick embryos on protein-free chemically defined media. Media containing proteins from whole egg were superior. No single protein would support growth and development, at least two proteins were required. One protein was a transferrin, the second protein could be either ovalbumin or lipovitellin. To determine the path taken by nutrient proteins from medium to embryo, radioactive ovalbumin was prepared. The results showed that intact ovalbumin was taken up by the extra-embryonic yolk-sac and degraded to constituent amino acids within this structure. This observation was difficult to reconcile with the observed responses of the embryo to nutrient proteins. Consideration was given to yolk-sac function. When isolated yolk-sacs were incubated in Ringer's salt solution, they synthesized and secreted a distinct group of proteins. Yolk-sacs cultured on media containing various protein constituents synthesized serum proteins in relative amounts that were distinct for each medium. This suggested that the embryo responses to various culture media were mediated by changes in the relative synthesis of serum proteins. This hypothesis led to two lines of experimentation: what are the mechanisms regulating the relative synthesis of serum proteins by the yolk-sac; and do serum proteins actually provide signals of developmental significance. The first question led to studies with cultures of endodermal cells while the second question led to work on the development of a test for teratological surveillance. (ERB)

Klein, N.W.

1982-07-01

143

Citizenship and Education in Twenty-Eight Countries: Civic Knowledge and Engagement at Age Fourteen. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an Executive Summary for "Citizenship and Education in Twenty-eight Countries: Civic Knowledge and Engagement at Age Fourteen," the first report of the results of the second phase of the Civic Education Study conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). The Executive Summary briefly…

Torney-Purta, Judith; Lehmann, Rainer; Oswald, Hans; Schulz, Wolfram

144

Multi-Billion Shot, High-Fluence Exposure of Cr(4+): YAG Passive Q-Switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is developing the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) employing a diode pumped, Q-Switched, ND:YAG laser operating at 40 Hz repetition rate. To meet the five-year mission lifetime goal, a single transmitter would accumulate over 6.3 billion shots. Cr(4+):YAG is a promising candidate material for passively Q-switching the laser. Historically, the performance of saturable absorbers has degraded over long-duration usage. To measure the multi-billion shot performance of Cr(4+):YAG, a passively Q-switched GLAS-like oscillator was tested at an accelerated repetition rate of 500 Hz. The intracavity fluence was calculated to be approximately 2.5 J/cm(exp 2). The laser was monitored autonomously for 165 days. There was no evidence of change in the material optical properties during the 7.2 billion shot test.. All observed changes in laser operation could be attributed to pump laser diode aging. This is the first demonstration of multi-billion shot exposure testing of Cr(4+):YAG in this pulse energy regime

Stephen, Mark A.; Dallas, Joseph L.; Afzal, Robert S.

1997-01-01

145

Academic Pork Barrel Tops $2-Billion for the First Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how, despite the growing budget deficit, Congress directed a record $2 billion to college projects in 2003, many of them dealing with security and bioterrorism. Includes data tables on the earmarks. (EV)

Brainard, Jeffrey; Borrego, Anne Marie

2003-01-01

146

Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People  

SciTech Connect

Daniel Nocera, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor whose recent research focuses on solar-powered fuels, presents a Brookhaven Science Associates Distinguished Lecture, titled "Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People -- One at a Time."

Daniel Nocera

2011-09-12

147

Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People  

ScienceCinema

Daniel Nocera, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor whose recent research focuses on solar-powered fuels, presents a Brookhaven Science Associates Distinguished Lecture, titled "Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People -- One at a Time."

Daniel Nocera

2013-07-19

148

Eight billion asteroids in the Oort cloud  

E-print Network

comets account for a few per cent of Earth impactors by impact energies, so we expect Oort cloud asteroids to account for ?10?3 of the total impactor population. Tunguska-like impacts, capable of smiting a city, occur every 103 years (Brown et al. 2002... ), and thus we expect Tunguska-sized Oort cloud aster- oid impacts should occur every ?106 years. The inferred upturn in number of impactors between ?250 and ?25 m is consistent with a collisionally evolved population (Dohnanyi 1969; O’Brien & Greenberg 2003...

Shannon, Andrew; Jackson, Alan P.; Veras, Dimitri; Wyatt, Mark

2014-11-25

149

Hydroelectric dams need billions for rehab  

SciTech Connect

Many of the Corps of Engineers older hydroelectric dams will require major rehabilitation over the next ten years. Preventive maintenance, repair work, and major rehabilitation of the Corp's hydro dams in inadequate because the revenue generated by sales of electricity, by law, is returned to the Treasury. Most multimillion dollar rehabilitation projects require specific approval for funding by Congress and securing it is a long and difficult process. It is hoped the funding problem will soon be addressed by the Clinton administration. Already, nearly one-sixth of the 2,154 Mw of hydro is unavailable because with hydro units are either out of service or operating at less than full capacity.

Carr, F.H.; Soast, A.

1993-01-11

150

Phylogeny of fourteen Culex mosquito species, including the Culex pipiens complex, inferred from the internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribosomal DNA sequence divergence in the internal transcribed spacer regions (1TS-1 and 1TS-2) was examined for fourteen species and four subgenera (sixty-two clones) in the mosquito genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae). A neighbout-joining tree pro- duced with Kimura 2-parameter distances showed that each of the four subgenera was monophyletic at confidence probabilities of 70-99%. Culex (Lutzia) formed the sister group of

B. R. Miller; M. B. Crabtree; H. M. Savage

1996-01-01

151

POLLEN GERMINATION, VIABILITY AND TUBE GROWTH IN FOURTEEN CULTIVATED AND WILD SPECIES OF CUCURBIT GROWN IN BANGLADESH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen germination, viability and tube growth in fourteen species of cucurbit were examined. All the male flowers had three anthers each. The highest number of pollen grain (917.00 ? 52.69) per anther was recorded in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch ex Poir.) whereas the lowest (479.00 ? 13.14) per anther was recorded in snake gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina L.). Viable pollen was

M. Rashed Zaman

152

Winglets Save Billions of Dollars in Fuel Costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The upturned ends now featured on many airplane wings are saving airlines billions of dollars in fuel costs. Called winglets, the drag-reducing technology was advanced through the research of Langley Research Center engineer Richard Whitcomb and through flight tests conducted at Dryden Flight Research Center. Seattle-based Aviation Partners Boeing -- a partnership between Aviation Partners Inc., of Seattle, and The Boeing Company, of Chicago -- manufactures Blended Winglets, a unique design featured on Boeing aircraft around the world. These winglets have saved more than 2 billion gallons of jet fuel to date, representing a cost savings of more than $4 billion and a reduction of almost 21.5 million tons in carbon dioxide emissions.

2010-01-01

153

Eight billion asteroids in the Oort cloud  

E-print Network

The Oort cloud is usually thought of as a collection of icy comets inhabiting the outer reaches of the Solar system, but this picture is incomplete. We use simulations of the formation of the Oort cloud to show that ~4% of the small bodies in the Oort cloud should have formed within 2.5 au of the Sun, and hence be ice-free rock-iron bodies. If we assume these Oort cloud asteroids have the same size distribution as their cometary counterparts, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should find roughly a dozen Oort cloud asteroids during ten years of operations. Measurement of the asteroid fraction within the Oort cloud can serve as an excellent test of the Solar system's formation and dynamical history. Oort cloud asteroids could be of particular concern as impact hazards as their high mass density, high impact velocity, and low visibility make them both hard to detect and hard to divert or destroy. However, they should be a rare class of object, and we estimate globally catastrophic collisions should only occur ...

Shannon, Andrew; Veras, Dimitri; Wyatt, Mark

2014-01-01

154

In The News: October 12, 1999: The Day of Six Billion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It took almost all of human history (until 1804) for the Earth's human population to reach one billion. But more recently, during just twelve years, humans increased their numbers by one billion from 1987 to the present. These and other statistics are of supreme interest to scientists and others, as we attempt to predict environmental conditions and biological responses to future population growth. This week, October 12th, 1999 was declared "The Day of Six Billion," based on The United Nations's estimates of human population growth. Although the true expectancy date for the Earth's six billionth human being is (of course) unknown, this symbolic date serves as a focal point for issues associated with the world's human population -- and the environmental impacts. To that end, this week's In The News focuses on human population growth, from the basic to the sophisticated. The ten resources listed above provide background information, summary statistics, future projections, and a plethora of informative resources related to human population growth and the resulting influences on the environment.

Payne, Laura X.

155

Network on a Chip: An architecture for billion transistor era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looking into the future, when the billion transitor ASICs will become reality, this pa- per presents Network on a chip (NOC) concept and its associated methodology as solution to the design productivity problem. NOC is a network of computational, storage and I\\/O resources, interconnected by a network of switches. Resources communcate with each other using ad- dressed data packets routed

Ahmed Hemani; Axel Jantsch; Shashi Kumar; Adam Postula; Johnny Öberg

2000-01-01

156

Supernova \\/ Acceleration Probe: GigaCAM - A Billion Pixel Imager  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key technology in the SNAP instrumentation is a large, one billion pixel camera with excellent sensitivity in the I and Z optical bands to maximize the discovery rate of high redshift supernovae. It is based on LBNL CCD and HgCdTe technologies. The camera is located in the one square degree field of view focal plane of a diffraction limited

C. Bebek; C. Akerlof; G. Aldering; D. Amidei; P. Astier; A. Baden; L. Bergstrom; G. Bernstein; M. Campbell; W. Carithers; E. Commins; D. Curtis; S. Deustua; W. Edwards; R. Ellis; A. Fruchter; B. Frye; J. F. Genat; G. Goldhaber; A. Goobar; J. Goodman; J. Graham; D. Hardin; S. Harris; P. Harvey; H. Heetderks; S. Holland; I. Hook; D. Huterer; D. Kasen; A. Kim; R. Knop; R. Lafever; M. Lampton; M. Levi; D. Levin; J.-M. Levy; C. Lidman; R. Lin; E. Linder; S. Loken; T. McKay; S. McKee; M. Metzger; R. Miquel; A. Mourao; P. Nugent; R. Pain; D. Pankow; C. Pennypacker; S. Perlmutter; A. Refregier; J. Rich; K. Robinson; K. Schahmaneche; M. Schubnell; A. Spadafora; G. Smoot; G. Sullivan; G. Tarle; A. Tomasch

2001-01-01

157

Marine Gastrotricha of the Near East: 1. Fourteen new species of Macrodasyida and a redescription of Dactylopodola agadasys Hochberg, 2003  

PubMed Central

Abstract The near eastern geographical region is almost devoid of reports of macrodasyidan gastrotrichs, the exceptions themselves being part of this study. Here, as Part 1 are described fourteen new Macrodasyida from countries of the Near East (Cyprus, Egypt and Israel, representing both the Mediterranean and the Red Seas), and a redescription of the previously described Dactylopodolidae: Dactylopodola agadasys Hochberg, 2002. The new species are: Cephalodasyidae (2) - Cephalodasys dolichosomus; Cephalodasys saegailus; Dactylopodolidae (1) Dendrodasys rubomarinus; Macrodasyidae (5) - Macrodasys imbricatus; Macrodasys macrurus; Macrodasys nigrocellus; Macrodasys scleracrus; Urodasys toxostylus; Thaumastodermatidae(4) - Tetranchyroderma corallium; Tetranchyroderma rhopalotum; Tetranchyroderma sinaiensis; Tetranchyroderma xenodactylum; Turbanellidae(2) - Paraturbanella levantia; Turbanella erythrothalassia - spp. n. PMID:21594074

Hummon, William D.

2011-01-01

158

In an announcement this week, the Indian Prime Minister pledges $5 billion in support to Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

India prime minister pledges billions to Africahttp://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-13515993Africa Can End Povertyhttp://blogs.worldbank.org/africacan/United States African Development Foundationhttp://www.adf.gov/Africa Region: Working Paper Serieshttp://www.worldbank.org/afr/wps/In recent years, China has increased its investment in Africa by billions of dollars as they work with governments there to build new power plants, factories, and other pieces of key infrastructure. This week, another world power announced that they would be entering this competitive market. On Tuesday, Indian Prime Minster Manmohan Singh pledged $5 billion towards new projects in Africa, including tele-medicine for a virtual university and information technology investments. The announcement was made at the Africa-India Forum Summit in Addis Ababa, where Singh remarked, "The India-Africa partnership is unique and owes its origins to history and our common struggle against colonialism, apartheid, poverty, disease, illiteracy and hunger." India is hoping to catch up with China's tremendous economic relationship with Africa, which totaled approximately $126.9 billion in 2010. Along with this announcement, Prime Minister Singh also remarked that India would sponsor five new institutes in Africa and invite all African airlines to fly to several different Indian cities over the next couple of years.The first link leads to helpful article about the specifics of this development, courtesy of the Times of India. The second link whisks users away to a news update from the BBC website about this pledge of $5 billion. The third link leads to a blog from Shanta Devarajan, the World Bank Chief Economist for Africa, about the challenges (and successes) of ending poverty in Africa. The fourth link takes users to the homepage of the US African Development Foundation, which works on a range of important projects on the African continent. Finally, the last link leads to the World Bank's Africa Region Working Paper Series, which covers applied research and policy studies on cotton production, technological innovation, and other important developments.

Grinnell, Max

2011-05-27

159

Genetic Change and Continuity from Fourteen to Twenty Months: The MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated genetic change and continuity within the domains of temperament, emotion, and cognition and language for 200 pairs of twins assessed at 14 and 20 months of age. Correlations of measures at the two ages indicated that individual differences in the second year of life showed greater change than continuity on most measures. (MDM)

Plomin, Robert; And Others

1993-01-01

160

Identification of a Testis-Enriched Heat Shock Protein and Fourteen Members of Hsp70 Family in the Swamp Eel  

PubMed Central

Background Gonad differentiation is one of the most important developmental events in vertebrates. Some heat shock proteins are associated with gonad development. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the teleost fish and its roles in sex differentiation are poorly understood. Methods and Findings We have identified a testis-enriched heat shock protein Hspa8b2 in the swamp eel using Western blot analysis and Mass Spectrometry (MS). Fourteen Hsp70 family genes were further identified in this species based on transcriptome information. The phylogenetic tree of Hsp70 family was constructed using the Maximum Likelihood method and their expression patterns in the swamp eel gonads were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conclusion There are fourteen gene members in the Hsp70 family in the swamp eel genome. Hsp70 family, particularly Hspa8, has expanded in the species. One of the family members Hspa8b2 is predominantly expressed in testis of the swamp eel. PMID:23750249

He, Yan; Luo, Majing; Yi, Minhan; Sheng, Yue; Cheng, Yibin; Zhou, Rongjia; Cheng, Hanhua

2013-01-01

161

Clinical care and evolution of paraplegic monkeys ( Macaca mulatta) over fourteen months post-lesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have generated a non-human primate model of complete spinal cord injury (SCI) with a protracted survival time. Two adult Macaca mulatta underwent complete spinal cord transection at T8-T9. We report the effective daily care protocol for over one year survival, the health problems we encountered and the treatments applied. The animals’ cages were customized to maintain them in the

María José G. M. Piedras; Aurelio Hernández-Laín; Carmen Cavada

2011-01-01

162

President Carter signs $227 billion excise tax measure  

SciTech Connect

According to President J. Carter, who signed into law a $227 billion excise tax (windfall profits tax) on revenue from decontrolled U.S. crude oil production, the new tax program will provide the U.S. with the incentive and the means to produce and conserve domestic oil and replace more oil with alternative sources of energy. According to C. DiBona (API), the new tax will discourage the increased amount of domestic production required to compensate, by the mid-to-late 1980's, for a 1.7 million bbl/day shortfall, which will have to be made up with imports from foreign producers. According to J. McAfee of Gulf Oil Corp., only a token amount, about $34 billion of the $227 billion which will be raised by the new tax over the next decade, will be devoted to energy development and mass transit. According to C. J. Miller of the Independent Petroleum Association of America, the tax's complex and sometimes conflicting regulations will pose harsh problems for smaller producers.

Miller, C.J. (API); McAfee, J.; Dibona, C.J.; Carter, J.

1980-04-07

163

CDC Study Finds Annual Cost of Motor Vehicle Crashes Exceeds $99 Billion  

MedlinePLUS

... 3286 CDC Study Finds Annual Cost of Motor Vehicle Crashes Exceeds $99 Billion Cost amounts to nearly $ ... and productivity losses associated with injuries from motor vehicle crashes exceeded $99 billion – with the cost of ...

164

Scalable in-memory RDFS closure on billions of triples.  

SciTech Connect

We present an RDFS closure algorithm, specifically designed and implemented on the Cray XMT supercomputer, that obtains inference rates of 13 million inferences per second on the largest system configuration we used. The Cray XMT, with its large global memory (4TB for our experiments), permits the construction of a conceptually straightforward algorithm, fundamentally a series of operations on a shared hash table. Each thread is given a partition of triple data to process, a dedicated copy of the ontology to apply to the data, and a reference to the hash table into which it inserts inferred triples. The global nature of the hash table allows the algorithm to avoid a common obstacle for distributed memory machines: the creation of duplicate triples. On LUBM data sets ranging between 1.3 billion and 5.3 billion triples, we obtain nearly linear speedup except for two portions: file I/O, which can be ameliorated with the additional service nodes, and data structure initialization, which requires nearly constant time for runs involving 32 processors or more.

Goodman, Eric L.; Mizell, David (Cray, Inc, Seattle, WA)

2010-06-01

165

Fourteen Writing Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any science teacher who wants his or her students to be engaged in real science is going to engage them in real science writing. Writing in science should begin with clear, imaginative writing purposes and stimuli that are then scaffolded in such a way that students are able to find an organizational structure for their writing. Writing fluency is…

Turner, Thomas; Broemmel, Amy

2006-01-01

166

Parametrization and Classification of 20 Billion LSST Objects: Lessons from SDSS  

E-print Network

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain, starting in 2015, multiple images of the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg$^2$ region about 1000 times during the anticipated 10 years of operations (distributed over six bands, $ugrizy$). Each 30-second long visit will deliver 5$\\sigma$ depth for point sources of $r\\sim24.5$ on average. The co-added map will be about 3 magnitudes deeper, and will include 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. We discuss various measurements that will be automatically performed for these 20 billion sources, and how they can be used for classification and determination of source physical and other properties. We provide a few classification examples based on SDSS data, such as color classification of stars, color-spatial proximity search for wide-angle binary stars, orbital-color classification of asteroid families, and the recognition of main Galaxy components based on the distribution of stars in the position-metallicity-kinematics space. Guided by these examples, we anticipate that two grand classification challenges for LSST will be 1) rapid and robust classification of sources detected in difference images, and 2) {\\it simultaneous} treatment of diverse astrometric and photometric time series measurements for an unprecedentedly large number of objects.

Z. Ivezic; T. Axelrod; A. C. Becker

2008-10-28

167

Parametrization and Classification of 20 Billion LSST Objects: Lessons from SDSS  

SciTech Connect

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain, starting in 2015, multiple images of the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times during the anticipated 10 years of operations (distributed over six bands, ugrizy). Each 30-second long visit will deliver 5{sigma} depth for point sources of r {approx} 24.5 on average. The co-added map will be about 3 magnitudes deeper, and will include 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. We discuss various measurements that will be automatically performed for these 20 billion sources, and how they can be used for classification and determination of source physical and other properties. We provide a few classification examples based on SDSS data, such as color classification of stars, color-spatial proximity search for wide-angle binary stars, orbital-color classification of asteroid families, and the recognition of main Galaxy components based on the distribution of stars in the position-metallicity-kinematics space. Guided by these examples, we anticipate that two grand classification challenges for LSST will be (1) rapid and robust classification of sources detected in difference images, and (2) simultaneous treatment of diverse astrometric and photometric time series measurements for an unprecedentedly large number of objects.

Ivezic, Z.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Axelrod, T.; /Large Binocular Telescope, Tucson; Becker, A.C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Becla, J.; /SLAC; Borne, K.; /George Mason U.; Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Claver, C.F.; /NOAO, Tucson; Cook, K.H.; /LLNL, Livermore; Connolly, A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Gilmore, D.K.; /SLAC; Jones, R.L.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Juric, M.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study; Kahn, Steven M.; /SLAC; Lim, K-T.; /SLAC; Lupton, R.H.; /Princeton U.; Monet, D.G.; /Naval Observ., Flagstaff; Pinto, P.A.; /Arizona U.; Sesar, B.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard U.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis

2011-11-10

168

Polymorphisms in epigenetic and meat quality related genes in fourteen cattle breeds and association with beef quality and carcass traits.  

PubMed

Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be used as a powerful genetic marker in selection programs for beef quality improvement in the Snow Dragon Beef population. PMID:25656186

Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

2015-04-01

169

Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits  

PubMed Central

Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be used as a powerful genetic marker in selection programs for beef quality improvement in the Snow Dragon Beef population. PMID:25656186

Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

2015-01-01

170

Fabry disease: fourteen alpha-galactosidase A mutations in unrelated families from the United Kingdom and other European countries.  

PubMed

The nature of the molecular lesions in the alpha-galactosidase A gene causing Fabry disease in 12 unrelated families from the United Kingdom and 4 from other European countries was determined in order to provide precise heterozygote detection and prenatal diagnosis for these families. The entire alpha-galactosidase A coding region and flanking intronic sequences were analyzed by amplification of genomic DNA and solid-phase direct sequencing or by SSCP analysis followed by solid-phase direct sequencing. Fourteen new mutations were identified including 10 missense mutations (M42V, R49S, C56Y, D92H, D93G, P205T, W236C, W287G, N298H, and W340R), 2 nonsense mutations (Q107X and Q119X) and 2 small deletions (257del18 and 1087del1). Together with the previously reported mutations, a total of 33 lesions in the alpha-galactosidase A gene have been identified in unrelated British families, further documenting the molecular genetic heterogeneity of this disease. PMID:8875188

Davies, J P; Eng, C M; Hill, J A; Malcolm, S; MacDermot, K; Winchester, B; Desnick, R J

1996-01-01

171

Anti-bacterial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of methanolic extracts of fourteen different edible vegetables from Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of fourteen different edible vegetables methanolic extract from Bangladesh. Methods The antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assay method against 12 bacteria (both gram positive and gram negative). The plant extracts were also screened for cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay method and the lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined at 95% confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with “Finney Programme”. Results All the vegetable extracts showed low to elevated levels of antibacterial activity against most of the tested strains (zone of inhibition=5-28 mm). The most active extract against all bacterial strains was from Xanthium indicum which showed remarkable antibacterial activity having the diameter of growth inhibition zone ranging from 12 to 28 mm followed by Alternanthera sessilis (zone of inhibition=6-21 mm). All extracts exhibited considerable general toxicity towards brine shrimps. The LC50 value of the tested extracts was within the range of 8.447 to 60.323 µg/mL with respect to the positive control (vincristine sulphate) which was 0.91 µg/mL. Among all studied extracts, Xanthium indicum displayed the highest cytotoxic effect with LC50 value of 8.447 µg/mL. Conclusions The results of the present investigation suggest that most of the studied plants are potentially good source of antibacterial and anticancer agents. PMID:23570009

Ullah, M. Obayed; Haque, Mahmuda; Urmi, Kaniz Fatima; Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md.; Anita, Elichea Synthi; Begum, Momtaj; Hamid, Kaiser

2013-01-01

172

United Nations Environment Programme: The Billion Tree Campaign  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Painters and poets throughout the millennia have explored the aesthetic beauty of trees in great detail, and in the past few centuries, humans have become intimately aware of how trees form the foundation of many natural systems. Recently, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) launched their major worldwide tree planting campaign, "Plant for the Planet: Billion Tree Campaign". One major component of their outreach efforts is this very fine website, which includes sections such as "Facts and Figures", "Trees and Humanity", and of course, "How to Plant a Tree". On the site, visitors also have the option to pledge their support for the project in a variety of ways. The "Facts and Figures" section is also helpful, as it contains answers to a number of basic questions such as "Where are forests found?" and some more specific information on the importance of this project.

173

What can 1 billion trials tell us about visual search?  

PubMed

Mobile technology (e.g., smartphones and tablets) has provided psychologists with a wonderful opportunity: through careful design and implementation, mobile applications can be used to crowd source data collection. By garnering massive amounts of data from a wide variety of individuals, it is possible to explore psychological questions that have, to date, been out of reach. Here we discuss 2 examples of how data from the mobile game Airport Scanner (Kedlin Co., http://www.airportscannergame.com) can be used to address questions about the nature of visual search that pose intractable problems for laboratory-based research. Airport Scanner is a successful mobile game with millions of unique users and billions of individual trials, which allows for examining nuanced visual search questions. The goals of the current Observation Report were to highlight the growing opportunity that mobile technology affords psychological research and to provide an example roadmap of how to successfully collect usable data. PMID:25485661

Mitroff, Stephen R; Biggs, Adam T; Adamo, Stephen H; Dowd, Emma Wu; Winkle, Jonathan; Clark, Kait

2015-02-01

174

Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a large, complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion  

E-print Network

Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a large, complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion passengers each year. Air traffic delays have become a huge, implementation, and evaluation of practical algorithms for air transportation systems that will help air traffic

175

Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion  

E-print Network

Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion passengers each year. Air traffic delays have become a huge problem, implementation, and evaluation of practical algorithms for air transportation systems to help air traffic

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

176

21Dawn Spacecraft sees Asteroid Vesta Up Close! On July 15, 2011 the NASA spacecraft Dawn completed a 2.8 billion  

E-print Network

21Dawn Spacecraft sees Asteroid Vesta Up Close! On July 15, 2011 the NASA spacecraft Dawn completed a 2.8 billion kilometer journey taking four years, and went into orbit around the asteroid Vesta. Vesta is the second largest asteroid in the Asteroid Belt. Its diameter is 530 kilometers. After one

177

A Powerful Toolkit for Synthetic Biology: Over 3.8 Billion Years of Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combination of evolutionary with engineering principles will enhance synthetic biology. Conversely, synthetic biology has the potential to enrich evolutionary biology by explaining why some adaptive space is empty, on Earth or elsewhere. Synthetic biology, the design and construction of artificial biological systems, substitutes bio-engineering for evolution, which is seen as an obstacle. But because evolution has produced the complexity and diversity of life, it provides a proven toolkit of genetic materials and principles available to synthetic biology. Evolution operates on the population level, with the populations composed of unique individuals that are historical entities. The source of genetic novelty includes mutation, gene regulation, sex, symbiosis, and interspecies gene transfer. At a phenotypic level, variation derives from regulatory control, replication and diversification of components, compartmentalization, sexual selection and speciation, among others. Variation is limited by physical constraints such as diffusion, and chemical constraints such as reaction rates and membrane fluidity. While some of these tools of evolution are currently in use in synthetic biology, all ought to be examined for utility. A hybrid approach of synthetic biology coupled with fine-tuning through evolution is suggested

Rothschild, Lynn J.

2010-01-01

178

The Role of Bars in AGN Fueling in Disk Galaxies Over the Last Seven Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present empirical constraints on the influence of stellar bars on the fueling of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) out to z = 0.84 using a sample of X-ray-selected AGNs hosted in luminous non-interacting face-on and moderately inclined disk galaxies from the Chandra COSMOS survey. Using high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging to identify bars, we find that the fraction of barred active galaxies displays a similar behavior as that of inactive spirals, declining with redshift from 71% at z? 0.3, to 35% at z? 0.8. With active galaxies being typically massive, we compare them against a mass-matched sample of inactive spirals and show that, while at face value the AGN bar fraction is slightly higher at all redshifts, we cannot rule out that the bar fractions of active and inactive galaxies are the same. The presence of a bar has no influence on the AGN strength, with barred and unbarred active galaxies showing equivalent X-ray luminosity distributions. From our results, we conclude that the occurrence and the efficiency of the fueling process is independent of the large scale structure of a galaxy. The role of bars, if any, may be restricted to providing the suitable conditions for black hole fueling to occur, i.e., bring a fresh supply of gas to the central 100 pc. At the high-redshift end, we find that roughly 60% of active disk galaxies are unbarred. We speculate this to be related with the known dynamical state of disks at higher redshifts—more gas-rich and prone to instabilities than local spirals—which could also lead to gas inflows without the need of bars.

Cisternas, Mauricio; Sheth, Kartik; Salvato, Mara; Knapen, Johan H.; Civano, Francesca; Santini, Paola

2015-04-01

179

Networks of bZIP Protein-Protein Interactions Diversified Over a Billion Years of Evolution  

E-print Network

Differences in biomolecular sequence and function underlie dramatic ranges of appearance and behavior among species. We studied the basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors and quantified bZIP dimerization ...

Reinke, Aaron W.

180

The intergalactic medium over the last 10 billion years - I. Ly? absorption and physical conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intergalactic medium (IGM) is the dominant reservoir of baryons at all cosmic epochs. In this paper, we investigate the evolution of the IGM from z = 2 -> 0 in (48h-1Mpc)3, 110-million particle cosmological hydrodynamic simulations using three prescriptions for galactic outflows. We focus on the evolution of IGM physical properties, and how such properties are traced by Ly? absorption as detectable using Hubble's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). Our results broadly confirm the canonical picture that most Ly? absorbers arise from highly ionized gas tracing filamentary large-scale structure. Growth of structure causes gas to move from the diffuse photoionized IGM into other cosmic phases, namely stars, cold and hot gas within galaxy haloes, and the unbound and shock-heated warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). By today, baryons are comparably divided between bound phases (35 per cent in our favoured outflow model), the diffuse IGM (41 per cent) and the WHIM (24 per cent). Here we (re)define the WHIM as gas with overdensities lower than that in haloes ( today) and temperatures T > 105 K, to more closely align it with the `missing baryons' that are not easily detectable in emission or Ly? absorption. Strong galactic outflows can have a noticeable impact on the temperature of the IGM, though with our favoured momentum-driven wind scalings they do not. When we (mildly) tune our assumed photoionizing background to match the observed evolution of the Ly? mean flux decrement, we obtain line count evolution statistics that broadly agree with available (pre-COS) observations. We predict a column density distribution slope of for our favoured wind model, in agreement with recent observational estimates, and it becomes shallower with redshift. Winds have a mostly minimal impact, but they do result in a shallower column density slope and more strong lines. With improved statistics, the frequency of strong lines can be a valuable diagnostic of outflows, and the momentum-driven wind model matches existing data significantly better than the two alternatives we consider. The relationship between column density and physical density broadens mildly from z = 2 -> 0, and evolves as for diffuse absorbers, consistent with previous studies. Linewidth distributions are quite sensitive to spectral resolution; COS should yield significantly broader lines than higher resolution data. Thermal contributions to linewidths are typically subdominant, so linewidths only loosely reflect the temperature of the absorbing gas. This will hamper attempts to quantify the WHIM using broad Ly? absorbers, though it may still be possible to do so statistically. Together, COS data and simulations such as these will provide key insights into the physical conditions of the dominant reservoir of baryons over the majority of cosmic time.

Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Katz, Neal; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Weinberg, David H.

2010-11-01

181

The First Billion Years Project: The escape fraction of ionising photons in the epoch of reionisation  

E-print Network

Proto-galaxies forming in low-mass dark matter haloes are thought to provide the majority of ionising photons needed to reionise the Universe, due to their high escape fractions of ionising photons. We study how the escape fraction in high-redshift galaxies relates to the physical properties of the halo in which the galaxies form by computing escape fractions for 75801 haloes between redshifts 27 and 6 that were extracted from the FiBY project, high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations of galaxy formation. We find that the main constraint on the escape fraction is the presence of dense gas within 10 pc of the young sources that emit the majority of the ionising photons produced over the lifetime of the stellar population. This results in a strong mass dependence of the escape fraction. The lower potential well in haloes with virial mass below 10^8 solar mass results in lower column densities close to the sources that can be penetrated by the radiation from young, massive stars. In general only a ...

Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla

2015-01-01

182

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations before 2.2 billion years ago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The composition of the Earth's early atmosphere is a subject of continuing debate. In particular, it has been suggested that elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide would have been necessary to maintain normal surface temperatures in the face of lower solar luminosity in early Earth history. Fossil weathering profiles, known as palaeosols, have provided semi-quantitative constraints on atmospheric oxygen partial pressure (pO2) before 2.2 Gyr ago. Here we use the same well studied palaeosols to constrain atmospheric pCO2 between 2.75 and 2.2 Gyr ago. The observation that iron lost from the tops of these profiles was reprecipitated lower down as iron silicate minerals, rather than as iron carbonate, indicates that atmospheric pCO2 must have been less than 10(-1.4) atm--about 100 times today's level of 360 p.p.m., and at least five times lower than that required in one-dimensional climate models to compensate for lower solar luminosity at 2.75 Gyr. Our results suggest that either the Earth's early climate was much more sensitive to increases in pCO2 than has been thought, or that one or more greenhouse gases other than CO2 contributed significantly to the atmosphere's radiative balance during the late Archaean and early Proterozoic eons.

Rye, R.; Kuo, P. H.; Holland, H. D.

1995-01-01

183

ON THE LAST 10 BILLION YEARS OF STELLAR MASS GROWTH IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

The star formation rate-stellar mass relation (SFR-M{sub *}) and its evolution (i.e., the SFR main sequence) describe the growth rate of galaxies of a given stellar mass and at a given redshift. Assuming that present-day star-forming galaxies (SFGs) were always star forming in the past, these growth rate observations can be integrated to calculate average star formation histories (SFHs). Using this Main Sequence Integration (MSI) approach, we trace present-day massive SFGs back to when they were 10%-20% of their current stellar mass. The integration is robust throughout those epochs: the SFR data underpinning our calculations are consistent with the evolution of stellar mass density in this regime. Analytic approximations to these SFHs are provided. Integration-based results reaffirm previous suggestions that current SFGs formed virtually all of their stellar mass at z < 2. It follows that massive galaxies observed at z > 2 are not the typical progenitors of SFGs today. We also check MSI-based SFHs against those inferred from analysis of the fossil record-from spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of SFGs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of resolved stars in dwarf irregular galaxies. Once stellar population age uncertainties are accounted for, the main sequence is in excellent agreement with SED-based SFHs (from VESPA). Extrapolating SFR main sequence observations to dwarf galaxies, we find differences between MSI results and SFHs from CMD analysis of Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury and Local Group galaxies. Resolved dwarfs appear to grow much slower than main sequence trends imply, and also slower than slightly higher mass SED-analyzed galaxies. This difference may signal problems with SFH determinations, but it may also signal a shift in star formation trends at the lowest stellar masses.

Leitner, Samuel N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2012-02-01

184

A high abundance of massive galaxies 3-6 billion years after the Big Bang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchical galaxy formation is the model whereby massive galaxies form from an assembly of smaller units. The most massive objects therefore form last. The model succeeds in describing the clustering of galaxies, but the evolutionary history of massive galaxies, as revealed by their visible stars and gas, is not accurately predicted. Near-infrared observations (which allow us to measure the stellar

Karl Glazebrook; Roberto G. Abraham; Patrick J. McCarthy; Sandra Savaglio; Hsiao-Wen Chen; David Crampton; Rick Murowinski; Inger Jørgensen; Kathy Roth; Isobel Hook; Ronald O. Marzke; R. G. Carlberg

2004-01-01

185

Evolution of Brightest Cluster Galaxies over the past 7 Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the formation and evolution mechanisms of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) over cosmic time. By comparing high-z (z˜0.9) massive galaxies in clusters and groups of the Cl1604 supercluster with those in local clusters (z˜0), we noticed striking differences in the morphologies and structural parameters of these galaxies. This sample, coupled with the results of numerical simulations and semi-analytic models, allows us to directly infer the mechanisms that shape and evolve BCGs over the past ˜7 Gyrs.

Ascaso, B.; Lemaux, B.

2013-05-01

186

The violent youth of bright and massive cluster galaxies and their maturation over 7 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate the formation and evolution mechanisms of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) over cosmic time. At high redshift (z ˜ 0.9), we selected BCGs and most massive cluster galaxies (MMCGs) from the Cl1604 supercluster and compared them to low-redshift (z ˜ 0.1) counterparts drawn from the MCXC meta-catalogue, supplemented by Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging and spectroscopy. We observed striking differences in the morphological, colour, spectral, and stellar mass properties of the BCGs/MMCGs in the two samples. High-redshift BCGs/MMCGs were, in many cases, star-forming, late-type galaxies, with blue broad-band colours, properties largely absent amongst the low-redshift BCGs/MMCGs. The stellar mass of BCGs was found to increase by an average factor of 2.51 ± 0.71 from z ˜ 0.9 to z ˜ 0.1. Through this and other comparisons, we conclude that a combination of major merging (mainly wet or mixed) and in situ star formation are the main mechanisms which build stellar mass in BCGs/MMCGs. The stellar mass growth of the BCGs/MMCGs also appears to grow in lockstep with both the stellar baryonic and total mass of the cluster. Additionally, BCGs/MMCGs were found to grow in size, on average, a factor of ˜3, while their average Sérsic index increased by ˜0.45 from z ˜ 0.9 to z ˜ 0.1, also supporting a scenario involving major merging, though some adiabatic expansion is required. These observational results are compared to both models and simulations to further explore the implications on processes which shape and evolve BCGs/MMCGs over the past ˜7 Gyr.

Ascaso, B.; Lemaux, B. C.; Lubin, L. M.; Gal, R. R.; Kocevski, D. D.; Rumbaugh, N.; Squires, G.

2014-07-01

187

Primary haematite formation in an oxygenated sea 3.46billion years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing of the origin of photosynthesis on the early Earth is greatly debated. It is generally agreed, on the basis of the presence of biological molecules found in shales from the Hamersley Basin, Australia, that oxygenic photosynthesis had evolved 2.7billionyears (Gyr) ago. However, whether photosynthesis occurred before this time remains controversial. Here we report primary haematite crystals and associated minerals within the marine sedimentary rocks preserved in a jasper formation of the Pilbara Craton, Australia, which we interpret as evidence for the formation of these rocks in an oxygenated water body 3.46Gyr ago. We suggest that these haematite crystals formed at temperatures greater than 60?C from locally discharged hydrothermal fluids rich in ferrous iron. The crystals precipitated when the fluids rapidly mixed with overlying oxygenated sea water, at depths greater than 200m. As our findings imply the existence of noticeable quantities of molecular oxygen, we propose that organisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis evolved more than 700millionyears earlier than previously recognized, resulting in the oxygenation of at least some intermediate and deep ocean regions.

Hoashi, Masamichi; Bevacqua, David C.; Otake, Tsubasa; Watanabe, Yumiko; Hickman, Arthur H.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

2009-04-01

188

Mathematical Model for the 0.5 Billion Years Aged Sun  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is given for constructing evolutionary tracks for a star with the mass equal to one solar mass. The presented model can be applied to the stars belonging to the inferior main sequence, which have the proton-proton reaction as energy source and present a radiative core and a convective shell. This paper presents an original way of solving the

E. Tatomir

2000-01-01

189

Plutonium-244 fission tracks - Evidence in a lunar rock 3.95 billion years old.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tracks attributed to the spontaneous fission of plutonium-244 and of uranium-238 were detected in a large whitlockite crystal in the lunar breccia 14321 from the Fra Mauro formation. For a track-retention age of 3.95 b.y., the number of plutonium tracks relative to the number of uranium tracks is 0.51 plus or minus 0.15, provided that the rock was not heavily neutron-irradiated 3.95 b.y. ago.

Hutcheon, I. D.; Price, P. B.

1972-01-01

190

A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman

J. Stuart B. Wyithe; Abraham Loeb

2004-01-01

191

Detection of pristine gas two billion years after the Big Bang.  

PubMed

In the current cosmological model, only the three lightest elements were created in the first few minutes after the Big Bang; all other elements were produced later in stars. To date, however, heavy elements have been observed in all astrophysical environments. We report the detection of two gas clouds with no discernible elements heavier than hydrogen. These systems exhibit the lowest heavy-element abundance in the early universe, and thus are potential fuel for the most metal-poor halo stars. The detection of deuterium in one system at the level predicted by primordial nucleosynthesis provides a direct confirmation of the standard cosmological model. The composition of these clouds further implies that the transport of heavy elements from galaxies to their surroundings is highly inhomogeneous. PMID:22075722

Fumagalli, Michele; O'Meara, John M; Prochaska, J Xavier

2011-12-01

192

The rapid formation of a large rotating disk galaxy three billion years after the Big Bang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations and theoretical simulations have established a framework for galaxy formation and evolution in the young Universe. Galaxies formed as baryonic gas cooled at the centres of collapsing dark-matter haloes; mergers of haloes and galaxies then led to the hierarchical build-up of galaxy mass. It remains unclear, however, over what timescales galaxies were assembled and when and how bulges and

R. Genzel; L. J. Tacconi; F. Eisenhauer; N. M. Förster Schreiber; A. Cimatti; E. Daddi; N. Bouché; R. Davies; M. D. Lehnert; D. Lutz; N. Nesvadba; A. Verma; R. Abuter; K. Shapiro; A. Sternberg; A. Renzini; X. Kong; N. Arimoto; M. Mignoli

2006-01-01

193

3.5 billion years of glass bioalteration: Volcanic rocks as a basis for microbial life?  

SciTech Connect

Alteration textures in volcanic glass from the seafloor fall into two classes, one suggestive of abiotic/diffusive hydration and chemical exchange, and another likely to be caused by microbial, cavity-forming, congruent dissolution. Glass bioalteration is common in submarine lavas throughout the world's ocean, dominant in the upper 300 m of the oceanic crust, and found in all well-preserved ophiolites and greenstone belts dating back to 3.5 Ga. It may yield a significant fraction of the global biomass and geochemical fluxes and is relevant to the development of the earliest life on Earth. We present a critical review concerning these glass bioalteration textures and present new data on their microchemical environment. We explore arguments for their biogenicity and further develop the prevalent model for their formation by relating corrosion morphology to the mechanism of microbial dissolution. Biological alteration produces conspicuous micron-scale granular and tubular textures. Granular glass alteration is well explained by colonizing microbes that selectively dissolve the glass in their contact area, forming a sponge-like interconnected network of micron-sized cavities along glass surfaces. Tubular alteration meanwhile, is more likely to be caused by filamentous cell extensions in a process similar to fungal tunneling of soil feldspars and marine carbonates. While we see clear functional similarities to fungal dissolution behavior, we do not know whether fungal or prokaryotic organisms are involved. However, this functional constraint may eventually help to identify potential microbes responsible for these features, potentially including eukaryotic or prokaryotic organisms. Yet, we caution that these organisms may be difficult to identify and to study, because they are likely to be sparsely distributed, slow growing, and difficult to cultivate.

Staudigel, H.; Furnes, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Banerjee, N.R.; Connell, L.B.; Templeton, A. (UCLJ); (UWO); (Colorado); (Bergen); (Maine)

2009-04-07

194

How Long Is a Piece of String? 4.5 Billion Years Perhaps!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As reported in an earlier article (Russell and McGuigan, 2014), with Nuffield Foundation support, the authors of this article have been exploring with a group of primary teachers the teaching and learning of evolution and inheritance, focusing on conceptual progression. The new National Curriculum for England requires learners to access knowledge…

Russell, Terry; McGuigan, Linda

2014-01-01

195

THE CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES OVER THE LAST 11 BILLION YEARS  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the stellar mass-metallicity relation at five epochs ranging to z {approx} 2.3. We quantify evolution in the shape of the mass-metallicity relation as a function of redshift; the mass-metallicity relation flattens at late times. There is an empirical upper limit to the gas-phase oxygen abundance in star-forming galaxies that is independent of redshift. From examination of the mass-metallicity relation and its observed scatter, we show that the flattening at late times is a consequence of evolution in the stellar mass where galaxies enrich to this empirical upper metallicity limit; there is also evolution in the fraction of galaxies at a fixed stellar mass that enrich to this limit. The stellar mass where metallicities begin to saturate is {approx}0.7 dex smaller in the local universe than it is at z {approx} 0.8.

Zahid, H. Jabran; Kewley, Lisa J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Kurtz, Michael J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-07-10

196

Geomagnetic field strength 3.2 billion years ago recorded by single silicate crystals.  

PubMed

The strength of the Earth's early geomagnetic field is of importance for understanding the evolution of the Earth's deep interior, surface environment and atmosphere. Palaeomagnetic and palaeointensity data from rocks formed near the boundary of the Proterozoic and Archaean eons, some 2.5 Gyr ago, show many hallmarks of the more recent geomagnetic field. Reversals are recorded, palaeosecular variation data indicate a dipole-dominated morphology and available palaeointensity values are similar to those from younger rocks. The picture before 2.8 Gyr ago is much less clear. Rocks of the Archaean Kaapvaal craton (South Africa) are among the best-preserved, but even they have experienced low-grade metamorphism. The variable acquisition of later magnetizations by these rocks is therefore expected, precluding use of conventional palaeointensity methods. Silicate crystals from igneous rocks, however, can contain minute magnetic inclusions capable of preserving Archaean-age magnetizations. Here we use a CO2 laser heating approach and direct-current SQUID magnetometer measurements to obtain palaeodirections and intensities from single silicate crystals that host magnetite inclusions. We find 3.2-Gyr-old field strengths that are within 50 per cent of the present-day value, indicating that a viable magnetosphere sheltered the early Earth's atmosphere from solar wind erosion. PMID:17410173

Tarduno, John A; Cottrell, Rory D; Watkeys, Michael K; Bauch, Dorothy

2007-04-01

197

Fuel efficient stoves for the poorest two billion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 2 billion people cook their daily meals on generally inefficient, polluting, biomass cookstoves. The fuels include twigs and leaves, agricultural waste, animal dung, firewood, and charcoal. Exposure to resulting smoke leads to acute respiratory illness, and cancers, particularly among women cooks, and their infant children near them. Resulting annual mortality estimate is almost 2 million deaths, higher than that from malaria or tuberculosis. There is a large diversity of cooking methods (baking, boiling, long simmers, brazing and roasting), and a diversity of pot shapes and sizes in which the cooking is undertaken. Fuel-efficiency and emissions depend on the tending of the fire (and thermal power), type of fuel, stove characteristics, and fit of the pot to the stove. Thus, no one perfect fuel-efficient low-emitting stove can suit all users. Affordability imposes a further severe constraint on the stove design. For various economic strata within the users, a variety of stove designs may be appropriate and affordable. In some regions, biomass is harvested non-renewably for cooking fuel. There is also increasing evidence that black carbon emitted from stoves is a significant contributor to atmospheric forcing. Thus improved biomass stoves can also help mitigate global climate change. The speaker will describe specific work undertaken to design, develop, test, and disseminate affordable fuel-efficient stoves for internally displaced persons (IDPs) of Darfur, Sudan, where the IDPs face hardship, humiliation, hunger, and risk of sexual assault owing to their dependence on local biomass for cooking their meals.

Gadgil, Ashok

2012-03-01

198

Site geotechnical considerations for expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to one billion barrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight Gulf Coast salt domes have emerged as candidate sites for possible expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to one billion barrels. Two existing SPR sites, Big Hill, TX, and Weeks Island, LA, are among the eight that are being considered. To achieve the billion barrel capacity, some 25 new leached caverns would be constructed, and would probably be

J. T. Neal; D. W. Whittington; T. R. Magorian

1991-01-01

199

Vizualization Challenges of a Subduction Simulation Using One Billion Markers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in supercomputing technology have permitted us to study the multiscale, multicomponent fluid dynamics of subduction zones at unprecedented resolutions down to about the length of a football field. We have performed numerical simulations using one billion tracers over a grid of about 80 thousand points in two dimensions. These runs have been performed using a thermal-chemical simulation that accounts for hydration and partial melting in the thermal, mechanical, petrological, and rheological domains. From these runs, we have observed several geophysically interesting phenomena including the development of plumes with unmixed mantle composition as well as plumes with mixed mantle/crust components. Unmixed plumes form at depths greater than 100km (5-10 km above the upper interface of subducting slab) and consist of partially molten wet peridotite. Mixed plumes form at lesser depth directly from the subducting slab and contain partially molten hydrated oceanic crust and sediments. These high resolution simulations have also spurred the development of new visualization methods. We have created a new web-based interface to data from our subduction simulation and other high-resolution 2D data that uses an hierarchical data format to achieve response times of less than one second when accessing data files on the order of 3GB. This interface, WEB-IS4, uses a Javascript and HTML frontend coupled with a C and PHP backend and allows the user to perform region of interest zooming, real-time colormap selection, and can return relevant statistics relating to the data in the region of interest.

Rudolph, M. L.; Gerya, T. V.; Yuen, D. A.

2004-12-01

200

Determination of Fluorine in Fourteen Microanalytical Geologic Reference Materials using SIMS, EPMA, and Proton Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE) Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine (F) is a volatile constituent of magmas and hydrous minerals, and trace amounts of F are incorporated into nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine and clinopyroxene. Microanalytical techniques are routinely used to measure trace amounts of F at both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution in glasses and crystals. However, there are few well-established F concentrations for the glass standards routinely used in microanalytical laboratories, particularly standards of low silica, basaltic composition. In this study, we determined the F content of fourteen commonly used microanalytical glass standards of basaltic, intermediate, and rhyolitic composition. To serve as calibration standards, five basaltic glasses with ~0.2 to 2.5 wt% F were synthesized and characterized. A natural tholeiite from the East Pacific Rise was mixed with variable amounts of CaF2. The mixture was heated in a 1 atmosphere furnace to 1440 °C at fO2 = NNO for 30 minutes and quenched in water. Portions of the run products were studied by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The EPMA used a 15 µm diameter defocused electron beam with a 15 kV accelerating voltage and a 25 nA primary current, a TAP crystal for detecting FK? X-rays, and Biotite 3 as the F standard. The F contents by EPMA agreed with the F added to the basalts after correction for mass loss during melting. The SIMS analyses used a primary beam of 16O- and detection of low-energy negative ions (-5 kV) at a mass resolution that resolved 18OH. Both microanalytical techniques confirmed homogeneity, and the SIMS calibration defined by EPMA shows an excellent linear trend with backgrounds of 2 ppm or less. Analyses of basaltic glass standards based on our synthesized calibration standards gave the following F contents and 2? errors (ppm): ALV-519 = 83 ± 3; BCR-2G = 359 ± 6; BHVO-2G = 322 ± 15; GSA-1G = 10 ± 1; GSC-1G = 11 ± 1; GSD-1G = 19 ± 2; GSE-1G = 173 ± 1; KL2G (MPI-DING) = 101 ± 1; ML3B-G (MPI-DING) = 49 ± 17. These values are lower than published values for BCR-2 and BHVO-2 (unmelted powders) and the “information values” for the MPI-DING glass standards. Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) was tested for the high silica samples. PIGE analyses (1.7 MeV Tandem Accelerator; reaction type: 19F(p, ??)16O; primary current = 20-30 nA; incident beam voltage = 1.5 MeV) were calibrated with a crystal of fluor-topaz (F = 20.3 wt%) and gave F values of: NIST 610 = 266 ± 14 ppm; NIST 620 = 54 ± 5 ppm; and UTR-2 = 1432 ± 32 ppm. SIMS calibration defined by the PIGE analyses shows an excellent linear trend with low background similar to the basaltic calibration. The F concentrations of intermediate MPI-DING glasses were determined based on SIMS calibration generated from the PIGE analysis above. The F concentrations and 2? errors (ppm) are: T1G = 219.9 ± 6.8; StHs/680-G = 278.0 ± 2.0 ppm. This study revealed a large matrix effect between the high-silica and basaltic glasses, thus requiring the use of appropriate standards and separate SIMS calibrations when analyzing samples of different compositions.

Guggino, S. N.; Hervig, R. L.

2010-12-01

201

Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people  

SciTech Connect

Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

2003-06-01

202

Billion here, a billion there - a review and analysis of synthetic-fuels development under Title I of the Energy Security Act  

SciTech Connect

Title I of the Energy Security Act launched a synthetic fuels program that could produce 2 billion barrels of fuel per day by 1992 and could cost $88 billion. A review of the Act's statutory language to see how implementation will take place and to identify potential problems and opportunities concludes that there is room for creative use of the money in the institutional structure. It will be up to those in charge of implementing the Act to seek out and develop these opportunities. 271 references.

Contratto, D.C.

1980-01-01

203

An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (109 ). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-? emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ~1.2 × 1010 , which is consistent with the 1.3 × 1010 derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate.

Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D.; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

2015-02-01

204

An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.  

PubMed

So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-? emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ?1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate. PMID:25719667

Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

2015-02-26

205

Lewin estimates 2 billion barrels of US tar sand recoverable at mid $20/bbl  

SciTech Connect

In 1983, Lewin and Associates prepared a report which established that the US tar sands resource amounts to over 60 billion barrels of bitumen in-place. However, no estimate was made of the technically or economically recoverable portion of this resource. More recent work carried out by Lewin for the US Department of Energy presents an appraisal of technically and economically recoverable tar sands. The paper describes the tar sand resource in-place, tar sand recovery models used in the study, engineering cost models, the economics of the steam soak prospect, and the economics of a surface mining prospect. The results of the Lewin study show that 5.7 billion barrels of domestic tar sand are technically recoverable, using cyclic steam injection and surface extractive mining. Of this, 4.9 billion barrels are technically recoverable from surface mining methods, with 0.8 billion recoverable from steam soak applications. 1 figure, 3 tables.

Not Available

1986-12-01

206

The Population of China. One Billion, Eight Million People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several programs have been instituted in China over the past 30 years in order to slow the birth rate. The population, set at 1,008,175,288 people by a 1982 census, is by far the largest of any nation. A 10-year family planning program, begun in 1957, caused the birth rate to drop considerably through the mid-1960's. In 1971, "wan xi shao," the…

Murphy, Elaine M.; Cancellier, Patricia

1983-01-01

207

Shear Strength at 75 F to 500 F of Fourteen Adhesives Used to Bond a Glass-fabric-reinforced Phenolic Resin Laminate to Steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fourteen adhesives used to bond a glass-fabric-reinforced phenolic resin laminate to steel were tested in order to determine their shear strengths at temperatures from 75 F to 500 F. Fabrication methods were varied to evaluate the effect of placing cloth between the facing surfaces to maintain a uniform bond-line thickness. One glass-fabric supported phenolic adhesive was found to have a shear strength of 3,400 psi at 300 F and over 1,000 psi at 500 F. Strength and fabrication data are tabulated for all adhesives tested.

Davidson, John R

1956-01-01

208

Indian farmers need help to feed over 1.5 billion people in 2030.  

PubMed

In view of the enormous challenge and pressure on farmers to feed 9 billion plus people and billions of animals who are going to be living in our planet in 2050, new technologies must be invented, assessed and adapted. Farmer welfare and provision of resources required for their work is of paramount importance. India has benefited from Bt cotton technology and will certainly benefit from other biotech crops that have been carefully developed and assessed for consumption and environmental safety. PMID:22538225

Jagadish, Mittur N

2012-01-01

209

Large data analysis: automatic visual personal identification in a demography of 1.2 billion persons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest biometric deployment in history is now underway in India, where the Government is enrolling the iris patterns (among other data) of all 1.2 billion citizens. The purpose of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is to ensure fair access to welfare benefits and entitlements, to reduce fraud, and enhance social inclusion. Only a minority of Indian citizens have bank accounts; only 4 percent possess passports; and less than half of all aid money reaches its intended recipients. A person who lacks any means of establishing their identity is excluded from entitlements and does not officially exist; thus the slogan of UIDAI is: To give the poor an identity." This ambitious program enrolls a million people every day, across 36,000 stations run by 83 agencies, with a 3-year completion target for the entire national population. The halfway point was recently passed with more than 600 million persons now enrolled. In order to detect and prevent duplicate identities, every iris pattern that is enrolled is first compared against all others enrolled so far; thus the daily workflow now requires 600 trillion (or 600 million-million) iris cross-comparisons. Avoiding identity collisions (False Matches) requires high biometric entropy, and achieving the tremendous match speed requires phase bit coding. Both of these requirements are being delivered operationally by wavelet methods developed by the author for encoding and comparing iris patterns, which will be the focus of this Large Data Award" presentation.

Daugman, John

2014-05-01

210

Corporations Give Record $1.6 Billion to Colleges and Universities in 1984-85; Total Giving Reaches $6.3 Billion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from the publication, "Voluntary Support of Education 1984-85," are summarized. The survey report includes contributions to 1,114 colleges and universities. Highlights of findings show that: total estimated voluntary support was $6.32 billion in 1984-1985; for the first time, corporations contributed more than any other donor group ($1.57…

CFAE Newsletter, 1986

1986-01-01

211

Rules Set for $4 Billion Race to Top Contest: Final Rules Give States Detailed Map in Quest for $4 Billion in Education Stimulus Aid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For a good shot at $4 billion in grants from the federal Race to the Top Fund, states will need to make a persuasive case for their education reform agendas, demonstrate significant buy-in from local school districts, and devise plans to evaluate teachers and principals based on student performance, according to final regulations released last…

McNeil, Michele

2009-01-01

212

Residence Life Programs and the First-Year Experience. The Freshman Year Experience. Monograph Series No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph contains papers which suggest means of implementing residential programs, services, and facilities that will help to meet the needs of first-year college students. Fourteen papers are presented and are as follows: "Reflections on the First Year Residential Experience" (John N. Gardner); "The Role of Residential Programs in the…

Zeller, William, Ed.; And Others

213

How much is a million? How big is a billion?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We constructed a geologic timeline along a 5K road-race route across the MSU campus at a scale of 1 meter = 1 million years, using signage to mark important eventsin the history of life. In addition to over 1500 race participants, numerous casual observers were exposed to the timeline. This project works well in the classroom at a scale of 1 mm = 1 million years, and as a manageable one-day outdoor sidewalk chalk activity at a scale of 1" = 1 million years. Timelines drawn to scale lead the observer to the inescapable conclusions that "simple" life appeared early in Earth history; that it took the bulk of Earth history to achieve the next, multi-cellular stage of development; and that once the metazoan threshold was crossed, subsequent biological diversification-and the resulting fossil record-followed in rapid succession.

Danita Brandt

214

Food Security: The Challenge of Feeding 9 Billion People  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the environment. The effects

H. Charles J. Godfray; John R. Beddington; Ian R. Crute; Lawrence Haddad; David Lawrence; James F. Muir; Jules Pretty; Sherman Robinson; Sandy M. Thomas; Camilla Toulmin

2010-01-01

215

Exploratory Analysis of Retail Sales of Billions of Items  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes several different approaches to analysis of a data set collected over the past year from a retail grocery chain containing hundreds of stores. Each record in the data set represents an individual item processed by an individual checkout laser scanner at a particular store at a particular time on a particular day. Each record contains additional information

Dunja Mladenic; William F. Eddy; Scott Ziolko

216

Alcohol environment, gender and nonfatal injuries in young people. An ecological study of fourteen Swedish municipalities (2000–2005)  

PubMed Central

Background Sweden has had a restrictive alcohol policy, but there are gender and geographical differences in alcohol consumption and injury rates within the country. Whether and how the Swedish alcohol environment influences gender differences in injuries in young people is still unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the associations between the local alcohol environment and age- and gender-specific nonfatal injury rates in people up to 24?years in Sweden. Methods The local alcohol environment from 14 municipalities was studied using indicators of alcohol access, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related crimes. A comprehensive health care register of nonfatal injuries was used to estimate mean annual rates of nonfatal injuries by gender and age group (2000–2005). Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to analyse linear associations. Results Associations were shown for both alcohol access and alcohol consumption with injury rates in boys aged 13–17?years; no other associations were observed between alcohol access or per capita alcohol consumption and nonfatal childhood injuries. The prevalence of crimes against alcohol laws was associated with injury rates in children of both genders aged 6–17?years. Conclusions This study found no strong area-level associations between alcohol and age and gender specific nonfatal injuries in young people. Further, the strength of the area-level associations varied by age, gender and type of indicator used to study the local alcohol environment. PMID:22908846

2012-01-01

217

F-LE In The Billions and Linear Modeling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The data in the table below was taken from Wikipedia. Year World Population (Estimate) 1804 1 1927 2 1960 3 1974 4 1987 5 1999 6 2012 7 Based on the da...

2012-05-01

218

Growing enough to feed ~10 billion under climate change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global crop demand is projected to increase by 60%-110% by 2050 on account of a larger and more prosperous world. However more than a quarter of our most important cropping areas are no longer witnessing productivity gains due to a variety of factors, including climate change. To ensure future global food security it is necessary to identify these myriad challenges that farmers across the world face including where climate variability influences their crop productivity and climate change reduces their crop production each year. We use several million reported crop statistics from around the world to map these regions and we will discuss these maps and its implications.

Ray, D. K.; Foley, J. A.

2013-12-01

219

NASA's Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request - Duration: 8:01.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA announced an $18.7 billion budget request for fiscal year 2012 that supports a reinvigorated path of innovation, technological development and scientific discovery. The budget supports all ele...

220

Molecular analysis of the HEXA gene in Italian patients with infantile and late onset Tay-Sachs disease: detection of fourteen novel alleles.  

PubMed

Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a recessively inherited disorder caused by the hexosaminidase A deficiency. We report the molecular characterization performed on 31 Italian patients, 22 with the infantile, acute form of TSD and nine patients with the subacute juvenile form, biochemically classified as B1 Variant. Of the 29 different alleles identified, fourteen were due to 15 novel mutations, two being in-cis on a new complex allele. The new alleles caused four frameshifts, three premature stop codons, three amino acid changes, two amino acid deletions and two splicing alterations. As previously reported, the c.533G>A (p.R178H) mutation was present either in homozygosity or as compound heterozygote, in all the patients with the late onset TSD form (B1 Variant); the allele frequency in this group is discussed by comparison with that found in infantile TSD. PMID:16088929

Montalvo, Anna Lisa E; Filocamo, Mirella; Vlahovicek, Kristian; Dardis, Andrea; Lualdi, Susanna; Corsolini, Fabio; Bembi, Bruno; Pittis, Maria Gabriela

2005-09-01

221

Quantitation of fourteen urinary alpha-amino acids using isobutane gas chromatography chemical ionization mass spectrometry with 13C amino acids as internal standards.  

PubMed

Isobutane chemical ionization gas chromatography mass spectometry of the N-trifluoroacetyl-carboxy-n-butyl ester derivatives of amino acids, using a commercial per-13C-amino acid mixture as internal standards, provided a sensitive and specific method for quantitative analysis of fourteen urinary alpha-amino acids. A computer controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer was used in a selected ion monitoring mode to record the ion current due to the protonated molecular ions of each alpha-amino acid/13C analogue pair. BASIC programmes located peak maxima, and using previously established standard curves, calculated the amino acid content on the bases of both peak height and peak area ratios. Duplicate amino acid analyses are possible on 5 microliter of urine. Instrumental analysis required 25 minutes, automated data processing 10 minutes, and sample preparation 2 hours. Detection limits approached 1 ng with a typical mean standard deviation of 2% for the instrumental analysis. PMID:6452181

Finlayson, P J; Christopher, R K; Duffield, A M

1980-10-01

222

Earth: The Early Years We discuss ...  

E-print Network

Earth: The Early Years We discuss ... · What happened to the Earth during the first few billion)? · What is the relationship to (early) life? #12;Age of Earth James Ussher (17th C) biblical account: 6: 20-40 m.y. (million years!) Charles Darwin evolution >300 m.y. Lord Kelvin (1880's) cooling Earth: 50

223

Genetic predisposition to obesity and lifestyle factors--the combined analyses of twenty-six known BMI- and fourteen known waist:hip ratio (WHR)-associated variants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.  

PubMed

Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci associated with BMI or the waist:hip ratio (WHR). However, evidence on gene-lifestyle interactions is still scarce, and investigation of the effects of well-documented dietary and other lifestyle data is warranted to assess whether genetic risk can be modified by lifestyle. We assessed whether previously established BMI and WHR genetic variants associate with obesity and weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, and whether the associations are modified by dietary factors or physical activity. Individuals (n 459) completed a 3 d food record and were genotyped for twenty-six BMI- and fourteen WHR-related variants. The effects of the variants individually and in combination were investigated in relation to obesity and to 1- and 3-year weight change by calculating genetic risk scores (GRS). The GRS were separately calculated for BMI and the WHR by summing the increasing alleles weighted by their published effect sizes. At baseline, the GRS were not associated with total intakes of energy, macronutrients or fibre. The mean 1- and 3-year weight changes were not affected by the BMI or WHR GRS. During the 3-year follow-up, a trend for higher BMI by the GRS was detected especially in those who reported a diet low in fibre (P for interaction=0·065). Based on the present findings, it appears unlikely that obesity-predisposing variants substantially modify the effect of lifestyle modification on the success of weight reduction in the long term. In addition, these findings suggest that the association between the BMI-related genetic variants and obesity could be modulated by the diet. PMID:23668671

Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Paananen, Jussi; Lindström, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti

2013-11-01

224

Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: "Child Development, Molecular Genetics, and What to Do With Genes Once They Are Found" (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental…

Plomin, Robert

2013-01-01

225

Meniscus Allograft Transplantation: Ten-Year Results of Cryopreserved Allografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We report the results of cryopreserved meniscus allograft transplantations with 10 or more years of follow-up. Methods: Fourteen medial and 8 lateral meniscus allografts were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 141 months (range, 115 to 167 months). The clinical outcome and failure rate was evaluated by use of a Lysholm score and modified pain score in 22 patients.

Jan Pieter Hommen; Gregory R. Applegate; Wilson Del Pizzo

2007-01-01

226

California agriculture is large, diverse, complex and dynamic. It generated nearly $37.5 billion  

E-print Network

California agriculture is large, diverse, complex and dynamic. It generated nearly $37.5 billion in cash receipts in 2010. California has been the nation's top agricultural state in cash receipts every in 1960 to about 12 percent in 2010. UniversityofCalifornia AgriculturalIssuesCenter The Measure

California at Davis, University of

227

Benzene is an important industrial chemical (> 2 billion gallons produced annually in the  

E-print Network

Benzene is an important industrial chemical (> 2 billion gallons produced annually in the United leukemia (Snyder 2002). However, the mechanisms of benzene-induced hematotoxicity and leukemo- genesis further light on these mechanisms and better understand the risk benzene poses, we examined the effects

California at Berkeley, University of

228

$1.768 billion federal dollars have been invested in development of the  

E-print Network

$ $1.768 billion federal dollars have been invested in development of the Canadian Health value our health system, and want to ensure that investment in the system delivers quality care while Hospital (Austria), Lifeline Brisbane (Australia), Northern Primary Care Research Network

229

Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually.  

E-print Network

Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually. Emissions. (fertilizers that use nitric acid or ammonium bicarbonate result in emissions of nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide% of agricultural greenhouse-gas emissions are from the production and use of nitrogen fertilizers. Influences

Toohey, Darin W.

230

High-Stakes Hustle: Public Schools and the New Billion Dollar Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-stakes testing costs up to $50 billion per annum, has no impact on student achievement, and has changed the focus of American public schools. This article analyzes the benefits and costs of the accountability movement, as well as discusses its roots in the eugenics movements of the early 20th century.

Baines, Lawrence A.; Stanley, Gregory Kent

2004-01-01

231

How much land can ten billion people spare for nature? Does technology make a difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines whether Nature, with the help of technology, can endure an increase in the global population to ten billion people. This is discussed in terms of the limits of crop yields and how technology has helped raise these limits, in particular how irrigation processes have been modified to save water and improve yields. The author also responds to

Paul E Waggoner

1995-01-01

232

Funding Highlights: Provides $17.5 billion in discretionary funding for the National Aeronautics and Space  

E-print Network

137 Funding Highlights: · Provides $17.5 billion in discretionary funding for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) by prioritizing the research and development that lays the life of the Space Station to 2024; | Allowing NASA and its international partners to continue

Waliser, Duane E.

233

Internet Advertising and the Generalized Second-Price Auction: Selling Billions of Dollars Worth of Keywords  

E-print Network

Internet Advertising and the Generalized Second-Price Auction: Selling Billions of Dollars Worth second-price" (GSP) auction, a new mechanism used by search engines to sell online advertising. Although. Unlike the VCG mechanism, GSP generally does not have an equilibrium in dominant strategies, and truth

Roughgarden, Tim

234

Internet Advertising and the Generalized Second Price Auction: Selling Billions of Dollars Worth of Keywords  

E-print Network

Internet Advertising and the Generalized Second Price Auction: Selling Billions of Dollars Worth by search engines to sell online advertising that most Internet users encounter daily. GSP is tailored an equilibrium in dominant strategies, and truth-telling is not an equilibrium of GSP. To analyze the properties

Sadeh, Norman M.

235

Conservation in a World of Six Billion: A Grassroots Action Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grassroots action guide features a conservation initiative working to bring the impacts of human population growth, economic development, and natural resource consumption into balance with the limits of nature for the benefit of current and future generations. Contents include information sheets entitled "Six Billion People and Growing,""The…

Hren, Benedict J.

236

Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy  

ScienceCinema

April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

Daniel Sperling

2010-01-08

237

Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters  

E-print Network

Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters Shoibal Chakravartya of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO2 emissions are distributed among its citizens, from which we build up a global CO2 distribution. We then propose a simple rule to derive a universal cap on global

238

The Other Inconvenient Truth: Feeding 9 Billion While Sustaining the Earth System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the international community focuses on climate change as the great challenge of our era, we have been largely ignoring another looming problem — the global crisis in agriculture, food security and the environment. Our use of land, particularly for agriculture, is absolutely essential to the success of the human race: we depend on agriculture to supply us with food, feed, fiber, and, increasingly, biofuels. Without a highly efficient, productive, and resilient agricultural system, our society would collapse almost overnight. But we are demanding more and more from our global agricultural systems, pushing them to their very limits. Continued population growth (adding more than 70 million people to the world every year), changing dietary preferences (including more meat and dairy consumption), rising energy prices, and increasing needs for bioenergy sources are putting tremendous pressure on the world’s resources. And, if we want any hope of keeping up with these demands, we’ll need to double the agricultural production of the planet in the next 30 to 40 years. Meeting these huge new agricultural demands will be one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. At present, it is completely unclear how (and if) we can do it. If this wasn’t enough, we must also address the massive environmental impacts of our current agricultural practices, which new evidence indicates rival the impacts of climate change. Simply put, providing for the basic needs of 9 billion-plus people, without ruining the biosphere in the process, will be one of the greatest challenges our species has ever faced. In this presentation, I will present a new framework for evaluating and assessing global patterns of agriculture, food / fiber / fuel production, and their relationship to the earth system, particularly in terms of changing stocks and flows of water, nutrients and carbon in our planetary environment. This framework aims to help us manage the challenges of increasing global food security -- in the fact of dramatically increasing demand -- while greatly reducing the impact of agriculture on the earth system.

Foley, J. A.

2010-12-01

239

The rapid assembly of an elliptical galaxy of 400 billion solar masses at a redshift of 2.3.  

PubMed

Stellar archaeology shows that massive elliptical galaxies formed rapidly about ten billion years ago with star-formation rates of above several hundred solar masses per year. Their progenitors are probably the submillimetre bright galaxies at redshifts z greater than 2. Although the mean molecular gas mass (5?×?10(10) solar masses) of the submillimetre bright galaxies can explain the formation of typical elliptical galaxies, it is inadequate to form elliptical galaxies that already have stellar masses above 2?×?10(11) solar masses at z???2. Here we report multi-wavelength high-resolution observations of a rare merger of two massive submillimetre bright galaxies at z = 2.3. The system is seen to be forming stars at a rate of 2,000 solar masses per year. The star-formation efficiency is an order of magnitude greater than that of normal galaxies, so the gas reservoir will be exhausted and star formation will be quenched in only around 200 million years. At a projected separation of 19?kiloparsecs, the two massive starbursts are about to merge and form a passive elliptical galaxy with a stellar mass of about 4?×?10(11) solar masses. We conclude that gas-rich major galaxy mergers with intense star formation can form the most massive elliptical galaxies by z???1.5. PMID:23698363

Fu, Hai; Cooray, Asantha; Feruglio, C; Ivison, R J; Riechers, D A; Gurwell, M; Bussmann, R S; Harris, A I; Altieri, B; Aussel, H; Baker, A J; Bock, J; Boylan-Kolchin, M; Bridge, C; Calanog, J A; Casey, C M; Cava, A; Chapman, S C; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Cox, P; Farrah, D; Frayer, D; Hopwood, R; Jia, J; Magdis, G; Marsden, G; Martínez-Navajas, P; Negrello, M; Neri, R; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Pérez-Fournon, I; Schulz, B; Scott, D; Smith, A; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J L; Zemcov, M

2013-06-20

240

Millikan Chapter 14 CHAPTER FOURTEEN  

E-print Network

affair is likely to have myriad alternative effects on the sensory surfaces of the animal, depending both independently have developed, sometimes by the development of new generate and test procedures itself tends to occur on any object at all that is moving about near the animal during the earliest

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

241

Billion-Dollar U.S. Weather/Climate Disasters 1980-2013 National Climatic Data Center Asheville, NC  

E-print Network

Floods - September 10-16 2013: A stalled frontal boundary over Colorado led to record rainfallBillion-Dollar U.S. Weather/Climate Disasters 1980-2013 National Climatic Data Center Asheville, NC in which overall damages/costs reached or exceeded $1 billion. Values in parentheses represent the 2013

242

IMF Approves SDR 15.5 Billion Stand-by Credit for Korea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "IMF Approves SDR 15.5 Billion Stand-by Credit for Korea" details the aid package put together for Korea and provides a background of the events and the objectives of the aid package. The beginning of the financial crisis in South Korea can be traced to the collapse of Hanbo Steel Corp., the first in a string of large corporate failures in South Korea. This was followed by the decline in the value of the Korean won against the dollar in October 1997, which persisted until November when the Central Bank of Korea stopped intervening to support the won. The continued decline in won forced the Korean government to seek financial assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). On December 3, the IMF announced a $55 billion aid package for South Korea.

1997-01-01

243

52,000 hp injects 70 billion cu. ft. of gas for underground storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern California Gas Co.'s Aliso Canyon injection\\/withdrawal station, likely the world's largest underground natural gas storage facility, is now operational. The facility expects by 1975 to be storing some 70 billion cu ft of gas. To inject such a large volume of natural gas into Aliso Canyon's deep (to 8,000 ft) underground storage stratas, more than 52,500 hp will be

1974-01-01

244

How to Bring Solar Energy to Seven Billion People (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

ScienceCinema

By exploiting the powers of nanotechnology and taking advantage of non-toxic, Earth-abundant materials, Berkeley Lab's Cyrus Wadia has fabricated new solar cell devices that have the potential to be several orders of magnitude less expensive than conventional solar cells. And by mastering the chemistry of these materials-and the economics of solar energy-he envisions bringing electricity to the 1.2 billion people now living without it.

Wadia, Cyrus

2011-04-28

245

Feeding the extra billions: strategies to improve crops and enhance future food security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to feed an expanding world population poses one of the greatest challenges to mankind in the future. Accompanying\\u000a the increased demand for food by the expected nine billion inhabitants of Earth in 2050 will be a continual decrease in arable\\u000a land area, together with a decline in crop yield due to a variety of stresses. For these formidable

Petra Stamm; Rengasamy Ramamoorthy; Prakash P. Kumar

2011-01-01

246

Low sample volume part-per billion level ion chromatographic analysis  

SciTech Connect

ADS has developed an ion chromatographic method which enables low part-per-billion levels of analysis while minimizing liquid waste generation. This method incorporates several recent technical improvements in ion chromatographic instrumentation to achieve a ten- fold increase in sensitivity over existing ion chromatographic methods without additional analysis time or sample pre-concentration. This report outlines the method, establishes the precision and accuracy levels, and discusses the applicability of the method to waste minimization and radiation exposure reduction

Ekechukwu, A.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-02-27

247

Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes.

McConnell, Nicholas J.; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Lauer, Tod R.; Graham, James R.; Richstone, Douglas O.

2011-12-01

248

MMap: Fast Billion-Scale Graph Computation on a PC via Memory Mapping  

PubMed Central

Graph computation approaches such as GraphChi and TurboGraph recently demonstrated that a single PC can perform efficient computation on billion-node graphs. To achieve high speed and scalability, they often need sophisticated data structures and memory management strategies. We propose a minimalist approach that forgoes such requirements, by leveraging the fundamental memory mapping (MMap) capability found on operating systems. We contribute: (1) a new insight that MMap is a viable technique for creating fast and scalable graph algorithms that surpasses some of the best techniques; (2) the design and implementation of popular graph algorithms for billion-scale graphs with little code, thanks to memory mapping; (3) extensive experiments on real graphs, including the 6.6 billion edge YahooWeb graph, and show that this new approach is significantly faster or comparable to the highly-optimized methods (e.g., 9.5× faster than GraphChi for computing PageRank on 1.47B edge Twitter graph). We believe our work provides a new direction in the design and development of scalable algorithms. Our packaged code is available at http://poloclub.gatech.edu/mmap/. PMID:25866846

Lin, Zhiyuan; Kahng, Minsuk; Sabrin, Kaeser Md.; Chau, Duen Horng (Polo); Lee, Ho; Kang, U

2015-01-01

249

The Evolution of the Galaxy Rest-Frame Ultraviolet Luminosity Function Over the First Two Billion Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function at z = 4 to 8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the CANDELS/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations near the Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1- 2403 clusters. The combination of these surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 ×10(exp 6) Mpc(exp 3) over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for bright (M(sub UV) less than -21) and faint (M(sub UV) = -18) galaxies. We select galaxies using a well-tested photometric redshift technique with careful screening of contaminants, finding a sample of 7446 galaxies at 3.5 less than z less than 8.5, with more than 1000 galaxies at z of approximately 6 - 8. We measure both a stepwise luminosity function for galaxies in our redshift samples, as well as a Schechter function, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end our UV luminosity functions agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright galaxies at z of greater than or equal to 6. Our bestfit value of the characteristic magnitude M* is consistent with -21 at z of greater than or equal to 5, different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift. At z = 8, a single power-law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z = 6 and 7, an exponential cutoff at the bright-end is moderately preferred. We compare our luminosity functions to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in M* is consistent with models where the impact of dust attenuation on the bright-end of the luminosity function decreases at higher redshift, though a decreasing impact of feedback may also be possible. We measure the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate (SFR) density by integrating our observed luminosity functions to M(sub UV) = -17, correcting for dust attenuation, and find that the SFR density declines proportionally to (1 + z)((exp -4.3)(+/-)(0.5)) at z greater than 4, consistent with observations at z greater than or equal to 9. Our observed luminosity functions are consistent with a reionization history that starts at redshift of approximately greater than 10, completes at z greater than 6, and reaches a midpoint (x(sub HII) = 0.5) at 6.7 less than z less than 9.4. Finally, using a constant cumulative number density selection and an empirically derived rising star-formation history, our observations predict that the abundance of bright z = 9 galaxies is likely higher than previous constraints, though consistent with recent estimates of bright z similar to 10 galaxies.

Finkelstein, Steven L.; Ryan, Russell E., Jr.; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Song, Mimi; Somerville, Rachel; Ferguson, Henry C.; Salmon, Brett; Giavalisco, Mauro; Koekomoer, Anton M.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Behroozi, Peter; Castellano, Marco; Dunlop, James S.; Faber, Sandy M.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Fontana, Adriano; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish; Jaacks, Jason; Kocevski, Dale D.; Livermore, Rachael; McLure, Ross J.; Merlin, Emiliano; Rafelski, Marc Alexander

2014-01-01

250

Potential magnetofossils in ~3.4 billion-year-old cherts from the Barberton Greenstone Belt of South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous reported paleointensity data from ~3.45 Ga dacites of the Barberton Greenstone Belt indicate the presence of a relatively strong geomagnetic field requiring the presence of a dynamo (Tarduno et al., Science, 2010). The ~3.40 Ga Buck Reef Chert from the same belt includes shallow water environments that may have been conducive for magnetotactic bacteria, if such forms were present in the Paleoarchean, as might be expected given the presence of the field. Here we use rock magnetism, electron microscopy, and ferromagnetic resonance to test for the presence of bacterial magnetite particles. Magnetic hysteresis properties of bulk samples show a variety of rock magnetic behaviors, including multi-domain, pseudo-single domain, single domain, and wasp-waisted curves; the latter indicate grain and/or compositional mixtures. Electron microscopy of magnetic separates and in-situ particles from the Buck Reef Chert show cubo-octahedral to quasi-rectangular and hexagonally shaped grains that fall within a stable single domain range typical of biogenic magnetite. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra from bulk samples appear asymmetrical and skew towards low fields, suggesting a magnetic anisotropy that is similar to the spectra seen from some strains of modern magnetotactic bacteria. Thus, while there is clearly a mixture of magnetic particles within the Buck Reef Chert, these data suggest one component could be ancient bacterial magnetite.

Voronov, Julia; Tarduno, John; Watkeys, Michael; Hofmann, Axel

2013-04-01

251

Over One-Half Billion Years of Head Conservation? Expression of an ems Class Gene in Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the isolation of an empty spiracles class homeodomain-containing gene, Cn-ems, from the hydrozoan Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus, the first gene of this class characterized in a lower metazoan. Cn-ems was found to be expressed in the head of gastrozooids, specifically in endodermal epithelial cells of the taeniolae of the hypostome. Cn-ems is not expressed in gonozooids, which lack taeniolae. Experimental

Ofer Mokady; Matthew H. Dick; Dagmar Lackschewitz; Bernd Schierwater; Leo W. Buss

1998-01-01

252

Evidence for Significant Growth in the Stellar Mass of Brightest Cluster Galaxies over the Past 10 Billion Years  

E-print Network

Using new and published data, we construct a sample of 160 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) spanning the redshift interval 0.03 < z < 1.63. We use this sample, which covers 70% of the history of the universe, to measure the growth in the stellar mass of BCGs after correcting for the correlation between the stellar mass of the BCG and the mass of the cluster in which it lives. We find that the stellar mass of BCGs increase by a factor of 1.8 between z=0.9 and z=0.2. Compared to earlier works, our result is closer to the predictions of semi-analytic models. However, BCGs at z=0.9, relative to BCGs at z=0.2, are still a factor of 1.5 more massive than the predictions of these models. Star formation rates in BCGs at z~1 are generally to low to result in significant amounts of mass. Instead, it is likely that most of the mass build up occurs through mainly dry mergers in which perhaps half of the mass is lost to the intra-cluster medium of the cluster.

Lidman, C; Muzzin, A; Wilson, G; Demarco, R; Brough, S; Rettura, A; Cox, J; DeGroot, A; Yee, H K C; Gilbank, D; Hoekstra, H; Balogh, M; Ellingson, E; Hicks, A; Nantais, J; Noble, A; Lacy, M; Surace, J; Webb, T

2012-01-01

253

Northwest Africa 8159: An approximately 2.3 Billion Year Old Martian Olivine-Bearing Augite Basalt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on petrology, mineralogy, and bulk composition, the new NWA 8159 martian meteorite is distinct from all known samples from Mars. In particular, the augite compositional trends are unique, but most similar to those of nakhite intercumulus. Whether NWA 8159 represents a new lithology or is related to a known meteorite group remains to be determined. Sr and Nd isotopic analyses will allow comparison of source characteristics with SNC and other new ungrouped meteorites (e.g., NWA 7635). Here we report initial Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for NWA 8159 with the objective to determine its formation age and to potentially identify similarities and potential source affinities with other martian rocks.

Simon, J. I.; Peters, T. J.; Tappa, M. J.; Agee, C. B.

2014-01-01

254

Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 43.5 billion years ago  

E-print Network

02008, doi:10.1029/2006JE002784. 1. Introduction [2] Our understanding of the origin of life, as well to the origin of life [e.g., Miller and Urey, 1959]. However, on living tissue, the same radiation has is uncertain, but it is usually placed between 3.8 and 2.7 Ga. The evidence for an early origin of life, around

Utrecht, Universiteit

255

Vanadyls ions in the 3.5 billion-year-old Apex Basalt chert: relics of a primitive metabolism?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of physico-chemical signatures of primitive life on Earth is a challenging issue, as it is extremely difficult to determine whether the carbonaceous matter preserved in the most ancient rocks is biogenic or abiotic. Indeed, organic matter of both origins always give the same type of macromolecular, acid resistant and insoluble carbonaceous matter during geologic evolution, with similar structures and spectroscopic signatures. There is still a lack of consensus in the scientific community on which observables could be considered as reliable biosignatures, and at present there is no physico-chemical marker, which could help to determine the origin of an ancient mineralized carbonaceous matter. Therefore, the determination of stable and reliable biosignatures is a fundamental issue in the search of primitive life on Earth and on Mars. Metalloporphyrins are important biomarkers as all living organisms, including the most primitive bacteria, use porphyrin derivatives in their metabolism. Complexes of vanadyl (VO++) porphyrins (VO-P) are particularly interesting as they are universally found within biogenic terrestrial carbonaceous materials. Therefore these complexes should constitute ideal biomarkers for the search of traces of primitive life in the most ancient (Lower Archean) geological materials and possibly in some Martian rocks. Vanadium in +4 oxidation state [V(IV)] in the Apex Basalt chert of the Warrawoona group in Western Australia is studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The biogenic origin of the carbonaceous microstructures fossilized in these cherts has been recently opened to question. More than 95% of V(IV) detected in the chert are in the form of VO++ with oxygenated ligands. To test the possibility that these oxygenated vanadyl species originate from the degradation of vanadyl porphyrin complex, we studied by EPR the thermal stability and the degradation mechanism of vanadyl porphyrins encapsulated in SiO2. We observed that degradation occurs by transferring the vanadyl ion from the porphyrin to an oxygenated environment within the SiO2 network, forming a complex very similar to that observed in Apex Basalt chert. We conclude that vanadyl complexes of the Apex Basalt chert likely originate from the degradation of vanadyl porphyrins formed during the precipitation of the silica. As porphyrins are found in all living systems, oxygenated vanadyl complexes in Archean cherts may thus constitute second order biomarkers for early life.

Binet, Laurent; Delpoux, Olivier; Gourier, Didier; Skrzypczak-Bonduelle, Audrey; Vezin, Herve; Derenne, Sylvie

256

The Properties of Galaxies in the First Billion Years, as Revealed by the Hubble Ultra Deep Field 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Ultra Deep Field 2012 (UDF12) provides the deepest near-infrared imaging to date of the high redshift Universe. By effectively doubling the depth of the Wide Field Camera 3 near-infrared imaging in the UDF, with valuable diagnostic imaging through a new additional filter, the UDF12 program considerably enhances our understanding of the rest-frame UV properties of star-forming galaxies in the crucial redshift range z=7-10 when the reionization process is ending. We present the first unbiased measurements of the UV continuum slopes of galaxies at z=7 (and the first meaningful measures at z=8), thereby setting new constraints on the age, metallicity and ionizing photon escape fractions for early galaxies . We also present new results on the sizes of these primeval galaxies with more accuracy than hitherto, and set new constraints on their stellar masses. These new measurements of the physical properties of the emerging population of young galaxies are compared with the predictions of the latest theoretical models of galaxy formation.

Dunlop, James; McLure, R.; Rogers, S.; Ono, Y.; Ouchi, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Ellis, R. S.; Schenker, M.; Robertson, B. E.; UDF12 Team

2013-01-01

257

Physicists believe that our universe began with a huge explosion about thirteen billion years ago, called the Big Bang.  

E-print Network

and neutrons from the quarks, then light atomic nuclei and light atoms. Stars formed later which then, in novas and the explosions of stars called supernovas, led to heavier nuclei and atoms. Our Earth was formed approximately of matter. The research effort at RBRC is concentrated on this new direction of physics. As the history

Kazama, Hokto

258

Alkaline rocks and carbonatites of northwestern Russia and northern Norway: Linked Wilson cycle records extending over two billion years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tectonic analysis reveals a previously unidentified link between alkaline rocks and carbonatites (ARCs) forming the Kola Alkaline and Carbonatite Province (KACP) in Arctic Russia, and ARCs of the Seiland Igneous Province (SIP), in the northern Caledonides of Finnmark, Norway. We here conclude that the rocks of the two provinces have been derived by decompression melting of deformed alkaline rocks and

Kevin Burke; David Roberts; Lewis D. Ashwal

2007-01-01

259

ASTRONOMY 2211: STARS, GALAXIES & COSMOLOGY ! Survey the universe beyond the Solar System out to distances of billions of light years  

E-print Network

of the universe's life. ! Investigate problems in astrophysics using physics and mathematical methods ! See of testing of concepts and also analytical calculations ! You should let me know soon if you will be absent ! Final exam questions will be similar style to the prelim questions. ! Date and Place will be posted

Richardson Jr., James E.

260

A 14.6 billion degrees of freedom, 5 teraflops, 2.5 terabyte earthquake simulation on the Earth Simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use 1944 processors of the Earth Simulator to model seismic wave propagation resulting from large earthquakes. Simulations are conducted based upon the spectral-element method, a high-degree finite-element technique with an exactly diagonal mass matrix. We use a very large mesh with 5.5 billion grid points (14.6 billion degrees of freedom). We include the full complexity of the Earth, i.e.,

Dimitri Komatitsch; Seiji Tsuboi; Chen Ji; Jeroen Tromp

2003-01-01

261

On the constancy of the lunar cratering flux over the past 3.3 billion yr  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Utilizing a method that minimizes random fluctuations in sampling crater populations, it can be shown that the ejecta deposit of Tycho, the floor of Copernicus, and the region surrounding the Apollo 12 landing site have incremental crater size-frequency distributions that can be expressed as log-log linear functions over the diameter range from 0.1 to 1 km. Slopes are indistinguishable for the three populations, probably indicating that the surfaces are dominated by primary craters. Treating the crater populations of Tycho, the floor of Copernicus, and Apollo 12 as primary crater populations contaminated, but not overwhelmed, with secondaries, allows an attempt at calibration of the post-heavy bombardment cratering flux. Using the age of Tycho as 109 m.y., Copernicus as 800 m.y., and Apollo 12 as 3.26 billion yr, there is no basis for assuming that the flux has changed over the past 3.3 billion yr. This result can be used for dating intermediate aged surfaces by crater density.

Guinness, E. A.; Arvidson, R. E.

1977-01-01

262

U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry  

SciTech Connect

The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small-diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result of a burgeoning worldwide demand and concerns about long-term supplies. By the end of the summer, oil pri

Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

2011-08-01

263

Osseointegrated dental implants as alternative therapy to bridge construction or orthodontics in young patients: seven years of clinical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young patients often require fixed bridgework or orthodontic therapy in cases of traumatic tooth loss or congenitally missing teeth. Dental implants represent an alternative to the more conventional treatment methods. We report positive experience over a seven-year period with 42 titanium Ha-Ti implants in 34 patients aged 9 to 18 years. Fourteen implants were placed into prepared tooth sockets immediately

Philippe D. Ledermann; Thomas M. Hassell; Arthur F. Hefti

1993-01-01

264

Overbank Sedimentation in the Delaware River Valley during the Last 6000 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thick sequence of floodplain sediments has accumulated in the Delaware River Valley by the process of overbank deposition. Textures in the sediments indicate that the sequence contains no point-bar deposits and is unbroken by periods of erosion. Fourteen radiocarbon dates show that deposition began at least 6000 years ago and has continued to the present. Because the Delaware River

Dale F. Ritter; W. Fred Kinsey III; Marvin E. Kauffman

1973-01-01

265

Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor  

E-print Network

We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering gallery mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) with an ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor above $10^9$ at $1550$ nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of $2$ nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion $Q$-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of ~$3$. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF$_2$ resonators potentially becomes feasible.

Lin, Guoping; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

2015-01-01

266

Billion-atom synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of critical 3D Ising systems  

SciTech Connect

An extension of the synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo (spkMC) algorithm developed by Martinez et al. [J. Comp. Phys. 227 (2008) 3804] to discrete lattices is presented. The method solves the master equation synchronously by recourse to null events that keep all processors' time clocks current in a global sense. Boundary conflicts are resolved by adopting a chessboard decomposition into non-interacting sublattices. We find that the bias introduced by the spatial correlations attendant to the sublattice decomposition is within the standard deviation of serial calculations, which confirms the statistical validity of our algorithm. We have analyzed the parallel efficiency of spkMC and find that it scales consistently with problem size and sublattice partition. We apply the method to the calculation of scale-dependent critical exponents in billion-atom 3D Ising systems, with very good agreement with state-of-the-art multispin simulations.

Martinez, E. [IMDEA-Materiales, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Monasterio, P.R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Marian, J., E-mail: marian1@llnl.go [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

2011-02-20

267

Leveraging Billions of Faces to Overcome Performance Barriers in Unconstrained Face Recognition  

E-print Network

We employ the face recognition technology developed in house at face.com to a well accepted benchmark and show that without any tuning we are able to considerably surpass state of the art results. Much of the improvement is concentrated in the high-valued performance point of zero false positive matches, where the obtained recall rate almost doubles the best reported result to date. We discuss the various components and innovations of our system that enable this significant performance gap. These components include extensive utilization of an accurate 3D reconstructed shape model dealing with challenges arising from pose and illumination. In addition, discriminative models based on billions of faces are used in order to overcome aging and facial expression as well as low light and overexposure. Finally, we identify a challenging set of identification queries that might provide useful focus for future research.

Taigman, Yaniv

2011-01-01

268

Low sample volume part-per-billion level ion chromatographic analysis method  

SciTech Connect

The author has developed an ion chromatographic method which enables low part-per-billion levels of analysis while minimizing liquid waste generation. This method incorporates several recent technical improvements in ion chromatographic instrumentation to achieve a hundred-fold increase in sensitivity over existing ion chromatographic methods without additional analysis time or sample pre-concentration. This paper outlines the method, establishes the precision and accuracy levels, and discusses the applicability of the method to waste minimization and radiation exposure reduction. The author`s laboratory provides analytical support for many different types of research programs within SRTC and throughout the Savannah River Site. A wide variety of sample types including ground water, organics, laboratory waste, process control, sludge, soils, and others are received for many different analyses. These samples are both radioactive and non-radioactive and may contain hazardous materials such as RCRA metals, organics, and flammable solvents.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1996-12-31

269

Evaluation testing of a portable vapor detector for Part-Per-Billion (PPB) level UDMH and N2H4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace level detection of hydrazine (N2H4), monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) has been receiving increased attention over the past several years. In May 1995 the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) lowered their acceptable threshold limit value (TLV) from 100 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 10 ppb. Several types of ppb-level detectors are being developed by the United States Air Force (USAF) Space and Missile Systems Center (SMSC). A breadboard version of a portable, lightweight hydrazine detection sensor was developed and produced by Giner Corp. for the USAF. This sensor was designed for ppb level UDMH and N2H4 vapor detection in near real-time. This instrument employs electrochemical sensing, utilizing a three electrode cell with an anion-exchange polymer electrolyte membrane as the only electrolyte in the system. The sensing, counter and reference electrodes are bonded to the membrane forming a single component. The only liquid required to maintain the sensor is deionized water which hydrates the membrane. At the request of the USAF SMSC, independent testing and evaluation of the breadboard instrument was performed at NASA's Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) for response to ppb-level N2H4 and UDMH and MMH. The TVDL, located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the unique ability to generate calibrated sample vapor streams of N2H4, UDMH, and MMH over a range from less than 10 ppb to thousands of parts per million (ppm) with full environmental control of relative humidity (0-90%) and temperature (0-50 C). The TVDL routinely performs these types of tests. Referenced sensors were subjected to extensive testing, including precision, linearity, response/recovery times, zero and span drift, humidity and temperature effects as well as ammonia interference. Results of these tests and general operation characteristics are reported.

Curran, Dan; Lueck, Dale E.

1995-01-01

270

Increasing the Number of Minority Youth Ages Twelve through Fourteen Years Involved in the Crisis Intervention Program by Increasing the Number of Minority Adults Involved in the Provision of Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The racial composition of participants in a Florida crisis intervention agency's programs indicated that, among the population at risk, black youth were overrepresented in State delinquency and child welfare programs and underrepresented in the agency's intervention services. This practicum was designed to enhance the agency's ability to reach…

Jennings, Susan

271

FRESHMAN ENGLISH AT FOURTEEN TWO-YEAR COLLEGES--JUNIOR COLLEGE OF ALBANY, AMARILLO, BAKERSFIELD, BECKLEY, CALIFORNIA CONCORDIA, CAZENOVIA, GRAND VIEW, HARCUM, LAKEWOOD STATE, MIAMI-DADE, AND COLBY, JEFFERSON, MONROE COUNTY, AND PORTLAND COMMUNITY COLLEGES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FOR A REPORT ON FRESHMAN COMPOSITION PROGRAMS, THE ASSOCIATION OF DEPARTMENTS OF ENGLISH OBTAINED SYLLABI AND COURSE DESCRIPTIONS FROM DIRECTORS OF FRESHMAN COMPOSITION AT 66 COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. AMONG THE DATA ASSEMBELED FOR THE FULL REPORT (AVAILABLE AS TE 500 190) ARE THE DESCRIPTIONS, CONTAINED HERE, OF FRESHMAN ENGLISH PROGRAMS AT 14…

NELSON, BONNIE E., COMP.

272

Lives of Promise: What Becomes of High School Valedictorians. A Fourteen-Year Study of Achievement and Life Choices. The Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reports on the Illinois Valedictorian Project, an ongoing longitudinal study of the life paths of 81 high school valedictorians. Chapter 1 describes the 1981 high school graduation of the valedictorians and traces the diverging life paths of two top working-class students. Chapter 2 plots the road to the top of the high school class.…

Arnold, Karen D.

273

his year the International Social and Cultural Diversity course was taught in India. Fourteen students from GW's Art Therapy and Psychology programs and one student from Boston University's Occupational Therapy program  

E-print Network

's Occupational Therapy program traveled to Chennai, India led by Heidi Bardot and Lisa Garlock with the help students from GW's Art Therapy and Psychology programs and one student from Boston University, as the therapist, were the minority." Experiences in India 2 Integrating the Arts 3 Director's Cut 4 GW Art Therapy

Schmitt, William R.

274

A Content Analysis and Comparison of Themes in Fiction with the Subject of an Alcoholic Parent Written for Children Ages Ten to Fourteen Years in the Sixties and in the Eighties. A Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the themes in children's fiction with the subject of an alcoholic parent and evaluated the treatment of the subject in novels from the 1960s and the 1980s. It was hypothesized that, compared to writings from the 1960s, writings from the 1980s would more often contain references to the disease concept of alcoholism, would more…

Van Opdorp, Beth McMenamin

275

What is the global economic impact of Neospora caninum in cattle - the billion dollar question.  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is regarded as one of the most important infectious causes of abortions in cattle worldwide, yet the global economic impact of the infection has not been established. A systematic review of the economic impact of N. caninum infections/abortions was conducted, searching PubMed with the terms 'cattle' and 'Neospora'. This yielded 769 publications and the abstracts were screened for economically relevant information (e.g. abortion prevalence and risk, serological prevalence). Further analysis was restricted to countries with at least five relevant publications. In total, 99 studies (12.9%) from 10 countries contained data from the beef industry (25 papers (25.3%)) and 72 papers (72.8%) from the dairy industry (with the remaining two papers (2.0%) describing general abortion statistics). The total annual cost of N. caninum infections/abortions was estimated to range from a median US $1.1 million in the New Zealand beef industry to an estimated median total of US $546.3 million impact per annum in the US dairy population. The estimate for the total median N. caninum-related losses exceeded US $1.298 billion per annum, ranging as high as US $2.380 billion. Nearly two-thirds of the losses were incurred by the dairy industry (US $842.9 million). Annual losses on individual dairy farms were estimated to reach a median of US $1,600.00, while on beef farms these costs amounted to just US $150.00. Pregnant cows and heifers were estimated to incur, on average, a loss due to N. caninum of less than US $20.00 for dairy and less than US $5.00 for beef. These loss estimates, however, rose to ?US $110.00 and US $40.00, respectively, for N. caninum-infected pregnant dairy and beef cows. This estimate of global losses due to N. caninum, with the identification of clear target markets (countries, as well as cattle industries), should provide an incentive to develop treatment options and/or vaccines. PMID:23246675

Reichel, Michael P; Alejandra Ayanegui-Alcérreca, M; Gondim, Luís F P; Ellis, John T

2013-02-01

276

Global MSW Generation in 2007 estimated at two billion tons Global Waste Management Market Assessment 2007, Key Note Publications Ltd ,  

E-print Network

Global MSW Generation in 2007 estimated at two billion tons Global Waste Management Market. Industrial waste generally has a greater tonnage than MSW, but its management is the responsibility of relatively small and specific sectors of society. Environmentally acceptable waste-management practices

Columbia University

277

A PCT funding formula for England based on faith may be wasting billions1 Mervyn Stone and Jane Galbraith  

E-print Network

A PCT funding formula for England based on faith may be wasting billions1 Mervyn Stone and Jane title of an article in Health Service Journal on the then new Primary Care Trust (PCT) funding formula). These were calculated for each PCT by the formula: (Unified Target Population) ¡£¢¥¤§¦§¨© HCHS

Guillas, Serge

278

Indexing and Fast Near-Matching of Billions of Astronomical Objects Bin Fu, Eugene Fink, Garth Gibson, and Jaime Carbonell  

E-print Network

Indexing and Fast Near-Matching of Billions of Astronomical Objects Bin Fu, Eugene Fink, Garth ignore the third spatial coordinate, that is, the distance from Earth to the object, since the newly observed celestial objects in the catalog of known objects. We have developed a technique

279

WHY SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL AND HOW TO DETECT ANOTHER 10 BILLION SMALL MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS. Henning Haack1  

E-print Network

WHY SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL ­ AND HOW TO DETECT ANOTHER 10 BILLION SMALL MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS. Henning. Introduction: Estimates of the size distribution of main belt asteroids suggest that there is a population- tant sub-kilometer asteroids in the main belt. Long intergration times cannot be used unless the object

Andersen, Anja C.

280

GERLUMPH Data Release 2: 2.5 Billion Simulated Microlensing Light Curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the upcoming synoptic all-sky survey era of astronomy, thousands of new multiply imaged quasars are expected to be discovered and monitored regularly. Light curves from the images of gravitationally lensed quasars are further affected by superimposed variability due to microlensing. In order to disentangle the microlensing from the intrinsic variability of the light curves, the time delays between the multiple images have to be accurately measured. The resulting microlensing light curves can then be analyzed to reveal information about the background source, such as the size of the quasar accretion disk. In this paper we present the most extensive and coherent collection of simulated microlensing light curves; we have generated \\gt 2.5 billion light curves using the GERLUMPH high resolution microlensing magnification maps. Our simulations can be used to train algorithms to measure lensed quasar time delays, plan future monitoring campaigns, and study light curve properties throughout parameter space. Our data are openly available to the community and are complemented by online eResearch tools, located at http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au.

Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.; Bate, N. F.; Croton, D.; Vohl, D.

2015-04-01

281

Broadcasts for a billion: the growth of commercial television in China.  

PubMed

At present, Chinese television reaches 35% of the population (80-90% in urban areas) and is used by the government as a source of education and information. In recognition of the potential market represented by 1.1 billions consumers, Western advertisers have commissioned elaborate market research studies. Drama, sports, news, and movies are consistently identified as the favorite type of programming among Chinese television viewers. About 75% of Beijing adults watch television daily, making the medium both an important target for advertising campaigns and a way for Westerners to influence Chinese business and government leaders. Western advertisers have tended to concentrate their investments in the more urban, affluent regions where products have the greatest likelihood of being sold. There has been a recent trend, however, toward industrial commercials, with British and French companies buying television time to promote their image as partners in China's modernization. Key to the future of commercial advertising on Chinese Television. In many provinces, local television stations have developed a unique character and portray different sociocultural values than the national channel. Outside advertisers have sometimes experienced problems with local networks that substitute local advertising without informing the network. To correct this situation, the government is enacting pro-sponsor regulations that forbid the preemption of the national channel and its advertisements. At the same time, efforts are being made to improve relationships with local television stations by either paying them a fee or airing local commercials on the national network. PMID:12342936

Schmuck, C

1987-01-01

282

Biomolecular electrostatics using a fast multipole BEM on up to 512 GPUs and a billion unknowns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present teraflop-scale calculations of biomolecular electrostatics enabled by the combination of algorithmic and hardware acceleration. The algorithmic acceleration is achieved with the fast multipole method ( FMM) in conjunction with a boundary element method ( BEM) formulation of the continuum electrostatic model, as well as the BIBEE approximation to BEM. The hardware acceleration is achieved through graphics processors, GPUs. We demonstrate the power of our algorithms and software for the calculation of the electrostatic interactions between biological molecules in solution. The applications demonstrated include the electrostatics of protein-drug binding and several multi-million atom systems consisting of hundreds to thousands of copies of lysozyme molecules. The parallel scalability of the software was studied in a cluster at the Nagasaki Advanced Computing Center, using 128 nodes, each with 4 GPUs. Delicate tuning has resulted in strong scaling with parallel efficiency of 0.8 for 256 and 0.5 for 512 GPUs. The largest application run, with over 20 million atoms and one billion unknowns, required only one minute on 512 GPUs. We are currently adapting our BEM software to solve the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation for dilute ionic solutions, and it is also designed to be flexible enough to be extended for a variety of integral equation problems, ranging from Poisson problems to Helmholtz problems in electromagnetics and acoustics to high Reynolds number flow.

Yokota, Rio; Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Knepley, Matthew G.; Barba, L. A.; Hamada, Tsuyoshi

2011-06-01

283

Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters  

PubMed Central

We present a framework for allocating a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of “common but differentiated responsibilities” refers to the emissions of individuals instead of nations. We use the income distribution of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO2 emissions are distributed among its citizens, from which we build up a global CO2 distribution. We then propose a simple rule to derive a universal cap on global individual emissions and find corresponding limits on national aggregate emissions from this cap. All of the world's high CO2-emitting individuals are treated the same, regardless of where they live. Any future global emission goal (target and time frame) can be converted into national reduction targets, which are determined by “Business as Usual” projections of national carbon emissions and in-country income distributions. For example, reducing projected global emissions in 2030 by 13 GtCO2 would require the engagement of 1.13 billion high emitters, roughly equally distributed in 4 regions: the U.S., the OECD minus the U.S., China, and the non-OECD minus China. We also modify our methodology to place a floor on emissions of the world's lowest CO2 emitters and demonstrate that climate mitigation and alleviation of extreme poverty are largely decoupled. PMID:19581586

Chakravarty, Shoibal; Chikkatur, Ananth; de Coninck, Heleen; Pacala, Stephen; Socolow, Robert; Tavoni, Massimo

2009-01-01

284

Assessment of the Projected One Billion Ton Biomass for Cellulosic Biofuel Production and Its Potential Implications on Regional Water Quality and Availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DOE and USDA joint study, also commonly referred as the "Billion-Ton" study, assessed the cellulosic feedstock resources potential in the U.S. for producing second generation biofuel to replace 30 percent of the country's transportation fuels by year 2030. The available resource is expected to come from changing cropping pattern, increasing crop yield, harvesting agricultural and forest wood residues, and developing energy crops. Such large-scale changes in land use and crop managements are likely to affect the associated water quality and resources at both regional and local scales. To address the water sustainability associated with the projected biomass production in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), we have developed a SWAT watershed model that simulate the changes in water quality (nitrogen, phosphorus, and soil erosion) and resources (soil water content, evapotranspiration, and runoff) of the region due to future biomass production scenario estimated by the Billion-Ton study. The scenario is implemented by changing the model inputs and parameters at subbasin and hydrologic response unit levels, as well as by improving the SWAT model to represent spatially varying crop properties. The potential impacts on water quality and water availability were compared with the results obtained from a baseline simulation which represents current watershed conditions and existing level of feedstock production. The basin level results suggested mixed effects on the water quality. The projected large-scale biomass production scenario is expected to decrease loadings of total nitrogen and nitrate in the streams while increase total phosphorus and suspended sediment. Results indicate an increase in the rate of evapotranspiration and a decrease in the soil water content and in surface runoff. discharge to the streams. The impacts at the subbasin or local scale varies spatially and temporally depending on the types of land use change, their locations, and crop managements, suggesting needs to further optimize the sustainable biomass production from water resource perspective at both regional and local levels.

Demissie, Y. K.; Yan, E.; Wu, M.

2011-12-01

285

Combined Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Parent Training for Childhood Depression: 2- to 3-Year Follow-up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen children with significant depressive symptoms from an open clinical trial of Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training augmented with Caregiver-Child Relationship Enhancement Training, participated in a 2- to 3-year follow-up assessment. The results suggested that the significant decreases in depressive symptoms observed at…

Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

2013-01-01

286

The Effect of Text Messaging on 9- and 10-Year-Old Children's Reading, Spelling and Phonological Processing Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an intervention study that considered the impact of text messaging on 9- to 10-year-old children's literacy skills. One hundred and fourteen children who had never owned a mobile phone before were recruited and randomly allocated to either the intervention or control conditions. All children were pre- and post-tested on a…

Wood, C.; Jackson, E.; Hart, L.; Plester, B.; Wilde, L.

2011-01-01

287

Seeing the forest for the trees: tourism and the International Year of Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The year 2011 is the United Nations International Year of Forests. In addition to performing extremely significant environmental, economic, and social services, forests are also important tourism attractions in their own right and locations for recreation and tourism activities. The limited statistical data available suggest that there are billions of tourism and recreational visits to forests each year. This paper

C. Michael Hall

2011-01-01

288

Reagan Seeks a Record $8.8-Billion for Aid to Students: $9.2-Billion Would Go to University R&D, Up 13 Pct.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Reagan abandoned his seven-year effort to make drastic reductions in federal spending on education, recommending record high amounts for programs aiding colleges and students. However, the administration suggested curtailments in some programs, including college construction and renovation. (MSE)

Wilson, Robin; And Others

1988-01-01

289

Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country's present petroleum consumption--the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

Perlack, R.D.

2005-12-15

290

Molecular dynamics beyonds the limits: massive scaling on 72 racks of a BlueGene/P and supercooled glass transition of a 1 billion particles system  

E-print Network

We report scaling results on the world's largest supercomputer of our recently developed Billions-Body Molecular Dynamics (BBMD) package, which was especially designed for massively parallel simulations of the atomic dynamics in structural glasses and amorphous materials. The code was able to scale up to 72 racks of an IBM BlueGene/P, with a measured 89% efficiency for a system with 100 billion particles. The code speed, with less than 0.14 seconds per iteration in the case of 1 billion particles, paves the way to the study of billion-body structural glasses with a resolution increase of two orders of magnitude with respect to the largest simulation ever reported. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our code by studying the liquid-glass transition of an exceptionally large system made by a binary mixture of 1 billion particles.

Allsopp, N; Fratalocchi, A

2011-01-01

291

Molecular dynamics beyonds the limits: Massive scaling on 72 racks of a BlueGene/P and supercooled glass dynamics of a 1 billion particles system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report scaling results on the world's largest supercomputer of our recently developed Billions-Body Molecular Dynamics (BBMD) package, which was especially designed for massively parallel simulations of the short-range atomic dynamics in structural glasses and amorphous materials. The code was able to scale up to 72 racks of an IBM BlueGene/P, with a measured 89% efficiency for a system with 100 billion particles. The code speed, with 0.13 s per iteration in the case of 1 billion particles, paves the way to the study of billion-body structural glasses with a resolution increase of two orders of magnitude with respect to the largest simulation ever reported. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our code by studying the liquid-glass transition of an exceptionally large system made by a binary mixture of 1 billion particles.

Allsopp, Nicholas; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Fratalocchi, Andrea

2012-04-01

292

No Photon Left Behind: How Billions of Spectral Lines are Transforming Planetary Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of realistic potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) descriptions, theoretically computed linelists can now synthesize accurate spectral parameters for billions of spectral lines sampling the untamed high-energy molecular domain. Being the initial driver for these databases the characterization of stellar spectra, these theoretical databases, in combination with decades of precise experimental studies (nicely compiled in community databases such as HITRAN and GEISA), are leading to unprecedented precisions in the characterization of planetary atmospheres. Cometary sciences are among the most affected by this spectroscopic revolution. Even though comets are relatively cold bodies (T˜100 K), their infrared molecular emission is mainly defined by non-LTE solar fluorescence induced by a high-energy source (Sun, T˜5600 K). In order to interpret high-resolution spectra of comets acquired with extremely powerful telescopes (e.g., Keck, VLT, NASA-IRTF), we have developed advanced non-LTE fluorescence models that integrate the high-energy dynamic range of ab-initio databases (e.g., BT2, VTT, HPT2, BYTe, TROVE) and the precision of laboratory and semi-empirical compilations (e.g., HITRAN, GEISA, CDMS, WKMC, SELP, IUPAC). These new models allow us to calculate realistic non-LTE pumps, cascades, branching-ratios, and emission rates for a broad range of excitation regimes for H2O, HDO, HCN, HNC and NH3. We have implemented elements of these compilations to the study of Mars spectra, and we are now exploring its application to modeling non-LTE emission in exoplanets. In this presentation, we present application of these advanced models to interpret highresolution spectra of comets, Mars and exoplanets.

Villanueva, Geronimo L.

2014-06-01

293

Survey of lands held for uranium exploration, development, and production in fourteen western states in the six-month period ending June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The statistics set forth for the period covered in this report are based on data gathered from records available to the public. The county records of mining claim locations, reports of state and federal land offices, and commercial reporting services furnish the data for this report. Accordingly, if any fee land has been acquired in a private transaction not entered into a public record or report, that land transaction will not be accounted for in this report. Manpower is not available to survey, acquire, and evaluate data from each available source in each reporting period. Therefore, in any given report, the figures quoted for one or more land categories in a given state may be identical to the figures shown in earlier reports even though some changes probably have occurred. Such changes will be shown on subsequent reports. The figures used for acreage controlled at the beginning of the calendar year are those published for that date in Statistical Data of the Uranium Industry GJ0-100 published and distributed by the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy.

Not Available

1981-01-01

294

Multimillion-to-billion atom molecular dynamics simulations of deformation, damage, nanoindentation, and fracture in silica glass and energetic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimillion-to-billion molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to study atomistic mechanisms of deformation, damage and failure in silica glass and energetic materials. The simulations are based on experimentally validated interatomic potentials and employ highly efficiently algorithms for parallel architectures. The onset of void-void interaction is investigated by performing MD simulations of amorphous silica under hydrostatic tension. The simulations reveal

Yi-Chun Chen

2008-01-01

295

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2011  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Budget includes three new robust exploration programs: (1) Technology demonstration program, $7.8 five years. Funds the development and demonstration of technologies that reduce the cost and expand the capabilities of future exploration activities, including in-orbit refueling and storage. (2) Heavy-Lift and Propulsion R&D, $3.1 billion over five years. Funds R&D for new launch systems, propellants, materials, and combustion processes. (3) Robotic precursor missions, $3.0 billion over five years. Funds cost-effective means to scout exploration targets and identify hazards and resources for human visitation and habitation. In addition, the Budget enhances the current Human Research Program by 42%; and supports the Participatory Exploration Program at 5 million per year for activities across many NASA programs.

2010-01-01

296

Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences.  

PubMed

We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA) sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime) and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity). Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to "classic" open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, "classic" open-reference OTU clustering is often faster). We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons). To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of "classic" open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by "classic" open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME's uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository) that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced). Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in QIIME's OTU picking workflows and make recommendations on settings for these free parameters to optimize runtime without reducing the quality of the results. These optimized parameters can vastly decrease the runtime of uclust-based OTU picking in QIIME. PMID:25177538

Rideout, Jai Ram; He, Yan; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Walters, William A; Ursell, Luke K; Gibbons, Sean M; Chase, John; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Clemente, Jose C; Gilbert, Jack A; Huse, Susan M; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory

2014-01-01

297

Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences  

PubMed Central

We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA) sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime) and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity). Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to “classic” open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, “classic” open-reference OTU clustering is often faster). We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons). To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of “classic” open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by “classic” open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME’s uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository) that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced). Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in QIIME’s OTU picking workflows and make recommendations on settings for these free parameters to optimize runtime without reducing the quality of the results. These optimized parameters can vastly decrease the runtime of uclust-based OTU picking in QIIME. PMID:25177538

Rideout, Jai Ram; He, Yan; Navas-Molina, Jose A.; Walters, William A.; Ursell, Luke K.; Gibbons, Sean M.; Chase, John; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Clemente, Jose C.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Huse, Susan M.; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Knight, Rob

2014-01-01

298

Major Historical Milestones Reached by Pro-Abortionists - 50 Million & 1 Billion Barriers Shattered  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pro-abortion movement in America has reached several major historical milestones which should be recognized by those members of the liberal and social left. This year, 2008, just 38 years after the passage of Roe versus Wade, a golden moment has been achieved as 50 million abortions have now been performed in America since the passage of the federal law.

Jordan Christopher

299

Fourteen Points for Energy Conservation in Lighting  

E-print Network

. Secondly, the fixtures may be of an open bottom type that will allow the dust to fallout of the fixture. In a lens fixture the dust could settle on that horizontal sur face and block 1i ght. 10% or 15% more 1i ght trapped ina 1ens fi xture, than...

Zekowski, G.

1979-01-01

300

Fourteen cases of imposed upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imposed upper airway obstruction was diagnosed as the cause of recurrent and severe cyanotic episodes in 14 patients. Episodes started between 0.8 and 33 months of age (median 1.4) and occurred over a period of 0.8 to 20 months (median 3.5). Diagnosis was made by covert video surveillance, instituted after either (a) the observation that episodes began only in the

M P Samuels; W McClaughlin; R R Jacobson; C F Poets; D P Southall

1992-01-01

301

Old Sol's new use Fourteen solar ar-  

E-print Network

of a teenage girl by armed men is hardly unusual. The eastern DRC has been swept up in a maelstrom of violence,withlimbs chopped off by machetes, or raped while husbands and children are killed, houses razed, and crops burned

302

Overbank Sedimentation in the Delaware River Valley during the Last 6000 Years.  

PubMed

A thick sequence of floodplain sediments has accumulated in the Delaware River Valley by the process of overbank deposition. Textures in the sediments indicate that the sequence contains no point-bar deposits and is unbroken by periods of erosion. Fourteen radiocarbon dates show that deposition began at least 6000 years ago and has continued to the present. Because the Delaware River shifts its position laterally at a very slow rate, overbank deposition becomes dominant in the construction of its floodplain. PMID:17843764

Ritter, D F; Kinsey, W F; Kauffman, M E

1973-01-26

303

The apoptotic machinery as a biological complex system: analysis of its omics and evolution, identification of candidate genes for fourteen major types of cancer, and experimental validation in CML and neuroblastoma  

PubMed Central

Background Apoptosis is a critical biological phenomenon, executed under the guidance of the Apoptotic Machinery (AM), which allows the physiologic elimination of terminally differentiated, senescent or diseased cells. Because of its relevance to BioMedicine, we have sought to obtain a detailed characterization of AM Omics in Homo sapiens, namely its Genomics and Evolution, Transcriptomics, Proteomics, Interactomics, Oncogenomics, and Pharmacogenomics. Methods This project exploited the methodology commonly used in Computational Biology (i.e., mining of many omics databases of the web) as well as the High Throughput biomolecular analytical techniques. Results In Homo sapiens AM is comprised of 342 protein-encoding genes (possessing either anti- or pro-apoptotic activity, or a regulatory function) and 110 MIR-encoding genes targeting them: some have a critical role within the system (core AM nodes), others perform tissue-, pathway-, or disease-specific functions (peripheral AM nodes). By overlapping the cancer type-specific AM mutation map in the fourteen most frequent cancers in western societies (breast, colon, kidney, leukaemia, liver, lung, neuroblastoma, ovary, pancreas, prostate, skin, stomach, thyroid, and uterus) to their transcriptome, proteome and interactome in the same tumour type, we have identified the most prominent AM molecular alterations within each class. The comparison of the fourteen mutated AM networks (both protein- as MIR-based) has allowed us to pinpoint the hubs with a general and critical role in tumour development and, conversely, in cell physiology: in particular, we found that some of these had already been used as targets for pharmacological anticancer therapy. For a better understanding of the relationship between AM molecular alterations and pharmacological induction of apoptosis in cancer, we examined the expression of AM genes in K562 and SH-SY5Y after anticancer treatment. Conclusion We believe that our data on the Apoptotic Machinery will lead to the identification of new cancer genes and to the discovery of new biomarkers, which could then be used to profile cancers for diagnostic purposes and to pinpoint new targets for pharmacological therapy. This approach could pave the way for future studies and applications in molecular and clinical Medicine with important perspectives both for Oncology as for Regenerative Medicine. PMID:19402918

Di Pietro, Cinzia; Ragusa, Marco; Barbagallo, Davide; Duro, Laura R; Guglielmino, Maria R; Majorana, Alessandra; Angelica, Rosario; Scalia, Marina; Statello, Luisa; Salito, Loredana; Tomasello, Luisa; Pernagallo, Salvo; Valenti, Salvo; D'Agostino, Vito; Triberio, Patrizio; Tandurella, Igor; Palumbo, Giuseppe A; La Cava, Piera; Cafiso, Viviana; Bertuccio, Taschia; Santagati, Maria; Li Destri, Giovanni; Lanzafame, Salvatore; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Stefani, Stefania; Mishra, Bud; Purrello, Michele

2009-01-01

304

With GI Bill's Billions at Stake, Colleges Compete to Lure Veterans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the Post-9/11 GI Bill nears its fourth year, with more than 550,000 veterans enrolled in thousands of institutions, advocacy groups, lawmakers, and President Obama warn that veterans are vulnerable in a higher-education marketplace eager for their GI Bill dollars--with some purveyors, particularly for-profits, recruiting aggressively. The…

Sander, Libby

2012-01-01

305

VALUE-ADDING 20 BILLION BY 2005: IMPACT AT THE ALBERTA FARM GATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction In recent years in Canada, direct support provided by governments to the agricultural sector has been decreasing due to international obligations under the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade\\/World Trade Organization (GATT\\/WTO) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Consequently, governments and the agriculture industry are exploring ways of generating and sustaining farmers' revenue from the marketplace. In

James R. Unterschultz; Scott R. Jeffrey; Kwamena K. Quagrainie

2000-01-01

306

White Light Demonstration of One Hundred Parts per Billion Irradiance Suppression in Air by New Starshade Occulters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new mission concept for the direct imaging of exo-solar planets called the New Worlds Observer (NWO) has been proposed. The concept involves flying a meter-class space telescope in formation with a newly-conceived, specially-shaped, deployable star-occulting shade several meters across at a separation of some tens of thousands of kilometers. The telescope would make its observations from behind the starshade in a volume of high suppression of incident irradiance from the star around which planets orbit. The required level of irradiance suppression created by the starshade for an efficacious mission is of order 0.1 to 10 parts per billion in broadband light. This paper discusses the experimental setup developed to accurately measure the suppression ratio of irradiance produced at the null position behind candidate starshade forms to these levels. It also presents results of broadband measurements which demonstrated suppression levels of just under 100 parts per billion in air using the Sun as a light source. Analytical modeling of spatial irradiance distributions surrounding the null are presented and compared with photographs of irradiance captured in situ behind candidate starshades.

Levinton, Douglas B.; Cash, Webster C.; Gleason, Brian; Kaiser, Michael J.; Levine, Sara A.; Lo, Amy S.; Schindhelm, Eric; Shipley, Ann F.

2007-01-01

307

Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSCIA and CSHIA) has been increasingly used to study the source, transport, and bioremediation of organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. In natural aquatic systems, dissolved contaminants represent the bioavailable fraction that generally is of the greatest toxicological significance. However, determining the isotopic ratios of waterborne hydrophobic contaminants in natural waters is very challenging because of their extremely low concentrations (often at sub-parts ber billion, or even lower). To acquire sufficient quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 10 ng/L concentration for CSHIA, more than 1000 L of water must be extracted. Conventional liquid/liquid or solid-phase extraction is not suitable for such large volume extractions. We have developed a new approach that is capable of efficiently sampling sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons for CSIA. We use semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants from polluted waters and then recover the compounds in the laboratory for CSIA. In this study, we demonstrate, under a variety of experimental conditions (different concentrations, temperatures, and turbulence levels), that SPMD-associated processes do not induce C and H isotopic fractionations. The applicability of SPMD-CSIA technology to natural systems is further demonstrated by determining the ??13C and ??D values of petroleum hydrocarbons present in the Pawtuxet River, RI. Our results show that the combined SPMD-CSIA is an effective tool to investigate the source and fate of hydrophobic contaminants in the aquatic environments.

Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

2004-01-01

308

After Imbrium, Before Babylon: Solar System's Middle Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In planetary science we tend to assume that the Solar System more-or-less settled in its present state after about 3.8 Gyr ago. I will argue that many interesting things have been happening over the past few billions of years, and show some examples from my work. These include depletion of Hungaria-group asteroids, past orbital resonances between the Moon and the planets, and possible destruction and re-accretion of Saturn's mid-sized moons.

Cuk, Matija

2014-11-01

309

A strategy for sequencing the genome 5 years early  

SciTech Connect

In meetings over the past 6 weeks, two respected gene sequencers have been delivering the message that the chief goal of the Human Genome Project - obtaining a complete sequence of the 3 billion bases in human DNA - can be achieved as early as 2001, 5 years ahead of schedule. This assumes a basic shift from mapping to sequencing. The interest in and controversy surrounding this announcement are discussed in this article.

Marshall, E.

1995-02-10

310

Light Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from Shedding Light on Science describes how astronomical distances can be measured in units of light-years, and how the finite speed of light allows astronomers to study how the universe looked long ago.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2007-08-09

311

1.8 billion years of fluid-crust interaction: A zircon oxygen isotope record for the lower crust, western Churchill Province, Canadian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield experienced a prolonged and complex formation history (ca. 4.04 to 1.70 Ga), with evidence for multiple episodes of orogenesis and regional magmatic activity. Here we report on the oxygen isotopic compositions of garnet and zircon recovered from lower crustal xenoliths, which have U-Pb ages between ca. 3.5 and 1.7 Ga. Overall, zircon from four metabasite xenoliths from the Rankin Inlet sample suite have ?18O values ranging from + 5.5 to + 8.6‰. Zircon from three metatonalite/anorthosite xenoliths and five metabasite xenoliths from the Repulse Bay sample suite have ?18O values of + 5.6 to + 8.3‰. High ?18O values (> + 6.0‰) for the oldest igneous zircon cores (ca. 3.5 Ga and 3.0-2.6 Ga) indicate that their metatonalite/anorthosite protolith magmas were generated from, or had assimilated, supracrustal rocks that interacted previously with surface-derived fluids. Igneous zircon cores (ca. 2.9-2.6 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith have ?18O values of + 5.6 to + 6.4‰, which suggests a formation from a mantle-derived basaltic/gabbroic magma. Metamorphic zircon cores (ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith commonly have ?18O values between + 6.0 and + 6.3‰, which is indicative of a basalt/gabbro protolith and localized reworking of the lower crust caused by regional-scale plate convergence. The wide range of ?18O values (+ 5.5 to + 8.3‰) for ca. 1.75-1.70 Ga metamorphic zircon rims (identified in all xenoliths) indicates regional transient heating and reworking of mantle- and supracrustal-derived crust, induced by magmatic underplating along the crust-mantle boundary.

Petts, Duane C.; Moser, Desmond E.; Longstaffe, Frederick J.; Davis, William J.; Stern, Richard A.

2014-04-01

312

The UV colours of high-redshift early-type galaxies: evidence for recent star formation and stellar mass assembly over the last 8 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine deep optical and NIR (UBVRIzJK) photometry from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC) with redshifts from the COMBO-17 survey to perform a large-scale study of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties of 674 high-redshift (0.5 < z < 1) early-type galaxies, drawn from the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDFS). Galaxy morphologies are determined through visual inspection of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images taken from the GEMS survey. We harness the sensitivity of the UV to young (<1-Gyr old) stars to quantify the recent star formation history of early-type galaxies across a range of luminosities [-23.5 < M(V) < -18]. Comparisons to simple stellar populations forming at high redshift indicate that ~1.1 per cent of early-types in this sample are consistent with purely passive ageing since z = 2 - this value drops to ~0.24 per cent and ~0.15 per cent for z = 3 and 5, respectively. Parametrizing the recent star formation (RSF) in terms of the mass fraction of stars less than a Gyr old, we find that the early-type population as a whole shows a typical RSF between 5 and 13 per cent in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 1. Early-types on the broad UV `red sequence' show RSF values less than 5 per cent, while the reddest early-types (which are also the most luminous) are virtually quiescent with RSF values of ~1 per cent. In contrast to their low-redshift (z < 0.1) counterparts, the high-redshift early-types in this sample show a pronounced bimodality in the rest-frame UV-optical colour, with a minor but significant peak centred on the blue cloud. Furthermore, star formation in the most active early-types is a factor of 2 greater at z ~ 0.7 than in the local universe. Given that evolved sources of UV flux (e.g. horizontal branch stars) should be absent at z > 0.5, implying that the UV is dominated by young stars, we find compelling evidence that early-types of all luminosities form stars over the lifetime of the Universe, although the bulk of their star formation is already complete at high redshift. This `tail-end' of star formation is measurable and not negligible, with luminous [-23 < M(V) < -20.5] early-types potentially forming 10-15 per cent of their mass since z = 1, with less luminous early-types [M(V) > -20.5] potentially forming 30-60 per cent of their mass after z = 1. This, in turn, implies that intermediate-age stellar populations should be abundant in local early-type galaxies, as expected in hierarchical cosmology.

Kaviraj, S.; Khochfar, S.; Schawinski, K.; Yi, S. K.; Gawiser, E.; Silk, J.; Virani, S. N.; Cardamone, C. N.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Urry, C. M.

2008-07-01

313

Nursery and landscape industries are fast growing segments of U.S. agriculture, contributing around $147 billion each year to the U.S.  

E-print Network

to initiate successful rapid responses to outbreaks of emerald ash borer and sudden oak death. Another major by NCERA-193 members have shed light on the biology and behavior of invasive insect pests such as emerald ash borer, pink hibiscus mealybug, chili thrips, grand fir twig borer, viburnum leaf beetle

Rutledge, Steven

314

LoCuSS: THE STEADY DECLINE AND SLOW QUENCHING OF STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTER GALAXIES OVER THE LAST FOUR BILLION YEARS  

SciTech Connect

We present an analysis of the levels and evolution of star formation activity in a representative sample of 30 massive galaxy clusters at 0.15 < z < 0.30 from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey, combining wide-field Spitzer/MIPS 24 ?m data with extensive spectroscopy of cluster members. The specific SFRs of massive (M > or approx. 10{sup 10} M{sub ?}) star-forming cluster galaxies within r{sub 200} are found to be systematically ?28% lower than their counterparts in the field at fixed stellar mass and redshift, a difference significant at the 8.7? level. This is the unambiguous signature of star formation in most (and possibly all) massive star-forming galaxies being slowly quenched upon accretion into massive clusters, their star formation rates (SFRs) declining exponentially on quenching timescales in the range 0.7-2.0 Gyr. We measure the mid-infrared Butcher-Oemler effect over the redshift range 0.0-0.4, finding rapid evolution in the fraction (f{sub SF}) of massive (M{sub K} < – 23.1) cluster galaxies within r{sub 200} with SFRs > 3 M{sub ?} yr{sup –1}, of the form f{sub SF}?(1 + z){sup 7.6±1.1}. We dissect the origins of the Butcher-Oemler effect, revealing it to be due to the combination of a ?3 × decline in the mean specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies since z ? 0.3 with a ?1.5 × decrease in number density. Two-thirds of this reduction in the specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies is due to the steady cosmic decline in the specific SFRs among those field galaxies accreted into the clusters. The remaining one-third reflects an accelerated decline in the star formation activity of galaxies within clusters. The slow quenching of star formation in cluster galaxies is consistent with a gradual shut down of star formation in infalling spiral galaxies as they interact with the intracluster medium via ram-pressure stripping or starvation mechanisms. The observed sharp decline in star formation activity among cluster galaxies since z ? 0.4 likely reflects the increased susceptibility of low-redshift spiral galaxies to gas removal mechanisms as their gas surface densities decrease with time. We find no evidence for the build-up of cluster S0 bulges via major nuclear starburst episodes.

Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Egami, E.; Rawle, T. D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Smith, G. P.; Sanderson, A. J. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Babul, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-0014 Helsinki (Finland); Merluzzi, P.; Busarello, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Okabe, N., E-mail: cphaines@as.arizona.edu [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2013-10-01

315

Galaxy Zoo: an independent look at the evolution of the bar fraction over the last eight billion years from HST-COSMOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measure the redshift evolution of the bar fraction in a sample of 2380 visually selected disc galaxies found in Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. The visual classifications used both to identify the disc sample and to indicate the presence of stellar bars were provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) project. We find that the overall bar fraction decreases by a factor of 2, from 22 ± 5 per cent at z = 0.4 (tlb = 4.2 Gyr) to 11 ± 2 per cent at z = 1.0 (tlb = 7.8 Gyr), consistent with previous analysis. We show that this decrease, of the strong bar fraction in a volume limited sample of massive disc galaxies [stellar mass limit of log (M?/M?) ? 10.0], cannot be due to redshift-dependent biases hiding either bars or disc galaxies at higher redshifts. Splitting our sample into three bins of mass we find that the decrease in bar fraction is most prominent in the highest mass bin, while the lower mass discs in our sample show a more modest evolution. We also include a sample of 98 red disc galaxies. These galaxies have a high bar fraction (45 ± 5 per cent), and are missing from other COSMOS samples which used SED fitting or colours to identify high-redshift discs. Our results are consistent with a picture in which the evolution of massive disc galaxies begins to be affected by slow (secular) internal process at z ˜ 1. We discuss possible connections of the decrease in bar fraction to the redshift, including the growth of stable disc galaxies, mass evolution of the gas content in disc galaxies, as well as the mass-dependent effects of tidal interactions.

Melvin, Thomas; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Chris; Nichol, Robert C.; Simmons, Brooke; Bamford, Steven P.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Cheung, Edmond; Edmondson, Edward M.; Fortson, Lucy; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Smith, Arfon M.; Willett, Kyle W.

2014-03-01

316

Defense Funds to Colleges and Non-Profit Groups Total $2.6-Billion for 1986, Up 7.3 Pct. in a Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defense Department contracts to colleges, universities, and other non-profit organizations were for research, development, testing, and evaluation for military projects and for civilian water-resource projects. A list of those with contracts of $500,000 or more is presented. (MLW)

Chronicle of Higher Education, 1987

1987-01-01

317

A TALE OF DWARFS AND GIANTS: USING A z = 1.62 CLUSTER TO UNDERSTAND HOW THE RED SEQUENCE GREW OVER THE LAST 9.5 BILLION YEARS  

SciTech Connect

We study the red sequence in a cluster of galaxies at z = 1.62 and follow its evolution over the intervening 9.5 Gyr to the present day. Using deep YJK{sub s} imaging with the HAWK-I instrument on the Very Large Telescope, we identify a tight red sequence and construct its rest-frame i-band luminosity function (LF). There is a marked deficit of faint red galaxies in the cluster that causes a turnover in the LF. We compare the red-sequence LF to that for clusters at z < 0.8, correcting the luminosities for passive evolution. The shape of the cluster red-sequence LF does not evolve between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 but at z < 0.6 the faint population builds up significantly. Meanwhile, between z = 1.62 and 0.6 the inferred total light on the red sequence grows by a factor of {approx}2 and the bright end of the LF becomes more populated. We construct a simple model for red-sequence evolution that grows the red sequence in total luminosity and matches the constant LF shape at z > 0.6. In this model the cluster accretes blue galaxies from the field whose star formation is quenched and who are subsequently allowed to merge. We find that three to four mergers among cluster galaxies during the 4 Gyr between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 match the observed LF evolution between the two redshifts. The inferred merger rate is consistent with other studies of this cluster. Our result supports the picture that galaxy merging during the major growth phase of massive clusters is an important process in shaping the red-sequence population at all luminosities.

Rudnick, Gregory H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Malott room 1082, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Tran, Kim-Vy; Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Momcheva, Ivelina [Observatories, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Willmer, Christopher, E-mail: grudnick@ku.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2012-08-10

318

A billion years of crustal evolution recorded in the Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt: Pb-Hf evidence for Eoarchean TTGs produced from melting of Hadean mafic crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of Earth's primitive crust is limited by the scarcity of Eoarchean/Hadean terrains. Most of these terrains are dominated by felsic Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks. These felsic rocks however, cannot be directly produced from melting of the mantle but must instead have been derived from the melting of an older mafic precursor. Obtaining accurate ages on old terrestrial mafic rocks is challenging. The geochronology constraints on Archean mafic rocks commonly come from long-lived radiogenic isotopic systems that can be affected by younger metamorphic/metasomatic events. The short-lived 146Sm-142Nd isotopic system is less susceptible to partial resetting because 146Sm became extinct prior to ~4 Ga. The mafic rocks from the Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt (NGB), called the Ujaraaluk unit, have 146Sm-142Nd systematics consistent with them being formed in the Hadean, between 4.3 and 4.4 Ga. This age has been challenged because the oldest U-Pb ages on zircons obtained in the NGB are ~3.8 Ga. The ~3.8 Ga zircons, however, are from trondhjemetic bands intruding the NGB and thus provide only a minimum age for the mafic rocks. The NGB is surrounded by 3.65 Ga tonalites having deficits in 142Nd suggesting derivation from an Hadean precursor such as the Ujaraaluk unit. We have now identified two additional tonalite generations dated at 3.75 Ga and 3.4-3.5 Ga suggesting a more complex thermal history for the NGB. In order to better constrain the geologic relationship between the mafic and the felsic rocks and the evolution of the NGB through time, we present whole-rock Lu-Hf data for the Nuvvuagittuq rocks as well as combined Pb-Hf analyses in zircons from a series of surrounding TTGs dated at 3.35 Ga, 3.4-3.5 Ga, 3.65 Ga and 3.75 Ga. The Lu-Hf isotopic compositions of the NGB mafic rocks have been partially reset by a Neoarchean metamorphic/metasomatic event, consistent with what is observed for the long-lived 147Sm-143Nd system. Zircons from the 3.35 to 3.65 TTGs have strongly subchondritic initial ?Hf values and display an ?Hf vs. age array consistent with their derivation from a 4.3-4.4 Ga mafic precursor. The 3.75 Ga TTGs have initial ?Hf values consistent either with derivation from the ~4.2 Ga NGB gabbros or with incorporation of more juvenile mantle-derived material. The Hf-zircon and 142Nd data for the Eoarchean NGB TTGs is consistent with their formation from the melting of the Hadean Ujaraaluk unit. The time integrated ?Hf-zircon data also is consistent with the Hf isotopic compositions of the Jack Hills zircons suggesting a similar primitive mafic precursor for the Eoarchean/Hadean TTGs forming Earth's early crust.

O'Neil, J.; Boyet, M. M.; Carlson, R. W.; Paquette, J.

2012-12-01

319

Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4–3.5 billion years ago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar X-ray and UV radiation (0.1–320 nm) received at Earth's surface is an important aspect of the circumstances under which life formed on Earth. The quantity that is received depends on two main variables: the emission of radiation by the young Sun and its extinction through absorption and scattering by the Earth's early atmosphere. The spectrum emitted by the Sun

Ingrid Cnossen; Jorge Sanz-Forcada; Fabio Favata; Olivier Witasse; Tanja Zegers; Neil F. Arnold

2007-01-01

320

~2.3 to 1.8 billion years ago display rela-tively large ratios compared to either older or  

E-print Network

or younger pyrites. This breakdown of Earth history is particularly interesting because it coincides much of the world's steel production depends] and pyrite. Iron oxides were formed in the water column the ocean toward lower values of 56Fe, as recorded in the pyrites (see the figure). Stage 2 witnessed

Brody, Carlos

321

High energy physics from 10 billion years' worth of data: Learning new physics from the Big Bang, stars and cosmic rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving astroparticle data present an opportunity to learn new physics from a variety of processes that took place in the early universe and those that continue at present. My thesis will cover several lines of research in this rapidly developing field. Sources of ultrahigh energy photons operating at high red shift produce a diffuse background of neutrinos. At high red

Marieke Postma

2002-01-01

322

The evolution of dust-obscured star formation activity in galaxy clusters relative to the field over the last 9 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare the star formation (SF) activity in cluster galaxies to the field from z = 0.3 to 1.5 using Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver 250 ?m imaging and utilizing 274 clusters from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS). These clusters were selected as rest-frame near-infrared overdensities over the 9 square degree Boötes field. This sample allows us to quantify the evolution of SF in clusters over a long redshift baseline without bias against active cluster systems. Using a stacking analysis, we determine the average star formation rates (SFRs) and specific SFRs (SSFR = SFR/M?) of stellar mass-limited (M ? 1.3 × 1010 M?), statistical samples of cluster and field galaxies, probing both the star-forming and quiescent populations. We find a clear indication that the average SF in cluster galaxies is evolving more rapidly than in the field, with field SF levels at z ? 1.2 in the cluster cores (r < 0.5 Mpc), in good agreement with previous ISCS studies. By quantifying the SF in cluster and field galaxies as an exponential function of cosmic time, we determine that cluster galaxies are evolving approximately two times faster than the field. Additionally, we see enhanced SF above the field level at z ˜ 1.4 in the cluster outskirts (r > 0.5 Mpc). These general trends in the cluster cores and outskirts are driven by the lower mass galaxies in our sample. Blue cluster galaxies have systematically lower SSFRs than blue field galaxies, but otherwise show no strong differential evolution with respect to the field over our redshift range. This suggests that the cluster environment is both suppressing the SF in blue galaxies on long time-scales and rapidly transitioning some fraction of blue galaxies to the quiescent galaxy population on short time-scales. We argue that our results are consistent with both strangulation and ram pressure stripping acting in these clusters, with merger activity occurring in the cluster outskirts.

Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra; Brodwin, Mark; Atlee, David W.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gettings, Daniel P.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Mancone, Conor L.; Moustakas, John; Snyder, Gregory F.; Stanford, S. Adam; Stern, Daniel; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Zeimann, Gregory R.

2014-01-01

323

Sulfur isotope mass-independent fractionation in impact deposits of the 3.2 billion-year-old Mapepe Formation, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical and experimental studies have shown that atmospheric SO2 isotopologue self-shielding effects in the 190-220 nm region of the solar spectrum are the likely cause for mass independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S-MIF). The main products of this photochemical reaction - SO3 and S0 - typically define a compositional array of ca. ?33S/?34S = 0.06-0.14. This is at odds with the generally observed trend in Archean sulfides, which broadly defines an array of ca. ?33S/?34S = 0.9. Various explanations have been proposed, including a diminution of ?34S caused by chemical and biogenic mass-dependent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S-MDF), mixing with photolytic products produced during felsic volcanic events, or partial blocking of the low-wavelength part of the spectrum due to the presence of reduced atmospheric gases or an organic haze. Early in Earth history large meteorite impacts would have ejected dust and gas clouds into the atmosphere that shielded solar radiation and affected global climate. It is thus likely that at certain time intervals of high meteorite flux the atmosphere was significantly perturbed, having an effect on atmospheric photochemistry and possibly leaving anomalous sulfur isotopic signatures in the rock record. Here we describe the sulfur isotopic signatures in sulfides of spherule beds S2, S3 and S4 of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. In particular, in spherule bed S3 - and to a lesser extent S4 - a trend of ca. ?33S/?34S = 0.23 is observed that closely follows the expected trend for SO2-photolysis in the 190-220 nm spectral range. This suggests that an impact dust cloud (deposited as spherule beds), which sampled the higher region of the atmosphere, specifically incorporated products of SO2 photolysis in the 190-220 nm range, and blocked photochemical reactions at higher wavelengths (250-330 nm band). By implication, the generally observed Archean trend appears to be the result of mixing of different MIF-S sources arising from a variety of photochemical reactions that took place in the lower part of the atmosphere.

van Zuilen, M. A.; Philippot, P.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Lepland, A.

2014-10-01

324

Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSCIA and CSHIA) has been increasingly used to study the source, transport, and bioremediation of organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. In natural aquatic systems, dissolved contaminants represent the bioavailable fraction that generally is of the greatest toxicological significance. However, determining the isotopic ratios of waterborne hydrophobic contaminants in natural waters is very challenging because of their extremely low concentrations (often at sub-parts ber billion, or even lower). To acquire sufficient quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 10 ng/L concentration for CSHIA, more than 1000 L of water must be extracted. Conventional liquid/liquid or solid-phase extraction is not suitable for such large volume extractions. We have developed a new approach that is capable of efficiently sampling sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons for CSIA. We use semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants from polluted waters and then recover the compounds in the laboratory for CSIA. In this study, we demonstrate, under a variety of experimental conditions (different concentrations, temperatures, and turbulence levels), that SPMD-associated processes do not induce C and H isotopic fractionations. The applicability of SPMD-CSIA technology to natural systems is further demonstrated by determining the delta13C and deltaD values of petroleum hydrocarbons present in the Pawtuxet River, RI. Our results show that the combined SPMD-CSIA is an effective tool to investigate the source and fate of hydrophobic contaminants in the aquatic environments. PMID:15296322

Wang, Yi; Huang, Yongsong; Huckins, James N; Petty, Jimmie D

2004-07-01

325

Years ago  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now 60 years since Kurt G6del published his remarkable discoveries on incompleteness. These discoveries changed the face of mathematical logic and, in large measure, discredited two of the three philosophies of mathematics that were prominent at the time: Hilbert's formalism and Russell's logicism. Hilbert's program was discredited by showing that to prove an axiom system consistent requires a

Karen V. H. Parshall

1991-01-01

326

EECS PresentationEECS Presentation Untold 8 Year History of the Microprocessor's Origins  

E-print Network

EECS PresentationEECS Presentation Untold 8 Year History of the Microprocessor's Origins From vacuum tubes (1963) to first microprocessor (1971) and how U of M influenced the transition. Tips of the microprocessor TI would later claim to be originator and demand billions in usage royalties from the worlds

Eustice, Ryan

327

Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 1997-98.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents national and state information on public education finances, including revenues by source, current expenditures by function, and current expenditures per pupil. About $326 billion of revenues were raised by local, state, and federal governments to finance public education through grade 12 in school year 1997-1998. (Author/SLD)

Johnson, Frank

2000-01-01

328

I. Science Policy Update on Fiscal Year 2012 Federal Budget Appropriations  

E-print Network

I. Science Policy Update on Fiscal Year 2012 Federal Budget Appropriations On November 18. The minibus provided NSF with $7 billion for FY 2012, a 2.5 percent increase from its FY 2011 budget level. This figure is $734 million below the President's budget request. Research and Related Activities at NSF

Rose, Michael R.

329

Billions of Planetary Systems: Turning Point at Mid-20th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for planetary systems, an elusive goal for most of the 20th century, is reminiscent of the search for stellar parallax in earlier centuries. Of the latter, John Herschel once wrote that it seemed within reach of the astronomer, "only to elude his seizure when apparently just within his grasp, continually hovering just beyond the limits of his distinct apprehension, and so leading him on in hopeless, endless, and exhausting pursuit." Such was the case for planetary systems, until the discovery of pulsar planets in 1992, and of planets around solar-type stars beginning in 1995. For the early decades of the century the Jeans-Jeffreys tidal theory of planet formation via close stellar encounters predicted that planets should be very rare. But the 15 years between 1943 and 1958 saw a remarkable turning point in the fortunes of planetary systems. It began with Russell's criticism of the Jeans-Jeffreys theory, but was fueled by the revival of a modified nebular hypothesis (von Weizsacker, 1944), developments in fields as diverse as double star astronomy (Kuiper, 1951), the measurement of stellar rotation periods (Struve, 1950), and geochemistry (Urey, 1952) and - most surprising of all - by claims that planetary systems, or their effects had actually been observed (Strand, 1943; Reuyl and Holmberg, 1943). Struve (1952) even suggested a means for planet detection by the radial velocity method. As Harlow Shapley made clear in his work Of Stars and Men: Human Response to an Expanding Universe (1958), the new cosmology was a continual force in the background favoring abundant planetary systems. All this work was in the background as Peter van de Kamp played out his solitary search for planetary systems, culminating in the announcement (1963) of a planet around Barnard's star. The limits that Herschel spoke of have now been breached, and the search is no longer solitary.

Dick, S. J.

2002-12-01

330

Two-year biochemical, virological, and histological follow-up in patients with chronic hepatitis c responding in a sustained fashion to interferon alfa-2b treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen patients with chronic hepatitis C who had a sustained response to a 60-week interferon alfa-2b treatment course were followed, biochemically and virologically, 2 years after treatment cessation. Biopsies were repeated in 12 of 14 for histological and virological evaluation at 2-year follow-up. All 14 patients had normal serum alanine transaminase (s-ALT) levels and were negative for hepatitis C virus

Olle Reichard; Hans Glaumann; Aril Frydén; Gunnar Norkrans; Robert Schvarcz; Anders Sonnerborg; Zhi-Bing Yun; Ola Weiland

1995-01-01

331

Iron availability of a fortified processed wheat cereal: a comparison of fourteen iron forms using an in vitro digestion/human colonic adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2) cell model.  

PubMed

In this three-phase study we first compared the availability of fourteen Fe forms in a wheat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereal using an in vitro digestion/human colonic adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2) cell model. We then investigated the effect of milk and/or coffee on those fortified cereals found in phase 1 to show promising increases in Fe availability. The Fe forms assessed in phase 1 were reduced (control), carbonyl, electrolytic, FePO(4), FeSO(4), FeCO(3), Na(2)FeEDTA, Ferrochel (Albion Laboratories, Clearfield, UT, USA; ferrous bis-glycinate), encapsulated ferrous fumarate, FeSO(4), ferrous lactate and Biofer (LipoTech, Britwell Salome, Oxfordshire; FeSO(4)), SQM (Sea-Questra-Min Iron; Quali Tech, Chaska, MN, USA; polysaccharide-complexed FeSO(4)) and Sun Active (Taiyo Kagaku, Yokkaichi, Japan). All these forms increased Fe uptake compared with the unfortified cereal. Relative to the control, the following increases in Fe availability were observed: electrolytic, 52 %; ferrous fumarate, 30-35 %; Sun Active, 78 %; Ferrochel, 125 %; Na(2)FeEDTA, 291 %. Recent human studies have shown similar data with regard to Ferrochel, FeSO4 and Na(2)FeEDTA, with the latter being more bioavailable. Our phase-2 studies indicated that the addition of milk to FeSO(4)-fortified cereal increased Fe availability, but this availability was markedly decreased by the addition of coffee to the digest. Conversely, a loss in availability from Na(2)FeEDTA was observed with the addition of milk; however, the addition of coffee did not markedly affect Fe availability from this form. In phase-3 studies we observed increased Fe availability upon the addition of milk to cereals containing Ferrochel, FeSO(4), Sun Active, a mixture of reduced Fe and Na(2)FeEDTA or reduced Fe. For these forms we did not assess the behaviour after the addition of coffee. In conclusion, when considering possible fortificants for optimizing Fe bioavailability within a foodstuff, it is of paramount importance to consider the interaction between the fortified foodstuffs and other components of the meal (such as milk and coffee with a breakfast). PMID:15705227

Wortley, Gary; Leusner, Steven; Good, Carolyn; Gugger, Eric; Glahn, Raymond

2005-01-01

332

Past Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Ancestry and early days; 2. Schooldays; 3. Relation with other boys at school; 4. Education; 5. Influence of the Royal Institution; 6. Later education in London; 7. Reminiscences of Bedford College; 8. Scientific work and friends in London; 9. Personal retrospect; 10. Romance; 11. Influence of the British Association; 12. Reminiscences of Coopers Hill and assistants and popular lectures; 13. Liverpool; 14. Scientific work at Liverpool; 15. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 16. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 17. Electric waves and the beginnings of wireless; 18. Other friends; 19. Family life; 20. Holidays; 21. Side issues; 22. Early experiences in psychical research; 23. Psychical research; 24. Further psychic adventures, and psycho-physical phenomena; 25. Reminiscences of my years at the university of Birmingham; 26. Birmingham friendships and recollections; 27. Scientific retrospect; 28. Apologia pro vita mea; Index.

Lodge, Oliver

2012-07-01

333

Microsoft is taking Big Data to a billion people by providing easy access to all data, big or small, and enabling end users to analyze  

E-print Network

Microsoft is taking Big Data to a billion people by providing easy access to all data, big or small and manage it like Enterprise software not a science project. You need to analyze data from Hadoop easily to glean business insights. Microsoft Big Data Solution Brief #12;Key Customer Challenges Managing data

Chaudhuri, Surajit

334

Tobacco smoking killed ~100 million people during the 20th century and is projected to kill ~1 billion people during the  

E-print Network

Reports Tobacco smoking killed ~100 million people during the 20th century and is projected to kill ~1 billion people during the current century, assuming that the current frequency of smoking is retained (1, 2). Lung cancer is the prime cause of cancer-associated death in relation to smoking. However

Napp, Nils

335

STABILITY OF PARTS-PER-BILLION HAZARDOUS ORGANIC CYLINDER GASES AND PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS OF SOURCE TEST AND AMBIENT AIR MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS. STATUS REPORT 2  

EPA Science Inventory

A repository of 22 gaseous organic compounds at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels in compressed gas cylinders has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objectives of this ongoing project are: (1) to provide accurate gas mixtures to EPA, stat...

336

STABILITY OF PARTS-PER-BILLION HAZARDOUS ORGANIC CYLINDER GASES AND PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS OF SOURCE TEST AND AMBIENT AIR MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS. STATUS REPORT 1  

EPA Science Inventory

A repository of 14 gaseous organic compounds at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels in compressed gas cylinders has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objectives of this on-going project are: (1) to provide accurate gas mixtures to EPA, sta...

337

Quantifying the heart of darkness with GHALO - a multi-billion particle simulation of our galactic halo  

E-print Network

We perform a series of simulations of a Galactic mass dark matter halo at different resolutions, our largest uses over three billion particles and has a mass resolution of 1000 M_sun. We quantify the structural properties of the inner dark matter distribution and study how they depend on numerical resolution. We can measure the density profile to a distance of 120 pc (0.05% of R_vir) where the logarithmic slope is -0.8 and -1.4 at (0.5% of R_vir). We propose a new two parameter fitting function that has a linearly varying logarithmic density gradient which fits the GHALO and VL2 density profiles extremely well. Convergence in the density profile and the halo shape scales as N^(-1/3), but the shape converges at a radius three times larger at which point the halo becomes more spherical due to numerical resolution. The six dimensional phase-space profile is dominated by the presence of the substructures and does not follow a power law, except in the smooth under-resolved inner few kpc.

Joachim Stadel; Doug Potter; Ben Moore; Jürg Diemand; Piero Madau; Marcel Zemp; Michael Kuhlen; Vicent Quilis

2008-08-22

338

Malthus is still wrong: we can feed a world of 9-10 billion, but only by reducing food demand.  

PubMed

In 1798, Thomas Robert Malthus published 'An essay on the principle of population' in which he concluded that: 'The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.' Over the following century he was criticised for underestimating the potential for scientific and technological innovation to provide positive change. Since then, he has been proved wrong, with a number of papers published during the past few decades pointing out why he has been proved wrong so many times. In the present paper, I briefly review the main changes in food production in the past that have allowed us to continue to meet ever growing demand for food, and I examine the possibility of these same innovations delivering food security in the future. On the basis of recent studies, I conclude that technological innovation can no longer be relied upon to prove Malthus wrong as we strive to feed 9-10 billion people by 2050. Unless we are prepared to accept a wide range of significant, undesirable environmental consequences, technology alone cannot provide food security in 2050. Food demand, particularly the demand for livestock products, will need to be managed if we are to continue to prove Malthus wrong into the future. PMID:25319456

Smith, Pete

2014-10-16

339

Small increases to employer premiums could shift millions of people to the exchanges and add billions to federal outlays.  

PubMed

The Affordable Care Act will expand insurance coverage to more than twenty-five million Americans, partly through subsidized private insurance available from newly created health insurance exchanges for people with incomes of 133-400 percent of the federal poverty level. The act will alter the financial incentive structure for employers and influence their decisions on whether or not to offer their employees coverage. These decisions, in turn, will affect federal outlays and revenues through several mechanisms. We model the sensitivity of federal costs for the insurance exchange coverage provision of the Affordable Care Act using the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data set. We assess revenues and subsidy outlays for premiums and cost sharing for individuals purchasing private insurance through exchanges. Our findings show that changing theoretical premium contribution levels by just $100 could induce 2.25 million individuals to transition to exchanges and increase federal outlays by $6.7 billion. Policy makers and analysts should pay especially careful attention to participation rates as the act's implementation continues. PMID:24019356

Austin, Daniel R; Luan, Anna; Wang, Louise L; Bhattacharya, Jay

2013-09-01

340

Multi million-to-Billion Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Cavitation-Induced Damage on a Silica Slab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation bubble collapse causes severe damage to materials. For example, cavitation erosion is a major threat to the safety of nuclear power plants. The cavitation bubbles may also be utilized for preventing stress corrosion cracking with water jet peening technology. We have performed multi million-to-billion atoms molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the shock-induced cavitation damage mechanism on an amorphous silica slab in water. The system consists of a 60nm thick silica slab immersed in water in an MD box of dimension 285 x 200 x 200 nm3. A nanobubble is created by removing water molecules within a sphere of radius 100 nm. To apply a planar shock, we assign a uniform particle velocity vp on the entire system towards a planar momentum mirror. We have performed the simulation with two kinds of bubbles, an empty bubble and a bubble filled with inert gas. The simulation results reveal nanojet formation during bubble collapse causing damage on the silica surface; however, the damage was significantly reduced in the case of the filled bubble. We will discuss the effect of the presence of inter gas inside the nanobubble on the pressure distribution, the extent of damage, and collapse behavior corresponding the shock front.

Shekhar, Adarsh; Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

2012-02-01

341

Five Years at the Movies  

E-print Network

GAIA is an astrometric satellite which has been approved by the European Space Agency for launch in about 2010. It will measure the angles between objects in fields that are separated on the sky by about a radian. Data will stream continuously at 1 Mbps from GAIA's three telescopes, providing information on the positions and velocities of the billion or more astrophysical objects brighter than 20th magnitude. The motion of objects across the sky caused by their space motion and their parallactic motion, and the variability of objects in 15 wavebands, will be measured because each object is observed at least 150 times during the 5 year mission lifetime. From the raw time series, a three-dimensional movie of the motions of stars in the Galaxy will be synthesized. The alert despatcher in the GAIA mission will provide forewarning of many kinds of bursting and variable phenomena. We discuss two applications of the GAIA movie show in detail here. First, the astrometric microlensing signal will allow us to take a complete inventory of all objects -- no matter how dark -- in the solar neighbourhood. Second, the catalogue of supernovae detections will be the largest ever taken. It will provide opportunities both for follow-ups in other wavebands and numerous examples of scarce phenomena (like subluminous SNe).

N. W. Evans; V. Belokurov

2002-12-02

342

Developing a Billion Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intentionally developing the leadership capacity of all students is a necessary requirement for schools around the world. The Center for Creative Leadership in Greensboro, N.C., has been at the center of this work and presents three schools as examples: Ravenscroft School in Raleigh, N.C., the African Leadership Academy in Johannesburg, South…

Gergen, Christopher; Rego, Lyndon; Wright, Joel

2014-01-01

343

Underground natural gas storage in the United States 1979 - 1980 heating year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total gas in storage in the nation's active underground natural gas storage reservoirs as of March 31, 1980, the end of the 1979-1980 heating year, was reported at 5,129 billion cubic feet. Of this total, approximately 69.1 percent was base, or cushion, gas and 30.9 percent was working gas. Working gas totaled 1,586 billion cubic feet, approximately 28.2 percent above that available at the beginning of the heating year. The nation's 383 active storage reservoirs were operated by 77 companies. Total reservoir capacity was reported at 7,287 billion cubic feet, approximately 51.4 percent, or 3,744 billion cubic feet of which was working gas capacity. Approximately 67.9 percent of this working gas capacity was in 228 reservoirs operated by 30 interstate pipeline companies, 29.1 percent was in 142 reservoirs operated by 42 intrastate companies, and 3.1 percent was in 13 reservoirs operated by 5 independent producers.

1980-09-01

344

The case for human causes of increased atmospheric CH 4 over the last 5000 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose that humans significantly altered atmospheric CH4 levels after 5000 years BP and that anthropogenic inputs just prior to the industrial revolution accounted for up to 25% of the CH4 level of 725ppb (parts per billion). We base this hypothesis on three arguments: (1) the 100ppb increase in atmospheric CH4 that occurred after 5000 years BP follows a pattern

William F. Ruddiman; Jonathan S. Thomson

2001-01-01

345

Galactic Environment of A Twenty-Billion Solar-Mass Black Hole at the End of Reionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When did the first supermassive black holes (SMBHs) appear in the universe? How do they co-evolve with and impact their galactic environment? We propose to carry out deep HST ACS and WFC/IR imaging of a newly discovered ultra-luminous quasar at z=6.30. At about 10 times brighter than an average SDSS z~6 quasar, this object is the most luminous quasar yet known at z>5.5 and is powered by a SMBH with an estimated mass of 20 billion M_sun, comparable to the most massive SMBHs found in the local universe. It is among the most massive systems in the observable early universe and likely resides in the densest and most biased environment at the end of cosmic reionization. Our WFC/IR J and H band observations will reveal the rest-frame UV emission in the quasar host galaxy, directly probing the coeval star formation in quasar host when the SMBH is accreting at the highest rate. Deep HST images will be used to rule out or confirm lensing magnification and to search for signatures of major merger activity. We will use the ACS i and z band imaging, combined with WFC/IR imaging, to select young star forming galaxies in the quasar environment and to study whether this ultra-luminous quasar lives in a significant galaxy overdensity, or whether early reionization has suppressed galaxy formation in the quasar environment. The HST observations will provide key insight into the formation and evolution of the earliest 10^10 M_sun BH systems in the universe.

Fan, Xiaohui

2014-10-01

346

Projection of the year 2050 burden of diabetes in the US adult population: dynamic modeling of incidence, mortality, and prediabetes prevalence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: People with diabetes can suffer from diverse complications that seriously erode quality of life. Diabetes, costing the United States more than $174 billion per year in 2007, is expected to take an increasingly large financial toll in subsequent years. Accurate projections of diabetes burden are essential to policymakers planning for future health care needs and costs. METHODS: Using data

James P Boyle; Theodore J Thompson; Edward W Gregg; Lawrence E Barker; David F Williamson

2010-01-01

347

Lab 3: Population --People at Risk In recent years, the human population of planet Earth has increased dramatically.  

E-print Network

1 Lab 3: Population -- People at Risk In recent years, the human population of planet Earth. As the table below shows, human population did not attain a billion until 1804. Since that time the Earth of the rate of population growth, the numbers of humans inhabiting Planet Earth is increasing substantially

Chen, Po

348

Federal Statistics. A Special Report on the Statistical Programs and Activities of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1986.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Federal Government will spend an estimated $1.5 billion in fiscal year 1986 for the production and publication of statistical data. This estimate represents the expected obligations for statistical activities of over 70 agencies or departmental units reporting outlays of at least $500,000 for such activities in their budgets for any of fiscal…

Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC. Statistical Policy Div.

349

Federal Statistics. A Special Report on the Statistical Programs and Activities of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on the statistical programs and activities of the Federal Government covers some 70 Federal agencies or separate departmental units budgeting at least $500,000 in any of fiscal years 1985-87. The budgets of agencies whose sole mission is statistical represent less than half the $1.6 billion that the Federal Government will spend on…

Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC. Statistical Policy Div.

350

53 Persei Observations, 14 Years of Persistence Rewarded  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the analysis of fourteen years of observations of the non-radially pulsating star, 53 Persei, obtained with the Four-College Consortium Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT). We previously discussed analyses of four (AAS 185th meeting, #80.07, 1994) and ten seasons (AAS 197th meeting, #46.11, 2000) respectively. In this paper we present a summary of the analysis of the entire fourteen seasons of data. We have eliminated observations not passing various observational checks that have been devised to eliminate APT observations obtained under non-photometric conditions. Our current data set runs from the fall of 1990 through the spring of 2004. Our analysis of these observations shows that the two frequencies (0.46 c d-1 and 0.59 c d-1) identified by Smith, et. al. (Ap. J. 282, 226, 1984) and confirmed by Huang, et. al. (Ap. J. 431, 850, 1994) are present. In addition to the four other frequencies we earlier reported we now extend our list to eleven frequencies. Five of these are apparently combination terms. The complete list is f1=0.4612 c d-1, f2=0.5939 c d-1, f3=0.4715 c d -1, f4=0.5689 c d-1, f5=0.2593 c d-1, f6=0.6636 c d-1, f1+f2=1.05517 c d -1, 2f5=0.5186 c d-1, f1+f4 =0.9328 c d-1, f1 +f2+f5 = 1.31 c d-1, and f4-2f5=0.05 c d-1. Some of the combination terms are stronger than some of the main frequencies. For terms of sufficient strength to permit adequate phase determination their position on the amplitude ratio versus phase difference plot for Stromgren photometry from the models of Townsend (MNRAS, 330, 855, 2002) indicate that these are all l =1, g-modes. Finally, the strongest frequencies show a significant (u-b) color variation. There is also some indication of either a frequency splitting in the strongest terms and/or a slight change in these frequencies over the fourteen years of observation. This work has been supported in part by NSF grants #AST86-16362, #AST91-15114, #AST95-28906, and #AST-0071260 to the College of Charleston.

Dukes, R. J., Jr.; Mills, L. R.

2004-12-01

351

Betting big on doc ownership. 'Boutique' chain blasts off with $1 billion investment, plans for 10 hospitals, and hopes to create healthcare model of the future.  

PubMed

A new "boutique" chain is roaring out the gate with $1 billion to spend and plans for 10 hospitals. University General Hospital Systems, which aspires to offer the feel of a luxury hotel in its facilities, is wading into the thick of some of the most controversial issues in healthcare. All but one of its hospitals are planned for states without CON laws, according to W.J. "Bill" Burk, left. PMID:17212213

Zigmond, Jessica

2006-12-11

352

Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992  

SciTech Connect

During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

Not Available

1992-12-31

353

Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993  

SciTech Connect

During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program`s oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994.

Not Available

1993-12-31

354

Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: Child Development, Molecular Genetics, andWhat to Do With Genes Once They Are Found (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental research are still relevant today. The problem lies with the phrase “once they are found”: It has been much more difficult than expected to identify genes responsible for the heritability of complex traits and common disorders, the so-called missing heritability problem. The present article considers reasons for the missing heritability problem and possible solutions. PMID:22469254

Plomin, Robert

2013-01-01

355

River Protection Project FY 2000 Multi Year Work Plan Summary  

SciTech Connect

The River Protection Project (RPP), formerly the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), is a major part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP). The ORP was established as directed by Congress in Section 3139 of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The ORP was established to elevate the reporting and accountability for the RPP to the DOE-Headquarters level. This was done to gain Congressional visibility and obtain support for a major $10 billion high-level liquid waste vitrification effort.

LENSEIGNE, D.L.

1999-08-27

356

Small business report to Congress for fiscal year 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the various programs of the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization designed to ensure small businesses have an equitable opportunity to do business with the Department of Energy. In addition, this report covers 33 organizational components of the Department and details the extent to which small business firms are participating in the procurement process as well as efforts taken to ensure continued involvement. During fiscal year 1992, the Department met or exceeded its percentage and dollar goals for 8(a) concerns, labor surplus area set-asides, and for-subcontracting to small businesses. The Department`s contract awards to small businesses totaled $3.1 billion (17.3 percent of the 18.1 billion the Department spent on contracts), which consisted of Departmental prime contracts and management and operating contracts. During fiscal year 1992, the Department awarded contracts totaling $307 million to small disadvantaged businesses under Section 8(a) of the U.S. Small Business Act. This total represents 1.7 percent of all prime contracts over $25,000 awarded by the Department during that period. The Department and its management and operating contractors awards to women-owned businesses and labor surplus area set-asides totaled $327 million and $596 million, respectively. The achievements in small business subcontracting for fiscal year 1992 was $234 million, including $23 million to small disadvantaged firms.

Not Available

1994-02-01

357

Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis  

SciTech Connect

In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

NONE

1996-01-01

358

Future History of the Universe "In the space of one hundred and seventy-six years the Lower  

E-print Network

billion years. Big Rip timeline (Caldwell et al., Phys Rev Letters, August 15 2003) oT0 - 60 million years explodes. oT0 - 15 seconds: atoms are pulled apart. #12;This is how the world will end. Not with a bang. This timeline has been adapted, in part, from ·The Future of the Universe, by F.C. Adams and G. Laughlin, Sky

Walter, Frederick M.

359

Ancient and Medieval History Year One Year Two Year Three  

E-print Network

Ancient and Medieval History (V116) Year One Year Two Year Three Discovering the Middle Ages and lectures) Ancient and Medieval History in Theory and Practice (Autumn and Spring) (20 credits) 2,500 word. Taken either in Medieval History or Ancient History and Classics (individual one-to-one supervision

Miall, Chris

360

Better Survival of Total Knee Replacement in Patients Older Than 70 Years: A Prospective Study with 8 To 12 Years Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Background: Modern knee designs have popularized its use in younger patients due to its better performance. There remains uncertainty whether higher demands of these patients can affect implant survivorship. Purpose: To assess whether modern knee designs have provided similar results in patients younger than 70 years versus older patients. Methods: We included 203 consecutive patients (236 knees) who underwent knee replacement for osteoarthritis with a mean follow-up of 11.4 years (range: 8.8 to 12). The mean age was 70 years (range: 31 to 85). Knee replacements were stratified into two groups: 109 were younger than 70 years and 127 were older than 70 years (70 years of age is the mandatory retirement age). Results: There were no significant pre-operative differences between groups with regards to knee alignment, alpha or beta angles, knee score or function score. Fourteen implants were radiographically loose at last follow up visit. Groups were matched in terms of demographic data. We found that patients older than 70 years had significantly better mean survivorship at 12 years. (97% vs. 88%; P=0.010). Patients under 70 years presented with a higher rate of polyethylene wear which was further associated with radiolucent lines in the femur and tibia as well as the presence of osteolysis. There was also an association between migration and presence of osteolysis. Conclusions: Patients over 70 years old undergoing cemented total knee replacement for osteoarthritis showed better implant survivorship versus patients under 70 years old. PMID:25692165

Fernandez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Merchan, E. Carlos

2015-01-01

361

Year-by-Year Analysis of the Bush Tax Cuts Shows Growing Tilt to the Very Rich  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently released by the Citizens for Tax Justice (CTJ) and the Children's Defense Fund, this study examines those who are most likely to benefit from the 2001-enacted Bush tax cuts in each year from 2001 through 2010. According to the report, by 2010, (if Bush's tax reductions are still in effect) 52% of the total tax cuts will go to the richest one percent of the American population. In other words, of the estimated $234 billion in tax cuts scheduled for the year 2010, $121 billion will go to those individuals with an income of $1.5 million and above. In contrast, the vast majority of American taxpayers have already received most of their tax cuts from the 2001 legislation. "As a result, freezing the Bush tax cuts at their 2002 levels would have little or no effect on 99 percent of the taxpayers, whose tax cuts are already mostly or completely 'frozen.'" Viewable in HTML or Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format, this report is concise, easily readable, and requires no more than fifteen minutes of reading time.

2002-01-01

362

Every five years, the Kennedy Center  

E-print Network

) to be supported as one of fourteen national Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Centers been renewed for 2004-2009. The Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Training and editor of The American Journal on Mental Retardation, talks by graduates, and a look back on the historic

Sarkar, Nilanjan

363

Utilizing Artificial Neural Networks in MATLAB to Achieve Parts-per-Billion Mass Measurement Accuracy with a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer  

PubMed Central

Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry has the ability to realize exceptional mass measurement accuracy (MMA); MMA is one of the most significant attributes of mass spectrometric measurements as it affords extraordinary molecular specificity. However, due to space-charge effects, the achievable MMA significantly depends on the total number of ions trapped in the ICR cell for a particular measurement, as well as relative ion abundance of a given species. Artificial neural network calibration in conjunction with automatic gain control (AGC) is utilized in these experiments to formally account for the differences in total ion population in the ICR cell between the external calibration spectra and experimental spectra. In addition, artificial neural network calibration is used to account for both differences in total ion population in the ICR cell as well as relative ion abundance of a given species, which also affords mean MMA values at the parts-per-billion level. PMID:19362012

Williams, D. Keith; Kovach, Alexander L.; Muddiman, David C.; Hanck, Kenneth W.

2009-01-01

364

Fiscal Year 2014 Year End Close Presentation  

E-print Network

Fiscal Year 2014 Year End Close Presentation Controller's Office & Budget and Resource Management the life of a project/award 3 Account type Sponsored Funds Non-Sponsored Funds Asset Carryforward inception-to-date balances in period 0 for all chartfields Carryforward balances in period 0 Liability Net position Revenue

Klein, Ophir

365

Comparison of ozone injury to vegetation during moist and drought years  

SciTech Connect

Ozone is the most important phytotoxic air pollutant in the US. It has been estimated that ozone is responsible for a yearly agricultural yield loss of around $3 billion. The severity of ozone injury to plants in influence by a number of factors. Experimental studies have demonstrated that drought stress is one factor that can ameliorate the phytotoxic effects of ozone. the purpose of this note is to report the results of field surveys of ozone injury during years of varying rainfall and ozone concentrations.

Showman, R.E. (American Electric Power Service Corp., Columbus, OH (USA))

1991-01-01

366

An Extraordinary Year for Managing Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It's wonderful to be back home again in Indiana. I am honored to be here with you today to share two important results of effective technology management. The first is the indirect return on investment that Americans get from NASA's relatively lean annual budget, and the second is the direct economic benefits that the great state of Indiana and businesses nationwide realize through multiple contracts with NASA. As a proud Purdue graduate and deputy director of one of NASA's highest-priority, multi-billion dollar projects, I have a vested interest in this conference and in the outcome of this work. My goal today is to help you better understand the types of work in which NASA engages and to provide avenues for you to pursue opportunities with America's space Agency, if that is a good fit for your company. You may already know that NASA and various Indiana businesses and universities are partners in the pursuit of improving life on Earth through scientific discoveries that pay dividends in terms of expanded knowledge, as well as big-picture conveniences and a multitude of spin-offs. Whether your organization is large or small, NASA offers numerous opportunities to participate. Before I provide some motivating facts and figures about the aerospace industry and its economic impact, I want to set the stage by sharing several notable examples of how 2005 was an extraordinary year for technology management at NASA, a subject that I can speak about firsthand.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2006-01-01

367

Can the World's Farmers Feed a World of 10 Billion People In Spite of Climate Change? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid rise in agricultural productivity due to technological innovation and science-based methods was one of the great human achievements of the 20th century. We now face the prospect of needing to double agricultural output by the latter third of the current century to match the growth of demand for food and fiber—albeit the pace of growth in demand shows signs of slowing in the future. How farmers and the agricultural industry deal with climate change will, in large measure, determine success or failure. The Earth is committed to about the same amount of warming in the future as has been experienced over the past hundred years regardless of future greenhouse gas emissions trajectories; such will require adaptive responses by plants, animals, producers and consumers if society’s goals for global food security are to be met. In this paper, I summarize the state-of-the science of how climate change may affect our global agricultural production system. I review the latest thinking on the combined effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes on crop productivity across the globe. Prospects for adaptation in agriculturally important regions are examined. While it appears that global food production will be adequate to meet global food demand in spite of advancing climate change, it is clear that many parts of the tropics and dry sub-tropics will see yield decreases and possible loss of comparative advantage. In those regions, continued large population growth and deleterious climate changes will contribute to declining per capita agricultural production. Increasing numbers of people at risk of hunger are probable there.

Easterling, W. E.

2010-12-01

368

Meeting the food, energy, and water demands of nine billion people: Will climate change add a new dimension?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change will add a new stress to our ability to produce food and supply water and energy for the expanding population. There is an emerging gap between the current production trends in food commodities around the world and the projected needs to meet the demands for the world population. This also translates into a water gap as well because it will require an increasing amount of water to produce this food. There is emerging evidence that the rising temperatures will reduce our potential for increasing food production because the optimal temperature for plant growth will be exceeded. This will be accompanied by an increase in water use because of the increasing rates of water use by plants in a warming environment. These factors will further increase the gap between supply and demand. To offset these impacts will require comprehensive adaptation strategies linking food production systems to climate change. Climate change will create scenarios with increasing variability in both the spatial and temporal components of precipitation and temperature. The spatial variability in precipitation being experienced around the world in the past five years will be expected to increase and impact both food and water supplies. These trends along with an increase in extreme events will further exacerbate the stress on water availability and ultimately on food and energy production. The nexus of food, energy, and water demands of an increasing world population is complex because of the interactions among climate parameters and these demands. Considering the interactions among these parameters adds even more complexity to how we have to consider adaptation strategies to ensure an adequate food supply and efficient use of water and energy. Structuring policy to develop potential solutions to ensure an increasing food supply and more efficient use of water and energy will require a more integrated approach to understanding the dynamics of food, water, and energy systems across the backdrop of a changing climate and increasing world population.

Hatfield, J.

2011-12-01

369

Year of the Tiger  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Xin nian kuai le! That's happy New Year in Chinese. It's a Tiger year. The Chinese zodiac runs on a 12 year cycle and each year is governed by an animal: rat, ox , tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, goat, monkey, rooster, dog...

Hacker, Randi

2010-02-03

370

Bisphosphonates: the first 40 years.  

PubMed

The first full publications on the biological effects of the diphosphonates, later renamed bisphosphonates, appeared in 1969, so it is timely after 40years to review the history of their development and their impact on clinical medicine. This special issue of BONE contains a series of review articles covering the basic science and clinical aspects of these drugs, written by some of many scientists who have participated in the advances made in this field. The discovery and development of the bisphosphonates (BPs) as a major class of drugs for the treatment of bone diseases has been a fascinating story, and is a paradigm of a successful journey from 'bench to bedside'. Bisphosphonates are chemically stable analogues of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and it was studies on the role of PPi as the body's natural 'water softener' in the control of soft tissue and skeletal mineralisation that led to the need to find inhibitors of calcification that would resist hydrolysis by alkaline phosphatase. The observation that PPi and BPs could not only retard the growth but also the dissolution of hydroxyapatite crystals prompted studies on their ability to inhibit bone resorption. Although PPi was unable to do this, BPs turned out to be remarkably effective inhibitors of bone resorption, both in vitro and in vivo experimental systems, and eventually in humans. As ever more potent BPs were synthesised and studied, it became apparent that physico-chemical effects were insufficient to explain their biological effects, and that cellular actions must be involved. Despite many attempts, it was not until the 1990s that their biochemical actions were elucidated. It is now clear that bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption by being selectively taken up and adsorbed to mineral surfaces in bone, where they interfere with the action of the bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Bisphosphonates are internalised by osteoclasts and interfere with specific biochemical processes. Bisphosphonates can be classified into at least two groups with different molecular modes of action. The simpler non-nitrogen containing bisphosphonates (such as etidronate and clodronate) can be metabolically incorporated into non-hydrolysable analogues of ATP, which interfere with ATP-dependent intracellular pathways. The more potent, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (including pamidronate, alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate and zoledronate) are not metabolised in this way but inhibit key enzymes of the mevalonate/cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. The major enzyme target for bisphosphonates is farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), and the crystal structure elucidated for this enzyme reveals how BPs bind to and inhibit at the active site via their critical N atoms. Inhibition of FPPS prevents the biosynthesis of isoprenoid compounds (notably farnesol and geranylgeraniol) that are required for the post-translational prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins (which are also GTPases) such as rab, rho and rac, which are essential for intracellular signalling events within osteoclasts. The accumulation of the upstream metabolite, isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), as a result of inhibition of FPPS may be responsible for immunomodulatory effects on gamma delta (??) T cells, and can also lead to production of another ATP metabolite called ApppI, which has intracellular actions. Effects on other cellular targets, such as osteocytes, may also be important. Over the years many hundreds of BPs have been made, and more than a dozen have been studied in man. As reviewed elsewhere in this issue, bisphosphonates are established as the treatments of choice for various diseases of excessive bone resorption, including Paget's disease of bone, the skeletal complications of malignancy, and osteoporosis. Several of the leading BPs have achieved 'block-buster' status with annual sales in excess of a billion dollars. As a class, BPs share properties in common. However, as with other classes of drugs, there are obvious chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological differences among the various BPs. Each BP

Russell, R Graham G

2011-07-01

371

Pediatric-Medical Genetics 4-Year Block Schedule Block Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four  

E-print Network

Pediatric- Medical Genetics 4-Year Block Schedule Block Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four 1/10 PEM/AI-1 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Metabolic Genetics 10/90 8 General Pediatrics Ambulatory Clinic 0/100 AMBU-2 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric

Finley Jr., Russell L.

372

Fourteen monogenic genes account for 15% of nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis.  

PubMed

Nephrolithiasis is a prevalent condition with a high morbidity. Although dozens of monogenic causes have been identified, the fraction of single-gene disease has not been well studied. To determine the percentage of cases that can be molecularly explained by mutations in 1 of 30 known kidney stone genes, we conducted a high-throughput mutation analysis in a cohort of consecutively recruited patients from typical kidney stone clinics. The cohort comprised 272 genetically unresolved individuals (106 children and 166 adults) from 268 families with nephrolithiasis (n=256) or isolated nephrocalcinosis (n=16). We detected 50 likely causative mutations in 14 of 30 analyzed genes, leading to a molecular diagnosis in 14.9% (40 of 268) of all cases; 20 of 50 detected mutations were novel (40%). The cystinuria gene SLC7A9 (n=19) was most frequently mutated. The percentage of monogenic cases was notably high in both the adult (11.4%) and pediatric cohorts (20.8%). Recessive causes were more frequent among children, whereas dominant disease occurred more abundantly in adults. Our study provides an in-depth analysis of monogenic causes of kidney stone disease. We suggest that knowledge of the molecular cause of nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis may have practical implications and might facilitate personalized treatment. PMID:25296721

Halbritter, Jan; Baum, Michelle; Hynes, Ann Marie; Rice, Sarah J; Thwaites, David T; Gucev, Zoran S; Fisher, Brittany; Spaneas, Leslie; Porath, Jonathan D; Braun, Daniela A; Wassner, Ari J; Nelson, Caleb P; Tasic, Velibor; Sayer, John A; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

2015-03-01

373

Renal oncocytosis: a morphologic study of fourteen cases.  

PubMed

Diffuse renal involvement by numerous oncocytic nodules has rarely been described. We report 14 cases (19 specimens) with innumerable oncocytic nodules in the kidney. Invariably, these kidneys showed additional associated findings. We suggest the term renal oncocytosis for this entire morphologic spectrum. Six (43%) cases had histologically or radiologically proven bilateral involvement. Each specimen had at least one dominant tumor (2.0-10.5 cm) in addition to numerous other microscopic to macroscopic oncocytic nodules. Additional features observed were: interstitial pattern, with the oncocytic tubules and acini diffusely intermingling with and infiltrating between non-neoplastic parenchyma (one case); diffuse oncocytic change in the nonneoplastic tubules, cytologically difficult to separate from the oncocytic nodules (seven cases); and benign oncocytic cortical cysts (four cases). The dominant mass in 13 specimens was a renal oncocytoma and in two, a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. In four specimens, the largest tumor was considered a hybrid tumor because of the presence of mixed histologic features of both tumor types. Most smaller nodules had the morphologic features of renal oncocytoma, but a few had the appearance of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma or nodules with hybrid features. We conclude that the presence of numerous oncocytic nodules may be associated with a wide spectrum of oncocytic changes in the kidney. The association of numerous renal oncocytoma-like nodules with lesions having a mixed morphology or a morphology of pure chromophobe renal cell carcinoma suggests that they may constitute a morphologic spectrum of oncocytic tumors and that renal oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma may arise from a common progenitor lesion. PMID:10478670

Tickoo, S K; Reuter, V E; Amin, M B; Srigley, J R; Epstein, J I; Min, K W; Rubin, M A; Ro, J Y

1999-09-01

374

Fourteen Reasons Privacy Matters: A Multidisciplinary Review of Scholarly Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Librarians have long recognized the importance of privacy to intellectual freedom. As digital technology and its applications advance, however, efforts to protect privacy may become increasingly difficult. With some users behaving in ways that suggest they do not care about privacy and with powerful voices claiming that privacy is dead, librarians…

Magi, Trina J.

2011-01-01

375

Isotopic analyses of krypton and xenon in fourteen stone meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations and isotopic compositions of Kr and Xe in twelve chondrites and two achondrites have been determined. In addition to the trapped component, Kr and Xe produced by spallation and (n, v.\\/) reactions as well as fission and radiogenic Xe have been found. Because of the chemical uniformity of the ordinary chondrites the concentrations of spallation-produced Kr and Xe

O. Eugster; P. Eberhardt; J. Geiss

1969-01-01

376

Light microscopic morphometry of the kidneys of fourteen avian species.  

PubMed Central

Kidney volume and the volume proportions of the cortex, medulla, blood vessels larger than capillaries and ureter and ureteral ducts were investigated in 61 birds from 14 species representing passeriformes, psittaciformes, podicipediformes, anseriformes, galliformes, and columbiformes. The kidneys were fixed in situ by perfusion via their arterial supply. Kidney volume and body weight were strongly correlated (r = 0.991); the allometric function relating kidney volume (Vk) to body weight (W) was: Vk = 13.96W0.902. Histological sections of one kidney from each bird were analysed by point counting with a Zeiss integrating eyepiece to estimate the volume proportions and subsequently the absolute volumes of the main components of the kidney. The avian kidney was found to consist of a very large cortex (range 71-81%), a relatively small medulla (range 5-15%), blood vessels larger than capillaries (range 10-13%). For all the birds, the mean volume proportions of the kidney components were as follows: cortex, 77%; medulla, 10%; blood vessels larger than capillaries, 12%; ureter and ureteral ducts, 1%. The values for the absolute volume of each of the main components of the kidney were well correlated with body weight. The allometric equations and correlation coefficients (r) relating: (a) the volume of cortex (Vc) and the body weight (W) was Vc = 10.06W0.914, r = 0.991; (b) the volume of medulla (Vm) and body weight was Vm = 2.27W0.795, r = 0.974; (c) the volume of blood vessels larger than capillaries (Vb) and body weight was Vb = 1.76W0.894, r = 0.988. All the birds were divided into two groups in the following five sets: (a) passeriform and non-passeriform orders; (b) galliform and non-galliform orders; (c) small and large birds weighing less than and more than 500 g respectively; (d) aquatic and non-aquatic birds; (e) desert and non-desert birds. In the two groups of each set the differences between kidney volume per gram body weight and those between the respective percentage proportions of cortex, medulla and blood vessels larger than capillaries were assessed by Student's t-test. The differences between kidney volume per gram body weight were significant for all sets except desert and non-desert birds; those between the respective percentage proportions of cortex and medulla were significant for all sets; those between the percentage proportions of blood vessels larger than capillaries were significant only in desert and non-desert birds.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 1 PMID:2808116

Warui, C N

1989-01-01

377

Fourteen at One Blow: The Market Entry of Turquoise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the market entry of Turquoise in September 2008. Turquoise started trading stocks from 14 European countries at (almost) the same time. We find that Turquoise gained higher market shares in larger and less volatile stocks, and in stocks that had excessively high pre-entry spreads. The entry of Turquoise led to a decrease in spreads but not to

Jordis Hengelbrock; Erik Theissen

2009-01-01

378

Myelofibrosis: Review of clinical and pathological features in fourteen dogs  

PubMed Central

A clinicopathological study was performed on 14 dogs with myelofibrosis (MF), in order to correlate clinical, laboratory, and histomorphological parameters and investigate factors of prognostic significance. The clinical signs included fatigue, weight loss, anorexia, and diarrhea. Physical findings included pale mucous membranes and wasting/emaciation. The major laboratory observations were moderate to severe, poorly-responsive anemia with various degrees of marrow cellularity and fibrosis. All dogs with severe, non-responsive anemia should have a bone marrow core biopsy, stained for connective tissue, in order to detect myelofibrosis. Myelofibrosis regressed in six dogs. ImagesFigure 1aFigure 1bFigure 1cFigure 1d PMID:17423803

Hoff, Brent; Lumsden, John H.; Valli, Victor E.O.; Kruth, Stephen A.

1991-01-01

379

Volatile organic compounds in fourteen U.S. retail stores.  

PubMed

Retail buildings have a potential for both short-term (customer) and long-term (occupational) exposure to indoor pollutants. However, little is known about volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the retail sector and influencing factors, such as ventilation, in-store activities, and store type. We measured VOC concentrations and ventilation rates in 14 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania. With the exception of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, VOCs were present in retail stores at concentrations well below health guidelines. Indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 4.6 ppb to 67 ppb. The two mid-sized grocery stores in the sample had the highest levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde, with concentrations up to 2.6 ppm and 92 ppb, respectively, possibly due to the preparation of dough and baking activities. Indoor-to-outdoor concentration ratios indicated that indoor sources were the main contributors to indoor VOC concentrations for the majority of compounds. There was no strong correlation between ventilation and VOC concentrations across all stores. However, increasing the air exchange rates at two stores led to lower indoor VOC concentrations, suggesting that ventilation can be used to reduce concentrations for some specific stores. PMID:24471978

Nirlo, E L; Crain, N; Corsi, R L; Siegel, J A

2014-10-01

380

Fourteen Steps to More Effective Cash Flow Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managing cash flow is an incredibly important skill for a center director. Even a center with an annual budget showing a healthy surplus may experience brief periods where funds in the checkbook are insufficient to pay all the bills. To discover how successful directors manage cash flow in tight times, the author surveyed members of the "Exchange…

Neugebauer, Roger

2004-01-01

381

Syllabi Set on Women, Health and Healing: Fourteen Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled with the goal of developing social science perspectives on women's health and on topics at the intersection of social science and clinical issues, the syllabi included were developed by faculty teaching in the Women, Health and Healing Program at the University of California, San Francisco. The courses here are directed at upper division…

Ruzek, Sheryl, Comp.; And Others

382

The International Academic Profession: Portraits of Fourteen Countries. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis of the academic profession in 14 nations was based on responses received from an international survey of nearly 20,000 college and university faculty members from Australia, Brazil, Chile, England, West Germany, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, and the United States. Data were analyzed and…

Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

383

3-Year clinical evaluation of posterior packable composite resin restorations.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the clinical performance of four packable resin composite restorative materials in posterior teeth (Class I and II) compared with one hybrid composite after 3 years. Eighty-four restorations were placed in 16 patients. The tested materials were: (i) Solitaire + Solid Bond; (ii) ALERT + Bond-1; (iii) Surefil + Prime & Bond NT; (iv) Filtek P60 + Single Bond and (v) TPH Spectrum + Prime & Bond 2.1. All restorations were made using rubber dam isolation, and the cavity design was restricted to the elimination of carious tissue. Deeper cavities were covered with calcium hydroxide and/or glass-ionomer cement. Each adhesive system and composite resin was placed according to the manufacturer's instructions. One week later, the restorations were finished/polished and evaluated according USPHS modified criteria. Fourteen patients attended the 3-year recall and 75 restorations were evaluated at that time based on the same evaluation criteria. Friedman repeated measures analysis of variance by rank and Wilcoxon sign-ranked test for pair-wise comparison was used for data analysis (alpha = 0.05). The analysis was performed only for the baseline and for the 3-year period. Solitaire showed some fractures at marginal ridges in 25% of the cases. Solitaire and ALERT showed some concerns related to colour match (43 and 77%, respectively) and surface texture (86 and 77%, respectively). TPH Spectrum showed a great percentage of colour mismatch after 3 years, around 50%. Surefil and Filtek P60 showed an excellent clinical performance after 3 years, similar to the hybrid resin tested, TPH Spectrum. Solitaire did not fulfil the ADA acceptance criteria for restorative materials and, therefore, is not recommended for use in posterior restorations. PMID:16457675

Loguercio, A D; Reis, A; Hernandez, P A G; Macedo, R P; Busato, A L S

2006-02-01

384

100 patient-years of ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed Central

More than 100 patient-years' experience has been acquired in the treatment of 133 patients with ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition (TPN) between May 1974 and December 1983. Indications for chronic or permanent home TPN include short bowel syndrome, malabsorption, scleroderma, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide syndrome. Indications for acute or temporary home TPN include Crohn's disease, malignancies, gastrointestinal fistulas, ulcerative colitis, anorexia nervosa, and numerous other disorders. Eighty-two patients in the acute group were treated primarily with percutaneously placed standard subclavian catheters and 51 patients in the chronic group have been treated thus far with implanted silicone rubber, Dacron-cuffed catheters for a cumulative total of 38,939 patient days. Of the 125 implanted catheters, 115 were placed in the superior vena cava and ten in the inferior vena cava for an average duration of 250 catheter-days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for more than 8 1/2 years. Catheter-related sepsis occurred 33 times with the implanted catheters, or once every 2.6 catheter-years. One hundred and fourteen temporary catheters were placed percutaneously in the superior vena cava via a subclavian vein for an average duration of 68 days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for 213 days. Catheter-related sepsis occurred seven times, equivalent to one episode per 3 catheter-years. Total catheter-related complications were quite infrequent and were directly related to duration of catheterization. They included venous thrombosis (12), clotted catheter (11), catheter failure or rupture (8), catheter compression (5) and inadvertent catheter removal (4). Twenty-six catheters were repaired or spliced in situ when the external segment was accidentally damaged or deteriorated secondary to long-term material fatigue. One remarkable patient has been maintained exclusively by TPN originally as an inpatient and subsequently as an outpatient for the entire 13 years of his life. Images Fig. 1. Figs. 2A and B. Figs. 3A-C. PMID:6428331

Dudrick, S J; O'Donnell, J J; Englert, D M; Matheny, R G; Blume, E R; Nutt, R E; Hickey, M S; Barroso, A O

1984-01-01

385

100 patient-years of ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed

More than 100 patient-years' experience has been acquired in the treatment of 133 patients with ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition (TPN) between May 1974 and December 1983. Indications for chronic or permanent home TPN include short bowel syndrome, malabsorption, scleroderma, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide syndrome. Indications for acute or temporary home TPN include Crohn's disease, malignancies, gastrointestinal fistulas, ulcerative colitis, anorexia nervosa, and numerous other disorders. Eighty-two patients in the acute group were treated primarily with percutaneously placed standard subclavian catheters and 51 patients in the chronic group have been treated thus far with implanted silicone rubber, Dacron-cuffed catheters for a cumulative total of 38,939 patient days. Of the 125 implanted catheters, 115 were placed in the superior vena cava and ten in the inferior vena cava for an average duration of 250 catheter-days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for more than 8 1/2 years. Catheter-related sepsis occurred 33 times with the implanted catheters, or once every 2.6 catheter-years. One hundred and fourteen temporary catheters were placed percutaneously in the superior vena cava via a subclavian vein for an average duration of 68 days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for 213 days. Catheter-related sepsis occurred seven times, equivalent to one episode per 3 catheter-years. Total catheter-related complications were quite infrequent and were directly related to duration of catheterization. They included venous thrombosis (12), clotted catheter (11), catheter failure or rupture (8), catheter compression (5) and inadvertent catheter removal (4). Twenty-six catheters were repaired or spliced in situ when the external segment was accidentally damaged or deteriorated secondary to long-term material fatigue. One remarkable patient has been maintained exclusively by TPN originally as an inpatient and subsequently as an outpatient for the entire 13 years of his life. PMID:6428331

Dudrick, S J; O'Donnell, J J; Englert, D M; Matheny, R G; Blume, E R; Nutt, R E; Hickey, M S; Barroso, A O

1984-06-01

386

The WIYN One Degree Imager: About a Year to Installation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WIYN consortium is building the One Degree Imager (ODI) for its 3.5m telescope at Kitt Peak. ODI's design excels in exceptional image quality and active image motion compensation through the use of Orthogonal Transfer Array CCDs. The 1 square degree field of view will be sampled almost one billion 0.1 arcseconds wide pixels. ODI will be the largest wide-field imager with open access to the US community. ODI's design has been completed, and the project entered the construction phase. In this poster we report about ODI's final design and expected performance. We summarize the timeline of the instrument's assembly and testing, which will extend throughout 2009. Installation at the telescope and start of scientific commissioning is scheduled to start in the semester 2010A, which is in a little bit more than a year from now.

Harbeck, Daniel R.; Jacoby, G.; Muller, G.; Yeatts, A.; Cavin, J.

2009-01-01

387

Follow the money: How the billions of dollars that flow from smokers in poor nations to companies in rich nations greatly exceed funding for global tobacco control and what might be done about it  

PubMed Central

The business of selling cigarettes is increasingly concentrated in the hands of five tobacco companies that collectively control almost 90% of the world's cigarette market, four of which are publicly traded corporations. The economic activities of these cigarette manufacturers can be monitored through their reports to shareholders and other public documents. Reports for 2008 show that the revenues of these five companies exceeded $300 billion, of which more than $160 billion was provided to governments as taxes, and that corporate earnings of the four publicly traded companies were over $25 billion, of which $14 billion was retained after corporate income taxes were paid. By contrast, funding for domestic and international tobacco control is not reliably reported. Estimated funding for global tobacco control in 2008, at $240 million, is significantly lower than resources provided to address other high-mortality global health challenges. Tobacco control has not yet benefited from the innovative finance mechanisms that are in place for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The Framework Convention On Tobacco Control (FCTC) process could be used to redirect some of the earnings from transnational tobacco sales to fund FCTC implementation or other global health efforts. PMID:20610436

2010-01-01

388

The environmental chemistry track for Youth Slam 2009 is focused on the World Water Crisis. Did you know that over one billion people currently lack access to clean drinking  

E-print Network

know that over one billion people currently lack access to clean drinking water around the globe and every 15 minutes a child dies from a water related illness? In fact, for children under age five, waterborne diseases are the leading cause of death.1 Though the technology exists to provide clean drinking

389

Project Year Project Team  

E-print Network

sufficient student involvement for a year-round team development effort. For the proposed project, during the 2005-2006 school year, three students will work on extending Alan Cheng's original #12;TechnologyProject Year 2005 Project Team Gregory Hager, Professor, Department of Computer Science, Whiting

Gray, Jeffrey J.

390

An efficient probe for rapid detection of cyanide in water at parts per billion levels and naked-eye detection of endogenous cyanide.  

PubMed

A new molecular probe based on an oxidized bis-indolyl skeleton has been developed for rapid and sensitive visual detection of cyanide ions in water and also for the detection of endogenously bound cyanide. The probe allows the "naked-eye" detection of cyanide ions in water with a visual color change from red to yellow (??max =80?nm) with the immediate addition of the probe. It shows high selectivity towards the cyanide ion without any interference from other anions. The detection of cyanide by the probe is ratiometric, thus making the detection quantitative. A Michael-type addition reaction of the probe with the cyanide ion takes place during this chemodosimetric process. In water, the detection limit was found to be at the parts per million level, which improved drastically when a neutral micellar medium was employed, and it showed a parts-per-billion-level detection, which is even 25-fold lower than the permitted limits of cyanide in water. The probe could also efficiently detect the endogenously bound cyanide in cassava (a staple food) with a clear visual color change without requiring any sample pretreatment and/or any special reaction conditions such as pH or temperature. Thus the probe could serve as a practical naked-eye probe for "in-field" experiments without requiring any sophisticated instruments. PMID:24449698

Kumari, Namita; Jha, Satadru; Bhattacharya, Santanu

2014-03-01

391

Parts-Per-Billion Mass Measurement Accuracy Achieved through the Combination of Multiple Linear Regression and Automatic Gain Control in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer  

PubMed Central

Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry has the ability to achieve unprecedented mass measurement accuracy (MMA); MMA is one of the most significant attributes of mass spectrometric measurements as it affords extraordinary molecular specificity. However, due to space-charge effects, the achievable MMA significantly depends on the total number of ions trapped in the ICR cell for a particular measurement. Even through the use of automatic gain control (AGC), the total ion population is not constant between spectra. Multiple linear regression calibration in conjunction with AGC is utilized in these experiments to formally account for the differences in total ion population in the ICR cell between the external calibration spectra and experimental spectra. This ability allows for the extension of dynamic range of the instrument while allowing mean MMA values to remain less than 1 ppm. In addition, multiple linear regression calibration is used to account for both differences in total ion population in the ICR cell as well as relative ion abundance of a given species, which also affords mean MMA values at the parts-per-billion level. PMID:17539605

Williams, D. Keith; Muddiman, David C.

2008-01-01

392

Year 1 Year 2 Anne 3 Anne 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7Year 3 Year 4 INGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIENINGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIEN  

E-print Network

: Biology / Chemistry / Computer Science / Economics / Energy / Mechanics and Environmental Sciences / Mathematics and Applied Mathematics / Physics / Science, Technology & Society / Software Systems / Innovation Duration: 2 years - Possibility to be directly admitted to Year 2 Master of ScienceMaster of Science #12

Cengarle, María Victoria

393

The NEOUCOM Cooperative Cataloging Service: development and review of the first four years.  

PubMed

The Basic Medical Sciences Library of the Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine (NEOUCOM) provided a Cooperative Cataloging Service to fourteen of its affiliated hospitals' libraries since March 1978, using the OCLC system. Analysis of the first four years of service showed that the hospital libraries spent almost $30,000 to catalog more than 18,000 titles. Personnel expenses and other costs eclipsed the savings from a 31.3% duplication rate. Centralized bibliographic control control and the principal by-product of the service, a uniform, machine-related data base, provided the foundation for an on-line integrated library system to serve the consortium. The hospital libraries contributed 44% of the unique titles in this data base, which emphasis the need to share resources and continue cooperation. PMID:6860826

Miller, D R

1983-04-01

394

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 1999  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. They also locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consists of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The operational rate for the first quarter of FY99 for stations in the HSN was 99.8%. There were 121 triggers during the first quarter of fiscal year 1999. Fourteen triggers were local earthquakes; seven (50%) were in the Columbia River Basalt Group, no earthquakes occurred in the pre-basalt sediments, and seven (50%) were in the crystalline basement. One earthquake (7%) occurred near or along the Horn Rapids anticline, seven earthquakes (50%) occurred in a known swarm area, and six earthquakes (43%) were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometer during the first quarter of FY99.

DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

1999-05-26

395

Millions and Billions of Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the Harvard SETI group is inextricably linked with the history of Paul Horowitz. Horowitz became enamored with SETI as a student at Harvard, reading Ed Purcell's paper "Radio Astronomy and Communication Through Space" (Purcell, 1960), discussing with his roommates a class that Carl Sagan was teaching there using a draft of Shklovskii and Sagan's "Intelligent Life in the Universe" (Shklovskii and Sagan, 1966) as a text, and finally attending a Loeb Lecture series at Harvard by Frank Drake (Drake, 1969). The series was officially about pulsars but Drake did manage to slip in one inspiring talk about SETI. Horowitz says that "It was this lecture that launched me into this field; it was a revelation that you could go beyond idle speculation - you could actually calculate stuff."

Leigh, Darren; Horowitz, Paul

396

Potentiometric-level monitoring program: Mississippi and Louisiana. Annual status report for fiscal year 1984  

SciTech Connect

Potentiometric-level data presented in this report were collected from October 1983 through September 1984 at 79 wells in Mississippi and Louisiana. These wells are located near Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi and Vacherie Dome in Louisiana. Fourteen wells were added to the program during this period. Two of these wells were not measurable. Two wells previously unmeasurable were located and measured. One well was destroyed during military maneuvers in the area. Analysis of the data indicated minimal, if any, change in potentiometric levels during the past year in the Citronelle, Hattiesburg, Cockfield, Sparta, and Wilcox Formations in Mississippi. A continuing decline in potentiometric levels, ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 foot per year, occurred in the wells screened in the caprock at Richton and Cypress Creek Domes. The Catahoula Formation experienced a continuing decline in potentiometric levels of about 2 feet per year. Two wells in the Cook Mountain Formation showed a continuing rise in potentiometric levels ranging from 8 to 30 ft during the past fiscal year. Wells screened in the Austin Formation in Louisiana showed a fall in potentiometric levels of 2 to 3 ft over the past fiscal year. Other formations in Louisiana generally showed no change in potentiometric levels over the past year. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1986-07-01

397

Systematic review of actual 10-year survival following resection for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatic resection is a potentially curative therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but recurrence of disease is very common. Few studies have reported 10-year actual survival rates following hepatic resection; instead, most have used actuarial measures based on the Kaplan–Meier method. This systematic review aims to document 10-year actual survival rates and to identify factors significant in determining prognosis. Methods A comprehensive search was undertaken of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Only studies reporting the absolute number of patients alive at 10 years after first resection for HCC were included; these figures were used to calculate the actual 10-year survival rate. A qualitative review and analysis of the prognostic factors identified in the included studies were performed. Results Fourteen studies, all of which were retrospective case series, including data on 4197 patients with HCC were analysed. Ten years following resection, 303 of these patients were alive. The 10-year actual survival rate was 7.2%, whereas the actuarial survival quoted from the same studies was 26.8%. Positive prognostic factors included better hepatic function, a wider surgical margin and the absence of satellite lesions. Conclusions The actual long-term survival rate after resection of HCC is significantly inferior to reported actuarial survival rates. The Kaplan–Meier method of actuarial survival analysis tends to overestimate survival outcomes as a result of censorship of data and subgroup analysis. PMID:22487065

Gluer, Annelise M; Cocco, Nicholas; Laurence, Jerome M; Johnston, Emma S; Hollands, Michael J; Pleass, Henry C C; Richardson, Arthur J; Lam, Vincent W T

2012-01-01

398

Healthy Homes Program Logic Model Issue(s): Economic losses from unhealthy housing costs billions annually to consumers and communities. Every year, unhealthy housing is the source of an estimated 250,000  

E-print Network

books distributed Target Audiences · Extension educators trained · Health department employees trained% of their time indoors, the health of the home environment is an important concern. Consumers can often take materials · Time · Equipment/technology Products/Activities · Workshops/trainings conducted · Presentations

399

ALMA Imaging of Gas and Dust in a Galaxy Protocluster at Redshift 5.3: [C II] Emission in "Typical" Galaxies and Dusty Starbursts ?1 Billion Years after the Big Bang  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report interferometric imaging of [C II](2 P 3/2?2 P 1/2) and OH(2?1/2 J = 3/2?1/2) emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z = 5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [C II], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 ?m continuum emission toward the SMG. The [C II](2 P 3/2?2 P 1/2) emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 × 1010 M ?, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of ?SFR = 530 M ? yr-1 kpc-2. This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at ?SFR approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [C II] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [C II](2 P 3/2?2 P 1/2) emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ~95 kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not detected in the continuum, suggesting far-infrared SFRs of <18-54 M ? yr-1, consistent with a UV-based estimate of 22 M ? yr-1. The spectral energy distribution of these galaxies is inconsistent with nearby spiral and starburst galaxies, but resembles those of dwarf galaxies. This is consistent with expectations for young starbursts without significant older stellar populations. This suggests that these galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, "normal" star-forming galaxies at z > 5, showing that ALMA can detect the interstellar medium in "typical" galaxies in the very early universe.

Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Capak, Peter L.; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Smol?i?, Vernesa; Schinnerer, Eva; Yun, Min; Cox, Pierre; Bertoldi, Frank; Karim, Alexander; Yan, Lin

2014-12-01

400

Morphological properties of star-forming galaxies: Connecting the morphological evolution of galaxies and the decline of the star formation rate density of the Universe in the past 9 billion years  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this dissertation, we present results connecting the morphological evolution of galaxies and the decline of the star formation rate density in the Universe since z ~ 2. For our study, we used the high-resolution HST\\/ACS images of the COSMOS survey to perform non-parametric automated morphological measurement s on all objects with brightness I F 814 W <= 23 mag

Michel A. Zamojski

2008-01-01

401

doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00208-4 Composition and syngeneity of molecular fossils from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old  

E-print Network

, aromatic steroids and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Neither plant biomarkers nor hydrocarbon distributions indicative of Phanerozoic contamination were de- tected. The host kerogens of the hydrocarbons were depleted, the absence of younger petroleum source rocks in the basin and the wide geographic distribution of the samples

Brocks, Jochen J.

402

NATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM DURING THE ARRA PERIOD: PROGRAM YEARS 2009-2011  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the third major evaluation of the Program, encompassing program years 2009 to 2011. In this report, this period of time is referred to as the ARRA Period. This is a special period of time for the Program because the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 has allocated $5 billion of funding for the Program. In normal program years, WAP s annual appropriation is in the range of $200-250 million, supporting the weatherization of approximately 100,000 homes. With the addition of ARRA funding during these program years, the expectation is that weatherization activity will exceed 300,000 homes per year. In addition to saving energy and reducing low-income energy bills, expanded WAP funding is expected to stimulate the economy by providing new jobs in the weatherization field and allowing low-income households to spend more money on goods and services by spending less on energy.

Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Rose, Erin M [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL; Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL

2012-08-01

403

20 Years and Counting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In commemoration of the Librarian of the Year Award's 20th anniversary, this article presents brief vignettes on all 19 of the title holders. When "Library Journal" named them Librarians of the Year, these inimitable 19 (for the 20th, Norma Blake, see EJ788676) had singled themselves out as risk takers, visionaries, bulldogs, pragmatists,…

Kuzyk, Raya

2008-01-01

404

Epicurious Eating: New Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The holidays 'Tis the time of year for cooking, hosting, and feasting, and this site offers tips, recipes, and ideas that are useful no matter what the holiday. epicurious, an online food magazine, celebrates the New Year with recipes, menus, cocktails, food history, and menus for the morning after.

405

Celebrating 50 Years!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author congratulates members of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) on celebrating the 50th anniversary of their annual conference. These conferences have kept the spirit alive from the early years, especially the engagement in investigative, collaborative, and reasoning activities. In the 50th year as an association, the author…

Kristjansdottir, Anna

2011-01-01

406

First-Year Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being a first-year teacher in New York City is not easy. The author received much of the same preparation and advice that he and his colleagues give their students. But even the best education courses and a positive student teaching experience do not seem to be enough to take the edge off of a year he remembers barely surviving. The author…

Hamilton, Greg, Ed.

2003-01-01

407

Final Year Project Report  

SciTech Connect

In the last years of this eighteen-year grant project, the research efforts have focused mostly on the study of off-shell representations of supersymmetry, both on the worldline and on the world- sheet, i.e., both in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and in supersymmetric field theory in 1+1-dimensional spacetime.

Hubsch, Tristan [Howard University

2013-06-20

408

APPLIED/LAW Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4  

E-print Network

in year 3. This is not compulsory, and if a student does not wish to overload, she or he must contact and LAWS electives (6uoc prescribed, plus 42uoc) in years 5 and/or 6 *NOTE: There is a 6uoc overload listed

Blennerhassett, Peter

409

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does each season of the year effect what you wear? 1. Review the seasons of the year Four Seasons Review 2. Play a winter weather clothes matching game Game 3. Use the next 4 pictures to fill out your chart. Winter Spring Summer Fall ...

Miss Dobbin

2010-03-24

410

Pictures of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the oldest and most prestigious photojournalism competitions, Pictures of the Year was established 58 years ago by a University of Missouri-Columbia photojournalism professor. This year's overall winners will be announced on April 19, but in the meantime, readers can view the winning photos and those that received the Award of Excellence in the three major categories: Newspaper, Magazine, and General. These images were selected from over 32,000 entries, and they run the full gamut of subject matter and emotion. Visitors will find images that are amusing, inspiring, beautiful, and heartbreaking. Highly recommended and well worth a visit.

411

Pretty Good Year  

E-print Network

Translated into Quenya by Gilly P??t?y G?od Ye?r ???e??d? Right now it’s the 16th of March, 2013. The last time I wrote one of these for Pretty Good Year was 30th of July, 2003, a whisker shy of ten years ago. That original foreword follows this one... makes it even more obvious how incredibly formative telling these stories was in making me the storyteller I am today. Ten years isn’t all that long at all. With love, Mary Borsellino 16th March 2013 Foreword to the original pdf...

Borsellino, Mary

2013-01-01

412

7.RP Comparing Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Historically, different people have defined a year in different ways. For example, an Egyptian year is 365 days long, a Julian year is 365$\\frac14$ day...

413

Year of Science 2009  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website hosts information on a national year-long celebration of science to engage the public in science and improve public understanding about how science works, why it matters, and who scientists are.

Sherri Potter (COPUS Network Project Manager)

2008-08-14

414

Biochemistry Biochemist 6 years  

E-print Network

Biochemistry Biochemist ­ 6 years Objective To train professionals of a high scientific of studies has the following orientations: Vegetal and Ground Biochemistry; Microbiology and Inmunobiology ; Basic Biochemistry, Biotechnology; Clinic Biochemistry; Food Science and Nutrition. Besides, students

Groisman, Pablo

415

The Year in Echocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past year, progress in echocardiographic research has again been incremental with reports describing both expanded and refined applications of tissue Doppler imag- ing (TDI), myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE), stress echocardiography, and real-time 3-dimensional (RT3D) imaging. The primary focus this year has been on the use of TDI and speckle tracking (ST) to identify left ventricular (LV) systolic and\\/or

Arthur E. Weyman

2010-01-01

416

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the seasons of the year? First, watch this video about seasons. Video on seasons Next, paint a picture about the seasons. painting the seasons After you have painted a picture, play a game to identify the seasons. Game about seasons Now, go through a step by step guide about the seasons. Different seasons in a year Next, watch another video about the seasons. Video on seasons Last, fill out this chart about the seasons. In each block, ...

2012-04-05

417

Fiscal Year 2003  

Cancer.gov

The Nation’s Investment in Cancer Research A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 P re p a r ed by the Dir e c t o r National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 . . . bringing together the resources to stimulate and support scientific discovery and its application to achieve a future when all cancers are uncommon and easily treated.

418

Yearly Arctic Temperature Anomaly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the yearly temperature anomaly over the Arctic region from 1981-82 through 2002-03. Years run from August 1 through July 31. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -7.0 to +7.0 degrees Celsius in increments of .25 degrees. (See color bar below)

Cindy Starr

2003-10-23

419

150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

420

Consolidated Federal Funds Report, Fiscal Year 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the latest US Census Bureau's Consolidated Federal Funds Report (CFFR), federal domestic spending reached $1.5 trillion in 1998, up 3.7 percent from 1997, and social security increased by 3.9 percent at $403 billion. Census Bureau staff cite payments for disability and retirement as well as grants and procurement contracts as the main reasons for the increases.

421

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson demonstrates the link between the tilt of the Earth's axis to the plane of the ecliptic and seasons of the year, length of day, effectiveness of sunlight, and polar day and night. It discusses how the inclination of the Earth's rotation axis causes seasons of the year, by varying the length of the local day and the angle at which the Sun's rays arrive on the surface of the Earth, and to recognize that seasons in the southern hemisphere (at middle latitudes) occur at opposite parts of the year from seasons in the US and Europe. The student will also realize that the seasons in the middle-latitudes in US and Europe are quite different from seasons experienced near the equator and also know about the polar day, when the Sun never sets but just marches around the horizon, and the polar night, when it never rises.

David Stern

422

Congress passes space year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The year 1992 will mark the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' arrival in America and the 35th anniversary of both the International Geophysical Year and the launch of Sputnik. The U.S. Senate passed a joint resolution (S.J.Res. 177) on November 21 recommending that the President endorse an International Space Year (ISY) in 1992. A similar resolution introduced in the House of Representatives was incorporated into the conference report (House Report 99-379) accompanying the authorization bill for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and approved by both houses, also on November 21. As Eos went to press, the NASA authorization bill (H.R. 1714) awaited President Ronald Reagan's signature.

423

Emergent technologies: 25 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

Rising, Hawley K.

2013-03-01

424

The Economic Benefits Resulting from the First 8 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000–2007)  

PubMed Central

Background Between 2000–2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 4–6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. Methodology To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization Principal Findings An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. Conclusions/Significance MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with favorable program implementation costs (largely a result of the sustained commitments of donated drugs from the pharmaceutical industry) it is clear that the economic rate of return of the GPELF is extremely high and that this Programme continues to prove itself an excellent investment in global health. PMID:20532228

Chu, Brian K.; Hooper, Pamela J.; Bradley, Mark H.; McFarland, Deborah A.; Ottesen, Eric A.

2010-01-01

425

Understanding Early Years Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book is about policy in the area of early years services and that phrase may need some clarification. For the most part, therefore, this book deals with nursery schools and classes and with services provided by full day care nurseries, pre-schools, creches, childminders, after-school clubs and holiday play schemes. This book begins with…

Baldock, Peter; Fitzgerald, Damien; Kay, Janet

2005-01-01

426

Eleventh Year Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This outline for Eleventh Year Mathematics in New York adheres closely to the recommendations of The Commission of Mathematics of the College Entrance Examination Board and thus presents a unified development of certain aspects of algebra, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. Its aim is both as a terminal course in mathematics and as a solid…

Buchman, Aaron; Zimmerman, Robert

427

The Lost Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thousands of children were deprived of schooling in the difficult aftermath of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq five years ago. During those times, more than 2 million Iraqis have fled their homeland, mainly to Jordan and Syria. Even though the schoolchildren who came to these neighboring Arab lands with their families are now given seats in…

Zehr, Mary Ann; Mousa, Yasmine

2008-01-01

428

Tuskegee: 100 Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history and accomplishments of Tuskegee Institute over the past 100 years. Highlights the role played by Booker T. Washington, and W. E. B. DuBois; discusses the career of the school's retiring president, Luther Foster. Provides information on the new president, Dr. Benjamin Payton, and discusses future directions for the college. (APM)

Higgins, Renelda

1981-01-01

429

Election Year Protocols for  

E-print Network

, impassioned political debate has the potential to escalate into conflict of a deeply personal nature, some's integrity or intelligence. Never allow political disagreement to become personal. Always take care to avoidPolitics Election Year Politics Protocols for Most are familiar with the old adage cautioning

Ginzel, Matthew

430

ARITHMETIC PROGRAM, THIRD YEAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE THIRD YEAR OF ARITHMETIC INSTRUCTION SHOULD UTILIZE SOCIAL SETTINGS FOR LEARNING AS WELL AS MANIPULATIVE AND GRAPHIC MATERIALS. THE NUMBER SYSTEM, IN COUNTING, SHOULD DEVELOP THE SKILLS OF COUNTING BY 3'S AND 4'S AND OF RECOGNIZING ODD AND EVEN NUMBERS. CHILDREN SHOULD GAIN THE ABILITY TO READ AND WRITE NUMBERS TO FOUR PLACES. THE WHOLE…

GARBER, CLAIRE

431

Redesigning the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The senior year by all reason should be the capstone of an individual's time in the K-12 system. It should carry not only academic rigor, but also a spirit of unrivaled engagement if it is truly going to be an appropriate culminating experience. For many 12th graders across the country, it is far from that. How can educators create an educational…

Dreis, Janice R.; Rehage, Larry D.

2011-01-01

432

A Year Without Procedures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Step-by-step instructions in the chemistry lab often eliminate opportunities for inquiry, higher levels of thinking, and the sense of accomplishment students find through independent discovery. However, removing procedures from chemistry labs creates opportunities for student inquiry. This article describes a chemistry-based experimental year without procedures, but the concept can be applied to any scientific discipline.

Lisa Backus

2005-10-01

433

Project Year Summer 2010  

E-print Network

.306.01), and Separation (540.304.01), with an additional venue for the demonstration at the USA Science Fair in WashingtonProject Year Summer 2010 Project Title Lab-on-a-Chip Simulation Project Team German Drazer, Whiting and popular science websites. Our model will mimic the fluid behavior inside a "Lab-on-a-Chip," a relatively

Gray, Jeffrey J.

434

Physics in 100 Years  

E-print Network

Here I indulge in wide-ranging speculations on the shape of physics, and technology closely related to physics, over the next one hundred years. Themes include the many faces of unification, the re-imagining of quantum theory, and new forms of engineering on small, intermediate, and large scales.

Wilczek, Frank

2015-01-01

435

Black Studies Year One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though Dubois tried to begin a series of scientific studies on the Negro problem in America more than 70 years ago, only recently have attempts been made to present a true history of the Black man in institutions of higher learning. Until that time, the experience of the Black man was defined in Euro-American terms, or in most cases was completely…

Long, Richard A.

436

ARITHMETIC PROGRAM FOURTH YEAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE 4TH YEAR SHOULD CONTINUE THE SEQUENTIAL PRESENTATION MATHEMATICAL UNDERSTANDINGS AND RELATIONSHIPS. NEW LEARNINGS SHOULD BE PRESENTED CONCRETELY IN SOCIAL SETTINGS WITHIN THE CHILDREN'S FRAMEWORK OF UNDERSTANDING. GRAPHIC MATERIALS MAY BE USED TO BRIDGE THE UNDERSTANDINGS FROM THE CONCRETE TO THE ABSTRACT LEVEL. THE NUMBER SYSTEM UNIT SHOULD…

GARBER, CLAIRE N.

437

Year-Round Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication was developed in response to inquiries received from teachers and association leaders about the effect of a year-round school schedule on the livelihood and working conditions of teachers. It is intended to assist association leaders who deal with the problems related to (1) local negotiations or policy agreements for the…

National Education Association, Washington, DC. Div. of Instruction and Professional Development.

438

The Turbulent Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary of the Fourth Annual Conference on Major Transitions in the Human Life Cycle contains a preface, introductory section on adolescence and young adulthood (ages 14 through 24 years), and the following presentations, complete with discussion text: (1) "Historical Treatment of the Age Group" (John Demos); (2) "Demographic Considerations"…

Scanlon, John, Ed.

439

Chinese New Year Dragons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

Balgemann, Linda

2000-01-01

440

Smog - the learning years  

SciTech Connect

35 years of continuous work by government and industry and the public have led to a very sophisticated system of emission controls. This paper is intended to recall and perhaps to honor those who participated in the hectic early period, when instrumentation, basic knowledge, and primitive devices competed for the attention of these pioneers with strident demands from policitians.

Heinen, C.M.; Fagley, W.S. Jr.

1989-01-01

441

Reauthorization of the National Science Foundation, 1985. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United State Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on Examining the Reauthorization of Appropriations for the National Science Foundation for Fiscal Year 1985 (April 4, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These hearings focused on the reauthorization of appropriations for the National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 1985. (The Reagan administration's request for the NSF was $1.5 billion, an increase of 13.6 percent over the FY 1984 budget.) The hearings include a prepared statement from Edward Knapp (NSF director) which provides an…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

442

40 years and counting.  

PubMed

I find it hard to believe that the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) and my career in oncology nursing are 40 years old when many of our members are not even 40 years old! So much has changed in that time to make cancer care better. In 1975, the year that ONS became incorporated, the five-year survival rate was 49% (up from 35% in 1950). By 2010, the rate increased to 68% (American Cancer Society, 2015). However, not everyone benefited equally because a gap existed in the survival rates between Caucasians and African Americans; while that gap has narrowed, it has not disappeared. In 1975, about two dozen drugs were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat cancer (Devita & Chu, 2008). During the past 15 years, 127 new agents were approved (Centerwatch, 2015), with another 771 new medicines and vaccines currently in clinical trials or awaiting review by the FDA (Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, 2015). The first Hickman catheters, and later ports, were introduced in the late 1970s (Bjeletich & Hickman, 1980), and I remember introducing the Hickman at my institution to help keep our patients' veins patent-it was a godsend. We now have so many more options in venous access devices. Cancer care became increasingly more complex in our understanding of the disease, its treatment, and in the supportive care needs of patients during that time period. But our goals were always the same: to help our patients and their families deal with this life-altering disease and to reduce the burden of their journey.?. PMID:25840374

Mayer, Deborah K

2015-04-01

443

Five years of LRO laser altimetry at the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After five years of near-continuous operation at the Moon, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on LRO continues to collect altimetry, surface roughness, slope and normal reflectance data. LOLA has acquired over 6 billion altimeter measurements, all geodetically controlled to the center-of-mass of the Moon with a radial precision of around 10 cm and an accuracy of about 1 meter. The position of the measurements on the lunar surface is primarily limited by the knowledge of the position of the spacecraft in orbit and in the last few years the LRO orbit accuracy has improved significantly as a result of the accurate gravity model of the Moon developed by the GRAIL Discovery mission. Our present estimate of positional accuracy is less than 10 m rms but is only achievable with a GRAIL gravity model to at least degree and order 600 because of the perturbing gravitational effect of the Moon’s surface features. Significant improvements in the global shape and topography have assisted the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) stereo mapping program, and the identification of potential lunar landing sites for ESA and Russia, particularly in the high-latitude polar regions where 5- and 10-meter average horizontal resolution has been obtained. LOLA’s detailed mapping of these regions has improved the delineation of permanently-shadowed areas and assisted in the understanding of the LEND neutron data, and its relationship to surface slopes. Recently a global, calibrated LOLA normal albedo dataset at 1064 nm has been developed.

Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

444

Developmental milestones record - 3 years  

MedlinePLUS

Normal childhood growth milestones - 3 years; Growth milestones for children - 3 years; Childhood growth milestones - 3 years ... provider. Physical and motor milestones for a typical 3-year-old include: Gains about 4 - 5 pounds ...

445

Early Years Policy  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we analyze the role that early years policy might play in narrowing educational attainment gaps. We begin by examining gaps in school readiness between low-, middle-, and high-income children, drawing on data from new large and nationally representative birth cohort studies in the US and UK. We find that sizable income-related gaps in school readiness are present in both countries before children enter school and then decompose these gaps to identify the factors that account for the poorer scores of low-income children. We then consider what role early years policy could play in tackling these gaps, drawing on the best available evidence to identify promising programs. PMID:21731827

Waldfogel, Jane; Washbrook, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

446

International Polar Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the International Polar Year, which started in March 2007 and runs through March 2009, a team of thousands of scientists from 60 nations will be examining a wide range of physical, biological, and social research topics that deal with the Arctic and the Antarctic. The project is sponsored by a number of organizations, including the World Meteorological Organization and the International Council for Science. Visitors to their homepage will find that they can look over such thematic sections as "Atmosphere", "Ice", "Land", "Oceans", and so on. Within each of these sections, visitors can look over news items, events, blog listings, and of course, a set of links and resources. Educators should not pass up the "Educators" area, as it contains a selection of classroom tested activities and links to the International Polar Year Youth portal which is designed for both students and educators.

447

International Polar Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the International Polar Year, which started in March 2007 and ran through March 2009, a team of thousands of scientists from 60 nations will be examining a wide range of physical, biological, and social research topics that deal with the Arctic and the Antarctic. The project is sponsored by a number of organizations, including the World Meteorological Organization and the International Council for Science. Visitors to their homepage will find that they can look over such thematic sections as "Atmosphere", "Ice", "Land", "Oceans", and so on. Within each of these sections, visitors can look over news items, events, blog listings, and of course, a set of links and resources. Educators should not pass up the "Educators" area, as it contains a selection of classroom tested activities and links to the International Polar Year Youth portal which is designed for both students and educators.

448

Aeropropulsion in year 2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper demonstrates that many advances can be anticipated in propulsion systems for aircraft in the next 20 years. A survey is presented of probable future engine types, including convertible engines for helicopters, turboprops for fuel efficient airliners, and variable cycle engines for supersonic transports. Also examined is the use of rotary engines in general aviation aircraft. Finally, a review is given of related technology improvements in propellers, materials, noise suppression, and digital electronic controls.

Weber, R. J.

1980-01-01

449

Fruits of 20 Years of Highway Safety Legislative Advocacy in the United States  

PubMed Central

This paper models the effects on crash fatalities and costs of 20 years of legislative actions resulting from Federal and state advocacy efforts. We catalogued road safety laws passed between 1990 and 2009 and motorcycle helmet law repeals that advocacy efforts narrowly defeated. We used NHTSA’s estimates of lives saved by airbags and published estimates of the percentage reduction in related crash fatalities associated with each type of law. State by state and year by year, from the actual fatality count for the year, we modeled how many fatalities each state's laws averted. We assumed, somewhat shakily, that the percentage reduction in nonfatal injury costs would mirror the fatality reduction. We used crash cost estimates for 10 years between 1990 and 2008 to estimate total crash costs from 1990–2009. The costs were built from NHTSA’s estimates of cost per crash. The state laws passed included 113 occupant protection laws, 131 impaired driving laws, and 76 teen driving laws, plus a Federal airbag mandate. These laws saved an estimated 120,000 lives. The life-saving benefits accelerated as the number of laws in force grew. By 2009, they resulted in 25% fewer crash fatalities. The largest life-saving benefits sprang from airbag, belt use, and impaired driving laws. Laws that affect narrow subpopulations had more modest impacts. The laws reduced insurance costs by more than $210 billion and saved government an estimated $42 billion. Including the value of lost quality of life, estimated savings exceeded $1.3 trillion. Legislative advocacy is truly a spark plug in the safety engine. PMID:22105410

Miller, Ted R.; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard

2011-01-01

450

Twenty years of marriages.  

PubMed

In 1994, a total of 159,959 marriages were performed in Canada, up only slightly from 159,316 the year before. This small increase had no effect on the crude marriage rate, which remained at 5.5 marriages per 1,000 population. Aside from a brief uptum in the late 1980s, Canada's marriage rate has fallen quite steadily since the early 1970s. The overall decline is also evident when rates are disaggregated by the prior marital status of the bride and groom (single, divorced or widowed). Since 1974, the average ages of brides and grooms have risen about five years to 30.1 and 32.6, respectively. Nonetheless, the peak ages for marriage are the twenties. In this age range, women's marriage rates exceed those of men, but at older ages, men's rates are higher. And at progressively older ages, a growing proportion of grooms have brides at least 10 years their junior. The marriage patterns of Quebec residents differ from those of other Canadians. Quebec residents are much more likely to remain single or live common-law, and if they do marry, they are slightly more likely to divorce. Once divorced or widowed, people in Quebec are less likely than those in the rest of Canada to remarry. This article is based on data compiled by Statistics Canada from marriage registration forms provided by the central Vital Statistics Registry in each province and territory. PMID:9110964

Nault, F

1996-01-01

451

Phosphogenesis in the 2460 and 2728 million-year-old banded iron formations as evidence for biological cycling of phosphate in the early biosphere  

PubMed Central

The banded iron formation deposited during the first 2 billion years of Earth's history holds the key to understanding the interplay between the geosphere and the early biosphere at large geological timescales. The earliest ore-scale phosphorite depositions formed almost at ?2.0–2.2 billion years ago bear evidence for the earliest bloom of aerobic life. The cycling of nutrient phosphorus and how it constrained primary productivity in the anaerobic world of Archean–Palaeoproterozoic eons are still open questions. The controversy centers about whether the precipitation of ultrafine ferric oxyhydroxide due to the microbial Fe(II) oxidation in oceans earlier than 1.9 billion years substantially sequestrated phosphate, and whether this process significantly limited the primary productivity of the early biosphere. In this study, we report apatite radial flowers of a few micrometers in the 2728 million-year-old Abitibi banded iron formation and the 2460 million-year-old Kuruman banded iron formation and their similarities to those in the 535 million-year-old Lower Cambrian phosphorite. The lithology of the 535 Million-year-old phosphorite as a biosignature bears abundant biomarkers that reveal the possible similar biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the Later Archean and Palaeoproterozoic oceans. These apatite radial flowers represent the primary precipitation of phosphate derived from the phytoplankton blooms in the euphotic zones of Neoarchean and Palaoeproterozoic oceans. The unbiased distributions of the apatite radial flowers within sub-millimeter bands do not support the idea of an Archean Crisis of Phosphate. This is the first report of the microbial mediated mineralization of phosphorus before the Great Oxidation Event when the whole biosphere was still dominated by anaerobic microorganisms. PMID:23404127

Li, Yi-Liang; Sun, Si; Chan, Lung S

2013-01-01

452

Gait and Balance Deficits in Chronic Alcoholics: No Improvement from 10 Weeks Through One Year Abstinence  

PubMed Central

Background Disturbed gait and balance are common and important sequelae of chronic alcoholism. We present longitudinal data on recovery of gait and balance in alcoholics 6–15 weeks abstinent at baseline assessment through follow-up assessment 4–16 months after baseline. Methods We performed a follow-up assessment (4–16 months after baseline) of gait and balance functioning in 37 Short-Term (6–15 weeks) Abstinent Alcoholics (STAA), 25 of whom remained abstinent through the follow-up period. Fourteen Non-Substance-Abusing Controls (NSAC) were also brought back for a follow-up assessment to examine practice effects. Results Alcoholics showed gait and balance impairment vs. controls at both the initial and follow-up assessments, showing no improvement in gait and balance measures over the follow-up period. At follow-up, NSAC showed improvement on the Walk on Floor Eyes Closed measure, possibly representing a practice effect not present in STAA. Conclusions The present study finds no improvement from about 10 weeks to about 1 year of abstinence in chronic alcoholics. The study is silent with regard to gait and balance recovery that occurs prior to 10 weeks abstinence, and after the first year of abstinence. Other studies suggest some recovery of gait and balance prior to 10 weeks abstinence, and our recent cross-sectional study (Smith and Fein 2011) suggests that significant additional recovery occurs in the ensuing years. PMID:22691134

Fein, George; Greenstein, David

2012-01-01

453

500 years after Columbus.  

PubMed

The astonishing range of plants and animals of Central America's 7 countries (Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama) is disappearing, as 60% of its forests have been cut for lumber and firewood as well as for cotton, cattle, or subsistence crops. Up to 5 million Mayans lived sustainably for thousands of years in an area now being destroyed by a few hundred thousand inhabitants. The Spanish colonization that started 500 years ago was concentrated in Panama, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. The majority of the English-speaking country of Belize are descended from the black slave population whose culture spread down the coast to Central America. Panama's service economy is based on the Panama Canal and trade and finance. Costa Rica benefits from a tourist industry based on its natural beauty, however, it also has the highest rate of deforestation and its fast population growth could jeopardize earlier social and economic progress. In El Salvador and Guatemala long periods of civil conflict have taken their toll on the economy and the environment. El Salvador has a mountainous territory and limited natural resources and industrialization, while the best land is in the hands of a few families. Honduras and Nicaragua retain the highest proportion of forest cover of the countries in the region, despite Nicaragua's years of tyranny, then revolution and the Contra war, and Honduras's own turmoils. Belize has achieved some stability, and is now strengthening its Central American links. Its coral reefs and coastal areas offer potential for sustainable development through fishing and tourism. Central American countries face the challenges of their fragile environments and major social problems. PMID:12317700

Imbach, A

1992-01-01

454

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You are going to watch some videos of the seasons of the year.Use your worksheet to help you remember the types of weather and the clothes we wear during the different seasons. What is different about each season? Seasons Chart 1. This is what you will click on to watch the video on winter. Winter Video 2. In the spring video make sure you notice the changes in weather Spring Video 3. Now watch the summer video Summer Video 4.This is what you will click on to watch the video on fall. Fall Video 5. Click here to watch a video ...

Ms. Larrimore

2012-04-11

455

Fifty years of stacking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common-Mid-Point (CMP) stacking is a major process to enhance signal-to-noise ratio in seismic data. Since its appearance fifty years ago, CMP stacking has gone through different phases of prosperity and negligence within the geophysical community. During those times, CMP stacking developed from a simple process of averaging into a sophisticated process that involves complicated mathematics and state-of-the-art computation. This article summarizes the basic principles, assumptions, and violations related to the CMP stacking technique, presents a historical overview on the development stages of CMP stacking, and discusses its future potentiality.

Rashed, Mohamed

2014-06-01

456

Early Years Centre Senior Early Years Practitioner (Level 2b)  

E-print Network

Early Years Centre Senior Early Years Practitioner (Level 2b) 3.56 FTE Early Years Centre Co-ordinator (Level 3) 2 FTE Early Years Centre Manager (Level 4) 1 FTE Early Years Practitioner (Level 2a) 23.32 FTE Assistant (Level 2a) 4 FTE Enabling Service Practitioners (Level 4) 13 FTE including: First Support

Molinari, Marc

457

75 Years of the Junior Year in Munich  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not only has the US Senate designated 2006 the Year of Study Abroad; the year also marks the anniversary of a distinguished tradition of study abroad in Germany that reaches back 75 years. Founded in 1931, suspended during the war years, and re-opened in 1953 by Wayne State University, the Junior Year in Munich is America's oldest study abroad…

Ferguson, Mark

2007-01-01

458

The case for human causes of increased atmospheric CH 4 over the last 5000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose that humans significantly altered atmospheric CH 4 levels after 5000 years BP and that anthropogenic inputs just prior to the industrial revolution accounted for up to 25% of the CH 4 level of 725 ppb (parts per billion). We base this hypothesis on three arguments: (1) the 100 ppb increase in atmospheric CH 4 that occurred after 5000 years BP follows a pattern unprecedented in any prior orbitally driven change in the ice-core record; (2) non-anthropogenic explanations for this increase (expansion of boreal peat lands or tropical wetlands) are inconsistent with existing evidence; and (3) inefficient early rice farming is a quantitatively plausible means of producing anomalously large CH 4 inputs to the atmosphere prior to the industrial revolution. If the areas flooded for farming harbored abundant CH 4-producing weeds, disproportionately large amounts of CH 4 would have been produced in feeding relatively small pre-industrial populations.

Ruddiman, William F.; Thomson, Jonathan S.

2001-12-01

459

30 years of rabies vaccination with Rabipur: a summary of clinical data and global experience.  

PubMed

Rabies poses a threat to more than 3.3 billion people worldwide and is estimated to cause about 60,000 deaths a year. However, according to the WHO, it is still one of the most neglected diseases in developing countries. Human rabies vaccinations are critical components of pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis. Rabipur, the first purified chick embryo cell-culture vaccine, was licensed in Germany in 1984, and later in more than 60 countries worldwide. The immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of Rabipur have been assessed in numerous clinical trials in pre- and post-exposure regimens, using both intramuscular and intradermal routes of administration. The trial populations have involved adults and children, including healthy volunteers and individuals bitten by laboratory-proven rabid animals, malnourished children and immunocompromised individuals. Extensive, worldwide clinical experience with Rabipur over the past 30 years has shown the vaccine to be immunogenic, effective and generally well tolerated. PMID:25683583

Giesen, Alexandra; Gniel, Dieter; Malerczyk, Claudius

2015-03-01

460

Einstein Year 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Einstein Year marks the centenary of the three papers that Albert Einstein published in 1905, which of course, included the paper on photoelectric effect that led to his Nobel Prize in Physics. The primary aim of Einstein Year is "to enthuse young people, and those who influence them, about physics, whilst building a sustainable increase in public awareness of physics and its role in society." On the site, visitors can learn about the various ongoing activities being coordinated around the world, read a biography about Einstein, and check out the "Experiment" section, where users can explore physics through a number of simple and thoughtful experiments. A real highlight of the site is the "If you could teach the world just one thing about science" feature, which was conducted by the online magazine, _spiked_. The magazine asked dozens of scientists what "one thing" they would pick to teach the world about science, and their responses (including a few video clips) are posted on the site.

461

International Year of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations has declared the year 2010 as the year of biodiversity, and none too soon. The definition and importance of biodiversity is explained on the "About" page, but in brief, it's a "rich diversity [in nature which] is being lost at a greatly accelerated rate because of human activities. This...weakens the ability of the living systems, on which we depend, to resist growing threats such as climate change." The list of "Major Upcoming Celebrations" is on the middle of the homepage below the written and video "Welcome Messages" from various representatives of national governments and large non-profits. Some of the celebrations include an International Art Exhibition by young people. Visitors can click on "More Celebrations" to be taken to an interactive map of celebrations "By Countries", "Calendar" or "Success Stories". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Red List", which can be found on the homepage or in the "About" section. The "Red List of Threatened Species" highlights one species of plant or animal each day, with a photo and a couple of paragraphs on its location, vulnerability, origins, etc. The current month is shown, but visitors can view the species of the days for the "Previous Months" of 2010 as well.

UN. General Assembly (61st sess. : 2006-2007)

462

Year of oceans?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

John V. Byrne, administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has proposed that 1984 be observed as the Year of the Oceans. The year should be devoted to defining and clarifying the U.S.'s ocean and coastal goals and “rallying the support to achieve them,” Byrne recently told oceanographers attending the Coastal Zone ?83 gathering in San Diego, Calif.“Today we see ferment in ocean and coastal concerns,” Byrne said. Among the examples he cited was the proclamation issued by President Reagan on March 10 declaring an exclusive economic zone within 200 miles of the coast where the United States will exercise jurisdiction for the purposes of exploring, exploiting, conserving, and managing natural resources (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402). In addition, “legislation has been introduced to define the outer continental shelf, deep seabed minerals, ocean thermal energy, marine pollution, fisheries, and other oceanic concerns,” Byrne said. “In both houses of the U.S. Congress, legislators are considering bills that would establish a National Oceans Policy Commission,” he added.

463

Fiscal year 2013 energy department budget: Proposed investments in clean energy research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy and environmental research programs generally fared well in President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the Department of Energy (DOE) for fiscal year (FY) 2013. In his State of the Union address, Obama called for the United States to pursue an “all of the above” energy strategy that includes fossil fuels, as well as a variety of renewable sources of energy. The DOE budget request supports that strategy, Energy Secretary Steven Chu said in a 13 February press briefing announcing the budget proposal. The proposed budget gives DOE $27.2 billion overall, a 3.2% increase from the FY 2012 enacted budget (see Table 1). This budget “reflects some tough choices,” Chu said. The proposed budget would cut $4 billion in subsidies for oil and gas companies; many Republican members of Congress have already indicated that they oppose such cuts, suggesting that congressional approval of this budget may run into stumbling blocks. The budget would also cut funding for research and development projects that are already attracting private-sector investment or that are not working, and would reduce some of the department's operational costs.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-03-01

464

The Early Years: Focus on the Young Child and Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen brief articles focus on the young handicapped child and his family. Articles have the following titles and authors: "Elements of Early Care and Education" (W. Fowler); "Mothers and Fathers--The Special Child's Special Resources" (M. Lamb); "Child Development--Knowledge and the Special Educator" (A. Honig); "The Handicapped Child in the…

Cataldo, Christine, Ed.

1981-01-01

465

Twenty years of KSHV.  

PubMed

Twenty years ago, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill's Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men-in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) since its initial description in 1994. PMID:25386844

Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick

2014-11-01

466

The 34 Year Starship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1974, the designers and leadership of a mission then known as ``Mariner Jupiter Saturn 1977'' decided that the name was a mouthful. They briefly deliberated and decided to rename it ``Voyager'' [1]. Similarly, we believe that ``DARPA 100 Year Starship'' is unnecessarily verbose. We propose to call it ``Enterprise.'' Among the many challenges facing such a mission is that of earning public support - we should let half a century of Hollywood storytelling do that for us. This paper is composed of four parts. Part 1 will discuss the parallels between the Voyager program and a future Enterprise program. Part 2 will go into greater detail regarding the Voyager program and the challenges and opportunities that defined it. Part 3 will discuss some of the major technical challenges for Voyager and Enterprise in greater detail. Part 4 will discuss next steps and various strategies to meet DARPA's challenge of sustainable industry-funded research into interstellar flight.

Nosanov, J.; Shapiro, A.; Garrett, H.

2012-09-01

467

Twenty Years of KSHV  

PubMed Central

Twenty years ago, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill’s Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men—in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) since its initial description in 1994. PMID:25386844

Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick

2014-01-01

468