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1

ASTER TIR onboard calibration over fourteen years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ASTER Instrument is one of the five sensors on the NASA's Terra satellite on orbit since December 1999. After 14 years on orbit, ASTER VNIR and TIR are still taking Earth images of good quality. The TIR radiometer has five bands from 8 to 12 ?m with spatial resolution of 90 m. Each band has ten detectors. The detectors are cooled at 80 K precisely by using a Stirling cooler within 0.1 K. TIR is radiometrically calibrated by a single onboard blackbody. In the normal operation mode the blackbody is kept at 270 K, and once in 49 days the blackbody is heated up to 340 K for the gain calibration. The degradation at band 12 is largest and 48% and that at band 10 is smallest and 18%. One of the possible causes of the degradation is the contamination accretion by outgas of silicone SE9188 RTV used for TIR followed by the ultraviolet radiation. The absorption spectra of outgas of this silicon was measured at JAXA and the absorption spectra showed similar to the TIR degradation in the early days on orbit. ASTER science team is proposing the second lunar calibration at the end of terra mission for the estimation of the TIR optical characteristics. ASTER experienced first lunar calibration in April 2003 and many of the TIR bands were saturated. Due to the responsivity degradation the TIR dynamic range has extended to higher temperature. At least TIR four bands will not saturate in the next lunar calibration.

Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Tatsumi, Kenji; Ono, Hidehiko

2014-10-01

2

Four-billion-year chill on Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short article from the BBC News summarizes recent geochemical studies of Martian meteorites. Researchers have concluded that the climate of Mars has been cold and dry for the past four billion years, and that erosional features visible on the planet's surface must have occurred during brief warmer, wetter periods.

David Whitehouse

3

$17 billion needed by year 2000.  

PubMed

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) estimates that US$17 billion will be needed to fund reproductive health care in developing countries by the year 2000. About US$10 billion of would go for family planning: currently, the amount spent on family planning is about US$5 billion. Donors are focusing on fewer countries because of limited resources. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is planning to phase out support for family planning in Jamaica and Brazil because the programs there have advanced sufficiently. Resources will be shifted to countries with more pressing needs. Dr. Richard Osborn, senior technical officer for UNFPA, states that UNFPA works with national program managers in allocating resources at the macro level (commodities, training). Currently, two-thirds of family planning funds spent worldwide come from developing country governments (mainly China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, Turkey, and Bangladesh). Sustaining programs, much less adding new services, will be difficult. User fees and public-private partnerships are being considered; worldwide, consumers provide, currently, about 14% of family planning funds (The portion is higher in most Latin American countries.). In a few countries, insurance, social security, and other public-private arrangements contribute. Social marketing programs are being considered that would remove constraints on prescriptions and prices and improve the quality of services so that clients would be more willing to pay for contraceptives. Although governments are attempting to fit family planning into their health care budgets, estimates at the national level are difficult to make. Standards are needed to make expenditure estimates quickly and at low cost, according to Dr. Barbara Janowitz of FHI, which is developing guidelines. Studies in Bangladesh, Ecuador, Ghana, Mexico, and the Philippines are being conducted, with the assistance of The Evaluation Project at the Population Center at the University of North Carolina and in-country organizations, to determine the amounts from government resources spent on family planning services in general and by function (training, administration, service delivery, and information). PMID:12290464

Finger, W R

1995-09-01

4

Book Review The Mermaid's Tale: Four Billion Years of Cooperation  

E-print Network

Book Review The Mermaid's Tale: Four Billion Years of Cooperation in the Making of Living Things.00 (cloth). The motivation for The Mermaid's Tale: Four Billion Years of Cooperation in the Making of Living from this book largely unconvinced and sometimes annoyed. The Mermaid's Tale is presented in three

Hochberg, Michael

5

Circadian biology: a 2.5 billion year old clock.  

PubMed

A recent study suggests that circadian clocks may have evolved at the time of the Great Oxidation Event 2.5 billion years ago in order to drive detoxification of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22835791

Loudon, Andrew S I

2012-07-24

6

Conservation of protein structure over four billion years  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Little is known with certainty about the evolution of protein structures in general and the degree of protein structure conservation over planetary time scales in particular. Here we report the X-ray crystal structures of seven laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins dating back up to ~4 billion years before present. Despite considerable sequence differences compared with extant enzymes, the ancestral proteins display the canonical thioredoxin fold while only small structural changes have occurred over 4 billion years. This remarkable degree of structure conservation since a time near the last common ancestor of life supports a punctuated-equilibrium model of structure evolution in which the generation of new folds occurs over comparatively short periods of time and is followed by long periods of structural stasis. PMID:23932589

Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Delgado-Delgado, Asuncion; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Fernandez, Julio M.; Gaucher, Eric A.; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.; Gavira, Jose A.

2013-01-01

7

Constraining the geodynamo and magnetopause during Earth's first billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key parameter in determining solar-terrestrial interactions for the early Earth is the magnetopause standoff distance, determined by the balance between the geomagnetic field and solar wind pressure. The oldest constraints are for 3.45 Ga, during which the magnetopause standoff was less than half the distance of present-day, suggesting an environment where enhanced volatile loss (including water) from the atmosphere seems unavoidable (Tarduno et al., Science, 2010). As we look further back in time there are two vastly different, but currently viable models for the geodynamo. In one the dynamo started shortly after core formation, whereas in the other the dynamo was delayed by as much as 1 billion years by slow lower mantle cooling. A further uncertainty in standoff calculations is solar mass loss for the first 700 million years of the young Sun. Here we address both the uncertainties in solar winds and Earth's dipole moment. We constrain solar mass loss using a new model for the evolution of solar magnetic topology with time, allowing us to extend our prior calculations to the earliest Sun. Extant rocks suitable for paleomagnetic analysis are not available older than ca. 3.47 Ga, however, silicate minerals containing magnetic inclusions composing sedimentary rocks could preserve an ancient record of the geodynamo. Among these, the Jack Hills metaconglomerate (Yilgarn craton, Western Australia) is a promising unit because cobbles pass a conglomerate test (Tarduno and Cottrell, EPSL, 2013). Following our work on zircons and other single silicate crystals hosting magnetic inclusions in the Rochester laboratory since 1997, we discuss the first successful Thellier-Thellier paleointensity results on zircons measured in situ in quartz and as isolated crystals. We employ a CO2 laser demagnetization system and a small bore (6.3 mm) 3-component DC SQUID magnetometer; the latter offers the highest currently available moment resolution. We will discuss our related geochronological studies, and the implications for the early history of the geodynamo, atmospheric loss by solar wind erosion and planetary habitability.

Cottrell, R. D.; Tarduno, J. A.; Davis, W. J.; Mamajek, E.

2013-12-01

8

3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

Ohmoto, H.; Kakegawa, T.; Lowe, D. R.

1993-01-01

9

3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence.  

PubMed

Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen. PMID:11539502

Ohmoto, H; Kakegawa, T; Lowe, D R

1993-10-22

10

For the first billion years of life on Earth,prokaryotes had the place to  

E-print Network

Feature For the first billion years of life on Earth,prokaryotes had the place to themselves. By the time the first eukary- otes and then, finally, multicellular or- ganisms arose and diversified,prokaryotic animals are thought to have some type of symbiotic prokaryote living inside them, although

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

11

Archean Rocks in Antarctica: 2.5-Billion-Year Uranium-Lead Ages of Pegmatites in Enderby Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium-lead isotopic data indicate that the granulite-facies Napier complex of Enderby Land, Antarctica, was cut by charnockitic pegmatites 2.5 billion years ago and by pegmatites lacking hypersthene 0.52 billion years ago. The 4-billion-year lead-lead ages (whole rock) reported for the Napier complex are rejected since these leads developed in three stages. Reconstructions of Gondwanaland suggest that the Napier complex may

Edward S. Grew; William I. Manton

1979-01-01

12

Evidence for arsenic metabolism and cycling by microorganisms 2.7 billion years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of microbes to metabolize arsenic may have emerged more than 3.4 billion years ago. Some of the modern environments in which prominent arsenic metabolism occurs are anoxic, as were the Precambrian oceans. Early oceans may also have had a relatively high abundance of arsenic. However, it is unclear whether arsenic cycling occurred in ancient environments. Here we assess the chemistry and nature of cell-like globules identified in salt-encrusted portions of 2.72-billion-year-old fossil stromatolites from Western Australia. We use Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence to show that the globules are composed of organic carbon and arsenic (As). We argue that our data are best explained by the occurrence of a complete arsenic cycle at this site, with As(III) oxidation and As(V) reduction by microbes living in permanently anoxic conditions. We therefore suggest that arsenic cycling could have occurred more widely in marine environments in the several hundred million years before the Earth’s atmosphere and shallow oceans were oxygenated.

Sforna, Marie Catherine; Philippot, Pascal; Somogyi, Andrea; van Zuilen, Mark A.; Medjoubi, Kadda; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Visscher, Pieter T.

2014-11-01

13

Two Thousand Fourteen Faculty Distinction  

E-print Network

Two Thousand Fourteen Faculty Distinction Celebrating the awards, honors and recognition awards and honors. Over the course of the last academic year, four faculty members were elected to the National Academy of Sciences and three were elected fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences

Qian, Ning

14

MIT BLOSSOMS - Geologic Time: The Ticking of Our Planetâs 4.6 Billion Year Clock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth is 4.6 billion years old. That's a hard number to conceptualize. What does 4.6 billion look like, and what happened during all those hundreds of millions of years between the formation of our planet and now? This BLOSSOMS lesson will help students conceptualize the enormity of geologic time and learn about important events in Earth's history. Students will also learn how geologic time can help explain seemingly incomprehensible processes, like the formation of the Himalayan Mountains from a flat plain to their current height, and the evolution of a tiny group of reptiles into enormous dinosaurs. The lesson will take approximately 45 minutes. Students should have a basic understanding of biology, and a familiarity with geology is helpful but not necessary. The supplies required include a measuring tape that is at least 5 meters long, a 5 meter long piece of string, ribbon, or rope, index cards or other stiff pieces of paper, and calculators. During the breaks, students will construct a geologic timeline of their own in the classroom and do simple calculations to determine how long amounts of time can lead to impressive changes in the height of the Himalayan Mountains and the size of a group of reptiles.

Blossoms, Mit

2011-07-18

15

A massive galaxy in its core formation phase three billion years after the Big Bang  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores in early cosmic epochs. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes, but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we report a candidate core in the process of formation 11 billion years ago, at redshift z = 2.3. This galaxy, GOODS-N-774, has a stellar mass of 100 billion solar masses, a half-light radius of 1.0 kiloparsecs and a star formation rate of solar masses per year. The star-forming gas has a velocity dispersion of 317 +/- 30 kilometres per second. This is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, which are compact quiescent galaxies at z ~ 2 (refs 8, 9, 10, 11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 seem to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of this galaxy we infer that many star-forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.

Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha Förster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Leja, Joel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine; Wuyts, Stijn

2014-09-01

16

Missing billions.  

PubMed

This article discusses funding of population programs that support the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development's Plan of Action. The Plan of Action calls for a quadrupling of annual financial commitments for population programs to $17 billion by the year 2000 and $22 billion by 2015. The increased expenditures would cover the increased demand for services from unmet need and population growth. Donor countries are expected to increase their share from the current 25% to about 33%, or $5.7 billion by the year 2000. The estimates are in 1993 constant dollars. $17 billion is less than the $40 billion that is spent worldwide on playing golf. During 1993-94, general donor support increased to $1.2 billion. Denmark, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States increased their support. The United States doubled its support for population programs during 1992-95 to $583 million. During 1996-97 the US Congress cut funding back to the 1995 level. France, Italy, Spain, Belgium, and Austria have lagged in support for population programs in the present and the past. Equal burden sharing would require the US to increase funding to $1.9 billion. Developed country assistance declined to the lowest share of combined gross national product since 1970. This shifts the burden to multilateral sources. The European Union is committed to increasing its funding, and the World Bank increased funding for population and reproductive health to about $600 million in 1996 from $424 million in 1994. Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey spent 85% of all government expenditures on family planning in developing countries. External donors in Africa are the main support of family planning. Private consumers in Latin America pay most of the costs of family planning. External assistance will be needed for some time. PMID:12321013

Conly, S

1997-01-01

17

Star Formation in Galaxy Clusters Over the Past 10 Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound systems in the universe and include the most massive galaxies in the universe; this makes galaxy clusters ideal laboratories for disentangling the nature versus nurture aspect of how galaxies evolve. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve in clusters continues to be a fundamental question in astronomy. The ages and assembly histories of galaxies in rich clusters test both stellar population models and hierarchical formation scenarios. Is star formation in cluster galaxies simply accelerated relative to their counterparts in the lower density field, or do cluster galaxies assemble their stars in a fundamentally different manner? To answer this question, I review multi-wavelength results on star formation in galaxy clusters from Coma to the most distant clusters yet discovered at look-back times of 10 billion years (z 2).

Tran, Kim-Vy

2012-01-01

18

Extraterrestrial demise of banded iron formations 1.85 billion years ago  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Lake Superior region of North America, deposition of most banded iron formations (BIFs) ended abruptly 1.85 Ga ago, coincident with the oceanic impact of the giant Sudbury extraterrestrial bolide. We propose a new model in which this impact produced global mixing of shallow oxic and deep anoxic waters of the Paleoproterozoic ocean, creating a suboxic redox state for deep seawater. This suboxic state, characterized by only small concentrations of dissolved O2 (???1 ??M), prevented transport of hydrothermally derived Fe(II) from the deep ocean to continental-margin settings, ending an ???1.1 billion-year-long period of episodic BIF mineralization. The model is supported by the nature of Precambrian deep-water exhalative chemical sediments, which changed from predominantly sulfide facies prior to ca. 1.85 Ga to mainly oxide facies thereafter. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

Slack, J.F.; Cannon, W.F.

2009-01-01

19

Atmospheric carbon dioxide: a driver of photosynthetic eukaryote evolution for over a billion years?  

PubMed Central

Exciting evidence from diverse fields, including physiology, evolutionary biology, palaeontology, geosciences and molecular genetics, is providing an increasingly secure basis for robustly formulating and evaluating hypotheses concerning the role of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Such studies span over a billion years of evolutionary change, from the origins of eukaryotic algae through to the evolution of our present-day terrestrial floras, and have relevance for plant and ecosystem responses to future global CO2 increases. The papers in this issue reflect the breadth and depth of approaches being adopted to address this issue. They reveal new discoveries pointing to deep evidence for the role of CO2 in shaping evolutionary changes in plants and ecosystems, and establish an exciting cross-disciplinary research agenda for uncovering new insights into feedbacks between biology and the Earth system. PMID:22232760

Beerling, David J.

2012-01-01

20

A change in the geodynamics of continental growth 3 billion years ago.  

PubMed

Models for the growth of continental crust rely on knowing the balance between the generation of new crust and the reworking of old crust throughout Earth's history. The oxygen isotopic composition of zircons, for which uranium-lead and hafnium isotopic data provide age constraints, is a key archive of crustal reworking. We identified systematic variations in hafnium and oxygen isotopes in zircons of different ages that reveal the relative proportions of reworked crust and of new crust through time. Growth of continental crust appears to have been a continuous process, albeit at variable rates. A marked decrease in the rate of crustal growth at ~3 billion years ago may be linked to the onset of subduction-driven plate tectonics. PMID:22422979

Dhuime, Bruno; Hawkesworth, Chris J; Cawood, Peter A; Storey, Craig D

2012-03-16

21

Geodynamo, solar wind, and magnetopause 3.4 to 3.45 billion years ago.  

PubMed

Stellar wind standoff by a planetary magnetic field prevents atmospheric erosion and water loss. Although the early Earth retained its water and atmosphere, and thus evolved as a habitable planet, little is known about Earth's magnetic field strength during that time. We report paleointensity results from single silicate crystals bearing magnetic inclusions that record a geodynamo 3.4 to 3.45 billion years ago. The measured field strength is approximately 50 to 70% that of the present-day field. When combined with a greater Paleoarchean solar wind pressure, the paleofield strength data suggest steady-state magnetopause standoff distances of < or = 5 Earth radii, similar to values observed during recent coronal mass ejection events. The data also suggest lower-latitude aurora and increases in polar cap area, as well as heating, expansion, and volatile loss from the exosphere that would have affected long-term atmospheric composition. PMID:20203044

Tarduno, John A; Cottrell, Rory D; Watkeys, Michael K; Hofmann, Axel; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Mamajek, Eric E; Liu, Dunji; Sibeck, David G; Neukirch, Levi P; Usui, Yoichi

2010-03-01

22

Fourteen Years of Pond Monitoring in Boreal Plain, northern Alberta, Canada: The effects of climate variability and harvesting practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Boreal forest of Canada is experiencing rapid increase in rates of cumulative impacts of disturbance for resource extraction, climate change and forest fires. To understand their sensitivity and response to multi-decadal natural and anthropogenic disturbances a long-term (1998-2013) and extensive pond ecosystem monitoring has been conducted on the Boreal Plains at the Utikuma Region Study Area (URSA) (56o N, 115o W). Hydrological, chemical and nutrient data were collected along a forest-peatland-pond transect in a paired catchment aspen harvest study in the area underlain by fine-grained till moraines glacial deposits. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the main characteristics in pond hydrologic regime, specifically water level dynamics, both seasonally and between years; (2) to identify factors controlling variation in measured hydro-chemistry and nutrients; and (3) to provide evidence on how water quality conditions in the ponds are changing on long (multi-year to decadal) time scales in response to harvesting practices and climatic trends during wet and dry cycles. No difference in pond or catchment hydrologic and hydro-chemical response was observed between harvested and reference sites pre- or post- harvesting. Wetland and pond waters were not affected by the harvesting practices due to lack of hydrologic connectivity between pond and forest systems. The hydrologic relationship between forestlands and open-water wetlands is a response in their water balance differences driven by their storage characteristics. Temporal trends in ponds' water levels, chemical and nutrient concentrations during the 14 year record were most closely related to relative connectivity to groundwater systems and flow direction in response to climatic cycles and vegetation water use and were the most useful parameters for characterizing duration and type of connectivity during wet and dry cycles. Using empirical relationships from such long-term monitoring, this study (1) shows a unique set of responses in hydrologic and biogeochemical properties of Boreal Plain pond-wetland complexes to climate variation and harvesting practices; and (2) provides a valuable insight into hydrologic and hydro-chemical interactions between pond-wetland-forestland systems.

Abnizova, A.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.

2013-12-01

23

IRON AND {alpha}-ELEMENT PRODUCTION IN THE FIRST ONE BILLION YEARS AFTER THE BIG BANG  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of carbon, oxygen, silicon, and iron in quasar absorption systems existing when the universe was roughly one billion years old. We measure column densities in nine low-ionization systems at 4.7 < z < 6.3 using Keck, Magellan, and Very Large Telescope optical and near-infrared spectra with moderate to high resolution. The column density ratios among C II, O I, Si II, and Fe II are nearly identical to sub-damped Ly{alpha} systems (sub-DLAs) and metal-poor ([M/H] {<=} -1) DLAs at lower redshifts, with no significant evolution over 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 6. The estimated intrinsic scatter in the ratio of any two elements is also small, with a typical rms deviation of {approx}< 0.1 dex. These facts suggest that dust depletion and ionization effects are minimal in our z > 4.7 systems, as in the lower-redshift DLAs, and that the column density ratios are close to the intrinsic relative element abundances. The abundances in our z > 4.7 systems are therefore likely to represent the typical integrated yields from stellar populations within the first gigayear of cosmic history. Due to the time limit imposed by the age of the universe at these redshifts, our measurements thus place direct constraints on the metal production of massive stars, including iron yields of prompt supernovae. The lack of redshift evolution further suggests that the metal inventories of most metal-poor absorption systems at z {approx}> 2 are also dominated by massive stars, with minimal contributions from delayed Type Ia supernovae or winds from asymptotic giant branch stars. The relative abundances in our systems broadly agree with those in very metal-poor, non-carbon-enhanced Galactic halo stars. This is consistent with the picture in which present-day metal-poor stars were potentially formed as early as one billion years after the big bang.

Becker, George D.; Carswell, Robert F. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sargent, Wallace L. W. [Palomar Observatory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rauch, Michael, E-mail: gdb@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: acalver@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: wws@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: mr@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

2012-01-10

24

Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

2012-01-01

25

New research indicates that asteroids barraged the Earth's surface for an additional two billion years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ancient asteroids kept on cominghttp://www.nature.com/news/ancient-asteroids-kept-on-coming-1.10504Dinosaurs were declining before asteroid struck, say scientistshttp://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2012/0501/Dinosaurs-were-declining-before-asteroid-struck-say-scientists-videoTriceratops was already on road to extinction before asteroid wiped out dinosaurshttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/dinosaurs/9238658/Triceratops-was-already-on-road-to-exctinction-before-asteroid-wiped-out-dinosaurs.htmlBBC Nature: Prehistoric Life: Dinosaurshttp://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/life/DinosaurDinobasehttp://dinobase.gly.bris.ac.uk/It is generally believed that a massive asteroid impact some 65 million years ago killed off the dinosaurs, ending their long reign as the dominant vertebrates on the planet. However, a recent pair of studies has revealed that such occurrences were much more common than previously thought. Before now, scientists thought that the intense period of asteroid impacts ended almost 3.7 billion years ago. Both of these new studies seem to indicate that over 70 asteroid impacts at least as severe as the one that likely killed off the dinosaurs continued over an additional period of 2 billion years. The scientists think that the potential culprits were asteroids originating from the E belt, which is quite small in the present day. Of course, there is some dissent between the two studies about the range of speeds at which the asteroids were traveling before impact, and both groups of scientists will continue to compare their respective findings. The first link leads to a podcast and article on this recent discovery from the Scientific American's "60-Second Space" series. The second link will whisk users away to a detailed piece by Nature's Helen Thompson which provides additional insights into the recently published studies on the asteroids. The third link takes interested parties to a nice piece from The Christian Science Monitor about those groups of dinosaurs that were already in decline before a massive meteor struck the Earth's surface some 65 million years ago. Moving on, the fourth link leads to a piece from this Tuesday's Telegraph about this steady decline, with a focus on the Hadrosaurs and the Triceratops. The fifth link leads to a site created by the BBC about the world of the dinosaurs. Here visitors can look over renderings of these fabulous creatures, and learn more about them in sections such as When they lived, What their world was like, and Behaviours. The final link leads to a wonderful database of photos, blogs, forums and so on (annotated in this week's Scout Report) from the University of Bristol on the subject of dinosaurs.

Grinnell, Max

2012-05-04

26

The controversial “Cambrian” fossils of the Vindhyan are real but more than a billion years older  

PubMed Central

The age of the Vindhyan sedimentary basin in central India is controversial, because geochronology indicating early Proterozoic ages clashes with reports of Cambrian fossils. We present here an integrated paleontologic–geochronologic investigation to resolve this conundrum. New sampling of Lower Vindhyan phosphoritic stromatolitic dolomites from the northern flank of the Vindhyans confirms the presence of fossils most closely resembling those found elsewhere in Cambrian deposits: annulated tubes, embryo-like globules with polygonal surface pattern, and filamentous and coccoidal microbial fabrics similar to Girvanella and Renalcis. None of the fossils, however, can be ascribed to uniquely Cambrian or Ediacaran taxa. Indeed, the embryo-like globules are not interpreted as fossils at all but as former gas bubbles trapped in mucus-rich cyanobacterial mats. Direct dating of the same fossiliferous phosphorite yielded a Pb–Pb isochron of 1,650 ± 89 (2?) million years ago, confirming the Paleoproterozoic age of the fossils. New U–Pb geochronology of zircons from tuffaceous mudrocks in the Lower Vindhyan Porcellanite Formation on the southern flank of the Vindhyans give comparable ages. The Vindhyan phosphorites provide a window of 3-dimensionally preserved Paleoproterozoic fossils resembling filamentous and coccoidal cyanobacteria and filamentous eukaryotic algae, as well as problematic forms. Like Neoproterozoic phosphorites a billion years later, the Vindhyan deposits offer important new insights into the nature and diversity of life, and in particular, the early evolution of multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:19416859

Bengtson, Stefan; Belivanova, Veneta; Rasmussen, Birger; Whitehouse, Martin

2009-01-01

27

Constraints on the first billion years of the geodynamo from paleointensity studies of zircons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several lines of reasoning, including new ideas on core thermal conductivity, suggest that onset of a strong geomagnetic field might have been delayed by one billion years (or more) after the lunar forming event. Here we extend the Proterozoic/Archean to Paleoarchean record of the geomagnetic field constrained by single crystal paleointensity (SCP) analyses (Tarduno et al., Science, 2010) to older times using zircons containing minute magnetic inclusions. Specifically, we focus on samples from the Jack Hills (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia). We employ a CO2 laser demagnetization system and a small bore (6.3 mm) 3-component DC SQUID magnetometer; the latter offers the highest currently available moment resolution. Sample age is analyzed using SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology. Preliminary data support the presence of a relatively strong Paleoarchean field produced by a core dynamo, extending the known record by at least 100 million years, to approximately 3.55 Ga. These data only serve to exacerbate the apparent problem posed by the presence of a Paleoarchean dynamo. Alternative dynamo driving mechanisms, or efficient core/lowermost mantle heat loss processes unique to the Paleoarchean (and older times) might have been at work. We will discuss these processes, and our efforts to study even older Eoarchean-Hadean zircons.

Tarduno, John; Cottrell, Rory; Davis, William

2014-05-01

28

The First Billion Years project: dark matter haloes going from contraction to expansion and back again  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effect of baryons on the inner dark matter profile of the first galaxies using the First Billion Years simulation between z = 16 and 6 before secular evolution sets in. Using a large statistical sample from two simulations of the same volume and cosmological initial conditions, one with and one without baryons, we are able to directly compare haloes with their baryon-free counterparts, allowing a detailed study of the modifications to the dark matter density profile due to the presence of baryons during the first billion years of galaxy formation. For each of the ?5000 haloes in our sample (3 × 107 M? ? Mtot ? 5 × 109 M?), we quantify the impact of the baryons using ?, defined as the ratio of dark matter mass enclosed in 100 pc in the baryonic run to its counterpart without baryons. During this epoch of rapid growth of galaxies, we find that many haloes of these first galaxies show an enhancement of dark matter in the halo centre compared to the baryon-free simulation, while many others show a deficit. We find that the mean value of ? is close to unity, but there is a large dispersion, with a standard deviation of 0.677. The enhancement is cyclical in time and tracks the star formation cycle of the galaxy; as gas falls to the centre and forms stars, the dark matter moves in as well. Supernova (SN) feedback then removes the gas, and the dark matter again responds to the changing potential. We study three physical models relating the motion of baryons to that of the dark matter: adiabatic contraction, dynamical friction, and rapid outflows. We find that dynamical friction plays only a very minor role, while adiabatic contraction and the rapid outflows due to feedback describe well the enhancement (or decrement) of dark matter. For haloes which show significant decrements of dark matter in the core, we find that to remove the dark matter requires an energy input between 1051 and 1053 erg. For our SN feedback proscription, this requires as a lower limit a constant star formation rate between 0.002 and 0.2 M? yr-1 for the previous 5 Myr. We also find that heating due to reionization is able to prevent the formation of strong cusps for haloes which at z ˜ 12 have ?108 M?. The lack of a strong cusp in these haloes remains down to z = 6, the end of our simulation.

Davis, Andrew J.; Khochfar, Sadegh; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

2014-09-01

29

Evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis half a billion years before the Great Oxidation Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early Earth was characterized by the absence of oxygen in the ocean-atmosphere system, in contrast to the well-oxygenated conditions that prevail today. Atmospheric concentrations first rose to appreciable levels during the Great Oxidation Event, roughly 2.5-2.3 Gyr ago. The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis is generally accepted to have been the ultimate cause of this rise, but it has proved difficult to constrain the timing of this evolutionary innovation. The oxidation of manganese in the water column requires substantial free oxygen concentrations, and thus any indication that Mn oxides were present in ancient environments would imply that oxygenic photosynthesis was ongoing. Mn oxides are not commonly preserved in ancient rocks, but there is a large fractionation of molybdenum isotopes associated with the sorption of Mo onto the Mn oxides that would be retained. Here we report Mo isotopes from rocks of the Sinqeni Formation, Pongola Supergroup, South Africa. These rocks formed no less than 2.95 Gyr ago in a nearshore setting. The Mo isotopic signature is consistent with interaction with Mn oxides. We therefore infer that oxygen produced through oxygenic photosynthesis began to accumulate in shallow marine settings at least half a billion years before the accumulation of significant levels of atmospheric oxygen.

Planavsky, Noah J.; Asael, Dan; Hofmann, Axel; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Knudsen, Andrew; Wang, Xiangli; Ossa Ossa, Frantz; Pecoits, Ernesto; Smith, Albertus J. B.; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Bekker, Andrey; Johnson, Thomas M.; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Rouxel, Olivier J.

2014-04-01

30

Enhanced cellular preservation by clay minerals in 1 billion-year-old lakes.  

PubMed

Organic-walled microfossils provide the best insights into the composition and evolution of the biosphere through the first 80 percent of Earth history. The mechanism of microfossil preservation affects the quality of biological information retained and informs understanding of early Earth palaeo-environments. We here show that 1 billion-year-old microfossils from the non-marine Torridon Group are remarkably preserved by a combination of clay minerals and phosphate, with clay minerals providing the highest fidelity of preservation. Fe-rich clay mostly occurs in narrow zones in contact with cellular material and is interpreted as an early microbially-mediated phase enclosing and replacing the most labile biological material. K-rich clay occurs within and exterior to cell envelopes, forming where the supply of Fe had been exhausted. Clay minerals inter-finger with calcium phosphate that co-precipitated with the clays in the sub-oxic zone of the lake sediments. This type of preservation was favoured in sulfate-poor environments where Fe-silicate precipitation could outcompete Fe-sulfide formation. This work shows that clay minerals can provide an exceptionally high fidelity of microfossil preservation and extends the known geological range of this fossilization style by almost 500?Ma. It also suggests that the best-preserved microfossils of this time may be found in low-sulfate environments. PMID:25068404

Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Roberts, Malcolm; Menon, Sarath; Green, Leonard; Kong, Charlie; Culwick, Timothy; Strother, Paul; Brasier, Martin D

2014-01-01

31

The First Billion Years project: gamma-ray bursts at z > 5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long gamma-ray burst's (LGRB's) association with the death of massive stars suggests that they could be used to probe the cosmic star formation history (CSFH) with high accuracy, due to their high luminosities. We utilize cosmological simulations from the First Billion Years project to investigate the biases between the CSFH and the LGRB rate at z > 5, assuming various different models and constraints on the progenitors of LGRBs. We populate LGRBs using a selection based on environmental properties and demonstrate that the LGRB rate should trace the CSFH to high redshifts. The measured LGRB rate suggests that LGRBs have opening angles of ?jet = 0.1°, although the degeneracy with the progenitor model cannot rule out an underlying bias. We demonstrate that proxies that relate the LGRB rate with global LGRB host properties do not reflect the underlying LGRB environment, and are in fact a result of the host galaxy's spatial properties, such that LGRBs can exist in galaxies of solar metallicity. However, we find a class of host galaxies that have low stellar mass and are metal rich, and that their metallicity dispersions would not allow low-metallicity environments. Detection of hosts with this set of properties would directly reflect the progenitor's environment. We predict that 10 per cent of LGRBs per year are associated with this set of galaxies that would have forbidden line emission that could be detected by instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope. Such a discovery would place strong constraints on the collapsar model and suggests other avenues to be investigated.

Elliott, J.; Khochfar, S.; Greiner, J.; Dalla Vecchia, C.

2015-02-01

32

THE BIRTH OF THE SUN The solar system formed 4.54.6 billion years ago (Patterson  

E-print Network

THE BIRTH OF THE SUN The solar system formed 4.5­4.6 billion years ago (Patterson 1956) by collapse of many elements in these grains are vastly different from those of our solar system and provide the trigger. The for- mer presence of short-lived radionu- clides at the start of the solar system has been

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

33

Preservation of hydrocarbons and biomarkers in oil trapped inside fluid inclusions for >2 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil-bearing fluid inclusions occur in a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying deltaic McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of the oil reveal a wide range of compounds, including CH 4, CO 2, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, low molecular weight cyclic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring biomarkers. Maturity ratios show that the oil was generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. This is remarkable, given that the oils were exposed to upper prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism (280-350 °C) either during migration or after entrapment. The fluid inclusions are closed systems, with high fluid pressures, and contain no clays or other minerals or metals that might catalyse oil-to-gas cracking. These three attributes may all contribute to the thermal stability of the included oil and enable survival of biomarkers and molecular ratios over billions of years. The biomarker geochemistry of the oil in the Matinenda Formation fluid inclusions enables inferences about the organisms that contributed to the organic matter deposited in the Palaeoproterozoic source rocks from which the analysed oil was generated and expelled. The presence of biomarkers produced by cyanobacteria and eukaryotes that are derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before ca. 2.2 Ga is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution through Earth's early history that avoids the potential contamination problems affecting shale-hosted hydrocarbons.

George, Simon C.; Volk, Herbert; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger

2008-02-01

34

Megascopic Eukaryotic Algae from the 2.1-Billion-Year-Old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of specimens of spirally coiled, megascopic, carbonaceous fossils resembling Grypania spiralis (Walcott), have been found in the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation at the Empire Mine, near Marquette, Michigan. This occurrence of Grypania is 700 million to 1000 million years older than fossils from previously known sites in Montana, China, and India. As Grypania appears to have been a photosynthetic alga,

Tsu-Ming Han; Bruce Runnegar

1992-01-01

35

The Unusual Evolution of Billion-Year Old Asteroid Families by the Yarkovsky and YORP Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interesting application of the coupled Yarkovsky and YORP effects (YY) is how they can be used to determine asteroid family ages. After an asteroid disruption event, smaller fragments drift faster than the larger ones on average, producing a characteristic “V”-shape in semimajor axis, absolute magnitude (or asteroid diameter) space. If properly modeled, the “V” can be used as a clock to date the time of the break-up and constrain the migration of the family’s fragments into the NEA population (Vokrouhlicky et al. 2006). Curiously, while our existing YY models work well for younger families (< 300 My), they fail for older ones. The reason is that small asteroids spinning up or down by YORP eventually reach an endstate: they spin so fast that they shed mass, or they spin so slowly that they enter into a tumbling rotation state. These “YORP cycles” can change an asteroid’s Yarkovsky drift direction by flipping the orientation of its spin pole. Thus, YORP cycles cause asteroids to random walk in Yarkovsky drift direction. Over time, YORP cycles should turn families from V’s into blobs in semimajor axis, diameter space. This is observed for ancient families (e.g., Maria, Koronis). The question is why we do not see it for middle-aged families (e.g., Eulalia, Flora), where most of their observed members should have experienced multiple YORP cycles. A possible solution is a mechanism we call “variable YORP”. Statler (2009) found that tiny shape changes to small asteroids (e.g., boulder movement, small crater formation) can alter the strength and direction of an asteroid’s YORP torques. This allows asteroid spin rates but not obliquities to random walk over time. We find the inclusion of variable YORP slows down the onset of YORP cycles, allowing middle-aged families to maintain their V-shapes. Using an asteroid evolution model that includes a formulation of variable YORP, we will show how we can, for the first time, compute accurate formation ages for roughly billion-year old families such as Eulalia, Flora, and New Polana.

Bottke, William; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Nesvorny, D.; Walsh, K.; Delbo, M.; Lauretta, D.; Connolly, H.; OSIRIS-REx Team

2013-10-01

36

4.4 billion years of crustal maturation: oxygen isotope ratios of magmatic zircon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of ?18O in igneous zircons of known age traces the evolution of intracrustal recycling and crust-mantle interaction through time. This record is especially sensitive because oxygen isotope ratios of igneous rocks are strongly affected by incorporation of supracrustal materials into melts, which commonly have ?18O values higher than in primitive mantle magmas. This study summarizes data for ?18O in zircons that have been analyzed from 1,200 dated rocks ranging over 96% of the age of Earth. Uniformly primitive to mildly evolved magmatic ?18O values are found from the first half of Earth history, but much more varied values are seen for younger magmas. The similarity of values throughout the Archean, and comparison to the composition of the “modern” mantle indicate that ?18O of primitive mantle melts have remained constant (±0.2‰) for the past 4.4 billion years. The range and variability of ?18O in all Archean zircon samples is subdued (?18O(Zrc)=5-7.5‰) ranging from values in high temperature equilibrium with the mantle (5.3± 0.3‰) to slightly higher, more evolved compositions (6.5-7.5‰) including samples from: the Jack Hills (4.4-3.3 Ga), the Beartooth Mountains (4.0-2.9 Ga), Barberton (3.5-2.7 Ga), the Superior and Slave Provinces (3.0 to 2.7 Ga), and the Lewisian (2.7 Ga). No zircons from the Archean have been analyzed with magmatic ?18O above 7.5‰. The mildly evolved, higher Archean values (6.5-7.5‰) are interpreted to result from exchange of protoliths with surface waters at low temperature followed by melting or contamination to create mildly elevated magmas that host the zircons. During the Proterozoic, the range of ?18O(Zrc) and the highest values gradually increased in a secular change that documents maturation of the crust. After ˜1.5 Ga, high ?18O zircons (8 to >10‰) became common in many Proterozoic and Phanerozoic terranes reflecting ?18O(whole rock) values from 9 to over 12‰. The appearance of high ?18O magmas on Earth reflects nonuniformitarian changes in the composition of sediments, and rate and style of recycling of surface-derived material into magmas within the crust.

Valley, J. W.; Lackey, J. S.; Cavosie, A. J.; Clechenko, C. C.; Spicuzza, M. J.; Basei, M. A. S.; Bindeman, I. N.; Ferreira, V. P.; Sial, A. N.; King, E. M.; Peck, W. H.; Sinha, A. K.; Wei, C. S.

2005-12-01

37

Switching to less expensive blindness drug could save medicare part B $18 billion over a ten-year period.  

PubMed

The biologic drugs bevacizumab and ranibizumab have revolutionized treatment of diabetic macular edema and neovascular age-related macular degeneration, leading causes of blindness. Ophthalmologic use of these drugs has increased and now accounts for roughly one-sixth of the Medicare Part B drug budget. The two drugs have similar efficacy and potentially minor differences in adverse-event rates; however, at $2,023 per dose, ranibizumab costs forty times more than bevacizumab. Using modeling methods, we predict ten-year (2010-20) population-level costs and health benefits of using bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Our results show that if all patients were treated with the less expensive bevacizumab instead of current usage patterns, savings would amount to $18 billion for Medicare Part B and nearly $5 billion for patients. With an additional $6 billion savings in other health care expenses, the total savings would be almost $29 billion. Altering patterns of use with these therapies by encouraging bevacizumab use and hastening approval of biosimilar therapies would dramatically reduce spending without substantially affecting patient outcomes. PMID:24889941

Hutton, David; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Tavag, Mrinalini; Zacks, David; Stein, Joshua

2014-06-01

38

1.3 Billion years of acritarch history: An empirical morphospace approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acritarchs are a group of organic-walled vesicular microfossils interpreted as protists, and are among the first eukaryotes preserved in the fossil record. Taxonomic inconsistencies amongst acritarch workers have made it difficult to address the evolutionary history of this group through more traditional methods (i.e., biodiversity through species counts). We have constructed an empirical morphospace to examine the first 1.3 billion

John Warren Huntley; Shuhai Xiao; Micha? Kowalewski

2006-01-01

39

Evidence for Oxygenic Photosynthesis Half a Billion Years Before the Great Oxidation Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite detailed investigations over the past 50 years, there is still intense debate about when oxygenic photosynthesis evolved. Current estimates span over a billion years of Earth history, ranging from prior to 3.7 Ga, the age of the oldest sedimentary rocks, to 2.4-2.3 Ga, coincident with the rise of atmospheric oxygen ("The Great Oxidation Event" or GOE). As such, a new, independent perspective is needed. We will provide such a perspective herein by using molybdenum (Mo) isotopes in a novel way to track the onset of manganese(II)oxidation and thus biological oxygen production. The oxidation of Mn(II) in modern marine setting requires free dissolved oxygen. Mn is relatively unique in its environmental specificity for oxygen as an electron acceptor among the redox-sensitive transition metals, many of which, like Fe, can be oxidized under anoxic conditions either through a microbial pathway and/or with alternative oxidants such as nitrate. There are large Mo isotope fractionations associated with the sorption of Mo (as a polymolybdate complex) onto Mn-oxyhydroxides, with an approximately -2.7‰ fractionation in d98Mo associated with Mo sorption onto Mn-oxyhydroxides (e.g., birnessite, vernadite). In contrast, sorption of Mo onto the Fe-oxyhydroxide (e.g., ferrihydrite) results in a fractionation of only -1.1‰ or less. Because of this difference in Mo isotope fractionation, Mo isotope values should become lighter with increasing Mn content, if Mn oxidation occurred during deposition and is an important vector of Mo transfer to the sediment. We find a strong positive correlation between d98Mo values and Fe/Mn ratios in iron formations deposited before and after the Great Oxidation Event. Most strikingly, Mo isotope data and Fe/Mn ratios correlate over a 2.5‰ range in d98Mo values in the Mn-rich (0.1 - 6%) iron formation of the 2.95 Ga Sinqeni Formation, South Africa. The large isotopic shifts occur over a relatively thin (3 meter thick) horizon, reflecting short-term variations in the degree of Mn oxidation that are consistent with localized oxygen generation and rapid consumption in a geochemical backdrop that was otherwise reducing. The observed range in d98Mo values and the correlation between d98Mo values and Fe/Mn ratios is statistically identical to that found in the ca. 1.89 Ga iron formations from the Lake Superior region, Animikie basin, which were deposited well after the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Our work and other recent geochemical work on the Pongola Supergroup reconcile geochemical and molecular records for the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and provide strong evidence that there was biological oxygen production well before its permanent accumulation in the atmosphere around 2.4-2.3 Ga.

Planavsky, Noah; Reinhard, Chris; Asael, Dan; Lyons, Tim; Hofmann, Axel; Rouxel, Olivier

2014-05-01

40

A spin-down clock for cool stars from observations of a 2.5-billion-year-old cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ages of the most common stars--low-mass (cool) stars like the Sun, and smaller--are difficult to derive because traditional dating methods use stellar properties that either change little as the stars age or are hard to measure. The rotation rates of all cool stars decrease substantially with time as the stars steadily lose their angular momenta. If properly calibrated, rotation therefore can act as a reliable determinant of their ages based on the method of gyrochronology. To calibrate gyrochronology, the relationship between rotation period and age must be determined for cool stars of different masses, which is best accomplished with rotation period measurements for stars in clusters with well-known ages. Hitherto, such measurements have been possible only in clusters with ages of less than about one billion years, and gyrochronology ages for older stars have been inferred from model predictions. Here we report rotation period measurements for 30 cool stars in the 2.5-billion-year-old cluster NGC 6819. The periods reveal a well-defined relationship between rotation period and stellar mass at the cluster age, suggesting that ages with a precision of order 10 per cent can be derived for large numbers of cool Galactic field stars.

Meibom, Søren; Barnes, Sydney A.; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Latham, David W.; Mathieu, Robert D.

2015-01-01

41

A spin-down clock for cool stars from observations of a 2.5-billion-year-old cluster  

E-print Network

The ages of the most common stars - low-mass (cool) stars like the Sun, and smaller - are difficult to derive because traditional dating methods use stellar properties that either change little as the stars age or are hard to measure. The rotation rates of all cool stars decrease substantially with time as the stars steadily lose their angular momenta. If properly calibrated, rotation therefore can act as a reliable determinant of their ages based on the method of gyrochronology. To calibrate gyrochronology, the relationship between rotation period and age must be determined for cool stars of different masses, which is best accomplished with rotation period measurements for stars in clusters with well-known ages. Hitherto, such measurements have been possible only in clusters with ages of less than about one billion years, and gyrochronology ages for older stars have been inferred from model predictions. Here we report rotation period measurements for 30 cool stars in the 2.5-billion-year-old cluster NGC 6819...

Meibom, Soren; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L; Latham, David W; Mathieu, Robert D

2015-01-01

42

A spin-down clock for cool stars from observations of a 2.5-billion-year-old cluster.  

PubMed

The ages of the most common stars--low-mass (cool) stars like the Sun, and smaller--are difficult to derive because traditional dating methods use stellar properties that either change little as the stars age or are hard to measure. The rotation rates of all cool stars decrease substantially with time as the stars steadily lose their angular momenta. If properly calibrated, rotation therefore can act as a reliable determinant of their ages based on the method of gyrochronology. To calibrate gyrochronology, the relationship between rotation period and age must be determined for cool stars of different masses, which is best accomplished with rotation period measurements for stars in clusters with well-known ages. Hitherto, such measurements have been possible only in clusters with ages of less than about one billion years, and gyrochronology ages for older stars have been inferred from model predictions. Here we report rotation period measurements for 30 cool stars in the 2.5-billion-year-old cluster NGC 6819. The periods reveal a well-defined relationship between rotation period and stellar mass at the cluster age, suggesting that ages with a precision of order 10 per cent can be derived for large numbers of cool Galactic field stars. PMID:25539085

Meibom, Søren; Barnes, Sydney A; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L; Latham, David W; Mathieu, Robert D

2015-01-29

43

An age difference of two billion years between a metal-rich and a metal-poor globular cluster.  

PubMed

Globular clusters trace the formation history of the spheroidal components of our Galaxy and other galaxies, which represent the bulk of star formation over the history of the Universe. The clusters exhibit a range of metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium), with metal-poor clusters dominating the stellar halo of the Galaxy, and higher-metallicity clusters found within the inner Galaxy, associated with the stellar bulge, or the thick disk. Age differences between these clusters can indicate the sequence in which the components of the Galaxy formed, and in particular which clusters were formed outside the Galaxy and were later engulfed along with their original host galaxies, and which were formed within it. Here we report an absolute age of 9.9?±?0.7 billion years (at 95 per cent confidence) for the metal-rich globular cluster 47?Tucanae, determined by modelling the properties of the cluster's white-dwarf cooling sequence. This is about two billion years younger than has been inferred for the metal-poor cluster NGC?6397 from the same models, and provides quantitative evidence that metal-rich clusters like 47?Tucanae formed later than metal-poor halo clusters like NGC?6397. PMID:23903747

Hansen, B M S; Kalirai, J S; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J R; King, I R; Reitzel, D; Stetson, P B

2013-08-01

44

Tracing the effects of an enormous meteorite impact 3 billion years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most well-known and popularized meteorite impact occurred 65 million years ago and left behind the Chicxulub crater, a feature more than 110 miles in diameter. Dust kicked up by the impact, which lingered in the atmosphere for years, may have helped kill all the nonavian dinosaurs along with three quarters of the world's plant and animal species.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-07-01

45

The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China craton: 2.505-billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle.  

PubMed

We report a thick, laterally extensive 2505 +/- 2.2-million-year-old (uranium-lead ratio in zircon) Archean ophiolite complex in the North China craton. Basal harzburgite tectonite is overlain by cumulate ultramafic rocks, a mafic-ultramafic transition zone of interlayered gabbro and ultramafic cumulates, compositionally layered olivine-gabbro and pyroxenite, and isotropic gabbro. A sheeted dike complex is rooted in the gabbro and overlain by a mixed dike-pillow lava section, chert, and banded iron formation. The documentation of a complete Archean ophiolite implies that mechanisms of oceanic crustal accretion similar to those of today were in operation by 2.5 billion years ago at divergent plate margins and that the temperature of the early mantle was not extremely elevated, as compared to the present-day temperature. Plate tectonic processes similar to those of the present must also have emplaced the ophiolite in a convergent margin setting. PMID:11349144

Kusky, T M; Li, J H; Tucker, R D

2001-05-11

46

Magnetite 3D colloidal crystals formed in the early solar system 4.6 billion years ago.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional colloidal crystals made of ferromagnetic particles, such as magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), cannot be synthesized in principle because of the strong attractive magnetic interaction. However, we discovered colloidal crystals composed of polyhedral magnetite nanocrystallites of uniform size in the range of a few hundred nanometers in the Tagish Lake meteorite. Those colloidal crystals were formed 4.6 billion years ago and thus are much older than natural colloidal crystals on earth, such as opals, which formed about 100 million years ago. We found that the size of each individual magnetite particle determines its morphology, which in turn plays an important role in deciding the packing structure of the colloidal crystals. We also hypothesize that each particle has a flux-closed magnetic domain structure, which reduces the interparticle magnetic force significantly. PMID:21563777

Nozawa, Jun; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; van Enckevort, Willem; Nakamura, Tomoki; Kimura, Yuki; Miura, Hitoshi; Satoh, Hisao; Nagashima, Ken; Konoto, Makoto

2011-06-15

47

Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?  

SciTech Connect

China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

2007-07-01

48

Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11thFive-Year Plan  

SciTech Connect

China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious targetfor energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country sgross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and bindingtarget has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift inChina's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energydevelopment. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates intoan annual reduction of over one billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making theChinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in theworld today. While it is still too early to tell whether China willachieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend inenergy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options towardmeeting the 20 percent target using a detailed endues energymodel.

Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

2007-05-01

49

The Rise to Power: Half a Billion Years of Intense AGN Activity in the Merging Cluster Cygnus A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the closest powerful radio galaxy, Cygnus A is the definitive laboratory for studying the radio galaxy physics in dense environments. Cygnus A resides in a cluster currently undergoing a nearly equal mass, major merger. Our proposed Chandra observation will quantify the energy exchange between the radio plasma emitted by the SMBH and the surrounding atmosphere. The Chandra image will also map the jet termination hotspots at high resolution and produce the most accurate measurements of jet energetics in any powerful radio galaxy. Our deep map of the cluster-scale emission will provide a complete record of the AGN power output over the past half billion years and allow us to explore the connection between this activity and the merger itself.

Wise, Michael

2014-09-01

50

A constraint on a varying proton--electron mass ratio 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang  

E-print Network

A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10$\\%$ of the age of the universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton--electron mass ratio, $\\mu$. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443$+$2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to $\\mu$, yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of $\\Delta\\mu/\\mu=(-9.5\\pm5.4_{\\textrm{stat}} \\pm 5.3_{\\textrm{sys}})\\times 10^{-6}$.

Bagdonaite, J; Murphy, M T; Whitmore, J B

2015-01-01

51

Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years ago - Evidence at Kolar, south India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Archean Kolar Schist Belt, south India, is a suture zone where two gneiss terranes and at least two amphibolite terranes with distinct histories were accreted. Amphibolites from the eastern and western sides of the schist belt have distinct incompatible element and isotopic characteristics suggesting that their volcanic protoliths were derived from different mantle sources. The amphibolite and gneiss terranes were juxtaposed by horizontal compression and shearing between 2530 and 2420 million years ago (Ma) along a zone marked by the Kolar Schist Belt. This history of accretion of discrete crustal terranes resembles those of Phanerozoic convergent margins and thus suggests that plate tectonics operated on earth by 2500 Ma.

Krogstad, E. J.; Hanson, G. N.; Balakrishnan, S.; Rajamani, V.; Mukhopadhyay, D. K.

1989-01-01

52

Haematite pseudomicrofossils present in the 3.5-billion-year-old Apex Chert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructures in the ~3.5Gyr Apex Chert Formation were initially described as the oldest bacterial fossils on Earth over 20years ago. However, the identification of the structures (which resemble cyanobacteria) as biological in origin remains controversial. Here we determine the petrology and geochemistry of similar structures from the original Apex Chert locality using thin sections and Raman spectroscopy. Based on the microscopic examination of thin sections, we identify features similar to those previously identified as microfossils as a series of quartz and haematite-filled fractures. Raman spectroscopy of the fractures shows that carbonaceous material is not, as previously reported, associated with the structures, but is instead disseminated in the surrounding quartz matrix. We suggest that although the microstuctures analysed are not microfossils, the presence of carbonaceous material in the surrounding matrix is consistent with the existence of microbial life at this time, and with evidence of early Archaean life found at other sites. Furthermore, we caution against identifying microstructures as biological in origin without a full morphological and geochemical assessment.

Marshall, Craig P.; Emry, Julienne R.; Olcott Marshall, Alison

2011-04-01

53

Global resurfacing of Mercury 4.0-4.1 billion years ago by heavy bombardment and volcanism.  

PubMed

The most heavily cratered terrains on Mercury have been estimated to be about 4 billion years (Gyr) old, but this was based on images of only about 45 per cent of the surface; even older regions could have existed in the unobserved portion. These terrains have a lower density of craters less than 100 km in diameter than does the Moon, an observation attributed to preferential resurfacing on Mercury. Here we report global crater statistics of Mercury's most heavily cratered terrains on the entire surface. Applying a recent model for early lunar crater chronology and an updated dynamical extrapolation to Mercury, we find that the oldest surfaces were emplaced just after the start of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) about 4.0-4.1 Gyr ago. Mercury's global record of large impact basins, which has hitherto not been dated, yields a similar surface age. This agreement implies that resurfacing was global and was due to volcanism, as previously suggested. This activity ended during the tail of the LHB, within about 300-400 million years after the emplacement of the oldest terrains on Mercury. These findings suggest that persistent volcanism could have been aided by the surge of basin-scale impacts during this bombardment. PMID:23823793

Marchi, Simone; Chapman, Clark R; Fassett, Caleb I; Head, James W; Bottke, W F; Strom, Robert G

2013-07-01

54

Study: Sun Will End Earthly Life in 2.8 Billion Years1 The planet will become too hot for even the hardiest microbes.2  

E-print Network

the hardiest microbes.2 by Andrew Fazekas for National Geographic3 4 5 The final days of life on Earth years22 alongside the end of plants," the study says.23 24 Only Microbes Left25 By about 2.8 billion years from now, only hardy communities of microbes will be left behind to inherit the Earth

South Bohemia, University of

55

Fourteen-Year Follow-Up of Children with and without Speech/Language Impairments: Speech/Language Stability and Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 14-year prospective, longitudinal study of children with (n=114) and without (n=128) speech and/or language impairments found (1) high rates of continued communication difficulties; (2) considerable stability in language performance over time; and (3) better long-term outcomes for those with initial speech impairments than for those with…

Johnson, Carla J.; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Young, Arlene; Escobar, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Wilson, Beth; Brownlie, E. B.; Douglas, Lori; Taback, Nathan; Lam, Isabel; Wang, Min

1999-01-01

56

Air density 2.7 billion years ago limited to less than twice modern levels by fossil raindrop imprints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, most numerical models have investigated the Archean atmosphere assuming a total atmospheric pressure of ~1 atm. However, there are good reasons why barometric pressure may have been different, owing to the negligible presence of oxygen in the early atmosphere, and the consequent changes in the redox-sensitive cycling of nitrogen. To investigate this issue, we have developed a new method of paleobarometry that uses raindrop imprint dimensions as a proxy for atmospheric density. The size of the raindrop imprints are controlled ultimately by the terminal velocity of the impacting drop, which is dependent on air density. However, the maximum size a raindrop can reach is independent of air density. We experimentally determine the relationship between imprint volume and area as a function of raindrop size in volcanic ash from the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull event (Iceland) and Pahala (Hawaii). These are modern analogs, in terms of grain size and approximate composition, of tuffs that preserve 2.7 billion year old raindrop imprints in the Ventersdorp Supergroup of South Africa. Using the experimental relationship between imprint dimension and raindrop size, and with precise topographical measurements of the Ventersdorp imprints, we can then place an upper bound on the late Archaean atmospheric density by assuming that the largest imprints were formed by the largest possible raindrop size. But in reality this maximum drop size is very rarely attained and using more normal raindrop size distributions appropriate for modern climates analogous to the inferred paleoclimate of the Ventersdorp tuffs allows additional constraints to be made.

Som, S.; Catling, D. C.; Harnmeijer, J.; Polivka, P.; Buick, R.

2012-12-01

57

Mobile hydrocarbon microspheres from >2-billion-year-old carbon-bearing seams in the South African deep subsurface.  

PubMed

By ~2.9 Ga, the time of the deposition of the Witwatersrand Supergroup, life is believed to have been well established on Earth. Carbon remnants of the microbial biosphere from this time period are evident in sediments from around the world. In the Witwatersrand Supergroup, the carbonaceous material is often concentrated in seams, closely associated with the gold deposits and may have been a mobile phase 2 billion years ago. Whereas today the carbon in the Witwatersrand Supergroup is presumed to be immobile, hollow hydrocarbon spheres ranging in size from <1 ?m to >50 ?m were discovered emanating from a borehole drilled through the carbon-bearing seams suggesting that a portion of the carbon may still be mobile in the deep subsurface. ToF-SIMS and STXM analyses revealed that these spheres contain a suite of alkane, alkenes, and aromatic compounds consistent with the described organic-rich carbon seams within the Witwatersrand Supergroup's auriferous reef horizons. Analysis by electron microscopy and ToF-SIMS, however, revealed that these spheres, although most likely composed of biogenic carbon and resembling biological organisms, do not retain any true structural, that is, fossil, information and were formed by an abiogenic process. PMID:22901282

Wanger, G; Moser, D; Hay, M; Myneni, S; Onstott, T C; Southam, G

2012-11-01

58

Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism  

PubMed Central

The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites contain laminae rich in organic carbon, interpreted as the fossil remains of ancient microbial mats. To better understand the biogeochemistry of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur, including both ?33S and . This approach allows us to tie physiological inference from isotope ratios directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabolism that is complimentary to, and independent from, inorganic proxies (e.g., pyrite). ?33S values of the kerogen reveal mass-anomalous fractionations expected of the Archean sulfur cycle, whereas values show large fractionations at very small spatial scales, including values below -15‰. We interpret these isotopic patterns as recording the process of sulfurization of organic matter by H2S in heterogeneous mat pore-waters influenced by respiratory S metabolism. Positive ?33S anomalies suggest that disproportionation of elemental sulfur would have been a prominent microbial process in these communities. PMID:22949693

Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Sessions, Alex L.; Allwood, Abigail C.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Grotzinger, John P.; Summons, Roger E.; Eiler, John M.

2012-01-01

59

Air density 2.7 billion years ago limited to less than twice modern levels by fossil raindrop imprints.  

PubMed

According to the 'Faint Young Sun' paradox, during the late Archaean eon a Sun approximately 20% dimmer warmed the early Earth such that it had liquid water and a clement climate. Explanations for this phenomenon have invoked a denser atmosphere that provided warmth by nitrogen pressure broadening or enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. Such solutions are allowed by geochemical studies and numerical investigations that place approximate concentration limits on Archaean atmospheric gases, including methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen. But no field data constraining ground-level air density and barometric pressure have been reported, leaving the plausibility of these various hypotheses in doubt. Here we show that raindrop imprints in tuffs of the Ventersdorp Supergroup, South Africa, constrain surface air density 2.7 billion years ago to less than twice modern levels. We interpret the raindrop fossils using experiments in which water droplets of known size fall at terminal velocity into fresh and weathered volcanic ash, thus defining a relationship between imprint size and raindrop impact momentum. Fragmentation following raindrop flattening limits raindrop size to a maximum value independent of air density, whereas raindrop terminal velocity varies as the inverse of the square root of air density. If the Archaean raindrops reached the modern maximum measured size, air density must have been less than 2.3?kg?m(-3), compared to today's 1.2?kg?m(-3), but because such drops rarely occur, air density was more probably below 1.3?kg?m(-3). The upper estimate for air density renders the pressure broadening explanation possible, but it is improbable under the likely lower estimates. Our results also disallow the extreme CO(2) levels required for hot Archaean climates. PMID:22456703

Som, Sanjoy M; Catling, David C; Harnmeijer, Jelte P; Polivka, Peter M; Buick, Roger

2012-04-19

60

Deposition of 1.88-billion-year-old iron formations as a consequence of rapid crustal growth.  

PubMed

Iron formations are chemical sedimentary rocks comprising layers of iron-rich and silica-rich minerals whose deposition requires anoxic and iron-rich (ferruginous) sea water. Their demise after the rise in atmospheric oxygen by 2.32?billion years (Gyr) ago has been attributed to the removal of dissolved iron through progressive oxidation or sulphidation of the deep ocean. Therefore, a sudden return of voluminous iron formations nearly 500?million years later poses an apparent conundrum. Most late Palaeoproterozoic iron formations are about 1.88?Gyr old and occur in the Superior region of North America. Major iron formations are also preserved in Australia, but these were apparently deposited after the transition to a sulphidic ocean at 1.84?Gyr ago that should have terminated iron formation deposition, implying that they reflect local marine conditions. Here we date zircons in tuff layers to show that iron formations in the Frere Formation of Western Australia are about 1.88?Gyr old, indicating that the deposition of iron formations from two disparate cratons was coeval and probably reflects global ocean chemistry. The sudden reappearance of major iron formations at 1.88?Gyr ago--contemporaneous with peaks in global mafic-ultramafic magmatism, juvenile continental and oceanic crust formation, mantle depletion and volcanogenic massive sulphide formation--suggests deposition of iron formations as a consequence of major mantle activity and rapid crustal growth. Our findings support the idea that enhanced submarine volcanism and hydrothermal activity linked to a peak in mantle melting released large volumes of ferrous iron and other reductants that overwhelmed the sulphate and oxygen reservoirs of the ocean, decoupling atmospheric and seawater redox states, and causing the return of widespread ferruginous conditions. Iron formations formed on clastic-starved coastal shelves where dissolved iron upwelled and mixed with oxygenated surface water. The disappearance of iron formations after this event may reflect waning mafic-ultramafic magmatism and a diminished flux of hydrothermal iron relative to seawater oxidants. PMID:22538613

Rasmussen, Birger; Fletcher, Ian R; Bekker, Andrey; Muhling, Janet R; Gregory, Courtney J; Thorne, Alan M

2012-04-26

61

Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology in Strain Development Every year, we consume about 27 billion barrels of fossil oil.  

E-print Network

billion barrels of fossil oil. This enormous amount of oil is used for fueling our cars and airplanes, such as shale gas, are becoming available as new energy and chemical sources, these fossil resources high dependence on the fossil resources. To reflect the change required, there has recently been much

62

The Kepler Cluster Study: rotation period measurements for cool stars in the 2.5 billion year open cluster NGC 6819  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler Cluster Study (KeCS) is a program to measure stellar rotation periods and search for planets around members of open star clusters within the field of view of NASA's Kepler mission. We present here the latest results from KeCS - measurements of stellar rotation periods in the 2.5 billion year open cluster NGC 6819 - and discuss their implications for a technique (gyrochronology) to determine stellar ages from stellar rotation.

Kepler Science Team; Science Operations Center, Kepler

2015-01-01

63

Unsuccessful therapy with adefovir and entecavir-tenofovir in a patient with chronic hepatitis B infection with previous resistance to lamivudine: a fourteen-year evolution of hepatitis B virus mutations  

PubMed Central

Background Complex mutants can be selected under sequential selective pressure by HBV therapy. To determine hepatitis B virus genomic evolution during antiviral therapy we characterized the HBV quasi-species in a patient who did no respond to therapy following lamivudine breakthrough for a period of 14 years. Case Presentation The polymerase and precore/core genes were amplified and sequenced at determined intervals in a period of 14 years. HBV viral load and HBeAg/Anti-HBe serological profiles as well as amino transferase levels were also measured. A mixture of lamivudine-resistant genotype A2 HBV strains harboring the rtM204V mutation coexisted in the patient following viral breakthrough to lamivudine. The L180M+M204V dominant mutant displayed strong lamivudine-resistance. As therapy was changed to adefovir, then to entecavir, and finally to entecavir-tenofovir the viral load showed fluctuations but lamivudine-resistant strains continued to be selected, with minor contributions to the HBV quasi-species composition of additional resistance-associated mutations. At the end of the 14-year follow up period, high viral loads were predominant, with viral strains harboring the lamivudine-resistance signature rtL180M+M204V. The precore/core frame A1762T and G1764A double mutation was detected before treatment and remaining in this condition during the entire follow-up. Specific entecavir and tenofovir primary resistance-associated mutations were not detected at any time. Plasma concentrations of tenofovir indicated adequate metabolism of the drug. Conclusions We report the selection of HBV mutants carrying well-defined primary resistance mutations that escaped lamivudine in a fourteen-year follow-up period. With the exception of tenofovir resistance mutations, subsequent unselected primary resistance mutations were detected as minor populations into the HBV quasispecies composition during adefovir or entecavir monotherapies. Although tenofovir is considered an appropriate therapeutic alternative for the treatment of entecavir-unresponsive patients, its use was not effective in the case reported here. PMID:21696601

2011-01-01

64

Microbially induced sedimentary structures recording an ancient ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 billion-year-old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia.  

PubMed

Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) result from the response of microbial mats to physical sediment dynamics. MISS are cosmopolitan and found in many modern environments, including shelves, tidal flats, lagoons, riverine shores, lakes, interdune areas, and sabkhas. The structures record highly diverse communities of microbial mats and have been reported from numerous intervals in the geological record up to 3.2 billion years (Ga) old. This contribution describes a suite of MISS from some of the oldest well-preserved sedimentary rocks in the geological record, the early Archean (ca. 3.48 Ga) Dresser Formation, Western Australia. Outcrop mapping at the meter to millimeter scale defined five sub-environments characteristic of an ancient coastal sabkha. These sub-environments contain associations of distinct macroscopic and microscopic MISS. Macroscopic MISS include polygonal oscillation cracks and gas domes, erosional remnants and pockets, and mat chips. Microscopic MISS comprise tufts, sinoidal structures, and laminae fabrics; the microscopic laminae are composed of primary carbonaceous matter, pyrite, and hematite, plus trapped and bound grains. Identical suites of MISS occur in equivalent environmental settings through the entire subsequent history of Earth including the present time. This work extends the geological record of MISS by almost 300 million years. Complex mat-forming microbial communities likely existed almost 3.5 billion years ago. PMID:24205812

Noffke, Nora; Christian, Daniel; Wacey, David; Hazen, Robert M

2013-12-01

65

Recrystallized Granite Surface Fissures Of The Wasatch Range, Produced Not Later Than 1/4 Billion Years Ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our studies of numerous recrystallized fissures in 4 granite plutons of Wasatch Range, namely, Mount Tuscarora-Wolverine-Millicent,^1,6,7 Bonanza Peak-Midway,^2 Little Cottonwood Canyon and Ferguson Canyon plutons, all of which formed magma chambers reaching Earth-atmosphere interface, establish that they resulted from high thermal gradients rather than passages of earthquake waves. Magma chambers formed, solidified during Permo-Caroniferous Ice Age(roughly, 1/3...1/4 billion yr ago, a time interval preceding period of extrusion of Rocky Mountains, 10^8 yr ago), and while fluid, belched lava flows^5 extending over its reservoir walls to run hundred of meters. We have shown how the magma melts, dilutes and replaces overlying metamorphic rock^7 to reach Earth's surface so that a pluton containing large amounts of dross(Fe-ores, etc.) had a short fluid lifetime. We also described how offshoots from a long-running main fissure form acute angles with that fissure.^3 Such recrystallized fissures, reaching depths of perhaps 100 m, have initial fractures near time of solidification of their uppermost portion of magma chamber while still hot(<= 1600^oF), a time when max. stresses occur near granite surface due to high thermal gradients, owing to snow coverage, cold water contacts due to rain, stream flow over granite surface, partial coverage by ocean, etc., wherever heat sinks might occur, during P-C ice age--when region of Wasatch Range existed at sea level, Salt Lake Valley being covered entirely by ocean water and region east of Wasatch Bouleuard rising gently above Pacific Ocean to elevations of possibly 500-1000 ft, say, at a distance of 10-15 mi to east. This fact is implied by Chinese Wall of white limestone on Grandeur Peak, unequivocally, and similarly another in Neff's Canyon running e. from n. ridge of 9200 ft. saddle-summit, as well as a dozen other ancient calcified stream beds emptying into ocean to w., in Salt Lake Valley. This existed prior to regional uplift(with uncontorted topography) of over 4000 ft. Details of how earthquake wave passages form an epicenter from which propagate a stress field in diametrically opposite directions to open up, by a few meters, the surface granite in forming a long running fissure^1 of km length, are unknown. Several examples of thermal fissures of 3-4 ft widths are known but one of 6ft width at epicenter running both n and s for only 50-75m to terminations is located on w spur of Maybird Gulch, and is seen when viewing w from trail leading to upper 2 small lakes. In contrast, a 12 ft wide fissure, 50-100m s of White Pine Lake,^1 resulted from earthquake waves. ^1K.L.McDonald, Bul. Am. Phys. Soc., 32(4),1124; ^235(9),2132; ^333(3),485; ^433(9),1982-3; ^536(9),2466; ^637(5),1256-7; ^738(1),740.

McDonald, Keith L.

2000-05-01

66

Recrystallized Granite Surface Fissures of Wasatch Range Produced Not Later Than 1/4Billion Years Ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our studies of numerous recrystallized fissures in 4 granite plutons of Wasatch Range, i.e., Mount T-W-M, (K.L. McDonald, Bul. A.P.S., 32 (4), 1124),(37 (5), 1256-7),(38 (1), 740) Bonanza Pk.-Midway,(35 (9), 2132) Little Cottonwood and Ferguson Canyon plutons, all of which formed magma chambers reaching Earth-atm. interface, estab that they resulted from high thermal gradients and not passages of earthquake waves.(33 (9), 1982-2) Magma chambers formed, solidified during Permo- Carboniferous Ice Age (roughly 1/3...1/4 billion yr ago), a time interval preceding extrusion, pf Rocky Mts., 10^8 yr ago, and while fluid, some belched lava flows(36 (9), 2466) extending over its reservoir walls to run hundreds of m. We have shown how the magma melts, dilutes and replaces overlying metamorphic rock(38 (1), 740) to reach Earth's surface, so that a pluton containing large amounts of dross (Fe ores, etc.) had a short fluid lifetime. We also described how offshoots from a long-running main fissure form acute angles with that fissure.(33 (3), 485) Recryst. fissures, reaching depths of perhaps 100 m, had initial fractures near time of solidification of top portion of magma chamber, while still hot (<< 1600 ^oF), a time when max. stresses occur near granite surface due to high thermal gradients, owing to snow coverage, rain water, stream flow over granite surface, partial coverage by ocean, etc., during P-C ice age -- when region of Wasatch Range existed at sea level, S.L. Valley being covered entrely by ocean water and region of Wasatch Boul. rising gently above Pac. Ocean to elev. of possibly 500-1000 ft, say, at a dist. of 10-15 mi to e, as implied by Chinese Wall of limestone on Grandeur Pk, another in Neff's Canyon running e from n ridge of her 9200 ft saddle-summit, as well as a dozen other ancient calcified stream beds emptying into ocean to w., in S.L. Valley. This existed prior to regional uplift (of similar topog.) of over 4000 ft. Details of how earthquake waves form an epicenter from which propagate 2 stress fields in diam. opp. directions to open up, by a few m, surface granite to form long running fissures of km lengths, are unknown, e.g., the one 12 ft wide, 50-100 m s of White Pine Lake.(32 (4), 1124) Many exs. of therm-fissures of 1-2 ft widths are believed known but one of ques. of 6 ft width at epicenter running both n, s for only 50-75 m to term. is located on w spur of Maybird Gulch, and is seen when viewing w from trail leading to 2 upper small lakes.

McDonald, Keith

2000-11-01

67

Recrystallized Granite Surface Fissures Of Wasatch Range, Produced Not Later Than 1/4 Billion Years Ago.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our studies of numerous recrystallized fissures in 4 granite plutons of Wasatch Range, i.e., Mount T-W-M^1,6,7 Bonanza Pk.-Midway,^2 Little Cottonwood and Ferguson Canyon plutons, all of which formed magma chambers reaching Earth-atm. interface, estab. that they resulted from high thermal gradients and not passages of earthquake waves.^4 Magma chambers formed, solidified during Permo-Carboniferous Ice Age (roughly 1/3...1/4 billion yr ago), a time interval preceding extrusion of Rocky Mts., 10^8 yr ago, and while fluid, some belched lava flows^5 extending over its reservoir walls to run hundreds of m. We have shown how the magma melts, dilutes and replaces overlying metamorphic rock^7 to reach Earth's surface, so that a pluton containing large amounts of dross (Fe-ores, etc.) had a short fluid lifetime. We also described how offshoots from a long-running main fissure form acute angles with that fissure^3. Recryst. fissures, reaching depths of perhaps 100 m, had initial fractures near time of solidification of top portion of magma chamber, while still hot (<= 1600^oF), a time when max. stresses occur near granite surface due to high thermal gradients, owing to snow coverage, rain water, stream flow over granite surface, partial coverage by ocean, etc., during P-C ice age - when region of Wasatch Range existed at sea level, S. L. Valley being covered entirely by ocean water and region east of Wasatch Boul. rising gently above Pac. Ocean to elev. of possibly 500-1000 ft, say, at a distance of 10-15 mi to e, as implied by Chinese wall of limestone on Grandeur Pk, another in Neff's Canyon running e from n ridge of her 9200 ft saddle-summit, as well as a dozen other ancient calcified stream beds emptying into ocean to w, in S.L. Valley. This existed prior to regional uplift (of similar topog.) of over 4000 ft. Details of how earthquake waves form an epicenter from which propagate 2 stress fields in diam. opp. directions to open up, by a few m, surface granite to form a long running fissure of km lengths, are unknown, e.g., the one 12 ft wide, 50-100 m s of White Pine Lake.^1 Many exs. of thermofissures of 1-2 ft widths are believed known but one of ques. of 6 ft width at epicenter running both n, s for only 50-75 m to term. is located on w spur of Maybird Gulch, and is seen when viewing w from trail leading to 2 upper small lakes. (This abstract corrects that e-mailed and printed in Bul. A.P.S., 45(9), 192, 2000.) raggedright ^1K.L. McDonald, Bul. A.P.S., 32(4), 1124; ^2 35(9), 2132; ^3 33(3),485; ^4 33(9), 1982-3; ^5 36(9),2466; ^6 37(5),1256-7; ^7 38(1),740. Submitted by Dr. Keith L. McDonald, APS Member MC402346

McDonald, K. L.

2002-04-01

68

HubbleSite NewsCenter 1996-01: Hubble's Deepest View of the Universe Unveils Bewildering Galaxies across Billions of Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hubble Telescope's "deepest-ever view of the universe" is available for viewing. "Several hundred never before seen galaxies are visible in this 'deepest-ever' view of the universe, called the Hubble Deep Field (HDF), made with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Besides the classical spiral and elliptical shaped galaxies, there is a bewildering variety of other galaxy shapes and colors that are important clues to understanding the evolution of the universe. Some of the galaxies may have formed less that one billion years after the Big Bang." Photos are available in low and high resolution, black & white and color, and are accompanied with a detailed explanatory caption, press release, and background information.

1996-01-01

69

The Next Billion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"In 1999 the world population passed the 6 billion mark. In this lesson, students predict when it will reach 7 billion. Students discuss the reliability of their predictions, compare them to past trends, and discuss social factors that can affect population growth." from NCTM Illuminations.

Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

2009-12-08

70

Redox stratification of the ocean 2.7 billion years ago: Preliminary results from Fe speciation analysis of shallow- and deep-facies black shales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rise of atmospheric oxygen, or as known as GOE (Great Oxidation Event: e.g., Holland, 1994), has been widely believed to have occurred at around 2.4 billion years ago. Contrary, however, some studies have suggested that such oxygenation could have occurred much earlier (e.g., Hoashi et al., 2009). Geochemical behaviors of Fe, a redox-sensitive element, have played crucial roles in constraining past redox environments and the timing of the inferred GOE. In order to examine if there was intra-basinal heterogeneity in the redox conditions before the inferred GOE, we applied Fe speciation analysis to two contrasting sets of pyrite-bearing black shales; WRL1 (deeper facies) and RHDH2A (shallow facies). Both of these semi-contemporaneous black shales, deposited about 2.7 billion years ago and recovered as drillcores in Pilbara, northwestern Australia, have been previously used by Brocks et al. (1999), Yamaguchi et al. (2005), and Eigenbrode and Freeman (2006). Chemical compositions of major and some minor elements were measured by a standard XRF method, S content by elemental analysis, and Fe speciation by the method of Poulton et al. (2005) and Leventhal and Taylor (1990). Contrasting Fe/Al ratios of the examined samples suggest that Fe in WRL1 and RHDH2A is mostly from submarine hydrothermal activity and continental weathering, respectively. Relationships between organic carbon (Corg) and S contents suggest that oxic, normal marine setting is favored for WRL1 and euxinic environment for RHDH2A (S/Corg > 0.37). Oxygen in deep environment (WRL1) must have been supplied by sinking of O2-rich surface water through ocean circulation, because there was no source of oxygen in deep sea. In the 2.7 Ga surface ocean, oxygenic photosynthetic organisms (e.g., cyanobacteria) are considered to have been active. A large amount of organic matter was produced and sank, consuming a large amount of dissolved oxygen for decomposition/respiration. This led to the formation of euxinic environment in the shallow water, such as those seen in the modern ocean. In the euxinic environment, bacterial sulfate reduction became popular and induced pyrite formation. Abundance of reactive Fe and highly reactive Fe and DOP (degree of pyritization) is also contrasting between WRL1 and RHDH2A, i.e., deep and shallow ocean sediments. Contrasting heterogeneities in the above geochemical parameters between shallow and deep Archean ocean suggest that the chemical structure of the 2.7 Ga ocean was not homogeneously anoxic or reducing as have been commonly believed, but possibly more variable, i.e., relatively anoxic in shallow ocean and oxic in deep ocean. References: Brocks et al. (1999) Sciecne 285, 1033-1036; Eigenbrode and Freeman (2006) PNAS 103, 15759-15764; Hoashi et al. (2009) Nature Geoscience 2, 301-306, Holland (1994) In Early Life on Earth, Columbia Univ. Press; Leventhal and Taylor (1990) J. Sed. Petrol. 58, 812-819; Poulton and Canfield (2005) 214, 209- 221; Yamaguchi et al. (2005) Chem. Geol 218, 135-169.

Abe, A.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Haraguchi, S.; Naraoka, H.; Yahagi, T. R.

2012-12-01

71

16 Years, 16 Cruises, 1.6 Billion Soundings: a Compilation of High-Resolution Multibeam Bathymetry of the Active Plate Boundary Along the Chilean Continental Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chile, a country stranding the active plate boundary between the South-American and the Nazca Plate is afflicted by recurrent earthquakes and hazardous volcanic eruptions. The strongest earthquake ever recorded occurred here, and volcanic hazards are frequent. Consequently, this area has been studied by geoscientists for many years to improve the understanding of subduction zone processes. Swath bathymetry mapping of the ocean floor has proven to bear a large potential for the interpretation of subduction-related processes, such as tectonic deformation of the marine forearc, release and migration of fluids as well as earthquake-triggered mass wasting. Multibeam bathymetry data of 16 major cruises of German, British, and Chilean research vessels recorded between 1995 and December 2010, in total more than 10,000 data files comprising about 1.6 billion soundings, have now been carefully reprocessed, compiled and merged into a unifying set of high-resolution bathymetric maps of the Chilean continental margin from latitude 40°S to 20°S. The imprint of subsurface processes on the surface morphology is well displayed in the case of the Chilean continental margin. The 3,500 km long Chilean convergent margin is not uniform, as various segments with different tectonic characteristics can be distinguished. Major factors that control margin morphology and thus the style of subduction are (1) relief and structure of the incoming oceanic plate, (2) supply of trench sediment, (3) turbidite transport within the trench, and (4) the input of terrigeneous sediments down the continental slope. A major segment boundary occurs at latitude 32°-33° S where the hotspot-related volcanic chain of Juan Fernandez is presently subducting. South of the area of ridge subduction the trench is filled with turbidites, and accretionary ridges develop across the base of the slope along most of the segment, whereas north of this boundary the turbiditic infill is reduced and subduction erosion is prevailing.

Weinrebe, W.; Flueh, E. R.; Hasert, M.; Behrmann, J. H.; Voelker, D.; Geersen, J.; Ranero, C. R.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.

2011-12-01

72

Self-reversed magnetization held by martite in basalt flows from the 1.1-billion-year-old Keweenawan rift, Canada  

E-print Network

Self-reversed magnetization held by martite in basalt flows from the 1.1-billion: P. DeMenocal Keywords: self-reversal antiparallel remanence martite hematite rock magnetism is attributable to a subsequently reversed geomagnetic field, but that the component is a self

Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas

73

Structural characterization by Raman hyperspectral mapping of organic carbon in the 3.46 billion-year-old Apex chert, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3.46 billion years old Apex Chert, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, is well-known for hosting the oldest, highly disputed microfossils on Earth. This rock has a complex history of thermal alteration that includes circulation of hydrothermal fluids, lower greenschist-facies regional metamorphism, and post-metamorphic weathering by meteoric fluids. Carbonaceous material occurs in the sedimentary stratiform part of the chert as well as the underlying intruding hydrothermal black chert veins. In order to identify a least-altered remnant of early life it is necessary to develop a method that enables rapid evaluation of CM structural order on a small spatial scale. Here we present the detailed characterization of CM in the Apex chert by Raman hyperspectral mapping. It is shown that this approach gives better estimates of average Raman band ratios than individual point analyses, and it is demonstrated that significant differences in structure exist between CM in the stratiform part of the Apex chert and CM in an underlying black chert vein. The large Raman map-based datasets also reveal that significant mixing took place between these two end members CM’s, indicating that the Apex chert has been thoroughly altered by hydrothermal fluid circulation. At the brecciated intersection between the stratiform chert and the intrusive hydrothermal chert vein very poorly ordered CM was found that is not in line with lower greenschist-facies regional metamorphism. It is speculated here that this CM represents an organic fraction that was introduced or thoroughly altered by late stage meteoric fluids. Alternatively, the ubiquitous presence of hematite in this sample caused a perturbation in the Raman spectra of the CM, leading to an artifact in the calculated Raman-based band ratios. Overall it can be concluded that the best preserved CM occurs in the stratiform parts of the Apex chert, while earlier discussions on organic microfossils in this rock often focused on parts of the chert that either represented the hydrothermal veins or the brecciated intersection between the veins and the stratiform part.

Sforna, M. C.; van Zuilen, M. A.; Philippot, P.

2014-01-01

74

Six Billion and Beyond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the world population reached six billion (see the October 13, 1999 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). PBS offers this site as a companion to their timely airing this month of the documentary "Six Billion and Beyond." The site provides background information on the UN Summits on Population in 1994 and 1999, including interviews with prominent delegates such as Hillary Clinton and Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund. Also featured are sections focusing on population issues in six disparate nations -- the US, Mexico, India, China, Kenya, and Italy -- examining in each country the related topics of the environment, reproductive health, the economy, and women's status. Both the study guide and the library, which provides online resources, are quite useful, making the site substantial enough to serve as the basis, along with an available video of the documentary, for a complete unit on population issues in a high school or college social sciences course.

75

29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...occupations requiring the performance of any duties in a workroom or workplace where goods are manufactured...Occupations involving the operation or tending...6) Occupations in connection with...storage; (iii) communications and public...

2012-07-01

76

29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...occupations requiring the performance of any duties in a workroom or workplace where goods are manufactured...Occupations involving the operation or tending...6) Occupations in connection with...storage; (iii) communications and public...

2011-07-01

77

29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

...occupations requiring the performance of any duties in a workroom or workplace where goods are manufactured...Occupations involving the operation or tending...6) Occupations in connection with...storage; (iii) communications and public...

2014-07-01

78

29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...occupations requiring the performance of any duties in a workroom or workplace where goods are manufactured...Occupations involving the operation or tending...6) Occupations in connection with...storage; (iii) communications and public...

2010-07-01

79

29 CFR 570.119 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Occupations requiring the performance of any duties in a workroom or workplace where goods are manufactured...Occupations involving the operation or tending...office or sales work) in connection with...and storage; (3) communications and public...

2010-07-01

80

29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...occupations requiring the performance of any duties in a workroom or workplace where goods are manufactured...Occupations involving the operation or tending...6) Occupations in connection with...storage; (iii) communications and public...

2013-07-01

81

Fourteen Years of Bt Cotton Advances IPM in Arizona  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) first invaded Arizona in 1926 and has been a key pest of cotton since the early 1960’s. A broad range of tactics have been developed to manage this pest including a variety of cultural methods, mating disruption via pheromones, sterile insect re...

82

Fourteen Years of R/qtl: Just Barely Sustainable.  

PubMed

R/qtl is an R package for mapping quantitative trait loci (genetic loci that contribute to variation in quantitative traits) in experimental crosses. Its development began in 2000. There have been 38 software releases since 2001. The latest release contains 35k lines of R code and 24k lines of C code, plus 15k lines of code for the documentation. Challenges in the development and maintenance of the software are discussed. A key to the success of R/qtl is that it remains a central tool for the chief developer's own research work, and so its maintenance is of selfish importance. PMID:25364504

Broman, Karl W

2014-07-01

83

ANALYSIS OF CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE FOR FOURTEEN CITIES USING HAPEM-MS3 (FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes results and findings of applying the Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM) for mobile sources, Version 3. This version is formally known as HAPEM-MS3. The application is to fourteen urban areas for calendar year 1990. The urban areas modeled inclu...

84

6 Billion Human Beings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as an online exhibit at the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, France, this fascinating Website provides a wonderful introduction to human population growth, using interactive (Shockwave) media to engage the viewer in a learning game. Available in English or French, 6 Billion Human Beings leads visitors through interesting facts (daily statistics on fertility rates, death rates, etc.) and uses their interactive answers (e.g., age) to generate statistics on certain population dynamics (e.g., birth rate). Also provided are numerous statistics for different global populations and thought-provoking questions about the future. This is an excellent site and could serve well as a teaching tool for an undergraduate course in population dynamics or introductory statistics.

85

Fourteen Points for Energy Conservation in Lighting  

E-print Network

. Worn out lamps and dirty fixtures trap light and waste energy. In the formula to predict l'ighting levels, a light loss factor (LLF) is entered. There are two aspects to the light loss factor, the first is the deterioration loss of the lamps... as they age, and the second is based on dirt. Dirt and dust settle on the lamps, lenses and reflecting surfaces. Different fixtures have different characteristics. An actual study has shown that if you had cleaned the fixtures every three years, you would...

Zekowski, G.

1979-01-01

86

Where Have All the Billions Gone?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing a basis to help Alaskans determine future spending levels and priorities, this report traces how the state spent more than $26 billion in general funds from fiscal years 1981 through 1986 before oil prices crashed and brought state revenues tumbling down with them. Figures indicate that cumulative general fund expenditures over the…

Leask, Linda; And Others

1987-01-01

87

World's biodiversity needs to be preserved Biodiversity -the billions of life forms that exist on earth -ranges in size from microscopic  

E-print Network

@rn about 4.6 billion years ago. A primitive form of life is thought to have originated on Earthworms earth to as biological evolution. For nearly 3 billion of termites Amphibia the 3.6 billion years, life existed

Gadagkar, Raghavendra

88

Synechococcus: 3 billion years of global dominance.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are among the most important primary producers on the Earth. However, the evolutionary forces driving cyanobacterial species diversity remain largely enigmatic due to both their distinction from macro-organisms and an undersampling of sequenced genomes. Thus, we present a new genome of a Synechococcus-like cyanobacterium from a novel evolutionary lineage. Further, we analyse all existing 16S rRNA sequences and genomes of Synechococcus-like cyanobacteria. Chronograms showed extremely polyphyletic relationships in Synechococcus, which has not been observed in any other cyanobacteria. Moreover, most Synechococcus lineages bifurcated after the Great Oxidation Event, including the most abundant marine picoplankton lineage. Quantification of horizontal gene transfer among 70 cyanobacterial genomes revealed significant differences among studied genomes. Horizontal gene transfer levels were not correlated with ecology, genome size or phenotype, but were correlated with the age of divergence. All findings were synthetized into a novel model of cyanobacterial evolution, characterized by serial convergence of the features, that is multicellularity and ecology. PMID:25283338

Dvo?ák, Petr; Casamatta, Dale A; Poulí?ková, Aloisie; Hašler, Petr; Ond?ej, Vladan; Sanges, Remo

2014-11-01

89

Palaeoclimates: the first two billion years  

PubMed Central

Earth's climate during the Archaean remains highly uncertain, as the relevant geologic evidence is sparse and occasionally contradictory. Oxygen isotopes in cherts suggest that between 3.5 and 3.2?Gyr ago (Ga) the Archaean climate was hot (55–85?°C); however, the fact that these cherts have experienced only a modest amount of weathering suggests that the climate was temperate, as today. The presence of diamictites in the Pongola Supergroup and the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa suggests that by 2.9?Ga the climate was glacial. The Late Archaean was relatively warm; then glaciation (possibly of global extent) reappeared in the Early Palaeoproterozoic, around 2.3–2.4?Ga. Fitting these climatic constraints with a model requires high concentrations of atmospheric CO2 or CH4, or both. Solar luminosity was 20–25% lower than today, so elevated greenhouse gas concentrations were needed just to keep the mean surface temperature above freezing. A rise in O2 at approximately 2.4?Ga, and a concomitant decrease in CH4, provides a natural explanation for the Palaeoproterozoic glaciations. The Mid-Archaean glaciations may have been caused by a drawdown in H2 and CH4 caused by the origin of bacterial sulphate reduction. More work is needed to test this latter hypothesis. PMID:16754607

Kasting, James F; Ono, Shuhei

2006-01-01

90

TECHNICAL NOTE Fourteen novel microsatellite markers for the gopher frog,  

E-print Network

TECHNICAL NOTE Fourteen novel microsatellite markers for the gopher frog, Lithobates capito isolated and characterized a total of 14 microsatellite loci from gopher frogs, Lithobates capito with their decline. Keywords Lithobates Á Rana Á Ranidae Á Gopher frog Á Microsatellite Á PCR primers Á SSR Á STR

Richter, Stephen C.

91

For the billion people.  

PubMed

Humans need food to survive. The encroachment of deserts, losses of water and generic and cultural resources, as well as climatic changes, however, threaten our long-term survival. Desertification in the world's arid and semiarid regions is one of the most serious problems our planet and its people face. It is one of the principal barriers to sustainable food security and sustainable livelihoods. Moreover, desertification is not a future threat, but an active local reality which needs to be reversed. Since World War II, an area the size of China and India combined has experienced moderate to extreme soil deterioration. More than 75% of this degradation has occurred in developing regions, mostly in arid and semiarid regions. The author explains how the UN Development Program is strengthening its capacity to help countries address desertification as we face the challenge of tripling world food output over the next 50 years given likely population increases. PMID:12345684

Speth, J G

1994-06-01

92

Escalating energy costs threaten health care for critically ill and homebound seniors: home care nurses, aides and therapists drive 4.8 billion miles per year to reach shut-in patients.  

PubMed

The rapidly rising cost of fuel has had a profound impact on the home care and hospice industry. In an effort to quantify the increased burden, the National Association for Home Care & Hospice's (NAHC) Foundation for Hospice and Home Care conducted a study showing that home care and hospice providers drive over 5 billion miles per year to deliver services --about two-and-a-half times the number driven by United Parcel Service, the international delivery service. The findings garnered significant interest by the media and elected officials. Reprinted in this issue of CARING Magazine are the press release that NAHC issued regarding the study, as well as a graphic representation of the study's findings that was circulated to the National Conference of State Legislatures at its most recent meeting in July. Also represented on these pages is a reprint from the Congressional Record of July 11, 2008, in which Senator Debbie Stabenow (D-MI), one of the highest ranking Democrats in the US. Senate, entered into the record an article from the front page of the New York Times of July 5, 2008, that covered the mileage study. PMID:18795535

2008-08-01

93

To reactivate or not to reactivate: nature and varied behavior of structural inheritance in the Proterozoic basement of the Eastern Colorado mineral belt over 1.7 billion years of earth history  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The eastern central Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado has long been a region of geologic interest because of Laramide-age hydrothermal polymetallic vein-related ores. The region is characterized by a well-exposed array of geologic structures associated with ductile and brittle deformation, which record crustal strain over 1.7 billion years of continental growth and evolution. The mineralized areas lie along a broad linear zone termed the Colorado Mineral Belt. This lineament has commonly been interpreted as following a fundamental boundary, such as a suture zone, in the North American Proterozoic crust that acted as a persistent zone of weakness localizing the emplacement of magmas and associated hydrothermal fluid flow. However, the details on the controls of the location, orientation, kinematics, density, permeability, and relative strength of various geological structures and their specific relationships to mineral deposit formation are not related to Proterozoic ancestry in a simple manner. The objectives of this field trip are to show key localities typical of the various types of structures present, show recently compiled and new data, offer alternative conceptual models, and foster dialogue. Topics to be discussed include: (1) structural history of the eastern Front Range; (2) characteristics, kinematics, orientations, and age of ductile and brittle structures and how they may or may not relate to one another and mineral deposit permeability; and (3) characteristics, localization, and evolution of the metal and non–metal-bearing hydrothermal systems in the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt.

Caine, Jonathan Saul; Ridley, John; Wessel, Zachary R.

2010-01-01

94

Investigation of allegations made in a fourteen-page document  

SciTech Connect

The fourteen-page document anonymously submitted to the Office of Government Ethics makes five allegations concerning Mr. Leslie Daly. These allegations fall into three categories: (1) three allegations concerning Mr. Daly's relationship with Northrop Corporation, his former employer; (2) an allegation concerning Mr. Daly's travel to California while a DOE employee; and (3) a final allegation concerning the hiring of Mr. Daly's daughter by the International Energy Agency in Paris. Investigative efforts addressed all allegations but found no substantive violations. (PSB)

Not Available

1981-07-02

95

Variations in photosynthetic rates of fourteen coleus cultivars.  

PubMed

Fourteen cultivars of coleus (Coleus blumei Benth) were found to vary in chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, anthocyanin content and number of stomates.Cultivars ;Gaslight' and ;Velvet Rainbow' had 0.17 and 0.92 mg chlorophyll per g of leaves, fresh weight, respectively.Maximum photosynthetic rate (18.7 mg CO(2)/mg Chl.hr) was found in the leaves of ;Pastle Rainbow' and minimum (2.7) in the ;Velvet Rainbow.' PMID:16659778

Rouhani, I; Khosh-Khui, M

1977-01-01

96

Variations in Photosynthetic Rates of Fourteen Coleus Cultivars  

PubMed Central

Fourteen cultivars of coleus (Coleus blumei Benth) were found to vary in chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, anthocyanin content and number of stomates. Cultivars `Gaslight' and `Velvet Rainbow' had 0.17 and 0.92 mg chlorophyll per g of leaves, fresh weight, respectively. Maximum photosynthetic rate (18.7 mg CO2/mg Chl·hr) was found in the leaves of `Pastle Rainbow' and minimum (2.7) in the `Velvet Rainbow.' PMID:16659778

Rouhani, Iraj; Khosh-Khui, Morteza

1977-01-01

97

The $8.4 billion drain  

SciTech Connect

Public policy makers at both the state and federal levels are committed to opening up the electric power industry to greater competition, trusting a freer market to allocate resources more equitably and efficiently. Yet every year, predominantly as a result of public policies developed over a half-century ago, government skews this increasing competition in the industry by granting billions of dollars in tax subsidies and other advantages to selected utilities solely because of their form of ownership. Were it not for these exemptions and power-purchase preferences granted to the subsidized utilities, the US Treasury would collect $8.4 billion more every year. The potential economic distortions these policies can create have long been recognized. Now, however, with the bulk power market growing every year and retail wheeling a topic of hot debate across the country, the potential distortions are increasingly significant. Subsidized, artificially low prices send the wrong signals to consumers, undermining economic efficiency and wasting resources. Such prices work directly against the national policy goal of using energy wisely and protecting the environment. Unless subsidies are eliminated or restructured extensively, their detrimental effects will only grow as the electric utility industry continues to evolve toward even greater competition.

Graves, J.S. [Putnam, Hayes & Bartlett, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1995-05-01

98

Granulomas in bone marrow--a study of fourteen cases.  

PubMed

Granulomas in bone marrow are an infrequent finding and several diseases are associated with granuloma formation. Clinicopathological details of fourteen cases showing granulomas in bone marrow were studied. Fever was the commonest clinical presentation and anaemia was seen in all cases. Only one case showed epithelioid cells in the bone marrow aspirate smear while trephine biopsy was diagnostic in all cases. Granulomas were seen mainly in the paratrabecular space. Acid fast bacilli were demonstrated in five biopsies and serological test for Human Immunodeficiency virus was positive in five cases. Tuberculosis was more common in the present study as compared to others, probably due to the endemicity of tuberculosis in this region. Bone marrow biopsy is useful in the investigation of pyrexia of unknown origin as it leads to an aetiological diagnosis in most cases. PMID:16758775

Basu, Debdatta; Saravana, Rajagopal; Purushotham, Basappa; Ghotekar, Lekhraj H

2005-01-01

99

How to teach a billion transistor  

E-print Network

How to teach a billion transistor chip a new trick Dr. ir. Bart Kienhuis University Leiden, LIACS 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 BillionMAC/s HDTV MPEG4 Video over IP 3G;14 FPGA Programming FPGA is flexible in Hardware and Software... How to teach a billion transistor chip

Kienhuis, Bart

100

Human fatalities from wild elephant attacks--a study of fourteen cases.  

PubMed

Human-wild elephant conflicts are frequently reported from various parts of the country. Encroaching of animal habitat by human civilization is a primary reason for this. The present study comprises of fourteen autopsy cases conducted at the department of Forensic Medicine, B.S Medical College, Bankura, West Bengal, India over a period of three years. The study attempts to find out the nature of injuries caused by wild elephant attack and the common factors contributing to human-wild elephant conflict so that vulnerable population can be cautioned to avoid conflicts. A distinct seasonal as well as diurnal variation of attack incidences was noted. Attacks were sudden and unprovoked. Killer elephants were wild tuskers in all the cases. Victims were from the low socioeconomic group and the cause of death was due to trampling on the vital organs like chest and head. PMID:21550563

Das, Sobhan Kr; Chattopadhyay, Saurabh

2011-05-01

101

Eight billion asteroids in the Oort cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oort cloud is usually thought of as a collection of icy comets inhabiting the outer reaches of the Solar system, but this picture is incomplete. We use simulations of the formation of the Oort cloud to show that ˜4 per cent of the small bodies in the Oort cloud should have formed within 2.5 au of the Sun, and hence be ice-free rock-iron bodies. If we assume that these Oort cloud asteroids have the same size distribution as their cometary counterparts, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should find roughly a dozen Oort cloud asteroids during 10 years of operations. Measurement of the asteroid fraction within the Oort cloud can serve as an excellent test of the Solar system's formation and dynamical history. Oort cloud asteroids could be of particular concern as impact hazards as their high mass density, high impact velocity, and low visibility make them both hard to detect and hard to divert or destroy. However, they should be a rare class of object, and we estimate globally catastrophic collisions should only occur about once per billion years.

Shannon, Andrew; Jackson, Alan P.; Veras, Dimitri; Wyatt, Mark

2015-01-01

102

Thermal Transfer Compared To The Fourteen Other Imaging Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quiet revolution in the world of imaging has been underway for the past few years. The older technologies of dot matrix, daisy wheel, thermal paper and pen plotters have been increasingly displaced by laser, ink jet and thermal transfer. The net result of this revolution is improved technologies that afford superior imaging, quiet operation, plain paper usage, instant operation, and solid state components. Thermal transfer is one of the processes that incorporates these benefits. Among the imaging application for thermal transfer are: 1. Bar code labeling and scanning. 2. New systems for airline ticketing, boarding passes, reservations, etc. 3. Color computer graphics and imaging. 4. Copying machines that copy in color. 5. Fast growing communications media such as facsimile. 6. Low cost word processors and computer printers. 7. New devices that print pictures from video cameras or television sets. 8. Cameras utilizing computer chips in place of film.

O'Leary, John W.

1989-07-01

103

Fourteen Years of Education and Public Outreach for the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer Mission  

E-print Network

The Sonoma State University (SSU) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) group leads the Swift Education and Public Outreach program. For Swift, we have previously implemented broad efforts that have contributed to NASA's Science Mission Directorate E/PO portfolio across many outcome areas. Our current focus is on highly-leveraged and demonstrably successful activities, including the wide-reaching Astrophysics Educator Ambassador program, and our popular websites: Epo's Chronicles and the Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) Skymap. We also make major contributions working collaboratively through the Astrophysics Science Education and Public Outreach Forum (SEPOF) on activities such as the on-line educator professional development course NASA's Multiwavelength Universe. Past activities have included the development of many successful education units including the GEMS Invisible Universe guide, the Gamma-ray Burst Educator's guide, and the Newton's Laws Poster set; informal activities including support for the International Ye...

Cominsky, Lynn; Simonnet, Aurore

2014-01-01

104

Herbicide treatment effects on properties of mountain big sagebrush soils after fourteen years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of sagebrush conversion on the soil properties of a high-elevation portion of the Western Intermountain Sagebrush Steppe (West, 1983) are described. Changes were found in only a few soil chemical properties after conversion to grassland. It was found that surface concentrations of N were lower under grass vegetation than under undisturbed vegetation. Undershrub net N mineralization rates were higher under shrubs in the sagebrush vegetation than under former shrubs in the grass vegetation.

Burke, I. C.; Reiners, W. A.; Sturges, D. L.; Matson, P. A.

1987-01-01

105

Fourteen years of mapped, permanent quadrats in a northern mixed prairie, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This historical dataset consists of 44 permanent 1-m2 quadrats located on northern mixed prairie in eastern Montana, USA. Individual plants in these quadrats were identified and mapped annually from 1932 through 1945. Quadrats were located in six pastures assigned to cattle grazing treatments with l...

106

Billion shot flashlamp for spaceborne lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A billion-shot flashlamp developed under a NASA contract for spaceborne laser missions is presented. Lifetime-limiting mechanisms are identified and addressed. Two energy loadings of 15 and 44 Joules were selected for the initial accelerated life testing. A fluorescence-efficiency test station was used for measuring the useful-light output degradation of the lamps. The design characteristics meeting NASA specifications are outlined. Attention is focused on the physical properties of tungsten-matrix cathodes, the chemistry of dispenser cathodes, and anode degradation. It is reported that out of the total 83 lamps tested in the program, 4 lamps reached a billion shots and one lamp is beyond 1.7 billion shots, while at 44 Joules, 4 lamps went beyond 100 million shots and one lamp reached 500 million shots.

Richter, Linda; Schuda, Felix; Degnan, John

1990-01-01

107

Preventing Emergency Surgeries Could Save $1 Billion  

MedlinePLUS

... surgical care represent nearly 30 percent of total health care expenditures and they are projected to total more than $900 billion by 2025," study author Dr. Adil Haider, director of the Center for Surgery and Public Health at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, said ...

108

The billion-dollar hedge fund fraud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explains the popularity of hedge funds as a convenient way to park pension fund and endowment fund money onshore or offshore in times of volatile stock and bond markets; as a result, hedge fund assets have risen to almost $650 billion. Relates this to why they are vulnerable to scams: they are largely unregulated and operate in secrecy, as the

Greg N. Gregoriou; William Kelting

2004-01-01

109

Spherule Beds 3.47-3.24 Billion Years Old in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa: A Record of Large Meteorite Impacts and Their Influence on Early Crustal and Biological Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four layers, S1-S4, containing sand-sized spherical particles formed as a result of large meteorite impacts, occur in 3.47-3.24 Ga rocks of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Ir levels in S3 and S4 locally equal or exceed chondritic values but in other sections are at or only slightly above background. Most spherules are inferred to have formed by condensation of impact-produced rock vapor clouds, although some may represent ballistically ejected liquid droplets. Extreme Ir abundances and heterogeneity may reflect element fractionation during spherule formation, hydraulic fractionation during deposition, and/or diagenetic and metasomatic processes. Deposition of S1, S2, and S3 was widely influenced by waves and/or currents interpreted to represent impact-generated tsunamis, and S1 and S2 show multiple graded layers indicating the passage of two or more wave trains. These tsunamis may have promoted mixing within a globally stratified ocean, enriching surface waters in nutrients for biological communities. S2 and S3 mark the transition from the 300-million-year-long Onverwacht stage of predominantly basaltic and komatiitic volcanism to the late orogenic stage of greenstone belt evolution, suggesting that regional and possibly global tectonic reorganization resulted from these large impacts. These beds provide the oldest known direct record of terrestrial impacts and an opportunity to explore their influence on early life, crust, ocean, and atmosphere. The apparent presence of impact clusters at 3.26-3.24 Ga and approx. 2.65-2.5 Ga suggests either spikes in impact rates during the Archean or that the entire Archean was characterized by terrestrial impact rates above those currently estimated from the lunar cratering record.

Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.; Kyte, Frank T.; Shukolyukov, Alexander; Asaro, Frank; Krull, Alexander

2003-01-01

110

12/13/13 14 Billion years of History  

E-print Network

of galaxies 2) Dark ma^er: a major cosmic cons9tuent. 3) Galaxy collisions & star birth 4) Galaxy maps: the galaxy web 5) Infant galaxies ­ wild 9mes. 6; Dark Ma^er Halos Many spirals have large rota9ng hydrogen disks These images

Whittle, Mark

111

The first billion years of a warm dark matter universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of cosmological N-body hydrodynamic chemistry simulations of primordial structure growth and evolution in a scenario with warm dark matter (WDM) having a mass of 3 keV (thermal relic) and compare with a model consisting of standard cold dark matter (CDM). We focus on the high-redshift universe (z > 6), where the structure formation process should better reflect the primordial (linear) differences in terms of matter power spectrum. We find that early epochs can be exceptional probes of the dark matter nature. Non-linear WDM power spectra and mass functions are up to 2 dex lower than in CDM and show spreads of factor of a few persisting in the whole first Gyr. Runaway molecular cooling in WDM haloes results severely inhibited because of the damping of power at large k modes and hence cosmic (Populations III and II-I) star formation rate (SFR) is usually suppressed with respect to CDM predictions. Luminous objects formed in a WDM background are very rare at z > 10, due to the sparser and retarded evolution of early WDM minihaloes during the dark ages and their lack can be fitted with a simple analytical formula depending only on magnitude and redshift. Future high-z observations of faint galaxies have the potential to discriminate between CDM and WDM scenarios by means of cosmic stellar mass density and specific SFR, as well. When compared to the effects of alternative cosmologies (e.g. non-Gaussian or dark energy models) or of high-order corrections at large z (e.g. primordial streaming motions or changes in the pristine initial mass function) the ones caused by WDM are definitely more dramatic.

Maio, Umberto; Viel, Matteo

2015-01-01

112

Teacher training and the integration of handicapped pupils: some findings from a fourteen nation UNESCO study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly introduces a study of teacher training for integration and teacher experience of handicapped pupils in the ordinary school, which was carried out across fourteen countries in five UNESCO World Regions. Extracts from data on types of available teacher training and on teacher attitudes to integration are presented as an introduction to later, more detailed accounts.

Irene Bowman

1986-01-01

113

Contemporary "Hoisan-wa" Language Maintenance in Northern California: Evidence from Fourteen Frog Story Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores uninvestigated issues in Cantonese and "Hoisan-wa" language maintenance from an ethnic Chinese diaspora point of view. Data come from a larger study looking at Frog Story narratives from 140 Cantonese-English bilingual children in California. Fourteen of these children were found to display uniquely "Hoisan-wa" phonology and…

Leung, Genevieve

2012-01-01

114

College Fund Raising Reached Record $23.2-Billion in 1999-2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides data from a new report on college fund raising, which shows that colleges received a record $23.2 billion in gifts in the 1999-2000 academic year, an increase of 13.7 percent over the previous year. Includes tables on gifts by type of institution, and top 20s in total giving, alumni giving, corporate giving, and community college giving.…

Pulley, John L.

2001-01-01

115

Fourteen new stationary points in the scalar potential of SO(8)-gauged , D = 4 supergravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The list of six previously known nontrivial stationary points in the scalar potential of $$ \\\\mathcal{N} = 8 $$, D = 4 supergravity with gauge group SO(8) is extended by fourteen new entries, whose properties have been obtained numerically\\u000a using the sensitivity backpropagation technique. Eight of the new solutions break the gauge group completely, while three\\u000a have a residual symmetry

Thomas Fischbacher

2010-01-01

116

Simulating Billion-Task Parallel Programs  

SciTech Connect

In simulating large parallel systems, bottom-up approaches exercise detailed hardware models with effects from simplified software models or traces, whereas top-down approaches evaluate the timing and functionality of detailed software models over coarse hardware models. Here, we focus on the top-down approach and significantly advance the scale of the simulated parallel programs. Via the direct execution technique combined with parallel discrete event simulation, we stretch the limits of the top-down approach by simulating message passing interface (MPI) programs with millions of tasks. Using a timing-validated benchmark application, a proof-of-concept scaling level is achieved to over 0.22 billion virtual MPI processes on 216,000 cores of a Cray XT5 supercomputer, representing one of the largest direct execution simulations to date, combined with a multiplexing ratio of 1024 simulated tasks per real task.

Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL] [ORNL; Park, Alfred J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

117

Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium requirements to support a multi-billion gallon biofuel industry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To accomplish the goals for biofuel and bioenergy production, 1 billion tons of biomass will need to be produced annually by the year 2030. Crop production data from a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) demonstrated how this goal could...

118

Universities Report $1.8-Billion in Earnings on Inventions in 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities and their inventors earned more than $1.8-billion from commercializing their academic research in the 2011 fiscal year, collecting royalties from new breeds of wheat, from a new drug for the treatment of HIV, and from longstanding arrangements over enduring products like Gatorade. Northwestern University earned the most of any…

Blumenstyk, Goldie

2012-01-01

119

Agroecohydrology: Key to Feeding 9 Billion?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural production necessary to feed 9 billion people in 2050 depends on increased production on existing croplands, and expanding onto 'marginal' lands. A high proportion of these lands are marginal because they are too steep or too dry to reliably support crop production. These same characteristics increase their susceptibility to accelerated erosion, leading (for most soil profiles) to further reductions in plant available water as infiltration and soil profile water holding capacity decline. Sustaining production on these marginal lands will require careful land use planning. In this paper, we present a land use planning framework that integrates 4 elements: (1) potential production (based on soil profile characteristics), (2) edaphic, topographic and climatic limitations to production, (3) soil resistance to degradation, and (4) resilience. This framework expands existing land capability classification systems through the integration of biophysical feedbacks and thresholds. State and transition models, similar to those currently applied to rangelands in the United States and other countries, are used to organize and communicate knowledge about the sustainability of different land use changes and management actions at field to regional scales. This framework emphasizes hydrologic characteristics of soil profiles and landscapes over fertility because fertility declines are more easily addressed through increased inputs. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of how research in ecohydrology can be more effectively focused to support sustainable food production in the context of increasingly rapid social and economic changes throughout the world.

Herrick, J.

2011-12-01

120

The Billion Dollar Eigenvector The mathematics behind Google's  

E-print Network

The Billion Dollar Eigenvector The mathematics behind Google's pagerank algorithm Dan Christensen #12;The Web Google came to prominence, and became a multi-billion dollar corporation, because of Middlesex College, or the excellent article by Kurt Bryan and Tanya Leise at http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~bryan/google

Christensen, Dan

121

The Billion Dollar Eigenvector The mathematics behind Google's  

E-print Network

The Billion Dollar Eigenvector The mathematics behind Google's pagerank algorithm Dan Christensen #12;The Web Google came to prominence, and became a multi-billion dollar corporation, because and Tanya Leise at http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~bryan/google.html Or just put "google eigenvector

Christensen, Dan

122

SURVEY OF FOURTEEN METABOLIC INHIBITORS FOR THEIR EFFECT ON ENDOSPORE GERMINATION IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS1  

PubMed Central

Curran, Harold R. (U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.) and Georges Knaysi. Survey of fourteen metabolic inhibitors for their effect on endospore germination in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 82:793–797. 1961.—Phase contrast microscopy was used to study the effects of metabolic antagonists upon incipient spore germination in glucose agar-film microcultures. The period of observation was 1 to 2 hr. Of 14 compounds tested, only ethanol in 10% concentration (v/v) caused almost complete inhibition. Oxamic acid and dl-ethionine were slightly stimulatory; 6-methyl thiouracil and octyl aldehyde were without effect. The inhibiting effect of the remainder depended upon the concentration of the antagonist. The stimulating effect of glucose on germination is discussed. PMID:13882702

Curran, Harold R.; Knaysi, Georges

1961-01-01

123

Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the threatened Arnica montana (Asteraceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to investigate population genetic structure in the threatened species Arnica montana. • Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers with di-, tetra-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed for A. montana using 454 pyrosequencing without and with library-enrichment methods, resulting in 56,545 sequence reads and 14,467 sequence reads, respectively. All loci showed a high level of polymorphism, with allele numbers ranging from four to 11 in five individuals from five populations (25 samples) and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.192 to 0.648 across the loci. • Conclusions: This set of microsatellite markers is the first one described for A. montana and will facilitate conservation genetic applications as well as the understanding of phylogeographic patterns in this species. PMID:25606354

Duwe, Virginia K.; Ismail, Sascha A.; Buser, Andres; Sossai, Esther; Borsch, Thomas; Muller, Ludo A. H.

2015-01-01

124

Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of fourteen wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

A total of fourteen (14) species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso were analyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities using the DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic and total flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana and Lannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the other fruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit also showed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with high antioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents. There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidant activities. PMID:18463567

Lamien-Meda, Aline; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Compaoré, Moussa M Y; Meda, Roland N T; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Zeba, Boukare; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

2008-01-01

125

Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini) with description of fourteen new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: Berosus aragua sp. n., Berosus asymmetricus sp. n., Berosus capanaparo sp. n., Berosus castaneus sp. n., Berosus corozo sp. n., Berosus ebeninus sp. n., Berosus garciai sp. n., Berosus humeralis sp. n., Berosus jolyi sp. n., Berosus llanensis sp. n., Berosus megaphallus sp. n., Berosus ornaticollis sp. n., Berosus repertus sp. n., and Berosus tramidrum sp. n. The fifteenth new species, known from a single female, is left undescribed pending the collection of males. Twelve species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Berosus ambogynus Mouchamps, Berosus consobrinus Knisch, Berosus elegans Knisch, Berosus geayi d’Orchymont, Berosus ghanicus d’Orchymont, Berosus guyanensis Queney, Berosus holdhausi Knisch, Berosus marquardti Knisch, Berosus olivae Queney, Berosus reticulatus Knisch, Berosus wintersteineri Knisch, and Berosus zimmermanni Knisch. PMID:22811607

Oliva, Adriana; Short, Andrew E. Z.

2012-01-01

126

Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People  

ScienceCinema

Daniel Nocera, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor whose recent research focuses on solar-powered fuels, presents a Brookhaven Science Associates Distinguished Lecture, titled "Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People -- One at a Time."

Daniel Nocera

2013-07-19

127

Psoriasis Costs Americans Up to $135 Billion Annually, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Psoriasis Costs Americans Up to $135 Billion Annually, Study ... January 7, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Financial Assistance Psoriasis WEDNESDAY, Jan. 7, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Psoriasis is ...

128

77 FR 16224 - Billion Auto, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION [File No. 112 3209] Billion Auto, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent...INFORMATION section below. Write ``Billion Auto, File No. 112 3209'' on your comment...before April 16, 2012. Write ``Billion Auto, File No. 112 3209'' on your...

2012-03-20

129

Expression of fourteen novel obesity-related genes in zucker diabetic fatty rats  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are useful to reveal an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and different measures of obesity. A multitude of new loci has recently been reported, but the exact function of most of the according genes is not known. The aim of our study was to start elucidating the function of some of these genes. Methods We performed an expression analysis of fourteen genes, namely BDNF, ETV5, FAIM2, FTO, GNPDA2, KCTD15, LYPLAL1, MCR4, MTCH2, NEGR1, NRXN3, TMEM18, SEC16B and TFAP2B, via real-time RT-PCR in adipose tissue of the kidney capsule, the mesenterium and subcutaneum as well as the hypothalamus of obese Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker lean (ZL) rats at an age of 22?weeks. Results All of our target genes except for SEC16B showed the highest expression in the hypothalamus. This suggests a critical role of these obesity-related genes in the central regulation of energy balance. Interestingly, the expression pattern in the hypothalamus showed no differences between obese ZDF and lean ZL rats. However, LYPLAL1, TFAP2B, SEC16B and FAIM2 were significantly lower expressed in the kidney fat of ZDF than ZL rats. NEGR1 was even lower expressed in subcutaneous and mesenterial fat, while MTCH2 was higher expressed in the subcutaneous and mesenterial fat of ZDF rats. Conclusion The expression pattern of the investigated obesity genes implies for most of them a role in the central regulation of energy balance, but for some also a role in the adipose tissue itself. For the development of the ZDF phenotype peripheral rather than central mechanisms of the investigated genes seem to be relevant. PMID:22553958

2012-01-01

130

Eight billion asteroids in the Oort cloud  

E-print Network

The Oort cloud is usually thought of as a collection of icy comets inhabiting the outer reaches of the Solar system, but this picture is incomplete. We use simulations of the formation of the Oort cloud to show that ~4% of the small bodies in the Oort cloud should have formed within 2.5 au of the Sun, and hence be ice-free rock-iron bodies. If we assume these Oort cloud asteroids have the same size distribution as their cometary counterparts, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should find roughly a dozen Oort cloud asteroids during ten years of operations. Measurement of the asteroid fraction within the Oort cloud can serve as an excellent test of the Solar system's formation and dynamical history. Oort cloud asteroids could be of particular concern as impact hazards as their high mass density, high impact velocity, and low visibility make them both hard to detect and hard to divert or destroy. However, they should be a rare class of object, and we estimate globally catastrophic collisions should only occur ...

Shannon, Andrew; Veras, Dimitri; Wyatt, Mark

2014-01-01

131

Winglets Save Billions of Dollars in Fuel Costs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The upturned ends now featured on many airplane wings are saving airlines billions of dollars in fuel costs. Called winglets, the drag-reducing technology was advanced through the research of Langley Research Center engineer Richard Whitcomb and through flight tests conducted at Dryden Flight Research Center. Seattle-based Aviation Partners Boeing -- a partnership between Aviation Partners Inc., of Seattle, and The Boeing Company, of Chicago -- manufactures Blended Winglets, a unique design featured on Boeing aircraft around the world. These winglets have saved more than 2 billion gallons of jet fuel to date, representing a cost savings of more than $4 billion and a reduction of almost 21.5 million tons in carbon dioxide emissions.

2010-01-01

132

Multimillion to billion atom simulations of nanosystems under extreme conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced materials and devices with nanometer grain\\/feature sizes are being developed to achieve higher strength and toughness in ceramic materials and greater speeds in electronic devices. Below 100 nm, however, continuum description of materials and devices must be supplemented by atomistic descriptions. Current state of the art atomistic simulations involve 10 million - 1 billion atoms. We investigate initiation, growth

P. Vashishta

2008-01-01

133

BOSTONIA WinterSpring 2014 and perhaps billions  

E-print Network

a planet is born at just the right life- sustaining distance from its star, in what the New York Times hasBOSTONIA Winter­Spring 2014 and perhaps billions of habitable planets in our galaxy. Catherine for planets, Espaillat studies them for hints of planetary births, such as gaps left in the disk

Spence, Harlan Ernest

134

Phylogeny of fourteen Culex mosquito species, including the Culex pipiens complex, inferred from the internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribosomal DNA sequence divergence in the internal transcribed spacer regions (1TS-1 and 1TS-2) was examined for fourteen species and four subgenera (sixty-two clones) in the mosquito genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae). A neighbout-joining tree pro- duced with Kimura 2-parameter distances showed that each of the four subgenera was monophyletic at confidence probabilities of 70-99%. Culex (Lutzia) formed the sister group of

B. R. Miller; M. B. Crabtree; H. M. Savage

1996-01-01

135

BLINK: Billion Lines INdexing in a clicK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coming generation of sky surveys are going to provide measurements for properties of a number of objects like never have been reached before. Astronomical databases will have to deal with requests on several billions of entries at once, and therefore a new computational framework is vital for the next generation of Data-Centers. As part of the efforts linked to the setting up of the Taiwan Extragalactic Astronomical Data Center (TWEA-DC), Billion Lines INdexing in a clicK (BLINK) is developed to satisfy this role. BLINK is a framework that aims to ease access to large amount of data and share analysis software amongst users. BLINK is also designed to be parallelized and distributed on large amount of heterogeneous resources. BLINK will propose at first a very fast indexing algorithm and cross-matching capability, enabling to gather multiwavelength information of large chunk of the sky in a very limited period of time.

Kamennoff, N.; Foucaud, S.; Reybier, S.; Tsai, M.-F.; Tang, C.-H.

2012-09-01

136

Report to the Congress on candidate sites for expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared in response to the Senate Report No. 101-534 accompanying the bill which was enacted as the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 1991. Senate Report 101-534 requested the Department of Energy to initiate construction planning for an expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels and to report to the Committees on Appropriations by March 15, 1991, regarding recommended storage sites, the proposed method of storage, a conceptual plan for storage and distribution facilities, and preliminary construction cost estimates. The Department of Energy's 1989 Report to the Congress entitled Report to Congress on Expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to One Billion Barrels provides a background and point of departure for this report. An analysis of expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve has been directed toward the expected US petroleum market and likely crude oil distribution systems in the Year 2000. The projections in this report do not assume implementation of the National Energy Strategy (NES). The Department has initiated an environmental review process in accordance with NEPA and completed an analysis of the 1976 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and its 1979 Supplement which addressed expansion of the Reserve to one billion barrels. The analysis concludes that another supplement to the Reserve's Programmatic EIS likely will not be required to support its expansion to one billion barrels. The appropriate site-specific NEPA document will be prepared. 72 refs., 27 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1991-03-01

137

Ovarian malignancy in patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis: A retrospective analysis of fourteen cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dermatomyositis and polymyositis can be associated with an underlying malignancy. Objective: Our purpose was to describe a group of patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis in whom ovarian carcinoma was diagnosed and to evaluate further the characteristics of the association between these diseases. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective review identified 14 patients in a 45-year period (1950 to 1995) with dermatomyositis

Mark D. P. Davis; Iftikhar Ahmed

1997-01-01

138

Marine Gastrotricha of the Near East: 1. Fourteen new species of Macrodasyida and a redescription of Dactylopodola agadasys Hochberg, 2003.  

PubMed

The near eastern geographical region is almost devoid of reports of macrodasyidan gastrotrichs, the exceptions themselves being part of this study. Here, as Part 1 are described fourteen new Macrodasyida from countries of the Near East (Cyprus, Egypt and Israel, representing both the Mediterranean and the Red Seas), and a redescription of the previously described Dactylopodolidae: Dactylopodola agadasys Hochberg, 2002. The new species are: Cephalodasyidae (2) - Cephalodasys dolichosomus; Cephalodasys saegailus; Dactylopodolidae (1) Dendrodasys rubomarinus; Macrodasyidae (5) - Macrodasys imbricatus; Macrodasys macrurus; Macrodasys nigrocellus; Macrodasys scleracrus; Urodasys toxostylus; Thaumastodermatidae(4) - Tetranchyroderma corallium; Tetranchyroderma rhopalotum; Tetranchyroderma sinaiensis; Tetranchyroderma xenodactylum; Turbanellidae(2) - Paraturbanella levantia; Turbanella erythrothalassia - spp. n. PMID:21594074

Hummon, William D

2011-01-01

139

Marine Gastrotricha of the Near East: 1. Fourteen new species of Macrodasyida and a redescription of Dactylopodola agadasys Hochberg, 2003  

PubMed Central

Abstract The near eastern geographical region is almost devoid of reports of macrodasyidan gastrotrichs, the exceptions themselves being part of this study. Here, as Part 1 are described fourteen new Macrodasyida from countries of the Near East (Cyprus, Egypt and Israel, representing both the Mediterranean and the Red Seas), and a redescription of the previously described Dactylopodolidae: Dactylopodola agadasys Hochberg, 2002. The new species are: Cephalodasyidae (2) - Cephalodasys dolichosomus; Cephalodasys saegailus; Dactylopodolidae (1) Dendrodasys rubomarinus; Macrodasyidae (5) - Macrodasys imbricatus; Macrodasys macrurus; Macrodasys nigrocellus; Macrodasys scleracrus; Urodasys toxostylus; Thaumastodermatidae(4) - Tetranchyroderma corallium; Tetranchyroderma rhopalotum; Tetranchyroderma sinaiensis; Tetranchyroderma xenodactylum; Turbanellidae(2) - Paraturbanella levantia; Turbanella erythrothalassia - spp. n. PMID:21594074

Hummon, William D.

2011-01-01

140

Identification of a Testis-Enriched Heat Shock Protein and Fourteen Members of Hsp70 Family in the Swamp Eel  

PubMed Central

Background Gonad differentiation is one of the most important developmental events in vertebrates. Some heat shock proteins are associated with gonad development. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the teleost fish and its roles in sex differentiation are poorly understood. Methods and Findings We have identified a testis-enriched heat shock protein Hspa8b2 in the swamp eel using Western blot analysis and Mass Spectrometry (MS). Fourteen Hsp70 family genes were further identified in this species based on transcriptome information. The phylogenetic tree of Hsp70 family was constructed using the Maximum Likelihood method and their expression patterns in the swamp eel gonads were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conclusion There are fourteen gene members in the Hsp70 family in the swamp eel genome. Hsp70 family, particularly Hspa8, has expanded in the species. One of the family members Hspa8b2 is predominantly expressed in testis of the swamp eel. PMID:23750249

He, Yan; Luo, Majing; Yi, Minhan; Sheng, Yue; Cheng, Yibin; Zhou, Rongjia; Cheng, Hanhua

2013-01-01

141

CDC Study Finds Annual Cost of Motor Vehicle Crashes Exceeds $99 Billion  

MedlinePLUS

... 3286 CDC Study Finds Annual Cost of Motor Vehicle Crashes Exceeds $99 Billion Cost amounts to nearly $ ... and productivity losses associated with injuries from motor vehicle crashes exceeded $99 billion – with the cost of ...

142

Co-occurrence of monoclonal gammopathy and myelodysplasia: a retrospective study of fourteen cases.  

PubMed

We report a series of 14 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) accompanied by a monoclonal gammopathy unrelated to therapy. Twelve of these had monoclonal gammopathy of undermined significance (MGUS) and two had smoldering multiple myeloma. These cases represent 10.2 % of all MDS cases seen at our institution over a 14-year period (January 2000 to December 2013). The incidence of MGUS was determined to be significantly higher in MDS than in age-matched concurrent controls by ?(2) test. Absence of prior chemotherapy and simultaneous presentation of MDS and MGUS in most cases suggest true co-occurrence of the two disorders. MGUS was found in all WHO subtypes of MDS with a wide range of risk factors. However, 11 out of the 12 MDS cases accompanied with MGUS had relatively low karyotypic risks. In addition, serum M protein levels remained largely unchanged in 4 cases of MGUS for which serial determinations were performed. These findings indicate that MGUS may not affect the prognosis of MDS. PMID:24687918

Yoshida, Yataro; Oguma, Shigeru; Ohno, Hitoshi; Nakabo, Yukiharu; Katsurada, Tatsuya; Kawahara, Masahiro; Kawabata, Hiroshi

2014-06-01

143

R&D Spending to Top $38 Billion in 1976. Science Resources Studies Highlights, May 21, 1976.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data compiled as part of a comprehensive program to measure and analyze the nation's resources expended for research and development. R&D spending in the United States is expected to reach $38.1 billion in 1976, 8 percent above the 1975 level. For the first time in three years, R&D funds are expected to increase in terms of…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

144

Scalable in-memory RDFS closure on billions of triples.  

SciTech Connect

We present an RDFS closure algorithm, specifically designed and implemented on the Cray XMT supercomputer, that obtains inference rates of 13 million inferences per second on the largest system configuration we used. The Cray XMT, with its large global memory (4TB for our experiments), permits the construction of a conceptually straightforward algorithm, fundamentally a series of operations on a shared hash table. Each thread is given a partition of triple data to process, a dedicated copy of the ontology to apply to the data, and a reference to the hash table into which it inserts inferred triples. The global nature of the hash table allows the algorithm to avoid a common obstacle for distributed memory machines: the creation of duplicate triples. On LUBM data sets ranging between 1.3 billion and 5.3 billion triples, we obtain nearly linear speedup except for two portions: file I/O, which can be ameliorated with the additional service nodes, and data structure initialization, which requires nearly constant time for runs involving 32 processors or more.

Goodman, Eric L.; Mizell, David (Cray, Inc, Seattle, WA)

2010-06-01

145

Parametrization and Classification of 20 Billion LSST Objects: Lessons from SDSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain, starting in 2015, multiple images of the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg2 region about 1000 times during the anticipated 10 years of operations (distributed over six bands, ugrizy). Each 30-second long visit will deliver 5? depth for point sources of r~24.5 on average. The co-added map will be about 3 magnitudes deeper, and will include 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. We discuss various measurements that will be automatically performed for these 20 billion sources, and how they can be used for classification and determination of source physical and other properties. We provide a few classification examples based on SDSS data, such as color classification of stars, color-spatial proximity search for wide-angle binary stars, orbital-color classification of asteroid families, and the recognition of main Galaxy components based on the distribution of stars in the position-metallicity-kinematics space. Guided by these examples, we anticipate that two grand classification challenges for LSST will be 1) rapid and robust classification of sources detected in difference images, and 2) simultaneous treatment of diverse astrometric and photometric time series measurements for an unprecedentedly large number of objects.

Ivezi?, Ž.; Axelrod, T.; Becker, A. C.; Becla, J.; Borne, K.; Burke, D. L.; Claver, C. F.; Cook, K. H.; Connolly, A.; Gilmore, D. K.; Jones, R. L.; Juri?, M.; Kahn, S. M.; Lim, K.-T.; Lupton, R. H.; Monet, D. G.; Pinto, P. A.; Sesar, B.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tyson, J. A.

2008-12-01

146

Parametrization and Classification of 20 Billion LSST Objects: Lessons from SDSS  

SciTech Connect

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain, starting in 2015, multiple images of the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times during the anticipated 10 years of operations (distributed over six bands, ugrizy). Each 30-second long visit will deliver 5{sigma} depth for point sources of r {approx} 24.5 on average. The co-added map will be about 3 magnitudes deeper, and will include 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. We discuss various measurements that will be automatically performed for these 20 billion sources, and how they can be used for classification and determination of source physical and other properties. We provide a few classification examples based on SDSS data, such as color classification of stars, color-spatial proximity search for wide-angle binary stars, orbital-color classification of asteroid families, and the recognition of main Galaxy components based on the distribution of stars in the position-metallicity-kinematics space. Guided by these examples, we anticipate that two grand classification challenges for LSST will be (1) rapid and robust classification of sources detected in difference images, and (2) simultaneous treatment of diverse astrometric and photometric time series measurements for an unprecedentedly large number of objects.

Ivezic, Z.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Axelrod, T.; /Large Binocular Telescope, Tucson; Becker, A.C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Becla, J.; /SLAC; Borne, K.; /George Mason U.; Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Claver, C.F.; /NOAO, Tucson; Cook, K.H.; /LLNL, Livermore; Connolly, A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Gilmore, D.K.; /SLAC; Jones, R.L.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Juric, M.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study; Kahn, Steven M.; /SLAC; Lim, K-T.; /SLAC; Lupton, R.H.; /Princeton U.; Monet, D.G.; /Naval Observ., Flagstaff; Pinto, P.A.; /Arizona U.; Sesar, B.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard U.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis

2011-11-10

147

$75 Billion in Formula Grants Failed to Drive Reform. Can $5 Billion in Competitive Grants Do the Job? Education Stimulus Watch. Special Report 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In early 2009, Congress passed and President Barack Obama signed into law the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the federal government's nearly $800 billion stimulus legislation. According to key members of Congress and the Obama administration, the education portions of the law, totaling about $100 billion, were designed both to…

Smarick, Andy

2009-01-01

148

Federal Support for Education: Fiscal Years 1980 to 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report attempts to provide a comprehensive picture of total federal financial support for education since fiscal year 1980. Federal support for education, excluding estimated federal tax expenditures, was an estimated $128.1 billion in fiscal year 2001, an increase of $65.3 billion since fiscal year 1990. The report divides federal education…

Hoffman, Charlene M.

149

United Nations Environment Programme: The Billion Tree Campaign  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Painters and poets throughout the millennia have explored the aesthetic beauty of trees in great detail, and in the past few centuries, humans have become intimately aware of how trees form the foundation of many natural systems. Recently, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) launched their major worldwide tree planting campaign, "Plant for the Planet: Billion Tree Campaign". One major component of their outreach efforts is this very fine website, which includes sections such as "Facts and Figures", "Trees and Humanity", and of course, "How to Plant a Tree". On the site, visitors also have the option to pledge their support for the project in a variety of ways. The "Facts and Figures" section is also helpful, as it contains answers to a number of basic questions such as "Where are forests found?" and some more specific information on the importance of this project.

150

Fourteen Writing Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any science teacher who wants his or her students to be engaged in real science is going to engage them in real science writing. Writing in science should begin with clear, imaginative writing purposes and stimuli that are then scaffolded in such a way that students are able to find an organizational structure for their writing. Writing fluency is…

Turner, Thomas; Broemmel, Amy

2006-01-01

151

Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion  

E-print Network

Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion passengers each year. Air traffic delays have become a huge problem, implementation, and evaluation of practical algorithms for air transportation systems to help air traffic

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

152

Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a large, complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion  

E-print Network

Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a large, complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion passengers each year. Air traffic delays have become a huge, implementation, and evaluation of practical algorithms for air transportation systems that will help air traffic

153

3.5 billion years of glass bioalteration: Volcanic rocks as a basis for microbial life?  

SciTech Connect

Alteration textures in volcanic glass from the seafloor fall into two classes, one suggestive of abiotic/diffusive hydration and chemical exchange, and another likely to be caused by microbial, cavity-forming, congruent dissolution. Glass bioalteration is common in submarine lavas throughout the world's ocean, dominant in the upper 300 m of the oceanic crust, and found in all well-preserved ophiolites and greenstone belts dating back to 3.5 Ga. It may yield a significant fraction of the global biomass and geochemical fluxes and is relevant to the development of the earliest life on Earth. We present a critical review concerning these glass bioalteration textures and present new data on their microchemical environment. We explore arguments for their biogenicity and further develop the prevalent model for their formation by relating corrosion morphology to the mechanism of microbial dissolution. Biological alteration produces conspicuous micron-scale granular and tubular textures. Granular glass alteration is well explained by colonizing microbes that selectively dissolve the glass in their contact area, forming a sponge-like interconnected network of micron-sized cavities along glass surfaces. Tubular alteration meanwhile, is more likely to be caused by filamentous cell extensions in a process similar to fungal tunneling of soil feldspars and marine carbonates. While we see clear functional similarities to fungal dissolution behavior, we do not know whether fungal or prokaryotic organisms are involved. However, this functional constraint may eventually help to identify potential microbes responsible for these features, potentially including eukaryotic or prokaryotic organisms. Yet, we caution that these organisms may be difficult to identify and to study, because they are likely to be sparsely distributed, slow growing, and difficult to cultivate.

Staudigel, H.; Furnes, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Banerjee, N.R.; Connell, L.B.; Templeton, A. (UCLJ); (UWO); (Colorado); (Bergen); (Maine)

2009-04-07

154

Detection of pristine gas two billion years after the Big Bang.  

PubMed

In the current cosmological model, only the three lightest elements were created in the first few minutes after the Big Bang; all other elements were produced later in stars. To date, however, heavy elements have been observed in all astrophysical environments. We report the detection of two gas clouds with no discernible elements heavier than hydrogen. These systems exhibit the lowest heavy-element abundance in the early universe, and thus are potential fuel for the most metal-poor halo stars. The detection of deuterium in one system at the level predicted by primordial nucleosynthesis provides a direct confirmation of the standard cosmological model. The composition of these clouds further implies that the transport of heavy elements from galaxies to their surroundings is highly inhomogeneous. PMID:22075722

Fumagalli, Michele; O'Meara, John M; Prochaska, J Xavier

2011-12-01

155

How Long Is a Piece of String? 4.5 Billion Years Perhaps!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As reported in an earlier article (Russell and McGuigan, 2014), with Nuffield Foundation support, the authors of this article have been exploring with a group of primary teachers the teaching and learning of evolution and inheritance, focusing on conceptual progression. The new National Curriculum for England requires learners to access knowledge…

Russell, Terry; McGuigan, Linda

2014-01-01

156

THE CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES OVER THE LAST 11 BILLION YEARS  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the stellar mass-metallicity relation at five epochs ranging to z {approx} 2.3. We quantify evolution in the shape of the mass-metallicity relation as a function of redshift; the mass-metallicity relation flattens at late times. There is an empirical upper limit to the gas-phase oxygen abundance in star-forming galaxies that is independent of redshift. From examination of the mass-metallicity relation and its observed scatter, we show that the flattening at late times is a consequence of evolution in the stellar mass where galaxies enrich to this empirical upper metallicity limit; there is also evolution in the fraction of galaxies at a fixed stellar mass that enrich to this limit. The stellar mass where metallicities begin to saturate is {approx}0.7 dex smaller in the local universe than it is at z {approx} 0.8.

Zahid, H. Jabran; Kewley, Lisa J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Kurtz, Michael J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-07-10

157

Plutonium-244 fission tracks - Evidence in a lunar rock 3.95 billion years old.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tracks attributed to the spontaneous fission of plutonium-244 and of uranium-238 were detected in a large whitlockite crystal in the lunar breccia 14321 from the Fra Mauro formation. For a track-retention age of 3.95 b.y., the number of plutonium tracks relative to the number of uranium tracks is 0.51 plus or minus 0.15, provided that the rock was not heavily neutron-irradiated 3.95 b.y. ago.

Hutcheon, I. D.; Price, P. B.

1972-01-01

158

The Last Eight-billion Years of Intergalactic Si IV Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identified 24 Si IV absorption systems with z <~ 1 from a blind survey of 49 low-redshift quasars with archival Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra. We relied solely on the characteristic wavelength separation of the doublet to automatically detect candidates. After visual inspection, we defined a sample of 20 definite (group G = 1) and 4 "highly likely" (G = 2) doublets with rest equivalent widths Wr for both lines detected at ? 3{?_{{W_{r}}}}. The absorber line density of the G = 1 doublets was {{{d}}{{N}}_{Si IV}}/{{d}X} = 1.4^{+0.4}_{-0.3} for log N(Si+3)>12.9. The best-fit power law to the G = 1 frequency distribution of column densities f(N(Si+3)) had normalization k = (1.2+0.5 -0.4) × 10-14 cm2 and slope ? N = -1.6+0.3 -0.3. Using the power-law model of f(N(Si+3)), we measured the Si+3 mass density relative to the critical density: {?_{{{Si^{+3}}}}}= (3.7^{+2.8}_{-1.7}) × 10^{-8} for 13 <= log N(Si+3) <= 15. From Monte Carlo sampling of the distributions, we estimated our value to be a factor of 4.8+3.0 -1.9 higher than the 2 <= z <= 4.5 < {?_{{{Si^{+3}}}}}>. From a simple linear fit to {?_{{{Si^{+3}}}}} over the age of the universe, we estimated a slow and steady increase from z = 5.5 ? 0 with {{d}}{?_{{{Si^{+3}}}}}/{{d}}t_age = (0.61± 0.23) × 10^{-8} Gyr^{-1}. We compared our ionic ratios {{N({{Si^{+3}}})}/{N({C^{+3}})}} to a 2 < z < 4.5 sample and concluded, from survival analysis, that the two populations are similar, with median < {{N({{Si^{+3}}})}/{N({C^{+3}})}}> = 0.16.

Cooksey, Kathy L.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Thom, Christopher; Chen, Hsiao-Wen

2011-03-01

159

The Earth will remain habitable for at least 1.5 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At some point in the future, the gradual brightening of the Sun will force temperatures on Earth to soar, a runaway greenhouse effect transforming our world into something more like Venus. Before this can happen, though, another process known as a "moist greenhouse runaway" will cause the oceans to bleed off into space.

Schultz, Colin

2014-05-01

160

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations before 2.2 billion years ago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The composition of the Earth's early atmosphere is a subject of continuing debate. In particular, it has been suggested that elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide would have been necessary to maintain normal surface temperatures in the face of lower solar luminosity in early Earth history. Fossil weathering profiles, known as palaeosols, have provided semi-quantitative constraints on atmospheric oxygen partial pressure (pO2) before 2.2 Gyr ago. Here we use the same well studied palaeosols to constrain atmospheric pCO2 between 2.75 and 2.2 Gyr ago. The observation that iron lost from the tops of these profiles was reprecipitated lower down as iron silicate minerals, rather than as iron carbonate, indicates that atmospheric pCO2 must have been less than 10(-1.4) atm--about 100 times today's level of 360 p.p.m., and at least five times lower than that required in one-dimensional climate models to compensate for lower solar luminosity at 2.75 Gyr. Our results suggest that either the Earth's early climate was much more sensitive to increases in pCO2 than has been thought, or that one or more greenhouse gases other than CO2 contributed significantly to the atmosphere's radiative balance during the late Archaean and early Proterozoic eons.

Rye, R.; Kuo, P. H.; Holland, H. D.

1995-01-01

161

Gusev Crater Paleolake: Two-Billion Years of Martian Geologic, (and Biologic?) History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ancient Martian lakes are sites where the climatological, chemical, and possibly biological history of the planet has been recorded. Their potential to keep this global information in their sedimentary deposits, potential only shared with the polar layered-deposits, designates them as the most promising targets for the ongoing exploration of Mars in terms of science return and global knowledge about Mars evolution. Many of the science priority objectives of the Surveyor Program can be met by exploring ancient Martian lake beds. Among martian paleolakes, lakes in impact craters represent probably the most favorable sites to explore. Though highly destructive events when they occur, impacts may have provided in time a significant energy source for life, by generating heat, and at the contact of water and/or ice, deep hydrothermal systems, which are considered as favorable environments for life. In addition, impact crater lakes are changing environments, from thermally driven systems at the very first stage of their formation, to cold ice-protected potential oases in the more recent Martian geological times. Thus, they are plausible sites to study the progression of diverse microbiologic communities.

Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Landheim, R.; Greeley, R.; Kuzmin, R.; McKay, C. P.

1998-01-01

162

The First Billion Years Project: The escape fraction of ionising photons in the epoch of reionisation  

E-print Network

Proto-galaxies forming in low-mass dark matter haloes are thought to provide the majority of ionising photons needed to reionise the Universe, due to their high escape fractions of ionising photons. We study how the escape fraction in high-redshift galaxies relates to the physical properties of the halo in which the galaxies form by computing escape fractions for 75801 haloes between redshifts 27 and 6 that were extracted from the FiBY project, high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations of galaxy formation. We find that the main constraint on the escape fraction is the presence of dense gas within 10 pc of the young sources that emit the majority of the ionising photons produced over the lifetime of the stellar population. This results in a strong mass dependence of the escape fraction. The lower potential well in haloes with virial mass below 10^8 solar mass results in lower column densities close to the sources that can be penetrated by the radiation from young, massive stars. In general only a ...

Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla

2015-01-01

163

Primary haematite formation in an oxygenated sea 3.46billion years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing of the origin of photosynthesis on the early Earth is greatly debated. It is generally agreed, on the basis of the presence of biological molecules found in shales from the Hamersley Basin, Australia, that oxygenic photosynthesis had evolved 2.7billionyears (Gyr) ago. However, whether photosynthesis occurred before this time remains controversial. Here we report primary haematite crystals and associated minerals within the marine sedimentary rocks preserved in a jasper formation of the Pilbara Craton, Australia, which we interpret as evidence for the formation of these rocks in an oxygenated water body 3.46Gyr ago. We suggest that these haematite crystals formed at temperatures greater than 60?C from locally discharged hydrothermal fluids rich in ferrous iron. The crystals precipitated when the fluids rapidly mixed with overlying oxygenated sea water, at depths greater than 200m. As our findings imply the existence of noticeable quantities of molecular oxygen, we propose that organisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis evolved more than 700millionyears earlier than previously recognized, resulting in the oxygenation of at least some intermediate and deep ocean regions.

Hoashi, Masamichi; Bevacqua, David C.; Otake, Tsubasa; Watanabe, Yumiko; Hickman, Arthur H.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

2009-04-01

164

4.4 billion years of crustal maturation: oxygen isotope ratios of magmatic zircon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of ?18O in igneous zircons of known age traces the evolution of intracrustal recycling and crust-mantle interaction through time.\\u000a This record is especially sensitive because oxygen isotope ratios of igneous rocks are strongly affected by incorporation\\u000a of supracrustal materials into melts, which commonly have ?18O values higher than in primitive mantle magmas. This study summarizes data for ?18O in

J. W. Valley; J. S. Lackey; A. J. Cavosie; C. C. Clechenko; M. J. Spicuzza; M. A. S. Basei; I. N. Bindeman; V. P. Ferreira; A. N. Sial; E. M. King; W. H. Peck; A. K. Sinha; C. S. Wei

2005-01-01

165

Precambrian Research 135 (2004) 245250 The first billion years: new insights from geochemistry  

E-print Network

detrital zir- cons in quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Jack Hills, Narryer Gneiss Complex of Western. present a thorough study of the geo- chemistry, age and origin of 4350 Ma detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Narryer Gneiss Complex of West- ern Australia. It is generally agreed that during the first half

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

166

Geomagnetic field strength 3.2 billion years ago recorded by single silicate crystals.  

PubMed

The strength of the Earth's early geomagnetic field is of importance for understanding the evolution of the Earth's deep interior, surface environment and atmosphere. Palaeomagnetic and palaeointensity data from rocks formed near the boundary of the Proterozoic and Archaean eons, some 2.5 Gyr ago, show many hallmarks of the more recent geomagnetic field. Reversals are recorded, palaeosecular variation data indicate a dipole-dominated morphology and available palaeointensity values are similar to those from younger rocks. The picture before 2.8 Gyr ago is much less clear. Rocks of the Archaean Kaapvaal craton (South Africa) are among the best-preserved, but even they have experienced low-grade metamorphism. The variable acquisition of later magnetizations by these rocks is therefore expected, precluding use of conventional palaeointensity methods. Silicate crystals from igneous rocks, however, can contain minute magnetic inclusions capable of preserving Archaean-age magnetizations. Here we use a CO2 laser heating approach and direct-current SQUID magnetometer measurements to obtain palaeodirections and intensities from single silicate crystals that host magnetite inclusions. We find 3.2-Gyr-old field strengths that are within 50 per cent of the present-day value, indicating that a viable magnetosphere sheltered the early Earth's atmosphere from solar wind erosion. PMID:17410173

Tarduno, John A; Cottrell, Rory D; Watkeys, Michael K; Bauch, Dorothy

2007-04-01

167

3.5 billion years of glass bioalteration: Volcanic rocks as a basis for microbial life?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alteration textures in volcanic glass from the seafloor fall into two classes, one suggestive of abiotic/diffusive hydration and chemical exchange, and another likely to be caused by microbial, cavity-forming, congruent dissolution. Glass bioalteration is common in submarine lavas throughout the world's ocean, dominant in the upper 300 m of the oceanic crust, and found in all well-preserved ophiolites and greenstone belts dating back to 3.5 Ga. It may yield a significant fraction of the global biomass and geochemical fluxes and is relevant to the development of the earliest life on Earth. We present a critical review concerning these glass bioalteration textures and present new data on their microchemical environment. We explore arguments for their biogenicity and further develop the prevalent model for their formation by relating corrosion morphology to the mechanism of microbial dissolution. Biological alteration produces conspicuous micron-scale granular and tubular textures. Granular glass alteration is well explained by colonizing microbes that selectively dissolve the glass in their contact area, forming a sponge-like interconnected network of micron-sized cavities along glass surfaces. Tubular alteration meanwhile, is more likely to be caused by filamentous cell extensions in a process similar to fungal tunneling of soil feldspars and marine carbonates. While we see clear functional similarities to fungal dissolution behavior, we do not know whether fungal or prokaryotic organisms are involved. However, this functional constraint may eventually help to identify potential microbes responsible for these features, potentially including eukaryotic or prokaryotic organisms. Yet, we caution that these organisms may be difficult to identify and to study, because they are likely to be sparsely distributed, slow growing, and difficult to cultivate.

Staudigel, Hubert; Furnes, Harald; McLoughlin, Nicola; Banerjee, Neil R.; Connell, Laurie B.; Templeton, Alexis

2008-08-01

168

Networks of bZIP Protein-Protein Interactions Diversified Over a Billion Years of Evolution  

E-print Network

Differences in biomolecular sequence and function underlie dramatic ranges of appearance and behavior among species. We studied the basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors and quantified bZIP dimerization ...

Reinke, Aaron W.

169

The First Billion Years of Martian History as Seen from the SNC Meteorites: A Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are currently 28 known, distinct samples of Mars that have been liberated from that planet by impacts and subsequently delivered to the Earth. The formation ages of these samples range from 4.5 b.y. to 180 m.y. Collectively, these samples are called SNC meteorites after the major petrologic subdivisions: Shergottite, Nakhlite, Chassigny. Texturally, most of these meteorites are cumulates or partial cumulates. However, a few may represent real melt compositions: EET79001B, Y9800459, QUE94201, and the groundmass of EET79001A.

Jones, J. H.

2004-01-01

170

The First Billion Years — Warm and Wet vs. Cold and Icy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clay minerals, widespread in Noachian terrains, indicate long-term, subsurface liquid water availability. Open system chemical alteration is restricted to late Noachian/early Hesperian and local areas, requiring no more than transient liquid water.

Ehlmann, B. L.

2014-07-01

171

Fuel efficient stoves for the poorest two billion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 2 billion people cook their daily meals on generally inefficient, polluting, biomass cookstoves. The fuels include twigs and leaves, agricultural waste, animal dung, firewood, and charcoal. Exposure to resulting smoke leads to acute respiratory illness, and cancers, particularly among women cooks, and their infant children near them. Resulting annual mortality estimate is almost 2 million deaths, higher than that from malaria or tuberculosis. There is a large diversity of cooking methods (baking, boiling, long simmers, brazing and roasting), and a diversity of pot shapes and sizes in which the cooking is undertaken. Fuel-efficiency and emissions depend on the tending of the fire (and thermal power), type of fuel, stove characteristics, and fit of the pot to the stove. Thus, no one perfect fuel-efficient low-emitting stove can suit all users. Affordability imposes a further severe constraint on the stove design. For various economic strata within the users, a variety of stove designs may be appropriate and affordable. In some regions, biomass is harvested non-renewably for cooking fuel. There is also increasing evidence that black carbon emitted from stoves is a significant contributor to atmospheric forcing. Thus improved biomass stoves can also help mitigate global climate change. The speaker will describe specific work undertaken to design, develop, test, and disseminate affordable fuel-efficient stoves for internally displaced persons (IDPs) of Darfur, Sudan, where the IDPs face hardship, humiliation, hunger, and risk of sexual assault owing to their dependence on local biomass for cooking their meals.

Gadgil, Ashok

2012-03-01

172

What Can 1 Billion Trials Tell Us About Visual Search?  

PubMed

Mobile technology (e.g., smartphones and tablets) has provided psychologists with a wonderful opportunity: through careful design and implementation, mobile applications can be used to crowd source data collection. By garnering massive amounts of data from a wide variety of individuals, it is possible to explore psychological questions that have, to date, been out of reach. Here we discuss 2 examples of how data from the mobile game Airport Scanner (Kedlin Co., http://www.airportscannergame.com) can be used to address questions about the nature of visual search that pose intractable problems for laboratory-based research. Airport Scanner is a successful mobile game with millions of unique users and billions of individual trials, which allows for examining nuanced visual search questions. The goals of the current Observation Report were to highlight the growing opportunity that mobile technology affords psychological research and to provide an example roadmap of how to successfully collect usable data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25485661

Mitroff, Stephen R; Biggs, Adam T; Adamo, Stephen H; Dowd, Emma Wu; Winkle, Jonathan; Clark, Kait

2014-12-01

173

How the Fourteen Most Stable CH4P2 Isomers InterconvertsAn ab Initio/NMR Study Alk Dransfeld, Luc Landuyt, Michaela Flock, Minh Tho Nguyen,*, and  

E-print Network

How the Fourteen Most Stable CH4P2 Isomers InterconvertsAn ab Initio/NMR Study Alk Dransfeld, Luc: September 14, 2000 Energies of minima and TS as well as characteristic NMR chemical shifts are reported for the parent unsaturated phospho-organic molecules with CP2 backbone. Within the 14 relevant isomers of CH4P2

Nguyen, Minh Tho

174

Multimillion to billion atom simulations of nanosystems under extreme conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced materials and devices with nanometer grain/feature sizes are being developed to achieve higher strength and toughness in ceramic materials and greater speeds in electronic devices. Below 100 nm, however, continuum description of materials and devices must be supplemented by atomistic descriptions. Current state of the art atomistic simulations involve 10 million - 1 billion atoms. We investigate initiation, growth and healing of wing cracks in confined silica glass by multimillion atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Under dynamic compression, frictional sliding of pre-crack surfaces nucleates nanovoids, which evolve into nanocrack columns at the pre-crack tip. Nanocrack columns merge to form a wing crack, which grows via coalescence with nanovoids in the direction of maximum compression. Lateral confinement arrests the growth and partially heals the wing crack. Growth and arrest of the wing crack occur repeatedly, as observed in dynamic compression experiments on brittle solids under lateral confinement. MD simulation of hypervelocity projectile impact in aluminum nitride and alumina has also been studied. The simulations reveal strong interplay between shock- induced structural phase transformation, plastic deformation and brittle cracks. The shock wave splits into an elastic precursor and a wurtzite-to-rocksalt structural transformation wave. When the elastic wave reflected from the boundary of the sample interacts with the transformation wave front, nanocavities are generated along the penetration path of the projectile and dislocations in adjacent regions. The nanocavities coalesce to form mode I brittle cracks while dislocations generate kink bands that give rise to mode II cracks. These simulations provide a microscopic view of defects associated with simultaneous tensile and shear cracking at the structural phase transformation boundary due to shock impact in high-strength ceramics. Initiation of chemical reactions at shock fronts prior to detonation and dynamic transition in the shock structure of an energetic material (RDX) and reaction of aluminium nanoparticles in oxygen atmosphere followed by explosive burning is also discussed.

Vashishta, P.

2008-12-01

175

Site geotechnical considerations for expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to one billion barrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight Gulf Coast salt domes have emerged as candidate sites for possible expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to one billion barrels. Two existing SPR sites, Big Hill, TX, and Weeks Island, LA, are among the eight that are being considered. To achieve the billion barrel capacity, some 25 new leached caverns would be constructed, and would probably be

J. T. Neal; D. W. Whittington; T. R. Magorian

1991-01-01

176

NREL Helps Clean Cities Displace Billions of Gallons of Petroleum, One Vehicle at a Time (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

With more than 15 years and nearly 3 billion gallons of displaced petroleum under its belt, the Clean Cities program relies on the support and expertise of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). An initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Clean Cities creates public-private partnerships with a common mission: to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Since the inception of Clean Cities in 1993, NREL has played a central role in supporting the program, an effort that stems from the laboratory's strategy to put scientific innovation into action in the marketplace.

Not Available

2010-10-01

177

Immigrants contributed an estimated $115.2 billion more to the Medicare Trust Fund than they took out in 2002-09.  

PubMed

Many immigrants in the United States are working-age taxpayers; few are elderly beneficiaries of Medicare. This demographic profile suggests that immigrants may be disproportionately subsidizing the Medicare Trust Fund, which supports payments to hospitals and institutions under Medicare Part A. For immigrants and others, we tabulated Trust Fund contributions and withdrawals (that is, Trust Fund expenditures on their behalf) using multiple years of data from the Current Population Survey and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. In 2009 immigrants made 14.7 percent of Trust Fund contributions but accounted for only 7.9 percent of its expenditures-a net surplus of $13.8 billion. In contrast, US-born people generated a $30.9 billion deficit. Immigrants generated surpluses of $11.1-$17.2 billion per year between 2002 and 2009, resulting in a cumulative surplus of $115.2 billion. Most of the surplus from immigrants was contributed by noncitizens and was a result of the high proportion of working-age taxpayers in this group. Policies that restrict immigration may deplete Medicare's financial resources. PMID:23720486

Zallman, Leah; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David; Bor, David; McCormick, Danny

2013-06-01

178

Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people  

SciTech Connect

Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

2003-06-01

179

Health Services Management Centre `The billion dollar question': embedding  

E-print Network

by 2027/28. Additional analysis by HSMC on The Case for Adult Social Care Reform (Glasby et al., 2010) suggests that social care costs alone could double in twenty years without fundamental and ongoing reform Key policy drivers In recent years, health and social care services in all sectors have found

Birmingham, University of

180

Trisomy 1q32 and monosomy 11q25 associated with congenital heart defect: cytogenomic delineation and patient fourteen years follow-up  

PubMed Central

Background Partial duplication 1q is a rare cytogenetic anomaly frequently associated to deletion of another chromosome, making it difficult to define the precise contribution of the different specific chromosomal segments to the clinical phenotype. Case presentation We report a clinical and cytogenomic study of a patient with multiple congenital anomalies, heart defect, neuromotordevelopment delay, intellectual disability, who presents partial trisomy 1q32 and partial monosomy 11q25 inherited from a paternal balanced translocation identified by chromosome microarray and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Conclusion Compared to patients from the literature, the patient’s phenotype is more compatible to the 1q32 duplication’s clinical phenotype, although some clinical features may also be associated to the deleted segment on chromosome 11. This is the smallest 11q terminal deletion ever reported and the first association between 1q32.3 duplication and 11q25 deletion in the literature. PMID:25184002

2014-01-01

181

How much is a million? How big is a billion?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We constructed a geologic timeline along a 5K road-race route across the MSU campus at a scale of 1 meter = 1 million years, using signage to mark important eventsin the history of life. In addition to over 1500 race participants, numerous casual observers were exposed to the timeline. This project works well in the classroom at a scale of 1 mm = 1 million years, and as a manageable one-day outdoor sidewalk chalk activity at a scale of 1" = 1 million years. Timelines drawn to scale lead the observer to the inescapable conclusions that "simple" life appeared early in Earth history; that it took the bulk of Earth history to achieve the next, multi-cellular stage of development; and that once the metazoan threshold was crossed, subsequent biological diversification-and the resulting fossil record-followed in rapid succession.

Brandt, Danita

182

Large data analysis: automatic visual personal identification in a demography of 1.2 billion persons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest biometric deployment in history is now underway in India, where the Government is enrolling the iris patterns (among other data) of all 1.2 billion citizens. The purpose of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is to ensure fair access to welfare benefits and entitlements, to reduce fraud, and enhance social inclusion. Only a minority of Indian citizens have bank accounts; only 4 percent possess passports; and less than half of all aid money reaches its intended recipients. A person who lacks any means of establishing their identity is excluded from entitlements and does not officially exist; thus the slogan of UIDAI is: To give the poor an identity." This ambitious program enrolls a million people every day, across 36,000 stations run by 83 agencies, with a 3-year completion target for the entire national population. The halfway point was recently passed with more than 600 million persons now enrolled. In order to detect and prevent duplicate identities, every iris pattern that is enrolled is first compared against all others enrolled so far; thus the daily workflow now requires 600 trillion (or 600 million-million) iris cross-comparisons. Avoiding identity collisions (False Matches) requires high biometric entropy, and achieving the tremendous match speed requires phase bit coding. Both of these requirements are being delivered operationally by wavelet methods developed by the author for encoding and comparing iris patterns, which will be the focus of this Large Data Award" presentation.

Daugman, John

2014-05-01

183

Scaling Private Set Intersection to Billion-Element Sets Seny Kamara  

E-print Network

Mohassel University of Calgary Mariana Raykova SRI Saeed Sadeghian University of Calgary ABSTRACT We the Internet. As far as we know, ours is the first attempt to scale PSI to billion-element sets which

Bernstein, Phil

184

Federal R&D Support to Nonprofit Institutions Exceeds $3 Billion  

NSF Publications Database

Federal R&D Support to Nonprofit Institutions Exceeds $3 Billion (July 24, 2001) This is a synopsis ... Federal obligations (R&D and R&D plant) to independent nonprofit institutions. From the Survey of ...

185

Corporations Give Record $1.6 Billion to Colleges and Universities in 1984-85; Total Giving Reaches $6.3 Billion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from the publication, "Voluntary Support of Education 1984-85," are summarized. The survey report includes contributions to 1,114 colleges and universities. Highlights of findings show that: total estimated voluntary support was $6.32 billion in 1984-1985; for the first time, corporations contributed more than any other donor group ($1.57…

CFAE Newsletter, 1986

1986-01-01

186

U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and

Mark Downing; Laurence M Eaton; Robin Lambert Graham; Matthew H Langholtz; Robert D Perlack; Anthony F Turhollow Jr; Bryce Stokes; Craig C Brandt

2011-01-01

187

Public School Desegregation/Redesign: A Case Study in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. Urban Education Reports Number Fourteen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents a case study of the public school desegregation and redesign program of the East Baton Rouge Parish (Louisiana) School System, focusing on the 5 years from 1987 to 1992. Chapter 1 describes the setting and background, the sociocultural history of the area since pre-Revolutionary War days, the role and treatment of African…

Stone, Frank Andrews

188

Residence Life Programs and the First-Year Experience. The Freshman Year Experience. Monograph Series No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph contains papers which suggest means of implementing residential programs, services, and facilities that will help to meet the needs of first-year college students. Fourteen papers are presented and are as follows: "Reflections on the First Year Residential Experience" (John N. Gardner); "The Role of Residential Programs in the…

Zeller, William, Ed.; And Others

189

Car crashes kill more young people than any other cause, accounting for nearly half of all teen deaths in America each year. More than 5,000 U.S. teens die each year  

E-print Network

Teens in the Driver Seat Car crashes kill more young people than any other cause, accounting for nearly half of all teen deaths in America each year. More than 5,000 U.S. teens die each year in car $41 billion every year; the annual cost in Texas is more than $3.5 billion. For every teen killed

190

NASA's Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request - Duration: 8:01.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA announced an $18.7 billion budget request for fiscal year 2012 that supports a reinvigorated path of innovation, technological development and scientific discovery. The budget supports all ele...

191

The rapid assembly of an elliptical galaxy of 400 billion solar masses at a redshift of 2.3.  

PubMed

Stellar archaeology shows that massive elliptical galaxies formed rapidly about ten billion years ago with star-formation rates of above several hundred solar masses per year. Their progenitors are probably the submillimetre bright galaxies at redshifts z greater than 2. Although the mean molecular gas mass (5?×?10(10) solar masses) of the submillimetre bright galaxies can explain the formation of typical elliptical galaxies, it is inadequate to form elliptical galaxies that already have stellar masses above 2?×?10(11) solar masses at z???2. Here we report multi-wavelength high-resolution observations of a rare merger of two massive submillimetre bright galaxies at z = 2.3. The system is seen to be forming stars at a rate of 2,000 solar masses per year. The star-formation efficiency is an order of magnitude greater than that of normal galaxies, so the gas reservoir will be exhausted and star formation will be quenched in only around 200 million years. At a projected separation of 19?kiloparsecs, the two massive starbursts are about to merge and form a passive elliptical galaxy with a stellar mass of about 4?×?10(11) solar masses. We conclude that gas-rich major galaxy mergers with intense star formation can form the most massive elliptical galaxies by z???1.5. PMID:23698363

Fu, Hai; Cooray, Asantha; Feruglio, C; Ivison, R J; Riechers, D A; Gurwell, M; Bussmann, R S; Harris, A I; Altieri, B; Aussel, H; Baker, A J; Bock, J; Boylan-Kolchin, M; Bridge, C; Calanog, J A; Casey, C M; Cava, A; Chapman, S C; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Cox, P; Farrah, D; Frayer, D; Hopwood, R; Jia, J; Magdis, G; Marsden, G; Martínez-Navajas, P; Negrello, M; Neri, R; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Pérez-Fournon, I; Schulz, B; Scott, D; Smith, A; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J L; Zemcov, M

2013-06-20

192

Earth: The Early Years We discuss ...  

E-print Network

Earth: The Early Years We discuss ... · What happened to the Earth during the first few billion)? · What is the relationship to (early) life? #12;Age of Earth James Ussher (17th C) biblical account: 6: 20-40 m.y. (million years!) Charles Darwin evolution >300 m.y. Lord Kelvin (1880's) cooling Earth: 50

193

News from Los Angeles: Billions for Schools and Who Is Watching? Proposition BB and Architects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of Los Angeles Unified School District's Proposition BB Blue Ribbon Citizens' Oversight Committee, charged with overseeing $4 billion in school construction, and particularly the role of the American Institute of Architects of Los Angeles within the board. (EV)

Lehrer, Michael B.

1999-01-01

194

Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy  

ScienceCinema

April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

Daniel Sperling

2010-01-08

195

Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters  

E-print Network

a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of ``common but differentiatedSharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters Shoibal Chakravartya of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO2 emissions are distributed among its citizens, from which we

196

Internet Advertising and the Generalized Second-Price Auction: Selling Billions of Dollars Worth of Keywords  

E-print Network

auctions. Yahoo!'s total revenue in 2005 was $5.26 billion. A large share of Yahoo!'s revenue is derived from sales via GSP auctions. It is believed that over half of Yahoo!'s revenue is derived from sales@gsb.stanford.edu); Schwarz: Yahoo! Research, 1950 University Ave., Suite 200, Berkeley, CA 94704 (e-mail: mschwarz@yahoo

Roughgarden, Tim

197

$7.8 Billion for Everglades Restoration: Why Do Environmentalists Look So Worried?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, enacted in 2000, is a $7.8 billion federal\\/state investment in restoring the Florida Everglades ecosystem. The plan is a negotiated compromise between divergent interests in south Florida and promises to provide water and flood control for urban and agricultural users while maintaining a priority commitment to the natural system when allocating water “produced” by the

Alice L. Clarke; George H. Dalrymple

2003-01-01

198

Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy  

SciTech Connect

April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

Daniel Sperling

2009-04-15

199

The Chief Executives' Club at Queen's `Competition in a World of 7 Billion Citizens  

E-print Network

plans. He is passionate about "connecting the dots of innovation, climate change, business and the near a business model that helps to marry the demands for business profit while protecting and maximising useThe Chief Executives' Club at Queen's `Competition in a World of 7 Billion Citizens: A New Model

Paxton, Anthony T.

200

Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually.  

E-print Network

Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually. Emissions of concern: ~Direct atmospheric effects: CO2(from production of fertilizer using fossil fuels), NOx. (fertilizers that use nitric acid or ammonium bicarbonate result in emissions of nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide

Toohey, Darin W.

201

High-Stakes Hustle: Public Schools and the New Billion Dollar Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-stakes testing costs up to $50 billion per annum, has no impact on student achievement, and has changed the focus of American public schools. This article analyzes the benefits and costs of the accountability movement, as well as discusses its roots in the eugenics movements of the early 20th century.

Baines, Lawrence A.; Stanley, Gregory Kent

2004-01-01

202

Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: "Child Development, Molecular Genetics, and What to Do With Genes Once They Are Found" (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental…

Plomin, Robert

2013-01-01

203

IMF Approves SDR 15.5 Billion Stand-by Credit for Korea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "IMF Approves SDR 15.5 Billion Stand-by Credit for Korea" details the aid package put together for Korea and provides a background of the events and the objectives of the aid package. The beginning of the financial crisis in South Korea can be traced to the collapse of Hanbo Steel Corp., the first in a string of large corporate failures in South Korea. This was followed by the decline in the value of the Korean won against the dollar in October 1997, which persisted until November when the Central Bank of Korea stopped intervening to support the won. The continued decline in won forced the Korean government to seek financial assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). On December 3, the IMF announced a $55 billion aid package for South Korea.

1997-01-01

204

Site geotechnical considerations for expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to one billion barrels  

SciTech Connect

Eight Gulf Coast salt domes have emerged as candidate sites for possible expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to one billion barrels. Two existing SPR sites, Big Hill, TX, and Weeks Island, LA, are among the eight that are being considered. To achieve the billion barrel capacity, some 25 new leached caverns would be constructed, and would probably be established in two separate sites in Louisiana and Texas because of distribution requirements. Geotechnical factors involved in siting studies have centered first and foremost on cavern integrity and environmental acceptability, once logistical suitability is realized. Other factors have involved subsidence and flooding potential, loss of coastal marshlands, seismicity, brine injection well utility, and co-use by multiple operators. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Neal, J.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Whittington, D.W. (USDOE Strategic Petroleum Reserve Project Management Office, New Orleans, LA (United States)); Magorian, T.R. (Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (United States))

1991-01-01

205

52,000 hp injects 70 billion cu. ft. of gas for underground storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern California Gas Co.'s Aliso Canyon injection\\/withdrawal station, likely the world's largest underground natural gas storage facility, is now operational. The facility expects by 1975 to be storing some 70 billion cu ft of gas. To inject such a large volume of natural gas into Aliso Canyon's deep (to 8,000 ft) underground storage stratas, more than 52,500 hp will be

1974-01-01

206

The Formation And Evolution Of Massive Galaxies And Their Supermassive Black Holes Over The Past 12 Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from the recently completed GOODS NICMOS Survey, which utilizes 180 orbits of the HST with NIC-3 H-band imaging of >8000 galaxies in the GOODS fields. Moreover, we construct a unique sample of 80 extremely massive galaxies (with log(M*) > 11) at high redshifts (z = 1.7 - 3) and examine their merger properties through morphological and close pair methods. This represents the largest and most thorough merger history examination to date for massive galaxies at high redshifts. We conclude that these galaxies will experience on average 4 - 5 mergers with companion galaxies greater than log(M*) = 9, leading to a stellar mass increase of a factor of two from z = 3 to the present. We present arguments that this merging can explain most of the observed size evolution of up to a factor of five in effective radii over the same epoch of cosmic history. We also examine the AGN sub-sample of these galaxies, concluding that at least one third of all massive galaxies will go through a Seyfert luminosity (or brighter) AGN phase leading to an average massive galaxy releasing through its AGN at least 35 times its binding energy in radiation throughout its lifetime. We observe no strong evolution in the local black hole mass - galaxy stellar mass relation, suggesting that supermassive black holes and their hosts grow principally together over the history of the Universe. We also note that it is massive galaxy Seyferts which dominate the X-ray luminosity function at all redshifts, up to z = 3. The profound implications of these processes will be discussed in relation to massive galaxy formation and evolution. This work was funded by the STFC, the Leverhulme Trust, and NASA/STSci grant HST-GO11082.

Bluck, Asa; Conselice, C. J.; GNS Group

2012-01-01

207

AN ACCOUNTING OF THE DUST-OBSCURED STAR FORMATION AND ACCRETION HISTORIES OVER THE LAST {approx}11 BILLION YEARS  

SciTech Connect

We report on an accounting of the star-formation- and accretion-driven energetics of 24 {mu}m-detected sources in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North field. For sources having infrared (IR; 8-1000 {mu}m) luminosities {approx}>3 x 10{sup 12} L{sub sun} when derived by fitting local spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to 24 {mu}m photometry alone, we find these IR luminosity estimates to be a factor of {approx}4 times larger than those estimated when the SED fitting includes additional 16 and 70 {mu}m data (and in some cases mid-IR spectroscopy and 850 {mu}m data). This discrepancy arises from the fact that high-luminosity sources at z >> 0 appear to have far- to mid-IR ratios, as well as aromatic feature equivalent widths, typical of lower luminosity galaxies in the local universe. Using our improved estimates for IR luminosity and active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributions, we investigate the evolution of the IR luminosity density versus redshift arising from star formation and AGN processes alone. We find that, within the uncertainties, the total star-formation-driven IR luminosity density is constant between 1.15 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.35, although our results suggest a slightly larger value at z {approx}> 2. AGNs appear to account for {approx}<18% of the total IR luminosity density integrated between 0 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.35, contributing {approx}<25% at each epoch. Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; 10{sup 11} L{sub sun} {<=} L{sub IR} < 10{sup 12} L{sub sun}) appear to dominate the star formation rate density along with normal star-forming galaxies (L{sub IR} < 10{sup 11} L{sub sun}) between 0.6 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.15. Once beyond z {approx}> 2, the contribution from ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L{sub IR} {>=} 10{sup 12} L{sub sun}) becomes comparable with that of LIRGs. Using our improved IR luminosity estimates, we find existing calibrations for UV extinction corrections based on measurements of the UV spectral slope typically overcorrect UV luminosities by a factor of {approx}2, on average, for our sample of 24 {mu}m-selected sources; accordingly we have derived a new UV extinction correction more appropriate for our sample.

Murphy, E. J.; Chary, R.-R. [Spitzer Science Center, MC 314-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dickinson, M.; Pope, A. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Frayer, D. T. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Lin, L., E-mail: emurphy@ipac.caltech.edu [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2011-05-10

208

Clusters of Galaxies in the last 5 Billion Years: from the Brightest Cluster Galaxy to the Intra-Cluster Light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the physical processes which shape the galaxy population in the high density environment of galaxy clusters as a function of cosmic time is a central open question in galaxy evolution studies. With the Frontier Field Initiative, HST will provide an ultra-deep view and an unprecedented multi-wavelength dataset to study the galaxy population in and around galaxy clusters at intermediate redshift. With our study, we aim at providing the first self-consistent theoretical framework based on cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to understand the evolution of cluster galaxies: our analysis is designed to complement and aid the interpretation of the wealth of observational data within the LCDM Cosmology. In particular, we plan an in-depth analysis of a sample of 15 haloes with masses between 7x10^13 and 2x10^15 Msun at z=0, simulated with the gravity+hydrodynamics code Arepo. The numerical scheme and the galaxy formation model adopted in this study have already been successfully tested against a series of global measurements: they will allow us to follow the fate, within each cluster, of hundreds of well-resolved galaxies with stellar masses above 5x10^9 Msun. Our analysis will include the assembly properties of the central brightest galaxies as well as the demographics of the satellite populations and their cluster-centric gradients of colors, morphologies and star formation rates. Our setup is suitable to quantify the effects of environment on star formation, stripping, and quenching across an unprecedented range of galaxy masses, cluster masses and spatial scales, in addition to providing valuable clues about the diffuse intra-cluster light.

Pillepich, Annalisa

2014-10-01

209

Northwest Africa 8159: An approximately 2.3 Billion Year Old Martian Olivine-Bearing Augite Basalt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on petrology, mineralogy, and bulk composition, the new NWA 8159 martian meteorite is distinct from all known samples from Mars. In particular, the augite compositional trends are unique, but most similar to those of nakhite intercumulus. Whether NWA 8159 represents a new lithology or is related to a known meteorite group remains to be determined. Sr and Nd isotopic analyses will allow comparison of source characteristics with SNC and other new ungrouped meteorites (e.g., NWA 7635). Here we report initial Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for NWA 8159 with the objective to determine its formation age and to potentially identify similarities and potential source affinities with other martian rocks.

Simon, J. I.; Peters, T. J.; Tappa, M. J.; Agee, C. B.

2014-01-01

210

Over one-half billion years of head conservation? Expression of an ems class gene in Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)  

PubMed Central

We report the isolation of an empty spiracles class homeodomain-containing gene, Cn-ems, from the hydrozoan Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus, the first gene of this class characterized in a lower metazoan. Cn-ems was found to be expressed in the head of gastrozooids, specifically in endodermal epithelial cells of the taeniolae of the hypostome. Cn-ems is not expressed in gonozooids, which lack taeniolae. Experimental conversion of the posterior region of the planula larva into head structures up-regulates expression of the gene. These findings establish that the association of ems-class genes with head structures preceded the evolution of bilateral symmetry. PMID:9520424

Mokady, Ofer; Dick, Matthew H.; Lackschewitz, Dagmar; Schierwater, Bernd; Buss, Leo W.

1998-01-01

211

Half a billion years of reworking of Hadean mafic crust to produce the Nuvvuagittuq Eoarchean felsic crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt is dominated by mafic rocks, called the Ujaraaluk unit, that are mostly composed of cummingtonite-plagioclase-biotite with variable amounts of garnet. While the oldest zircons contained in thin intrusive trondhjemitic bands are ?3.8 Ga, 146Sm-142Nd systematics suggest that the Ujaraaluk unit is as old as 4.4 Ga. The Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt is surrounded by Eoarchean TTGs that have geochemical and isotopic compositions consistent with their derivation by partial melting of a source similar in composition and age to the Ujaraaluk unit. New zircon dates reported here show the Nuvvuagittuq TTGs to consist at least of four distinct age units of 3.76 Ga, 3.66 Ga, 3.5-3.4 Ga and 3.35 Ga. The Hf isotopic compositions of zircons from the TTG are consistent with derivation from Hadean mafic crust. The 3.66 Ga to 3.35 Ga TTGs appear to have been formed primarily from melting of a source compositionally similar to the 4.4 Ga Ujaraaluk unit, whereas the more radiogenic Hf of the zircons from the 3.76 Ga TTGs may suggest derivation from melting of a source compositionally similar to 4.1 Ga intrusive gabbros. Alternatively, the distinct rare earth element patterns of the 3.76 Ga and 3.66 Ga TTGs suggest their derivation from sources with variable amounts of residual garnet and hence formation at different depths. The composition of the older TTGs is indicative of a deeper source that may have involved a greater interaction between the melt and the mantle to explain the more radiogenic Hf isotopic compositions of their zircons. Sources compositionally similar to the Ujaraaluk unit and intrusive gabbros appear to be the most likely candidates for the Hadean precursor of the Nuvvuagittuq TTGs.

O'Neil, Jonathan; Boyet, Maud; Carlson, Richard W.; Paquette, Jean-Louis

2013-10-01

212

New Neuromuscular Symptoms in Patients with Old Poliomyelitis: A Three-Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis experienced new symptoms after years of stability. Seven patients had lost functional capacity, with joint pain, instability and recurrent falls, but were again stable and remained essentially unchanged during a 3-year follow-up period. Seven others had late postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy (PPMA) with new weakness, wasting, fasciculations and myalgia in muscles originally spared or seemingly recovered.

Marinos C. Dalakas

1986-01-01

213

A solar origin for the large lunar magnetic field at 4.0 billion yr ago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method (Shaw, 1974) for paleointensity determination has been applied to three subsamples of one polymict breccia, 72215 (of age 4.0 billion yr) to yield an average paleointensity of 0.41 Oe at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon around the time of breccia formation. Of the present models for lunar magnetism, only the Sonett and Runcorn (1974) model of a central iron core dynamo can explain the presence of such a large field in early lunar history. However, because of the similarity in size of this field and that for the early solar system deduced from carbonaceous chondrites, we draw attention to an apparently little-considered possibility: that the large magnetic field in early lunar history was external and solar in origin, and emanated from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri stage sun. Therefore, there should be no record of such a large magnetic field in lunar rocks younger than approximately 4.0 billion yr.

Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.

1976-01-01

214

U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry  

SciTech Connect

The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small-diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result of a burgeoning worldwide demand and concerns about long-term supplies. By the end of the summer, oil pri

Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

2011-08-01

215

Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor  

E-print Network

We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering gallery mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) with an ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor above $10^9$ at $1550$ nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of $2$ nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion $Q$-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of ~$3$. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF$_2$ resonators potentially becomes feasible.

Lin, Guoping; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

2015-01-01

216

Investigation of Radar Propagation in Buildings: A 10 Billion Element Cartesian-Mesh FETD Simulation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper large scale full-wave simulations are performed to investigate radar wave propagation inside buildings. In principle, a radar system combined with sophisticated numerical methods for inverse problems can be used to determine the internal structure of a building. The composition of the walls (cinder block, re-bar) may effect the propagation of the radar waves in a complicated manner. In order to provide a benchmark solution of radar propagation in buildings, including the effects of typical cinder block and re-bar, we performed large scale full wave simulations using a Finite Element Time Domain (FETD) method. This particular FETD implementation is tuned for the special case of an orthogonal Cartesian mesh and hence resembles FDTD in accuracy and efficiency. The method was implemented on a general-purpose massively parallel computer. In this paper we briefly describe the radar propagation problem, the FETD implementation, and we present results of simulations that used over 10 billion elements.

Stowell, M L; Fasenfest, B J; White, D A

2008-01-14

217

Evaluation testing of a portable vapor detector for Part-Per-Billion (PPB) level UDMH and N2H4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace level detection of hydrazine (N2H4), monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) has been receiving increased attention over the past several years. In May 1995 the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) lowered their acceptable threshold limit value (TLV) from 100 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 10 ppb. Several types of ppb-level detectors are being developed by the United States Air Force (USAF) Space and Missile Systems Center (SMSC). A breadboard version of a portable, lightweight hydrazine detection sensor was developed and produced by Giner Corp. for the USAF. This sensor was designed for ppb level UDMH and N2H4 vapor detection in near real-time. This instrument employs electrochemical sensing, utilizing a three electrode cell with an anion-exchange polymer electrolyte membrane as the only electrolyte in the system. The sensing, counter and reference electrodes are bonded to the membrane forming a single component. The only liquid required to maintain the sensor is deionized water which hydrates the membrane. At the request of the USAF SMSC, independent testing and evaluation of the breadboard instrument was performed at NASA's Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) for response to ppb-level N2H4 and UDMH and MMH. The TVDL, located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the unique ability to generate calibrated sample vapor streams of N2H4, UDMH, and MMH over a range from less than 10 ppb to thousands of parts per million (ppm) with full environmental control of relative humidity (0-90%) and temperature (0-50 C). The TVDL routinely performs these types of tests. Referenced sensors were subjected to extensive testing, including precision, linearity, response/recovery times, zero and span drift, humidity and temperature effects as well as ammonia interference. Results of these tests and general operation characteristics are reported.

Curran, Dan; Lueck, Dale E.

1995-01-01

218

Osseointegrated dental implants as alternative therapy to bridge construction or orthodontics in young patients: seven years of clinical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young patients often require fixed bridgework or orthodontic therapy in cases of traumatic tooth loss or congenitally missing teeth. Dental implants represent an alternative to the more conventional treatment methods. We report positive experience over a seven-year period with 42 titanium Ha-Ti implants in 34 patients aged 9 to 18 years. Fourteen implants were placed into prepared tooth sockets immediately

Philippe D. Ledermann; Thomas M. Hassell; Arthur F. Hefti

1993-01-01

219

A divide-and-conquer/cellular-decomposition framework for million-to-billion atom simulations of chemical reactions  

E-print Network

-and-conquer (EDC) framework: first principles-based fast reactive force- field (F-ReaxFF) MD; and quantum simulations--0.56 billion-atom F-ReaxFF MD and 1.4 million-atom (0.12 trillion grid points) EDC­DFT MD

Southern California, University of

220

$100 Billion: For Reform...or to Subsidize the Status Quo? Education Stimulus Watch. Special Report 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first in a quarterly series of special reports on the K-12 education implications of the federal government's economic stimulus package, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). That the ARRA, which was signed into law in February, will pump nearly $100 billion--an unprecedented sum of federal money--into K-12 education is…

Smarick, Andy

2009-01-01

221

Industrial R&D Spending Reached $26.6 Billion in 1976. Science Resources Studies Highlights, May 5, 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data compiled as part of a comprehensive program to measure and analyze the nation's resources expended for research and development (R&D). Industry, which carries out 69% of the R&D in the United States, spent $26.6 billion on these activities in 1976, 10% above the 1975 level. In constant dollars, this presents an increase…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

222

ULTRASCALABLE IMPLICIT FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSES IN SOLID MECHANICS WITH OVER A HALF A BILLION DEGREES OF FREEDOM  

E-print Network

ULTRASCALABLE IMPLICIT FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSES IN SOLID MECHANICS WITH OVER A HALF A BILLION of unstructured implicit finite element analysis in solid mechanics with complex geometry, this is the first. This work is significant because in the domain of unstructured implicit finite element analysis in solid

Adams, Mark

223

Assessment of the Projected One Billion Ton Biomass for Cellulosic Biofuel Production and Its Potential Implications on Regional Water Quality and Availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DOE and USDA joint study, also commonly referred as the "Billion-Ton" study, assessed the cellulosic feedstock resources potential in the U.S. for producing second generation biofuel to replace 30 percent of the country's transportation fuels by year 2030. The available resource is expected to come from changing cropping pattern, increasing crop yield, harvesting agricultural and forest wood residues, and developing energy crops. Such large-scale changes in land use and crop managements are likely to affect the associated water quality and resources at both regional and local scales. To address the water sustainability associated with the projected biomass production in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), we have developed a SWAT watershed model that simulate the changes in water quality (nitrogen, phosphorus, and soil erosion) and resources (soil water content, evapotranspiration, and runoff) of the region due to future biomass production scenario estimated by the Billion-Ton study. The scenario is implemented by changing the model inputs and parameters at subbasin and hydrologic response unit levels, as well as by improving the SWAT model to represent spatially varying crop properties. The potential impacts on water quality and water availability were compared with the results obtained from a baseline simulation which represents current watershed conditions and existing level of feedstock production. The basin level results suggested mixed effects on the water quality. The projected large-scale biomass production scenario is expected to decrease loadings of total nitrogen and nitrate in the streams while increase total phosphorus and suspended sediment. Results indicate an increase in the rate of evapotranspiration and a decrease in the soil water content and in surface runoff. discharge to the streams. The impacts at the subbasin or local scale varies spatially and temporally depending on the types of land use change, their locations, and crop managements, suggesting needs to further optimize the sustainable biomass production from water resource perspective at both regional and local levels.

Demissie, Y. K.; Yan, E.; Wu, M.

2011-12-01

224

Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country's present petroleum consumption--the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

Perlack, R.D.

2005-12-15

225

Survey of ocular irritation predictive capacity using Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test historical data for 319 personal care products over fourteen years.  

PubMed

The Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test are widely used to predict ocular irritation potential for consumer-use products. These in vitro assays do not require live animals, produce reliable predictive data for defined applicability domains compared to the Draize rabbit eye test, and are rapid and inexpensive. Data from 304 CAMVA and/or BCOP studies (319 formulations) were surveyed to determine the feasibility of predicting ocular irritation potential for various formulations. Hair shampoos, skin cleansers, and ethanol-based hair styling sprays were repeatedly predicted to be ocular irritants (accuracy rate=0.90-1.00), with skin cleanser and hair shampoo irritation largely dependent on surfactant species and concentration. Conversely, skin lotions/moisturizers and hair styling gels/lotions were repeatedly predicted to be non-irritants (accuracy rate=0.92 and 0.82, respectively). For hair shampoos, ethanol-based hair stylers, skin cleansers, and skin lotions/moisturizers, future ocular irritation testing (i.e., CAMVA/BCOP) can be nearly eliminated if new formulations are systematically compared to those previously tested using a defined decision tree. For other tested product categories, new formulations should continue to be evaluated in CAMVA/BCOP for ocular irritation potential because either the historical data exhibit significant variability (hair conditioners and mousses) or the historical sample size is too small to permit definitive conclusions (deodorants, make-up removers, massage oils, facial masks, body sprays, and other hair styling products). All decision tree conclusions should be made within a conservative weight-of-evidence context, considering the reported limitations of the BCOP test for alcohols, ketones, and solids. PMID:21147215

Donahue, D A; Kaufman, L E; Avalos, J; Simion, F A; Cerven, D R

2011-03-01

226

FRESHMAN ENGLISH AT FOURTEEN TWO-YEAR COLLEGES--JUNIOR COLLEGE OF ALBANY, AMARILLO, BAKERSFIELD, BECKLEY, CALIFORNIA CONCORDIA, CAZENOVIA, GRAND VIEW, HARCUM, LAKEWOOD STATE, MIAMI-DADE, AND COLBY, JEFFERSON, MONROE COUNTY, AND PORTLAND COMMUNITY COLLEGES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FOR A REPORT ON FRESHMAN COMPOSITION PROGRAMS, THE ASSOCIATION OF DEPARTMENTS OF ENGLISH OBTAINED SYLLABI AND COURSE DESCRIPTIONS FROM DIRECTORS OF FRESHMAN COMPOSITION AT 66 COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. AMONG THE DATA ASSEMBELED FOR THE FULL REPORT (AVAILABLE AS TE 500 190) ARE THE DESCRIPTIONS, CONTAINED HERE, OF FRESHMAN ENGLISH PROGRAMS AT 14…

NELSON, BONNIE E., COMP.

227

Layout finishing of a 28nm, 3 billions transistors, multi-core processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing a fully new 256 cores processor is a great challenge for a fabless startup. In addition to all architecture, functionalities and timing issues, the layout by itself is a bottleneck due to all the process constraints of a 28nm technology. As developers of advanced layout finishing solutions, we were involved in the design flow of this huge chip with its 3 billions transistors. We had to face the issue of dummy patterns instantiation with respect to design constraints. All the design rules to generate the "dummies" are clearly defined in the Design Rule Manual, and some automatic procedures are provided by the foundry itself, but these routines don't take care of the designer requests. Such a chip, embeds both digital parts and analog modules for clock and power management. These two different type of designs have each their own set of constraints. In both cases, the insertion of dummies should not introduce unexpected variations leading to malfunctions. For example, on digital parts were signal race conditions are critical on long wires or bus, introduction of uncontrolled parasitic along these nets are highly critical. For analog devices such as high frequency and high sensitivity comparators, the exact symmetry of the two parts of a current mirror generator should be guaranteed. Thanks to the easily customizable features of our dummies insertion tool, we were able to configure it in order to meet all the designer requirements as well as the process constraints. This paper will present all these advanced key features as well as the layout tricks used to fulfill all requirements.

Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Beisser, Eric

2013-06-01

228

A Highly Functional Synthetic Phage Display Library Containing over 40 Billion Human Antibody Clones  

PubMed Central

Several synthetic antibody phage display libraries have been created and used for the isolation of human monoclonal antibodies. The performance of antibody libraries, which is usually measured in terms of their ability to yield high-affinity binding specificities against target proteins of interest, depends both on technical aspects (such as library size and quality of cloning) and on design features (which influence the percentage of functional clones in the library and their ability to be used for practical applications). Here, we describe the design, construction and characterization of a combinatorial phage display library, comprising over 40 billion human antibody clones in single-chain fragment variable (scFv) format. The library was designed with the aim to obtain highly stable antibody clones, which can be affinity-purified on protein A supports, even when used in scFv format. The library was found to be highly functional, as >90% of randomly selected clones expressed the corresponding antibody. When selected against more than 15 antigens from various sources, the library always yielded specific and potent binders, at a higher frequency compared to previous antibody libraries. To demonstrate library performance in practical biomedical research projects, we isolated the human antibody G5, which reacts both against human and murine forms of the alternatively spliced BCD segment of tenascin-C, an extracellular matrix component frequently over-expressed in cancer and in chronic inflammation. The new library represents a useful source of binding specificities, both for academic research and for the development of antibody-based therapeutics. PMID:24950200

Weber, Marcel; Bujak, Emil; Putelli, Alessia; Villa, Alessandra; Matasci, Mattia; Gualandi, Laura; Hemmerle, Teresa; Wulhfard, Sarah; Neri, Dario

2014-01-01

229

No Photon Left Behind: How Billions of Spectral Lines are Transforming Planetary Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of realistic potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) descriptions, theoretically computed linelists can now synthesize accurate spectral parameters for billions of spectral lines sampling the untamed high-energy molecular domain. Being the initial driver for these databases the characterization of stellar spectra, these theoretical databases, in combination with decades of precise experimental studies (nicely compiled in community databases such as HITRAN and GEISA), are leading to unprecedented precisions in the characterization of planetary atmospheres. Cometary sciences are among the most affected by this spectroscopic revolution. Even though comets are relatively cold bodies (T˜100 K), their infrared molecular emission is mainly defined by non-LTE solar fluorescence induced by a high-energy source (Sun, T˜5600 K). In order to interpret high-resolution spectra of comets acquired with extremely powerful telescopes (e.g., Keck, VLT, NASA-IRTF), we have developed advanced non-LTE fluorescence models that integrate the high-energy dynamic range of ab-initio databases (e.g., BT2, VTT, HPT2, BYTe, TROVE) and the precision of laboratory and semi-empirical compilations (e.g., HITRAN, GEISA, CDMS, WKMC, SELP, IUPAC). These new models allow us to calculate realistic non-LTE pumps, cascades, branching-ratios, and emission rates for a broad range of excitation regimes for H2O, HDO, HCN, HNC and NH3. We have implemented elements of these compilations to the study of Mars spectra, and we are now exploring its application to modeling non-LTE emission in exoplanets. In this presentation, we present application of these advanced models to interpret highresolution spectra of comets, Mars and exoplanets.

Villanueva, Geronimo L.

2014-06-01

230

Private Donations to Colleges Rise for 4th Consecutive Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Backed by a strong economy and a growing stock market, American colleges and universities raised an estimated $29.8-billion in the 2007 fiscal year, the highest total ever recorded, according to a report released last week by the Council for Aid to Education. But the country's recent economic troubles have some fund-raising experts concerned that…

Wolverton, Brad

2008-01-01

231

Multimillion-to-billion atom molecular dynamics simulations of deformation, damage, nanoindentation, and fracture in silica glass and energetic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimillion-to-billion molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to study atomistic mechanisms of deformation, damage and failure in silica glass and energetic materials. The simulations are based on experimentally validated interatomic potentials and employ highly efficiently algorithms for parallel architectures. The onset of void-void interaction is investigated by performing MD simulations of amorphous silica under hydrostatic tension. The simulations reveal

Yi-Chun Chen

2008-01-01

232

Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences  

PubMed Central

We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA) sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime) and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity). Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to “classic” open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, “classic” open-reference OTU clustering is often faster). We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons). To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of “classic” open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by “classic” open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME’s uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository) that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced). Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in QIIME’s OTU picking workflows and make recommendations on settings for these free parameters to optimize runtime without reducing the quality of the results. These optimized parameters can vastly decrease the runtime of uclust-based OTU picking in QIIME. PMID:25177538

Rideout, Jai Ram; He, Yan; Navas-Molina, Jose A.; Walters, William A.; Ursell, Luke K.; Gibbons, Sean M.; Chase, John; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Clemente, Jose C.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Huse, Susan M.; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Knight, Rob

2014-01-01

233

Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences.  

PubMed

We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA) sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime) and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity). Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to "classic" open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, "classic" open-reference OTU clustering is often faster). We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons). To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of "classic" open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by "classic" open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME's uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository) that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced). Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in QIIME's OTU picking workflows and make recommendations on settings for these free parameters to optimize runtime without reducing the quality of the results. These optimized parameters can vastly decrease the runtime of uclust-based OTU picking in QIIME. PMID:25177538

Rideout, Jai Ram; He, Yan; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Walters, William A; Ursell, Luke K; Gibbons, Sean M; Chase, John; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Clemente, Jose C; Gilbert, Jack A; Huse, Susan M; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory

2014-01-01

234

Combined Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Parent Training for Childhood Depression: 2- to 3-Year Follow-up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen children with significant depressive symptoms from an open clinical trial of Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training augmented with Caregiver-Child Relationship Enhancement Training, participated in a 2- to 3-year follow-up assessment. The results suggested that the significant decreases in depressive symptoms observed at…

Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

2013-01-01

235

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2011  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Budget includes three new robust exploration programs: (1) Technology demonstration program, $7.8 five years. Funds the development and demonstration of technologies that reduce the cost and expand the capabilities of future exploration activities, including in-orbit refueling and storage. (2) Heavy-Lift and Propulsion R&D, $3.1 billion over five years. Funds R&D for new launch systems, propellants, materials, and combustion processes. (3) Robotic precursor missions, $3.0 billion over five years. Funds cost-effective means to scout exploration targets and identify hazards and resources for human visitation and habitation. In addition, the Budget enhances the current Human Research Program by 42%; and supports the Participatory Exploration Program at 5 million per year for activities across many NASA programs.

2010-01-01

236

hirty years ago,half the developing world lived in extreme poverty--  

E-print Network

#12;T hirty years ago,half the developing world lived in extreme poverty-- today, a quarter.1 Now the billion mark this year for the first time in history.2 With so many still in poverty and hunger, growth and poverty alleviation remain the overarching priority for develop- ing countries. Climate change only makes

Kammen, Daniel M.

237

VALUE-ADDING 20 BILLION BY 2005: IMPACT AT THE ALBERTA FARM GATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction In recent years in Canada, direct support provided by governments to the agricultural sector has been decreasing due to international obligations under the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade\\/World Trade Organization (GATT\\/WTO) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Consequently, governments and the agriculture industry are exploring ways of generating and sustaining farmers' revenue from the marketplace. In

James R. Unterschultz; Scott R. Jeffrey; Kwamena K. Quagrainie

2000-01-01

238

With GI Bill's Billions at Stake, Colleges Compete to Lure Veterans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the Post-9/11 GI Bill nears its fourth year, with more than 550,000 veterans enrolled in thousands of institutions, advocacy groups, lawmakers, and President Obama warn that veterans are vulnerable in a higher-education marketplace eager for their GI Bill dollars--with some purveyors, particularly for-profits, recruiting aggressively. The…

Sander, Libby

2012-01-01

239

California agriculture is large, diverse, complex and dynamic. It generated nearly $37.5 billion  

E-print Network

Scott D. Rozelle. Stanford University #12;Including multiplier effects, California farms and closely year since 1948 and has gradually increased its share of U.S. farm cash receipts from 9.5 percent such as international markets, invasive pests and diseases, the value of agricultural research and development

Todd, Brian

240

Silviculture: the next 30 years the past 30 years. Part III. The South  

SciTech Connect

This paper discussed the need for modern forestry management in the South. The author defined the South as Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia. Of the 10 billion cubic feet of softwood harvested in the US in 1976, 44% came from the South. In addition, half of the 4.2 billion cubic feet of hardwoods harvested in the US in 1976 came from the South. Less than half of the southern forests were cultivated by trained foresters. With real forest management, a real potential should exist for increased forest production. The author discussed the history of these forest lands and the need for better forest management over the next 30 years. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Boyce, S.G.; Burkhardt, E.C.; Kellison, R.C.; van Lear, D.H.

1986-06-01

241

A simple change to the medicare part D low-income subsidy program could save $5 billion.  

PubMed

Medicare Part D provides a subsidy to beneficiaries with incomes below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. Enrollees with the low-income subsidy accounted for 75 percent of the $60 billion in total federal Part D spending in 2013. The government randomly assigns any new beneficiary who automatically qualifies for the subsidy, or who successfully applies for it without indicating a preferred plan, to a stand-alone Part D plan whose premium is equal to or below the average premium for the basic Part D benefit in the region. We used an intelligent reassignment algorithm and 2008-09 Part D drug use and spending data to match enrollees to available plans according to their medication needs. We found that such a reassignment approach could have saved the federal government over $5 billion in 2009, for mean government savings of $710 (median: $368) per enrollee with a low-income subsidy. Implementing that simple change to reassign beneficiaries would have also lowered the proportion of prescriptions that required utilization review from 29 percent to 20 percent, and the proportion of prescriptions with quantity limits from 27 percent to 19 percent. PMID:24889942

Zhang, Yuting; Zhou, Chao; Baik, Seo Hyon

2014-06-01

242

The Enbridge "Steam Saver" Program: Steam Boiler Plant Efficiency-Update to Year End 2005  

E-print Network

Industrialized province in Canada, having a population of 12 million people and an industrial base of 5000 manufacturing companies, (larger than 50 employees). Ontario can be compared in size and industrial output with Michigan or Ohio. All major.../YR TOTAL CANADA 9,600 3,000 442 BCF/YR 12.5 B CU M/YR Note: figures exclude large electric utility plants BCF/YR = Billion Cubic Feet per Year B CU M/YR = Billion Cubic Metres per Year FUEL CONSUMPTION IN BOILER PLANTS In Ontario, fuel...

Griffin, B.; Johnson, D.

2006-01-01

243

The APPA Journey and RMA Fourteeners Club  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The APPA journey represents a continuum through one's career in educational facilities management. Early in one's career, APPA can assist with professional development such as the Facilities Drive-In Workshop, the Supervisor's Toolkit, the APPA Institute for Facilities Management, and the APPA Leadership Academy. APPA provides for both…

Morris, John P.

2012-01-01

244

Ptolemy's Almagest: Fourteen Centuries of Neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ptolemy's Almagest remained the ultimate in astronomical theory for more than a millennium. Yet Ptolemy's system contains internal inconsistencies so evident and disturbing as to raise the question of why the Copernican Revolution was so long delayed. Historical breaks in research in the Ptolemaic tradition, resulting in the interment and then the resurrection of that tradition, help to explain its

N. S. Hetherington; C. A. Ronan

1984-01-01

245

Fourteen cases of imposed upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imposed upper airway obstruction was diagnosed as the cause of recurrent and severe cyanotic episodes in 14 patients. Episodes started between 0.8 and 33 months of age (median 1.4) and occurred over a period of 0.8 to 20 months (median 3.5). Diagnosis was made by covert video surveillance, instituted after either (a) the observation that episodes began only in the

M P Samuels; W McClaughlin; R R Jacobson; C F Poets; D P Southall

1992-01-01

246

University Environment Experience of the First Two Years of University Graduates at a Newly Established Small University Located in Suburban Area in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to describe students' university environment experience from the perspectives of the first two years of university graduates of a newly established small university located in suburban area in Taiwan. A qualitative method of phenomenology with in-depth interviews is adopted. Fourteen male and sixteen female seniors,…

Lin, Yii-Nii

2011-01-01

247

1.8 billion years of fluid-crust interaction: A zircon oxygen isotope record for the lower crust, western Churchill Province, Canadian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield experienced a prolonged and complex formation history (ca. 4.04 to 1.70 Ga), with evidence for multiple episodes of orogenesis and regional magmatic activity. Here we report on the oxygen isotopic compositions of garnet and zircon recovered from lower crustal xenoliths, which have U-Pb ages between ca. 3.5 and 1.7 Ga. Overall, zircon from four metabasite xenoliths from the Rankin Inlet sample suite have ?18O values ranging from + 5.5 to + 8.6‰. Zircon from three metatonalite/anorthosite xenoliths and five metabasite xenoliths from the Repulse Bay sample suite have ?18O values of + 5.6 to + 8.3‰. High ?18O values (> + 6.0‰) for the oldest igneous zircon cores (ca. 3.5 Ga and 3.0-2.6 Ga) indicate that their metatonalite/anorthosite protolith magmas were generated from, or had assimilated, supracrustal rocks that interacted previously with surface-derived fluids. Igneous zircon cores (ca. 2.9-2.6 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith have ?18O values of + 5.6 to + 6.4‰, which suggests a formation from a mantle-derived basaltic/gabbroic magma. Metamorphic zircon cores (ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith commonly have ?18O values between + 6.0 and + 6.3‰, which is indicative of a basalt/gabbro protolith and localized reworking of the lower crust caused by regional-scale plate convergence. The wide range of ?18O values (+ 5.5 to + 8.3‰) for ca. 1.75-1.70 Ga metamorphic zircon rims (identified in all xenoliths) indicates regional transient heating and reworking of mantle- and supracrustal-derived crust, induced by magmatic underplating along the crust-mantle boundary.

Petts, Duane C.; Moser, Desmond E.; Longstaffe, Frederick J.; Davis, William J.; Stern, Richard A.

2014-04-01

248

Sulfur isotope mass-independent fractionation in impact deposits of the 3.2 billion-year-old Mapepe Formation, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical and experimental studies have shown that atmospheric SO2 isotopologue self-shielding effects in the 190-220 nm region of the solar spectrum are the likely cause for mass independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S-MIF). The main products of this photochemical reaction - SO3 and S0 - typically define a compositional array of ca. ?33S/?34S = 0.06-0.14. This is at odds with the generally observed trend in Archean sulfides, which broadly defines an array of ca. ?33S/?34S = 0.9. Various explanations have been proposed, including a diminution of ?34S caused by chemical and biogenic mass-dependent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S-MDF), mixing with photolytic products produced during felsic volcanic events, or partial blocking of the low-wavelength part of the spectrum due to the presence of reduced atmospheric gases or an organic haze. Early in Earth history large meteorite impacts would have ejected dust and gas clouds into the atmosphere that shielded solar radiation and affected global climate. It is thus likely that at certain time intervals of high meteorite flux the atmosphere was significantly perturbed, having an effect on atmospheric photochemistry and possibly leaving anomalous sulfur isotopic signatures in the rock record. Here we describe the sulfur isotopic signatures in sulfides of spherule beds S2, S3 and S4 of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. In particular, in spherule bed S3 - and to a lesser extent S4 - a trend of ca. ?33S/?34S = 0.23 is observed that closely follows the expected trend for SO2-photolysis in the 190-220 nm spectral range. This suggests that an impact dust cloud (deposited as spherule beds), which sampled the higher region of the atmosphere, specifically incorporated products of SO2 photolysis in the 190-220 nm range, and blocked photochemical reactions at higher wavelengths (250-330 nm band). By implication, the generally observed Archean trend appears to be the result of mixing of different MIF-S sources arising from a variety of photochemical reactions that took place in the lower part of the atmosphere.

van Zuilen, M. A.; Philippot, P.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Lepland, A.

2014-10-01

249

A TALE OF DWARFS AND GIANTS: USING A z = 1.62 CLUSTER TO UNDERSTAND HOW THE RED SEQUENCE GREW OVER THE LAST 9.5 BILLION YEARS  

SciTech Connect

We study the red sequence in a cluster of galaxies at z = 1.62 and follow its evolution over the intervening 9.5 Gyr to the present day. Using deep YJK{sub s} imaging with the HAWK-I instrument on the Very Large Telescope, we identify a tight red sequence and construct its rest-frame i-band luminosity function (LF). There is a marked deficit of faint red galaxies in the cluster that causes a turnover in the LF. We compare the red-sequence LF to that for clusters at z < 0.8, correcting the luminosities for passive evolution. The shape of the cluster red-sequence LF does not evolve between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 but at z < 0.6 the faint population builds up significantly. Meanwhile, between z = 1.62 and 0.6 the inferred total light on the red sequence grows by a factor of {approx}2 and the bright end of the LF becomes more populated. We construct a simple model for red-sequence evolution that grows the red sequence in total luminosity and matches the constant LF shape at z > 0.6. In this model the cluster accretes blue galaxies from the field whose star formation is quenched and who are subsequently allowed to merge. We find that three to four mergers among cluster galaxies during the 4 Gyr between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 match the observed LF evolution between the two redshifts. The inferred merger rate is consistent with other studies of this cluster. Our result supports the picture that galaxy merging during the major growth phase of massive clusters is an important process in shaping the red-sequence population at all luminosities.

Rudnick, Gregory H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Malott room 1082, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Tran, Kim-Vy; Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Momcheva, Ivelina [Observatories, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Willmer, Christopher, E-mail: grudnick@ku.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2012-08-10

250

A billion years of crustal evolution recorded in the Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt: Pb-Hf evidence for Eoarchean TTGs produced from melting of Hadean mafic crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of Earth's primitive crust is limited by the scarcity of Eoarchean/Hadean terrains. Most of these terrains are dominated by felsic Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks. These felsic rocks however, cannot be directly produced from melting of the mantle but must instead have been derived from the melting of an older mafic precursor. Obtaining accurate ages on old terrestrial mafic rocks is challenging. The geochronology constraints on Archean mafic rocks commonly come from long-lived radiogenic isotopic systems that can be affected by younger metamorphic/metasomatic events. The short-lived 146Sm-142Nd isotopic system is less susceptible to partial resetting because 146Sm became extinct prior to ~4 Ga. The mafic rocks from the Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt (NGB), called the Ujaraaluk unit, have 146Sm-142Nd systematics consistent with them being formed in the Hadean, between 4.3 and 4.4 Ga. This age has been challenged because the oldest U-Pb ages on zircons obtained in the NGB are ~3.8 Ga. The ~3.8 Ga zircons, however, are from trondhjemetic bands intruding the NGB and thus provide only a minimum age for the mafic rocks. The NGB is surrounded by 3.65 Ga tonalites having deficits in 142Nd suggesting derivation from an Hadean precursor such as the Ujaraaluk unit. We have now identified two additional tonalite generations dated at 3.75 Ga and 3.4-3.5 Ga suggesting a more complex thermal history for the NGB. In order to better constrain the geologic relationship between the mafic and the felsic rocks and the evolution of the NGB through time, we present whole-rock Lu-Hf data for the Nuvvuagittuq rocks as well as combined Pb-Hf analyses in zircons from a series of surrounding TTGs dated at 3.35 Ga, 3.4-3.5 Ga, 3.65 Ga and 3.75 Ga. The Lu-Hf isotopic compositions of the NGB mafic rocks have been partially reset by a Neoarchean metamorphic/metasomatic event, consistent with what is observed for the long-lived 147Sm-143Nd system. Zircons from the 3.35 to 3.65 TTGs have strongly subchondritic initial ?Hf values and display an ?Hf vs. age array consistent with their derivation from a 4.3-4.4 Ga mafic precursor. The 3.75 Ga TTGs have initial ?Hf values consistent either with derivation from the ~4.2 Ga NGB gabbros or with incorporation of more juvenile mantle-derived material. The Hf-zircon and 142Nd data for the Eoarchean NGB TTGs is consistent with their formation from the melting of the Hadean Ujaraaluk unit. The time integrated ?Hf-zircon data also is consistent with the Hf isotopic compositions of the Jack Hills zircons suggesting a similar primitive mafic precursor for the Eoarchean/Hadean TTGs forming Earth's early crust.

O'Neil, J.; Boyet, M. M.; Carlson, R. W.; Paquette, J.

2012-12-01

251

Searching for fossil microbial biofilms on Mars: a case study using a 3.46 billion-year old example from the Pilbara in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the immanent arrival of three Mars landers, one of which (Beagle 2) is dedicated to the search for life on Mars, analogue studies that are of general relevance to the search for past life on Mars are timely. We are using a 3.46 Ga, fossiliferous, sedimentary rock as a reference sample. The rock consists of laminated sediments, whose components were derived from volcanic rocks (volcaniclastic) that were deposited in a shallow water basin. Microbial mats occur at the surfaces of the sediments. This rock formed in an environment and from materials that would have existed on early Mars. Preliminary observation with the Beagle 2 camera shows that it should be possible to identify sedimentary structures, such as ripple marks and laminations, in fine detail. A 2 mm high ministromatolite/thrombolite layer was also readily visible. Further analysis using the microscope and the spectrometers would provide additional information that would lead to the choice of suitable samples, such as the ministromatolite/thrombolite layer, for chemical study with the gas analysis package. In this way details concerning the nature (and biogenicity) of the carbonaceous matter.

Westall, Frances; Hofmann, Beda; Brack, André

2004-03-01

252

Sedimentology of the Onverwacht Group (3.4 Billion Years), Transvaal, South Africa, and Its Bearing on the Characteristics and Evolution of the Early Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strata of the upper part of the Onverwacht Group (3.4 b.y.), Transvaal, South Africa, are composed mainly of chert representing silicified quartz-poor volcaniclastic detritus. Layers of carbonate, silicified carbonate, volcaniclastic debris, and possible primary silica make up minor parts of most sections. Deposition took place largely in shallow water, but no evidence was found to indicate whether the water was

Donald R. Lowe; L. P. Knauth

1977-01-01

253

A 4.2 billion year old impact basin on the Moon: U-Pb dating of zirconolite and apatite in lunar melt rock 67955  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sharp rise in the flux of asteroid-size bodies traversing the inner Solar System at 3.9 Ga has become a central tenet of recent models describing planetary dynamics and the potential habitability of early terrestrial environments. The prevalence of ˜3.9 Ga crystallization ages for lunar impact-melt breccias and U-Pb isotopic compositions of lunar crustal rocks provide the primary evidence for a short-lived, cataclysmic episode of late heavy bombardment at that time. Here we report U-Pb isotopic compositions of zirconolite and apatite in coarse-grained lunar melt rock 67955, measured by ion microprobe, that date a basin-scale impact melting event on the Moon at 4.22±0.01 Ga followed by entrainment within lower grade ejecta from a younger basin approximately 300 million yr later. Significant impacts prior to 3.9 Ga are also recorded by lunar zircons although the magnitudes of those events are difficult to establish. Other isotopic evidence such as 40Ar-39Ar ages of granulitic lunar breccias, regolith fragments, and clasts extracted from fragmental breccias, and Re-Os isotopic compositions of lunar metal is also suggestive of impact-related thermal events in the lunar crust during the period 4.1-4.3 Ga. We conclude that numerous large impactors hit the Moon prior to the canonical 3.9 Ga cataclysm, that some of those pre-cataclysm impacts were similar in size to the younger lunar basins, and that the oldest preserved lunar basins are likely to be significantly older than 3.9 Ga. This provides sample-based support for dynamical models capable of producing older basins on the Moon and discrete populations of impactors. An extended period of basin formation implies a less intense cataclysm at 3.9 Ga, and therefore a better opportunity for preservation of early habitable niches and Hadean crust on the Earth. A diminished cataclysm at 3.9 Ga suggests that the similarity in the age of the oldest terrestrial continental crust with the canonical lunar cataclysm is likely to be coincidental with no genetic significance.

Norman, Marc D.; Nemchin, Alexander A.

2014-02-01

254

Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4-3.5 billion years ago  

E-print Network

Solar X-ray and UV radiation (0.1-320 nm) received at Earth's surface is an important aspect of the circumstances under which life formed on Earth. The quantity that is received depends on two main variables: the emission of radiation by the young Sun and its extinction through absorption and scattering by the Earth's early atmosphere. The spectrum emitted by the Sun when life formed, between 4 and 3.5 Ga, was modeled here, including the effects of flares and activity cycles, using a solar-like star that has the same age now as the Sun had 4-3.5 Ga. Atmospheric extinction was calculated using the Beer-Lambert law, assuming several density profiles for the atmosphere of the Archean Earth. We found that almost all radiation with a wavelength shorter than 200 nm is attenuated effectively, even by very tenuous atmospheres. Longer-wavelength radiation is progressively less well attenuated, and its extinction is more sensitive to atmospheric composition. Minor atmospheric components, such as methane, ozone, water v...

Cnossen, I; Favata, F; Witasse, O; Zegers, T; Arnold, N F

2007-01-01

255

Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4-3.5 billion years ago  

E-print Network

Solar X-ray and UV radiation (0.1-320 nm) received at Earth's surface is an important aspect of the circumstances under which life formed on Earth. The quantity that is received depends on two main variables: the emission of radiation by the young Sun and its extinction through absorption and scattering by the Earth's early atmosphere. The spectrum emitted by the Sun when life formed, between 4 and 3.5 Ga, was modeled here, including the effects of flares and activity cycles, using a solar-like star that has the same age now as the Sun had 4-3.5 Ga. Atmospheric extinction was calculated using the Beer-Lambert law, assuming several density profiles for the atmosphere of the Archean Earth. We found that almost all radiation with a wavelength shorter than 200 nm is attenuated effectively, even by very tenuous atmospheres. Longer-wavelength radiation is progressively less well attenuated, and its extinction is more sensitive to atmospheric composition. Minor atmospheric components, such as methane, ozone, water vapor, etc., have only negligible effects, but changes in CO2 concentration can cause large differences in surface flux. Differences due to variability in solar emission are small compared to this. In all cases surface radiation levels on the Archean Earth were several orders of magnitude higher in the 200-300 nm wavelength range than current levels in this range. That means that any form of life that might have been present at Earth's surface 4-3.5 Ga must have been exposed to much higher quantities of damaging radiation than at present.

I. Cnossen; J. Sanz-Forcada; F. Favata; O. Witasse; T. Zegers; N. F. Arnold

2007-02-20

256

LoCuSS: THE STEADY DECLINE AND SLOW QUENCHING OF STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTER GALAXIES OVER THE LAST FOUR BILLION YEARS  

SciTech Connect

We present an analysis of the levels and evolution of star formation activity in a representative sample of 30 massive galaxy clusters at 0.15 < z < 0.30 from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey, combining wide-field Spitzer/MIPS 24 ?m data with extensive spectroscopy of cluster members. The specific SFRs of massive (M > or approx. 10{sup 10} M{sub ?}) star-forming cluster galaxies within r{sub 200} are found to be systematically ?28% lower than their counterparts in the field at fixed stellar mass and redshift, a difference significant at the 8.7? level. This is the unambiguous signature of star formation in most (and possibly all) massive star-forming galaxies being slowly quenched upon accretion into massive clusters, their star formation rates (SFRs) declining exponentially on quenching timescales in the range 0.7-2.0 Gyr. We measure the mid-infrared Butcher-Oemler effect over the redshift range 0.0-0.4, finding rapid evolution in the fraction (f{sub SF}) of massive (M{sub K} < – 23.1) cluster galaxies within r{sub 200} with SFRs > 3 M{sub ?} yr{sup –1}, of the form f{sub SF}?(1 + z){sup 7.6±1.1}. We dissect the origins of the Butcher-Oemler effect, revealing it to be due to the combination of a ?3 × decline in the mean specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies since z ? 0.3 with a ?1.5 × decrease in number density. Two-thirds of this reduction in the specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies is due to the steady cosmic decline in the specific SFRs among those field galaxies accreted into the clusters. The remaining one-third reflects an accelerated decline in the star formation activity of galaxies within clusters. The slow quenching of star formation in cluster galaxies is consistent with a gradual shut down of star formation in infalling spiral galaxies as they interact with the intracluster medium via ram-pressure stripping or starvation mechanisms. The observed sharp decline in star formation activity among cluster galaxies since z ? 0.4 likely reflects the increased susceptibility of low-redshift spiral galaxies to gas removal mechanisms as their gas surface densities decrease with time. We find no evidence for the build-up of cluster S0 bulges via major nuclear starburst episodes.

Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Egami, E.; Rawle, T. D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Smith, G. P.; Sanderson, A. J. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Babul, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-0014 Helsinki (Finland); Merluzzi, P.; Busarello, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Okabe, N., E-mail: cphaines@as.arizona.edu [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2013-10-01

257

~2.3 to 1.8 billion years ago display rela-tively large ratios compared to either older or  

E-print Network

or younger pyrites. This breakdown of Earth history is particularly interesting because it coincides much of the world's steel production depends] and pyrite. Iron oxides were formed in the water column the ocean toward lower values of 56Fe, as recorded in the pyrites (see the figure). Stage 2 witnessed

Brody, Carlos

258

More than $115 billion of freight moves via marine shipping in the United States each year. Maintaining the ports and waterways that  

E-print Network

Infrastructure and Transportation, a U.S. Department of Transportation-designated Tier I University interactions of water and sediment within fluvial environ- ments like rivers and bays. Our Mission SSML of the region's waterways. Research Millions of cubic yards of sediment are removed from the region's rivers

Neimark, Alexander V.

259

Billions of Planetary Systems: Turning Point at Mid-20th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for planetary systems, an elusive goal for most of the 20th century, is reminiscent of the search for stellar parallax in earlier centuries. Of the latter, John Herschel once wrote that it seemed within reach of the astronomer, "only to elude his seizure when apparently just within his grasp, continually hovering just beyond the limits of his distinct apprehension, and so leading him on in hopeless, endless, and exhausting pursuit." Such was the case for planetary systems, until the discovery of pulsar planets in 1992, and of planets around solar-type stars beginning in 1995. For the early decades of the century the Jeans-Jeffreys tidal theory of planet formation via close stellar encounters predicted that planets should be very rare. But the 15 years between 1943 and 1958 saw a remarkable turning point in the fortunes of planetary systems. It began with Russell's criticism of the Jeans-Jeffreys theory, but was fueled by the revival of a modified nebular hypothesis (von Weizsacker, 1944), developments in fields as diverse as double star astronomy (Kuiper, 1951), the measurement of stellar rotation periods (Struve, 1950), and geochemistry (Urey, 1952) and - most surprising of all - by claims that planetary systems, or their effects had actually been observed (Strand, 1943; Reuyl and Holmberg, 1943). Struve (1952) even suggested a means for planet detection by the radial velocity method. As Harlow Shapley made clear in his work Of Stars and Men: Human Response to an Expanding Universe (1958), the new cosmology was a continual force in the background favoring abundant planetary systems. All this work was in the background as Peter van de Kamp played out his solitary search for planetary systems, culminating in the announcement (1963) of a planet around Barnard's star. The limits that Herschel spoke of have now been breached, and the search is no longer solitary.

Dick, S. J.

2002-12-01

260

After Imbrium, Before Babylon: Solar System's Middle Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In planetary science we tend to assume that the Solar System more-or-less settled in its present state after about 3.8 Gyr ago. I will argue that many interesting things have been happening over the past few billions of years, and show some examples from my work. These include depletion of Hungaria-group asteroids, past orbital resonances between the Moon and the planets, and possible destruction and re-accretion of Saturn's mid-sized moons.

Cuk, Matija

2014-11-01

261

Light Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from Shedding Light on Science describes how astronomical distances can be measured in units of light-years, and how the finite speed of light allows astronomers to study how the universe looked long ago.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

262

Years ago  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now 60 years since Kurt G6del published his remarkable discoveries on incompleteness. These discoveries changed the face of mathematical logic and, in large measure, discredited two of the three philosophies of mathematics that were prominent at the time: Hilbert's formalism and Russell's logicism. Hilbert's program was discredited by showing that to prove an axiom system consistent requires a

Karen V. H. Parshall

1991-01-01

263

Quantifying the heart of darkness with GHALO - a multi-billion particle simulation of our galactic halo  

E-print Network

We perform a series of simulations of a Galactic mass dark matter halo at different resolutions, our largest uses over three billion particles and has a mass resolution of 1000 M_sun. We quantify the structural properties of the inner dark matter distribution and study how they depend on numerical resolution. We can measure the density profile to a distance of 120 pc (0.05% of R_vir) where the logarithmic slope is -0.8 and -1.4 at (0.5% of R_vir). We propose a new two parameter fitting function that has a linearly varying logarithmic density gradient which fits the GHALO and VL2 density profiles extremely well. Convergence in the density profile and the halo shape scales as N^(-1/3), but the shape converges at a radius three times larger at which point the halo becomes more spherical due to numerical resolution. The six dimensional phase-space profile is dominated by the presence of the substructures and does not follow a power law, except in the smooth under-resolved inner few kpc.

Joachim Stadel; Doug Potter; Ben Moore; Jürg Diemand; Piero Madau; Marcel Zemp; Michael Kuhlen; Vicent Quilis

2008-08-22

264

Small increases to employer premiums could shift millions of people to the exchanges and add billions to federal outlays.  

PubMed

The Affordable Care Act will expand insurance coverage to more than twenty-five million Americans, partly through subsidized private insurance available from newly created health insurance exchanges for people with incomes of 133-400 percent of the federal poverty level. The act will alter the financial incentive structure for employers and influence their decisions on whether or not to offer their employees coverage. These decisions, in turn, will affect federal outlays and revenues through several mechanisms. We model the sensitivity of federal costs for the insurance exchange coverage provision of the Affordable Care Act using the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data set. We assess revenues and subsidy outlays for premiums and cost sharing for individuals purchasing private insurance through exchanges. Our findings show that changing theoretical premium contribution levels by just $100 could induce 2.25 million individuals to transition to exchanges and increase federal outlays by $6.7 billion. Policy makers and analysts should pay especially careful attention to participation rates as the act's implementation continues. PMID:24019356

Austin, Daniel R; Luan, Anna; Wang, Louise L; Bhattacharya, Jay

2013-09-01

265

Malthus is still wrong: we can feed a world of 9-10 billion, but only by reducing food demand.  

PubMed

In 1798, Thomas Robert Malthus published 'An essay on the principle of population' in which he concluded that: 'The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.' Over the following century he was criticised for underestimating the potential for scientific and technological innovation to provide positive change. Since then, he has been proved wrong, with a number of papers published during the past few decades pointing out why he has been proved wrong so many times. In the present paper, I briefly review the main changes in food production in the past that have allowed us to continue to meet ever growing demand for food, and I examine the possibility of these same innovations delivering food security in the future. On the basis of recent studies, I conclude that technological innovation can no longer be relied upon to prove Malthus wrong as we strive to feed 9-10 billion people by 2050. Unless we are prepared to accept a wide range of significant, undesirable environmental consequences, technology alone cannot provide food security in 2050. Food demand, particularly the demand for livestock products, will need to be managed if we are to continue to prove Malthus wrong into the future. PMID:25319456

Smith, Pete

2014-10-16

266

Developing a Billion Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intentionally developing the leadership capacity of all students is a necessary requirement for schools around the world. The Center for Creative Leadership in Greensboro, N.C., has been at the center of this work and presents three schools as examples: Ravenscroft School in Raleigh, N.C., the African Leadership Academy in Johannesburg, South…

Gergen, Christopher; Rego, Lyndon; Wright, Joel

2014-01-01

267

Past Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Ancestry and early days; 2. Schooldays; 3. Relation with other boys at school; 4. Education; 5. Influence of the Royal Institution; 6. Later education in London; 7. Reminiscences of Bedford College; 8. Scientific work and friends in London; 9. Personal retrospect; 10. Romance; 11. Influence of the British Association; 12. Reminiscences of Coopers Hill and assistants and popular lectures; 13. Liverpool; 14. Scientific work at Liverpool; 15. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 16. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 17. Electric waves and the beginnings of wireless; 18. Other friends; 19. Family life; 20. Holidays; 21. Side issues; 22. Early experiences in psychical research; 23. Psychical research; 24. Further psychic adventures, and psycho-physical phenomena; 25. Reminiscences of my years at the university of Birmingham; 26. Birmingham friendships and recollections; 27. Scientific retrospect; 28. Apologia pro vita mea; Index.

Lodge, Oliver

2012-07-01

268

A billion-fold range in acidity for the solvent-exposed amides of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin.  

PubMed

The exchange rates of the static solvent-accessible amide hydrogens of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin range from near the diffusion-limited rate to a billion-fold slower for the non-hydrogen-bonded Val 38 (eubacterial numbering). Hydrogen exchange directly monitors the kinetic acidity of the peptide nitrogen. Electrostatic solvation free energies were calculated by Poisson-Boltzmann methods for the individual peptide anions that form during the hydroxide-catalyzed exchange reaction to examine how well the predicted thermodynamic acidities match the experimentally determined kinetic acidities. With the exception of the Ile 12 amide, the differential exchange rate constant for each solvent-exposed amide proton that is not hydrogen bonded to a backbone carbonyl can be predicted within a factor of 6 (10 (0.78)) root-mean-square deviation (rmsd) using the CHARMM22 electrostatic parameter set and an internal dielectric value of 3. Under equivalent conditions, the PARSE parameter set yields a larger rmsd value of 1.28 pH units, while the AMBER parm99 parameter set resulted in a considerably poorer correlation. Either increasing the internal dielectric value to 4 or reducing it to a value of 2 significantly degrades the quality of the prediction. Assigning the excess charge of the peptide anion equally between the peptide nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen also reduces the correlation to the experimental data. These continuum electrostatic calculations were further analyzed to characterize the specific structural elements that appear to be responsible for the wide range of peptide acidities observed for these solvent-exposed amides. The striking heterogeneity in the potential at sites along the protein-solvent interface should prove germane to the ongoing challenge of quantifying the contribution that electrostatic interactions make to the catalytic acceleration achieved by enzymes. PMID:18479148

Anderson, Janet S; Hernández, Griselda; Lemaster, David M

2008-06-10

269

Five Years at the Movies  

E-print Network

GAIA is an astrometric satellite which has been approved by the European Space Agency for launch in about 2010. It will measure the angles between objects in fields that are separated on the sky by about a radian. Data will stream continuously at 1 Mbps from GAIA's three telescopes, providing information on the positions and velocities of the billion or more astrophysical objects brighter than 20th magnitude. The motion of objects across the sky caused by their space motion and their parallactic motion, and the variability of objects in 15 wavebands, will be measured because each object is observed at least 150 times during the 5 year mission lifetime. From the raw time series, a three-dimensional movie of the motions of stars in the Galaxy will be synthesized. The alert despatcher in the GAIA mission will provide forewarning of many kinds of bursting and variable phenomena. We discuss two applications of the GAIA movie show in detail here. First, the astrometric microlensing signal will allow us to take a complete inventory of all objects -- no matter how dark -- in the solar neighbourhood. Second, the catalogue of supernovae detections will be the largest ever taken. It will provide opportunities both for follow-ups in other wavebands and numerous examples of scarce phenomena (like subluminous SNe).

N. W. Evans; V. Belokurov

2002-12-02

270

Production of higher hydrides of boron by. gamma. -ray radiolysis of decaborane(14); characterization of the eleven isomers of icosaborane(26), B/sub 20/H/sub 26/, and separation and mass spectral identification of fourteen isomers of triacontaborane(38), B/sub 30/H/sub 28/  

SciTech Connect

..gamma..-ray radiolysis of crystalline B/sub 10/H/sub 14/ produced the eleven B/sub 20/H/sub 26/ isomers and twenty other isomers, fourteen of which were confirmed as B/sub 30/H/sub 38/ by mass spectrometry. Separation of the isomers was accomplished with high performance liquid chromatography. The isomers were enumerated in order of their HPLC elution.

Hatton, R.L.

1982-01-01

271

Underground natural gas storage in the United States 1979 - 1980 heating year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total gas in storage in the nation's active underground natural gas storage reservoirs as of March 31, 1980, the end of the 1979-1980 heating year, was reported at 5,129 billion cubic feet. Of this total, approximately 69.1 percent was base, or cushion, gas and 30.9 percent was working gas. Working gas totaled 1,586 billion cubic feet, approximately 28.2 percent above that available at the beginning of the heating year. The nation's 383 active storage reservoirs were operated by 77 companies. Total reservoir capacity was reported at 7,287 billion cubic feet, approximately 51.4 percent, or 3,744 billion cubic feet of which was working gas capacity. Approximately 67.9 percent of this working gas capacity was in 228 reservoirs operated by 30 interstate pipeline companies, 29.1 percent was in 142 reservoirs operated by 42 intrastate companies, and 3.1 percent was in 13 reservoirs operated by 5 independent producers.

1980-09-01

272

Million-to-Billion Atom Simulation of Chemical Reactions: Embedded Divide-and-Conquer and Hierarchical Cellular Decomposition Frameworks for Scalable Scientific Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulating chemical reactions involving billions of atoms has been a dream of scientists, with broad societal impacts. This paper realizes the dream through novel simulation methods, algorithms, and parallel computing and visualization techniques. We have designed O(N) embedded divide-and-conquer (EDC) algorithms for 1) first principles-based parallel reactive force-field (P-ReaxFF) molecular dynamics (MD), and 2) density functional theory (DFT) on adaptive

Aiichiro Nakano; Rajiv K. Kali; Ken-ichi Nomura; Ashish Sharma; Priya Vashishta; Fuyuki Shimojo; Adri C. T. van Duin; William A. Goddard; Rupak Biswas; Deepak Srivastava

273

Sub-part-per-billion monitoring of nitric oxide by use of wavelength modulation spectroscopy in combination with a thermoelectrically cooled, continuous-wave quantum cascade laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a thermoelectrically cooled, continuous-wave, quantum cascade laser operating between 1847 and 1854 cm(-1) in combination with wavelength modulation spectroscopy for the detection of nitric oxide (NO) at the sub-part-per-billion by volume (ppbv) level. The laser emission overlaps the P-7.5 doublet of NO centered around 1850.18 cm(-1). Using an astigmatic multiple-pass absorption cell with an optical path length of

B. W. M. Moeskops; S. M. Cristescu; F. J. M. Harren

2006-01-01

274

School Districts' Perspectives on the Economic Stimulus Package: Teaching Jobs Saved in 2009-10 but Teacher Layoffs Loom for Next School Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2009, school districts began receiving the first wave of federal economic stimulus money from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). Totaling about $100 billion over two years--more than double the fiscal year 2009 budget for the U.S. Department of Education (ED)--the education portion of the stimulus package…

Kober, Nancy; Scott, Caitlin; Rentner, Diane Stark; McMurrer, Jennifer; Dietz, Shelby

2010-01-01

275

Keeping Corn Farmers Seeing Green As recently as 100 years ago, farmers plowed their fields with horses and  

E-print Network

Keeping Corn Farmers Seeing Green As recently as 100 years ago, farmers plowed their fields, as corn is a key commodity in the U.S. agricultural economy, with a value nearing $66 billion in 20101 . The success of the corn industry is not only vital to farmers and the agricultural industry, but also

276

By the Year 2000: First in the World. Report of the FCCSET Committee on Education and Human Resources. FY 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Bush's budget for fiscal year (FY) 1992 includes $1.94 billion for mathematics, science, and engineering education at the precollege through postdoctoral levels. This is an increase of $225 million or 13 percent over FY 1991. This report from the Committee on Education and Human Resources of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science,…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

277

Science Journal, Fall 2011 (science.psu.edu/journal)4 volution kills. Last year, about 100,000  

E-print Network

Science Journal, Fall 2011 (science.psu.edu/journal)4 E volution kills. Last year, about 100 that transmit them have evolved resistance to all classes of insecticides approved for malaria control billion per decade for anti-malarial drug discovery to stay in the game. Bringing a new insecticide

Read, Andrew

278

Federal Statistics. A Special Report on the Statistical Programs and Activities of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1986.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Federal Government will spend an estimated $1.5 billion in fiscal year 1986 for the production and publication of statistical data. This estimate represents the expected obligations for statistical activities of over 70 agencies or departmental units reporting outlays of at least $500,000 for such activities in their budgets for any of fiscal…

Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC. Statistical Policy Div.

279

Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992  

SciTech Connect

During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

Not Available

1992-12-31

280

Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993  

SciTech Connect

During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program`s oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994.

Not Available

1993-12-31

281

Drug Prohibition and Public Health: 25 Years of Evidence  

PubMed Central

FOR THE PAST 25 YEARS, the US has pursued a drug policy based on prohibition and the vigorous application of criminal sanctions for the use and sale of illicit drugs. The relationship of a prohibition-based drug policy to prevalence patterns and health consequences of drug use has never been fully evaluated. To explore that relationship, the author examines national data on the application of criminal penalties for illegal drugs and associated trends in their patterns of use and adverse health outcomes for 1972–1997. Over this 25-year period, the rate at which criminal penalties are imposed for drug offenses has climbed steadily, reaching 1.5 million arrests for drug offenses in 1996, with a tenfold increase in imprisonment for drug charges since 1979. Today, drug enforcement activities constitute 67% of the $16 billion Federal drug budget and more than $20 billion per year in state and local enforcement expenditures, compared with $7.6 billion for treatment, prevention, and research. Despite an overall decline in the prevalence of drug use since 1979, we have seen dramatic increases in drugrelated emergency department visits and drug-related deaths coinciding with this period of increased enforcement. Further, while black, Hispanic, and white Americans use illegal drugs at comparable rates, there are dramatic differences in the application of criminal penalties for drug offenses. African Americans are more than 20 times as likely as whites to be incarcerated for drug offenses, and drug-related emergency department visits, overdose deaths, and new HIV infections related to injecting drugs are many times higher for blacks than whites. These outcomes may be understood as public health consequences of policies that criminalize and marginalize drug users and increase drug-related risks to life and health. Imagesp14-ap15-ap16-ap21-ap24-a PMID:9925168

Drucker, Ernest

1999-01-01

282

53 Persei Observations, 14 Years of Persistence Rewarded  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the analysis of fourteen years of observations of the non-radially pulsating star, 53 Persei, obtained with the Four-College Consortium Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT). We previously discussed analyses of four (AAS 185th meeting, #80.07, 1994) and ten seasons (AAS 197th meeting, #46.11, 2000) respectively. In this paper we present a summary of the analysis of the entire fourteen seasons of data. We have eliminated observations not passing various observational checks that have been devised to eliminate APT observations obtained under non-photometric conditions. Our current data set runs from the fall of 1990 through the spring of 2004. Our analysis of these observations shows that the two frequencies (0.46 c d-1 and 0.59 c d-1) identified by Smith, et. al. (Ap. J. 282, 226, 1984) and confirmed by Huang, et. al. (Ap. J. 431, 850, 1994) are present. In addition to the four other frequencies we earlier reported we now extend our list to eleven frequencies. Five of these are apparently combination terms. The complete list is f1=0.4612 c d-1, f2=0.5939 c d-1, f3=0.4715 c d -1, f4=0.5689 c d-1, f5=0.2593 c d-1, f6=0.6636 c d-1, f1+f2=1.05517 c d -1, 2f5=0.5186 c d-1, f1+f4 =0.9328 c d-1, f1 +f2+f5 = 1.31 c d-1, and f4-2f5=0.05 c d-1. Some of the combination terms are stronger than some of the main frequencies. For terms of sufficient strength to permit adequate phase determination their position on the amplitude ratio versus phase difference plot for Stromgren photometry from the models of Townsend (MNRAS, 330, 855, 2002) indicate that these are all l =1, g-modes. Finally, the strongest frequencies show a significant (u-b) color variation. There is also some indication of either a frequency splitting in the strongest terms and/or a slight change in these frequencies over the fourteen years of observation. This work has been supported in part by NSF grants #AST86-16362, #AST91-15114, #AST95-28906, and #AST-0071260 to the College of Charleston.

Dukes, R. J., Jr.; Mills, L. R.

2004-12-01

283

Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: Child Development, Molecular Genetics, andWhat to Do With Genes Once They Are Found (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental research are still relevant today. The problem lies with the phrase “once they are found”: It has been much more difficult than expected to identify genes responsible for the heritability of complex traits and common disorders, the so-called missing heritability problem. The present article considers reasons for the missing heritability problem and possible solutions. PMID:22469254

Plomin, Robert

2013-01-01

284

Evidence for basaltic volcanism on the Moon within the past 100 million years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bulk of basaltic magmatism on the Moon occurred from 3.9 to 3.1 billion years ago on the ancient lunar mare plains. There is evidence for basaltic volcanism as recently as 2.9 billion years ago from crystallization ages and a billion years ago from stratigraphy. An enigmatic surface formation named Ina (18.65° N, 5.30° E) may represent much younger mare volcanism, but age estimates are poorly constrained. Here we investigate 70 small topographic anomalies, termed irregular mare patches (100-5,000 m maximum dimension), on the lunar nearside with irregular morphologies and textures similar to Ina, using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter narrow angle camera images, digital terrain models and wide angle camera colour ratios. The irregular mare patches exhibit sharp, metre-scale morphology with relatively few superposed impact craters larger than ten metres in diameter. Crater distributions from the three largest irregular mare patches imply ages younger than 100 million years, based on chronology models of the lunar surface. The morphology of the features is also consistent with small basaltic eruptions that occurred significantly after the established cessation of lunar mare basaltic volcanism. Such late-stage eruptions suggest a long decline of lunar volcanism and constrain models of the Moon's thermal evolution.

Braden, S. E.; Stopar, J. D.; Robinson, M. S.; Lawrence, S. J.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.

2014-11-01

285

Year of last Year of last  

E-print Network

FMP Stock Year of last assessment Year of last data used in last stock assessment Source document, but no status determination could be made. - A51 - #12;FMP Stock Year of last assessment Year of last data used for stock assessment Atlantic Sea Scallop Atlantic Sea Scallop 2000 2000 Stock Assessment Workshop (SAW

286

Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis  

SciTech Connect

In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

NONE

1996-01-01

287

Better Survival of Total Knee Replacement in Patients Older Than 70 Years: A Prospective Study with 8 To 12 Years Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Background: Modern knee designs have popularized its use in younger patients due to its better performance. There remains uncertainty whether higher demands of these patients can affect implant survivorship. Purpose: To assess whether modern knee designs have provided similar results in patients younger than 70 years versus older patients. Methods: We included 203 consecutive patients (236 knees) who underwent knee replacement for osteoarthritis with a mean follow-up of 11.4 years (range: 8.8 to 12). The mean age was 70 years (range: 31 to 85). Knee replacements were stratified into two groups: 109 were younger than 70 years and 127 were older than 70 years (70 years of age is the mandatory retirement age). Results: There were no significant pre-operative differences between groups with regards to knee alignment, alpha or beta angles, knee score or function score. Fourteen implants were radiographically loose at last follow up visit. Groups were matched in terms of demographic data. We found that patients older than 70 years had significantly better mean survivorship at 12 years. (97% vs. 88%; P=0.010). Patients under 70 years presented with a higher rate of polyethylene wear which was further associated with radiolucent lines in the femur and tibia as well as the presence of osteolysis. There was also an association between migration and presence of osteolysis. Conclusions: Patients over 70 years old undergoing cemented total knee replacement for osteoarthritis showed better implant survivorship versus patients under 70 years old. PMID:25692165

Fernandez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Merchan, E. Carlos

2015-01-01

288

Year-by-Year Analysis of the Bush Tax Cuts Shows Growing Tilt to the Very Rich  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently released by the Citizens for Tax Justice (CTJ) and the Children's Defense Fund, this study examines those who are most likely to benefit from the 2001-enacted Bush tax cuts in each year from 2001 through 2010. According to the report, by 2010, (if Bush's tax reductions are still in effect) 52% of the total tax cuts will go to the richest one percent of the American population. In other words, of the estimated $234 billion in tax cuts scheduled for the year 2010, $121 billion will go to those individuals with an income of $1.5 million and above. In contrast, the vast majority of American taxpayers have already received most of their tax cuts from the 2001 legislation. "As a result, freezing the Bush tax cuts at their 2002 levels would have little or no effect on 99 percent of the taxpayers, whose tax cuts are already mostly or completely 'frozen.'" Viewable in HTML or Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format, this report is concise, easily readable, and requires no more than fifteen minutes of reading time.

2002-01-01

289

The Second Year Progression  

E-print Network

The Second Year Study Progression Year Two Induction Lecture Ulrich Berger Faraday Tower Room 306 Head of Year 28 September 2007 1 / 29 #12;The Second Year Study Progression In the second year you learn . . . . . . the nuts and bolts of computer science 2 / 29 #12;The Second Year Study Progression

Berger, Ulrich

290

The Second Year Progression  

E-print Network

The Second Year Progression Looking forward Year Two Induction Lecture Monika Seisenberger Head Second Year Progression Looking forward In the Second Year You Learn: The Nuts and Bolts of Computer Year Project 2 / 23 #12;The Second Year Progression Looking forward More Programming Imperative

Harman, Neal.A.

291

The Second Year Progression  

E-print Network

The Second Year Progression Looking forward Year Two Induction Lecture Monika Seisenberger Office Second Year Progression Looking forward In the Second Year You Learn: the nuts and bolts of computer year project 2 / 25 #12;The Second Year Progression Looking forward Programming New: Functional

Seisenberger, Monika

292

Einstein's Miraculous Year  

E-print Network

With each passing year, the young Albert Einstein's achievements in physics in the year 1905 seem to be ever more miraculous. We describe why the centenary of this remarkable year is worthy of celebration.

Natarajan, Vasant; Mukunda, N

2013-01-01

293

The new FUor star HBC 722 - one year after the outburst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first results from studies of the new FU Orionis star found in the field of NGC 7000 are presented in the paper. During one year since the registration of outburst fourteen papers containing data from observations of this object have been published in the astronomical journals. These publications present photometric and spectral observations of HBC 722 ranging from the far infrared to X-ray wavelength region. HBC 722 is the first FU Orionis object, whose outburst was observed from its very beginning in all spectral ranges. We expect that the interest in this object will increase in the coming years and the results will help to explore the nature of young stars.

Semkov, Evgeni; Peneva, Stoyanka

294

Surgical management of traumatic LASIK flap dislocation with macrostriae and epithelial ingrowth 14 years postoperatively.  

PubMed

Fourteen years after uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), a 59-year-old woman presented after suffering blunt trauma to her left eye 5 weeks earlier. The injury resulted in traumatic flap dislocation, epithelial ingrowth, and significant macrostriae. Following epithelial removal, the flap was hydrated with sterile water, facilitating reduction of the macrostriae and reapproximation without the need for suture placement. The postoperative course was uneventful, and at 1 month, the epithelial ingrowth and macrostriae had resolved and the uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/30. This case represents the longest documented interval from LASIK surgery to traumatic flap dislocation. We describe our surgical approach to the management of this type of injury and present a video illustrating the technique. PMID:22112789

Holt, Derick G; Sikder, Shameema; Mifflin, Mark D

2012-02-01

295

Year of the Tiger  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Xin nian kuai le! That's happy New Year in Chinese. It's a Tiger year. The Chinese zodiac runs on a 12 year cycle and each year is governed by an animal: rat, ox , tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, goat, monkey, rooster, dog...

Hacker, Randi

2010-02-03

296

Five Years of SAFENET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety and health reporting system SAFENET has been in existence for five years. Close call reporting systems enjoy widespread use in high risk organizations throughout the world, and are studied closely in the academic community. SAFENET has now collected Wildland fire safety data for five years, which is published on a yearly basis in the SAFENET year end reports.

John E. Gould

297

Pediatric-Medical Genetics 4-Year Block Schedule Block Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four  

E-print Network

Pediatric- Medical Genetics 4-Year Block Schedule Block Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four 1/10 PEM/AI-1 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Metabolic Genetics 10/90 8 General Pediatrics Ambulatory Clinic 0/100 AMBU-2 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric

Finley Jr., Russell L.

298

An Extraordinary Year for Managing Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It's wonderful to be back home again in Indiana. I am honored to be here with you today to share two important results of effective technology management. The first is the indirect return on investment that Americans get from NASA's relatively lean annual budget, and the second is the direct economic benefits that the great state of Indiana and businesses nationwide realize through multiple contracts with NASA. As a proud Purdue graduate and deputy director of one of NASA's highest-priority, multi-billion dollar projects, I have a vested interest in this conference and in the outcome of this work. My goal today is to help you better understand the types of work in which NASA engages and to provide avenues for you to pursue opportunities with America's space Agency, if that is a good fit for your company. You may already know that NASA and various Indiana businesses and universities are partners in the pursuit of improving life on Earth through scientific discoveries that pay dividends in terms of expanded knowledge, as well as big-picture conveniences and a multitude of spin-offs. Whether your organization is large or small, NASA offers numerous opportunities to participate. Before I provide some motivating facts and figures about the aerospace industry and its economic impact, I want to set the stage by sharing several notable examples of how 2005 was an extraordinary year for technology management at NASA, a subject that I can speak about firsthand.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2006-01-01

299

Every five years, the Kennedy Center  

E-print Network

) to be supported as one of fourteen national Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Centers been renewed for 2004-2009. The Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Training and editor of The American Journal on Mental Retardation, talks by graduates, and a look back on the historic

Sarkar, Nilanjan

300

( )Ministers delay decision on site for 10-billion-dollar nuclear fusion reactor 20/12/2003 The European Union, the United States and four other countries failed in talks agree on a  

E-print Network

/12/2003 The European Union, the United States and four other countries failed in talks agree on a site for a 10-billion-dollar international nuclear fusion reactor. Delegates from the European Union, the United States, China, Japan, South negotiator Philippe Busquin replied: "It might be in February, but not before." The European Union, Russia

301

Fourteen Reasons Privacy Matters: A Multidisciplinary Review of Scholarly Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Librarians have long recognized the importance of privacy to intellectual freedom. As digital technology and its applications advance, however, efforts to protect privacy may become increasingly difficult. With some users behaving in ways that suggest they do not care about privacy and with powerful voices claiming that privacy is dead, librarians…

Magi, Trina J.

2011-01-01

302

Fair and Comprehensive Methodology for Comparing Hardware Performance of Fourteen  

E-print Network

the candidates for a cryptographic standard. Interestingly, the differences among the cryptographic algorithms of cryptographic algorithms [9]. The majority of the reported evaluations have been performed on an ad-hoc ba for cryptographic stan- dards. Up to now, no consensus exists on how such an evaluation should be performed in order

Gaj, Krzysztof

303

Total-moment spectra of fourteen large earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total-moment spectra MT(?) = ?M(?)?/?, where M is the moment rate tensor, are computed for 14 large earthquakes recorded by the International Deployment of Accelerometers (IDA) network using the scalar-moment retrieval method proposed by Silver and Jordan [1982]. For each event we obtain estimates of MT averaged over the 10 disjunct, 1-mHz intervals in the low frequency band 1-11 mHz; typical IDA record sets from events with MT ? 0.2 A (1 A = 1027 dyne · cm) yield standard errors on the 1-mHz averages that are generally less than 20%. Our multiple-band estimates of MT are usually consistent with comparable single-band values found by other investigators. From the total-moment spectra we derive the zero-frequency (static) moment ? ? MT(0) and the characteristic source duration ?c ? 2 (Var [f(t)])½, where f(t) is the time function of the moment rate tensor, assumed to be the same for all components. The parameter ?C formally depends on the second-degree temporal, spatial, and mixed spatial-temporal moments of an extended source, but calculations with realistic source geometries indicate that the interpretation of TC strictly in terms of the second temporal moment leads to very little error. A plot of ?c against ? shows considerable scatter; some events lie significantly above the empirical scaling curve of Kanamori and Given [1981] (`slow earthquakes') and some below (`fast earthquakes'). Examples of the former include all three deep-focus events analyzed here as well as the 1970 Colombia and 1963 Peru-Bolivia deep-focus earthquakes, whose total-moment spectra are calculated from the moment tensor solutions of Gilbert and Dziewonski [1975]. An example of the latter is the great Sumbawa earthquake of August 9, 1977 (? = 24±3 A), which is inferred to have a relatively shallow spatial centroid (< 20 km) and a nearly flat moment spectrum, suggesting that the faulting was confined to the upper, more brittle portion of the oceanic lithosphere. Three other large earthquakes—Tonga (June 22, 1977; ? = 23±2 A), Kuril Islands (December 6, 1978; ? = 3.6±0.2 A), and Tumaco (December 12, 1979; ? = 25±2 A)—exhibit moment spectra which significantly decrease toward higher frequencies, indicating larger values of ?c. The aftershocks of both the Tonga and Kuril Islands events are distributed over a considerable range of depths, consistent with rupture into the lower, more ductile portions of the oceanic lithosphere. We speculate that the characteristic source duration may be causally related to the depth of coseismic rupturing within the lithosphere.

Silver, Paul G.; Jordan, Thomas H.

1983-04-01

304

Fourteen at One Blow: The Market Entry of Turquoise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the market entry of Turquoise in September 2008. Turquoise started trading stocks from 14 European countries at (almost) the same time. We find that Turquoise gained higher market shares in larger and less volatile stocks, and in stocks that had excessively high pre-entry spreads. The entry of Turquoise led to a decrease in spreads but not to

Jordis Hengelbrock; Erik Theissen

2009-01-01

305

Determining Work Culture Scores for Fourteen Developed Nations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As business relationships become increasingly global in nature, a new methodology for understanding the approach to work in various nations is needed. When involved in business dealings with international partners, it is crucial that the modern businessperson understand and empathize with the culture of the company with which he or she is working.…

Belote, Michael D.

2005-01-01

306

Project Year Project Team  

E-print Network

Project Year 2003 Project Team Faculty: Deborah Mifflin, German Department, Krieger School of Arts of Engineering Project Title Advanced German Audience Students taking both second-year and third-year German, and customize their own studying. Consequently, this team proposes to develop online materials for vocabulary

Gray, Jeffrey J.

307

Year 1 Year 2 Anne 3 Anne 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7Year 3 Year 4 INGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIENINGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIEN  

E-print Network

: Biology / Chemistry / Computer Science / Economics / Energy / Mechanics and Environmental Sciences / Mathematics and Applied Mathematics / Physics / Science, Technology & Society / Software Systems / Innovation Duration: 2 years - Possibility to be directly admitted to Year 2 Master of ScienceMaster of Science #12

Cengarle, María Victoria

308

Healthy Homes Program Logic Model Issue(s): Economic losses from unhealthy housing costs billions annually to consumers and communities. Every year, unhealthy housing is the source of an estimated 250,000  

E-print Network

,000 cases of childhood lead poisonings, 800,000 asthma-related emergency room visits, 20,000 carbon monoxide of integrated pest management practices · Awareness of health effects of carbon monoxide poisoning lead levels in children · Reduction of carbon monoxide poisoning · Radon-resistant new construction

309

NATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM DURING THE ARRA PERIOD: PROGRAM YEARS 2009-2011  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the third major evaluation of the Program, encompassing program years 2009 to 2011. In this report, this period of time is referred to as the ARRA Period. This is a special period of time for the Program because the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 has allocated $5 billion of funding for the Program. In normal program years, WAP s annual appropriation is in the range of $200-250 million, supporting the weatherization of approximately 100,000 homes. With the addition of ARRA funding during these program years, the expectation is that weatherization activity will exceed 300,000 homes per year. In addition to saving energy and reducing low-income energy bills, expanded WAP funding is expected to stimulate the economy by providing new jobs in the weatherization field and allowing low-income households to spend more money on goods and services by spending less on energy.

Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Rose, Erin M [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL; Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL

2012-08-01

310

Perceptual narrowing of linguistic sign occurs in the 1st year of life.  

PubMed

Over their 1st year of life, infants'"universal" perception of the sounds of language narrows to encompass only those contrasts made in their native language (J. F. Werker & R. C. Tees, 1984). This research tested 40 infants in an eyetracking paradigm and showed that this pattern also holds for infants exposed to seen language-American Sign Language (ASL). Four-month-old, English-only, hearing infants discriminated an ASL handshape distinction, while 14-month-old hearing infants did not. Fourteen-month-old ASL-learning infants, however, did discriminate the handshape distinction, suggesting that, as in heard language, exposure to seen language is required for maintenance of visual language discrimination. Perceptual narrowing appears to be a ubiquitous learning mechanism that contributes to language acquisition. PMID:22277043

Palmer, Stephanie Baker; Fais, Laurel; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Werker, Janet F

2012-01-01

311

Celebrating 50 Years!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author congratulates members of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) on celebrating the 50th anniversary of their annual conference. These conferences have kept the spirit alive from the early years, especially the engagement in investigative, collaborative, and reasoning activities. In the 50th year as an association, the author…

Kristjansdottir, Anna

2011-01-01

312

Gap year volunteer tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The valorisation of cross-cultural understanding and promotion of an ethic of global citizenship are at the forefront of the recent development and proliferation of international ‘gap year’ travel programs and policies. Governments and industry alike promote gap year travel uncritically as a guaranteed pathway to the development of inclusive ideologies associated with global citizenship. In this paper we examine how

Stephen Wearing; John Neil

313

Multi-year ice  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

ARCTIC OCEAN - A multi-year ice floe slides down the starboard side of the Coast Guard Cutter Healy Aug. 11, 2009, as the ship heads north into even thicker ice. "You can tell that this is a multi-year ice floe by the light blue melt ponds that have formed on top of the floe," said Pablo Clemente-Co...

2010-02-19

314

Double Spring Year  

E-print Network

--and such an anomaly is practically an astrological guarantee of marital bliss. To fuel the frenzy even further, this double spring year will be followed by the ominous Year of the Widow which pretty much everyone would argue sounds like a bad time to get married...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William; vonHolten, Leslie

2006-12-13

315

Final Year Project Report  

SciTech Connect

In the last years of this eighteen-year grant project, the research efforts have focused mostly on the study of off-shell representations of supersymmetry, both on the worldline and on the world- sheet, i.e., both in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and in supersymmetric field theory in 1+1-dimensional spacetime.

Hubsch, Tristan [Howard University

2013-06-20

316

Pictures of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the oldest and most prestigious photojournalism competitions, Pictures of the Year was established 58 years ago by a University of Missouri-Columbia photojournalism professor. This year's overall winners will be announced on April 19, but in the meantime, readers can view the winning photos and those that received the Award of Excellence in the three major categories: Newspaper, Magazine, and General. These images were selected from over 32,000 entries, and they run the full gamut of subject matter and emotion. Visitors will find images that are amusing, inspiring, beautiful, and heartbreaking. Highly recommended and well worth a visit.

317

7.RP Comparing Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Historically, different people have defined a year in different ways. For example, an Egyptian year is 365 days long, a Julian year is 365$\\frac14$ day...

318

MoonYear Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet displays the phases of the Moon for calendar years 1971-2052 by month. Clicking on the day and phase gives the phase and lumination at local noon. A downloadable version is also available.

Giesen, Juergen

319

Project Year Project Team  

E-print Network

Project Year 2005 Project Team Daniel Ursu, Student, Biomedical Engineering Department, Whiting, optimizations, finite element analysis and CNC manufacturing. However, most students enter these classes School of Engineering; Daniel Stoianovici, Faculty, Department of Urology, School of Medicine Project

Gray, Jeffrey J.

320

Biochemistry Biochemist 6 years  

E-print Network

Biochemistry Biochemist ­ 6 years Objective To train professionals of a high scientific of studies has the following orientations: Vegetal and Ground Biochemistry; Microbiology and Inmunobiology ; Basic Biochemistry, Biotechnology; Clinic Biochemistry; Food Science and Nutrition. Besides, students

Groisman, Pablo

321

Happy (Chinese) New Year!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

Johnson, Georgia G.

1979-01-01

322

Yearly Arctic Temperature Anomaly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the yearly temperature anomaly over the Arctic region from 1981-82 through 2002-03. Years run from August 1 through July 31. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -7.0 to +7.0 degrees Celsius in increments of .25 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

323

Fiscal Year 2003  

Cancer.gov

The Nation’s Investment in Cancer Research A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 P re p a r ed by the Dir e c t o r National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 . . . bringing together the resources to stimulate and support scientific discovery and its application to achieve a future when all cancers are uncommon and easily treated.

324

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson demonstrates the link between the tilt of the Earth's axis to the plane of the ecliptic and seasons of the year, length of day, effectiveness of sunlight, and polar day and night. It discusses how the inclination of the Earth's rotation axis causes seasons of the year, by varying the length of the local day and the angle at which the Sun's rays arrive on the surface of the Earth, and to recognize that seasons in the southern hemisphere (at middle latitudes) occur at opposite parts of the year from seasons in the US and Europe. The student will also realize that the seasons in the middle-latitudes in US and Europe are quite different from seasons experienced near the equator and also know about the polar day, when the Sun never sets but just marches around the horizon, and the polar night, when it never rises.

Stern, David

325

Emergent technologies: 25 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

Rising, Hawley K.

2013-03-01

326

Five years of Trials  

PubMed Central

This editorial marks the launch of a special collection of articles highlighting 'Five years of Trials' (http://www.trialsjournal.com/series/5years). The journal's achievements on its objectives since 2006 are described and some of the challenges still ahead are outlined - in particular further innovating in the reporting of trials and the publication of negative results. The other articles in this series are examples of where Trials has demonstrated progress on its objectives. These include the publication of raw data, extended versions of previously published trial-related articles, descriptions of 'lessons learned', negative results, and educational articles regarding ethics and reporting bias. PMID:22112799

2011-01-01

327

Developmental milestones record - 4 years  

MedlinePLUS

Normal childhood growth milestones - 4 years; Growth milestones for children - 4 years; Childhood growth milestones - 4 years ... of about 6 grams per day The average 4 year old weighs 40 lbs and is 40 ...

328

Developmental milestones record - 3 years  

MedlinePLUS

Normal childhood growth milestones - 3 years; Growth milestones for children - 3 years; Childhood growth milestones - 3 years ... provider. Physical and motor milestones for a typical 3-year-old may include: Gains about 4 - 5 ...

329

The Economic Benefits Resulting from the First 8 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000–2007)  

PubMed Central

Background Between 2000–2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 4–6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. Methodology To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization Principal Findings An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. Conclusions/Significance MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with favorable program implementation costs (largely a result of the sustained commitments of donated drugs from the pharmaceutical industry) it is clear that the economic rate of return of the GPELF is extremely high and that this Programme continues to prove itself an excellent investment in global health. PMID:20532228

Chu, Brian K.; Hooper, Pamela J.; Bradley, Mark H.; McFarland, Deborah A.; Ottesen, Eric A.

2010-01-01

330

Reauthorization of the National Science Foundation, 1985. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United State Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on Examining the Reauthorization of Appropriations for the National Science Foundation for Fiscal Year 1985 (April 4, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These hearings focused on the reauthorization of appropriations for the National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 1985. (The Reagan administration's request for the NSF was $1.5 billion, an increase of 13.6 percent over the FY 1984 budget.) The hearings include a prepared statement from Edward Knapp (NSF director) which provides an…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

331

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover,

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-01-01

332

ARITHMETIC PROGRAM FOURTH YEAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE 4TH YEAR SHOULD CONTINUE THE SEQUENTIAL PRESENTATION MATHEMATICAL UNDERSTANDINGS AND RELATIONSHIPS. NEW LEARNINGS SHOULD BE PRESENTED CONCRETELY IN SOCIAL SETTINGS WITHIN THE CHILDREN'S FRAMEWORK OF UNDERSTANDING. GRAPHIC MATERIALS MAY BE USED TO BRIDGE THE UNDERSTANDINGS FROM THE CONCRETE TO THE ABSTRACT LEVEL. THE NUMBER SYSTEM UNIT SHOULD…

GARBER, CLAIRE N.

333

Year 6 Booster Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These eight booster units have been designed to provide extra, targeted support for pupils in Year 6. Each unit is based on teaching objectives from the National Literacy Strategy Framework but also focuses on Target Statements for Writing (spelling, sentence construction, language effects, punctuation, purpose and organization, and process). Each…

Department for Education and Employment, London (England).

334

The Lost Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thousands of children were deprived of schooling in the difficult aftermath of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq five years ago. During those times, more than 2 million Iraqis have fled their homeland, mainly to Jordan and Syria. Even though the schoolchildren who came to these neighboring Arab lands with their families are now given seats in…

Zehr, Mary Ann; Mousa, Yasmine

2008-01-01

335

European Music Year 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

1984-01-01

336

Eleventh Year Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This outline for Eleventh Year Mathematics in New York adheres closely to the recommendations of The Commission of Mathematics of the College Entrance Examination Board and thus presents a unified development of certain aspects of algebra, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. Its aim is both as a terminal course in mathematics and as a solid…

Buchman, Aaron; Zimmerman, Robert

337

Project Year Project Title  

E-print Network

Project Year 2011-2012 Project Title Natural Language Processing Java-Based e-Library Project Team of natural language processing and translation. Solution It is time for a more integrated educational approach. A Java-based e-library will allow students to solve real problems in natural language processing

Gray, Jeffrey J.

338

The Turbulent Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary of the Fourth Annual Conference on Major Transitions in the Human Life Cycle contains a preface, introductory section on adolescence and young adulthood (ages 14 through 24 years), and the following presentations, complete with discussion text: (1) "Historical Treatment of the Age Group" (John Demos); (2) "Demographic Considerations"…

Scanlon, John, Ed.

339

ACADEMIC YEAR 1997 POSTGRADUATE  

E-print Network

Nearly 1,500 students attend the Naval Postgraduate School. The student body consists of officers from, EngineeringAcoustics,EngineeringScience,InformationTechnologyManagement,International Resource Planning1 ACADEMIC YEAR 1997 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL CATALOG #12;2 OVERVIEW The School The Naval

340

Smog - the learning years  

SciTech Connect

35 years of continuous work by government and industry and the public have led to a very sophisticated system of emission controls. This paper is intended to recall and perhaps to honor those who participated in the hectic early period, when instrumentation, basic knowledge, and primitive devices competed for the attention of these pioneers with strident demands from policitians.

Heinen, C.M.; Fagley, W.S. Jr.

1989-01-01

341

Recasting the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators consider the final year of high school to be a "vast wasteland," an epidemic of disengagement. Although high schools across the country have struggled with senioritis, their approaches to the problem have largely fallen into one of three types of responses: vertical acceleration; remediation; and structured containment. New Trier…

Drels, Janice; Rehage, Larry

2008-01-01

342

ISME Celebrates 50 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When members of the International Society for Music Education (ISME) met in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain in July for the 26th ISME World Conference, the gathering was an opportunity to share music from around the world, and to attend music education workshops. It was also an opportunity for its members to look back on the rich 50-year history…

Teaching Music, 2004

2004-01-01

343

Consolidated Federal Funds Report, Fiscal Year 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the latest US Census Bureau's Consolidated Federal Funds Report (CFFR), federal domestic spending reached $1.5 trillion in 1998, up 3.7 percent from 1997, and social security increased by 3.9 percent at $403 billion. Census Bureau staff cite payments for disability and retirement as well as grants and procurement contracts as the main reasons for the increases.

344

150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

345

Archiving 40+ Years of Planetary Mission Data - Lessons Learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has invested billions of dollars and millions of man-hours in obtaining information about our planet and its neighbors. Will the data obtained from those investments be accessible in 50 years, nae 20 or even 10? Will scientists be able to look back at the record and understand what stayed the same or has changed? Saving the data is critical, we all understand that, and keeping it reformatted to maintain usability is a given. But what is easily more critical is saving the information that allows a future person to use these data. This work explores the difficul-ties, costs and heartaches encountered with archiving data from six major NASA missions spanning 40+ years: Mariner 6, 7 and 9, Pioneer Venus, Voyager and Galileo. Some of these lessons are a) a central archive for Mission documents needs to be established, b) metadata from the early stages of a mission are frequntly poorly recorded, c) instrument microprocessors improve science flexibility but make documenting harder, d) archiving observation de-signs improves data recovery, e) more post mission time and dollars need to be allocated to archiving, f) additional PDS node funding would support more timely data ingestion, faster peer review and quicker public access and g) trained archivists should be part of mission teams at all levels. This work is supported from ROSES grant NNX09AM04GS04.

Simmons, K. E.

2012-12-01

346

Year 1 Year 2 Anne 3 Anne 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7Year 3 Year 4 INGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIENINGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIEN  

E-print Network

Ecole Polytechnique -- TUTU MMüünchennchen Double Degree ProgramDouble Degree Program Three degrees in 6 years to the Stars - Laser, Optics, Plasmas - From Atom to Material - From Materials to Applications Mathematics of the candidate's academic records and his or her results in the examinations. Double Degree ProgramDouble Degree

Cengarle, María Victoria

347

Phosphogenesis in the 2460 and 2728 million-year-old banded iron formations as evidence for biological cycling of phosphate in the early biosphere.  

PubMed

The banded iron formation deposited during the first 2 billion years of Earth's history holds the key to understanding the interplay between the geosphere and the early biosphere at large geological timescales. The earliest ore-scale phosphorite depositions formed almost at ?2.0-2.2 billion years ago bear evidence for the earliest bloom of aerobic life. The cycling of nutrient phosphorus and how it constrained primary productivity in the anaerobic world of Archean-Palaeoproterozoic eons are still open questions. The controversy centers about whether the precipitation of ultrafine ferric oxyhydroxide due to the microbial Fe(II) oxidation in oceans earlier than 1.9 billion years substantially sequestrated phosphate, and whether this process significantly limited the primary productivity of the early biosphere. In this study, we report apatite radial flowers of a few micrometers in the 2728 million-year-old Abitibi banded iron formation and the 2460 million-year-old Kuruman banded iron formation and their similarities to those in the 535 million-year-old Lower Cambrian phosphorite. The lithology of the 535 Million-year-old phosphorite as a biosignature bears abundant biomarkers that reveal the possible similar biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the Later Archean and Palaeoproterozoic oceans. These apatite radial flowers represent the primary precipitation of phosphate derived from the phytoplankton blooms in the euphotic zones of Neoarchean and Palaoeproterozoic oceans. The unbiased distributions of the apatite radial flowers within sub-millimeter bands do not support the idea of an Archean Crisis of Phosphate. This is the first report of the microbial mediated mineralization of phosphorus before the Great Oxidation Event when the whole biosphere was still dominated by anaerobic microorganisms. PMID:23404127

Li, Yi-Liang; Sun, Si; Chan, Lung S

2012-01-01

348

Phosphogenesis in the 2460 and 2728 million-year-old banded iron formations as evidence for biological cycling of phosphate in the early biosphere  

PubMed Central

The banded iron formation deposited during the first 2 billion years of Earth's history holds the key to understanding the interplay between the geosphere and the early biosphere at large geological timescales. The earliest ore-scale phosphorite depositions formed almost at ?2.0–2.2 billion years ago bear evidence for the earliest bloom of aerobic life. The cycling of nutrient phosphorus and how it constrained primary productivity in the anaerobic world of Archean–Palaeoproterozoic eons are still open questions. The controversy centers about whether the precipitation of ultrafine ferric oxyhydroxide due to the microbial Fe(II) oxidation in oceans earlier than 1.9 billion years substantially sequestrated phosphate, and whether this process significantly limited the primary productivity of the early biosphere. In this study, we report apatite radial flowers of a few micrometers in the 2728 million-year-old Abitibi banded iron formation and the 2460 million-year-old Kuruman banded iron formation and their similarities to those in the 535 million-year-old Lower Cambrian phosphorite. The lithology of the 535 Million-year-old phosphorite as a biosignature bears abundant biomarkers that reveal the possible similar biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the Later Archean and Palaeoproterozoic oceans. These apatite radial flowers represent the primary precipitation of phosphate derived from the phytoplankton blooms in the euphotic zones of Neoarchean and Palaoeproterozoic oceans. The unbiased distributions of the apatite radial flowers within sub-millimeter bands do not support the idea of an Archean Crisis of Phosphate. This is the first report of the microbial mediated mineralization of phosphorus before the Great Oxidation Event when the whole biosphere was still dominated by anaerobic microorganisms. PMID:23404127

Li, Yi-Liang; Sun, Si; Chan, Lung S

2013-01-01

349

Sustainability at the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station The challenges facing our planet are daunting. The human population is predicted to surpass nine billion by 2050;  

E-print Network

a "Culture of Sustainability." The Station's staff of 55 operates CALS research farms and plant growth" precipitation events (storms) will happen with increasing frequency. Some parts of the country will continueWh/year, and constructing a new combined heating and power plant that eliminates the on-site use of coal and shrinks

350

Ensembl's 10th year.  

PubMed

Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org) integrates genomic information for a comprehensive set of chordate genomes with a particular focus on resources for human, mouse, rat, zebrafish and other high-value sequenced genomes. We provide complete gene annotations for all supported species in addition to specific resources that target genome variation, function and evolution. Ensembl data is accessible in a variety of formats including via our genome browser, API and BioMart. This year marks the tenth anniversary of Ensembl and in that time the project has grown with advances in genome technology. As of release 56 (September 2009), Ensembl supports 51 species including marmoset, pig, zebra finch, lizard, gorilla and wallaby, which were added in the past year. Major additions and improvements to Ensembl since our previous report include the incorporation of the human GRCh37 assembly, enhanced visualisation and data-mining options for the Ensembl regulatory features and continued development of our software infrastructure. PMID:19906699

Flicek, Paul; Aken, Bronwen L; Ballester, Benoit; Beal, Kathryn; Bragin, Eugene; Brent, Simon; Chen, Yuan; Clapham, Peter; Coates, Guy; Fairley, Susan; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Gordon, Leo; Gräf, Stefan; Haider, Syed; Hammond, Martin; Howe, Kerstin; Jenkinson, Andrew; Johnson, Nathan; Kähäri, Andreas; Keefe, Damian; Keenan, Stephen; Kinsella, Rhoda; Kokocinski, Felix; Koscielny, Gautier; Kulesha, Eugene; Lawson, Daniel; Longden, Ian; Massingham, Tim; McLaren, William; Megy, Karine; Overduin, Bert; Pritchard, Bethan; Rios, Daniel; Ruffier, Magali; Schuster, Michael; Slater, Guy; Smedley, Damian; Spudich, Giulietta; Tang, Y Amy; Trevanion, Stephen; Vilella, Albert; Vogel, Jan; White, Simon; Wilder, Steven P; Zadissa, Amonida; Birney, Ewan; Cunningham, Fiona; Dunham, Ian; Durbin, Richard; Fernández-Suarez, Xosé M; Herrero, Javier; Hubbard, Tim J P; Parker, Anne; Proctor, Glenn; Smith, James; Searle, Stephen M J

2010-01-01

351

[Ryazan hospital--80 years].  

PubMed

In December 2011 marked 80 years of the founding of the Ryazan garrison hospital, originally housed in two buildings: "Redut housed"--a monument of architecture of the XVIII century and the former almshouses room "for the maimed in the war", was built in 1884 now Ryazan garrison hospital (from 2010--Branch No 6 FSI "in 1586 the district military hospital in the Western Military District", the Defense Ministry of Russia)--a multi-field medical preventive institution on the basis of which soldiers, military retirees, family members and military retirees from Ryazan, Moscow, Tambov regions are treated. Every year more than 7 thousand patients get treatment here. During the counterterrorism operations in Chechnya over 800 wounded were brought to the hospital from the battle area. PMID:22558855

Klimov, A S; Gromov, M F

2012-02-01

352

Ten Years of Chandra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We celebrated the 10-th anniversary of the Launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory on July 13, 2009. During these 10 years data from this Great Observatory have had a profound impact on 21st century astrophysics. With its unrivaled capability to produce sub-arcsecond images, the Observatory has enabled astronomers to make new discoveries in topics as diverse as comets and cosmology. We shall review some of the highlights, discuss the current status, and future plans.

Weisskopf, Martin C.

2009-01-01

353

[NVOG celebrates 125 years].  

PubMed

In light of the 125th anniversary of the Dutch Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (NVOG), the Netherlands Journal of Medicine (NTvG) will publish a series of articles over the coming months. The articles will cover various topics from the specialty areas of gynaecology and obstetrics. We hope that these articles will inspire you, so that, in another 25 years, we can report again on positive developments of our specialty for patients, doctors and the community. PMID:22784596

Kenter, Gemma; Wijma, Sjaak

2012-01-01

354

100 Years of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through comparative socio-historical analysis of American school-based drug education, this review critically examines past perspectives and practices and how they shaped current pro grams. Among the key findings emerging from this analysis: Contrary to the popular belief that drug education began in the 1960s, its roots actually go back at least 115 years to the advent of compulsory temperance tnstruction.

Jerome Beck

1998-01-01

355

Stretched Lens Array (SLA) Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Space Tug: SLA-SEP Offers Multi-Billion-Dollar Savings Delivering Lunar Exploration Cargo  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past three years, our team has been developing, refining, and maturing a unique solar array technology known as the Stretched Lens Array (SLA). SLA is a cost- effective, modular, scalable, and mass-producible space power technology, offering an unprecedented portfolio of near-term performance metrics, including >300 W\\/m2 power density, >300 W\\/kg specific power, >80 kW\\/m3 stowed power, and 300-600

M. O'Neill; M. Piszczor; H. Brandhorst; C. Carpenter; A. J. Mcdanal

2006-01-01

356

Public social welfare expenditures, fiscal years 1965-87.  

PubMed

The years from 1965 to 1976 were a period of great expansion in social welfare expenditures under public law. The entry of the Federal Government into the fields of health care and education was responsible for much of the growth in the first part of this period; high inflation produced increased spending in the later years. From 1977 to 1987, the rate of growth in social welfare spending slowed considerably. In fact, since 1983 the dominant characteristic of such expenditures has been their stability. Although the amount of money spent was higher in each year, little change occurred in the relative size or the apportionment of the funds. The 1987 expenditures continued this pattern. The total amount spent, $834.4 billion, represented an increase of 6.6 percent over the previous year. This amount equaled 18.8 percent of the gross national product. In constant dollar terms, the increase from 1986 to 1987 was 1.7 percent. The Federal Government provided 60-62 percent of all social welfare funding from 1980 to 1986. In 1987, this share fell slightly--to 59.9 percent. The programs for social insurance, public aid, veterans, and housing were primarily Federally funded, while education was largely a State and local responsibility. Governments at all levels spent 53.4 percent of their funds for social insurance purposes in 1987, slightly more than in 1986. However, the experience at different levels of government varied considerably. Federal spending increased 2 percent as a percent of all Federal expenditures, while State and local spending decreased about 1 percent. PMID:2315818

Bixby, A K

1990-02-01

357

500 years after Columbus.  

PubMed

The astonishing range of plants and animals of Central America's 7 countries (Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama) is disappearing, as 60% of its forests have been cut for lumber and firewood as well as for cotton, cattle, or subsistence crops. Up to 5 million Mayans lived sustainably for thousands of years in an area now being destroyed by a few hundred thousand inhabitants. The Spanish colonization that started 500 years ago was concentrated in Panama, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. The majority of the English-speaking country of Belize are descended from the black slave population whose culture spread down the coast to Central America. Panama's service economy is based on the Panama Canal and trade and finance. Costa Rica benefits from a tourist industry based on its natural beauty, however, it also has the highest rate of deforestation and its fast population growth could jeopardize earlier social and economic progress. In El Salvador and Guatemala long periods of civil conflict have taken their toll on the economy and the environment. El Salvador has a mountainous territory and limited natural resources and industrialization, while the best land is in the hands of a few families. Honduras and Nicaragua retain the highest proportion of forest cover of the countries in the region, despite Nicaragua's years of tyranny, then revolution and the Contra war, and Honduras's own turmoils. Belize has achieved some stability, and is now strengthening its Central American links. Its coral reefs and coastal areas offer potential for sustainable development through fishing and tourism. Central American countries face the challenges of their fragile environments and major social problems. PMID:12317700

Imbach, A

1992-01-01

358

Fifty years of stacking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common-Mid-Point (CMP) stacking is a major process to enhance signal-to-noise ratio in seismic data. Since its appearance fifty years ago, CMP stacking has gone through different phases of prosperity and negligence within the geophysical community. During those times, CMP stacking developed from a simple process of averaging into a sophisticated process that involves complicated mathematics and state-of-the-art computation. This article summarizes the basic principles, assumptions, and violations related to the CMP stacking technique, presents a historical overview on the development stages of CMP stacking, and discusses its future potentiality.

Rashed, Mohamed

2014-06-01

359

100 Years of Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Industrial Designers Society of America, this interesting site highlights some of the most influential people and groundbreaking products in this field. Titled 100 Years of Design, the site has content that spans the 20th century and "is a monthly installment of excerpts from a proposed book" along the same lines. Fifteen famous designers are profiled, along with over 50 products. One of the people mentioned is Harley Earl, the subject of a recent line of television commercials. Many of the products are related to the automobile, but other examples include the Polaroid camera and the Wurlitzer jukebox.

Gantz, Carroll.

2002-01-01

360

20 Years of AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), May 31 marked the 20-year anniversary of the first discovery of AIDS. Perhaps not surprisingly, the Web has seen a corresponding flurry of activity devoted to the history and current status of research on the disease. The CDC has posted this site, which collects research findings from the Centers' Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, videos covering the epidemic's history and current status, and CDC bulletins and commentary. For further sites devoted to AIDS/HIV see the June 6, 2001 Scout Report for Science & Engineering).

2001-01-01

361

Infective Endocarditis in the Pediatric Patient: A 60-Year Single-Institution Review  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the epidemiology of infective endocarditis (IE) presenting in pediatric patients during a 60-year period at our institution. Patients and Methods In this retrospective medical record review, we extracted demographic characteristics, diagnostic variables, and outcomes for patients less than 20 years of age diagnosed with IE from January 1, 1980, to June 30, 2011. We compared this cohort with a previously reported cohort of pediatric patients with IE from our institution diagnosed from 1950 to 1979. Results We identified 47 patients (24 males; mean ± SD age at diagnosis, 12.3±5.5 years [range, 1 day to 18.9 years]) who had 53 episodes of IE. The most common isolated organisms were viridans streptococci (17 of 53 episodes [32%]) and Staphylococcus aureus (12 of 53 episodes [23%]). Of the 47 patients, 36 (77%) had congenital heart disease, 24 of whom had cardiac surgery before their first episode of IE (mean ± SD time to IE diagnosis after surgery, 4.2±3.2 years [range, 64 days to 11.3 years]). Fourteen patients (30%) required valve replacement because of valvular IE, and 16 (34%) had complications, including mycotic aneurysm, myocardial abscess, or emboli. Vegetations were identified using echocardiography in 37 of the 53 unique episodes of IE (70%). Endocarditis-related mortality occurred in 1 patient. Compared with the historical (1950-1979) cohort, there were no differences in patient demographic characteristics, history of congenital heart disease, or infecting organisms. One-year mortality was significantly lower in the modern cohort (4%) compared with the historical cohort (38%) (P<.001). Conclusion Most pediatric episodes of IE occur in patients with congenital heart disease. Mortality due to endocarditis has decreased in the modern era. PMID:22766082

Johnson, Jennifer A.; Boyce, Thomas G.; Cetta, Frank; Steckelberg, James M.; Johnson, Jonathan N.

2012-01-01

362

International Year of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations has declared the year 2010 as the year of biodiversity, and none too soon. The definition and importance of biodiversity is explained on the "About" page, but in brief, it's a "rich diversity [in nature which] is being lost at a greatly accelerated rate because of human activities. This...weakens the ability of the living systems, on which we depend, to resist growing threats such as climate change." The list of "Major Upcoming Celebrations" is on the middle of the homepage below the written and video "Welcome Messages" from various representatives of national governments and large non-profits. Some of the celebrations include an International Art Exhibition by young people. Visitors can click on "More Celebrations" to be taken to an interactive map of celebrations "By Countries", "Calendar" or "Success Stories". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Red List", which can be found on the homepage or in the "About" section. The "Red List of Threatened Species" highlights one species of plant or animal each day, with a photo and a couple of paragraphs on its location, vulnerability, origins, etc. The current month is shown, but visitors can view the species of the days for the "Previous Months" of 2010 as well.

UN. General Assembly (61st sess. : 2006-2007)

363

International Heliophysical Year  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Heliophysical Year (IHY), an international program of scientific collaboration to understand the external drivers of planetary environments, will be conducted in 2007. This will be a major international event of great interest to the member States. The M Y will involve the deployment of new instrumentation, new observations from the ground and in space, and an education component. The IHY 2007 will coincide with the fiftieth anniversary of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957. The IGY was organized to study global phenomena of the Earth and Geospace involving about 60,000 scientists from 66 nations, working at thousands of stations, around the world to obtain simultaneous, global observations from the ground and space. Building on results obtained during IGY 1957, the IHY will expand to the study of universal processes in the solar system that affect the interplanetary and terrestrial environments. The study of energetic events in the solar system will pave the way for safe human space travel to the Moon and planets in the future, and it will serve to inspire the next generation of space physicists.

Davila, Joseph, M.

2005-01-01

364

Developmental milestones record - 2 years  

MedlinePLUS

Growth milestones for children - 2 years; Normal childhood growth milestones - 2 years; Childhood growth milestones - 2 years ... both the content and quantity of television viewing. Limit screen time to less than 3 hours per ...

365

Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds Article Body Throughout her second year, ... for shelter. She may seem to change from one moment to the next, or she may seem ...

366

All Year Long  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, each student will keep a science journal during each of the four seasons. Students will record observations of the general outdoor environment they visit and then will make observations of one specific item from the habitat in each season. At the end of the school year, students will compare their seasonal drawings and share their results with the class. This is the 1st of 3 sets of learning activities that are part of a unit on seasons that are companion activities to the Elementary GLOBE children's book, "Mystery of the Missing Hummingbirds." Includes a teacher implementation guide. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

367

The 34 Year Starship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1974, the designers and leadership of a mission then known as ``Mariner Jupiter Saturn 1977'' decided that the name was a mouthful. They briefly deliberated and decided to rename it ``Voyager'' [1]. Similarly, we believe that ``DARPA 100 Year Starship'' is unnecessarily verbose. We propose to call it ``Enterprise.'' Among the many challenges facing such a mission is that of earning public support - we should let half a century of Hollywood storytelling do that for us. This paper is composed of four parts. Part 1 will discuss the parallels between the Voyager program and a future Enterprise program. Part 2 will go into greater detail regarding the Voyager program and the challenges and opportunities that defined it. Part 3 will discuss some of the major technical challenges for Voyager and Enterprise in greater detail. Part 4 will discuss next steps and various strategies to meet DARPA's challenge of sustainable industry-funded research into interstellar flight.

Nosanov, J.; Shapiro, A.; Garrett, H.

2012-09-01

368

Aminoglycosides--50 years on.  

PubMed Central

1. The aminoglycoside antibiotics are 50 years old. Their success and continuing use can be attributed to various factors including rapid concentration-dependent bactericidal effect, synergism with beta-lactam antibiotics, clinical effectiveness, a low rate of true resistance and low cost. 2. The aminoglycosides remain drugs of choice in many circumstances including septicaemia, other serious infections due to Gram negative bacilli, and bacterial endocarditis. 3. Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity have been the main drawbacks clinically for the aminoglycosides. 4. There has been an evolution in dosing strategies largely aimed at reducing toxicity. Therapeutic drug monitoring has been used extensively to assist dosing, and target concentrations have been advocated, such as peak concentrations of between 6 and 10 mg l-1 and through concentrations of < 2 mg l-1 for gentamicin, tobramycin and netilmicin. 5. Recently there has been a minor revolution in the approach to aminoglycoside dosing, with a change to larger doses, given less frequently. In its most convenient form this is 'Once-daily aminoglycoside dosing'. It offers the hope of better efficacy, less toxicity, and easier administration and monitoring. 6. This article summarises the background of aminoglycoside usage, leading up to the recent changes in dosing strategy. PMID:7654476

Begg, E J; Barclay, M L

1995-01-01

369

Four years of HELAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Coordination Action on HELio- and ASteroseismology (HELAS) has completed its fourth and final year of initial funding by the European Commission. Set up as a network which combines solar and stellar physics communities in the important and vigorously evolving field of seismology, HELAS has been able to coordinate the efforts of European astronomers with remarkable success. Four large international conferences including the HELAS-IV conference on Lanzarote as well as many workshops were organized with a substantial contribution from HELAS. About a dozen workshops, addressing specialized questions in global and local helioseismology and asteroseismology were entirely organized by HELAS. Data analysis tools to prepare the European communities for the upcoming influx of data from new missions have been prepared, tested and demonstrated. Lecture notes and outreach material have been assembled and prepared for general access. As a result, HELAS has an important impact on the scientific output of the astrophysics seismology communities and significantly increased the visibility of European research in this field. This paper summarizes the activities and accomplishments of HELAS.

Roth, M.; Lühe, O. v. d.; Aerts, C.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Corbard, T.; Daszy?ska-Daszkiewicz, J.; Di Mauro, M. P.; Gizon, L.; Jiménez-Reyes, S.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Pallé, P. L.; Thompson, M. J.

2010-12-01

370

The Early Years: Focus on the Young Child and Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen brief articles focus on the young handicapped child and his family. Articles have the following titles and authors: "Elements of Early Care and Education" (W. Fowler); "Mothers and Fathers--The Special Child's Special Resources" (M. Lamb); "Child Development--Knowledge and the Special Educator" (A. Honig); "The Handicapped Child in the…

Cataldo, Christine, Ed.

1981-01-01

371

Body size and body composition change trends in preschool children over a period of five years.  

PubMed

The study investigated the changes of body size and composition in the sample of 296 preschool urban dwelling children aged 6.5 +/- 0.8 years over a period of five years. Fourteen anthropometric measures were taken. Body mass index (BMI), the sum of skinfolds, the fat percentage and fat-free mass (FFM) were computed. The significant changes in body size and composition over the observed period were found. A significant increase in height and weight was registered in the boys. The average BMI did not change significantly while body fatness was significantly enlarged (from 10.79% to 16.96%, P = 0.0001) with no changes in FFM. In the girls there were no significant changes in height, weight and BMI, while again fatness was significantly enlarged (from 15.5% to even 19.44%, P = 0.003), with a significantly decreased share of FFM (P < 0.05), primarily due to the decrease of the upper limbs' muscular mass. The greatest contribution to the discriminant function was obtained by the skinfolds in the boys and by the arm length and forearm circumference in the girls. PMID:19408611

Horvat, Vatroslav; Misigoj-Durakovi?, Marjeta; Prskalo, Ivan

2009-03-01

372

7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.  

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

2014-01-01

373

7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

2010-01-01

374

7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

2013-01-01

375

7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

2011-01-01

376

7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

2012-01-01

377

20 Years of RECONS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) turns 20 in 2014, so we take this opportunity to review some of the highlights of the RECONS effort over the past two decades. Through comprehensive searches for new nearby stars, as well as characterization of the stars and exploration of their environments, the RECONS team has made significant contributions to our understanding of the solar neighborhood, and of our own place in the Universe. Here we highlight results detailed in more than 30 papers in The Solar Neighborhood series published in The Astronomical Journal, including: (1) a census indicating that at least 75% of all stars are red dwarfs, which have more real estate available for habitable planets than any other type of star, (2) more than 300 new stellar systems with accurate trigonometric parallaxes placing them within 25 pc, including 12 of the nearest 100 systems, (3) thousands of additional nearby star candidates identified through traditional proper motion searches and novel photometric searches for stars exhibiting minimal proper motions, (4) increases of more than 20% in the nearest white dwarf and cool subdwarf populations, (5) discovery of the nearest star, AP Col, younger than 100 million years, (6) knowledge that more than half of stellar systems contain only one star, dominated by the red dwarf multiplicity rate of only about 30%, (7) definition of the smallest main sequence star, with a radius only 9% that of the Sun (smaller than Jupiter) and a temperature of 2100K, and (8) a revelation that the smallest stars are rarely orbited by giant planets, including the elimination of planets down to half a Jupiter mass orbiting Proxima Centauri. As RECONS enters its third decade, we continue our reconnaissance of the solar neighborhood via a comprehensive survey to understand the nature of star formation by determining accurate luminosity and mass functions for the nearest stars. In addition, we are taking an inventory of nearby planets, including an astrometric search of several hundred of the nearest red dwarfs for planetary systems. This effort is supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402 and AST-1109445, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

Henry, Todd J.; RECONS

2014-01-01

378

Prevalence of Past Year Assault among Inner-City ED Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives 1) To determine the rates of past year non-partner violent assault (NPV), both victimization and aggression. 2) To assess variables associated with NPV, particularly with regards to substance use. Method A cross sectional computerized standardized survey study was conducted to assess NPV, physical and mental health, and substance use among patients presenting to an inner-city ED over two years. Patients (age 19–60) with normal vital signs in an urban ED from 9am–11pm were eligible; pregnant patients and those with a chief complaint of psychiatric evaluation were excluded. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict any NPV Results 10,744 patients were enrolled (80 % response rate); 14% of the sample reported any past year NPV (9% perpetration; 11% victimization). Findings from regression analyses found participants with any past year NPV (victimization or aggression) were more likely than their counterparts to be younger (OR 1.1), male (2.2), single (1.5), unemployed (1.1), present to the ED for injury (1.9), report poor physical health (1.32) poor mental health (1.9). They were less likely to be African-American (0.8). Alcohol use (1.7), marijuana use (2.4), cocaine use (3.1), prescription drug use (1.4) and past treatment (1.7) were associated with experiencing past year NPV. Conclusions Fourteen percent of patients seeking care in this inner-city ED experience violence with a non-partner. Substance use and cocaine specifically, was the strongest predictor of any NPV. PMID:19282061

Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Murray, Regan; Walton, Maureen A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Wojnar, Marcin; Wozniak, Piotr; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.

2010-01-01

379

2004 YEAR IN TORNADOES: WHAT A YEAR IT WAS!  

E-print Network

2004 YEAR IN TORNADOES: WHAT A YEAR IT WAS! Daniel McCarthy and Joseph Schaefer NOAA/NWS Storm Prediction Center, Norman, OK 1. INTRODUCTION 2004 will be known as the biggest tornado year since recordkeeping began in 1950. The sheer numbers of tornadoes were unprecedented: 1,819. This number eclipsed

380

Endowment Performance, Fiscal Years 1982-2012 Fiscal Year  

E-print Network

Endowment Performance, Fiscal Years 1982-2012 Fiscal Year Year-end market value (in 000's) Return (1) Spending Rate (2) Endowment Income as % of University Operating Revenue 1982 1,617,290 0.0% 5 Market Value of Endowment Funds as of June 30, 2012 Endowment Market Value Market Value % of Total Arts

381

Endowment Performance, Fiscal Years 1981-2011 Fiscal Year  

E-print Network

Endowment Performance, Fiscal Years 1981-2011 Fiscal Year Year-end market value (in 000's) Return (1) Spending Rate (2) Endowment Income as % of University Operating Revenue 1981 1,622,734 11.2% 5 REPORTS Market Value of Endowment Funds as of June 30, 2011 Endowment Market Value Market Value % of Total

382

A Different New Year: Chinese New Year, Teacher's Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides: (1) background information on the traditional celebration of the Chinese New Year and on the Chinese New Year Festival as celebrated in the United States; (2) a three day lesson plan which focuses, respectively, on the Chinese New Year Festival in San Francisco, a field trip to San Francisco's Chinatown, and the Chinese…

Huang, Joe

383

50 Year Mark Guidelines Primary 50 Year Mark  

E-print Network

Primary and Secondary master brand logo. For all materials (digital and print) where the UCI 50 Year Mark will appear with the UCI Primary and Secondary master brand logo. Note: The Secondary UCI 50 Year Mark should not be placed next to the UCI Primary and Secondary master brand logo's. Secondary 50 Year Mark For all

Rose, Michael R.

384

Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection  

SciTech Connect

This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program.

Farr, L.E.

1991-12-16

385

A Modified School Year: Perspectives from the Early Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A balanced or modified school year is a rearrangement of the traditional school calendar to provide more continuous learning throughout the school year. Students receive the same amount of instructional time as those on the traditional calendar but in-school time is more evenly balanced with out-of-school time throughout the year. It has been the…

Winter, Eileen C.

2005-01-01

386

Assessing Progress in Reducing the At-Risk Population after 13 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis  

PubMed Central

Background In 1997, the World Health Assembly adopted Resolution 50.29, committing to the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem, subsequently targeted for 2020. The initial estimates were that 1.2 billion people were at-risk for LF infection globally. Now, 13 years after the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) began implementing mass drug administration (MDA) against LF in 2000—during which over 4.4 billion treatments have been distributed in 56 endemic countries—it is most appropriate to estimate the impact that the MDA has had on reducing the population at risk of LF. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess GPELF progress in reducing the population at-risk for LF, we developed a model based on defining reductions in risk of infection among cohorts of treated populations following each round of MDA. The model estimates that the number of people currently at risk of infection decreased by 46% to 789 million through 2012. Conclusions/Significance Important progress has been made in the global efforts to eliminate LF, but significant scale-up is required over the next 8 years to reach the 2020 elimination goal. PMID:25411843

Hooper, Pamela J.; Chu, Brian K.; Mikhailov, Alexei; Ottesen, Eric A.; Bradley, Mark

2014-01-01

387

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-11-01

388

Language Development: 1 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... Language Development: 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Language Development: 1 Year Olds Article Body Early in ... assured, it’s not your imagination. He’s developing his language and comprehension skills right on schedule. This giant ...

389

Language Development: 2 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... Language Development: 2 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Language Development: 2 Year Olds Article Body Your two- ... Pay attention to how he also is using language to describe ideas and information and to express ...

390

10 Years of Great Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights selected issues on early childhood education which have been discussed in CHILD CARE INFORMATION EXCHANGE articles over the past ten years. Provides an alphabetized, index of these articles, topically arranged, which indicates month and year of publication. (RWB)

Child Care Information Exchange, 1988

1988-01-01

391

The Breakup of a Main-Belt Asteroid 450 Thousand Years Ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collisions in the asteroid belt frequently lead to catastrophic breakups, where more than half of the target's mass is ejected into space. Several dozen large asteroids have been disrupted by impacts over the past several billion years. These impact events have produced groups of fragments with similar orbits called asteroid families. Here we report the discovery of a very young asteroid family around the object 1270 Datura. Our work takes advantage of a method for identification of recent breakups in the asteroid belt using catalogs of osculating (i.e., instantaneous) asteroid orbits. The very young families show up in these catalogs as clusters in a five-dimensional space of osculating orbital elements.

Nesvorny, D.; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Bottke, W. F.

2006-06-01

392

Rapid variations in atmospheric methane concentration during the past 110,000 years  

SciTech Connect

A methane record from the GISP2 ice core reveals that millennial-scale variations in atmospheric methane concentration characterized much of the past 110,00 years. As previously observed in a shorter record from central Greenland, abrupt concentration shifts of about 50 to 300 parts per billion by volume were coeval with most of the interstadial warming events (better known as Dansgaard-Oeschger events) recorded in the GISP2 ice core throughout the last glacial period. The magnitude of the rapid concentration shifts varied on a longer time scale in a manner consistent with variations in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, which suggest that insolation may have modulated the effects of interstadial climate change on the terrestrial biosphere. 38 refs., 2 figs.

Brook, E.J.; Orchardo, J. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States); Sowers, T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1996-08-23

393

Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope - Science Highlights for the First Two Years on Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fermi science objectives cover probably everything in high energy astrophysics: How do super massive black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei create powerful jets of material moving at nearly light speed? What are the jets made of? What are the mechanisms that produce Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) explosions? What is the energy budget? How does the Sun generate high-energy gamma-rays in flares? How do the pulsars operate? How many of them are around and how different are they? What are the unidentified gamma-ray sources found by EGRET? What is the origin of the cosmic rays that pervade the Galaxy? What is the nature of dark matter? Fermi LAT successfully operates on the orbit for more than 2 years and demonstrates excellent performance, which is continuously monitored and calibrated. LAT collected> 100 billion on-orbit triggers

Moiseev, Alexander

2011-01-01

394

CELEBRATING 50 YEARS OF THE  

E-print Network

CELEBRATING 50 YEARS OF THE Centre of African Studies 1962-2012 #12;Contents 2 Director's welcome 4 CAS@50 conference 8 Centre of African Studies: The early years 10 Africa and Edinburgh: Africanus. The unprecedented expansion of recent years has been built on rising student numbers ­ currently some 50 students

Hall, Christopher

395

The Year 1999 in Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the perspective of the field of adult literacy, the year 1999 is best seen not as the penultimate year of the millennium but as the year bookended by the reauthorization of the National Literacy Act in late 1998 and the National Literacy Summit of early 2000. Both of those events represent a huge milestone, and 1999 may be regarded as the…

Speights, Dave

2001-01-01

396

Year in Review Annual Report  

E-print Network

Year in Review 2005-06 Annual Report Center for Latin American Studies University Center This has been an extraordinary year for the Center for Latin American Studies. It has been a year- ments, and contributions of the faculty and students associated with the Center for Latin American

Machery, Edouard

397

Geology -Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4  

E-print Network

Geology - Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 32160 or BL2170, and CH 1120 are not required for the Earth and Space Science teaching major as described by the Department of Education. The B.S. in Geology with the Earth and Space Science Education

398

Fiscal Year 2014 Application Guide  

E-print Network

of school education have engaged #12;2 in more than 2 years of research at universities or equivalent1 Fiscal Year 2014 Application Guide Education of Global Medical and Health Science Leaders of Admission is April 1, 2014. The period of study is, in principle, for four years with the expected

Banbara, Mutsunori

399

Fiscal Year 2013 Application Guide  

E-print Network

of school education have engaged #12;2 in more than 2 years of research at universities or equivalent1 Fiscal Year 2013 Application Guide Education of Global Medical and Health Science Leaders of Admission is October 1, 2013. The period of study is, in principle, for four years with the expected

Banbara, Mutsunori

400

Fiscal Year 2013 Application Guide  

E-print Network

is October 1, 2013. The period of study is, in principle, for four years with the expected graduation date have completed, or are scheduled to complete by the time of admission, 18 years of school education in veterinary medicine). (ii) Those who, after completing at least 16 years of school education have engaged

Banbara, Mutsunori

401

A Global Need, a Global Resource Nuclear Power and the New Millennium: In Contrast to the 25 Billion Tons of Carbon Dioxide Emitted into the Atmosphere Each Year as Fossil Fuel Waste, the Spent Fuel Produced Yearly from All the World's Reactors Would Fit inside a Two-Story Structure Built on a Basketball Court  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The technological literacy standards were developed to act as a beacon for educators to guide them in their quest to develop a population of technically literate citizens who possess the skills, abilities, and knowledge necessary to actively and constructively participate in the democratic, technologically dependent society of the United States.…

Baird, Stephen L.

2004-01-01

402

Injuries from batteries among children aged <13 years--United States, 1995-2010.  

PubMed

Injuries to children caused by batteries have been documented in the medical literature and by poison control centers for decades. Of particular concern is the ingestion of button batteries, especially those ?20 mm in diameter (coin size), which can lodge in the esophagus, leading to serious complications or death. To estimate the number of nonfatal battery injuries among children aged <13 years, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) staff analyzed 1997-2010 data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). To identify fatal battery exposures, other CPSC databases covering 1995-2010 were examined, including the 1) Injury and Potential Injury Incident File; 2) Death Certificate Database (DTHS); and 3) In-Depth Investigation File (INDP). From 1997 to 2010, an estimated 40,400 children aged <13 years were treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs) for battery-related injuries, including confirmed or possible battery ingestions. Nearly three quarters of the injuries involved children aged ?4 years; 10% required hospitalization. Battery type was reported for 69% of cases, and of those, button batteries were implicated in 58%. Fourteen fatal injuries were identified in children ranging in age from 7 months to 3 years during 1995-2010. Battery type was reported in 12 of these cases; all involved button batteries. CPSC is urging the electronics industry and battery manufacturers to develop warnings and industry standards to prevent serious injuries and deaths from button batteries. Additionally, public health and health-care providers can encourage parents to keep button batteries and products containing accessible button batteries (e.g., remote controls) away from young children. PMID:22932299

2012-08-31

403

Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection  

SciTech Connect

This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven`s Medical Research Center program.

Farr, L.E.

1991-12-16

404

FISCAL YEAR 2011 BUDGET FISCAL YEAR 2010 REVISIONS  

E-print Network

........................................................................ 11 D. ORGANIZATION FUNCTIONS................................................ 14 DIVISIONAL ORGANIZATION CHART (FIGURE 3).............................. 15 E. POWER DIVISION).......................................60 APPENDIX A. FISCAL YEAR 2010 REVISIONS ........................61 APPENDIX B. INFORMATION SYSTEMS

405

FISCAL YEAR 2009 BUDGET FISCAL YEAR 2008 REVISIONS  

E-print Network

........................................................................ 11 D. ORGANIZATION FUNCTIONS................................................ 14 DIVISIONAL ORGANIZATION CHART (FIGURE 3).............................. 15 E. POWER DIVISION).......................................57 APPENDIX A. FISCAL YEAR 2008 REVISIONS ........................58 APPENDIX B. INFORMATION SYSTEMS

406

FISCAL YEAR 2010 BUDGET FISCAL YEAR 2009 REVISIONS  

E-print Network

........................................................................ 11 D. ORGANIZATION FUNCTIONS................................................ 14 DIVISIONAL ORGANIZATION CHART (FIGURE 3).............................. 15 E. POWER DIVISION).......................................58 APPENDIX A. FISCAL YEAR 2009 REVISIONS ........................59 APPENDIX B. INFORMATION SYSTEMS

407

Chandra Sees Shape of Universe During Formative, Adolescent Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have taken a snapshot of the adolescent universe from about five billion years ago when the familiar web-like structure of galaxy chains and voids first emerged. The observation reveals distant and massive galaxies dotting the sky, clustered together under the gravitational attraction of deep, unseen pockets of dark matter. This provides important clues of how the universe matured from its chaotic beginnings to its elegant structure we see today. These results are presented today in a press conference at the meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society at Mt. Tremblant, Quebec. "Piece by piece, we are assembling a photo album of the universe through the ages," said Yuxuan Yang, a doctorate candidate at the University of Maryland, College Park, who conducted the analysis. "Last month we saw a picture of the infant universe taken with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Now we can add a snapshot of its adolescence." The Chandra observation traced a patch of sky known as the Lockman Hole in the constellation Ursa Major (containing the Big Dipper). Chandra saw a rich density of active galaxies, seven times denser than what has been detected in previous optical and radio surveys at similar distances. This provides the clearest picture yet at the large-scale structure of the universe at such distances (and age), according to Dr. Richard Mushotzky of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., who led the observation. Lockman Hole JPEG, TIFF, PS An image that has been "blurred" to allow better view of the structures outlined by the X-ray sources. The color represents the spectra of the AGN. The red color indicates the sources on average radiates at longer wavelength while green and blue colors indicates the sources radiates at shorter wavelength. The Green and blue regions appear to form a wall, or shows more lumpiness than the "red" sources. If one could capture the universe in a box, scientists say that the large scale structure -- that is, galaxies, galaxy clusters and voids of seemingly empty space -- takes the appearance of a web. Galaxies and intergalactic gas are strung like pearls on unseen filaments of dark matter, which comprises over 85 percent of all matter. Galaxies are attracted to dark matter's gravitational potential. Dark matter does not shine, like ordinary matter made of atoms, and may very well be intrinsically different. Chandra's observation of distant galaxies in the Lockman Hole, spread out over several billion light years from Earth, essentially maps the distribution of dark matter. This provides clues to how the universe grew. "We are seeing the universe during its formative years," said Mushotzky. "This is billions of years after galaxies were born, during a period when the universe began to take on the trappings of an adult." The galaxies that the team saw with Chandra were either dim or altogether undetectable with optical and radio telescopes. This may be because they are enshrouded in dust and gas, which blocks radio waves and optical light. X-rays, a higher-energy form of light, can penetrate this shroud. "Chandra is the only X-ray telescope with a spatial resolution comparable to the optical telescopes," according to Dr. Amy Barger of University of Wisconsin at Madison, who led the optical follow-up with the 10-meter Keck telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. "This is critical to unambiguously identify the optical counterparts of the X-ray sources and measuring distances, or redshifts. This allows scientists to create a three-dimensional image of the large-scale structure." The additive effect of future deep and long Chandra surveys over the next few years will provide an even sharper picture of the young universe. Other scientists who participated in this observation include Drs. Len Cowie and Dave Sanders of the University of Hawaii, and Ph.D. student Aaron Steffen of the University of Wisconsin at Madison. NASA's Mar

2003-03-01

408

Five-Year Strategic Plan: Fiscal Years 2011-2015  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the U.S. Department of Education (Department) Office of Inspector General (OIG) Strategic Plan for fiscal years 2011 through 2015. This plan describes the focus and direction of OIG's operations over the next five years, establishes its organizational goals, and outlines the strategies it will employ to reach those goals and…

US Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

409

Compost 101Turn this year's trash into next year's treasure  

E-print Network

Compost 101Turn this year's trash into next year's treasure Filling and Maintaining Compost Georgia://ceps.georgiasouthern.edu/garden This brochure is funded in part by a grant from a Museums for America Grant. Types of Composting Bins To fill your compost bin, alternate brown and green materials. Keep in mind that the ideal ratio is three

Hutcheon, James M.

410

Microprocessors --10 Years Back, 10 Years Gurindar S. Sohi  

E-print Network

Microprocessors -- 10 Years Back, 10 Years Ahead Gurindar S. Sohi Computer Sciences Department computer architects with an increasing number of faster transistors with which to build microprocessors. In the past decade, architects have seized these opportunities to build microprocessors that bear lit- tle

Sohi, Guri S.

411

2008 Year in Review 1 2008 Year in Review  

E-print Network

.sutherland@canterbury.ac.nz Augmentative and alternative communication Gina Tillard MSLT: gina.tillard@canterbury.ac.nz Clinical methods2008 Year in Review 1 2008 Year in Review The Science of Communication Disorders Departmental: christine.wyles@canterbury.ac.nz Aphasia and dementia related communication and nutrition disorders

Hickman, Mark

412

Environmental Studies: 4-Year Colleges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this document on four year colleges offering environmental studies curriculum. The chart shows how a two-year energy systems degree student can transfer to complete a four-year environmental studies degree. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

413

From the Primitive Soup to Cyanobacteria: It May have Taken Less Than 10 Million Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most scientific discussions on the likelihood of extraterrestrial life have been constrained by the characteristics of life on our planet and the environmental conditions under which it may have emerged. Although it has been generally assumed that this process must have been extremely slow, involving hundreds of millions or even billions of years, a number of recent discoveries have led to a considerable compression of the time believed necessary for life to appear. It is now recognized that during its early history the Earth and other bodies of the inner Solar System went through a stage of intense collisions. Some of these impacts by large asteroids or comets may have raised the terrestrial surface to sterilizing temperatures and may have evaporated the oceans and killed off life as late as 3.8 x 10(exp 9) years ago. However, there is also ample paleontological evidence derived from the 3.5 x 10(exp 9) year old Warrawoona sediments showing that only 300 million years after the period of intense impacts ended, our planet was populated by phototactic, stromatolite-forming microorganisms. Although these discoveries are now generally interpreted to imply that the origin and early evolution of life were rapid, no attempts have been made to estimate the actual time required for these processes to occur.

Miller, Stanley L.; Lazcano, Antonio

1996-01-01

414

Visual test of subparts per billion-level copper(ii) by Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle-based solid phase extraction coupled with a functionalized gold nanoparticle probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By combining Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle-based solid phase extraction with a gold nanoparticle-based visual test, a novel method was developed for the field assay of Cu(ii) in environmental water at subparts per billion-levels within 30 min. When a 200 mL water sample was treated with 12.5 mg L-1 Fe3O4 nanoparticles by the proposed procedure, the detection limit with the naked eye was 0.2 ?g L-1 Cu(ii). The proposed method is very specific to Cu(ii), with tolerance against at least 100-fold amounts of other environmentally relevant metal ions except for Hg(ii) (25-fold), and was successfully applied to the detection of trace Cu(ii) in tap water, river water, and treated wastewater, and results agreed well with that determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).By combining Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle-based solid phase extraction with a gold nanoparticle-based visual test, a novel method was developed for the field assay of Cu(ii) in environmental water at subparts per billion-levels within 30 min. When a 200 mL water sample was treated with 12.5 mg L-1 Fe3O4 nanoparticles by the proposed procedure, the detection limit with the naked eye was 0.2 ?g L-1 Cu(ii). The proposed method is very specific to Cu(ii), with tolerance against at least 100-fold amounts of other environmentally relevant metal ions except for Hg(ii) (25-fold), and was successfully applied to the detection of trace Cu(ii) in tap water, river water, and treated wastewater, and results agreed well with that determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, synthesis, and characterization of Cys-AuNPs and Fe3O4 NPs, magnetic-solid phase extraction and colorimetric test procedures, and effects of parameters on the extraction efficiency. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31753b

Tan, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Jing-Fu; Jiang, Gui-Bin

2012-10-01

415

Imported malaria in Korea: a 13-year experience in a single center.  

PubMed

The incidence of imported malaria has been increasing in Korea. We reviewed data retrospectively to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcomes of imported malaria from 1995 to 2007 in a university hospital. All patients diagnosed with imported malaria were included. Imported malaria was defined as a positive smear for malaria that was acquired in a foreign country. A total of 49 patients (mean age, 35.7 year; M : F = 38 : 11) were enrolled. The predominant malarial species was Plasmodium falciparum (73.5%), and the most frequent area of acquisition was Africa (55.1%), followed by Southeast Asia (22.4%) and South Asia (18.4%). Fourteen-patients (30.6%) suffered from severe malaria caused by P. falciparum and 1 patient (2.0%) died of multiorgan failure. Most of the patients were treated with mefloquine (79.2%) or quinine (10.2%); other antimalarial agents had to be given in 13.2% treated with mefloquine and 44.4% with quinine due to adverse drug events (ADEs). P. falciparum was the most common cause of imported malaria, with the majority of cases acquired from Africa, and a significant number of patients had severe malaria. Alternative antimalarial agents with lower rates of ADEs might be considered for effective treatment instead of mefloquine and quinine. PMID:19724706

Cheong, Hae Suk; Kwon, Ki-Tae; Rhee, Ji-Young; Ryu, Seong Yeol; Jung, Dong Sik; Heo, Sang Taek; Shin, Sang Yop; Chung, Doo Ryun; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

2009-09-01

416

Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, fourteen local earthquakes were recorded during the third quarter of fiscal year 2008. The largest event recorded by the network during the third quarter (May 18, 2008 - magnitude 3.7 Mc) was located approximately 17 km east of Prosser at a depth of 20.5 km. With regard to the depth distribution, five earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earthquakes were classified as random events. The largest event recorded by the network during the third quarter occurred on May 18 (magnitude 3.7 Mc) and was located approximately 17 km east of Prosser at a depth of 20.5 km. This earthquake was the highest magnitude event recorded in the 46-47 N. latitude / 119-120 W. longitude sector since 1975. The May 18 event, not reported as being felt on the Hanford site or causing any damage, was communicated to the PNNL Operations Center per HSAP communications procedures. The event is not considered to be significant with regard to site safety and not unprecedented given the site’s seismic history. The Hanford strong motion accelerometer (SMA) stations at the 200 East Area, 300 Area, and the 400 Area were triggered by the May 18 event. The reportable action level of 2% g for Hanford facilities is approximately 12 times larger than the peak acceleration (0.17%) observed at the 300 Area SMA station and no action was required.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2008-09-01

417

Year-Round School Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the use of a model to compare the costs of two alternatives: initiation of a K-5, 45-15 year-round school, or the construction of an elementary school building in the Annville-Cleona, Pennsylvania, school district. The results of the analysis indicated that the initiation of a 45-15 year round plan would save the district…

Geisinger, Robert W.; Coleman, Alvin F.

418

Outlook: The Next Twenty Years  

SciTech Connect

I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

Murayama, Hitoshi

2003-12-07

419

Celebrating 40 Years Recovering Threatened  

E-print Network

Recovery Stories 15 Marine Turtles 16 Central California Coast Coho 17 Gulf Sturgeon 19 Shortnose Sturgeon 3 Forty Years of Endangered Species Protection: What's Worked and What's next? This year we protection from human actions, many of our nation's living resources would become extinct. Although previous

420

When Is Chinese New Year?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese New Year is the main holiday for more than one quarter of the world's population; very few people, however, know how to compute the date. People who are knowledgeable about science often feel that the Chinese calendar is back-wards, while people who care about Chinese culture usually lack the scientific knowledge to understand how it works. For many years,

Helmer Aslaksen

421

Do Patients Achieve Normal Gait Patterns 3 Years After Total Knee Arthroplasty?  

PubMed Central

STUDY DESIGN Longitudinal cross-sectional study. BACKGROUND In the early stages after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), quadriceps strength of the operated limb decreases and is substantially less than that of the nonoperated limb. This asymmetry in strength is related to asymmetrical movement patterns that increase reliance on the nonoperated limb. Over time, quadriceps strength in the operated limb increases but remains less than that in age-matched controls without knee pathology, whereas the quadriceps strength in the nonoperated limb gradually decreases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in quadriceps strength and function of both limbs up to 3 years after TKA and to evaluate change in interlimb kinematic and kinetic parameters over time compared to that in age-matched individuals without knee pathology. METHODS Fourteen individuals after TKA and 14 healthy individuals matched for age, weight, height, and sex participated in the study. Outcome measures included kinematics, kinetics, quadriceps strength, and functional performance. RESULTS In participants who underwent TKA, quadriceps strength was significantly different between limbs at 3 months and 1 year after TKA, but not at 3 years after TKA. In this group, there was also a significant improvement in self-reported function between 3 months and 1 year after TKA, but a significant decrease between years 1 and 3 for the physical component summary score of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. In the TKA group, there were few interlimb differences in joint kinematics and kinetics 3 years after TKA, which may be attributed to a combination of worsening in the nonoperated limb, as well as improvement in the operated limb. Differences between participants without knee pathology and those 3 years after TKA still existed for kinematic, kinetic, and spatiotemporal variables. CONCLUSION As interlimb differences in quadriceps strength decrease after TKA, there are concomitant symmetrical improvements in temporospatial and kinetic gait parameters. The symmetry 3 years after TKA in quadriceps strength is primarily the result of progressive weakness in the nonoperated limb. PMID:23090437

Yoshida, Yuri; Zeni, Joseph; Snyder-Mackler, LYNN

2014-01-01

422

Chinese TV: Better Broadcasting for the Billion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chinese television started in 1958 but variety in programming and production of sets priced within reach of individuals were slowed by the Cultural Revolution. Since the economic and political reform movement began in 1979, Chinese television has been maturing as an important cultural and political force. The People's Republic of China is a Third…

Hollstein, Milton

423

A 10 Billion MeV Cyclotron  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the design of a device which serves to demonstrate the principle of acceleration and phase stability by accelerating gravitationally a ball bearing along a spiral groove. Application of the design principle to the acceleration aspect of a linear accelerator is recommended. (CC)

Edge, R. D.

1974-01-01

424

Billions of Us: Scale and Population  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Population is increasingly important as both a scientific and a political subject. The world is getting more crowded. Providing students with the tools to understand population numbers is not only important for their basic understanding of their world, but it is also essential for their future navigation of social and political subjects ranging from energy use and the environment to globalization and the economy. How many people live in your city? Your state? Your country? Your world? How many people live in the United States versus China? This exercise helps students explore the magnitudes of populations and build familiarity with the scales of city, country, and world populations. A related exercise explores the connection between population and energy consumption by comparing the populations of various countries and their corresponding use of oil. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Introduction, and Index. As a special bonus, the chapter entitled, That's Hot! The Effect of Size on Rate of Heat Loss is also included.

Taylor, Amy R.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.

2009-04-01

425

Eight billion asteroids in the Oort cloud  

E-print Network

cent of objects ever become Oort cloud objects, rising to ?10 per cent for objects be- ginning beyond the orbit of Uranus. Qualitatively, this outcome is unsurprising, since Fernandez & Ip (1981) found that Neptune and Uranus produce Oort cloud objects... the Sun (yellow), impacted Venus (brown), impacted Earth (green), impacted Mars (red), impacted Jupiter (turquoise), impacted Saturn (grey), impacted Uranus (purple), impacted Neptune (blue), Oort cloud comet (pink), ejected (black), and otherwise still...

Shannon, Andrew; Jackson, Alan P.; Veras, Dimitri; Wyatt, Mark

2014-11-25

426

Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently possible or economical.

Patrick Laney

2005-03-01

427

Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2004  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently possible or economical.

Not Available

2005-03-01

428

Visualizing Twenty Years of Applications  

SciTech Connect

This issue of IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications marks the 20th anniversary of the Applications department as a regular feature of the magazine. We thought it might be interesting to look back at the 20 years of Applications department articles to assess its evolution over that time. By aggregating all twenty years of articles and applying a little statistical and visual analytics, we’ve uncovered some interesting characteristics and trends we thought we’d share to mark this 20 year milestone.

Potel, Mike; Wong, Pak C.

2014-11-01

429

Eight-year update of a prospective study of wide excision alone for small low- or intermediate-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).  

PubMed

Whether wide excision with margins ?1 cm is sufficient treatment for small low- or intermediate-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is unclear. This is an updated analysis of a phase II, single-arm, prospective trial testing this hypothesis. A total of 158 patients with low- or intermediate-grade DCIS who underwent wide excision alone (without radiation or tamoxifen) were entered onto the trial from 1995 to 2002. Entry criteria included mammographic extent ?2.5 cm, predominantly low or intermediate nuclear grade, and excision with final microscopic margins ?1 cm. Eight-year minimum potential follow-up was required for inclusion in the analysis; the final population comprised 143 patients. Cumulative incidence curves were generated to assess rates of local recurrence (LR) or other events. Median follow-up time was 11 years. Nineteen patients (13 %) had LR as a first event within 8 years. Thirteen LR (68 %) were DCIS only and six (32 %) were invasive. Fourteen (74 %) occurred in the original quadrant. The 10-year estimated cumulative incidence of LR was 15.6 %. The estimated annual percentage rate of LR was 1.9 % per patient-year. With longer follow-up, there remains a substantial and ongoing risk of LR in patients with favorable DCIS treated with wide excision margins without radiation. This information should be useful as patients and clinicians weigh the options of wide excision with and without radiation. PMID:24346130

Wong, Julia S; Chen, Yu-Hui; Gadd, Michele A; Gelman, Rebecca; Lester, Susan C; Schnitt, Stuart J; Sgroi, Dennis C; Silver, Barbara J; Smith, Barbara L; Troyan, Susan L; Harris, Jay R

2014-01-01

430

Environmental NO2 Level is Associated with 2-Year Mortality in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis.  

PubMed

An ongoing issue related to global urbanization is the association of air pollution with increased incidences of morbidity and mortality. However, no in-depth study has investigated this issue focusing on peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of traffic-related air pollutants and other important mortality-associated factors on 2-year mortality in PD patients.A total of 160 PD patients were recruited in this 2-year retrospective observational study. Differences in air quality were analyzed with respect to the patients' living areas. The PD patients were categorized into 2 groups according to high (n?=?65) and low (n?=?95) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure. Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, air pollutants, and dialysis-related data were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used for 2-year mortality analysis.A total of 160 PD patients (38 men and 122 women) were enrolled. Fourteen patients (8.8%) died within 2 years; among them, the causes of death were infection (n?=?10), malignancy (n?=?1), and cardiovascular events (n?=?3). Among the 10 patients who died from infection, 5, 4, and 1 died from pneumonia, PD-related peritonitis, and sepsis of unknown origin, respectively. All patients who died from pneumonia were living in high environmental NO2 exposure areas. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.073, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.013-1.137]; P?=?0.017), white blood cell count (HR 1.41, 95% CI [1.116-1.781]; P?=?0.004), log normalized protein nitrogen appearance (HR 0.0001, 95% CI [0-0.073]; P?=?0.005), high cardiothoracic ratio (HR 14.28, 95% CI [1.778-114.706]; P?=?0.012), and high environmental NO2 exposure (HR 3.776, 95% CI [1.143-12.47]; P?=?0.029) were significantly associated with 2-year mortality.PD patients with high environmental NO2 exposure had a higher 2-year mortality rate than those with low exposure. Therefore, air pollution may be associated with 2-year mortality in such patients. PMID:25569659

Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Huang, Wen-Hung

2015-01-01

431

ION CHEMISTRY 40 Years of  

E-print Network

children or grandchildren will have a ball riding go karts, playing miniature golf, racing through the mazeION CHEMISTRY 40 Years of Gateway Park Barbeque Gateway Park is a popular spot in Boulder. Your

Lineberger, W. Carl

432

Sixty years of genome biology  

PubMed Central

Sixty years after Watson and Crick published the double helix model of DNA's structure, thirteen members of Genome Biology's Editorial Board select key advances in the field of genome biology subsequent to that discovery. PMID:23651518

2013-01-01

433

First Year Results from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After one year of survey observations and more than 70 billion triggers, Fermi is revealing an unprecedented view of the high energy gamma-ray sky. The observatory .carries two instruments, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GB, 8 keV - 40 MeV) and the Large Area Telescope (LAT, 20 MeV greater than or equal to 300 GeV), which in combination cover over 7 orders of magnitude in energy for transient phenomena. The LAT provides substantially more sensitivity than previous instruments in this waveband and has opened up the energy window from 10-100 GeV. The first year has produced many important results, from detections of extremely energetic and distant gamma-ray bursts, to monitoring daily variations in emission caused by massive black holes at the cores of galaxies, to identifying a new population of gamma-ray bright pulsars, to measuring the spectrum of diffuse emission from our own. Galaxy and the spectrum of the local cosmic electrons. I'll review highlights from the first year and discuss how the data are answering questions from the past and raising new ones for the future.

Hays, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

434

Factors That Predict Financial Sustainability of Community Coalitions: Five Years of Findings from the PROSPER Partnership Project.  

PubMed

This study is a longitudinal investigation of the Promoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) partnership model designed to evaluate the level of sustainability funding by community prevention teams, including which factors impact teams' generation of sustainable funding. Community teams were responsible for choosing, implementing with quality, and sustaining evidence-based programs (EBPs) intended to reduce substance misuse and promote positive youth and family development. Fourteen US rural communities and small towns were studied. Data were collected from PROSPER community team members (N?=?164) and prevention coordinators (N?=?10) over a 5-year period. Global and specific aspects of team functioning were assessed over six waves. Outcome measures were the total funds (cash and in-kind) raised to implement prevention programs. All 14 community teams were sustained for the first 5 years. However, there was substantial variability in the amount of funds raised, and these differences were predicted by earlier and concurrent team functioning and by team sustainability planning. Given the sufficient infrastructure and ongoing technical assistance provided by the PROSPER partnership model, local sustainability of EBPs is achievable. PMID:24706195

Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Johnson, Lesley E; Perkins, Daniel F; Welsh, Janet A; Spoth, Richard L

2015-01-01

435

Assessment of crop yield losses in Punjab and Haryana using two years of continuous in-situ ozone measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we use a high quality dataset of in-situ ozone measurements at a suburban site called Mohali in the state of Punjab to estimate ozone related crop yield losses for wheat, rice, cotton and maize for Punjab and the neighbouring state Haryana for the years 2011-2013. We inter-compare crop yield loss estimates according to different exposure metrics such as AOT40 and M7 for the two major crop growing seasons of Kharif (June-October) and Rabi (November-April) and establish a new crop yield exposure relationship for South Asian wheat and rice cultivars. These are a factor of two more sensitive to ozone induced crop yield losses compared to their European and American counterparts. Relative yield losses based on the AOT40 metrics ranged from 27-41% for wheat, 21-26% for rice, 9-11% for maize and 47-58% for cotton. Crop production losses for wheat amounted to 20.8 million t in fiscal year 2012-2013 and 10.3 million t in fiscal year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana jointly. Crop production losses for rice totalled 5.4 million t in fiscal year 2012-2013 and 3.2 million t year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana jointly. The Indian National Food Security Ordinance entitles ~ 820 million of India's poor to purchase about 60 kg of rice/wheat per person annually at subsidized rates. The scheme requires 27.6 Mt of wheat and 33.6 Mt of rice per year. Mitigation of ozone related crop production losses in Punjab and Haryana alone could provide >50% of the wheat and ~10% of the rice required for the scheme. The total economic cost losses in Punjab and Haryana amounted to USD 6.5 billion in the fiscal year 2012-2013 and USD 3.7 billion in the fiscal year 2013-2014. This economic loss estimate represents a very conservative lower limit based on the minimum support price of the crop, which is lower than the actual production costs. The upper limit for ozone related crop yield losses in entire India currently amounts to 3.5-20% of India's GDP. Mitigation of high surface ozone would require relatively little investment in comparison to economic losses incurred presently. Therefore, ozone mitigation can yield massive benefits in terms of ensuring food security and boosting the economy. Co-benefits of ozone mitigation also include a decrease in the ozone related mortality, morbidity and a reduction of the ozone induced warming in the lower troposphere.

Sinha, B.; Singh Sangwan, K.; Maurya, Y.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Chandra, B. P.; Sinha, V.

2015-01-01

436

Endophthalmitis after open globe injuries: changes in microbiological spectrum and isolate susceptibility patterns over 14 years  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiologic spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates in post-traumatic endophthalmitis and compare with our earlier published report. A retrospective review was conducted on 581 consecutive patients with culture-proven post-traumatic endophthalmitis at L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, India, from January 2006 to March 2013. Findings A total of 620 isolates from 581 patients were identified (565 bacteria and 55 fungi). The most common isolate was Bacillus spp. (106/620, 17.1%) closely followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (105/620, 16.9%), and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (97/620, 15.6%). In our earlier report, the commonest bacteria included Streptococcus spp. (30/139, 21.6%) and gram-positive coagulase-negative micrococci (26/139, 18.7%). Gram-positive isolates were usually susceptible to vancomycin (98.2%). Gram-negative isolates were generally susceptible to gatifloxacin (92.9%), ofloxacin (89.4%), chloramphenicol (88.6%, Pseudomonas isolates were often resistant), amikacin (83.5%), and ceftazidime (77.2%). Fourteen years ago, the most sensitive antibiotic was ciprofloxacin for both gram-positive bacteria (95.12%) and gram-negative bacteria (100%). Conclusions The microbiological spectrum of post-traumatic endophthalmitis has remained unchanged over the last 14 years, and Bacillus spp. continues as the most common infecting organism. Vancomycin is the drug of choice for empiric coverage of gram-positive bacteria. Susceptibility of gram-negative bacteria to commonly used antimicrobials (amikacin and ciprofloxacin) has decreased by 10% - 15% and to ceftazidime has increased by 10.5%. PMID:24548669

2014-01-01

437

Four Mars Years of Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

23 May 2005 These two Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images were acquired a little more than four Mars years apart. One Mars year is about 687 Earth days long. The two images show a portion of the south polar cap, which is composed of frozen, layered, carbon dioxide. Each Mars year since MGS has been observing the planet, the mesas and buttes composed of carbon dioxide have gotten a little bit smaller, and the pits and holes have become a little bit wider. The scarps formed in frozen carbon dioxide in the south polar region are retreating at an average rate of about 3 meters per Mars year. The example shown here includes an image obtained in August 1999, and a more recent picture from April 2005. Arrow '1' points to a dramatic example of the changes that have occurred; in this case a mesa shrank to a small butte in just four martian years. Arrow '2' indicates pits that developed in the cap layer of a carbon dioxide mesa that eroded during the same interval. Acquired during early southern spring, both images are illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

2005-01-01

438

10{10 years} 11 stories Celebrating 10 years  

E-print Network

;Without doubt the most gratifying aspect of the ten-year journey subsequently taken by the Asia the diversity of backgrounds and roles which make the sector so lively. Some direct their passion the journey! Dr Michael Liffman Director Asia-Pacific Centre for Social Investment & Philanthropy (APCSIP

Liley, David

439

Ocular Firework Injuries at New Year’s Eve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To prospectively study mechanisms and injury characteristics of ocular firework burns. Methods: A prospective analysis of all patients with firework injuries attending the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Vienna, between 1994 and 2001. We looked for classes of fireworks and mechanisms of injuries. The number of diagnoses was established and their severity classified. Results: During this period (8 years)

Stefan Sacu; Nikolaus Ségur-Eltz; Karin Stenng; Martin Zehetmayer

2002-01-01

440

35 years of DEB research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory started 35 years ago. Initially much emphasis was put on the development of a consistent theory. During recent years attention was paid on parameterizing DEB models for a huge collection of species. This enables the search for patterns in parameter values in an ecological and evolutionary context. This special issue presents some of the results of this quest, among other things focusing on the development of metabolic acceleration, combined with various applications of DEB theory in fisheries, aquaculture, climate science and ecotoxicology.

van der Meer, Jaap; Klok, Chris; Kearney, Michael R.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

2014-11-01

441

50 Years of Neutrino Physics  

E-print Network

Some important topics from history of neutrino physics over the last fifty years are discussed. History of neutrinos is older, at 4th December 2010 it will be eightieth anniversary of the "neutrino birth". In that day W. Pauli wrote the famous letter to participants of the physics conference at Tubingen with the suggestion that "there could exist in the nuclei electrically neutral particle". We will concentrate mostly on the 50 years of neutrino history just to show the long tradition of the Zakopane Theoretical School.

Marek Zralek

2010-12-10

442

World Year of Physics 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Because of the decreasing numbers of physics students and declining general interests in the subject, the World Year of Physics 2005 was created during the World Congress of Physical Societies in 2000 by 40 physical societies from around the world. Educators can learn about international physics activities and projects and get ideas about how they can stimulate their students' interests in physics. The website features presentations of European events, meetings about the World Year of Physics 2005, and contacts for the coordinators throughout the world. This website presents a great example of a worldwide effort to excite visitors about the importance of physics in our lives.

443

NYC subway system celebrates 100 years of operation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As Chicago's elevated "Loop" is so much a part of the gritty image of the City of Big Shoulders, the New York subway system is indelibly linked with the modern conurbation that is the Big Apple. It was 100 years ago on October 27, 1904, that the first subway trip on the new system took place, and the city is celebrating the system's centennial in style. Today the system has more miles of track than any underground system in the world and carries 4.5 million passengers daily throughout the city. Of course, the system has seen its ups and downs throughout the past decades, and to some who rode the trains in the 1960s and 1970s, the then graffiti-inscribed trains may have seemed to serve as a rather visible sign of urban decay. Currently, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (which was created in 1982 to oversee the subway system) is building a new $16 billion line that will follow Second Avenue as a way to relieve congestion. A comment made by one rider this past week as he exited the F train perhaps best sums up how many people feel about the system: "For New Yorkers, it's part of life."The first link offered here leads to a news piece from this week's Christian Science Monitor that talks about the historical development of New York's subway system in the early 20th century. The second link will take visitors to a New York Post article that talks about the new "Ms. Subways," Caroline Sanchez-Bernat. The contest fell out of favor in the mid-1970s, but was revived this year as part of the centennial celebration for the transit system. On a more sober note, the third link leads to an article from the Columbia (University) Spectator that talks about the massive debt problem faced by the Metropolitan Transit Authority. The fourth link is a nice special audio feature created by National Public Radio that explores the subway's presence in song and film over the past century. Visitors to the site can hear excerpts of such classics as Duke Ellington's "Take the A Train" and "New York's My Home," as sung by Sammy Davis Jr. The fifth link leads to a great site (maintained by David Pirmann) that contains copious amount of material about the vast subway system in New York, including historical transit maps, information about the subway train stock, and how the system operates. The final site leads to a site that provides ample information about the various ongoing events, museum exhibits, and talks that have been planned to celebrate the system's centennial.

444

Upper Year Progression YWA 5059% for  

E-print Network

Upper Year Progression YWA 5059% for 2nd time YWA >60% Continue to next year Adjudication comments: Failed year Must repeat all courses under 60% (including labs and tutorials) Leave UWO for one year ­ reapply

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

445

Atypical Central Neurocytoma with Recurrent Spinal Dissemination over a Period of 20 Years: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

We present an unusual case of a late recurrent central neurocytoma that was rediagnosed as an ependymoma and neurocytoma in accordance with changes in histological classifications. Case Description. A 56-year-old male teacher presented with incomplete transverse syndrome due to several intradural extramedullary tumors at the level of lumbar vertebrae 1–3. The histological diagnosis at the time was atypical ependymoma. One year later, two additional tumors were removed at the L5-S1 vertebral level. For 12 years, the patient remained tumor free on followup. Fourteen years after the initial diagnosis, the patient presented with thoracic paresthesias due to two new extramedullary tumors in the C7-T1 and the T8-T9 vertebral levels. After complete removal of the tumors, a radiological survey revealed an intracranial lesion in the third ventricle. Five months later, an additional lesion recurrence was removed surgically. The most recent histological diagnosis revealed an atypical central neurocytoma. In retrospect, the previous tumors were reclassified as neurocytoma according to the additional immunohistochemistry evidence. Discussion. There is no standard adjuvant treatment regimen for atypical neurocytoma; therefore, the patient is currently under close followup. Modern histopathological diagnosis is essential in these cases. Potential routes for dissemination of the tumor should be considered upon first recurrence. PMID:23840986

Juratli, Tareq A.; Geiger, Kathrin; Leimert, Mario; Schackert, Gabriele; Kirsch, Matthias

2013-01-01

446

Graduation 2010: Third Year Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third-year implementation of Graduation 2010, a districtwide public-school initiative, had its beginnings in brain-based research and involvement from both school and community. The original plan for the program had eight strands: Arts, Music, Foreign Language, Reading/Language Development, Thinking Skills, Health/Emotional Health, Family…

O'Phelan, Mary H.; Norman, Antony D.; Ecton, Gayle W.

447

Graduation 2010: Second Year Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second-year implementation of Graduation 2010, a districtwide public-school initiative, had its beginnings in brain-based research and involvement from both school and community. The original plan for the program had eight strands: (1) Arts; (2) Music; (3) Foreign Language; (4) Reading/Language Development; (5) Thinking Skills; (6)…

O'Phelan, Mary H.; Norman, Antony D.; Ecton, Gayle W.

448

Turing Test: 50 Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Turing Test is one of the most disputed topics in artificial intelligence, philosophy of mind, and cognitive science. This paper is a review of the past 50 years of the Turing Test. Philo- sophical debates, practical developments and repercussions in related disciplines are all covered. We discuss Turing's ideas in detail and present the important comments that have been

AYSE PINAR SAYGIN; ILYAS CICEKLI; VAROL AKMAN

2000-01-01

449

25 Years Down the Line  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this final of three Special 25th Anniversary Reports, the authors attempt to paint a picture of what the future of education should, could, or might be. They asked readers, industry experts, authors, tech gurus and scientists, "What will "school" look like in the year 2030?" This compendium reflects their varied predictions, hopes, cautions,…

McLester, Susan

2005-01-01

450

Club theory: Thirty years later  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a self-contained survey of club theory with an emphasis on the contributions of the last fifteen years. Club goods are contrasted with pure public goods, and equilibrium and optimality notions are contrasted. After presenting three basic represen- tations of club theory, we focus on recent advances and generalizations that include hetero- geneous memberships, transaction costs, uncertain utilization,

Todd Sandler; John Tschirhart

1997-01-01

451

Research Councils UK Sixty years  

E-print Network

, the revolution of forensic science and provision of an infallible method of paternity testing. Sixty years of DNA-range of uses, from forensic analysis to drug discovery, the diagnosis of disease and farming techniques Francis Crick, RCUK-funded researchers, famously described the structure of DNA in the scientific journal

Berzins, M.

452

Year in Review Annual Report  

E-print Network

Year in Review 2006-07 Annual Report Center for Latin American Studies University Center in Latin American Studies in 2006-07. In addition to certificate students, we had over 7,200 enrollments in Latin American Studies courses. Included in these enrollment figures are encouraging statistics

Machery, Edouard

453

METEORITE CENTER MARKS 50 YEARS  

E-print Network

METEORITE CENTER MARKS 50 YEARS Center commemorates golden anniversary with symposium, lecture's largest mass extinction event MEET THE METEORITE MEN Science Channel's meteorite hunters Geoff Notkin and Steve Arnold talk space rocks TALES FROM THE VAULT Explore what's in the meteorite vault S O U R C ES O

Rhoads, James

454

Faraday, Maxwell And 150 Years  

E-print Network

was to become the foundation of our modern concepts of electricity, magnetism and light, James Clerk Maxwell Engineering in commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the birth of James Clerk Max- well and of Michael#12;#12;LINES AND WAVES Faraday, Maxwell And 150 Years Of Electromagnetism Robert D. Friedel Center

Jones, R. Victor

455

Yearbook 1988. IWGIA: 20 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theme of this yearbook is the work of the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) during the 20 years of its existence and the enormous growth of the indigenous movement in that time. Section 1 traces IWGIA's history and includes the annual report for 1988. Section 2 is a global view of the main events in the indigenous world…

Gray, Andrew

456

Reflections on International Literacy Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The International Taskforce on Literacy, which is composed of nongovernmental organizations, has carried the literacy message to people everywhere. Two particularly noteworthy activities of the Taskforce are the People's Launch of International Literacy Year at the International Council for Adult Education conference in Thailand in January 1990…

Cassara, Beverly Benner

457

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 117 + BIOL 118 GENERAL BIOLOGY II and LAB Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 115 + BIOL 116 GENERAL BIOLOGY I and LAB Introductory Chemistry

Suzuki, Masatsugu

458

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 220 BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 210 BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY I CHE 201

Suzuki, Masatsugu

459

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 110 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 109 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

460

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 156 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 155 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

461

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

462

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 105 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 104 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

463

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY SC 139 INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY: ANIMALS AND PLANTS Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY SC 135 INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY: MOLECULES AND CELLS Introductory Chemistry

Suzuki, Masatsugu

464

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

465

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BI 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BI 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

466

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BI 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY 2 Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BI 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY 1 Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

467

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 132 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY 2 Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 131 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY 1 Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

468

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BI 202 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BI 201 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

469

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 116 GENERAL BIOLOGY 2 Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 115 GENERAL BIOLOGY 1 Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

470

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 01400 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 01300 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

471

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 152 / BY 52 MODERN BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 150 / BY 50 MODERN BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

472

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 106H GENERAL BIOLOGY II HONORS Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 105H GENERAL BIOLOGY I HONORS Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

473

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 152 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 151 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

474

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 1580 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 1570 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

475

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 117 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 118 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY II Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

476

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 1520 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 1510 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

477

The Year 1998 in Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The year 1998 was one of immense change for adult learning and literacy, as significant new legislation was passed and the field headed more deeply into the mainstream. Along with these developments came greater demands for program accountability, expanded strategic alliances and partnerships, new instructional methodologies, changes in public…

Tracy-Mumford, Fran

1999-01-01

478

The Year of the Pond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water gardens became popular in China during the Tang Dynasty and goldfish were domesticated more than 1000 years ago. Beyond being beautiful and tranquil, water gardens have the potential for much learning in an educational setting, especially for learning through art. In this article, the author shares how he collaborated with another teacher in…

Hinshaw, Craig

2010-01-01

479

Integration Multi-Year Program  

E-print Network

EERE Grid Integration Multi-Year Program Plan U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy February 2014 DRAFT #12;ii #12;iii Acronyms BA balancing authorities BES building energy.S. Department of Energy DR demand response EE energy efficiency EERE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable

480

Columbine High: Five Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A few weeks before the fifth anniversary of the Columbine High School shootings on April 20, 1999, Principal Frank DeAngelis reflects on how his school has changed over the past five years. Much like the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States, "Columbine" carries a chilling meaning that resonates across the country. That…

Hurst, Marianne D.

2004-01-01

481

2012: A Year in Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When historians review 2012 for its noteworthy moments, events and milestones, they will find the year was a trying one for the American higher education system, despite its being able to educate and enlighten thousands in search of more choices and preparation for adult self-sufficiency. Many academicians and students worked for and celebrated…

Stuart, Reginald

2012-01-01

482

Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho

Jenifer Nordstrom; Mike Lewis

2010-01-01

483

1987: Alternative energy's watershed year  

Microsoft Academic Search

1987 is a watershed year in shaping the near and long-term future for alternative energy. Major events are taking place that will determine how power will be sold through the end of the 20th century and perhaps beyond. These events may, upon reflection, prove to be history in the making for the alternative energy industry. Some of the changes that

Ganotis

1988-01-01

484

CPA: The First Ten Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roots and early stresses of organizational psychology in Canada are described. The impetus of World War II manpower selection and training and the immediate post war growth of universities are seen as central to the beginning years of the Canadian Psychological Association.