Science.gov

Sample records for fourteen billion years

  1. Fourteen years of resonance of Vanguard orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Tracking of Vanguard 3 and the Vanguard 2 rocket with Baker-Nunn cameras and the U.S. Navy's Space Surveillance (radio interferometer) system over a 14 year period revealed resonant fluctuations of up to 0.035 deg in inclination (peak to peak). Six geopotential terms (lumped coefficients) of 11th order and three of 22nd order were measured using orbit inclinations derived from this tracking record. The terms of 11th order are significantly smaller than Kaula's rule. (The lumped coefficients are sensitive to geopotential effects as high as 37th degree.) These observed terms are compatible with a recent 27-satellite geopotential solution whose formal coefficient errors are increased by a factor of 3.3.

  2. ASTER TIR onboard calibration over fourteen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Tatsumi, Kenji; Ono, Hidehiko

    2014-10-01

    The ASTER Instrument is one of the five sensors on the NASA's Terra satellite on orbit since December 1999. After 14 years on orbit, ASTER VNIR and TIR are still taking Earth images of good quality. The TIR radiometer has five bands from 8 to 12 ?m with spatial resolution of 90 m. Each band has ten detectors. The detectors are cooled at 80 K precisely by using a Stirling cooler within 0.1 K. TIR is radiometrically calibrated by a single onboard blackbody. In the normal operation mode the blackbody is kept at 270 K, and once in 49 days the blackbody is heated up to 340 K for the gain calibration. The degradation at band 12 is largest and 48% and that at band 10 is smallest and 18%. One of the possible causes of the degradation is the contamination accretion by outgas of silicone SE9188 RTV used for TIR followed by the ultraviolet radiation. The absorption spectra of outgas of this silicon was measured at JAXA and the absorption spectra showed similar to the TIR degradation in the early days on orbit. ASTER science team is proposing the second lunar calibration at the end of terra mission for the estimation of the TIR optical characteristics. ASTER experienced first lunar calibration in April 2003 and many of the TIR bands were saturated. Due to the responsivity degradation the TIR dynamic range has extended to higher temperature. At least TIR four bands will not saturate in the next lunar calibration.

  3. A plastic whistle incarcerated in bronchus diagnosed fourteen years after 'swallowed': a case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Che, Guowei

    2014-06-01

    Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common disease in pre-school children but easily overlooked by physicians. In this article, we report a case with bronchial stenosis that is not typical and misdiagnosed for 14 years, in the end bronchoscopy retrieval was successfully performed after adequate preparation. Pitfalls and recommendations in diagnosis and management of FBA are briefly included. PMID:24977017

  4. Popliteal Artery Aneurysm Repair in the Endovascular Era: Fourteen-Years Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Ronchey, Sonia; Pecoraro, Felice; Alberti, Vittorio; Serrao, Eugenia; Orrico, Matteo; Lachat, Mario; Mangialardi, Nicola

    2015-07-01

    To compare outcomes of popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA) repair by endovascular treatment, great saphenous vein (GSV) bypass, and prosthetic bypass.Single center retrospective analysis of patients presenting PAA from 2000 to 2013. Patients were divided into endovascular treatment (group A); GSV bypass (group B); and prosthetic graft bypass (group C). Outcomes were technical success, perioperative mortality, and morbidity. Survival, primary and secondary patency, and freedom from reintervention rate were estimated. Differences in ankle-brachial index (ABI), in-hospital length of stay (InH-Los), red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and limb loss were reported. Mean follow-up was 49 (median: 35; 1-145; SD 42) months.Sixty-seven patients were included; 25 in group A, 28 in group B, and 14 in group C. PAA was symptomatic in 23 (34%) cases. Technical success was 100%. No perioperative death occurred. Three (4.5%) perioperative complications were reported with no significant difference between groups (P = 0.866). Five-years estimated survival was 78%. Estimated 5-years primary patency for groups A, B, and C was 71%, 81%, and 69%, respectively (P = 0.19). Estimated 5-years secondary patency for groups A, B, and C was 88%, 85%, and 84% (P = 0.85). Estimated 5-years freedom from reintervention for groups A, B, and C was 62%, 84%, and 70%, respectively (P = 0.16). A significant difference between preoperative ABI versus postoperative ABI was observed (P = 0.001). InH-LoS was significantly shorter in group A (P < 0.001). RBC transfusions were required significantly less in group A when compared to group C (P = 0.045). Overall limb salvage was achieved in all but 1 patient.PAA repair has good early and long-term outcomes with different treatment options. Endovascular treatment was not inferior to surgical repair with a reduced InH-LoS and RBC transfusion. It can be successfully employed even in nonelective setting. A randomized controlled trial with long-term follow-up and appropriate patient inclusion criteria is necessary to compare these 3 treatment options. PMID:26222843

  5. Fourteen Years of Structural Evolution in the HH 30 Protostellar Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl; choudhary, arpita

    2015-08-01

    HH 30 is an edge-on young stellar object disk with highly collimated emission line jets outflowing along its polar axis. As a prototype of its class, and of astrophysical accretion disks generally, the object has been the subject of extensive study with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Thirteen HST observing programs imaged the object at nineteen epochs over the period 1994-2008. We present an Archival study of the astrometric and morphological evolution of the jet knots using fifteen epochs of HST broadband R imaging and five epochs of [S II]+Halpha imaging. The data was taken with the WFPC2 and ACS cameras. New knots continue to emerge at regular intervals in the bipolar jets, expand laterally, and cool significantly on timescales of a few years. We present measurements pf the knot velocities, accelerations, expansion, mergers, and luminosity evolution and compare these to hydrodynamic models.

  6. 1. Fourteen Years Of Diffuse CO2 Monitoring At Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos Martinez, Jose; Melián, Gladys; Ibarra, Martha; Álvarez, Julio; Rodríguez, Fátima; Nolasco, Dácil; Padilla, Germán; Calvo, David; Dionis, Samara; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Iñigo; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Muñoz, Angélica

    2013-04-01

    7. Cerro Negro is an active basaltic volcano belonging to the active Central American Volcanic Belt, which includes a 1,100 Km long chain of 41 active volcanoes from Guatemala to Panama. Cerro Negro first erupted in 1850 and has experienced 21 eruptive eruptions with inter eruptive average periods between 7 and 9 years. Since the last eruption occurred on 5 August 1999, with erupted lava flows and ash clouds together with gas emissions, a collaborative research program between INETER and ITER was established for monitoring diffuse CO2 emissions from this volcano. Until 2012, twelve soil CO2 emission surveys covering an area of 0,6 km2 have been performed by means of the accumulation chamber method to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 degassing rate in relation to the eruptive cycle of Cerro Negro. A total diffuse CO2 emission output of 1,869 t•d-1 was estimated for the 1999 survey; just 3 months after the 1999 eruption which can be considered within the post-eruptive phase. For the April, 2002 and March, 2008 surveys, considered within the inter-eruptive phase, a clear decreasing tendency on the total diffuse CO2 output was observed, with estimates of 431 and 10 t•d-1, respectively, except a small increment in 2004, to 256 t d-1, associated with an anomalous seismic activity. The higher anomalies are located around the crater of 1995 and 1999. An increasing on the total CO2 emission has been observed, from December 2008 to February 2011, with total diffuse CO2 output estimates from 12 t•d-1 to 43 t•d-1, respectively. These temporal variations show a close relationship between diffuse CO2 emission and the eruptive cycle at Cerro Negro. This relationship indicates that monitoring CO2 emission is an important geochemical tool for the volcanic surveillance at Cerro Negro. References: (1) Rodríguez et al. (2009) AGU Fall Meeting 2009. EOS, AGU,V21-2017 . (2) Padilla et al. (2008). IV Reunión de la Red Española de Volcanología, Almagro 2008. (3) Melián et al. (2003). EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 84, 46, F11514. (4) Parkinson K. J. (1981). Journal of Applied Ecology 18, 221-228. (5) Salazar et al. (2001). Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 22, 4275 - 4278.

  7. Conservation of protein structure over four billion years.

    PubMed

    Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Delgado-Delgado, Asuncion; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Fernandez, Julio M; Gaucher, Eric A; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M; Gavira, Jose A

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the evolution of protein structures and the degree of protein structure conservation over planetary time scales. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of seven laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins dating up to approximately four billion years ago. Despite considerable sequence differences compared with extant enzymes, the ancestral proteins display the canonical thioredoxin fold, whereas only small structural changes have occurred over four billion years. This remarkable degree of structure conservation since a time near the last common ancestor of life supports a punctuated-equilibrium model of structure evolution in which the generation of new folds occurs over comparatively short periods and is followed by long periods of structural stasis. PMID:23932589

  8. Emergence of modern continental crust about 3 billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuime, Bruno; Wuestefeld, Andreas; Hawkesworth, Chris J.

    2015-07-01

    The continental crust is the principal record of conditions on the Earth during the past 4.4 billion years. However, how the continental crust formed and evolved through time remains highly controversial. In particular, the composition and thickness of juvenile continental crust are unknown. Here we show that Rb/Sr ratios can be used as a proxy for both the silica content and the thickness of the continental crust. We calculate Rb/Sr ratios of the juvenile crust for over 13,000 samples, with Nd model ages ranging from the Hadean to Phanerozoic. The ratios were calculated based on the evolution of Sr isotopes in the period between the TDM Nd model age and the crystallization of the samples analysed. We find that the juvenile crust had a low silica content and was largely mafic in composition during the first 1.5 billion years of Earth’s evolution, consistent with magmatism on a pre-plate tectonics planet. About 3 billion years ago, the Rb/Sr ratios of the juvenile continental crust increased, indicating that the newly formed crust became more silica-rich and probably thicker. This transition is in turn linked to the onset of plate tectonics and an increase of continental detritus into the oceans.

  9. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Wang, Huajian; Costa, M. Mafalda; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Connelly, James N.; Zhang, Baomin; Bian, Lizeng; Canfield, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ?1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment. PMID:25775605

  10. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U; Wang, Huajian; Costa, M Mafalda; Bjerrum, Christian J; Connelly, James N; Zhang, Baomin; Bian, Lizeng; Canfield, Donald E

    2015-03-24

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ?1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment. PMID:25775605

  11. 3.5 billion years of reshaped Moho, southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, Jacek; de Wit, Maarten

    2013-12-01

    According to some previous studies, Archean continental crust is, on global average, apparently thinner than Proterozoic crust. Subsequently, the validity of this statement has been questioned. To provide an additional perspective on this issue, we present analyses of Moho signatures derived from recent seismic data along swaths 2000 km in length across southern Africa and its flanking ocean. The imaged crust has a near continuous age range between ca. 0.1 and 3.7 billion years, and the seismic data allow direct comparison of Moho depths between adjacent Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic crust. We find no simple secular change in depth to Moho over this time period. In contrast, there is significant variation in depth to Moho beneath both Archean and Proterozoic crust; Archean crust of southern Africa displays as much crustal diversity in thickness as the adjacent Proterozoic crust. The Moho beneath all crustal provinces that we have analysed has been severely altered by tectono-metamorphic and igneous processes, in many cases more than once, and cannot provide unequivocal data for geodynamic models dealing with secular changes in continental crust formation. These results and conclusions are similar to those documented along ca. 2000 km swaths across the Canadian Shield recorded by Lithoprobe. Tying the age and character of the Precambrian crust of southern Africa to their depth diversities is clearly related to manifold processes of tectono-thermal ‘surgery’ subsequent to their origin, the details of which are still to be resolved, as they are in most Precambrian terranes. Reconstructing pristine Moho of the early Earth therefore remains a formidable challenge. In South Africa, better knowledge of ‘fossilised’ Archean crustal sections ‘turned-on-edge’, such as at the Vredefort impact crater (for the continental crust), and from the Barberton greenstone belt (for oceanic crust) is needed to characterize potential pristine Archean Moho transitions.

  12. A SWIRE Picture is Worth Billions of Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: SWIRE View of Distant Galaxies [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3 Figure 4

    These spectacular images, taken by the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Legacy project, encapsulate one of the primary objectives of the Spitzer mission: to connect the evolution of galaxies from the distant, or early, universe to the nearby, or present day, universe.

    The Tadpole galaxy (main image) is the result of a recent galactic interaction in the local universe. Although these galactic mergers are rare in the universe's recent history, astronomers believe that they were much more common in the early universe. Thus, SWIRE team members will use this detailed image of the Tadpole galaxy to help understand the nature of the 'faint red-orange specks' of the early universe.

    The larger picture (figure 2) depicts one-sixteenth of the SWIRE survey field called ELAIS-N1. In this image, the bright blue sources are hot stars in our own Milky Way, which range anywhere from 3 to 60 times the mass of our Sun. The fainter green spots are cooler stars and galaxies beyond the Milky Way whose light is dominated by older stellar populations. The red dots are dusty galaxies that are undergoing intense star formation. The faintest specks of red-orange are galaxies billions of light-years away in the distant universe.

    Figure 3 features an unusual ring-like galaxy called CGCG 275-022. The red spiral arms indicate that this galaxy is very dusty and perhaps undergoing intense star formation. The star-forming activity could have been initiated by a near head-on collision with another galaxy.

    The most distant galaxies that SWIRE is able to detect are revealed in a zoom of deep space (figure 4). The colors in this feature represent the same objects as those in the larger field image of ELAIS-N1.

    The observed SWIRE fields were chosen on the basis of being 'empty' or as free as possible from the obscuring dust, gas, and stars of our own Milky Way. Because Earth is located within the Milky Way galaxy, there is always a screen of Milky Way objects blocking our view of the rest of the universe. In some places, our view of the larger universe is less obscured than others and for the most part is considered 'empty.' These are prime observing spots for astronomers interested in studying objects beyond the Milky Way. ELAIS-N1 is only one of six SWIRE survey fields. The full survey covers 49 square degrees of the sky, equivalent to the area covered by about 250 full moons.

    The SWIRE images are 3-channel false-color composites, where blue represents visible green light (light that would appear to be blue/green to the human eye), green captures infrared light of 3.6 microns, and red represents infrared emissions of 8 microns. The infrared data are from Spitzer's infrared array camera and the visible-light data are from the Isaac Newton Telescope, Spain.

  13. Chapter Fourteen Telescope Consortium

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    206 Chapter Fourteen Telescope Consortium Paul Leath (1995-2000) When Allen Robbins stepped down was indeed fortunate in having such capable leadership for the next period in its history. Having come Chairman as this History is written. Figure 52 Paul Leath #12;Paul Leath (1995-2000) 207 By 1995

  14. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmoto, H.; Kakegawa, T.; Lowe, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

  15. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence.

    PubMed

    Ohmoto, H; Kakegawa, T; Lowe, D R

    1993-10-22

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen. PMID:11539502

  16. Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabo- lism that is complimentary to

  17. The Sandvik peridotite, Gursky, Norway: Three billion years of mantle evolution in the Baltica lithosphere

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Clark M.

    The Sandvik peridotite, Gurskøy, Norway: Three billion years of mantle evolution in the Baltica mantle Geothermobarometry Sm­Nd geochronology Western Gneiss Region Peridotite The Sandvik ultramafic mantle to repeated orogenic/magmatic events. The Sandvik peridotite body and nearby outcrops record four

  18. Astroengineering, or how to save the Earth in only one billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korycansky, D. G.

    2004-12-01

    KLA01 have presented a scheme for altering planetary orbits in the solar system, in particular that of the Earth as a means to escape (for a period) the consequences of the secular brightening of the Sun over the next few billion years. In this paper I discuss that work, present background information, and attempt to understand consequences of the ideas involved.

  19. Precambrian Research 135 (2004) 245250 The first billion years: new insights from geochemistry

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Precambrian Research 135 (2004) 245­250 Preface The first billion years: new insights from, 1680; quoted in Boynton, 1948). Precambrian geology (and Archean geology in par- ticular to several recent issues of Precambrian Research including two devoted to "Archaean Tecton- ics" (vols. 127

  20. Eight billion years of disk galaxy evolution: no galaxy is an island

    E-print Network

    Eric F. Bell; Marco Barden; Xianzhong Zheng; Casey Papovich; Emeric Le Floc'h; George Rieke; Christian Wolf; the GEMS; MIPS Instrument; COMBO-17 teams

    2006-04-19

    We present a brief discussion of the evolution of disk galaxy stellar masses, sizes, rotation velocities, and star formation rates over the last eight billion years. Recent observations have failed to detect significant evolution in the stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation, stellar mass-size relation, and the stellar mass function of disk galaxies. Yet, most z<1 star formation is in disks, and this star formation would be expected to drive a rapid growth of the total stellar mass (and therefore mass function) of disks in the last eight billion years. Such a build-up is not seen; instead, a rapid build-up in the total stellar mass in non-star-forming spheroid-dominated galaxies is observed. Large numbers of disk-dominated galaxies are systematically shutting off their star formation and building up a spheroid (or losing a disk) in the epoch 0

  1. Genetic Programming_______________________________________________________________ Fourteen Instances where

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Genetic Programming_______________________________________________________________ Fourteen Instances where Genetic Programming has Produced Results that are Competitive with Results Produced by Humans JOHN R. KOZA Stanford University Stanford, California 94305 koza@genetic-programming.com http

  2. The First Billion Years: The Growth of Galaxies in the Reionization Epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Garth

    2015-08-01

    Detection and measurement of the earliest galaxies in the first billion years only became possible after the Hubble Space Telescope was updated in 2009 with the infrared WFC3/IR camera during Shuttle servicing mission SM4. The first billion years is a fascinating epoch, not just because of the earliest galaxies known from about 450 Myr after the Big Bang, but also because it encompasses the reionization epoch that peaked around z~9, as Planck has recently shown, and ended around redshift z~6 at 900 Myr. Before 2009 just a handful of galaxies were known in the reionization epoch at z>6. But within the last 5 years, with the first HUDF09 survey, the HUDF12, CANDELS and numerous other surveys on the GOODS and CANDELS fields, as well as detections from the cluster lensing programs like CLASH and the Frontier Fields, the number of galaxies at redshifts 7-10 has exploded, with some 700 galaxies being found and characterized. The first billion years was a period of extraordinary growth in the galaxy population with rapid growth in the star formation rate density and global mass density in galaxies. Spitzer observations in the infrared of these Hubble fields are establishing masses as well as giving insights into the nature and timescales of star formation from the very powerful emission lines being revealed by the Spitzer IRAC data. I will discuss what we understand about the growth of galaxies in this epoch from the insights gained from remarkable deep fields like the XDF, as well as the wide-area GOODS/CANDELS fields, the detection of unexpectedly luminous galaxies at redshifts 8-10, the impact of early galaxies on reionization, confirmation of a number of galaxies at z~7-8 from ground-based spectroscopic measurements, and the indications of a change in the growth of the star formation rate around 500 Myr. The first billion years was a time of dramatic growth and change in the early galaxy population.

  3. A massive galaxy in its core formation phase three billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha Förster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Leja, Joel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-09-18

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores in early cosmic epochs. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes, but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we report a candidate core in the process of formation 11 billion years ago, at redshift z = 2.3. This galaxy, GOODS-N-774, has a stellar mass of 100 billion solar masses, a half-light radius of 1.0 kiloparsecs and a star formation rate of solar masses per year. The star-forming gas has a velocity dispersion of 317 ± 30 kilometres per second. This is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, which are compact quiescent galaxies at z ? 2 (refs 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 seem to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of this galaxy we infer that many star-forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys. PMID:25162527

  4. Fourteen Times the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    ESO HARPS Instrument Discovers Smallest Ever Extra-Solar Planet Summary A European team of astronomers [1] has discovered the lightest known planet orbiting a star other than the sun (an "exoplanet"). The new exoplanet orbits the bright star mu Arae located in the southern constellation of the Altar. It is the second planet discovered around this star and completes a full revolution in 9.5 days. With a mass of only 14 times the mass of the Earth, the new planet lies at the threshold of the largest possible rocky planets, making it a possible super Earth-like object. Uranus, the smallest of the giant planets of the Solar System has a similar mass. However Uranus and the new exoplanet differ so much by their distance from the host star that their formation and structure are likely to be very different. This discovery was made possible by the unprecedented accuracy of the HARPS spectrograph on ESO's 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, which allows radial velocities to be measured with a precision better than 1 m/s. It is another clear demonstration of the European leadership in the field of exoplanet research. PR Photo 25a/04: The HARPS Spectrograph and the 3.6m Telescope PR Photo 25b/04: Observed Velocity Variation of mu Arae (3.6m/HARPS, 1.2m Swiss/CORALIE, AAT/UCLES) PR Photo 25c/04: Velocity Variation of mu Arae Observed by HARPS (3.6m/HARPS) PR Photo 25d/04: "Velocity Curve" of mu Arae A unique planet hunting machine ESO PR Photo 25a/04 ESO PR Photo 25a/04 The HARPS Spectrograph and the 3.6m Telescope [Preview - JPEG: 602 x 400 pix - 211k] [Normal - JPEG: 1202 x 800 pix - 645k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 25a/04 represents a montage of the HARPS spectrograph and the 3.6m telescope at La Silla. The upper left shows the dome of the telescope, while the upper right illustrates the telescope itself. The HARPS spectrograph is shown in the lower image during laboratory tests. The vacuum tank is open so that some of the high-precision components inside can be seen. Since the first detection in 1995 of a planet around the star 51 Peg by Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz from the Geneva Observatory (Switzerland), astronomers have learned that our Solar System is not unique, as more than 120 giant planets orbiting other stars were discovered mostly by radial-velocity surveys (cf. ESO PR 13/00, ESO PR 07/01, and ESO PR 03/03). This fundamental observational method is based on the detection of variations in the velocity of the central star, due to the changing direction of the gravitational pull from an (unseen) exoplanet as it orbits the star. The evaluation of the measured velocity variations allows to deduce the planet's orbit, in particular the period and the distance from the star, as well as a minimum mass [2]. The continued quest for exoplanets requires better and better instrumentation. In this context, ESO undoubtedly took the leadership with the new HARPS spectrograph (High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher) of the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (see ESO PR 06/03). Offered in October 2003 to the research community in the ESO member countries, this unique instrument is optimized to detect planets in orbit around other stars ("exoplanets") by means of accurate (radial) velocity measurements with an unequalled precision of 1 metre per second. HARPS was built by a European Consortium [3] in collaboration with ESO. Already from the beginning of its operation, it has demonstrated its very high efficiency. By comparison with CORALIE, another well known planet-hunting optimized spectrograph installed on the Swiss-Euler 1.2-m telescope at La Silla (cf ESO PR 18/98, 12/99, 13/00), the typical observation times have been reduced by a factor one hundred and the accuracy of the measurements has been increased by a factor ten. These improvements have opened new perspectives in the search for extra-solar planets and have set new standards in terms of instrumental precision. The planetary system around mu Arae The star mu Arae is about 50 light years away. This solar-like star is located in the sout

  5. Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism

    E-print Network

    Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.

    The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites ...

  6. Dust production 0.7-1.5 billion years after the Big Bang

    E-print Network

    Micha?owski, Micha? J

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic dust is an important component of the Universe, and its origin, especially at high redshifts, is still unknown. I present a simple but powerful method of assessing whether dust observed in a given galaxy could in principle have been formed by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars or supernovae (SNe). Using this method I show that for most of the galaxies with detected dust emission between z=4 and z=7.5 (1.5-0.7 billion years after the Big Bang) AGB stars are not numerous and efficient enough to be responsible for the measured dust masses. Supernovae could account for most of the dust, but only if all of them had efficiencies close to the maximal theoretically allowed value. This suggests that a different mechanism is responsible for dust production at high redshifts, and the most likely possibility is the grain growth in the interstellar medium.

  7. A change in the geodynamics of continental growth 3 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Dhuime, Bruno; Hawkesworth, Chris J; Cawood, Peter A; Storey, Craig D

    2012-03-16

    Models for the growth of continental crust rely on knowing the balance between the generation of new crust and the reworking of old crust throughout Earth's history. The oxygen isotopic composition of zircons, for which uranium-lead and hafnium isotopic data provide age constraints, is a key archive of crustal reworking. We identified systematic variations in hafnium and oxygen isotopes in zircons of different ages that reveal the relative proportions of reworked crust and of new crust through time. Growth of continental crust appears to have been a continuous process, albeit at variable rates. A marked decrease in the rate of crustal growth at ~3 billion years ago may be linked to the onset of subduction-driven plate tectonics. PMID:22422979

  8. Star Formation in Galaxy Clusters Over the Past 10 Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Kim-Vy

    2012-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound systems in the universe and include the most massive galaxies in the universe; this makes galaxy clusters ideal laboratories for disentangling the nature versus nurture aspect of how galaxies evolve. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve in clusters continues to be a fundamental question in astronomy. The ages and assembly histories of galaxies in rich clusters test both stellar population models and hierarchical formation scenarios. Is star formation in cluster galaxies simply accelerated relative to their counterparts in the lower density field, or do cluster galaxies assemble their stars in a fundamentally different manner? To answer this question, I review multi-wavelength results on star formation in galaxy clusters from Coma to the most distant clusters yet discovered at look-back times of 10 billion years (z 2).

  9. Atmospheric carbon dioxide: a driver of photosynthetic eukaryote evolution for over a billion years?

    PubMed Central

    Beerling, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Exciting evidence from diverse fields, including physiology, evolutionary biology, palaeontology, geosciences and molecular genetics, is providing an increasingly secure basis for robustly formulating and evaluating hypotheses concerning the role of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Such studies span over a billion years of evolutionary change, from the origins of eukaryotic algae through to the evolution of our present-day terrestrial floras, and have relevance for plant and ecosystem responses to future global CO2 increases. The papers in this issue reflect the breadth and depth of approaches being adopted to address this issue. They reveal new discoveries pointing to deep evidence for the role of CO2 in shaping evolutionary changes in plants and ecosystems, and establish an exciting cross-disciplinary research agenda for uncovering new insights into feedbacks between biology and the Earth system. PMID:22232760

  10. Extraterrestrial demise of banded iron formations 1.85 billion years ago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Cannon, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    In the Lake Superior region of North America, deposition of most banded iron formations (BIFs) ended abruptly 1.85 Ga ago, coincident with the oceanic impact of the giant Sudbury extraterrestrial bolide. We propose a new model in which this impact produced global mixing of shallow oxic and deep anoxic waters of the Paleoproterozoic ocean, creating a suboxic redox state for deep seawater. This suboxic state, characterized by only small concentrations of dissolved O2 (???1 ??M), prevented transport of hydrothermally derived Fe(II) from the deep ocean to continental-margin settings, ending an ???1.1 billion-year-long period of episodic BIF mineralization. The model is supported by the nature of Precambrian deep-water exhalative chemical sediments, which changed from predominantly sulfide facies prior to ca. 1.85 Ga to mainly oxide facies thereafter. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  11. Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

  12. IRON AND {alpha}-ELEMENT PRODUCTION IN THE FIRST ONE BILLION YEARS AFTER THE BIG BANG

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, George D.; Carswell, Robert F.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.; Rauch, Michael E-mail: acalver@ast.cam.ac.uk E-mail: mr@obs.carnegiescience.edu

    2012-01-10

    We present measurements of carbon, oxygen, silicon, and iron in quasar absorption systems existing when the universe was roughly one billion years old. We measure column densities in nine low-ionization systems at 4.7 < z < 6.3 using Keck, Magellan, and Very Large Telescope optical and near-infrared spectra with moderate to high resolution. The column density ratios among C II, O I, Si II, and Fe II are nearly identical to sub-damped Ly{alpha} systems (sub-DLAs) and metal-poor ([M/H] {<=} -1) DLAs at lower redshifts, with no significant evolution over 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 6. The estimated intrinsic scatter in the ratio of any two elements is also small, with a typical rms deviation of {approx}< 0.1 dex. These facts suggest that dust depletion and ionization effects are minimal in our z > 4.7 systems, as in the lower-redshift DLAs, and that the column density ratios are close to the intrinsic relative element abundances. The abundances in our z > 4.7 systems are therefore likely to represent the typical integrated yields from stellar populations within the first gigayear of cosmic history. Due to the time limit imposed by the age of the universe at these redshifts, our measurements thus place direct constraints on the metal production of massive stars, including iron yields of prompt supernovae. The lack of redshift evolution further suggests that the metal inventories of most metal-poor absorption systems at z {approx}> 2 are also dominated by massive stars, with minimal contributions from delayed Type Ia supernovae or winds from asymptotic giant branch stars. The relative abundances in our systems broadly agree with those in very metal-poor, non-carbon-enhanced Galactic halo stars. This is consistent with the picture in which present-day metal-poor stars were potentially formed as early as one billion years after the big bang.

  13. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Evans, W. C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, A. G.

    2014-02-01

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by ?-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  14. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Lowenstern, J B; Evans, W C; Bergfeld, D; Hunt, A G

    2014-02-20

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by ?-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions. PMID:24553240

  15. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents1. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot2. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by ?-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  16. The controversial “Cambrian” fossils of the Vindhyan are real but more than a billion years older

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson, Stefan; Belivanova, Veneta; Rasmussen, Birger; Whitehouse, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The age of the Vindhyan sedimentary basin in central India is controversial, because geochronology indicating early Proterozoic ages clashes with reports of Cambrian fossils. We present here an integrated paleontologic–geochronologic investigation to resolve this conundrum. New sampling of Lower Vindhyan phosphoritic stromatolitic dolomites from the northern flank of the Vindhyans confirms the presence of fossils most closely resembling those found elsewhere in Cambrian deposits: annulated tubes, embryo-like globules with polygonal surface pattern, and filamentous and coccoidal microbial fabrics similar to Girvanella and Renalcis. None of the fossils, however, can be ascribed to uniquely Cambrian or Ediacaran taxa. Indeed, the embryo-like globules are not interpreted as fossils at all but as former gas bubbles trapped in mucus-rich cyanobacterial mats. Direct dating of the same fossiliferous phosphorite yielded a Pb–Pb isochron of 1,650 ± 89 (2?) million years ago, confirming the Paleoproterozoic age of the fossils. New U–Pb geochronology of zircons from tuffaceous mudrocks in the Lower Vindhyan Porcellanite Formation on the southern flank of the Vindhyans give comparable ages. The Vindhyan phosphorites provide a window of 3-dimensionally preserved Paleoproterozoic fossils resembling filamentous and coccoidal cyanobacteria and filamentous eukaryotic algae, as well as problematic forms. Like Neoproterozoic phosphorites a billion years later, the Vindhyan deposits offer important new insights into the nature and diversity of life, and in particular, the early evolution of multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:19416859

  17. A redox-stratified ocean 3.2 billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satkoski, Aaron M.; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Li, Weiqiang; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2015-11-01

    Before the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) 2.4-2.2 billion years ago it has been traditionally thought that oceanic water columns were uniformly anoxic due to a lack of oxygen-producing microorganisms. Recently, however, it has been proposed that transient oxygenation of shallow seawater occurred between 2.8 and 3.0 billion years ago. Here, we present a novel combination of stable Fe and radiogenic U-Th-Pb isotope data that demonstrate significant oxygen contents in the shallow oceans at 3.2 Ga, based on analysis of the Manzimnyama Banded Iron Formation (BIF), Fig Tree Group, South Africa. This unit is exceptional in that proximal, shallow-water and distal, deep-water facies are preserved. When compared to the distal, deep-water facies, the proximal samples show elevated U concentrations and moderately positive ?56Fe values, indicating vertical stratification in dissolved oxygen contents. Confirmation of oxidizing conditions using U abundances is robustly constrained using samples that have been closed to U and Pb mobility using U-Th-Pb geochronology. Although redox-sensitive elements have been commonly used in ancient rocks to infer redox conditions, post-depositional element mobility has been rarely tested, and U-Th-Pb geochronology can constrain open- or closed-system behavior. The U abundances and ?56Fe values of the Manzimnyama BIF suggest the proximal, shallow-water samples record precipitation under stronger oxidizing conditions compared to the distal deeper-water facies, which in turn indicates the existence of a discrete redox boundary between deep and shallow ocean waters at this time; this work, therefore, documents the oldest known preserved marine redox gradient in the rock record. The relative enrichment of O2 in the upper water column is likely due to the existence of oxygen-producing microorganisms such as cyanobacteria. These results provide a new approach for identifying free oxygen in Earth's ancient oceans, including confirming the age of redox proxies, and indicate that cyanobacteria evolved prior to 3.2 Ga.

  18. Iron and ?-element Production in the First One Billion Years after the Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, George D.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.; Rauch, Michael; Carswell, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    We present measurements of carbon, oxygen, silicon, and iron in quasar absorption systems existing when the universe was roughly one billion years old. We measure column densities in nine low-ionization systems at 4.7 < z < 6.3 using Keck, Magellan, and Very Large Telescope optical and near-infrared spectra with moderate to high resolution. The column density ratios among C II, O I, Si II, and Fe II are nearly identical to sub-damped Ly? systems (sub-DLAs) and metal-poor ([M/H] <= -1) DLAs at lower redshifts, with no significant evolution over 2 <~ z <~ 6. The estimated intrinsic scatter in the ratio of any two elements is also small, with a typical rms deviation of <~ 0.1 dex. These facts suggest that dust depletion and ionization effects are minimal in our z > 4.7 systems, as in the lower-redshift DLAs, and that the column density ratios are close to the intrinsic relative element abundances. The abundances in our z > 4.7 systems are therefore likely to represent the typical integrated yields from stellar populations within the first gigayear of cosmic history. Due to the time limit imposed by the age of the universe at these redshifts, our measurements thus place direct constraints on the metal production of massive stars, including iron yields of prompt supernovae. The lack of redshift evolution further suggests that the metal inventories of most metal-poor absorption systems at z >~ 2 are also dominated by massive stars, with minimal contributions from delayed Type Ia supernovae or winds from asymptotic giant branch stars. The relative abundances in our systems broadly agree with those in very metal-poor, non-carbon-enhanced Galactic halo stars. This is consistent with the picture in which present-day metal-poor stars were potentially formed as early as one billion years after the big bang. The observations were made in part at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology and the University of California; it was made possible by the generous support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Based in part on observations made with the Very Large Telescope, operated by the European Southern Observatory at Paranal Observatory, Chile, under proposal ID 084.A-0574.

  19. Galaxy evolution. Evidence for mature bulges and an inside-out quenching phase 3 billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Tacchella, S; Carollo, C M; Renzini, A; Förster Schreiber, N M; Lang, P; Wuyts, S; Cresci, G; Dekel, A; Genzel, R; Lilly, S J; Mancini, C; Newman, S; Onodera, M; Shapley, A; Tacconi, L; Woo, J; Zamorani, G

    2015-04-17

    Most present-day galaxies with stellar masses ?10(11) solar masses show no ongoing star formation and are dense spheroids. Ten billion years ago, similarly massive galaxies were typically forming stars at rates of hundreds solar masses per year. It is debated how star formation ceased, on which time scales, and how this "quenching" relates to the emergence of dense spheroids. We measured stellar mass and star-formation rate surface density distributions in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.2 with ~1-kiloparsec resolution. We find that, in the most massive galaxies, star formation is quenched from the inside out, on time scales less than 1 billion years in the inner regions, up to a few billion years in the outer disks. These galaxies sustain high star-formation activity at large radii, while hosting fully grown and already quenched bulges in their cores. PMID:25883353

  20. Archean rocks in antarctica: 2.5-billion-year uranium-lead ages of pegmatites in enderby land.

    PubMed

    Grew, E S; Manton, W I

    1979-10-26

    Uranium-lead isotopic data indicate that the granulite-facies Napier complex of Enderby Land, Antarctica, was cut by charnockitic pegmatites 2.5 billion years ago and by pegmatites lacking hypersthene 0.52 billion years ago. The 4-bil-lion-years lead-lead ages (whole rock) reported for the Napier complex are rejected since these leads developed in three stages. Reconstructions of Gondwanaland suggest that the Napier complex may be a continuation of the Archean granulitic terrain of southern India. PMID:17809366

  1. Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Harrison, T. Mark; Mao, Wendy L.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of life on Earth is manifestly preserved in the rock record. However, the microfossil record only extends to ?3.5 billion years (Ga), the chemofossil record arguably to ?3.8 Ga, and the rock record to 4.0 Ga. Detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia range in age up to nearly 4.4 Ga. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one >3.8-Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions. Here, we report carbon isotopic measurements on these inclusions in a concordant, 4.10 ± 0.01-Ga zircon. We interpret these inclusions as primary due to their enclosure in a crack-free host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit. Their ?13CPDB of ?24 ± 5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and may be evidence that a terrestrial biosphere had emerged by 4.1 Ga, or ?300 My earlier than has been previously proposed. PMID:26483481

  2. Precambrian crustal evolution of Peninsular India: A 3.0 billion year odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meert, Joseph G.; Pandit, Manoj K.; Pradhan, Vimal R.; Banks, Jonathan; Sirianni, Robert; Stroud, Misty; Newstead, Brittany; Gifford, Jennifer

    2010-11-01

    The Precambrian geologic history of Peninsular India covers nearly 3.0 billion years of time. India is presently attached to the Eurasian continent although it remains (for now) a separate plate. It comprises several cratonic nuclei namely, Aravalli-Bundelkhand, Eastern Dharwar, Western Dharwar, Bastar and Singhbhum Cratons along with the Southern Granulite Province. Cratonization of India was polyphase, but a stable configuration between the major elements was largely complete by 2.5 Ga. Each of the major cratons was intruded by various age granitoids, mafic dykes and ultramafic bodies throughout the Proterozoic. The Vindhyan, Chhattisgarh, Cuddapah, Pranhita-Godavari, Indravati, Bhima-Kaladgi, Kurnool and Marwar basins are the major Meso to Neoproterozoic sedimentary repositories. In this paper we review the major tectonic and igneous events that led to the formation of Peninsular India and provide an up to date geochronologic summary of the Precambrian. India is thought to have played a role in a number of supercontinental cycles including (from oldest to youngest) Ur, Columbia, Rodinia, Gondwana and Pangea. This paper gives an overview of the deep history of Peninsular India as an introduction to this special TOIS volume.

  3. Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon.

    PubMed

    Bell, Elizabeth A; Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark; Mao, Wendy L

    2015-11-24

    Evidence of life on Earth is manifestly preserved in the rock record. However, the microfossil record only extends to ?3.5 billion years (Ga), the chemofossil record arguably to ?3.8 Ga, and the rock record to 4.0 Ga. Detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia range in age up to nearly 4.4 Ga. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one >3.8-Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions. Here, we report carbon isotopic measurements on these inclusions in a concordant, 4.10 ± 0.01-Ga zircon. We interpret these inclusions as primary due to their enclosure in a crack-free host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit. Their ?(13)CPDB of -24 ± 5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and may be evidence that a terrestrial biosphere had emerged by 4.1 Ga, or ?300 My earlier than has been previously proposed. PMID:26483481

  4. A Massive Galaxy in Its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years After the Big Bang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha M. Forster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Leja, Joel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z = 2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0 × 10 (exp 11) solar mass, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90 (sup +45 / sub -20) solar mass/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317 plus or minus 30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z is approximately equal to 2 (exp 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.

  5. A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

    2004-02-26

    The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman alpha transition of neutral hydrogen, indicating that hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not been completely ionized at a redshift of z approximately 6.3, about one billion years after the Big Bang. Here we show that the IGM surrounding these quasars had a neutral hydrogen fraction of tens of per cent before the quasar activity started, much higher than the previous lower limits of approximately 0.1 per cent. Our results, when combined with the recent inference of a large cumulative optical depth to electron scattering after cosmological recombination therefore suggest the presence of a second peak in the mean ionization history of the Universe. PMID:14985754

  6. The formation of submillimetre-bright galaxies from gas infall over a billion years.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Desika; Turk, Matthew; Feldmann, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Hopkins, Philip; Thompson, Robert; Hayward, Christopher; Ball, David; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-09-24

    Submillimetre-bright galaxies at high redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe and are characterized by prodigious emission in the far-infrared, with a flux of at least five millijanskys at a wavelength of 850 micrometres. They reside in haloes with masses about 10(13) times that of the Sun, have low gas fractions compared to main-sequence disks at a comparable redshift, trace complex environments and are not easily observable at optical wavelengths. Their physical origin remains unclear. Simulations have been able to form galaxies with the requisite luminosities, but have otherwise been unable to simultaneously match the stellar masses, star formation rates, gas fractions and environments. Here we report a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation that is able to form a submillimetre galaxy that simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints. We find that groups of galaxies residing in massive dark matter haloes have increasing rates of star formation that peak at collective rates of about 500-1,000 solar masses per year at redshifts of two to three, by which time the interstellar medium is sufficiently enriched with metals that the region may be observed as a submillimetre-selected system. The intense star formation rates are fuelled in part by the infall of a reservoir gas supply enabled by stellar feedback at earlier times, not through major mergers. With a lifetime of nearly a billion years, our simulations show that the submillimetre-bright phase of high-redshift galaxies is prolonged and associated with significant mass buildup in early-Universe proto-clusters, and that many submillimetre-bright galaxies are composed of numerous unresolved components (for which there is some observational evidence). PMID:26399829

  7. The formation of submillimetre-bright galaxies from gas infall over a billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Desika; Turk, Matthew; Feldmann, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Hopkins, Philip; Thompson, Robert; Hayward, Christopher; Ball, David; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-09-01

    Submillimetre-bright galaxies at high redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe and are characterized by prodigious emission in the far-infrared, with a flux of at least five millijanskys at a wavelength of 850 micrometres. They reside in haloes with masses about 1013 times that of the Sun, have low gas fractions compared to main-sequence disks at a comparable redshift, trace complex environments and are not easily observable at optical wavelengths. Their physical origin remains unclear. Simulations have been able to form galaxies with the requisite luminosities, but have otherwise been unable to simultaneously match the stellar masses, star formation rates, gas fractions and environments. Here we report a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation that is able to form a submillimetre galaxy that simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints. We find that groups of galaxies residing in massive dark matter haloes have increasing rates of star formation that peak at collective rates of about 500-1,000 solar masses per year at redshifts of two to three, by which time the interstellar medium is sufficiently enriched with metals that the region may be observed as a submillimetre-selected system. The intense star formation rates are fuelled in part by the infall of a reservoir gas supply enabled by stellar feedback at earlier times, not through major mergers. With a lifetime of nearly a billion years, our simulations show that the submillimetre-bright phase of high-redshift galaxies is prolonged and associated with significant mass buildup in early-Universe proto-clusters, and that many submillimetre-bright galaxies are composed of numerous unresolved components (for which there is some observational evidence).

  8. Visiting the cinema, concerts, museums or art exhibitions as determinant of survival: a Swedish fourteen-year cohort follow-up.

    PubMed

    Konlaan, B B; Bygren, L O; Johansson, S E

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the possible influence of attending various kinds of cultural events or visiting cultural institutions as a determinant of survival. A cohort of individuals aged 25-74 years from a random sample were interviewed by trained non-medical interviewers in 1982 and 1983. The interviews covered standard-of-living variables. Our independent variables covered visiting cultural institutions and attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, and music making. The non-response rate was about 25%. The cohort was followed with respect to survival for 14 years up to 31st December 1996. The background covariates that were used for control purposes were age, sex, cash buffer, educational standard, long-term disease, smoking, and physical exercise. Our setting was the Swedish survey of living conditions among the adult Swedish population aged 25-74 years. About 10,609 individuals were interviewed in 1982 and 1983. The outcome measure was survival until 31st December 1996. In all, 916 men and 600 women died during this period. We found a higher mortality risk for those people who rarely visited the cinema, concerts, museums, or art exhibitions compared with those visiting them most often. The significant relative risks ranging between RR 1.14 (95% CI. 1.01-1.31) of attending art exhibitions, and RR 1.42 (CI. 1.25-1.60) of attending museums, when adjusting for the nine other variables. Visits to the cinema and concerts gave significant RR in between. We could not discern any beneficial effect of attending the theatre, church service or sports event as a spectator or any effect of reading or music making. Our conclusion is that attendance at certain kinds of cultural events may have a beneficial effect on longevity. PMID:11045748

  9. Do arsenic concentrations in groundwater change over time? A fourteen-year follow-up study of 760 tubewells in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailloux, B. J.; Chen, T. L.; van Geen, A.; Bostick, B. C.; Ellis, T.; Ahmed, E. B.; Ahmed, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Naturally occurring arsenic (As) contamination of shallow groundwater affects numerous tubewells utilized for drinking water in Bangladesh. Long-term exposure to As contaminated water increases the risk of skin lesions and internal cancers. In 2000-2001, water samples from 61 villages distributed within a 25 km area of Araihazar, Bangladesh were collected and tested for As to better understand the spatial distribution of arsenic in groundwater. In 2012, village health workers returned to the same area and performed field kit tests for arsenic and resurveyed well owners. Of the 9,000 tubewells originally sampled in 2000-01, 760 of them have been identified as potentially still in existence by matching GPS coordinates, well depth, and well age information. The goal of this work is to determine whether arsenic concentrations along with groundwater chemistry have changed over the past 14 years in these tubewells. Archived water samples from the 2000-2001 sampling campaign are being assessed for sample storage integrity and village health workers are currently resampling these 760 tubewells. In 2000-2001, these samples were initially analyzed for As using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption (GFAA). The 2000-2001 archived water samples are currently being reanalyzed with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) to improve sensitivity, accuracy and precision of arsenic detection. ICP-MS will also be used to analyze for 13 other elements. Comparing ICP-MS with the GFAA As demonstrated that the long-term storage of these samples did not alter the water chemistry. Analysis of the samples currently being collected in Bangladesh will enable us to determine the stability of groundwater chemistry over time.

  10. The First Billion Years project: the escape fraction of ionizing photons in the epoch of reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Khochfar, Sadegh; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    Protogalaxies forming in low-mass dark matter haloes are thought to provide the majority of ionizing photons needed to reionize the Universe, due to their high escape fractions of ionizing photons. We study how the escape fraction in high-redshift galaxies relates to the physical properties of the halo in which the galaxies form, by computing escape fractions in more than 75 000 haloes between redshifts 27 and 6 that were extracted from the First Billion Years project, high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation. We find that the main constraint on the escape fraction is the gas column density in a radius of 10 pc around the stellar populations, causing a strong mass dependence of the escape fraction. The lower potential well in haloes with M200 ? 108 M? results in low column densities that can be penetrated by radiation from young stars (age <5 Myr). In haloes with M200 ? 108 M? supernova feedback is important, but only ˜30 per cent of the haloes in this mass range have an escape fraction higher than 1 per cent. We find a large range of escape fractions in haloes with similar properties, caused by different distributions of the dense gas in the halo. This makes it very hard to predict the escape fraction on the basis of halo properties and results in a highly anisotropic escape fraction. The strong mass dependence, the large spread and the large anisotropy of the escape fraction may strongly affect the topology of reionization and is something current models of cosmic reionization should strive to take into account.

  11. Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 43.5 billion years ago

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4­3.5 billion years ago 2007. [1] Solar X-ray and UV radiation (0.1­320 nm) received at Earth's surface is an important aspect due to variability in solar emission are small compared to this. In all cases surface radiation levels

  12. The thesis of stages fourteen years later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeby, C. E.

    1980-12-01

    The author indicates the changes and additions he would make to his book ` The Quality of Education in Developing Countries' (1966) if he were re-writing it in 1980. He would make clearer that his primary interest is in a continuum of change, the process of growth of a school system, and that the `stages' are only a convenient non-mathematical artifact to make the thesis more useful to administrators and planners. In the light of more recent developments and experiences, he now gives new stress to the pluralism of objectives at the stage of Meaning, and discusses the political, social, cultural and financial reasons why a country may choose not to take the difficult step from stage III to stage IV. Recent forms of alternative education, particularly those embodying plans for lifelong education, offer some hope of bypassing his thesis of stages. More consideration is given to constraints other than that of teacher qualification, though the difficulty of changing the skills, habits, attitudes and purposes in the teaching profession remain the chief obstacle to qualitative growth. Particular attention is paid to `crash' programmes where processes that are, by their very nature, successive are compressed into simultaneous or almost simultaneous ones. Some implications of the thesis of stages for teacher training are briefly dealt with. Regarding the application of the thesis to secondary education, he maintains that a better model of growth would be one based on the capacity of secondary education to respond to the changing economic and social demands of the community. Finally, he suggests three methods of testing his hypotheses and pleads that more consideration be given to building up a body of educational, theory based on the experience of developing countries over the past three decades.

  13. Switching To Less-Expensive Blindness Drug Could Save Medicare Part B $18 Billion Over A Ten-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, DW; Newman-Casey, PA; Tavag, M; Zacks, DN; Stein, JD

    2014-01-01

    The biologic drugs bevacizumab and ranibizumab have revolutionized treatment of diabetic macular edema and macular degeneration, leading causes of blindness. Ophthalmologic use of these drugs has increased, now accounting for roughly one-sixth of the Medicare Part B drug budget. Ranibizumab and bevacizumab have similar efficacy and potentially minor differences in adverse event rates, but at $2,023 per dose, ranibizumab costs forty times more than bevacizumab. Using modeling methods, we predict ten-year (2010–2020) population-level costs and health benefits of using bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Our results show that if all patients were treated with the less-expensive bevacizumab instead of current usage patterns, Medicare Part B, patients, and the health care system would save $18 billion, $4.6 billion, and $29 billion, respectively. Altering patterns of use with these therapies by encouraging bevacizumab use and hastening approval of biosimilar therapies would dramatically reduce spending without substantially affecting patient outcomes. PMID:24889941

  14. Tracing the effects of an enormous meteorite impact 3 billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-07-01

    The most well-known and popularized meteorite impact occurred 65 million years ago and left behind the Chicxulub crater, a feature more than 110 miles in diameter. Dust kicked up by the impact, which lingered in the atmosphere for years, may have helped kill all the nonavian dinosaurs along with three quarters of the world's plant and animal species.

  15. A Record Year at the Federal Trough: Colleges Feast on $1.67-Billion in Earmarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Southwick, Ron

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how for fiscal year 2001, Congress earmarked more money for federal projects for specific colleges than ever before. It provided a 60 percent increase over the previous year, although such earmarks have drawn criticism as wasteful and harmful to merit-based competition for funds. Includes a list of top recipients of "pork." (EV)

  16. Constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio 1.5 billion years after the big bang.

    PubMed

    Bagdonaite, J; Ubachs, W; Murphy, M T; Whitmore, J B

    2015-02-20

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, ?. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to ?, yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of ??/?=(-9.5 ± 5.4(stat)± 5.3(syst))×10(-6). PMID:25763949

  17. An age difference of two billion years between a metal-rich and a metal-poor globular cluster.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B M S; Kalirai, J S; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J R; King, I R; Reitzel, D; Stetson, P B

    2013-08-01

    Globular clusters trace the formation history of the spheroidal components of our Galaxy and other galaxies, which represent the bulk of star formation over the history of the Universe. The clusters exhibit a range of metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium), with metal-poor clusters dominating the stellar halo of the Galaxy, and higher-metallicity clusters found within the inner Galaxy, associated with the stellar bulge, or the thick disk. Age differences between these clusters can indicate the sequence in which the components of the Galaxy formed, and in particular which clusters were formed outside the Galaxy and were later engulfed along with their original host galaxies, and which were formed within it. Here we report an absolute age of 9.9?±?0.7 billion years (at 95 per cent confidence) for the metal-rich globular cluster 47?Tucanae, determined by modelling the properties of the cluster's white-dwarf cooling sequence. This is about two billion years younger than has been inferred for the metal-poor cluster NGC?6397 from the same models, and provides quantitative evidence that metal-rich clusters like 47?Tucanae formed later than metal-poor halo clusters like NGC?6397. PMID:23903747

  18. A spin-down clock for cool stars from observations of a 2.5-billion-year-old cluster.

    PubMed

    Meibom, Søren; Barnes, Sydney A; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L; Latham, David W; Mathieu, Robert D

    2015-01-29

    The ages of the most common stars--low-mass (cool) stars like the Sun, and smaller--are difficult to derive because traditional dating methods use stellar properties that either change little as the stars age or are hard to measure. The rotation rates of all cool stars decrease substantially with time as the stars steadily lose their angular momenta. If properly calibrated, rotation therefore can act as a reliable determinant of their ages based on the method of gyrochronology. To calibrate gyrochronology, the relationship between rotation period and age must be determined for cool stars of different masses, which is best accomplished with rotation period measurements for stars in clusters with well-known ages. Hitherto, such measurements have been possible only in clusters with ages of less than about one billion years, and gyrochronology ages for older stars have been inferred from model predictions. Here we report rotation period measurements for 30 cool stars in the 2.5-billion-year-old cluster NGC 6819. The periods reveal a well-defined relationship between rotation period and stellar mass at the cluster age, suggesting that ages with a precision of order 10 per cent can be derived for large numbers of cool Galactic field stars. PMID:25539085

  19. Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years ago - Evidence at Kolar, south India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogstad, E. J.; Hanson, G. N.; Balakrishnan, S.; Rajamani, V.; Mukhopadhyay, D. K.

    1989-01-01

    The Archean Kolar Schist Belt, south India, is a suture zone where two gneiss terranes and at least two amphibolite terranes with distinct histories were accreted. Amphibolites from the eastern and western sides of the schist belt have distinct incompatible element and isotopic characteristics suggesting that their volcanic protoliths were derived from different mantle sources. The amphibolite and gneiss terranes were juxtaposed by horizontal compression and shearing between 2530 and 2420 million years ago (Ma) along a zone marked by the Kolar Schist Belt. This history of accretion of discrete crustal terranes resembles those of Phanerozoic convergent margins and thus suggests that plate tectonics operated on earth by 2500 Ma.

  20. Magnetite 3D colloidal crystals formed in the early solar system 4.6 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Jun; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; van Enckevort, Willem; Nakamura, Tomoki; Kimura, Yuki; Miura, Hitoshi; Satoh, Hisao; Nagashima, Ken; Konoto, Makoto

    2011-06-15

    Three-dimensional colloidal crystals made of ferromagnetic particles, such as magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), cannot be synthesized in principle because of the strong attractive magnetic interaction. However, we discovered colloidal crystals composed of polyhedral magnetite nanocrystallites of uniform size in the range of a few hundred nanometers in the Tagish Lake meteorite. Those colloidal crystals were formed 4.6 billion years ago and thus are much older than natural colloidal crystals on earth, such as opals, which formed about 100 million years ago. We found that the size of each individual magnetite particle determines its morphology, which in turn plays an important role in deciding the packing structure of the colloidal crystals. We also hypothesize that each particle has a flux-closed magnetic domain structure, which reduces the interparticle magnetic force significantly. PMID:21563777

  1. The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China craton: 2.505-billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle.

    PubMed

    Kusky, T M; Li, J H; Tucker, R D

    2001-05-11

    We report a thick, laterally extensive 2505 +/- 2.2-million-year-old (uranium-lead ratio in zircon) Archean ophiolite complex in the North China craton. Basal harzburgite tectonite is overlain by cumulate ultramafic rocks, a mafic-ultramafic transition zone of interlayered gabbro and ultramafic cumulates, compositionally layered olivine-gabbro and pyroxenite, and isotropic gabbro. A sheeted dike complex is rooted in the gabbro and overlain by a mixed dike-pillow lava section, chert, and banded iron formation. The documentation of a complete Archean ophiolite implies that mechanisms of oceanic crustal accretion similar to those of today were in operation by 2.5 billion years ago at divergent plate margins and that the temperature of the early mantle was not extremely elevated, as compared to the present-day temperature. Plate tectonic processes similar to those of the present must also have emplaced the ophiolite in a convergent margin setting. PMID:11349144

  2. 1.8 Billion Years of Detrital Zircon Recycling Calibrates a Refractory Part of Earth’s Sedimentary Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Hadlari, Thomas; Swindles, Graeme T.; Galloway, Jennifer M.; Bell, Kimberley M.; Sulphur, Kyle C.; Heaman, Larry M.; Beranek, Luke P.; Fallas, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Detrital zircon studies are providing new insights on the evolution of sedimentary basins but the role of sedimentary recycling remains largely undefined. In a broad region of northwestern North America, this contribution traces the pathway of detrital zircon sand grains from Proterozoic sandstones through Phanerozoic strata and argues for multi-stage sedimentary recycling over more than a billion years. As a test of our hypothesis, integrated palynology and detrital zircon provenance provides clear evidence for erosion of Carboniferous strata in the northern Cordillera as a sediment source for Upper Cretaceous strata. Our results help to calibrate Earth's sedimentary cycle by showing that recycling dominates sedimentary provenance for the refractory mineral zircon. PMID:26658165

  3. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2007-07-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

  4. Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11thFive-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

    2007-05-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious targetfor energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country sgross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and bindingtarget has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift inChina's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energydevelopment. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates intoan annual reduction of over one billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making theChinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in theworld today. While it is still too early to tell whether China willachieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend inenergy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options towardmeeting the 20 percent target using a detailed endues energymodel.

  5. A One Billion Year Martian Climate Model: The Importance of Seasonally Resolved Polar Caps and the Role of Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. C.; Leovy, C. B.; Quinn, T. R.; Haberle, R. M.; Schaeffer, J.

    2003-01-01

    Wind deflation and deposition are powerful agents of surface change in the present Mars climate regime. Recent studies indicate that, while the distribution of regions of potential deflation (or erosion) and deposition is remarkably insensitive to changes in orbital parameters (obliquity, timing of perihelion passage, etc.), rates of aeolian surface modification may be highly sensitive to these parameters even if the atmospheric mass remains constant. But previous work suggested the atmospheric mass is likely to be sensitive to obliquity, especially if a significant mass of carbon dioxide can be stored in the regolith or deposited in the form of massive polar caps. Deflation and erosion are highly sensitive to surface pressure, so feedback between orbit variations and surface pressure can greatly enhance the sensitivity of aeolian modification rates to orbital parameters. We used statistics derived from a 1 Gyr orbital integration of the spin axis of Mars, coupled with 3D general circulation models (GCMs) at a variety of orbital conditions and pressures, to explore this feedback. We also employed a seasonally resolved 1D energy balance model to illuminate the gross characteristics of the longterm atmospheric evolution, wind erosion and deposition over one billion years. We find that seasonal polar cycles have a critical influence on the ability for the regolith to release CO2 at high obliquities, and find that the atmospheric CO2 actually decreases at high obliquities due to the cooling effect of polar deposits at latitudes where seasonal caps form. At low obliquity, the formation of massive, permanent polar caps depends critically on the values of the frost albedo, A(sub frost), and frost emissivity, E(sub frost). Using our 1D model with values of A(sub frost) = 0.67 and E(sub frost) = 0.55, matched to the NASA Ames GCM results, we find that permanent caps only form at low obliquities (< 10 degrees). Thus, contrary to expectations, the Martian atmospheric pressure is remarkable static over time, and decreases both at high and low obliquity. Also, from our one billion year orbital model, we present new results on the fraction of time Mars is expected to experience periods of high and low obliquity. Finally, using GCM runs at a variety of pressures, we examine the likely role of wind erosion under an early more massive Martian atmosphere.

  6. Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Sessions, Alex L.; Allwood, Abigail C.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Grotzinger, John P.; Summons, Roger E.; Eiler, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites contain laminae rich in organic carbon, interpreted as the fossil remains of ancient microbial mats. To better understand the biogeochemistry of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur, including both ?33S and . This approach allows us to tie physiological inference from isotope ratios directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabolism that is complimentary to, and independent from, inorganic proxies (e.g., pyrite). ?33S values of the kerogen reveal mass-anomalous fractionations expected of the Archean sulfur cycle, whereas values show large fractionations at very small spatial scales, including values below -15‰. We interpret these isotopic patterns as recording the process of sulfurization of organic matter by H2S in heterogeneous mat pore-waters influenced by respiratory S metabolism. Positive ?33S anomalies suggest that disproportionation of elemental sulfur would have been a prominent microbial process in these communities. PMID:22949693

  7. Survival of LLSVPs for billions of years in a vigorously convecting mantle: Replenishment and destruction of chemical anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyukova, Elvira; Steinberger, Bernhard; Dabrowski, Marcin; Sobolev, Stephan V.

    2015-05-01

    We study segregation of the subducted oceanic crust (OC) at the core-mantle boundary and its ability to accumulate and form large thermochemical piles (such as the seismically observed Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs)). Our high-resolution numerical simulations of thermochemical mantle convection suggest that the longevity of LLSVPs for up to three billion years, and possibly longer, can be ensured by a balance in the rate of segregation of high-density OC material to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and the rate of its entrainment away from the CMB by mantle upwellings. For a range of parameters tested in this study, a large-scale compositional anomaly forms at the CMB, similar in shape and size to the LLSVPs. Neutrally buoyant thermochemical piles formed by mechanical stirring—where thermally induced negative density anomaly is balanced by the presence of a fraction of dense anomalous material—best resemble the geometry of LLSVPs. Such neutrally buoyant piles tend to emerge and survive for at least 3 Gyr in simulations with quite different parameters. We conclude that for a plausible range of values of density anomaly of OC material in the lower mantle—it is likely that it segregates to the CMB, gets mechanically mixed with the ambient material, and forms neutrally buoyant large-scale compositional anomalies similar in shape to the LLSVPs.

  8. Evidence from massive siderite beds for a CO2-rich atmosphere before approximately 1.8 billion years ago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yumiko; Kumazawa, Kazumasa

    2004-01-01

    It is generally thought that, in order to compensate for lower solar flux and maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth, methane must have been an important greenhouse gas before approximately 2.2 billion years (Gyr) ago. This is based upon a simple thermodynamic calculation that relates the absence of siderite (FeCO3) in some pre-2.2-Gyr palaeosols to atmospheric CO2 concentrations that would have been too low to have provided the necessary greenhouse effect. Using multi-dimensional thermodynamic analyses and geological evidence, we show here that the absence of siderite in palaeosols does not constrain atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Siderite is absent in many palaeosols (both pre- and post-2.2-Gyr in age) because the O2 concentrations and pH conditions in well-aerated soils have favoured the formation of ferric (Fe3+)-rich minerals, such as goethite, rather than siderite. Siderite, however, has formed throughout geological history in subsurface environments, such as euxinic seas, where anaerobic organisms created H2-rich conditions. The abundance of large, massive siderite-rich beds in pre-1.8-Gyr sedimentary sequences and their carbon isotope ratios indicate that the atmospheric CO2 concentration was more than 100 times greater than today, causing the rain and ocean waters to be more acidic than today. We therefore conclude that CO2 alone (without a significant contribution from methane) could have provided the necessary greenhouse effect to maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth.

  9. How Obama's $12-Billion Could Change 2-Year Colleges: An In-Depth Look at Ways the President's Proposal Might Play Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin; Parry, Marc

    2009-01-01

    President Obama announced a plan to spend an unprecedented $12-billion over 10 years to improve programs, courses, and facilities at community colleges. The money, the president said, will position two-year institutions to produce five million more graduates over the next decade and to play a leading role in rebuilding the economy. But after the…

  10. Communities spend tens of billions of dollars every year on transportation. NICTA is playing a central role in the application of ICT to transport, making transportation safer,

    E-print Network

    Heiser, Gernot

    Communities spend tens of billions of dollars every year on transportation. NICTA is playing a central role in the application of ICT to transport, making transportation safer, more productive and environmentally friendly. CITI: Cooperative Intelligent Transport Initiative Data Driven ITS: Deriving transport

  11. Dipolar geomagnetic field and low orbital obliquity during the last two billion years: Evidence from paleomagnetism of evaporite basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    Paleomagnetism of climatically sensitive sedimentary rock types, such as glacial deposits and evaporites, can test the uniformitarianism of ancient geomagnetic fields and paleoclimatic zones. Precambrian glacial deposits laid down in near-equatorial paleomagnetic latitudes indicate a paleoclimatic paradox that can be explained either by Snowball Earth episodes, or high orbital obliquity, or dramatically non-uniformitarian geomagnetic fields. Here I present the first global paleomagnetic compilation of the Earth's entire basin-scale evaporite record. Evaporation exceeds precipitation in today's subtropical desert belts, generally within a zone of 15-35° from the equator. Assuming a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) magnetic field for Cenozoic- Mesozoic time, evaporite basins of the past 250 Myr have a volume-weighted mean paleolatitude of 23±4°, also squarely within the subtropics. Carboniferous-Permian evaporites have an indistinguishable weighted-mean paleolatitude of 22±4°, which does not change significantly when recently hypothesized octupolar field components are included in the calculations. Early Paleozoic (including late Ediacaran) evaporites are lower-latitude (weighted mean 10±5°), but detailed analyses of individual examples show this cannot be attributed solely to nondipolar field components or sedimentary inclination biases; the cause may be due to particular paleogeographic effects on regional tropical climates, or incomplete sampling by the paleomagnetic data. Proterozoic (pre-Ediacaran) evaporite basins have a volume- weighted mean inclination of 33±4°, which would correspond to a mean paleolatitude of 18±3° for a pure GAD field. This latter mean is indistinguishable, within error, from the Cenozoic-Mesozoic mean and demonstrates the success of the GAD model as a first-order description of the geomagnetic field for the last two billion years. Also, general circulation climate models of a high-obliquity Earth predict either no strong zonal trends in mean precipitation-evaporation, or a slight minimum at the rotational equator. The focused subtropical concentration of Proterozoic evaporite latitudes, as shown above, is inconsistent with the high- obliquity hypothesis for Precambrian Earth.

  12. Survival of LLSVPs for Billions of Years in a Vigorously Convecting Mantle: Replenishment and Destruction of Chemical Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyukova, Elvira; Steinberger, Bernhard; Dabrowski, Marcin; Sobolev, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    We study segregation of the subducted oceanic crust (OC) at the core mantle boundary, its ability to accumulate and form large-scale compositional anomaly (such as the LLSVPs), and its susceptibility to get entrained by the hot rising plumes. Based on the results from our high-resolution numerical simulations of 2D thermochemical mantle convection, we propose that the longevity of LLSVPs for up to three billion years, and possibly longer, can be ensured by a balance in the rate of segregation of high-density OC-material to the CMB, and the rate of its entrainment away from the CMB by mantle upwellings. For a range of parameters tested in this study, a large-scale compositional anomaly forms at the CMB, which is similar in shape and size to the seismically observed LLSVPs - high topography of over 1000 km, steep edges, and occupying a few % (~ 2%) of the total mantle volume. In our simulations, neutrally buoyant thermochemical piles - those in which the thermally induced negative density anomaly is balanced by the presence of a fraction of compositionally anomalous high density material - best resemble the geometry of LLSVPs. Such neutrally buoyant piles tend to emerge and survive for a long time (over 3Gyr) in simulations with quite different parameters. For moderate compositional density anomaly of oceanic crust, the neutrally buoyant piles form at the CMB and contain ~ 80% of dense OC material. For high compositional density anomaly, a dense layer forms at the base of the mantle, and a neutrally buoyant pile develops on top of it. In the latter case, the dense basal layer and the neutrally buoyant pile on top of it are clearly separated by a jump in the concentration of the compositionally anomalous material. We conclude from our numerical study that for a plausible range of values of density anomaly of OC material in the lower mantle - it is likely that it segregates to the CMB, gets mechanically mixed with the ambient material, and forms neutrally buoyant large scale compositional anomalies similar in shape to the LLSVPs. To perform this numerical study, we developed an efficient FEM code with dynamically adaptive time and space resolution, and marker-in-cell methodology. This enabled us to model thermochemical mantle convection at realistically high convective vigor, strong thermally induced viscosity variations, and long term evolution of compositional fields. Confidence in our numerical results was gained through thorough benchmarking of the code, together with the resolution studies, all in the light of the characteristic length and time scales of governing processes in our modeled system.

  13. Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology in Strain Development Every year, we consume about 27 billion barrels of fossil oil.

    E-print Network

    billion barrels of fossil oil. This enormous amount of oil is used for fueling our cars and airplanes, such as shale gas, are becoming available as new energy and chemical sources, these fossil resources high dependence on the fossil resources. To reflect the change required, there has recently been much

  14. Fourteen years after the Shahid-Rajaei dam construction: an evaluation of morphometric and genetic differentiation between isolated up- and downstream populations of Capoeta capoeta gracilis (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in the Tajan River of Iran.

    PubMed

    Anvarifar, Hossein; Farahmand, H; Silva, D M; Bastos, R P; Khyabani, A; Anvarifar, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of the Shahid-Rajaei dam, 14 years after its construction, on morphometric and genetic divergence between up- and downstream populations of the Iranian fish Siah-Mahi (Capoeta capoeta gracilis). Sixty-six specimens were analyzed. There were significant differences between the 2 groups in the means of 16 morphometric characters (univariate analysis). In discriminant function analysis, the proportion of individuals classified into their original groups was 97 and 100% for up- and downstream populations, respectively. Principal component analysis of morphometric data demonstrated that the up- and downstream samples of Siah-Mahi are clearly distinct. In the genetic analysis, 6 informative primers produced 89 polymorphic bands with 95% polymorphism. In association analysis between morphological and genetic data, 63 of 89 genetic markers were significantly correlated with the 16 morphometric characters. We conclude that these are 2 morphologically and genetically distinct populations of C. c. gracilis, probably due to limited downstream dispersal and elimination of upstream migration. PMID:24065685

  15. GPM Science Status Fourteen Months after Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skofronick Jackson, Gail; Huffman, George

    2015-04-01

    Water is fundamental to life on Earth. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, launched February 27, 2014, is an international satellite mission to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational sensors to provide "next-generation" precipitation products. The joint NASA-JAXA GPM Core Observatory serves as the cornerstone and anchor to unite the constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory carries a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. As a science mission with integrated application goals, GPM is designed to (1) advance precipitation measurement capability from space through combined use of active and passive microwave sensors, (2) advance the knowledge of the global water/energy cycle and freshwater availability through better description of the space-time variability of global precipitation, and (3) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of instantaneous precipitation rates and time-integrated rainfall accumulation. Since launch, the instruments have been collecting outstanding precipitation data. New scientific insights resulting from these fourteen months of GPM data, an overview of the GPM mission concept and science activities in the United States, updates on algorithm status and performance, together with information on international collaborations for radiometer inter-calibration and ground validation will be presented. Opportunities for scientific and user involvement will be provided.

  16. Exceptional preservation of aragonite in a circa 3.3 billion year old microbial mat from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, Frances; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Lemelle, Laurence; Marrochhi, Yves; Rouzaud, Jean-Noel; Simionovici, Alexandre; Andreazza, Caroline; Foucher, Frédéric; Thiel, Volker; Hofmann, Axel

    2010-05-01

    Exceptional preservation of aragonite in a circa 3.3 billion year old microbial mat from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa Frances Westall, Barbara Cavalazzi, Laurence Lemelle, Yves Marrocchi, Jean-Noël Rouzaud, Alexandre Simionovici, Murielle Salomé, Smail Mostefaoui, Caroline Andreazza, Frédéric Foucher, Jan Toporski, Andrea Jauss, Volker Thiel, Axel Hofmann, Anders Meibom, François Robert Aragonite occurs as a biologically-formed mineral precipitate within modern calcifying microbial mats. It is, however, rarely preserved in the geological record because, as one of the least stable polymorphs of calcium carbonate, it readily converts to calcite in present environmental conditions at the Earth's surface. In an in situ investigation at the micro- to nanometer-scale, we show that 5-10 nm sized nanocrystals of aragonite are preserved within the organic framework of a partially calcified microbial mat from the ~ 3.3 billion year-old Josefsdal Chert in the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa. Transformation of the aragonite to calcite was blocked by a combination of chemical inhibitors within the crystal lattice, organic molecules coating the nanocrystals and, in particular, to the precocious permeation of the mat by hydrothermal silica. Apart from its exceptional preservation for 3.3 billion years, the identification of aragonite in the Josefsdal microbial mat is the earliest evidence for in situ calcification of a microbial mat. Furthermore, the indications of associated sulphur-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity with calcification strongly support a photosynthetic origin for the mat. This is the most direct evidence for photosynthesis in early Archaean rocks.

  17. Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures Recording an Ancient Ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 Billion-Year-Old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Daniel; Wacey, David; Hazen, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) result from the response of microbial mats to physical sediment dynamics. MISS are cosmopolitan and found in many modern environments, including shelves, tidal flats, lagoons, riverine shores, lakes, interdune areas, and sabkhas. The structures record highly diverse communities of microbial mats and have been reported from numerous intervals in the geological record up to 3.2 billion years (Ga) old. This contribution describes a suite of MISS from some of the oldest well-preserved sedimentary rocks in the geological record, the early Archean (ca. 3.48 Ga) Dresser Formation, Western Australia. Outcrop mapping at the meter to millimeter scale defined five sub-environments characteristic of an ancient coastal sabkha. These sub-environments contain associations of distinct macroscopic and microscopic MISS. Macroscopic MISS include polygonal oscillation cracks and gas domes, erosional remnants and pockets, and mat chips. Microscopic MISS comprise tufts, sinoidal structures, and laminae fabrics; the microscopic laminae are composed of primary carbonaceous matter, pyrite, and hematite, plus trapped and bound grains. Identical suites of MISS occur in equivalent environmental settings through the entire subsequent history of Earth including the present time. This work extends the geological record of MISS by almost 300 million years. Complex mat-forming microbial communities likely existed almost 3.5 billion years ago. Key Words: Archean—Biofilms—Microbial mats—Early Earth—Evolution. Astrobiology 13, 1103–1124. PMID:24205812

  18. Microbially induced sedimentary structures recording an ancient ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 billion-year-old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Noffke, Nora; Christian, Daniel; Wacey, David; Hazen, Robert M

    2013-12-01

    Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) result from the response of microbial mats to physical sediment dynamics. MISS are cosmopolitan and found in many modern environments, including shelves, tidal flats, lagoons, riverine shores, lakes, interdune areas, and sabkhas. The structures record highly diverse communities of microbial mats and have been reported from numerous intervals in the geological record up to 3.2 billion years (Ga) old. This contribution describes a suite of MISS from some of the oldest well-preserved sedimentary rocks in the geological record, the early Archean (ca. 3.48 Ga) Dresser Formation, Western Australia. Outcrop mapping at the meter to millimeter scale defined five sub-environments characteristic of an ancient coastal sabkha. These sub-environments contain associations of distinct macroscopic and microscopic MISS. Macroscopic MISS include polygonal oscillation cracks and gas domes, erosional remnants and pockets, and mat chips. Microscopic MISS comprise tufts, sinoidal structures, and laminae fabrics; the microscopic laminae are composed of primary carbonaceous matter, pyrite, and hematite, plus trapped and bound grains. Identical suites of MISS occur in equivalent environmental settings through the entire subsequent history of Earth including the present time. This work extends the geological record of MISS by almost 300 million years. Complex mat-forming microbial communities likely existed almost 3.5 billion years ago. PMID:24205812

  19. 29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...occupations requiring the performance of any duties in a workroom or workplace where goods are manufactured, mined, or otherwise processed...or tending of hoisting apparatus or of any power-driven machinery other than office machines; (3) The operation of...

  20. 29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...occupations requiring the performance of any duties in a workroom or workplace where goods are manufactured, mined, or otherwise processed...or tending of hoisting apparatus or of any power-driven machinery other than office machines; (3) The operation of...

  1. 29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...occupations requiring the performance of any duties in a workroom or workplace where goods are manufactured, mined, or otherwise processed...or tending of hoisting apparatus or of any power-driven machinery other than office machines; (3) The operation of...

  2. 29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...occupations requiring the performance of any duties in a workroom or workplace where goods are manufactured, mined, or otherwise processed...or tending of hoisting apparatus or of any power-driven machinery other than office machines; (3) The operation of...

  3. 29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...occupations requiring the performance of any duties in a workroom or workplace where goods are manufactured, mined, or otherwise processed...or tending of hoisting apparatus or of any power-driven machinery other than office machines; (3) The operation of...

  4. 29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions... to other specified limits. Under the provisions of Child Labor Regulations, subpart C (§§ 570.31... processed; (2) Occupations involving the operation or tending of hoisting apparatus or of any...

  5. 29 CFR 570.119 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Oppressive Child Labor § 570.119...

  6. 29 CFR 570.119 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...other than manufacturing and mining, the Secretary is...Reserved] (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations...convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: ...other than manufacturing and mining and in accordance with the...

  7. Recrystallized Granite Surface Fissures Of The Wasatch Range, Produced Not Later Than 1/4 Billion Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Keith L.

    2000-05-01

    Our studies of numerous recrystallized fissures in 4 granite plutons of Wasatch Range, namely, Mount Tuscarora-Wolverine-Millicent,^1,6,7 Bonanza Peak-Midway,^2 Little Cottonwood Canyon and Ferguson Canyon plutons, all of which formed magma chambers reaching Earth-atmosphere interface, establish that they resulted from high thermal gradients rather than passages of earthquake waves. Magma chambers formed, solidified during Permo-Caroniferous Ice Age(roughly, 1/3...1/4 billion yr ago, a time interval preceding period of extrusion of Rocky Mountains, 10^8 yr ago), and while fluid, belched lava flows^5 extending over its reservoir walls to run hundred of meters. We have shown how the magma melts, dilutes and replaces overlying metamorphic rock^7 to reach Earth's surface so that a pluton containing large amounts of dross(Fe-ores, etc.) had a short fluid lifetime. We also described how offshoots from a long-running main fissure form acute angles with that fissure.^3 Such recrystallized fissures, reaching depths of perhaps 100 m, have initial fractures near time of solidification of their uppermost portion of magma chamber while still hot(<= 1600^oF), a time when max. stresses occur near granite surface due to high thermal gradients, owing to snow coverage, cold water contacts due to rain, stream flow over granite surface, partial coverage by ocean, etc., wherever heat sinks might occur, during P-C ice age--when region of Wasatch Range existed at sea level, Salt Lake Valley being covered entirely by ocean water and region east of Wasatch Bouleuard rising gently above Pacific Ocean to elevations of possibly 500-1000 ft, say, at a distance of 10-15 mi to east. This fact is implied by Chinese Wall of white limestone on Grandeur Peak, unequivocally, and similarly another in Neff's Canyon running e. from n. ridge of 9200 ft. saddle-summit, as well as a dozen other ancient calcified stream beds emptying into ocean to w., in Salt Lake Valley. This existed prior to regional uplift(with uncontorted topography) of over 4000 ft. Details of how earthquake wave passages form an epicenter from which propagate a stress field in diametrically opposite directions to open up, by a few meters, the surface granite in forming a long running fissure^1 of km length, are unknown. Several examples of thermal fissures of 3-4 ft widths are known but one of 6ft width at epicenter running both n and s for only 50-75m to terminations is located on w spur of Maybird Gulch, and is seen when viewing w from trail leading to upper 2 small lakes. In contrast, a 12 ft wide fissure, 50-100m s of White Pine Lake,^1 resulted from earthquake waves. ^1K.L.McDonald, Bul. Am. Phys. Soc., 32(4),1124; ^235(9),2132; ^333(3),485; ^433(9),1982-3; ^536(9),2466; ^637(5),1256-7; ^738(1),740.

  8. ANALYSIS OF CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE FOR FOURTEEN CITIES USING HAPEM-MS3 (FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes results and findings of applying the Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM) for mobile sources, Version 3. This version is formally known as HAPEM-MS3. The application is to fourteen urban areas for calendar year 1990. The urban areas modeled inclu...

  9. Visible and Infrared Photometry of Fourteen Kuiper Belt Objects

    E-print Network

    Davies, John Keith

    Visible and Infrared Photometry of Fourteen Kuiper Belt Objects John K. Davies Joint Astronomy\\GammaJ colors of 14 Kuiper Belt objects using new infrared (J) data combined, in most cases, with simultaneous. Kuiper Belt objects exhibit a wide range of V\\GammaJ colors but there is no correlation with heliocentric

  10. doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00208-4 Composition and syngeneity of molecular fossils from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old

    E-print Network

    Brocks, Jochen J.

    .78 to 2.45 billion-year-old Mount Bruce Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia JOCHEN J. BROCKS,1 Biology and Department of Planetary and Earth Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 2 Department of Earth and Space Sciences & Astrobiology Program, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195

  11. Composition and syngeneity of molecular fossils from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old Mount Bruce Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Logan, Graham A.; Summons, Roger E.

    2003-11-01

    Shales of very low metamorphic grade from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old (Ga) Mount Bruce Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, were analyzed for solvent extractable hydrocarbons. Samples were collected from ten drill cores and two mines in a sampling area centered in the Hamersley Basin near Wittenoom and ranging 200 km to the southeast, 100 km to the southwest and 70 km to the northwest. Almost all analyzed kerogenous sedimentary rocks yielded solvent extractable organic matter. Concentrations of total saturated hydrocarbons were commonly in the range of 1 to 20 ppm (?g/g rock) but reached maximum values of 1000 ppm. The abundance of aromatic hydrocarbons was ˜1 to 30 ppm. Analysis of the extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-MS metastable reaction monitoring (MRM) revealed the presence of n-alkanes, mid- and end-branched monomethylalkanes, ?-cyclohexylalkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, diamondoids, tri- to pentacyclic terpanes, steranes, aromatic steroids and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Neither plant biomarkers nor hydrocarbon distributions indicative of Phanerozoic contamination were detected. The host kerogens of the hydrocarbons were depleted in 13C by 2 to 21‰ relative to n-alkanes, a pattern typical of, although more extreme than, other Precambrian samples. Acyclic isoprenoids showed carbon isotopic depletion relative to n-alkanes and concentrations of 2?-methylhopanes were relatively high, features rarely observed in the Phanerozoic but characteristic of many other Precambrian bitumens. Molecular parameters, including sterane and hopane ratios at their apparent thermal maxima, condensate-like alkane profiles, high mono- and triaromatic steroid maturity parameters, high methyladamantane and methyldiamantane indices and high methylphenanthrene maturity ratios, indicate thermal maturities in the wet-gas generation zone. Additionally, extracts from shales associated with iron ore deposits at Tom Price and Newman have unusual polyaromatic hydrocarbon patterns indicative of pyrolytic dealkylation. The saturated hydrocarbons and biomarkers in bitumens from the Fortescue and Hamersley Groups are characterized as 'probably syngenetic with their Archean host rock' based on their typical Precambrian molecular and isotopic composition, extreme maturities that appear consistent with the thermal history of the host sediments, the absence of biomarkers diagnostic of Phanerozoic age, the absence of younger petroleum source rocks in the basin and the wide geographic distribution of the samples. Aromatic hydrocarbons detected in shales associated with iron ore deposits at Mt Tom Price and Mt Whaleback are characterized as 'clearly Archean' based on their hypermature composition and covalent bonding to kerogen.

  12. 5.5 billion -- and growing.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1992-07-17

    On World Population Day in 1992 the total world population reached 5.5 billion, 100 million more than on July 11, 1991, and it is expected to pass the 6 billion figure by 2000. In developed countries the average number of children is 2/family, while in developing countries the norm is 4 children, a substantial drop from 6 children in the 1960s. The 2 billion level was reached in 1930, the world population doubled from 1 billion in 100 years. The billion mark in 1960 took only 30 years, the 4 billion figure was reached in 1975 in only 15 years, and to grow to 5 billion in 1987 took only 12 years. A 20-year delay to reach replacement level adds another 1 billion to the population size. If the 2-children-per family size had been reached in 1990, the total would still have increased to 8 billion by 2100. Provided the present trend of 3.4 children/couple continues, there will be 102 billion people in 2100. Some claim that the resources of the Earth are already overtaxed with ever-worsening environmental pollution. Family planning information and services have to me made available to those millions who want to avoid pregnancy and ensure a better future for fewer children. PMID:12317568

  13. Structural Evolution Of The Northeastern Superior Province (NESP) Over 1 Billion Years, With Emphasis On Greenstone Belts And Their Relation With Enclosing Granitoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berclaz, A.; Leclair, A.; David, J.; Maurice, C.

    2004-05-01

    Greenstone belts (GB) impart for <10%\\ of bedrock exposure in the NESP, which is predominantly composed of granitoids. Bimodal GB and enclosing granitoids were emplaced as sequential magmatic pulses spanning over 1 billion years from early-Archean (3.8 Ga), through mid-Archean (2.88-2.74 Ga), to late-Archean (2.73-2.70 Ga). Early- to mid-Archean GB consist of tholeiitic basalts and komatiites interlayered with mafic to ultramafic sub-volcanic bodies, which dominate relative to calcalkaline felsic volcaniclastic rocks (assemblage 1). Late-Archean GB are characterized by higher volumes of calc-alkaline felsic volcaniclastic rocks and paragneisses relative to tholeiitic and calc-alkaline mafic volcanic rocks (assemblage 2). Rock assemblages 1 and 2 are both variously and upwardly interlayered with iron formations, paragneisses, carbonaceous rocks and conglomerates (assemblage 3). Volcano-plutonic rocks of the NESP are affected by four phases of ductile deformation (D1-D4). Early-Archean (3.8 Ga) Nuvvuagittuq belt differs from its younger counterparts by preserving a rock assemblage 1 affected by early foliation and isoclinal folding (S1/F1), as well as being surrounded by a early-Archean mylonitic tonalitic gneisses. Rock assemblages 1 are refolded and transposed into larger, E-W isoclinal folds (F2) and have strongly to moderately plunging linear fabrics (L2). The well preserved and more voluminous mid-Archean GB are engulfed in coeval tonalite-trondhjemite (TT) plutonic suites (2.85-2.74 Ga), which preserve evidence of syn-magmatic deformational features (TT infilled shear-zones branching along strike into F1 folds and tectonic or magmatic S1). These are oriented E-W to WNW-ESE and associated with strongly to moderately plunging linear fabrics (L1). This involves N-S to NNE-SSW compression and corresponds to D2 in the NESP evolution history. Late-Archean GB are surrounded by coeval granite-granodiorite (GG), enderbite-opdalite-charnockite (EOC) or diatexite (D) plutonic suites (2.74-2.69 Ga), whose emplacement coincides with D3. D3 is characterized by a pervasive NW-SE to NNW-SSE striking foliation (S3) which is axial planar to regional folds (F3) and contains axis-parallel, strongly plunging lineations (L3). Mylonitic shear zones (S3), with kinematic indicators of dextral strike-slip movement, occur as corridors striking NNW-SSE to N-S. These shear zones have GG/EOC/D infillings which preserve magmatic textures and grade out along strike into GG/EOC/D plutons. The geometry between strike-slip mylonitic shear zones and low-angle (10-30°), coeval and subvertical plutonic fabrics is consistent with emplacement under a transcurrent regime involving NNE-SSW to NE-SW compression, and where late-Archean, rock assemblages 2/3 were emplaced in syn-magmatic and syn-tectonic pull-apart basins. In early- to mid-Archean rock assemblages 1 and TT plutonic suites, D3 fabrics superposed D1/D2 fabrics, producing fold interference patterns. Peak regional metamorphism recorded in rock assemblages reached granulite facies concomitantly with syn-D3 EOC magmatism. Locally, late-Archean assemblages 2/3 differ by preserving low-grade, but polydeformed, primary structures. Thus, syn-D3 volcano-sedimentation was still operative at a late- to post-metamorphic stage in the evolution of the NESP. Late-D3 to D4 phase of deformation (<2.685-2.64 Ga) is associated with the formation of oblique shear zones and controlled the emplacement of late GG-D and syenite-carbonatite.

  14. Spend Billions and They Will Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Bette-Lee

    2004-01-01

    People look at one billion dollars in one of two ways: if it is the result of the long, hard effort of years of fundraising, they rejoice; if it signifies an astronomical budget deficit, they cringe. How, then, should people respond as a community to reaching the $1 billion mark ($1,242,436,438, to be exact) in this year's spending for public…

  15. 10/10/2007 04:26 PMScientists' Good News: Earth May Survive Sun's Demise in 5 Billion Years -New York Times Page 1 of 2http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/13/science/13planet.html?_r=2&oref=slogin&pagewanted=print

    E-print Network

    Rasio, Frederic A.

    10/10/2007 04:26 PMScientists' Good News: Earth May Survive Sun's Demise in 5 Billion Years - New York Times Page 1 of 2http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/13/science/13planet.html?_r=2&oref=slogin&pagewanted=print September 13, 2007 Scientists' Good News: Earth May Survive Sun's Demise in 5 Billion Years By DENNIS

  16. The Billion-Dollar Question: Which Students Benefit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Becky

    2009-01-01

    The new economic-stimulus law includes more than $29-billion in provisions directed at making college more affordable in the next two years. That includes $13.9-billion budgeted over 10 years for education-tax-credit changes in 2009 and 2010, $15-billion in additional Pell Grant support, and $200-million for the Federal Work-Study program. But…

  17. Palaeoclimates: the first two billion years

    PubMed Central

    Kasting, James F; Ono, Shuhei

    2006-01-01

    Earth's climate during the Archaean remains highly uncertain, as the relevant geologic evidence is sparse and occasionally contradictory. Oxygen isotopes in cherts suggest that between 3.5 and 3.2?Gyr ago (Ga) the Archaean climate was hot (55–85?°C); however, the fact that these cherts have experienced only a modest amount of weathering suggests that the climate was temperate, as today. The presence of diamictites in the Pongola Supergroup and the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa suggests that by 2.9?Ga the climate was glacial. The Late Archaean was relatively warm; then glaciation (possibly of global extent) reappeared in the Early Palaeoproterozoic, around 2.3–2.4?Ga. Fitting these climatic constraints with a model requires high concentrations of atmospheric CO2 or CH4, or both. Solar luminosity was 20–25% lower than today, so elevated greenhouse gas concentrations were needed just to keep the mean surface temperature above freezing. A rise in O2 at approximately 2.4?Ga, and a concomitant decrease in CH4, provides a natural explanation for the Palaeoproterozoic glaciations. The Mid-Archaean glaciations may have been caused by a drawdown in H2 and CH4 caused by the origin of bacterial sulphate reduction. More work is needed to test this latter hypothesis. PMID:16754607

  18. Initial Costs vs. Operational Costs. A Study of Building Improvement Projects in Fourteen Schools in the School District of Greenville County, South Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tak Cheung

    To determine whether initial facility improvement costs were paid back by the reduced operational costs resulting from the improvement projects, this study examined the relationship between initial costs and operational costs of fourteen school buildings improved during the 1978-79 school year in Greenville County, South Carolina. With energy…

  19. Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini) with description of fourteen new species

    E-print Network

    Oliva, Adriana; Short, Andrew E. Z.

    2012-07-06

    The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: Berosus aragua sp. n., Berosus...

  20. To reactivate or not to reactivate: nature and varied behavior of structural inheritance in the Proterozoic basement of the Eastern Colorado mineral belt over 1.7 billion years of earth history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, Jonathan Saul; Ridley, John; Wessel, Zachary R.

    2010-01-01

    The eastern central Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado has long been a region of geologic interest because of Laramide-age hydrothermal polymetallic vein-related ores. The region is characterized by a well-exposed array of geologic structures associated with ductile and brittle deformation, which record crustal strain over 1.7 billion years of continental growth and evolution. The mineralized areas lie along a broad linear zone termed the Colorado Mineral Belt. This lineament has commonly been interpreted as following a fundamental boundary, such as a suture zone, in the North American Proterozoic crust that acted as a persistent zone of weakness localizing the emplacement of magmas and associated hydrothermal fluid flow. However, the details on the controls of the location, orientation, kinematics, density, permeability, and relative strength of various geological structures and their specific relationships to mineral deposit formation are not related to Proterozoic ancestry in a simple manner. The objectives of this field trip are to show key localities typical of the various types of structures present, show recently compiled and new data, offer alternative conceptual models, and foster dialogue. Topics to be discussed include: (1) structural history of the eastern Front Range; (2) characteristics, kinematics, orientations, and age of ductile and brittle structures and how they may or may not relate to one another and mineral deposit permeability; and (3) characteristics, localization, and evolution of the metal and non–metal-bearing hydrothermal systems in the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt.

  1. Fourteen years after Career profiles of STFC PhD students

    E-print Network

    Banking Senior Manager, Traded Credit Risk Systems, HSBC 3 Director, global investment bank 4 Research sector, about three quarters worked in business or financial services: in investment banks, money market

  2. Fourteen Years of Proper Motions in the HH30 Protostellar Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2011-10-01

    HH 30 is an edge-on young stellar object disk with highly collimated emission line jets outflowing along its polar axis. As a prototype of its class {and of astrophysical accretion disks generally}, the object has been the subject of extensive study with HST. Thirteen HST programs have imaged on the object at nineteen epochs over the period 1994-2008; thirteen refereed papers have used this data to report on the disk structure, the jet structure, and the outflows from adjacent sources XZ Tauri and HL Tauri. Yet surprisingly, no comprehensive study has yet been made of the HH 30 jet proper motions treating more than just two epochs of observation. We propose to investigate the kinematics and structural evolution of the HH 30 protostellar jet over all 15 epochs for which there are Archival R band continuum and emssion line images taken by WFPC2 and ACS. We will track the astrometric and morphological evolution of a dozen emission knots in the jet, thereby measuring their velocities, accelerations, expansion, mergers, and luminosity evolution. The results will provide strong constraints for models of the propagation of astrophysical jets with Mach numbers near 20.

  3. Herbicide treatment effects on properties of mountain big sagebrush soils after fourteen years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, I. C.; Reiners, W. A.; Sturges, D. L.; Matson, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of sagebrush conversion on the soil properties of a high-elevation portion of the Western Intermountain Sagebrush Steppe (West, 1983) are described. Changes were found in only a few soil chemical properties after conversion to grassland. It was found that surface concentrations of N were lower under grass vegetation than under undisturbed vegetation. Undershrub net N mineralization rates were higher under shrubs in the sagebrush vegetation than under former shrubs in the grass vegetation.

  4. Fourteen years of mapped, permanent quadrats in a northern mixed prairie, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This historical dataset consists of 44 permanent 1-m2 quadrats located on northern mixed prairie in eastern Montana, USA. Individual plants in these quadrats were identified and mapped annually from 1932 through 1945. Quadrats were located in six pastures assigned to cattle grazing treatments with l...

  5. In 1992, flipper tags from fourteen Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus)

    E-print Network

    74 In 1992, flipper tags from fourteen Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) were found in the decline and lack of recovery of Steller sea lions in western Alaska (Barrett-Lennard et al., 1995). Since the late 1970s, Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands have declined by over 80

  6. Contemporary "Hoisan-wa" Language Maintenance in Northern California: Evidence from Fourteen Frog Story Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    This article explores uninvestigated issues in Cantonese and "Hoisan-wa" language maintenance from an ethnic Chinese diaspora point of view. Data come from a larger study looking at Frog Story narratives from 140 Cantonese-English bilingual children in California. Fourteen of these children were found to display uniquely "Hoisan-wa" phonology and…

  7. 76 FR 4725 - Apria Healthcare Customer Service Department; Fourteen Locations in Missouri Cameron, Cape...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Apria Healthcare Customer Service Department; Fourteen Locations in Missouri Cameron, Cape Girardeau, Columbia, Farmington, Fenton, Joplin, Lee's Summit, Pleasant Valley, Poplar Bluff, Rolla, Springfield, St. Joseph,...

  8. Abstract Fourteen genotypes (varieties) of soybean (Glycine max) were screened for levels of induced resis-

    E-print Network

    Underwood, Nora

    Abstract Fourteen genotypes (varieties) of soybean (Glycine max) were screened for levels soybean genotypes in levels of both induced and constitutive resistance. We found no significant cor these results to past work on resistance in the soybean- Mexican bean beetle system, consider the implications

  9. Effects of Fourteen-Day Bed Rest on Trunk Stabilizing Functions in Aging Adults.

    PubMed

    Sarabon, Nejc; Rosker, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been shown to have detrimental effects on structural and functional characteristics of the trunk muscles, possibly affecting trunk and spinal stability. This is especially important in populations such as aging adults with often altered trunk stabilizing functions. This study examined the effects of a fourteen-day bed rest on anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex responses of the abdominal wall and back muscles in sixteen adult men. Postural activation of trunk muscles was measured using voluntary quick arm movement and sudden arm loading paradigm. Measurements were conducted prior to the bed rest, immediately after, and fourteen days after the bed rest. Immediately after the bed rest, latencies of anticipatory postural adjustments showed significant shortening, especially for the obliquus internus and externus muscles. After a fourteen-day recuperation period, anticipatory postural adjustments reached a near to complete recovery. On the contrary, reactive response latencies increased from pre-bed-rest to both post-bed-rest measurement sessions. Results indicate an important effect of bed rest on stabilizing functions of the trunk muscles in elderly adults. Moreover, there proved to be a significant deterioration of postural reactive responses that outlasted the 14-day post-bed-rest rehabilitation. PMID:26601104

  10. Effects of Fourteen-Day Bed Rest on Trunk Stabilizing Functions in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sarabon, Nejc; Rosker, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been shown to have detrimental effects on structural and functional characteristics of the trunk muscles, possibly affecting trunk and spinal stability. This is especially important in populations such as aging adults with often altered trunk stabilizing functions. This study examined the effects of a fourteen-day bed rest on anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex responses of the abdominal wall and back muscles in sixteen adult men. Postural activation of trunk muscles was measured using voluntary quick arm movement and sudden arm loading paradigm. Measurements were conducted prior to the bed rest, immediately after, and fourteen days after the bed rest. Immediately after the bed rest, latencies of anticipatory postural adjustments showed significant shortening, especially for the obliquus internus and externus muscles. After a fourteen-day recuperation period, anticipatory postural adjustments reached a near to complete recovery. On the contrary, reactive response latencies increased from pre-bed-rest to both post-bed-rest measurement sessions. Results indicate an important effect of bed rest on stabilizing functions of the trunk muscles in elderly adults. Moreover, there proved to be a significant deterioration of postural reactive responses that outlasted the 14-day post-bed-rest rehabilitation. PMID:26601104

  11. Inversion of the Broad Fourteens Basin (offshore Netherlands), a small-scale model investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalpas, T.; Le Douaran, S.; Brun, J.-P.; Unternehr, P.; Richert, J.-P.

    1995-03-01

    The southern North Sea exhibits spectacular examples of graben inversion which have been extensively documented by oil industry exploration. The Broad Fourteens Basin, which is located at the southern limit of the Southern Permian Salt Basin, displays numerous structural patterns of positive inversion, which are related to the inversion, which are related to the presence and thickness of Zechstein salts. In the northern part of the Broad Fourteens Basin, the Zechstein salt is rather thick (> 500 m), allowing decollement of the Mesozoic series during both extension and compression. Salt is missing to the southern part of this graben, and both Mesozoic series and Palaeozoic 'basement' display similar patterns of deformatiqn. The mechanical significance of inversion patterns was investigated through laboratory experiments on brittleductile models. Models were built with sand and silicone putty that represent, respectively, the frictional behaviour of the Mesozoic cover as well as the Palaeozoic basement, and the viscous behaviour of a decollement layer, mainly composed of Zechstein salts, which is intercalated between them. The models were scaled to fit natural configurations observed in the Broad Fourteens Basin. All small-scale experiments were carried out in two steps: (1) graben formation with synkinematic sedimentation, and (2) compression at various angles of obliquity to the graben. Experimental results show that the structures generated by or reactivated during inversion are strongly dependent on: (a) the strength of the decollement layer, which is a function of the layer thickness and of the displacement velocity applied at the model boundaries; and (b) the strength of the sedimentary overburden, which is a function only of its thickness (for a given lithology). Reactivation of normal faults occurs when the angle between the compression and the direction of the normal faults is smaller than 45. The ductile layer, which can be a source for diapirs during extension, plays during compression an important rô1e in the thrusting of the graben fill onto the adjacent platforms.

  12. Congress Gives Colleges a Billion-Dollar Bonanza.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Southwick, Ron

    2000-01-01

    Reports that Congress has earmarked a record amount of money (more than $1 billion) for projects involving specific colleges in the 2000 fiscal year. Notes that such "pork-barrel" spending has tripled since 1996. Charts show trends in earmarks since 1989, year 2000 earmarks by agency, the top 20 recipients of earmarked grants, and ranking of…

  13. How to teach a billion transistor

    E-print Network

    Kienhuis, Bart

    Heterogeneous Architecture Multi CPUs Distributed Memory Blocks Programmable Logic (IP cores) Commercially processors Write "VHDL" programs for the IP cores and interconnection network "C" programs and "VHDL billion transistor FPGAs, but cannot program efficiently FPGA Billion Transistors Applications (C / Matlab

  14. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the threatened Arnica montana (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Duwe, Virginia K.; Ismail, Sascha A.; Buser, Andres; Sossai, Esther; Borsch, Thomas; Muller, Ludo A. H.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to investigate population genetic structure in the threatened species Arnica montana. • Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers with di-, tetra-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed for A. montana using 454 pyrosequencing without and with library-enrichment methods, resulting in 56,545 sequence reads and 14,467 sequence reads, respectively. All loci showed a high level of polymorphism, with allele numbers ranging from four to 11 in five individuals from five populations (25 samples) and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.192 to 0.648 across the loci. • Conclusions: This set of microsatellite markers is the first one described for A. montana and will facilitate conservation genetic applications as well as the understanding of phylogeographic patterns in this species. PMID:25606354

  15. Relations of fine-root morphology on (137)Cs uptake by fourteen Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Aung, Han Phyo; Aye, Yi Swe; Mensah, Akwasi Dwira; Omari, Richard Ansong; Djedidi, Salem; Oikawa, Yosei; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-12-01

    Fourteen Brassica species consisting of seven leafy vegetables and seven root vegetables were examined for (137)Cs uptake differences in relation to their fine-root morphological characters. A pot experiment was conducted from November 2014 to February 2015 in a Phytroton using a contaminated soil of Fukushima prefecture. Leafy vegetables showed bigger root diameters, larger root surface area and larger root volume. Consequently, leafy vegetables had higher (137)Cs uptake compared to root vegetables. Among the three fine-root parameters, only root surface area was observed as a significant contributing factor to higher (137)Cs uptake in terms of transfer factor (TF, dry weight basis). Kakina exhibited higher (137)Cs TF value (0.20) followed by Chinese cabbage (0.18) and mizuna (0.17). Lower TF values were observed in turnip (0.059), rutabaga (Kitanoshou) (0.062) and radish (Ha daikon) (0.064). PMID:26355648

  16. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of fourteen wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Lamien-Meda, Aline; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Compaoré, Moussa M Y; Meda, Roland N T; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Zeba, Boukare; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2008-01-01

    A total of fourteen (14) species of wild edible fruits from Burkina Faso were analyzed for their phenolic and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities using the DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The data obtained show that the total phenolic and total flavonoid levels were significantly higher in the acetone than in the methanol extracts.Detarium microcarpum fruit had the highest phenolic and the highest flavonoid content,followed by that of Adansonia digitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Ximenia americana and Lannea microcarpa. Significant amounts of total phenolics were also detected in the other fruit species in the following order of decreasing levels: Tamarindus indica > Sclerocaryabirrea > Dialium guineense > Gardenia erubescens > Diospyros mespiliformis > Parkiabiglobosa > Ficus sycomorus > Vitellaria paradoxa. Detarium microcarpum fruit also showed the highest antioxidant activity using the three antioxidant assays. Fruits with high antioxidant activities were also found to possess high phenolic and flavonoid contents. There was a strong correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid levels and antioxidant activities. PMID:18463567

  17. Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini) with description of fourteen new species

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Adriana; Short, Andrew E. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: Berosus aragua sp. n., Berosus asymmetricus sp. n., Berosus capanaparo sp. n., Berosus castaneus sp. n., Berosus corozo sp. n., Berosus ebeninus sp. n., Berosus garciai sp. n., Berosus humeralis sp. n., Berosus jolyi sp. n., Berosus llanensis sp. n., Berosus megaphallus sp. n., Berosus ornaticollis sp. n., Berosus repertus sp. n., and Berosus tramidrum sp. n. The fifteenth new species, known from a single female, is left undescribed pending the collection of males. Twelve species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Berosus ambogynus Mouchamps, Berosus consobrinus Knisch, Berosus elegans Knisch, Berosus geayi d’Orchymont, Berosus ghanicus d’Orchymont, Berosus guyanensis Queney, Berosus holdhausi Knisch, Berosus marquardti Knisch, Berosus olivae Queney, Berosus reticulatus Knisch, Berosus wintersteineri Knisch, and Berosus zimmermanni Knisch. PMID:22811607

  18. Complications of implantation of synthetic fibers into scalps for "hair" replacement: experience with fourteen cases.

    PubMed

    Lepaw, M I

    1979-03-01

    Fourteen cases of complications from implantation of acrylic fibers into scalps for correction of male-pattern baldness were studied. The complications were severe enough in all of them to force attempts to remove the fibers, many of which from the nature of their knotted insertion could not be extracted. Thus, immediate complications were encountered and serious, delayed, bad effects are anticipated. Among the early complications already observed are marked edema of the face; hemorrhagic oozing; microbial infection; foreign-body reactions; scarring; acneform comedones and pustules; pain, pruritus, and numbness; and loss of natural hair. Complications in the furture are likely to be progressive sclerosis from irretrievable fragments and knots of the artificial materials and conceivably malignant degeneration of tissues of the scalp. For all of these known and possible bad effects, implantation of present-day synthetic fibers into the scalp must be judged to be a dangerous practice that must be stopped at once. PMID:429673

  19. Life with Four Billion Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Thomas

    2013-04-10

    Today it is commonplace to design and construct single silicon chips with billions of transistors. These are complex systems, difficult (but possible) to design, test, and fabricate. Remarkably, simple living systems can be assembled from a similar number of atoms, most of them in water molecules. In this talk I will present the current status of our attempts at full understanding and complexity reduction of one of the simplest living systems, the free-living bacterial species Mesoplasma florum. This 400 nm diameter cell thrives and replicates every 40 minutes with a genome of only 800 kilobases. Our recent experiments using transposon gene knockouts identified 354 of 683 annotated genes as inessential in laboratory culture when inactivated individually. While a functional redesigned genome will certainly not remove all of those genes, this suggests that roughly half the genome can be removed in an intentional redesign. I will discuss our recent knockout results and methodology, and our future plans for Genome re-engineering using targeted knock-in/knock-out double recombination; whole cell metabolic models; comprehensive whole cell metabolite measurement techniques; creation of plug-and-play metabolic modules for the simplified organism; inherent and engineered biosafety control mechanisms. This redesign is part of a comprehensive plan to lay the foundations for a new discipline of engineering biology. Engineering biological systems requires a fundamentally different viewpoint from that taken by the science of biology. Key engineering principles of modularity, simplicity, separation of concerns, abstraction, flexibility, hierarchical design, isolation, and standardization are of critical importance. The essence of engineering is the ability to imagine, design, model, build, and characterize novel systems to achieve specific goals. Current tools and components for these tasks are primitive. Our approach is to create and distribute standard biological parts, organisms, assembly techniques, and measurement techniques as a way of enabling this new field.

  20. Colleges' Billion-Dollar Campaigns Feel the Economy's Sting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The economy's collapse has caught up with the billion-dollar campaign. In the past 12 months, the amount of money raised by a dozen of the colleges engaged in higher education's biggest fund-raising campaigns fell 32 percent from the year before. The decline, which started before the worst of the recession, has forced colleges to postpone…

  1. Spherule Beds 3.47-3.24 Billion Years Old in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa: A Record of Large Meteorite Impacts and Their Influence on Early Crustal and Biological Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.; Kyte, Frank T.; Shukolyukov, Alexander; Asaro, Frank; Krull, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Four layers, S1-S4, containing sand-sized spherical particles formed as a result of large meteorite impacts, occur in 3.47-3.24 Ga rocks of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Ir levels in S3 and S4 locally equal or exceed chondritic values but in other sections are at or only slightly above background. Most spherules are inferred to have formed by condensation of impact-produced rock vapor clouds, although some may represent ballistically ejected liquid droplets. Extreme Ir abundances and heterogeneity may reflect element fractionation during spherule formation, hydraulic fractionation during deposition, and/or diagenetic and metasomatic processes. Deposition of S1, S2, and S3 was widely influenced by waves and/or currents interpreted to represent impact-generated tsunamis, and S1 and S2 show multiple graded layers indicating the passage of two or more wave trains. These tsunamis may have promoted mixing within a globally stratified ocean, enriching surface waters in nutrients for biological communities. S2 and S3 mark the transition from the 300-million-year-long Onverwacht stage of predominantly basaltic and komatiitic volcanism to the late orogenic stage of greenstone belt evolution, suggesting that regional and possibly global tectonic reorganization resulted from these large impacts. These beds provide the oldest known direct record of terrestrial impacts and an opportunity to explore their influence on early life, crust, ocean, and atmosphere. The apparent presence of impact clusters at 3.26-3.24 Ga and approx. 2.65-2.5 Ga suggests either spikes in impact rates during the Archean or that the entire Archean was characterized by terrestrial impact rates above those currently estimated from the lunar cratering record.

  2. Eight billion asteroids in the Oort cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, Andrew; Jackson, Alan P.; Veras, Dimitri; Wyatt, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Oort cloud is usually thought of as a collection of icy comets inhabiting the outer reaches of the Solar system, but this picture is incomplete. We use simulations of the formation of the Oort cloud to show that ˜4 per cent of the small bodies in the Oort cloud should have formed within 2.5 au of the Sun, and hence be ice-free rock-iron bodies. If we assume that these Oort cloud asteroids have the same size distribution as their cometary counterparts, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should find roughly a dozen Oort cloud asteroids during 10 years of operations. Measurement of the asteroid fraction within the Oort cloud can serve as an excellent test of the Solar system's formation and dynamical history. Oort cloud asteroids could be of particular concern as impact hazards as their high mass density, high impact velocity, and low visibility make them both hard to detect and hard to divert or destroy. However, they should be a rare class of object, and we estimate globally catastrophic collisions should only occur about once per billion years.

  3. A Billion Is How Big?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, John

    2008-01-01

    Place-value is a central, powerful mathematical concept. From the earliest years of school, students focus on developing strong understanding of the ideas, notation and computational use. Many times, however, they get as far as thousands and then resort to waving their hands--at least until they start a far more advanced and abstract treatment of…

  4. A Descriptive Summary of 1972 High School Seniors: Fourteen Years Later. National Longitudinal Study 1972. Analysis Report. Contractor Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Eva; And Others

    The sixth in a series of descriptive summaries about the status of 1972 high school seniors, the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972, is presented. Four chapters focus on the following: education experiences of the 1972 senior class (enrollment in postsecondary education for 1972 high school seniors, attainment in…

  5. Evaluation of humidity, cloud and precipitation predicted by fourteen MAP D-PHASE mesocale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polade, Suraj; Ament, Felix

    2010-05-01

    Precipitation is the final component of the atmospheric part of hydrological cycle. Consequently, all model errors in this complex process chain are accumulated in quantitative precipitation forecasts. Furthermore, many parts of forecasting system can cause errors: poor model formulations, inaccurate initial or boundary data, limited grid resolution etc. We will demonstrate how a multivariate verification of fourteen different mesoscale forecasting systems can be used to disentangle this multitude of effects and to identify specific model deficits. The models forecasts were collected in summer 2007 during the forecast demonstration experiment MAP D-PHASE in the Alpine region and comprise both results from convection permitting high-resolution models as well as systems with parameterized deep convection. The observational basis to evaluate these models is obtained from the remote-sensing observations gathered during general observation period (GOP) of the German research program on quantitative precipitation forecasts. Analyses of integrated water vapour (IWV) content, cloud cover and precipitation rate are performed for the summer 2007 over the southern Germany. By analyzing which type of models show similar error structures, it is possible to decide whether the resolution, the model formulation or the initial conditions have a dominant impact on the model error. Particular attention is paid to the representation of the diurnal cycle in all considered quantities. This reveals the great impact of introducing a dry bias by the assimilation of day time radiosondes: There is a significant loss of IWV, a reduction in low and high cloud cover, also sudden decrease of precipitation at 1200 UTC. Finally, we will discuss the added value of using high resolution convection permitting models and of implementing a rapid update cycle of model initialization.

  6. Two and a Half Billion Years of Distance Research

    E-print Network

    Pach, János

    of Alzheimer's disease and the decline of Research partially supported by Swiss National Science Foundation was less than thirty when he started referring to himself as an "old man". To mark the various stages

  7. The Unchanging Circumgalactic Medium Over the Past 11 Billion Years

    E-print Network

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how the circumgalactic medium (CGM) evolves as a function of time by comparing results from different absorption-line surveys that have been conducted in the vicinities of galaxies at different redshifts. Despite very different star formation properties of the galaxies considered in these separate studies and different intergalactic radiation fields at redshifts between z~2.2 and z~0, I show that both the spatial extent and mean absorption equivalent width of the CGM around galaxies of comparable mass have changed little over this cosmic time interval.

  8. Prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory activity of fourteen Kampo formulas and inhibitory constituents of Tokaku-joki-to.

    PubMed

    Fan, W; Tezuka, Y; Kadota, S

    2000-07-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP, EC 3.4.21.26) is an enzyme playing a role in the metabolism of proline-containing neuropeptides which have been suggested to be involved in learning and memory processes. In screening for PEP inhibitors from fourteen traditional Kampo formulas, we found that Tokaku-joki-to shows a significant inhibitory activity. Examination of the constituents of the Kampo formula resulted in the isolation of two new compounds, cis-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 4'-O-beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (10) and 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone 4'-O-beta-D-(6-O-galloyl-2-O-cinnamoyl)glucopyranoside (16), along with twenty-five known compounds, cinnamic acid (1), protocatechuic acid (2), gallic acid (3), torachrysone 8-O-beta-D-glucoside (4), emodin (5), emodin 8-O-beta-D-glucoside (6), 3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), 3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 4'-O-beta-D-(2-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (8), 3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene 4'-O-beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (9), 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (11), isolindleyin (12), lindleyin (13), 4(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone 4'-O-beta-D-(2,6-di-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (14), 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone 4'-O-beta-D-(2-O-galloyl-6-O-cinnamoyl)glucopyranoside (15), 1-O-galloylglucose (17), 1,2,6-tri-O-galloylglucose (18), gallic acid 4-O-beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (19), liquiritigenin (20), liquiritigenin 4'-O-beta-D-glucoside (21), liquiritigenin 7,4'-diglucoside (22), liquiritigenin 4'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (23), licuroside (24), (-)-epicatechin (25), (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (26) and (+)-catechin (27). Among these compounds, twelve (7-10, 14-16, 18, 19, 24-26) showed noncompetitive inhibition with an IC50 of 22.9, 3.0, 14.9, 2.8, 10.5, 0.69, 8.2, 0.44, 9.39, 26.5, 28.1 and 0.052 microM, respectively. PMID:10923840

  9. Ubiquitous Supercritical Wing Design Cuts Billions in Fuel Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    A Langley Research Center engineer’s work in the 1960s and ’70s to develop a wing with better performance near the speed of sound resulted in a significant increase in subsonic efficiency. The design was shared with industry. Today, Renton, Washington-based Boeing Commercial Airplanes, as well as most other plane manufacturers, apply it to all their aircraft, saving the airline industry billions of dollars in fuel every year.

  10. Gaia: how to map a billion stars with a billion pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, J. H. J.

    2008-07-01

    Gaia, ESA's ambitious star-mapper mission due for launch late-2011, will provide multi-epoch micro-arcsecond astrometric and milli-magnitude photometric data for the brightest one billion objects in the sky, down to at least magnitude 20. Spectroscopic data will simultaneously be collected for the subset of the brightest 100 million stars, down to about magnitude 17. This massive data volume will allow astronomers to reconstruct the structure, evolution and formation history of the Milky Way. It will also revolutionize studies of the solar system and stellar physics and will contribute to diverse research areas, ranging from extra-solar planets to general relativity. Underlying Gaia's scientific harvest will lie in a Catalogue, built on the fundamental space-based measurements. During the 5-year nominal operational lifetime, Gaia's payload, with its CCD mosaic containing 1 billion pixels, will autonomously detect all objects of interest and observe them throughout their passage of the focal plane. This paper discusses the workings of the Gaia instrument, details its payload, and discusses in depth how the scientific measurements will be collected. It addresses issues like maintenance of the scanning law, on-board data processing, the detection and confirmation of objects (single and multiple stars), the detection and rejection of cosmic rays and solar protons, the fundamental science measurements themselves composed of windows of CCD samples (pixels), and special strategies employed to maximize the science return for moving (i.e., solar-system) objects. The paper also explains how an on-board priority scheme will ensure catalogue completeness down to the faintest magnitudes possible, despite the limited ground-station availability and the enormous data volume that will be sent to the ground.

  11. Billion shot flashlamp for spaceborne lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Linda; Schuda, Felix; Degnan, John

    1990-01-01

    A billion-shot flashlamp developed under a NASA contract for spaceborne laser missions is presented. Lifetime-limiting mechanisms are identified and addressed. Two energy loadings of 15 and 44 Joules were selected for the initial accelerated life testing. A fluorescence-efficiency test station was used for measuring the useful-light output degradation of the lamps. The design characteristics meeting NASA specifications are outlined. Attention is focused on the physical properties of tungsten-matrix cathodes, the chemistry of dispenser cathodes, and anode degradation. It is reported that out of the total 83 lamps tested in the program, 4 lamps reached a billion shots and one lamp is beyond 1.7 billion shots, while at 44 Joules, 4 lamps went beyond 100 million shots and one lamp reached 500 million shots.

  12. Marine Gastrotricha of the Near East: 1. Fourteen new species of Macrodasyida and a redescription of Dactylopodola agadasys Hochberg, 2003.

    PubMed

    Hummon, William D

    2011-01-01

    The near eastern geographical region is almost devoid of reports of macrodasyidan gastrotrichs, the exceptions themselves being part of this study. Here, as Part 1 are described fourteen new Macrodasyida from countries of the Near East (Cyprus, Egypt and Israel, representing both the Mediterranean and the Red Seas), and a redescription of the previously described Dactylopodolidae: Dactylopodola agadasys Hochberg, 2002. The new species are: Cephalodasyidae (2) - Cephalodasys dolichosomus; Cephalodasys saegailus; Dactylopodolidae (1) Dendrodasys rubomarinus; Macrodasyidae (5) - Macrodasys imbricatus; Macrodasys macrurus; Macrodasys nigrocellus; Macrodasys scleracrus; Urodasys toxostylus; Thaumastodermatidae(4) - Tetranchyroderma corallium; Tetranchyroderma rhopalotum; Tetranchyroderma sinaiensis; Tetranchyroderma xenodactylum; Turbanellidae(2) - Paraturbanella levantia; Turbanella erythrothalassia - spp. n. PMID:21594074

  13. Marine Gastrotricha of the Near East: 1. Fourteen new species of Macrodasyida and a redescription of Dactylopodola agadasys Hochberg, 2003

    PubMed Central

    Hummon, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The near eastern geographical region is almost devoid of reports of macrodasyidan gastrotrichs, the exceptions themselves being part of this study. Here, as Part 1 are described fourteen new Macrodasyida from countries of the Near East (Cyprus, Egypt and Israel, representing both the Mediterranean and the Red Seas), and a redescription of the previously described Dactylopodolidae: Dactylopodola agadasys Hochberg, 2002. The new species are: Cephalodasyidae (2) - Cephalodasys dolichosomus; Cephalodasys saegailus; Dactylopodolidae (1) Dendrodasys rubomarinus; Macrodasyidae (5) - Macrodasys imbricatus; Macrodasys macrurus; Macrodasys nigrocellus; Macrodasys scleracrus; Urodasys toxostylus; Thaumastodermatidae(4) - Tetranchyroderma corallium; Tetranchyroderma rhopalotum; Tetranchyroderma sinaiensis; Tetranchyroderma xenodactylum; Turbanellidae(2) - Paraturbanella levantia; Turbanella erythrothalassia - spp. n. PMID:21594074

  14. States' Progress Related to Fourteen Components of PL 99-457, Part H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbin, Gloria; And Others

    This study was conducted to measure the progress that states have made with regard to the 14 components in Part H of Public Law 99-457, after about 1 year of funding. Forty-seven State Part H Coordinators completed and returned the State Progress Scale between January and April of 1989. For each of the 14 components, progress was assessed in three…

  15. Fourteen new species, one new genus, and eleven new country or state records for New World Lamiinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen new species and one new genus are described from the New World in Lamiinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): Bisaltes (Bisaltes) lingafelteri sp. nov., Trestonia skelleyi sp. nov. and Psapharochrus langeri sp. nov. from Bolivia; Eupogonius azteca sp. nov., Aegomorphus mexicanus sp. nov., Lamacoscylus albatus sp. nov., Lamacoscylus obscurus sp. nov. and Piruanycha wappesi sp. nov. from Mexico; Dolichestola egeri sp. nov. and Wappesellus cavus gen. nov., sp. nov. from Brazil (Rondônia); Scleronotus virgatus sp. nov. from Venezuela; Oreodera casariae sp. nov. from Panama; Alampyris bicolor sp. nov. from Costa Rica; and Emphytoeciosoma flava sp. nov. from Peru. Additionally, eleven new country/state records are established in Lamiinae: three for Peru; three for Bolivia; one for Mexico; one for Uruguay; and two for Brazil (Rondônia) (state records). Bisaltes (Bisaltes) lingafelteri, Eupogonius azteca, Aegomorphus mexicanus, Lamacoscylus albatus, Lamacoscylus obscurus, Piruanycha wappesi, Scleronotus virgatus, Alampyris bicolor, Emphytoeciosoma flava and Wappesellus are included in new or known keys. PMID:26249940

  16. Simulating Billion-Task Parallel Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S; Park, Alfred J

    2014-01-01

    In simulating large parallel systems, bottom-up approaches exercise detailed hardware models with effects from simplified software models or traces, whereas top-down approaches evaluate the timing and functionality of detailed software models over coarse hardware models. Here, we focus on the top-down approach and significantly advance the scale of the simulated parallel programs. Via the direct execution technique combined with parallel discrete event simulation, we stretch the limits of the top-down approach by simulating message passing interface (MPI) programs with millions of tasks. Using a timing-validated benchmark application, a proof-of-concept scaling level is achieved to over 0.22 billion virtual MPI processes on 216,000 cores of a Cray XT5 supercomputer, representing one of the largest direct execution simulations to date, combined with a multiplexing ratio of 1024 simulated tasks per real task.

  17. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be used as a powerful genetic marker in selection programs for beef quality improvement in the Snow Dragon Beef population. PMID:25656186

  18. Delivering on Obama's renewables promise will cost billions

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    For wind energy in the eastern half of the U.S., costs would be $50 billion to $80 billion for transmission lines, in addition to the $700 billion to $1.1 trillion to build the wind farms to generate power.

  19. Anti-bacterial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of methanolic extracts of fourteen different edible vegetables from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, M. Obayed; Haque, Mahmuda; Urmi, Kaniz Fatima; Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md.; Anita, Elichea Synthi; Begum, Momtaj; Hamid, Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of fourteen different edible vegetables methanolic extract from Bangladesh. Methods The antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assay method against 12 bacteria (both gram positive and gram negative). The plant extracts were also screened for cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay method and the lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined at 95% confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with “Finney Programme”. Results All the vegetable extracts showed low to elevated levels of antibacterial activity against most of the tested strains (zone of inhibition=5-28 mm). The most active extract against all bacterial strains was from Xanthium indicum which showed remarkable antibacterial activity having the diameter of growth inhibition zone ranging from 12 to 28 mm followed by Alternanthera sessilis (zone of inhibition=6-21 mm). All extracts exhibited considerable general toxicity towards brine shrimps. The LC50 value of the tested extracts was within the range of 8.447 to 60.323 µg/mL with respect to the positive control (vincristine sulphate) which was 0.91 µg/mL. Among all studied extracts, Xanthium indicum displayed the highest cytotoxic effect with LC50 value of 8.447 µg/mL. Conclusions The results of the present investigation suggest that most of the studied plants are potentially good source of antibacterial and anticancer agents. PMID:23570009

  20. Uranium in Canada: A billion dollar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, V. )

    1989-12-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer of uranium with an output of more than 12,400 MT of uranium in concentrates, worth $1.1 billion Canadian. As domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian production, most of the output was exported. With current implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade Agreement, the US has become Canada's major uranium export customer. With a large share of the world's known uranium resources, Canada remains the focus of international uranium exploration activity. In 1988, the uranium exploration expenditures in Canada exceeded $58 million Canadian. The principal exploration targets were deposits associated with Proterozoic unconformities in Saskatchewan and Northwest Territories, particularly those in the Athabasca and Thelon basin regions of the Canadian Shield. Major attention was also paid to polymetallic deposits in which uranium is associated with precious metals, such as gold and platinum group elements. Conceptual genetic models for these deposit types represent useful tools to guide exploration.

  1. How the Fourteen Most Stable CH4P2 Isomers InterconvertsAn ab Initio/NMR Study Alk Dransfeld, Luc Landuyt, Michaela Flock, Minh Tho Nguyen,*, and

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    How the Fourteen Most Stable CH4P2 Isomers InterconvertsAn ab Initio/NMR Study Alk Dransfeld, Luc for the parent unsaturated phospho-organic molecules with CP2 backbone. Within the 14 relevant isomers of CH4P2 that this isomer should be kinetically stable as isolated molecule. Introduction In PnCmHr molecules

  2. Supplementary Fig. 1. Geographical definition of the fourteen regions. NPO North Pacific Ocean, NAM North America, NAO North Atlantic Ocean, EUR Europe, ASI Asia, TPO

    E-print Network

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Ocean, TAO ­ Tropical Atlantic Ocean, AFR ­ Africa, TIO ­ Tropical Indian Ocean, SPO ­ South Pacific Ocean, SAM ­ South America, SAO ­ South Atlantic Ocean, SIO ­ South Indian Ocean, OCE ­ Oceania. 5 #12Supplementary Fig. 1. Geographical definition of the fourteen regions. NPO ­ North Pacific Ocean

  3. Queensland's 1.7 million cars use nearly 3 billion litres of petrol

    E-print Network

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Queensland's 1.7 million cars use nearly 3 billion litres of petrol per year. In December 2001 name implies, E10 is a blend of 90% unleaded petrol and 10% ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol), derived from of Q-fleet, the State Government's 7,500 vehicle fleet arm. E10 can be used in all engines suited

  4. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium requirements to support a multi-billion gallon biofuel industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To accomplish the goals for biofuel and bioenergy production, 1 billion tons of biomass will need to be produced annually by the year 2030. Crop production data from a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) demonstrated how this goal could...

  5. Universities Report $1.8-Billion in Earnings on Inventions in 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Universities and their inventors earned more than $1.8-billion from commercializing their academic research in the 2011 fiscal year, collecting royalties from new breeds of wheat, from a new drug for the treatment of HIV, and from longstanding arrangements over enduring products like Gatorade. Northwestern University earned the most of any…

  6. Cancer costs projected to reach at least $158 billion in 2020

    Cancer.gov

    Based on growth and aging of the U.S. population, medical expenditures for cancer in the year 2020 are projected to reach at least $158 billion (in 2010 dollars) – an increase of 27 percent over 2010. If newly developed tools for cancer diagnosis, treatme

  7. Eight billion asteroids in the Oort cloud

    E-print Network

    Shannon, Andrew; Jackson, Alan P.; Veras, Dimitri; Wyatt, Mark

    2014-11-25

    with perihelion at less than 1 au will take less than a year to cross the distance between the orbits of Jupiter and Earth, and discovery only a few months before perihelion is common (Marsden&Steel 1994). A nu- clear detonation is probably the only plausible...

  8. World population rises to 5.840 billion in 1997.

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1997-05-01

    This newsbrief reports that the Population Reference Bureau's (PRB) figures for world population showed a mid-1997 total world population estimate of 5.84 billion. The world fertility rate was approximately 3 children/woman, but ranged from 1.6 in more developed countries to 4.0 in less developed countries, excluding China. PRB also released figures on maternal mortality. The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) ranged from under 5 deaths per 100,000 live births to 1000/100,000 in the poorest countries. The MMR was highest in Africa at almost 900/100,000. The lowest MMRs in Africa were found in Botswana at 250/100,000 and Namibia at 370/100,000. High MMRs of over 1500/100,000 occurred in Angola, Chad, Guinea, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, and Somalia. High MMRs of over 1500/100,000 in Asia occurred in Afghanistan, Bhutan, and Nepal. The lowest MMR in Asia was found in Japan at 9/100,000. MMRs in Latin America were low for developing countries at about 180/100,000, but high compared to the US MMR of 8/100,000. Maternal mortality is reduced by improved access to family planning services, community-based maternity care, and adequate emergency obstetric care. The annual rate of growth in 1997 was 1.47%, compared to 1.52% in 1996. Unless this growth rate changes, the world population will double from 5.8 to 11.6 billion in 47 years. Currently, 80% of world population, or 4,665,641,000 people live in developing countries. The population of 1,174,792,000 in developed countries has hardly increased over the past year. Europe is the first major region to experience a natural decrease of 0.1%. The declines are due to inclusion of eastern European countries. The world's lowest fertility rate is found in Italy and Spain with only 1.2 children/woman. Bulgaria and the Czech Republic are approaching this figure. PMID:12292418

  9. Determination of Fluorine in Fourteen Microanalytical Geologic Reference Materials using SIMS, EPMA, and Proton Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE) Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggino, S. N.; Hervig, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    Fluorine (F) is a volatile constituent of magmas and hydrous minerals, and trace amounts of F are incorporated into nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine and clinopyroxene. Microanalytical techniques are routinely used to measure trace amounts of F at both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution in glasses and crystals. However, there are few well-established F concentrations for the glass standards routinely used in microanalytical laboratories, particularly standards of low silica, basaltic composition. In this study, we determined the F content of fourteen commonly used microanalytical glass standards of basaltic, intermediate, and rhyolitic composition. To serve as calibration standards, five basaltic glasses with ~0.2 to 2.5 wt% F were synthesized and characterized. A natural tholeiite from the East Pacific Rise was mixed with variable amounts of CaF2. The mixture was heated in a 1 atmosphere furnace to 1440 °C at fO2 = NNO for 30 minutes and quenched in water. Portions of the run products were studied by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The EPMA used a 15 µm diameter defocused electron beam with a 15 kV accelerating voltage and a 25 nA primary current, a TAP crystal for detecting FK? X-rays, and Biotite 3 as the F standard. The F contents by EPMA agreed with the F added to the basalts after correction for mass loss during melting. The SIMS analyses used a primary beam of 16O- and detection of low-energy negative ions (-5 kV) at a mass resolution that resolved 18OH. Both microanalytical techniques confirmed homogeneity, and the SIMS calibration defined by EPMA shows an excellent linear trend with backgrounds of 2 ppm or less. Analyses of basaltic glass standards based on our synthesized calibration standards gave the following F contents and 2? errors (ppm): ALV-519 = 83 ± 3; BCR-2G = 359 ± 6; BHVO-2G = 322 ± 15; GSA-1G = 10 ± 1; GSC-1G = 11 ± 1; GSD-1G = 19 ± 2; GSE-1G = 173 ± 1; KL2G (MPI-DING) = 101 ± 1; ML3B-G (MPI-DING) = 49 ± 17. These values are lower than published values for BCR-2 and BHVO-2 (unmelted powders) and the “information values” for the MPI-DING glass standards. Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) was tested for the high silica samples. PIGE analyses (1.7 MeV Tandem Accelerator; reaction type: 19F(p, ??)16O; primary current = 20-30 nA; incident beam voltage = 1.5 MeV) were calibrated with a crystal of fluor-topaz (F = 20.3 wt%) and gave F values of: NIST 610 = 266 ± 14 ppm; NIST 620 = 54 ± 5 ppm; and UTR-2 = 1432 ± 32 ppm. SIMS calibration defined by the PIGE analyses shows an excellent linear trend with low background similar to the basaltic calibration. The F concentrations of intermediate MPI-DING glasses were determined based on SIMS calibration generated from the PIGE analysis above. The F concentrations and 2? errors (ppm) are: T1G = 219.9 ± 6.8; StHs/680-G = 278.0 ± 2.0 ppm. This study revealed a large matrix effect between the high-silica and basaltic glasses, thus requiring the use of appropriate standards and separate SIMS calibrations when analyzing samples of different compositions.

  10. 300 billion watts, 24 hours a day

    SciTech Connect

    Shiner, L.

    1990-07-01

    A cosmic solution to the world's upcoming energy crunch and one man's persistent drive to realize a workable and acceptable concept is described. Photovoltaic cells ,the same equipment that for 30 years has converted sunlight to electricity for communication satellites are at the core of the proposal. Once a series of 'sunsats' reach geosynchronous orbit, the cells, arranged in huge grids, are bathed in almost perpetual sunlight. Each grid is equipped with devices for converting the electricity produced by the solar cells into microwaves and transmitting them to receiving stations on earth. The rectifying antennas, or rectennas, convert the microwaves into direct-current electricity, which is fed into the local utility's power supply. The status of proposal, development and opposition to solar power satellites is discussed. Relevant technologies associated with laser development, the SDI, moon-based solar stations, and those evolving from research in other countries continue to lend credence to eventually developing a practical solar power satellite program.

  11. Clustering Billions of Images with Large Scale Nearest Neighbor Search

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    Clustering Billions of Images with Large Scale Nearest Neighbor Search Ting Liu tingliu@google.com Charles Rosenberg chuck@google.com Google Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA Henry A. Rowley har@google.com

  12. Injury Toll in U.S. in 2013: $671 Billion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... most fatal injury costs (27 percent), followed by transportation-related deaths (23 percent) and gun-related deaths ( ... was $167.1 billion. Falls (37 percent) and transportation-related injuries (21 percent) accounted for most of ...

  13. Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People

    ScienceCinema

    Daniel Nocera

    2013-07-19

    Daniel Nocera, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor whose recent research focuses on solar-powered fuels, presents a Brookhaven Science Associates Distinguished Lecture, titled "Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People -- One at a Time."

  14. Academic Pork Barrel Tops $2-Billion for the First Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Borrego, Anne Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes how, despite the growing budget deficit, Congress directed a record $2 billion to college projects in 2003, many of them dealing with security and bioterrorism. Includes data tables on the earmarks. (EV)

  15. $3.4 Billion Remains in Race to Top Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.; McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    By selecting just two states as first-round Race to the Top winners, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan is leaving $3.4 billion on the table for the remaining states to vie for in round two. Delaware and Tennessee beat out 14 other finalists last week to win the first grants awarded in the $4 billion Race to the Top Fund competition. Mr.…

  16. Residence Life Programs and the First-Year Experience. The Freshman Year Experience. Monograph Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, William, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph contains papers which suggest means of implementing residential programs, services, and facilities that will help to meet the needs of first-year college students. Fourteen papers are presented and are as follows: "Reflections on the First Year Residential Experience" (John N. Gardner); "The Role of Residential Programs in the…

  17. Definitions of bullying: a comparison of terms used, and age and gender differences, in a fourteen-country international comparison.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter K; Cowie, Helen; Olafsson, Ragnar F; Liefooghe, Andy P D; Almeida, Ana; Araki, Hozumi; del Barrio, Cristina; Costabile, Angela; Dekleva, Bojan; Houndoumadi, Anastasia; Kim, Kenneth; Olafsson, Ragnar P; Ortega, Rosario; Pain, Jacques; Pateraki, Lena; Schafer, Mechthild; Singer, Monika; Smorti, Andrea; Toda, Yuichi; Tomasson, Helgi; Wenxin, Zhang

    2002-01-01

    The study of school bullying has recently assumed an international dimension, but is faced with difficulties in finding terms in different languages to correspond to the English word bullying. To investigate the meanings given to various terms, a set of 25 stick-figure cartoons was devised, covering a range of social situations between peers. These cartoons were shown to samples of 8- and 14-year-old pupils (N = 1,245; n = 604 at 8 years, n = 641 at 14 years) in schools in 14 different countries, who judged whether various native terms cognate to bullying, applied to them. Terms from 10 Indo-European languages and three Asian languages were sampled. Multidimensional scaling showed that 8-year-olds primarily discriminated nonaggressive and aggressive cartoon situations; however, 14-year-olds discriminated fighting from physical bullying, and also discriminated verbal bullying and social exclusion. Gender differences were less appreciable than age differences. Based on the 14-year-old data, profiles of 67 words were then constructed across the five major cartoon clusters. The main types of terms used fell into six groups: bullying (of all kinds), verbal plus physical bullying, solely verbal bullying, social exclusion, solely physical aggression, and mainly physical aggression. The findings are discussed in relation to developmental trends in how children understand bullying, the inferences that can be made from cross-national studies, and the design of such studies. PMID:12146737

  18. Shear Strength at 75 F to 500 F of Fourteen Adhesives Used to Bond a Glass-fabric-reinforced Phenolic Resin Laminate to Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John R

    1956-01-01

    Fourteen adhesives used to bond a glass-fabric-reinforced phenolic resin laminate to steel were tested in order to determine their shear strengths at temperatures from 75 F to 500 F. Fabrication methods were varied to evaluate the effect of placing cloth between the facing surfaces to maintain a uniform bond-line thickness. One glass-fabric supported phenolic adhesive was found to have a shear strength of 3,400 psi at 300 F and over 1,000 psi at 500 F. Strength and fabrication data are tabulated for all adhesives tested.

  19. Fourteen-Month-Old Infants Infer the Continuous Identity of Objects on the Basis of Nonvisible Causal Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacchione, Trix; Schaub, Simone; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Research on object cognition in infancy suggests that children from (at latest) 1 year of age are capable of individuating objects according to property/kind information. It remains unclear from previous work, however, whether infants in such studies truly apply sortal (kind) concepts or whether they merely track objects on the basis of…

  20. Skeptics Say Billions for Education Won't Stimulate Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Skeptics question whether infusion of billions of dollars for education in the economic-stimulus bill before Congress would actually give a healthy jolt to the economy. The bill would help thousands of students pay for college and could give colleges money to fix crumbling buildings. Some members of Congress are calling for the removal of…

  1. Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: "Child Development, Molecular Genetics, and What to Do With Genes Once They Are Found" (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental…

  2. 2 Years of Science, One-of-a-Kind Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Elyse

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen years ago, Bruce A. Jackson was doing his postdoctoral work at the Boston University School of Medicine and working nights teaching at nearby Roxbury Community College. But his exhausting shuttle between two colleges was about to come to an end. Mr. Jackson, a biochemist, had recently received word from the National Science Foundation…

  3. Fourteen extragalactic radio sources mapped at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz with a 24-hour Crustal Dynamics Program VLBI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlot, P.

    1990-03-01

    Fourteen extragalactic radio sources have been mapped at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz with a 24-hr Crustal Dynamics Program VLBI experiment on North-Pacific baselines in May 1985. Among these sources, five have never been previously mapped by the VLBI technique and seven are superluminal sources. By comparing these maps with others at close or previous epochs, the main results are: a tentative proposition that the components of the newly mapped source OQ 208 evolve along a highly curved jet, a determination of the proper motion of the recently ejected jet component C5 in 3C 345, an evidence for a high spectral index gradient in the core region of 3C 454.3, and a marginal indication for superluminal motion in DA 193. These maps also emphasize the great potential of Crustal Dynamics Program VLBI experiments to monitor radio source structures on intervals as short as a few months since about 1980.

  4. Severe Obesity In Adults Cost State Medicaid Programs Nearly $8 Billion In 2013.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Claire; Pamplin, John; Long, Michael W; Ward, Zachary J; Gortmaker, Steven L; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2015-11-01

    Efforts to expand Medicaid while controlling spending must be informed by a deeper understanding of the extent to which the high medical costs associated with severe obesity (having a body mass index of [Formula: see text] or higher) determine spending at the state level. Our analysis of population-representative data indicates that in 2013, severe obesity cost the nation approximately $69 billion, which accounted for 60 percent of total obesity-related costs. Approximately 11 percent of the cost of severe obesity was paid for by Medicaid, 30 percent by Medicare and other federal health programs, 27 percent by private health plans, and 30 percent out of pocket. Overall, severe obesity cost state Medicaid programs almost $8 billion a year, ranging from $5 million in Wyoming to $1.3 billion in California. These costs are likely to increase following Medicaid expansion and enhanced coverage of weight loss therapies in the form of nutrition consultation, drug therapy, and bariatric surgery. Ensuring and expanding Medicaid-eligible populations' access to cost-effective treatment for severe obesity should be part of each state's strategy to mitigate rising obesity-related health care costs. PMID:26526251

  5. Minor-merger-driven growth of early-type galaxies over the last 8 billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviraj, S.; Crockett, R. M.; Silk, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Yi, S. K.; O'Connell, R. W.; Windhorst, R.; Whitmore, B. C.

    2012-08-01

    We summarise recent progress in understanding the star formation activity in early-type galaxies (ETGs), using recent studies that leverage photometry in the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. While classically thought to be old, passively-evolving systems, recent UV studies have revealed widespread star formation in ETGs, with ~20% of the stellar mass in today's ETGs forming at late epochs (z < 1). A strong correlation is found between the presence of morphological disturbances and blue UV colours, suggesting that the star formation is merger-driven. However, the major merger rate at late epochs is far too low to satisfy the number of disturbed ETGs, indicating that minor mergers drive the star formation in these galaxies over the latter half of cosmic time. Together with the recent literature which suggests that minor mergers may drive the size evolution of massive ETGs, these results highlight the significant role of minor mergers in driving the evolution of massive galaxies in the low and intermediate-redshift Universe.

  6. Detection of pristine gas two billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Michele; O'Meara, John M; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2011-12-01

    In the current cosmological model, only the three lightest elements were created in the first few minutes after the Big Bang; all other elements were produced later in stars. To date, however, heavy elements have been observed in all astrophysical environments. We report the detection of two gas clouds with no discernible elements heavier than hydrogen. These systems exhibit the lowest heavy-element abundance in the early universe, and thus are potential fuel for the most metal-poor halo stars. The detection of deuterium in one system at the level predicted by primordial nucleosynthesis provides a direct confirmation of the standard cosmological model. The composition of these clouds further implies that the transport of heavy elements from galaxies to their surroundings is highly inhomogeneous. PMID:22075722

  7. How Long Is a Piece of String? 4.5 Billion Years Perhaps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Terry; McGuigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    As reported in an earlier article (Russell and McGuigan, 2014), with Nuffield Foundation support, the authors of this article have been exploring with a group of primary teachers the teaching and learning of evolution and inheritance, focusing on conceptual progression. The new National Curriculum for England requires learners to access knowledge…

  8. Tracking Galaxy Growth During the Past 11 Billion Years with Deep Near Infrared Surveys 

    E-print Network

    Tomczak, Adam Richard

    2015-08-05

    Evolution Survey AGN Active Galactic Nucleus CANDELS Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey CDF-S Chandra Deep Field - South CGM Circum-Galactic Medium CMD Color-Magnitude Diagram CMR Color-Magnitude Relation COSMOS Cosmic Evolution Survey... and photometry are described in detail by Straatman et al. (in prep.). Here we provide a brief summary. ZFOURGE is composed of three 11? × 11? pointings with coverage in the CDFS (Giacconi et al. 2002), COSMOS (Capak et al. 2007a) and UDS (Lawrence et al. 2007...

  9. Gusev Crater Paleolake: Two-Billion Years of Martian Geologic, (and Biologic?) History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Landheim, R.; Greeley, R.; Kuzmin, R.; McKay, C. P.

    1998-01-01

    Ancient Martian lakes are sites where the climatological, chemical, and possibly biological history of the planet has been recorded. Their potential to keep this global information in their sedimentary deposits, potential only shared with the polar layered-deposits, designates them as the most promising targets for the ongoing exploration of Mars in terms of science return and global knowledge about Mars evolution. Many of the science priority objectives of the Surveyor Program can be met by exploring ancient Martian lake beds. Among martian paleolakes, lakes in impact craters represent probably the most favorable sites to explore. Though highly destructive events when they occur, impacts may have provided in time a significant energy source for life, by generating heat, and at the contact of water and/or ice, deep hydrothermal systems, which are considered as favorable environments for life. In addition, impact crater lakes are changing environments, from thermally driven systems at the very first stage of their formation, to cold ice-protected potential oases in the more recent Martian geological times. Thus, they are plausible sites to study the progression of diverse microbiologic communities.

  10. Hydrocarbon shows and petroleum source rocks in sediments as old as 1.7 billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. J.; Powell, T. G.; Summons, R. E.; Sweet, I. P.

    1986-08-01

    The discovery of indigenous live oil in 1.4-Gyr-old rocks in the McArthur Basin of northern Australia is reported. Previously reported occurrences of indigenous Precambrian oil are less than 1 Gyr old. Potential petroleum source rocks in the McArthur Basin range in age from 1.4-1.7 Gyr and were deposited in marine and lacustrine environments. In parts of the basin they have been buried sufficiently deeply to have generated hydrocarbons. They span the period corresponding to the appearance of eukaryotic organisms, and because of their low degree of thermal alteration, they provide a valuable resource for the study of primitive biota through their hydrocarbon biomarkers. The hydrocarbon composition of the oil is consistent with a derivation from organic matter of prokaryotic origin. These results show that exploration of previously ignored mid-Proterozoic sediments may lead to the discovery of new reserves of oil.

  11. THE CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES OVER THE LAST 11 BILLION YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Kewley, Lisa J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Kurtz, Michael J.

    2013-07-10

    We calculate the stellar mass-metallicity relation at five epochs ranging to z {approx} 2.3. We quantify evolution in the shape of the mass-metallicity relation as a function of redshift; the mass-metallicity relation flattens at late times. There is an empirical upper limit to the gas-phase oxygen abundance in star-forming galaxies that is independent of redshift. From examination of the mass-metallicity relation and its observed scatter, we show that the flattening at late times is a consequence of evolution in the stellar mass where galaxies enrich to this empirical upper metallicity limit; there is also evolution in the fraction of galaxies at a fixed stellar mass that enrich to this limit. The stellar mass where metallicities begin to saturate is {approx}0.7 dex smaller in the local universe than it is at z {approx} 0.8.

  12. Geomagnetic field strength 3.2 billion years ago recorded by single silicate crystals.

    PubMed

    Tarduno, John A; Cottrell, Rory D; Watkeys, Michael K; Bauch, Dorothy

    2007-04-01

    The strength of the Earth's early geomagnetic field is of importance for understanding the evolution of the Earth's deep interior, surface environment and atmosphere. Palaeomagnetic and palaeointensity data from rocks formed near the boundary of the Proterozoic and Archaean eons, some 2.5 Gyr ago, show many hallmarks of the more recent geomagnetic field. Reversals are recorded, palaeosecular variation data indicate a dipole-dominated morphology and available palaeointensity values are similar to those from younger rocks. The picture before 2.8 Gyr ago is much less clear. Rocks of the Archaean Kaapvaal craton (South Africa) are among the best-preserved, but even they have experienced low-grade metamorphism. The variable acquisition of later magnetizations by these rocks is therefore expected, precluding use of conventional palaeointensity methods. Silicate crystals from igneous rocks, however, can contain minute magnetic inclusions capable of preserving Archaean-age magnetizations. Here we use a CO2 laser heating approach and direct-current SQUID magnetometer measurements to obtain palaeodirections and intensities from single silicate crystals that host magnetite inclusions. We find 3.2-Gyr-old field strengths that are within 50 per cent of the present-day value, indicating that a viable magnetosphere sheltered the early Earth's atmosphere from solar wind erosion. PMID:17410173

  13. Networks of bZIP Protein-Protein Interactions Diversified Over a Billion Years of Evolution

    E-print Network

    Reinke, Aaron W.

    Differences in biomolecular sequence and function underlie dramatic ranges of appearance and behavior among species. We studied the basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors and quantified bZIP dimerization ...

  14. SCORCH I: The Galaxy-Halo Connection in the First Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trac, Hy; Cen, Renyue; Mansfield, Philip

    2015-11-01

    SCORCH (Simulations and Constructions of the Reionization of Cosmic Hydrogen) is a new project to study the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). In this first paper, we probe the connection between observed high-redshift galaxies and simulated dark matter halos to better understand the primary source of ionizing radiation. High-resolution N-body simulations are run to quantify the abundance of dark matter halos as a function of mass M, accretion rate \\dot{M}, and redshift z. A new fit for the halo mass function dn/dM is ?20% more accurate at the high-mass end. A novel approach is used to fit the halo accretion rate function {dn}/d\\dot{M} in terms of the halo mass function. Abundance matching against the observed galaxy luminosity function is used to estimate the luminosity–mass relation and the luminosity–accretion-rate relation. The inferred star formation efficiency is not monotonic with M nor \\dot{M}, but reaches a maximum value at a characteristic mass ? 2× {10}11 {M}? and a characteristic accretion rate ? 6× {10}2 {M}? {{{yr}}}-1 at z ? 6. We find a universal EoR luminosity–accretion-rate relation and construct a fiducial model for the galaxy luminosity function. The Schechter parameters evolve such that {? }\\star decreases, {M}\\star is fainter, and ? is steeper at higher redshifts. We forecast for the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope and show that with apparent magnitude limit {m}{{AB}}? 31 (32), it can observe ? 11 (24) unlensed galaxies per square degree per unit redshift at least down to {M}\\star at z ? 13 (14).

  15. A Powerful Toolkit for Synthetic Biology: Over 3.8 Billion Years of Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of evolutionary with engineering principles will enhance synthetic biology. Conversely, synthetic biology has the potential to enrich evolutionary biology by explaining why some adaptive space is empty, on Earth or elsewhere. Synthetic biology, the design and construction of artificial biological systems, substitutes bio-engineering for evolution, which is seen as an obstacle. But because evolution has produced the complexity and diversity of life, it provides a proven toolkit of genetic materials and principles available to synthetic biology. Evolution operates on the population level, with the populations composed of unique individuals that are historical entities. The source of genetic novelty includes mutation, gene regulation, sex, symbiosis, and interspecies gene transfer. At a phenotypic level, variation derives from regulatory control, replication and diversification of components, compartmentalization, sexual selection and speciation, among others. Variation is limited by physical constraints such as diffusion, and chemical constraints such as reaction rates and membrane fluidity. While some of these tools of evolution are currently in use in synthetic biology, all ought to be examined for utility. A hybrid approach of synthetic biology coupled with fine-tuning through evolution is suggested

  16. A powerful toolkit for synthetic biology: Over 3.8 billion years of evolution.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Lynn J

    2010-04-01

    The combination of evolutionary with engineering principles will enhance synthetic biology. Conversely, synthetic biology has the potential to enrich evolutionary biology by explaining why some adaptive space is empty, on Earth or elsewhere. Synthetic biology, the design and construction of artificial biological systems, substitutes bio-engineering for evolution, which is seen as an obstacle. But because evolution has produced the complexity and diversity of life, it provides a proven toolkit of genetic materials and principles available to synthetic biology. Evolution operates on the population level, with the populations composed of unique individuals that are historical entities. The source of genetic novelty includes mutation, gene regulation, sex, symbiosis, and interspecies gene transfer. At a phenotypic level, variation derives from regulatory control, replication and diversification of components, compartmentalization, sexual selection and speciation, among others. Variation is limited by physical constraints such as diffusion, and chemical constraints such as reaction rates and membrane fluidity. While some of these tools of evolution are currently in use in synthetic biology, all ought to be examined for utility. A hybrid approach of synthetic biology coupled with fine-tuning through evolution is suggested. PMID:20349441

  17. As part of Bank of America's 10-year, $50 billion business

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    and Bank of America, National Association ("BANA") offer unique financing features and qualifications-EXEMPT PRIVATE PLACEMENT EXPERIENCE: BAPCC and BANA are leading providers of private placement capital obligation for Lessor or BANA. Lessor and/or BANA will not be responsible or liable for any damages

  18. 3.5 billion years of glass bioalteration: Volcanic rocks as a basis for microbial life?

    SciTech Connect

    Staudigel, H.; Furnes, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Banerjee, N.R.; Connell, L.B.; Templeton, A.

    2009-04-07

    Alteration textures in volcanic glass from the seafloor fall into two classes, one suggestive of abiotic/diffusive hydration and chemical exchange, and another likely to be caused by microbial, cavity-forming, congruent dissolution. Glass bioalteration is common in submarine lavas throughout the world's ocean, dominant in the upper 300 m of the oceanic crust, and found in all well-preserved ophiolites and greenstone belts dating back to 3.5 Ga. It may yield a significant fraction of the global biomass and geochemical fluxes and is relevant to the development of the earliest life on Earth. We present a critical review concerning these glass bioalteration textures and present new data on their microchemical environment. We explore arguments for their biogenicity and further develop the prevalent model for their formation by relating corrosion morphology to the mechanism of microbial dissolution. Biological alteration produces conspicuous micron-scale granular and tubular textures. Granular glass alteration is well explained by colonizing microbes that selectively dissolve the glass in their contact area, forming a sponge-like interconnected network of micron-sized cavities along glass surfaces. Tubular alteration meanwhile, is more likely to be caused by filamentous cell extensions in a process similar to fungal tunneling of soil feldspars and marine carbonates. While we see clear functional similarities to fungal dissolution behavior, we do not know whether fungal or prokaryotic organisms are involved. However, this functional constraint may eventually help to identify potential microbes responsible for these features, potentially including eukaryotic or prokaryotic organisms. Yet, we caution that these organisms may be difficult to identify and to study, because they are likely to be sparsely distributed, slow growing, and difficult to cultivate.

  19. Over billions of years, life has evolved into a spectacular diversi-

    E-print Network

    Holland, Brett

    things are profound. For example, al- though the fruit fly genome encodes about 14,000 different proteins (including fruit flies) and chordates (including human beings). Some of these mutations also changed preserving a low muta- tion rate is important for complex or- ganisms, the principal source of functional

  20. Could organic matter have been preserved on Mars for 3.5 billion years?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    1990-01-01

    About 3.5 Gyr ago, when it is thought that Mars and earth had similar climates, biological evolution on earth had made considerable progress, such that life was abundant. It is therefore surmised that prior to this time period, the advent of chemical evolution and subsequent origin of life occurred on earth and may have occurred on Mars. Analysis for organic compounds in the soil buried beneath the Martian surface may yield useful information regarding the occurrence of chemical evolution and possibly biological evolution. Calculations based on the stability of amino acids lead to the conclusion that remnants of these compounds, if they existed on Mars 3.5 Gyr ago, might have been preserved buried beneath the surface oxidizing layer. For example, if phenylalanine, an amino acid of average stability, existed on Mars 3.5 Gyr ago, then 1.6 percent would remain buried today. Martian soil may exist from remnants of meteoritic and cometary bombardment, assuming that 1 percent of the organics survived impact.

  1. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations before 2.2 billion years ago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rye, R.; Kuo, P. H.; Holland, H. D.

    1995-01-01

    The composition of the Earth's early atmosphere is a subject of continuing debate. In particular, it has been suggested that elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide would have been necessary to maintain normal surface temperatures in the face of lower solar luminosity in early Earth history. Fossil weathering profiles, known as palaeosols, have provided semi-quantitative constraints on atmospheric oxygen partial pressure (pO2) before 2.2 Gyr ago. Here we use the same well studied palaeosols to constrain atmospheric pCO2 between 2.75 and 2.2 Gyr ago. The observation that iron lost from the tops of these profiles was reprecipitated lower down as iron silicate minerals, rather than as iron carbonate, indicates that atmospheric pCO2 must have been less than 10(-1.4) atm--about 100 times today's level of 360 p.p.m., and at least five times lower than that required in one-dimensional climate models to compensate for lower solar luminosity at 2.75 Gyr. Our results suggest that either the Earth's early climate was much more sensitive to increases in pCO2 than has been thought, or that one or more greenhouse gases other than CO2 contributed significantly to the atmosphere's radiative balance during the late Archaean and early Proterozoic eons.

  2. Evolution of bright star-forming galaxies in the first billion years 

    E-print Network

    Bowler, Rebecca Alison Andrews

    2015-07-01

    in the UltraVISTA first and second data releases (DR1, DR2) and the UKIDSS (UKIRT Infrared Deep Survey) UDS DR10 (Ultra Deep Survey). The UltraVISTA survey provides deep Y, J,H andKs near-imaging over 1.5 deg² of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field...

  3. The First Billion Years of Martian History as Seen from the SNC Meteorites: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    There are currently 28 known, distinct samples of Mars that have been liberated from that planet by impacts and subsequently delivered to the Earth. The formation ages of these samples range from 4.5 b.y. to 180 m.y. Collectively, these samples are called SNC meteorites after the major petrologic subdivisions: Shergottite, Nakhlite, Chassigny. Texturally, most of these meteorites are cumulates or partial cumulates. However, a few may represent real melt compositions: EET79001B, Y9800459, QUE94201, and the groundmass of EET79001A.

  4. Primary haematite formation in an oxygenated sea 3.46billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoashi, Masamichi; Bevacqua, David C.; Otake, Tsubasa; Watanabe, Yumiko; Hickman, Arthur H.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    The timing of the origin of photosynthesis on the early Earth is greatly debated. It is generally agreed, on the basis of the presence of biological molecules found in shales from the Hamersley Basin, Australia, that oxygenic photosynthesis had evolved 2.7billionyears (Gyr) ago. However, whether photosynthesis occurred before this time remains controversial. Here we report primary haematite crystals and associated minerals within the marine sedimentary rocks preserved in a jasper formation of the Pilbara Craton, Australia, which we interpret as evidence for the formation of these rocks in an oxygenated water body 3.46Gyr ago. We suggest that these haematite crystals formed at temperatures greater than 60?C from locally discharged hydrothermal fluids rich in ferrous iron. The crystals precipitated when the fluids rapidly mixed with overlying oxygenated sea water, at depths greater than 200m. As our findings imply the existence of noticeable quantities of molecular oxygen, we propose that organisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis evolved more than 700millionyears earlier than previously recognized, resulting in the oxygenation of at least some intermediate and deep ocean regions.

  5. ON THE LAST 10 BILLION YEARS OF STELLAR MASS GROWTH IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Samuel N.

    2012-02-01

    The star formation rate-stellar mass relation (SFR-M{sub *}) and its evolution (i.e., the SFR main sequence) describe the growth rate of galaxies of a given stellar mass and at a given redshift. Assuming that present-day star-forming galaxies (SFGs) were always star forming in the past, these growth rate observations can be integrated to calculate average star formation histories (SFHs). Using this Main Sequence Integration (MSI) approach, we trace present-day massive SFGs back to when they were 10%-20% of their current stellar mass. The integration is robust throughout those epochs: the SFR data underpinning our calculations are consistent with the evolution of stellar mass density in this regime. Analytic approximations to these SFHs are provided. Integration-based results reaffirm previous suggestions that current SFGs formed virtually all of their stellar mass at z < 2. It follows that massive galaxies observed at z > 2 are not the typical progenitors of SFGs today. We also check MSI-based SFHs against those inferred from analysis of the fossil record-from spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of SFGs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of resolved stars in dwarf irregular galaxies. Once stellar population age uncertainties are accounted for, the main sequence is in excellent agreement with SED-based SFHs (from VESPA). Extrapolating SFR main sequence observations to dwarf galaxies, we find differences between MSI results and SFHs from CMD analysis of Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury and Local Group galaxies. Resolved dwarfs appear to grow much slower than main sequence trends imply, and also slower than slightly higher mass SED-analyzed galaxies. This difference may signal problems with SFH determinations, but it may also signal a shift in star formation trends at the lowest stellar masses.

  6. The discovery of fullerenes in the 1.85 billion-year-old Sudbury meteorite crater

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, L.; Bada, J.L.; Winans, R.E.; Hunt, J.E.; Bunch, T.E.; French, B.M.

    1996-02-01

    Fullerenes (C{sub 60}, C{sub 70}) have been identified by laser time-of-flight and electron-ionization mass spectroscopy in rock samples (black tuff in the Onaping formation) from the crater. They were likely synthesized within the impact plume from carbon contained in the meteorite. The isotopic ratios suggest {sup 13}C enrichment. They are associated with sulfur which may have protected them. This is the largest known deposit of naturally occurring fullerenes.

  7. Book Reviews Four Billion Years: An Essay on the Evolution of Genes and Organisms. By William

    E-print Network

    Graur, Dan

    the term "origin of life" covers about two- thirds of the biological history of planet Earth, while that extraterrestrial life exists as a product of a series of independent probabilities, so Loomis presents quantitative Empedocles of Acragas to the modem era, the origin of life has remained one of the most fascinating and

  8. THE LAST EIGHT-BILLION YEARS OF INTERGALACTIC C IV EVOLUTION

    E-print Network

    Cooksey, Kathy

    We surveyed the Hubble Space Telescope UV spectra of 49 low-redshift quasars for z < 1 C IV candidates, relying solely on the characteristic wavelength separation of the doublet. After consideration of the defining traits ...

  9. THE LAST EIGHT-BILLION YEARS OF INTERGALACTIC Si IV EVOLUTION

    E-print Network

    Cooksey, Kathy

    We identified 24 Si iv absorption systems with z ? 1 from a blind survey of 49 low-redshift quasars with archival Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra. We relied solely on the characteristic wavelength separation of ...

  10. Billion particle linac simulations for future light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R. D.; Venturini, M.; Zholents, A. A.; Qiang, J.

    2008-09-25

    In this paper we report on multi-physics, multi-billion macroparticle simulation of beam transport in a free electron laser (FEL) linac for future light source applications. The simulation includes a self-consistent calculation of 3D space-charge effects, short-range geometry wakefields, longitudinal coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wakefields, and detailed modeling of RF acceleration and focusing. We discuss the need for and the challenges associated with such large-scale simulation. Applications to the study of the microbunching instability in an FEL linac are also presented.

  11. Scalable in-memory RDFS closure on billions of triples.

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Eric L.; Mizell, David

    2010-06-01

    We present an RDFS closure algorithm, specifically designed and implemented on the Cray XMT supercomputer, that obtains inference rates of 13 million inferences per second on the largest system configuration we used. The Cray XMT, with its large global memory (4TB for our experiments), permits the construction of a conceptually straightforward algorithm, fundamentally a series of operations on a shared hash table. Each thread is given a partition of triple data to process, a dedicated copy of the ontology to apply to the data, and a reference to the hash table into which it inserts inferred triples. The global nature of the hash table allows the algorithm to avoid a common obstacle for distributed memory machines: the creation of duplicate triples. On LUBM data sets ranging between 1.3 billion and 5.3 billion triples, we obtain nearly linear speedup except for two portions: file I/O, which can be ameliorated with the additional service nodes, and data structure initialization, which requires nearly constant time for runs involving 32 processors or more.

  12. Another Record Year for Academic Pork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how, fueled by the war on terrorism, Congress has awarded a record $1.8 billion in academic earmarks in the 2002 fiscal year. Profiles several recipient programs and includes a campus-by-campus list of projects. (EV)

  13. Inflation, completions, recompletions boost well servicing to near $3 billion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Oil and gas producers in late 1978 planned to spend slightly over $2 billion on well completions, servicing, and workover in 1979, but the total figure reached $2,904,166,000 and the 1980 cost projection is $3,617,281,000. The record costs are attributed to the fact that development drilling now exceeds exploration by more than 10 to one, and recompletion of existing wells runs close to new completions nationally and surpasses new completions in several areas. There were approximately 49,100 drilling efforts during 1979, resulting in 19,478 oil completions and 13,772 gas wells. Business projections for tabular goods and rig availability are discussed. Statistical data are tubulated for service jobs in several areas of the US.

  14. Bigger, Better Catalog Unveils Half a Billion Celestial Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These frames are samples from the photographic sky surveys, which have been digitized by a technical team at the Space Telescope Science Institute to support the Hubble Space Telescope operations. The team processed these images to create a new astronomical catalog, called the Guide Star Catalog II. This project was undertaken by the Space Telescope Science Institute as an upgrade to an earlier sky survey and catalog (DSS-I and GSC-I), initially done to provide guide stars for pointing the Hubble Space Telescope. By virtue of its sheer size, the DSS-II and GSC-II have many research applications for both professional and amateur astronomers. [Top] An example from the DSS-II shows the Rosette Nebula, (originally photographed by the Palomar Observatory) as digitized in the DSS-I (left) and DSS-II (right). The DSS-II includes views of the sky at both red and blue wavelengths, providing invaluable color information on about one billion deep-sky objects. [Bottom] This blow-up of the inset box in the raw DSS-I scan shows examples of the GSC-I and the improved GSC-II catalogs. Astronomers extracted the stars from the scanned plate of the Rosette and listed them in the catalogs. The new GSC-II catalog provides the colors, positions, and luminosities of nearly half a billion stars -- over 20 times as many as the original GSC-I. The GSC-II contains information on stars as dim as the 19th magnitude. Credit: NASA, the DSS-II and GSC-II Consortia (with images from the Palomar Observatory-STScI Digital Sky Survey of the northern sky, based on scans of the Second Palomar Sky Survey are copyright c 1993-1999 by the California Institute of Technology)

  15. Parametrization and Classification of 20 Billion LSST Objects: Lessons from SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Ivezic, Z.; Axelrod, T.; Becker, A.C.; Becla, J.; Borne, K.; Burke, David L.; Claver, C.F.; Cook, K.H.; Connolly, A.; Gilmore, D.K.; Jones, R.L.; Juric, M.; Kahn, Steven M.; Lim, K-T.; Lupton, R.H.; Monet, D.G.; Pinto, P.A.; Sesar, B.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis

    2011-11-10

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain, starting in 2015, multiple images of the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times during the anticipated 10 years of operations (distributed over six bands, ugrizy). Each 30-second long visit will deliver 5{sigma} depth for point sources of r {approx} 24.5 on average. The co-added map will be about 3 magnitudes deeper, and will include 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. We discuss various measurements that will be automatically performed for these 20 billion sources, and how they can be used for classification and determination of source physical and other properties. We provide a few classification examples based on SDSS data, such as color classification of stars, color-spatial proximity search for wide-angle binary stars, orbital-color classification of asteroid families, and the recognition of main Galaxy components based on the distribution of stars in the position-metallicity-kinematics space. Guided by these examples, we anticipate that two grand classification challenges for LSST will be (1) rapid and robust classification of sources detected in difference images, and (2) simultaneous treatment of diverse astrometric and photometric time series measurements for an unprecedentedly large number of objects.

  16. Parametrization and Classification of 20 Billion LSST Objects: Lessons from SDSS

    E-print Network

    Z. Ivezic; T. Axelrod; A. C. Becker

    2008-10-28

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain, starting in 2015, multiple images of the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg$^2$ region about 1000 times during the anticipated 10 years of operations (distributed over six bands, $ugrizy$). Each 30-second long visit will deliver 5$\\sigma$ depth for point sources of $r\\sim24.5$ on average. The co-added map will be about 3 magnitudes deeper, and will include 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. We discuss various measurements that will be automatically performed for these 20 billion sources, and how they can be used for classification and determination of source physical and other properties. We provide a few classification examples based on SDSS data, such as color classification of stars, color-spatial proximity search for wide-angle binary stars, orbital-color classification of asteroid families, and the recognition of main Galaxy components based on the distribution of stars in the position-metallicity-kinematics space. Guided by these examples, we anticipate that two grand classification challenges for LSST will be 1) rapid and robust classification of sources detected in difference images, and 2) {\\it simultaneous} treatment of diverse astrometric and photometric time series measurements for an unprecedentedly large number of objects.

  17. A Simple Change To Medicare Part D's Low-Income Subsidy Program Could Save $5 Billion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuting; Zhou, Chao; Baik, Seo Hyon

    2014-01-01

    Medicare Part D provides low-income subsidy to beneficiaries below 150 percent of the Federal Poverty Level. In 2013, over 10 million beneficiaries receive low-income-subsidy and 75% of total Part D federal spending of $60 billion is for low-income-subsidy enrollees. The government randomly assigns low-income-subsidy enrollees to stand-alone Part D plans. Random assignment is suboptimal because beneficiaries are often assigned to plans either not covering or charging higher costs for their medications. We propose an intelligent reassignment that matches beneficiaries to plans according to their medication needs. Using 2008-2009 Part D data, we estimated that the potential savings to the government from this simple change could be over $5 billion, with the mean/median government saving at $710 ($368) per low-income-subsidy enrollee per year. Not only could reassignment lead to substantial savings, it could concurrently lower the proportion of prescriptions that require utilization review restrictions. PMID:24889942

  18. $75 Billion in Formula Grants Failed to Drive Reform. Can $5 Billion in Competitive Grants Do the Job? Education Stimulus Watch. Special Report 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2009-01-01

    In early 2009, Congress passed and President Barack Obama signed into law the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the federal government's nearly $800 billion stimulus legislation. According to key members of Congress and the Obama administration, the education portions of the law, totaling about $100 billion, were designed both to…

  19. Ground-based assessment of the bias and long-term stability of fourteen limb and occultation ozone profile data records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, D.; Lambert, J.-C.; Verhoelst, T.; Granville, J.; Keppens, A.; Baray, J.-L.; Cortesi, U.; Degenstein, D. A.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hoppel, K. W.; Kyrölä, E.; Leblanc, T.; Lichtenberg, G.; McElroy, C. T.; Murtagh, D.; Nakane, H.; Russell, J. M., III; Salvador, J.; Smit, H. G. J.; Stebel, K.; Steinbrecht, W.; Strawbridge, K. B.; Stübi, R.; Swart, D. P. J.; Taha, G.; Thompson, A. M.; Urban, J.; van Gijsel, J. A. E.; von der Gathen, P.; Walker, K. A.; Wolfram, E.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    The ozone profile records of a large number of limb and occultation satellite instruments are widely used to address several key questions in ozone research. Further progress in some domains depends on a more detailed understanding of these data sets, especially of their long-term stability and their mutual consistency. To this end, we make a systematic assessment of fourteen limb and occultation sounders that, together, provide more than three decades of global ozone profile measurements. In particular, we consider the latest operational Level-2 records by SAGE II, SAGE III, HALOE, UARS MLS, Aura MLS, POAM II, POAM III, OSIRIS, SMR, GOMOS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, ACE-FTS and MAESTRO. Central to our work is a harmonized and robust analysis of the comparisons against the ground-based ozonesonde and stratospheric ozone lidar networks. It allows us to investigate, from the ground up to the stratopause, the following main aspects of data quality: long-term stability, overall bias, and short-term variability, together with their dependence on geophysical parameters and profile representation. In addition, it permits us to quantify the overall consistency between the ozone profilers. Generally, we find that between 20-40 km, the satellite ozone measurement biases are smaller than ±5 %, the short-term variabilities are better than 5-12 % and the drifts are at most ±5 % decade-1 (and ±3 % decade-1 for a few records). The agreement with ground-based data degrades somewhat towards the stratopause and especially towards the tropopause, where natural variability and low ozone abundancies impede a more precise analysis. A few records deviate from the preceding general remarks, in part of the stratosphere; we identify biases of 10 % and more (POAM II and SCIAMACHY), markedly higher single-profile variability (SMR and SCIAMACHY), and significant long-term drifts (SCIAMACHY, OSIRIS, HALOE, and possibly GOMOS and SMR as well). Furthermore, we reflect on the repercussions of our findings for the construction, analysis and interpretation of merged data records. Most notably, the discrepancies between several recent ozone profile trend assessments can be mostly explained by instrumental drift. This clearly demonstrates the need for systematic comprehensive multi-instrument comparison analyses.

  20. CPMSA Comprehensive Partnerships for Mathematics and Science Achievement, Hartford Public Schools. 1997-1998 Year-End Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrelli, Matthew; Cimochowski, Anna M.

    In October 1996, the Hartford Public Schools (Connecticut) received a grant for a partnership in minority student achievement, but in 1998, the grant was not renewed. This is the final year-end report on the Hartford Comprehensive Partnerships for Mathematics and Science Achievement (CPMSA) covering the program's second year. Fourteen schools were…

  1. Fuel efficient stoves for the poorest two billion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2012-03-01

    About 2 billion people cook their daily meals on generally inefficient, polluting, biomass cookstoves. The fuels include twigs and leaves, agricultural waste, animal dung, firewood, and charcoal. Exposure to resulting smoke leads to acute respiratory illness, and cancers, particularly among women cooks, and their infant children near them. Resulting annual mortality estimate is almost 2 million deaths, higher than that from malaria or tuberculosis. There is a large diversity of cooking methods (baking, boiling, long simmers, brazing and roasting), and a diversity of pot shapes and sizes in which the cooking is undertaken. Fuel-efficiency and emissions depend on the tending of the fire (and thermal power), type of fuel, stove characteristics, and fit of the pot to the stove. Thus, no one perfect fuel-efficient low-emitting stove can suit all users. Affordability imposes a further severe constraint on the stove design. For various economic strata within the users, a variety of stove designs may be appropriate and affordable. In some regions, biomass is harvested non-renewably for cooking fuel. There is also increasing evidence that black carbon emitted from stoves is a significant contributor to atmospheric forcing. Thus improved biomass stoves can also help mitigate global climate change. The speaker will describe specific work undertaken to design, develop, test, and disseminate affordable fuel-efficient stoves for internally displaced persons (IDPs) of Darfur, Sudan, where the IDPs face hardship, humiliation, hunger, and risk of sexual assault owing to their dependence on local biomass for cooking their meals.

  2. Multimillion to billion atom simulations of nanosystems under extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashishta, P.

    2008-12-01

    Advanced materials and devices with nanometer grain/feature sizes are being developed to achieve higher strength and toughness in ceramic materials and greater speeds in electronic devices. Below 100 nm, however, continuum description of materials and devices must be supplemented by atomistic descriptions. Current state of the art atomistic simulations involve 10 million - 1 billion atoms. We investigate initiation, growth and healing of wing cracks in confined silica glass by multimillion atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Under dynamic compression, frictional sliding of pre-crack surfaces nucleates nanovoids, which evolve into nanocrack columns at the pre-crack tip. Nanocrack columns merge to form a wing crack, which grows via coalescence with nanovoids in the direction of maximum compression. Lateral confinement arrests the growth and partially heals the wing crack. Growth and arrest of the wing crack occur repeatedly, as observed in dynamic compression experiments on brittle solids under lateral confinement. MD simulation of hypervelocity projectile impact in aluminum nitride and alumina has also been studied. The simulations reveal strong interplay between shock- induced structural phase transformation, plastic deformation and brittle cracks. The shock wave splits into an elastic precursor and a wurtzite-to-rocksalt structural transformation wave. When the elastic wave reflected from the boundary of the sample interacts with the transformation wave front, nanocavities are generated along the penetration path of the projectile and dislocations in adjacent regions. The nanocavities coalesce to form mode I brittle cracks while dislocations generate kink bands that give rise to mode II cracks. These simulations provide a microscopic view of defects associated with simultaneous tensile and shear cracking at the structural phase transformation boundary due to shock impact in high-strength ceramics. Initiation of chemical reactions at shock fronts prior to detonation and dynamic transition in the shock structure of an energetic material (RDX) and reaction of aluminium nanoparticles in oxygen atmosphere followed by explosive burning is also discussed.

  3. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  4. NREL Helps Clean Cities Displace Billions of Gallons of Petroleum, One Vehicle at a Time (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    With more than 15 years and nearly 3 billion gallons of displaced petroleum under its belt, the Clean Cities program relies on the support and expertise of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). An initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Clean Cities creates public-private partnerships with a common mission: to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Since the inception of Clean Cities in 1993, NREL has played a central role in supporting the program, an effort that stems from the laboratory's strategy to put scientific innovation into action in the marketplace.

  5. Stimulus Plan Aids Education: House Bill Could Provide $100 Billion to K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    Cash-strapped school districts could see an unprecedented $100 billion infusion of federal aid under a massive economic-stimulus package unveiled by House Democrats this week. The overall measure, put forth January 15 by the House Appropriations Committee, is aimed at providing a $825 billion jolt to the stumbling U.S. economy, and to help avert…

  6. Network on a Chip: An architecture for billion transistor era Ahmed Hemani1

    E-print Network

    Jantsch, Axel

    Network on a Chip: An architecture for billion transistor era Ahmed Hemani1 , Axel Jantsch2 to their destination by the switch fabric. Arguments are presented to justify that in the billion transistor era of logic transistors that can be integrated on a chip is in- creasing at the rate of 58% per annum

  7. Earth: The Early Years We discuss ...

    E-print Network

    Earth: The Early Years We discuss ... · What happened to the Earth during the first few billion)? · What is the relationship to (early) life? #12;Age of Earth James Ussher (17th C) biblical account: 6: 20-40 m.y. (million years!) Charles Darwin evolution >300 m.y. Lord Kelvin (1880's) cooling Earth: 50

  8. The Effect of Text Messaging on 9- and 10-Year-Old Children's Reading, Spelling and Phonological Processing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, C.; Jackson, E.; Hart, L.; Plester, B.; Wilde, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an intervention study that considered the impact of text messaging on 9- to 10-year-old children's literacy skills. One hundred and fourteen children who had never owned a mobile phone before were recruited and randomly allocated to either the intervention or control conditions. All children were pre- and post-tested on a…

  9. Analysis of precious metals at parts-per-billion levels in industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tickner, James; O'Dwyer, Joel; Roach, Greg; Smith, Michael; Van Haarlem, Yves

    2015-11-01

    Precious metals, including gold and the platinum group metals (notable Pt, Pd and Rh), are mined commercially at concentrations of a few parts-per-million and below. Mining and processing operations demand sensitive and rapid analysis at concentrations down to about 100 parts-per-billion (ppb). In this paper, we discuss two technologies being developed to meet this challenge: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma-activation analysis (GAA). We have designed on-stream XRF analysers capable of measuring targeted elements in slurries with precisions in the 35-70 ppb range. For the past two years, two on-stream analysers have been in continuous operation at a precious metals concentrator plant. The simultaneous measurement of feed and waste stream grades provides real-time information on metal recovery, allowing changes in operating conditions and plant upsets to be detected and corrected more rapidly. Separately, we have been developing GAA for the measurement of gold as a replacement for the traditional laboratory fire-assay process. High-energy Bremsstrahlung X-rays are used to excite gold via the 197Au(?,??)197Au-M reaction, and the gamma-rays released in the decay of the meta-state are then counted. We report on work to significantly improve accuracy and detection limits.

  10. Large data analysis: automatic visual personal identification in a demography of 1.2 billion persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugman, John

    2014-05-01

    The largest biometric deployment in history is now underway in India, where the Government is enrolling the iris patterns (among other data) of all 1.2 billion citizens. The purpose of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is to ensure fair access to welfare benefits and entitlements, to reduce fraud, and enhance social inclusion. Only a minority of Indian citizens have bank accounts; only 4 percent possess passports; and less than half of all aid money reaches its intended recipients. A person who lacks any means of establishing their identity is excluded from entitlements and does not officially exist; thus the slogan of UIDAI is: To give the poor an identity." This ambitious program enrolls a million people every day, across 36,000 stations run by 83 agencies, with a 3-year completion target for the entire national population. The halfway point was recently passed with more than 600 million persons now enrolled. In order to detect and prevent duplicate identities, every iris pattern that is enrolled is first compared against all others enrolled so far; thus the daily workflow now requires 600 trillion (or 600 million-million) iris cross-comparisons. Avoiding identity collisions (False Matches) requires high biometric entropy, and achieving the tremendous match speed requires phase bit coding. Both of these requirements are being delivered operationally by wavelet methods developed by the author for encoding and comparing iris patterns, which will be the focus of this Large Data Award" presentation.

  11. A Content Analysis and Comparison of Themes in Fiction with the Subject of an Alcoholic Parent Written for Children Ages Ten to Fourteen Years in the Sixties and in the Eighties. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Opdorp, Beth McMenamin

    This study explored the themes in children's fiction with the subject of an alcoholic parent and evaluated the treatment of the subject in novels from the 1960s and the 1980s. It was hypothesized that, compared to writings from the 1960s, writings from the 1980s would more often contain references to the disease concept of alcoholism, would more…

  12. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-? emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ?1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate. PMID:25719667

  13. The Story of Galaxy Formation in Our Beginning to End

    E-print Network

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    in a hot" dense state · Before the Big Bang" space and time did not exist for our Universe · It happened everywhere at once: the Universe has no center and no edge Chapter 1: !e Big Bang Fourteen billion years ago

  14. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country’s present petroleum consumption – the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  15. Northwest Africa 8159: An approximately 2.3 Billion Year Old Martian Olivine-Bearing Augite Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, J. I.; Peters, T. J.; Tappa, M. J.; Agee, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    Based on petrology, mineralogy, and bulk composition, the new NWA 8159 martian meteorite is distinct from all known samples from Mars. In particular, the augite compositional trends are unique, but most similar to those of nakhite intercumulus. Whether NWA 8159 represents a new lithology or is related to a known meteorite group remains to be determined. Sr and Nd isotopic analyses will allow comparison of source characteristics with SNC and other new ungrouped meteorites (e.g., NWA 7635). Here we report initial Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for NWA 8159 with the objective to determine its formation age and to potentially identify similarities and potential source affinities with other martian rocks.

  16. An over-massive black hole in a typical star-forming galaxy, 2 billion years after the Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Urry, C. Megan; Civano, Francesca; Rosario, David J.; Elvis, Martin; Schawinski, Kevin; Suh, Hyewon; Bongiorno, Angela; Simmons, Brooke D.

    2015-07-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are generally thought to coevolve, so that the SMBH achieves up to about 0.2 to 0.5% of the host galaxy mass in the present day. The radiation emitted from the growing SMBH is expected to affect star formation throughout the host galaxy. The relevance of this scenario at early cosmic epochs is not yet established. We present spectroscopic observations of a galaxy at redshift z = 3.328, which hosts an actively accreting, extremely massive BH, in its final stages of growth. The SMBH mass is roughly one-tenth the mass of the entire host galaxy, suggesting that it has grown much more efficiently than the host, contrary to models of synchronized coevolution. The host galaxy is forming stars at an intense rate, despite the presence of a SMBH-driven gas outflow.

  17. Two-phase increase in the maximum size of life over 3.5 billion years reflects biological innovation

    E-print Network

    Wang, Steve C.

    spectrum of the global biota have been difficult to evaluate. Our period-level compilation of the largest limitations were removed. body size Cambrian oxygen Precambrian trend Despite widespread scientific

  18. A Rise in the Ionizing Photons in Star-forming Galaxies over the Past 8 Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewley, Lisa J.; Zahid, H. Jabran; Geller, Margaret J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Fabricant, Dan

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the change in ionizing photons in galaxies in the range 0.2\\lt z\\lt 0.6 using the F2 field of the SHELS complete galaxy redshift survey. We show, for the first time, that while the [O iii]/H? and [O iii]/[O ii] ratios rise, the [N ii]/H? and [S ii]/H? ratios fall significantly over the 0.2\\lt z\\lt 0.35 redshift range for stellar masses in the range 9.2\\lt {log}(M/{M}? )\\lt 10.6. The [O iii]/H? and [O iii]/[O ii] ratios continue to rise across the full 0.2\\lt z\\lt 0.6 redshift range for stellar masses in the range 9.8\\lt {log}(M/{M}? )\\lt 10.0. We conclusively rule out active galactic nucleus contamination, a changing ISM pressure, and a change in the hardness of the EUV radiation field as the cause of the change in the line ratios in the range 0.2\\lt z\\lt 0.35. We find that the ionization parameter rises significantly with redshift (by 0.1-0.25 dex depending on the stellar mass of the sample). We show that the ionization parameter is strongly correlated with the fraction of young-to-old stars, as traced by the H? equivalent width. We discuss the implications of this result on higher redshift studies, and we consider the implications on the use of standard optical metallicity diagnostics at high redshift.

  19. Evidence for significant growth in the stellar mass of brightest cluster galaxies over the past 10 billion years

    E-print Network

    Lidman, C.; Suherli, J.; Muzzin, A.; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Demarco, Rafael Senos; Brough, S.; Rettura, A.; Cox, J.; DeGroot, A.; Yee, H. K. C.; Gilbank, D.; Hoekstra, H.; Balogh, M.; Ellingson, E.; Hicks, A.; Nantais, J.; Noble, A.; Lacy, M.; Surace, J.; Webb, T.

    2012-01-01

    Using new and published data, we construct a sample of 160 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) spanning the redshift interval 0.03 < z < 1.63. We use this sample, which covers 70 per cent of the history of the universe, to measure the growth...

  20. The Evolution of the Galaxy Rest-Frame Ultraviolet Luminosity Function Over the First Two Billion Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Ryan, Russell E., Jr.; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Song, Mimi; Somerville, Rachel; Ferguson, Henry C.; Salmon, Brett; Giavalisco, Mauro; Koekomoer, Anton M.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Behroozi, Peter; Castellano, Marco; Dunlop, James S.; Faber, Sandy M.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Fontana, Adriano; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish; Jaacks, Jason; Kocevski, Dale D.; Livermore, Rachael; McLure, Ross J.; Merlin, Emiliano; Rafelski, Marc Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function at z = 4 to 8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the CANDELS/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations near the Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1- 2403 clusters. The combination of these surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 ×10(exp 6) Mpc(exp 3) over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for bright (M(sub UV) less than -21) and faint (M(sub UV) = -18) galaxies. We select galaxies using a well-tested photometric redshift technique with careful screening of contaminants, finding a sample of 7446 galaxies at 3.5 less than z less than 8.5, with more than 1000 galaxies at z of approximately 6 - 8. We measure both a stepwise luminosity function for galaxies in our redshift samples, as well as a Schechter function, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end our UV luminosity functions agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright galaxies at z of greater than or equal to 6. Our bestfit value of the characteristic magnitude M* is consistent with -21 at z of greater than or equal to 5, different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift. At z = 8, a single power-law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z = 6 and 7, an exponential cutoff at the bright-end is moderately preferred. We compare our luminosity functions to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in M* is consistent with models where the impact of dust attenuation on the bright-end of the luminosity function decreases at higher redshift, though a decreasing impact of feedback may also be possible. We measure the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate (SFR) density by integrating our observed luminosity functions to M(sub UV) = -17, correcting for dust attenuation, and find that the SFR density declines proportionally to (1 + z)((exp -4.3)(+/-)(0.5)) at z greater than 4, consistent with observations at z greater than or equal to 9. Our observed luminosity functions are consistent with a reionization history that starts at redshift of approximately greater than 10, completes at z greater than 6, and reaches a midpoint (x(sub HII) = 0.5) at 6.7 less than z less than 9.4. Finally, using a constant cumulative number density selection and an empirically derived rising star-formation history, our observations predict that the abundance of bright z = 9 galaxies is likely higher than previous constraints, though consistent with recent estimates of bright z similar to 10 galaxies.

  1. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    improvements in the industrial and buildings sectors couldIndustrial and Appliance Efficiency Scenario Codes and standards for buildingbuilding energy consumption is 1.4% lower in the Aggressive Industrial and

  2. Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

    2007-01-01

    improvements in the industrial and buildings sectors couldIndustrial and Appliance Efficiency Aggressive scenario explores the additional possibility of further incorporating accelerated efficiency improvements in the building

  3. The history of life on Earth The history of life on Earth The first half billion years.......

    E-print Network

    Slik, Ferry

    of atmosphere and oceans #12;The history of life on Earth ­ First life! #12;The history of life on Earth in existence today! Moon still vary close to Earth, producing tides of about 300 m height!!!!! Hurricane force atmosphere #12;The history of life on Earth ­ Stromatolites (Cyanobacteria) #12;The history of life on Earth

  4. The Evolution of the Galaxy Rest-frame Ultraviolet Luminosity Function over the First Two Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Ryan, Russell E., Jr.; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Song, Mimi; Somerville, Rachel S.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Salmon, Brett; Giavalisco, Mauro; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Behroozi, Peter; Castellano, Marco; Dunlop, James S.; Faber, Sandy M.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Fontana, Adriano; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish; Jaacks, Jason; Kocevski, Dale D.; Livermore, Rachael; McLure, Ross J.; Merlin, Emiliano; Mobasher, Bahram; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Rafelski, Marc; Tilvi, Vithal; Willner, S. P.

    2015-09-01

    We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions at z = 4-8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and the Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations near the Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1-2403 clusters. The combination of these surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 × 106 Mpc3 over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for faint ({M}{UV}=-18) and bright (M{}{UV}\\lt -21) high-redshift galaxies. We select candidate galaxies using a well-tested photometric redshift technique with careful screening of contaminants, finding a sample of 7446 candidate galaxies at 3.5 \\lt z \\lt 8.5, with >1000 galaxies at z ? 6-8. We measure both a stepwise luminosity function for candidate galaxies in our redshift samples, and a Schechter function, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end, our UV luminosity functions agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright candidate galaxies at z ?slant 6. Our best-fit value of the characteristic magnitude {M}{UV}* is consistent with -21 at z ?slant 5, which is different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift, and brighter at ˜2? significance than previous measures at z = 6 and 7. At z = 8, a single power law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z = 6 and 7 an exponential cutoff at the bright end is moderately preferred. We compare our luminosity functions to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in {M}{UV}* is consistent with models where the impact of dust attenuation on the bright end of the luminosity function decreases at higher redshift, although a decreasing impact of feedback may also be possible. We measure the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate (SFR) density by integrating our observed luminosity functions to {M}{UV}=-17, correcting for dust attenuation, and find that the SFR density declines proportionally to (1 +z){}-4.3+/- 0.5 at z \\gt 4, which is consistent with observations at z ?slant 9. Our observed luminosity functions are consistent with a reionization history that starts at z ? 10, completes at z \\gt 6, and reaches a midpoint (x{}{{H} {{II}}} = 0.5) at 6.7 \\lt z \\lt 9.4. Finally, using a constant cumulative number density selection and an empirically derived rising star-formation history, our observations predict that the abundance of bright z = 9 galaxies is likely higher than previous constraints, although consistent with recent estimates of bright z ˜ 10 galaxies.

  5. Investigation of Repeat Client Drop-Out and Re-Enrolment Cycles in Fourteen Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clinics in Guangdong, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Di; Li, Xiaoling; Zhao, Peizhen; Ling, Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective Client adherence is vital for effective methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). This study explores the pattern and associated factors of client adherence, drop-out and re-enrolment in the Chinese MMT programme over the period of 2006–2013. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in 14 MMT clinics in Guangdong Province, China. We employed Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to estimate the rates of drop-out and re-enrolment of MMT clients and multivariate Cox regression to identify associated factors. Results Among 1,512 study participants, 79% have experienced ‘drop-out’ during the 7-year study period. However, 82% ‘dropped-out’ clients resumed treatment at a later time. Low education level (junior high or below versus otherwise, HR = 1.21, 1.05–1.40), low methadone dosage in the first treatment episode (<50 ml versus ?50 ml, HR = 1.84, 1.64–2.06) and higher proportion of positive urine test (?50% versus<50%, HR = 3.72, 3.30–4.20) during the first treatment episode were strong predictors of subsequent drop-outs of the participants. Among the ‘dropped-out’ clients, being female (HR = 1.40, 1.23–1.60), being married (HR = 1.19, 1.09–1.30), and having a higher proportion of positive urine tests in the first treatment episode (?50% versus<50%, HR = 1.35, 1.20–1.51) had greater likelihood of subsequent re-enrolment in MMT. Clients receiving lower methadone dosage (first treatment episode <50 ml versus ?50 ml, HR = 1.12, 1.03–1.23; the last intake before drop-out <50 ml versus ?50 ml, HR = 1.16, 1.04–1.30) were also more likely to re-enrol. Conclusion Persistent cycling in-and-out of clients in MMT programmes is common. Insufficient dosage and higher proportion of positive urine samples in the first treatment episode are the key determinants for subsequent client drop-out and re-enrolment. Interventions should target clients in their early stage of treatment to improve retention in the long term. PMID:26484772

  6. The Other Inconvenient Truth: Feeding 9 Billion While Sustaining the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    As the international community focuses on climate change as the great challenge of our era, we have been largely ignoring another looming problem — the global crisis in agriculture, food security and the environment. Our use of land, particularly for agriculture, is absolutely essential to the success of the human race: we depend on agriculture to supply us with food, feed, fiber, and, increasingly, biofuels. Without a highly efficient, productive, and resilient agricultural system, our society would collapse almost overnight. But we are demanding more and more from our global agricultural systems, pushing them to their very limits. Continued population growth (adding more than 70 million people to the world every year), changing dietary preferences (including more meat and dairy consumption), rising energy prices, and increasing needs for bioenergy sources are putting tremendous pressure on the world’s resources. And, if we want any hope of keeping up with these demands, we’ll need to double the agricultural production of the planet in the next 30 to 40 years. Meeting these huge new agricultural demands will be one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. At present, it is completely unclear how (and if) we can do it. If this wasn’t enough, we must also address the massive environmental impacts of our current agricultural practices, which new evidence indicates rival the impacts of climate change. Simply put, providing for the basic needs of 9 billion-plus people, without ruining the biosphere in the process, will be one of the greatest challenges our species has ever faced. In this presentation, I will present a new framework for evaluating and assessing global patterns of agriculture, food / fiber / fuel production, and their relationship to the earth system, particularly in terms of changing stocks and flows of water, nutrients and carbon in our planetary environment. This framework aims to help us manage the challenges of increasing global food security -- in the fact of dramatically increasing demand -- while greatly reducing the impact of agriculture on the earth system.

  7. Dragon Year

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2012-01-11

    in the dragon year are said to be honest and soft hearted though also short-tempered and stubborn. Famous dragons include Joan of Arc and Maya Angelou. Anybody who turns any multiple of 12 during this year, is a dragon. Xin nian kuai le! Happy New Year! #ceas...

  8. Old Sol's new use Fourteen solar ar-

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    - iated hospitals are at work in the midst of the crisis, providing care for the women whose bodies of Congo rape crisis JustinIde/HarvardNewsOffice RebeccaE.Rollins/HarvardNewsOffice By Alvin Powell Harvard News Office We are likely not alone in the uni- verse, though it may feel like it, since life on other

  9. Educational Cooperation: An Examination of Fourteen Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepchenske, George L.

    The development of consortia and cooperative educational services in higher education in response to financial pressures and social and governmental influences is examined. Consortia or cooperatives may be multi-channeled efforts, with each member struggling to advance its own self-interest at the cost of united goals and efforts, or thriving…

  10. The APPA Journey and RMA Fourteeners Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The APPA journey represents a continuum through one's career in educational facilities management. Early in one's career, APPA can assist with professional development such as the Facilities Drive-In Workshop, the Supervisor's Toolkit, the APPA Institute for Facilities Management, and the APPA Leadership Academy. APPA provides for both…

  11. Fourteen Points for Energy Conservation in Lighting 

    E-print Network

    Zekowski, G.

    1979-01-01

    . The formula most designers use is the average FC formula, used when luminaires are placed evenly throughout a space. Unfortunately it is often misused for spaces where luminaires are spaced asymetrically. In situations where we only want to put light just...

  12. Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually.

    E-print Network

    Toohey, Darin W.

    on Nitrogen Cycle... The paradox of nitrogen ~the atmosphere is 78% N, and life needs it to function, yetFertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually. Emissions. (fertilizers that use nitric acid or ammonium bicarbonate result in emissions of nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide

  13. Conservation in a World of Six Billion: A Grassroots Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hren, Benedict J.

    This grassroots action guide features a conservation initiative working to bring the impacts of human population growth, economic development, and natural resource consumption into balance with the limits of nature for the benefit of current and future generations. Contents include information sheets entitled "Six Billion People and Growing,""The…

  14. ST PAUL-LEZ-DURANCE, FRANCE ITER --a multi-billion-euro international

    E-print Network

    , director of the UK Atomic Energy Authority's fusion laboratory at Culham. The project's rising price$7-billion) estimate provided by the project in 2006, as a result of rises in the price of raw way to get ITER built is to do the skeletal version first. Before scaling up to do energy

  15. High-Stakes Hustle: Public Schools and the New Billion Dollar Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Lawrence A.; Stanley, Gregory Kent

    2004-01-01

    High-stakes testing costs up to $50 billion per annum, has no impact on student achievement, and has changed the focus of American public schools. This article analyzes the benefits and costs of the accountability movement, as well as discusses its roots in the eugenics movements of the early 20th century.

  16. A huge collection of billions to trillions of stars and the interstellar material

    E-print Network

    Bechtold, Jill

    . Most galaxies have a black hole or quasar at their center. Mass:1 Million - 1,000 Billion SM StarPower Points: 14 Galaxy Quasar A super massive black hole at the center of a galaxy. Quasars are formed when: 14 A super massive black hole at the center of a galaxy. Some quasars eject streams of material which

  17. Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Sperling

    2009-04-15

    April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

  18. Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy

    ScienceCinema

    Daniel Sperling

    2010-01-08

    April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

  19. 50 years of engineering excellence IRA A. FULTON SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    of civilization." Over the past 50 years, the world's population has more than doubled, from around 2.9 billion in 1958 to 6.7 billion today. As humankind grows in number and complexity, engineers of today and tomorrow must rise to the occasion. Perhaps now, more than ever before, the world's challenges require

  20. Medicare overpayments to private plans, 1985-2012: shifting seniors to private plans has already cost Medicare US$282.6 billion.

    PubMed

    Hellander, Ida; Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented Medicare overpayments to the private Medicare Advantage (MA) plans that compete with traditional fee-for-service Medicare. This research has assessed individual categories of overpayment for, at most, a few years. However, no study has calculated the total overpayments to private plans since the program's inception. Prior to 2004, selective enrollment of healthier seniors was the major source of excess payments. We estimate this has added US$41 billion to Medicare's costs since 1985. Medicare adopted a risk-adjustment scheme in 2004, but this has not curbed private plans' ability to game the payment system. This has added US$122.5 billion to Medicare's costs since 2004. Congress mandated increased payment to private plans in the 2003 Medicare Modernization Act, which was mitigated, to a degree, by the subsequent Affordable Care Act. In total, we find that Medicare has overpaid private insurers by US$282.6 billion since 1985. Risk adjustment does not work in for-profit MA plans, which have a financial incentive, the data, and the ingenuity to game whatever system Medicare devises. It is time to end Medicare's costly experiment with privatization. The U.S. needs to adopt a single-payer national health insurance program with effective methods for controlling costs. PMID:23821907

  1. How to Bring Solar Energy to Seven Billion People (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Wadia, Cyrus

    2011-04-28

    By exploiting the powers of nanotechnology and taking advantage of non-toxic, Earth-abundant materials, Berkeley Lab's Cyrus Wadia has fabricated new solar cell devices that have the potential to be several orders of magnitude less expensive than conventional solar cells. And by mastering the chemistry of these materials-and the economics of solar energy-he envisions bringing electricity to the 1.2 billion people now living without it.

  2. MMap: Fast Billion-Scale Graph Computation on a PC via Memory Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhiyuan; Kahng, Minsuk; Sabrin, Kaeser Md.; Chau, Duen Horng (Polo); Lee, Ho; Kang, U

    2015-01-01

    Graph computation approaches such as GraphChi and TurboGraph recently demonstrated that a single PC can perform efficient computation on billion-node graphs. To achieve high speed and scalability, they often need sophisticated data structures and memory management strategies. We propose a minimalist approach that forgoes such requirements, by leveraging the fundamental memory mapping (MMap) capability found on operating systems. We contribute: (1) a new insight that MMap is a viable technique for creating fast and scalable graph algorithms that surpasses some of the best techniques; (2) the design and implementation of popular graph algorithms for billion-scale graphs with little code, thanks to memory mapping; (3) extensive experiments on real graphs, including the 6.6 billion edge YahooWeb graph, and show that this new approach is significantly faster or comparable to the highly-optimized methods (e.g., 9.5× faster than GraphChi for computing PageRank on 1.47B edge Twitter graph). We believe our work provides a new direction in the design and development of scalable algorithms. Our packaged code is available at http://poloclub.gatech.edu/mmap/. PMID:25866846

  3. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Nicholas J.; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Lauer, Tod R.; Graham, James R.; Richstone, Douglas O.

    2011-12-01

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes.

  4. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-12-01

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes. PMID:22158244

  5. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-01-01

    Observational work conducted over the last few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some are powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely-used correlations between black hole mass and the stellar velo...

  6. 40 CFR 35.910-12 - Reallotment of deobligated funds of Fiscal Year 1978.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.910-12 Reallotment of deobligated funds of Fiscal Year 1978. (a) Of the 4.5 billion...

  7. NASA's Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request - Duration: 8 minutes, 1 second.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced an $18.7 billion budget request for fiscal year 2012 that supports a reinvigorated path of innovation, technological development and scientific discovery. The budget supports all ele...

  8. Space-grade reliability of 808nm QCW laser diode arrays (LDAs) delivering over 20 billion shots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Yuri; Karni, Yoram; Klumel, Genadi; Levy, Moshe; Openhaim, Yaki; Risemberg, Shlomo; Rech, Markus; Becht, Hubert; Frei, Bruno; Monti di Sopra, Fabrice

    2009-02-01

    Space missions are probably the most demanding environment for laser diodes. A comprehensive study on the reliability of commercially available laser diodes arrays (LDA), with the objective of bar stacks for ESA's BepiColombo Laser Altimeter mission to the planet Mercury was performed. We report the best results of lifetime tests performed on SCD 808 nm QCW stacks at different levels of current load in a unique combination with operational temperature cycles in the range of -10°C to 60 °C. Based on a field-proven design that includes Al-free wafer material and a robust packaging solution, these arrays exhibit long operational lifetime of up to 20 billion pulses monitored in the course of several years. Zero failures and stable performance of these QCW arrays were demonstrated in severe environmental conditions reflecting both, military and space applications. In order to achieve maximum device efficiency at different operational conditions of the base temperature and current, an optimum combination of the wafer structure and bar design is required. We demonstrate different types of QCW stacks delivering peak power of up to 1 kW with a usable range of 50-55% wall plug efficiency at base temperatures up to 60 °C.

  9. Capping blowouts from Iran's eight-year war

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, B. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports on capping blowouts from Iran's eight year war. Fires in three Iranian wells (two oil, one gas), started during 1987 by Iraqi sabotage, finally were extinguished during the last several months of 1990. Burning during the final months of the countries' eight-year war, plus another subsequent peaceful two years, the fires consumed millions of barrels of oil and billions of cubic feet of gas before they were capped. Ironically, bringing the wells under control took relatively little time.

  10. The Value Of The Nonprofit Hospital Tax Exemption Was $24.6 Billion In 2011.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Kindig, David A; Bao, Jie; Byrnes, Maureen K; O'Laughlin, Colin

    2015-07-01

    The federal government encourages public support for charitable activities by allowing people to deduct donations to tax-exempt organizations on their income tax returns. Tax-exempt hospitals are major beneficiaries of this policy because it encourages donations to the hospitals while shielding them from federal and state tax liability. In exchange, these hospitals must engage in community benefit activities, such as providing care to indigent patients and participating in Medicaid. The congressional Joint Committee on Taxation estimated the value of the nonprofit hospital tax exemption at $12.6 billion in 2002--a number that included forgone taxes, public contributions, and the value of tax-exempt bond financing. In this article we estimate that the size of the exemption reached $24.6 billion in 2011. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) brings a new focus on community benefit activities by requiring tax-exempt hospitals to engage in communitywide planning efforts to improve community health. The magnitude of the tax exemption, coupled with ACA reforms, underscores the public's interest not only in community benefit spending generally but also in the extent to which nonprofit hospitals allocate funds for community benefit expenditures that improve the overall health of their communities. PMID:26085486

  11. State Implementation and Perceptions of Title I School Improvement Grants under the Recovery Act: One Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Jennifer; McIntosh, Shelby

    2012-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), also known as the stimulus package, appropriated $100 billion for education and included $3 billion for school improvement grants (SIGs) to help reform low-performing schools. This amount was in addition to the $546 million provided by the regular fiscal year 2009 appropriations bill for…

  12. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Mark; Eaton, Laurence M; Graham, Robin Lambert; Langholtz, Matthew H; Perlack, Robert D; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Stokes, Bryce; Brandt, Craig C

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small-diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result of a burgeoning worldwide demand and concerns about long-term supplies. By the end of the summer, oil pri

  13. 77 FR 15052 - Dataset Workshop-U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Dataset (1980-2011): Assessing Dataset Strengths...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Dataset Workshop--U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Dataset (1980- 2011): Assessing Dataset Strengths and Weaknesses for a Pathway to an Improved Dataset AGENCY:...

  14. Past Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    Preface; 1. Ancestry and early days; 2. Schooldays; 3. Relation with other boys at school; 4. Education; 5. Influence of the Royal Institution; 6. Later education in London; 7. Reminiscences of Bedford College; 8. Scientific work and friends in London; 9. Personal retrospect; 10. Romance; 11. Influence of the British Association; 12. Reminiscences of Coopers Hill and assistants and popular lectures; 13. Liverpool; 14. Scientific work at Liverpool; 15. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 16. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 17. Electric waves and the beginnings of wireless; 18. Other friends; 19. Family life; 20. Holidays; 21. Side issues; 22. Early experiences in psychical research; 23. Psychical research; 24. Further psychic adventures, and psycho-physical phenomena; 25. Reminiscences of my years at the university of Birmingham; 26. Birmingham friendships and recollections; 27. Scientific retrospect; 28. Apologia pro vita mea; Index.

  15. Discovery of a 12 billion solar mass black hole at redshift 6.3 and its challenge to the black hole/galaxy co-evolution at cosmic dawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-08-01

    To date about 40 quasars with redshifts z>6 have been discovered. Each quasar harbors a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses. The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years after the Big Bang presents significant challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the black hole/galaxy co-evolution. I will report a recent discovery of an ultra-luminous quasar at redshift z=6.30, which has an observed optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z>6 quasars. With near-infrared spectroscopy, we obtain a black hole mass of about 12 billion solar masses, which is well consistent with the mass derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion. This ultra-luminous quasar with a 12 billion solar mass black hole at z>6 provides a unique laboratory to the study of the mass assembly and galaxy formation around the most massive black holes in the early Universe. It raises further challenges to the black hole/galaxy co-evolution in the epoch of cosmic reionization because the black hole needs to grow much faster than the host galaxy.

  16. Billion-atom synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of critical 3D Ising systems

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, E.; Monasterio, P.R.; Marian, J.

    2011-02-20

    An extension of the synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo (spkMC) algorithm developed by Martinez et al. [J. Comp. Phys. 227 (2008) 3804] to discrete lattices is presented. The method solves the master equation synchronously by recourse to null events that keep all processors' time clocks current in a global sense. Boundary conflicts are resolved by adopting a chessboard decomposition into non-interacting sublattices. We find that the bias introduced by the spatial correlations attendant to the sublattice decomposition is within the standard deviation of serial calculations, which confirms the statistical validity of our algorithm. We have analyzed the parallel efficiency of spkMC and find that it scales consistently with problem size and sublattice partition. We apply the method to the calculation of scale-dependent critical exponents in billion-atom 3D Ising systems, with very good agreement with state-of-the-art multispin simulations.

  17. Investigation of Radar Propagation in Buildings: A 10 Billion Element Cartesian-Mesh FETD Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Stowell, M L; Fasenfest, B J; White, D A

    2008-01-14

    In this paper large scale full-wave simulations are performed to investigate radar wave propagation inside buildings. In principle, a radar system combined with sophisticated numerical methods for inverse problems can be used to determine the internal structure of a building. The composition of the walls (cinder block, re-bar) may effect the propagation of the radar waves in a complicated manner. In order to provide a benchmark solution of radar propagation in buildings, including the effects of typical cinder block and re-bar, we performed large scale full wave simulations using a Finite Element Time Domain (FETD) method. This particular FETD implementation is tuned for the special case of an orthogonal Cartesian mesh and hence resembles FDTD in accuracy and efficiency. The method was implemented on a general-purpose massively parallel computer. In this paper we briefly describe the radar propagation problem, the FETD implementation, and we present results of simulations that used over 10 billion elements.

  18. Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor

    E-print Network

    Lin, Guoping; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering gallery mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) with an ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor above $10^9$ at $1550$ nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of $2$ nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion $Q$-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of ~$3$. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF$_2$ resonators potentially becomes feasible.

  19. Leveraging Billions of Faces to Overcome Performance Barriers in Unconstrained Face Recognition

    E-print Network

    Taigman, Yaniv

    2011-01-01

    We employ the face recognition technology developed in house at face.com to a well accepted benchmark and show that without any tuning we are able to considerably surpass state of the art results. Much of the improvement is concentrated in the high-valued performance point of zero false positive matches, where the obtained recall rate almost doubles the best reported result to date. We discuss the various components and innovations of our system that enable this significant performance gap. These components include extensive utilization of an accurate 3D reconstructed shape model dealing with challenges arising from pose and illumination. In addition, discriminative models based on billions of faces are used in order to overcome aging and facial expression as well as low light and overexposure. Finally, we identify a challenging set of identification queries that might provide useful focus for future research.

  20. The strongest matter: “Einsteinon” could be one billion times stronger than carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugno, Nicola M.

    2008-09-01

    The controversy about the feasibility of space elevator cables is summarized, emphasizing the huge strength-to-density ratio needed for the megacable material, comparable only to that of defect-free carbon nanotubes. In spite of this, the existence of an hypothetical matter, that we have called "Einsteinon", with strength-to-density ratio one billion times higher than that of carbon nanotubes, is shown to be compatible with Relativity. Einsteinon would be the strongest material, having cracks propagating at the speed of light. A very simple argument is also introduced for a rough unification of the gravitational and nuclear forces, suggesting that such a material would probably be based on sub-nuclear-like interactions.

  1. ICI bites demerger bullet, Zeneca guns for [Brit pounds]1. 3-billion rights issue

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.; Alperowicz, N.

    1993-03-03

    Any lingering doubts as to ICI's (London) intentions to follow through its demerger proposals were dispelled last week. The company will hive off its bioscience business into Zeneca Group plc, which will make a [Brit pounds]1.3-billion ($1.9 billion) rights issue in June 1993. Shareholders, whose approval for the historic move will be sought in late May, will receive one fully paid Zeneca share for each ICI share. Proceeds from the rights issue will be used to reduce Zeneca's indebtedness to ICI by about 70%. Acknowledging that ICI had spread the jam too thinly' during its expansion in the 1980s, chief executive Ronnie Hampel says the new ICI will be a cost-conscious, no-frills' organization and that businesses that failed to perform would be restructured or closed. He is not expecting any help from the economy' in 1993. Of ICI's remaining petrochemicals and plastics businesses, Hampel says that despite stringent measures to reduce the cost base[hor ellipsis]it is clear they will not reach a return on capital that will justify reinvestment by ICI.' He does not see them as closure candidates but as 'businesses that will require further restructuring.' Hampel notes a dozen clearly identified areas for expansion,' including paints, catalysts, titanium dioxide, and chlorofluorocarbon replacements. Losses in materials, where substantial rationalization has failed to halt the slide, will be reduced on completion of the DuPont deal - expected by midyear. Further measures' would be necessary for the residual bit of advanced materials in the US,' he says.

  2. Evaluation testing of a portable vapor detector for Part-Per-Billion (PPB) level UDMH and N2H4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Dan; Lueck, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    Trace level detection of hydrazine (N2H4), monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) has been receiving increased attention over the past several years. In May 1995 the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) lowered their acceptable threshold limit value (TLV) from 100 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 10 ppb. Several types of ppb-level detectors are being developed by the United States Air Force (USAF) Space and Missile Systems Center (SMSC). A breadboard version of a portable, lightweight hydrazine detection sensor was developed and produced by Giner Corp. for the USAF. This sensor was designed for ppb level UDMH and N2H4 vapor detection in near real-time. This instrument employs electrochemical sensing, utilizing a three electrode cell with an anion-exchange polymer electrolyte membrane as the only electrolyte in the system. The sensing, counter and reference electrodes are bonded to the membrane forming a single component. The only liquid required to maintain the sensor is deionized water which hydrates the membrane. At the request of the USAF SMSC, independent testing and evaluation of the breadboard instrument was performed at NASA's Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) for response to ppb-level N2H4 and UDMH and MMH. The TVDL, located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the unique ability to generate calibrated sample vapor streams of N2H4, UDMH, and MMH over a range from less than 10 ppb to thousands of parts per million (ppm) with full environmental control of relative humidity (0-90%) and temperature (0-50 C). The TVDL routinely performs these types of tests. Referenced sensors were subjected to extensive testing, including precision, linearity, response/recovery times, zero and span drift, humidity and temperature effects as well as ammonia interference. Results of these tests and general operation characteristics are reported.

  3. Student ID Advisor 1st Year Fall __________ (year) 1st Year Spr. __________ (year) 1st Year Sum. __________ (year)

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    Name Major Student ID Advisor 1st Year Fall __________ (year) 1st Year Spr. __________ (year) 1st) Projected Graduation Date SUBJECT SUBJECT CR. HRS. SUBJECT COURSE # CR. HRS. Advisor Signature Date Student

  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The Budget includes three new robust exploration programs: (1) Technology demonstration program, $7.8 five years. Funds the development and demonstration of technologies that reduce the cost and expand the capabilities of future exploration activities, including in-orbit refueling and storage. (2) Heavy-Lift and Propulsion R&D, $3.1 billion over five years. Funds R&D for new launch systems, propellants, materials, and combustion processes. (3) Robotic precursor missions, $3.0 billion over five years. Funds cost-effective means to scout exploration targets and identify hazards and resources for human visitation and habitation. In addition, the Budget enhances the current Human Research Program by 42%; and supports the Participatory Exploration Program at 5 million per year for activities across many NASA programs.

  5. Neglected Tropical Diseases Over ONE BILLION Infected--One in Six People Worldwide

    E-print Network

    Davis, Richard E.

    Schistosomiasis · 200 million people infected · 120 million people suffering with symptoms · 280,000 people die from schistosomiasis each year · Second most common parasitic disease after malaria Lymphatic

  6. Sub-parts-per-billion level detection of NO2 using room-temperature quantum cascade lasers

    PubMed Central

    Pushkarsky, Michael; Tsekoun, Alexei; Dunayevskiy, Ilya G.; Go, Rowel; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2006-01-01

    We report the sub-parts-per-billion-level detection of NO2 using tunable laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy where the laser radiation is obtained from a room-temperature continuous-wave high-power quantum cascade laser operating in an external grating cavity configuration. The continuously tunable external grating cavity quantum cascade laser produces maximum single-frequency output of ?300 mW tunable over ?350 nm centered at 6.25 ?m. We demonstrate minimum detection level of ?0.5 parts per billion of NO2 in the presence of humidified air. PMID:16829569

  7. Layout finishing of a 28nm, 3 billions transistors, multi-core processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Beisser, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Designing a fully new 256 cores processor is a great challenge for a fabless startup. In addition to all architecture, functionalities and timing issues, the layout by itself is a bottleneck due to all the process constraints of a 28nm technology. As developers of advanced layout finishing solutions, we were involved in the design flow of this huge chip with its 3 billions transistors. We had to face the issue of dummy patterns instantiation with respect to design constraints. All the design rules to generate the "dummies" are clearly defined in the Design Rule Manual, and some automatic procedures are provided by the foundry itself, but these routines don't take care of the designer requests. Such a chip, embeds both digital parts and analog modules for clock and power management. These two different type of designs have each their own set of constraints. In both cases, the insertion of dummies should not introduce unexpected variations leading to malfunctions. For example, on digital parts were signal race conditions are critical on long wires or bus, introduction of uncontrolled parasitic along these nets are highly critical. For analog devices such as high frequency and high sensitivity comparators, the exact symmetry of the two parts of a current mirror generator should be guaranteed. Thanks to the easily customizable features of our dummies insertion tool, we were able to configure it in order to meet all the designer requirements as well as the process constraints. This paper will present all these advanced key features as well as the layout tricks used to fulfill all requirements.

  8. No Photon Left Behind: How Billions of Spectral Lines are Transforming Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of realistic potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) descriptions, theoretically computed linelists can now synthesize accurate spectral parameters for billions of spectral lines sampling the untamed high-energy molecular domain. Being the initial driver for these databases the characterization of stellar spectra, these theoretical databases, in combination with decades of precise experimental studies (nicely compiled in community databases such as HITRAN and GEISA), are leading to unprecedented precisions in the characterization of planetary atmospheres. Cometary sciences are among the most affected by this spectroscopic revolution. Even though comets are relatively cold bodies (T˜100 K), their infrared molecular emission is mainly defined by non-LTE solar fluorescence induced by a high-energy source (Sun, T˜5600 K). In order to interpret high-resolution spectra of comets acquired with extremely powerful telescopes (e.g., Keck, VLT, NASA-IRTF), we have developed advanced non-LTE fluorescence models that integrate the high-energy dynamic range of ab-initio databases (e.g., BT2, VTT, HPT2, BYTe, TROVE) and the precision of laboratory and semi-empirical compilations (e.g., HITRAN, GEISA, CDMS, WKMC, SELP, IUPAC). These new models allow us to calculate realistic non-LTE pumps, cascades, branching-ratios, and emission rates for a broad range of excitation regimes for H2O, HDO, HCN, HNC and NH3. We have implemented elements of these compilations to the study of Mars spectra, and we are now exploring its application to modeling non-LTE emission in exoplanets. In this presentation, we present application of these advanced models to interpret highresolution spectra of comets, Mars and exoplanets.

  9. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country's present petroleum consumption--the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  10. WHY SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL AND HOW TO DETECT ANOTHER 10 BILLION SMALL MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS. Henning Haack1

    E-print Network

    Andersen, Anja C.

    WHY SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL ­ AND HOW TO DETECT ANOTHER 10 BILLION SMALL MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS. Henning. Introduction: Estimates of the size distribution of main belt asteroids suggest that there is a population- tant sub-kilometer asteroids in the main belt. Long intergration times cannot be used unless the object

  11. 77 FR 29458 - Supervisory Guidance on Stress Testing for Banking Organizations With More Than $10 Billion in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... organizations with consolidated assets of $10 billion or less. \\1\\ See 76 FR 35072 (June 15, 2011). All banking... (Pillar 2) Related to the Implementation of the Basel II Advanced Capital Framework, 73 FR 44620 (July 31... Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Covered Companies, 77 FR 594 (Jan. 5,...

  12. EVALUATION OF PARTS-PER-BILLION (PPB) ORGANIC CYLINDER GASES FOR USE AS AUDITS DURING HAZARDOUS WASTE TRIAL BURN TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A repository of 14 gaseous organic compounds at parts-per-billion levels (7-430 ppb) in compressed gas cylinders has been established by the Environmental Protection Agency. This repository was established to provide audit materials for use in conducting performance audits to ass...

  13. Analyst, Infrastructure Investments PSP Investments PSP Investments is one of Canada's largest pension investment managers, with $112 billion of

    E-print Network

    in Private Equity, Real Estate, Infrastructure and Renewable Resources. Our main business office pension investment managers, with $112 billion of assets under management as at March 31, 2015. We invest funds for the pension plans of the Public Service, the Canadian Forces, the Royal Canadian Mounted

  14. Industrial R&D Expenditures Rise to $22 Billion in 1974. Science Resources Studies Highlights, January 14, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Reported in this newsletter in narrative, graphical, and tabular form are data related to industrial research and development expenditures in 1974, showing a seven percent increase over 1973. It is noted that more than 80 percent of a total of $22.3 billion was spent by five industries; these included electrical equipment and communication,…

  15. Industrial R&D Spending Reached $26.6 Billion in 1976. Science Resources Studies Highlights, May 5, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report presents data compiled as part of a comprehensive program to measure and analyze the nation's resources expended for research and development (R&D). Industry, which carries out 69% of the R&D in the United States, spent $26.6 billion on these activities in 1976, 10% above the 1975 level. In constant dollars, this presents an increase…

  16. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

  17. Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences

    PubMed Central

    Rideout, Jai Ram; He, Yan; Navas-Molina, Jose A.; Walters, William A.; Ursell, Luke K.; Gibbons, Sean M.; Chase, John; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Clemente, Jose C.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Huse, Susan M.; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Knight, Rob

    2014-01-01

    We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA) sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime) and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity). Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to “classic” open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, “classic” open-reference OTU clustering is often faster). We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons). To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of “classic” open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by “classic” open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME’s uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository) that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced). Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in QIIME’s OTU picking workflows and make recommendations on settings for these free parameters to optimize runtime without reducing the quality of the results. These optimized parameters can vastly decrease the runtime of uclust-based OTU picking in QIIME. PMID:25177538

  18. Subacute bacterial endocarditis and subsequent shunt nephritis from ventriculoatrial shunting 14?years after shunt implantation.

    PubMed

    Burström, Gustav; Andresen, Morten; Bartek, Jiri; Fytagoridis, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Fourteen years after shunt implantation, a 26-year-old patient with myelomeningocele, concomitant hydrocephalus and a ventriculoatrial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt presented with brief but recurrent episodes of fever predominantly when taking showers or during physical exertion. After 4?years of inconclusive multidisciplinary investigations, the patient progressed into end-stage renal disease before an echocardiogram revealed a vegetative plaque on the tendinous chords of the tricuspid valve. CSF cultures were grown from the shunt valve, confirming bacterial growth of Propionibacterium acnes suspected of causing subacute bacterial endocarditis and subsequent shunt nephritis. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotics combined with ventriculoatrial shunt removal and endoscopic third ventriculocisternostomy (VCS). This case illustrates the nowadays rare, but potentially severe complication of subacute bacterial endocarditis and shunt nephritis. It also exemplifies the VCS as an alternative to implanting foreign shunt systems for CSF diversion. PMID:24962489

  19. Study: Sun Will End Earthly Life in 2.8 Billion Years1 The planet will become too hot for even the hardiest microbes.2

    E-print Network

    South Bohemia, University of

    of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Plants rely on carbon dioxide to generate energy18 through begin to die off as global carbon dioxide levels20 drop. As more plant species go extinct, so that as temperatures on Earth begin to slowly rise, more water vapor17 will form, resulting in the steady removal

  20. A TALE OF DWARFS AND GIANTS: USING A z = 1.62 CLUSTER TO UNDERSTAND HOW THE RED SEQUENCE GREW OVER THE LAST 9.5 BILLION YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnick, Gregory H.; Tran, Kim-Vy; Papovich, Casey; Momcheva, Ivelina; Willmer, Christopher

    2012-08-10

    We study the red sequence in a cluster of galaxies at z = 1.62 and follow its evolution over the intervening 9.5 Gyr to the present day. Using deep YJK{sub s} imaging with the HAWK-I instrument on the Very Large Telescope, we identify a tight red sequence and construct its rest-frame i-band luminosity function (LF). There is a marked deficit of faint red galaxies in the cluster that causes a turnover in the LF. We compare the red-sequence LF to that for clusters at z < 0.8, correcting the luminosities for passive evolution. The shape of the cluster red-sequence LF does not evolve between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 but at z < 0.6 the faint population builds up significantly. Meanwhile, between z = 1.62 and 0.6 the inferred total light on the red sequence grows by a factor of {approx}2 and the bright end of the LF becomes more populated. We construct a simple model for red-sequence evolution that grows the red sequence in total luminosity and matches the constant LF shape at z > 0.6. In this model the cluster accretes blue galaxies from the field whose star formation is quenched and who are subsequently allowed to merge. We find that three to four mergers among cluster galaxies during the 4 Gyr between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 match the observed LF evolution between the two redshifts. The inferred merger rate is consistent with other studies of this cluster. Our result supports the picture that galaxy merging during the major growth phase of massive clusters is an important process in shaping the red-sequence population at all luminosities.

  1. Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4-3.5 billion years ago

    E-print Network

    Cnossen, I; Favata, F; Witasse, O; Zegers, T; Arnold, N F

    2007-01-01

    Solar X-ray and UV radiation (0.1-320 nm) received at Earth's surface is an important aspect of the circumstances under which life formed on Earth. The quantity that is received depends on two main variables: the emission of radiation by the young Sun and its extinction through absorption and scattering by the Earth's early atmosphere. The spectrum emitted by the Sun when life formed, between 4 and 3.5 Ga, was modeled here, including the effects of flares and activity cycles, using a solar-like star that has the same age now as the Sun had 4-3.5 Ga. Atmospheric extinction was calculated using the Beer-Lambert law, assuming several density profiles for the atmosphere of the Archean Earth. We found that almost all radiation with a wavelength shorter than 200 nm is attenuated effectively, even by very tenuous atmospheres. Longer-wavelength radiation is progressively less well attenuated, and its extinction is more sensitive to atmospheric composition. Minor atmospheric components, such as methane, ozone, water v...

  2. In situ Raman spectroscopy and confocal microscopy of 2.5-billion-year-old fossil microorganisms: viable nondestructive techniques for the study of returned Martian samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, A. D.; Lorber, K.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the discovery of two sets of Archean fossil microorganisms (microfossils) and describes how such a study can be an analogue for a potential Martian sample return mission like that proposed as a follow up to the Mars 2020 mission. Microfossils are not easily preserved and their simple morphologies (made less distinct by taphonomy and diagenesis) can be confused with nonbiological structures. Thus, several lines of evidence are required for a biological interpretation of such remains. Despite this limitation, microfossils represent the most direct and easily illustrated evidence of life, and this will also be true of any microfossils that might be found on Mars. Martian sample return will provide the first chance to apply a full suite of analytical techniques to the study of possible Martian microfossils. Because such precious samples would be of limited quantity, this suite must include nondestructive techniques that are performed in situ and at a micron-scale.The samples studied here were collected from two chert units within the Gamohaan Formation of the Kaapvaal Craton of South Africa. One set was collected from the Tsineng Member near the top of the formation and contains fossils of mat-forming filamentous microorganisms (~15-20 µm in diameter) that were buried in place. The other set comes from a chert bed stratigraphically lower within the Gamohaan Formation. This bed contains shriveled and somewhat compacted spherical microfossils (~100 µm in diameter) and are interpreted to be the remains of planktonic forms that settled from above. Cherts were collected based on a visual identification of their likelihood to contain microfossils. Optical microscopy was used to locate microstructures of interest within thin sections. The biological nature of these structures is supported by analyses of their three dimensional morphologies by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as well as their carbonaceous compositions by Raman spectroscopy. Raman and CLSM are nondestructive techniques that can be used to analyze specimens within rock to the depth of several tens of microns with no special sample preparation. Also, because Raman and CLSM can be used to study modern microorganisms, they are ideal techniques for the study of returned Martian samples that could contain either fossil or living material.

  3. LoCuSS: THE STEADY DECLINE AND SLOW QUENCHING OF STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTER GALAXIES OVER THE LAST FOUR BILLION YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Egami, E.; Rawle, T. D.; Smith, G. P.; Sanderson, A. J. R.; Babul, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Merluzzi, P.; Busarello, G.; Okabe, N.

    2013-10-01

    We present an analysis of the levels and evolution of star formation activity in a representative sample of 30 massive galaxy clusters at 0.15 < z < 0.30 from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey, combining wide-field Spitzer/MIPS 24 ?m data with extensive spectroscopy of cluster members. The specific SFRs of massive (M > or approx. 10{sup 10} M{sub ?}) star-forming cluster galaxies within r{sub 200} are found to be systematically ?28% lower than their counterparts in the field at fixed stellar mass and redshift, a difference significant at the 8.7? level. This is the unambiguous signature of star formation in most (and possibly all) massive star-forming galaxies being slowly quenched upon accretion into massive clusters, their star formation rates (SFRs) declining exponentially on quenching timescales in the range 0.7-2.0 Gyr. We measure the mid-infrared Butcher-Oemler effect over the redshift range 0.0-0.4, finding rapid evolution in the fraction (f{sub SF}) of massive (M{sub K} < – 23.1) cluster galaxies within r{sub 200} with SFRs > 3 M{sub ?} yr{sup –1}, of the form f{sub SF}?(1 + z){sup 7.6±1.1}. We dissect the origins of the Butcher-Oemler effect, revealing it to be due to the combination of a ?3 × decline in the mean specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies since z ? 0.3 with a ?1.5 × decrease in number density. Two-thirds of this reduction in the specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies is due to the steady cosmic decline in the specific SFRs among those field galaxies accreted into the clusters. The remaining one-third reflects an accelerated decline in the star formation activity of galaxies within clusters. The slow quenching of star formation in cluster galaxies is consistent with a gradual shut down of star formation in infalling spiral galaxies as they interact with the intracluster medium via ram-pressure stripping or starvation mechanisms. The observed sharp decline in star formation activity among cluster galaxies since z ? 0.4 likely reflects the increased susceptibility of low-redshift spiral galaxies to gas removal mechanisms as their gas surface densities decrease with time. We find no evidence for the build-up of cluster S0 bulges via major nuclear starburst episodes.

  4. An anoxic, Fe(II)-rich, U-poor ocean 3.46 billion years ago Weiqiang Li a,b,

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Clark M.

    . INTRODUCTION The evolution of photosynthesis was a critical evolution- ary step in the history of life on Earth (e.g., Canfield, 2005). It has been proposed that anoxygenic photosynthesis pre- ceded oxygenic photosynthesis (e.g., Hohmann-Marriott and Blankenship, 2011), in part because the Archean atmo- sphere

  5. Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4-3.5 billion years ago

    E-print Network

    I. Cnossen; J. Sanz-Forcada; F. Favata; O. Witasse; T. Zegers; N. F. Arnold

    2007-02-20

    Solar X-ray and UV radiation (0.1-320 nm) received at Earth's surface is an important aspect of the circumstances under which life formed on Earth. The quantity that is received depends on two main variables: the emission of radiation by the young Sun and its extinction through absorption and scattering by the Earth's early atmosphere. The spectrum emitted by the Sun when life formed, between 4 and 3.5 Ga, was modeled here, including the effects of flares and activity cycles, using a solar-like star that has the same age now as the Sun had 4-3.5 Ga. Atmospheric extinction was calculated using the Beer-Lambert law, assuming several density profiles for the atmosphere of the Archean Earth. We found that almost all radiation with a wavelength shorter than 200 nm is attenuated effectively, even by very tenuous atmospheres. Longer-wavelength radiation is progressively less well attenuated, and its extinction is more sensitive to atmospheric composition. Minor atmospheric components, such as methane, ozone, water vapor, etc., have only negligible effects, but changes in CO2 concentration can cause large differences in surface flux. Differences due to variability in solar emission are small compared to this. In all cases surface radiation levels on the Archean Earth were several orders of magnitude higher in the 200-300 nm wavelength range than current levels in this range. That means that any form of life that might have been present at Earth's surface 4-3.5 Ga must have been exposed to much higher quantities of damaging radiation than at present.

  6. ~2.3 to 1.8 billion years ago display rela-tively large ratios compared to either older or

    E-print Network

    Brody, Carlos

    or younger pyrites. This breakdown of Earth history is particularly interesting because it coincides much of the world's steel production depends] and pyrite. Iron oxides were formed in the water column the ocean toward lower values of 56Fe, as recorded in the pyrites (see the figure). Stage 2 witnessed

  7. GALAXY EVOLUTION. An over-massive black hole in a typical star-forming galaxy, 2 billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Urry, C Megan; Civano, Francesca; Rosario, David J; Elvis, Martin; Schawinski, Kevin; Suh, Hyewon; Bongiorno, Angela; Simmons, Brooke D

    2015-07-10

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are generally thought to coevolve, so that the SMBH achieves up to about 0.2 to 0.5% of the host galaxy mass in the present day. The radiation emitted from the growing SMBH is expected to affect star formation throughout the host galaxy. The relevance of this scenario at early cosmic epochs is not yet established. We present spectroscopic observations of a galaxy at redshift z = 3.328, which hosts an actively accreting, extremely massive BH, in its final stages of growth. The SMBH mass is roughly one-tenth the mass of the entire host galaxy, suggesting that it has grown much more efficiently than the host, contrary to models of synchronized coevolution. The host galaxy is forming stars at an intense rate, despite the presence of a SMBH-driven gas outflow. PMID:26160942

  8. 1.8 billion years of fluid-crust interaction: A zircon oxygen isotope record for the lower crust, western Churchill Province, Canadian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petts, Duane C.; Moser, Desmond E.; Longstaffe, Frederick J.; Davis, William J.; Stern, Richard A.

    2014-04-01

    The western Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield experienced a prolonged and complex formation history (ca. 4.04 to 1.70 Ga), with evidence for multiple episodes of orogenesis and regional magmatic activity. Here we report on the oxygen isotopic compositions of garnet and zircon recovered from lower crustal xenoliths, which have U-Pb ages between ca. 3.5 and 1.7 Ga. Overall, zircon from four metabasite xenoliths from the Rankin Inlet sample suite have ?18O values ranging from + 5.5 to + 8.6‰. Zircon from three metatonalite/anorthosite xenoliths and five metabasite xenoliths from the Repulse Bay sample suite have ?18O values of + 5.6 to + 8.3‰. High ?18O values (> + 6.0‰) for the oldest igneous zircon cores (ca. 3.5 Ga and 3.0-2.6 Ga) indicate that their metatonalite/anorthosite protolith magmas were generated from, or had assimilated, supracrustal rocks that interacted previously with surface-derived fluids. Igneous zircon cores (ca. 2.9-2.6 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith have ?18O values of + 5.6 to + 6.4‰, which suggests a formation from a mantle-derived basaltic/gabbroic magma. Metamorphic zircon cores (ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith commonly have ?18O values between + 6.0 and + 6.3‰, which is indicative of a basalt/gabbro protolith and localized reworking of the lower crust caused by regional-scale plate convergence. The wide range of ?18O values (+ 5.5 to + 8.3‰) for ca. 1.75-1.70 Ga metamorphic zircon rims (identified in all xenoliths) indicates regional transient heating and reworking of mantle- and supracrustal-derived crust, induced by magmatic underplating along the crust-mantle boundary.

  9. The evolution of dust-obscured star formation activity in galaxy clusters relative to the field over the last 9 billion years

    E-print Network

    Alberts, Stacey; Brodwin, Mark; Atlee, David W; Lin, Yen-Ting; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, Peter R M; Gettings, Daniel P; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Jannuzi, Buell T; Mancone, Conor L; Moustakas, John; Snyder, Gregory F; Stanford, S Adam; Stern, Daniel; Weiner, Benjamin J; Zeimann, Gregory R

    2013-01-01

    We compare the star formation (SF) activity in cluster galaxies to the field from z=0.3-1.5 using $Herschel$ SPIRE 250$\\mu$m imaging. We utilize 274 clusters from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS) selected as rest-frame near-infrared overdensities over the 9 square degree Bootes field . This analysis allows us to quantify the evolution of SF in clusters over a long redshift baseline without bias against active cluster systems. Using a stacking analysis, we determine the average star formation rates (SFRs) and specific-SFRs (SSFR=SFR/M$_{\\star}$) of stellar mass-limited (M>1.3x10$^{10}$ M$_{\\odot}$), statistical samples of cluster and field galaxies, probing both the star forming and quiescent populations. We find a clear indication that the average SF in cluster galaxies is evolving more rapidly than in the field, with field SF levels at z>1.2 in the cluster cores (r0.5 Mpc). These general trends in the cluster cores and outskirts are driven by the lower mass galaxies in our sample. Blue cluster galaxies...

  10. On the evolution of the velocity-mass-size relations of disc-dominated galaxies over the past 10 billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Aaron A.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Faber, Sandra M.; Simard, Luc; Kassin, Susan A.; Koo, David C.; Bundy, Kevin; Huang, Jiasheng; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Cooper, Michael C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Mozena, Mark; Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of the scaling relations between the maximum circular velocity, stellar mass and optical half-light radius of star-forming disc-dominated galaxies in the context of ? cold dark matter-based galaxy formation models. Using data from the literature combined with new data from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) and All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) surveys, we show that there is a consistent picture for the evolution of these scaling relations from z˜ 2 to z= 0, both observationally and theoretically. The evolution of the observed stellar scaling relations is weaker than that of the virial scaling relations of dark matter haloes, which can be reproduced, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with a simple, cosmologically motivated model for disc evolution inside growing Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter haloes. In this model optical half-light radii are smaller, both at fixed stellar mass and at maximum circular velocity, at higher redshifts. This model also predicts that the scaling relations between baryonic quantities (baryonic mass, baryonic half-mass radii and maximum circular velocity) evolve even more weakly than the corresponding stellar relations. We emphasize, though, that this weak evolution does not imply that individual galaxies evolve weakly. On the contrary, individual galaxies grow strongly in mass, size and velocity but in such a way that they move largely along the scaling relations. Finally, recent observations have claimed surprisingly large sizes for a number of star-forming disc galaxies at z? 2, which has caused some authors to suggest that high-redshift disc galaxies have abnormally high spin parameters. However, we argue that the disc scalelengths in question have been systematically overestimated by a factor of ˜2 and that there is an offset of a factor of ˜1.4 between H? sizes and optical sizes. Taking these effects into account, there is no indication that star-forming galaxies at high redshifts (z? 2) have abnormally high spin parameters.

  11. With GI Bill's Billions at Stake, Colleges Compete to Lure Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    As the Post-9/11 GI Bill nears its fourth year, with more than 550,000 veterans enrolled in thousands of institutions, advocacy groups, lawmakers, and President Obama warn that veterans are vulnerable in a higher-education marketplace eager for their GI Bill dollars--with some purveyors, particularly for-profits, recruiting aggressively. The…

  12. Readability of the Web: A study on 1 billion web pages. Marije de Heus

    E-print Network

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    -old can easily understand 50% of the web and an 18-year old can easily understand 77% of the web process; H.1.2 [User/Machine Systems]: Human infor- mation processing General Terms Algorithms]. There are several measures to compute the readability of a text, such as Flesch-Kincaid readability[10], Gunning Fog

  13. Phase II trial of clofarabine and daunorubicin as induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia patients greater than or equal to 60 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Carlos E.; Tan, Wei; Deeb, George; Sait, Sheila; Block, Annemarie W.; Starostik, Petr; Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Thompson, James E.; Greene, Jessica D.; Ford, Laurie A.; Wang, Eunice S.; Wetzler, Meir

    2013-01-01

    We designed a phase II study evaluating the upfront combination of clofarabine and daunorubicin in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients ?60 years old. The median age of the 21 patients was 69 (range 60–85) years. Fourteen patients (67%) had unfavorable risk features. The principal toxicities were grade ?3 infections and prolonged myelosuppression. Three (14%) deaths occurred from infectious complications. Six (28.6%) patients achieved complete remission including three (21.4%) of 14 patients with unfavorable AML. The median disease-free survival was 6.8 months and the median overall survival was 11.2 months. PMID:24011826

  14. Phase II trial of clofarabine and daunorubicin as induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia patients greater than or equal to 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Carlos E; Tan, Wei; Deeb, George; Sait, Sheila N; Block, Annemarie W; Starostik, Petr; Griffiths, Elizabeth A; Thompson, James E; Greene, Jessica D; Ford, Laurie A; Wang, Eunice S; Wetzler, Meir

    2013-11-01

    We designed a phase II study evaluating the upfront combination of clofarabine and daunorubicin in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients?60 years old. The median age of the 21 patients was 69 (range 60-85) years. Fourteen patients (67%) had unfavorable risk features. The principal toxicities were grade ?3 infections and prolonged myelosuppression. Three (14%) deaths occurred from infectious complications. Six (28.6%) patients achieved complete remission including three (21.4%) of 14 patients with unfavorable AML. The median disease-free survival was 6.8 months and the median overall survival was 11.2 months. PMID:24011826

  15. Fiscal Year 2006 | 1 FISCAL YEAR

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    American Cancer Society American Institute of Architects Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals BantamFiscal Year 2006 | 1 SPONSORS 06 FISCAL YEAR $1 million+ Allstate Insurance Company American Honda's Association American Psychological Association American Public Transportation Association Archer Daniels

  16. Connectivity and control in the year 2000 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Nolan, R L; Brennan, J; Coyne, K P; Spong, S; Spar, J; Strauss, N; Milan, T; Speight, D; Tedlow, R S; Gillotti, D; Yardeni, E; Block, D J; Radin, S A; Sheinheit, S; Robbins, B

    1998-01-01

    By now, most executives are familiar with the famous Year 2000 problem--and many believe that their companies have the situation well in hand. After all, it seems to be such a trivial problem--computer software that interprets "oo" to be the year 1900 instead of the year 2000. And yet armies of computer professionals have been working on it--updating code in payroll systems, distribution systems, actuarial systems, sales-tracking systems, and the like. The problem is pervasive. Not only is it in your systems, it's in your suppliers' systems, your bankers' systems, and your customers' systems. It's embedded in chips that control elevators, automated teller machines, process-control equipment, and power grids. Already, a dried-food manufacturer destroyed millions of dollars of perfectly good product when a computer counted inventory marked with an expiration date of "oo" as nearly a hundred years old. And when managers of a sewage-control plant turned the clock to January I, 2000 on a computer system they thought had been fixed, raw sewage pumped directly into the harbor. It has become apparent that there will not be enough time to find and fix all of the problems by January I, 2000. And what good will it do if your computers work but they're connected with systems that don't? That is one of the questions Harvard Business School professor Richard Nolan asks in his introduction to HBR's Perspectives on the Year 2000 issue. How will you prepare your organization to respond when things start to go wrong? Fourteen commentators offer their ideas on how senior managers should think about connectivity and control in the year 2000 and beyond. PMID:10181588

  17. Einstein's Miraculous Year

    E-print Network

    Vasant Natarajan; V Balakrishnan; N Mukunda

    2013-07-12

    With each passing year, the young Albert Einstein's achievements in physics in the year 1905 seem to be ever more miraculous. We describe why the centenary of this remarkable year is worthy of celebration.

  18. Hot Jupiters courting baby stars? Although first detected 20 years ago, hot Jupiters are still enigmatic bodies. These

    E-print Network

    Dintrans, Boris

    Hot Jupiters courting baby stars? Although first detected 20 years ago, hot Jupiters are still enigmatic bodies. These celestial objects are giant Jupiter-like exoplanets that orbit 20 times closer if the 10-billion-year-lifetime of a planetary system were scaled down to a human life. This discovery

  19. White Light Demonstration of One Hundred Parts per Billion Irradiance Suppression in Air by New Starshade Occulters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinton, Douglas B.; Cash, Webster C.; Gleason, Brian; Kaiser, Michael J.; Levine, Sara A.; Lo, Amy S.; Schindhelm, Eric; Shipley, Ann F.

    2007-01-01

    A new mission concept for the direct imaging of exo-solar planets called the New Worlds Observer (NWO) has been proposed. The concept involves flying a meter-class space telescope in formation with a newly-conceived, specially-shaped, deployable star-occulting shade several meters across at a separation of some tens of thousands of kilometers. The telescope would make its observations from behind the starshade in a volume of high suppression of incident irradiance from the star around which planets orbit. The required level of irradiance suppression created by the starshade for an efficacious mission is of order 0.1 to 10 parts per billion in broadband light. This paper discusses the experimental setup developed to accurately measure the suppression ratio of irradiance produced at the null position behind candidate starshade forms to these levels. It also presents results of broadband measurements which demonstrated suppression levels of just under 100 parts per billion in air using the Sun as a light source. Analytical modeling of spatial irradiance distributions surrounding the null are presented and compared with photographs of irradiance captured in situ behind candidate starshades.

  20. Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSCIA and CSHIA) has been increasingly used to study the source, transport, and bioremediation of organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. In natural aquatic systems, dissolved contaminants represent the bioavailable fraction that generally is of the greatest toxicological significance. However, determining the isotopic ratios of waterborne hydrophobic contaminants in natural waters is very challenging because of their extremely low concentrations (often at sub-parts ber billion, or even lower). To acquire sufficient quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 10 ng/L concentration for CSHIA, more than 1000 L of water must be extracted. Conventional liquid/liquid or solid-phase extraction is not suitable for such large volume extractions. We have developed a new approach that is capable of efficiently sampling sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons for CSIA. We use semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants from polluted waters and then recover the compounds in the laboratory for CSIA. In this study, we demonstrate, under a variety of experimental conditions (different concentrations, temperatures, and turbulence levels), that SPMD-associated processes do not induce C and H isotopic fractionations. The applicability of SPMD-CSIA technology to natural systems is further demonstrated by determining the ??13C and ??D values of petroleum hydrocarbons present in the Pawtuxet River, RI. Our results show that the combined SPMD-CSIA is an effective tool to investigate the source and fate of hydrophobic contaminants in the aquatic environments.

  1. 100 patient-years of ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Dudrick, S J; O'Donnell, J J; Englert, D M; Matheny, R G; Blume, E R; Nutt, R E; Hickey, M S; Barroso, A O

    1984-01-01

    More than 100 patient-years' experience has been acquired in the treatment of 133 patients with ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition (TPN) between May 1974 and December 1983. Indications for chronic or permanent home TPN include short bowel syndrome, malabsorption, scleroderma, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide syndrome. Indications for acute or temporary home TPN include Crohn's disease, malignancies, gastrointestinal fistulas, ulcerative colitis, anorexia nervosa, and numerous other disorders. Eighty-two patients in the acute group were treated primarily with percutaneously placed standard subclavian catheters and 51 patients in the chronic group have been treated thus far with implanted silicone rubber, Dacron-cuffed catheters for a cumulative total of 38,939 patient days. Of the 125 implanted catheters, 115 were placed in the superior vena cava and ten in the inferior vena cava for an average duration of 250 catheter-days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for more than 8 1/2 years. Catheter-related sepsis occurred 33 times with the implanted catheters, or once every 2.6 catheter-years. One hundred and fourteen temporary catheters were placed percutaneously in the superior vena cava via a subclavian vein for an average duration of 68 days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for 213 days. Catheter-related sepsis occurred seven times, equivalent to one episode per 3 catheter-years. Total catheter-related complications were quite infrequent and were directly related to duration of catheterization. They included venous thrombosis (12), clotted catheter (11), catheter failure or rupture (8), catheter compression (5) and inadvertent catheter removal (4). Twenty-six catheters were repaired or spliced in situ when the external segment was accidentally damaged or deteriorated secondary to long-term material fatigue. One remarkable patient has been maintained exclusively by TPN originally as an inpatient and subsequently as an outpatient for the entire 13 years of his life. Images Fig. 1. Figs. 2A and B. Figs. 3A-C. PMID:6428331

  2. Year of the Tiger

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-02-03

    Broadcast Transcript: Xin nian kuai le! That's happy New Year in Chinese. It's a Tiger year. The Chinese zodiac runs on a 12 year cycle and each year is governed by an animal: rat, ox , tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, goat, monkey, rooster, dog...

  3. Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Children's Hospital of

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 July General Pediatric Children's Hospital of Michigan High Risk Obstetrics Hutzel Women's Hospital Biochemical Genetics Lab/Metabolic Clinic Harper Hospital/ Children's Hospital of Michigan Reproductive Genetics Hutzel Women's Hospital August General Pediatric Children

  4. Pediatric-Medical Genetics 4-Year Block Schedule Block Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Pediatric- Medical Genetics 4-Year Block Schedule Block Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four 1/10 PEM/AI-1 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Metabolic Genetics 10/90 8 General Pediatrics Ambulatory Clinic 0/100 AMBU-2 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric

  5. Bachelor of Civil Engineering/Bachelor of Arts 3703 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    Bachelor of Civil Engineering/Bachelor of Arts 3703 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Semester 1 Course 9 Professional Elective 2 Semester 2 Engineering Mechanics for Civil Engineers CVEN1300 Required elective CVEN2002 Engineering Computations for Civil Engineers CVEN2201 Soil Mechanics CVEN3031 Civil

  6. FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 CORE W Flowchart Catalog: 2008-2010 updated Mar. 2009 CHBE Lab 1 à CHBE 442 or CHBE 461 CHBE 226 3 cr Note: A dual

  7. A Year-by-Year Analysis of Transiting Exoplanet Detectability Using LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacklin, Savannah Renee; Lund, Michael B.; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan

    2015-12-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will generate light curves for approximately 1 billion stars over the course of its ten year initial mission. The majority of LSST light curves will contain about 1000 data points (so-called regular cadence) while select fields will have light curves with 10000 data points (deep-drilling cadence). Lund et al. (2015) demonstrated that several configurations of exoplanetary systems could be recovered using LSST in areas currently underrepresented in planet searches; i.e. the galactic bulge, the Magellanic clouds, and nearby red dwarfs. A fundamental question in working with LSST data is how time sensitive detection of transient phenomena will affect the rate and type of expected scientific discoveries. Specifically, we aim to examine how quickly significant science results be achievable over the course of LSST’s ten year mission. We apply a methodology established in Jacklin et al. (2015) designed to examine hot Jupiter detectability over a range of planetary periods and radii in LSST’s ten year light curves. Here, we conduct a similar analysis on a yearly basis in order to examine the change in detectability over the course of the LSST mission. We specifically report on how the LSST yield evolves on a year-by-year basis for the extreme systems, such as planets orbiting very low-mass M-dwarfs in the Milky Way, that we have considered in our previous analyses.

  8. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Fourteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the journal includes these papers on contrastive linguistics: "Violations of Frege's Principle and Their Significance for Contrastive Semantics" (Dafydd Gibbon); "Writing the Contrastive Grammar of English and Dutch. The Treatment of Modal Notions" (Flor Aarts and Herman Wekker); "The Theory and Methodology of Speech Science and…

  9. Fourteen Reasons Privacy Matters: A Multidisciplinary Review of Scholarly Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magi, Trina J.

    2011-01-01

    Librarians have long recognized the importance of privacy to intellectual freedom. As digital technology and its applications advance, however, efforts to protect privacy may become increasingly difficult. With some users behaving in ways that suggest they do not care about privacy and with powerful voices claiming that privacy is dead, librarians…

  10. Fourteen-month-old infants learn similar-sounding words.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Katherine A; Fennell, Christopher T; Swingley, Daniel; Werker, Janet F

    2009-04-01

    Can infants, in the very first stages of word learning, use their perceptual sensitivity to the phonetics of speech while learning words? Research to date suggests that infants of 14 months cannot learn two similar-sounding words unless there is substantial contextual support. The current experiment advances our understanding of this failure by testing whether the source of infants' difficulty lies in the learning or testing phase. Infants were taught to associate two similar-sounding words with two different objects, and tested using a visual choice method rather than the standard Switch task. The results reveal that 14-month-olds are capable of learning and mapping two similar-sounding labels; they can apply phonetic detail in new words. The findings are discussed in relation to infants' concurrent failure, and the developmental transition to success, in the Switch task. PMID:19371365

  11. Fourteen babies born after round spermatid injection into human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Nagayoshi, Motoi; Takemoto, Youichi; Tanaka, Izumi; Kusunoki, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Seiji; Kuroda, Keiji; Takeda, Satoru; Ito, Masahiko; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo

    2015-11-24

    During the human in vitro fertilization procedure in the assisted reproductive technology, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is routinely used to inject a spermatozoon or a less mature elongating spermatid into the oocyte. In some infertile men, round spermatids (haploid male germ cells that have completed meiosis) are the most mature cells visible during testicular biopsy. The microsurgical injection of a round spermatid into an oocyte as a substitute is commonly referred to as round spermatid injection (ROSI). Currently, human ROSI is considered a very inefficient procedure and of no clinical value. Herein, we report the birth and development of 14 children born to 12 women following ROSI of 734 oocytes previously activated by an electric current. The round spermatids came from men who had been diagnosed as not having spermatozoa or elongated spermatids by andrologists at other hospitals after a first Micro-TESE. A key to our success was our ability to identify round spermatids accurately before oocyte injection. As of today, all children born after ROSI in our clinic are without any unusual physical, mental, or epigenetic problems. Thus, for men whose germ cells are unable to develop beyond the round spermatid stage, ROSI can, as a last resort, enable them to have their own genetic offspring. PMID:26575628

  12. Fourteen babies born after round spermatid injection into human oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Nagayoshi, Motoi; Takemoto, Youichi; Tanaka, Izumi; Kusunoki, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Seiji; Kuroda, Keiji; Takeda, Satoru; Ito, Masahiko; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo

    2015-01-01

    During the human in vitro fertilization procedure in the assisted reproductive technology, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is routinely used to inject a spermatozoon or a less mature elongating spermatid into the oocyte. In some infertile men, round spermatids (haploid male germ cells that have completed meiosis) are the most mature cells visible during testicular biopsy. The microsurgical injection of a round spermatid into an oocyte as a substitute is commonly referred to as round spermatid injection (ROSI). Currently, human ROSI is considered a very inefficient procedure and of no clinical value. Herein, we report the birth and development of 14 children born to 12 women following ROSI of 734 oocytes previously activated by an electric current. The round spermatids came from men who had been diagnosed as not having spermatozoa or elongated spermatids by andrologists at other hospitals after a first Micro-TESE. A key to our success was our ability to identify round spermatids accurately before oocyte injection. As of today, all children born after ROSI in our clinic are without any unusual physical, mental, or epigenetic problems. Thus, for men whose germ cells are unable to develop beyond the round spermatid stage, ROSI can, as a last resort, enable them to have their own genetic offspring. PMID:26575628

  13. Annual cost of illness and quality-adjusted life year losses in the United States due to 14 foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Batz, Michael B; Morris, J Glenn

    2012-07-01

    In this article we estimate the annual cost of illness and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) loss in the United States caused by 14 of the 31 major foodborne pathogens reported on by Scallan et al. (Emerg. Infect. Dis. 17:7-15, 2011), based on their incidence estimates of foodborne illness in the United States. These 14 pathogens account for 95 % of illnesses and hospitalizations and 98 % of deaths due to identifiable pathogens estimated by Scallan et al. We estimate that these 14 pathogens cause $14.0 billion (ranging from $4.4 billion to $33.0 billion) in cost of illness and a loss of 61,000 QALYs (ranging from 19,000 to 145,000 QALYs) per year. Roughly 90 % of this loss is caused by five pathogens: nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica ($3.3 billion; 17,000 QALYs), Campylobacter spp. ($1.7 billion; 13,300 QALYs), Listeria monocytogenes ($2.6 billion; 9,400 QALYs), Toxoplasma gondii ($3 billion; 11,000 QALYs), and norovirus ($2 billion; 5,000 QALYs). A companion article attributes losses estimated in this study to the consumption of specific categories of foods. To arrive at these estimates, for each pathogen we create disease outcome trees that characterize the symptoms, severities, durations, outcomes, and likelihoods of health states associated with that pathogen. We then estimate the cost of illness (medical costs, productivity loss, and valuation of premature mortality) for each pathogen. We also estimate QALY loss for each health state associated with a given pathogen, using the EuroQol 5D scale. Construction of disease outcome trees, outcome-specific cost of illness, and EuroQol 5D scoring are described in greater detail in a second companion article. PMID:22980013

  14. Perceptual narrowing of linguistic sign occurs in the 1st year of life.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Stephanie Baker; Fais, Laurel; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Werker, Janet F

    2012-01-01

    Over their 1st year of life, infants'"universal" perception of the sounds of language narrows to encompass only those contrasts made in their native language (J. F. Werker & R. C. Tees, 1984). This research tested 40 infants in an eyetracking paradigm and showed that this pattern also holds for infants exposed to seen language-American Sign Language (ASL). Four-month-old, English-only, hearing infants discriminated an ASL handshape distinction, while 14-month-old hearing infants did not. Fourteen-month-old ASL-learning infants, however, did discriminate the handshape distinction, suggesting that, as in heard language, exposure to seen language is required for maintenance of visual language discrimination. Perceptual narrowing appears to be a ubiquitous learning mechanism that contributes to language acquisition. PMID:22277043

  15. The NEOUCOM Cooperative Cataloging Service: development and review of the first four years.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, D R

    1983-01-01

    The Basic Medical Sciences Library of the Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine (NEOUCOM) provided a Cooperative Cataloging Service to fourteen of its affiliated hospitals' libraries since March 1978, using the OCLC system. Analysis of the first four years of service showed that the hospital libraries spent almost $30,000 to catalog more than 18,000 titles. Personnel expenses and other costs eclipsed the savings from a 31.3% duplication rate. Centralized bibliographic control control and the principal by-product of the service, a uniform, machine-related data base, provided the foundation for an on-line integrated library system to serve the consortium. The hospital libraries contributed 44% of the unique titles in this data base, which emphasis the need to share resources and continue cooperation. PMID:6860826

  16. The NEOUCOM Cooperative Cataloging Service: development and review of the first four years.

    PubMed

    Miller, D R

    1983-04-01

    The Basic Medical Sciences Library of the Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine (NEOUCOM) provided a Cooperative Cataloging Service to fourteen of its affiliated hospitals' libraries since March 1978, using the OCLC system. Analysis of the first four years of service showed that the hospital libraries spent almost $30,000 to catalog more than 18,000 titles. Personnel expenses and other costs eclipsed the savings from a 31.3% duplication rate. Centralized bibliographic control control and the principal by-product of the service, a uniform, machine-related data base, provided the foundation for an on-line integrated library system to serve the consortium. The hospital libraries contributed 44% of the unique titles in this data base, which emphasis the need to share resources and continue cooperation. PMID:6860826

  17. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

    1999-05-26

    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. They also locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consists of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The operational rate for the first quarter of FY99 for stations in the HSN was 99.8%. There were 121 triggers during the first quarter of fiscal year 1999. Fourteen triggers were local earthquakes; seven (50%) were in the Columbia River Basalt Group, no earthquakes occurred in the pre-basalt sediments, and seven (50%) were in the crystalline basement. One earthquake (7%) occurred near or along the Horn Rapids anticline, seven earthquakes (50%) occurred in a known swarm area, and six earthquakes (43%) were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometer during the first quarter of FY99.

  18. NYU SQUEEZES BILLIONS FROM

    E-print Network

    Davis, Ernest

    and non-tenured faculty throughout the university (many of them choosing to remain anonymous, for fear that their approval of the project was illegal. (The case is now before the New York State Court of Appeals

  19. Developing a Billion Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gergen, Christopher; Rego, Lyndon; Wright, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Intentionally developing the leadership capacity of all students is a necessary requirement for schools around the world. The Center for Creative Leadership in Greensboro, N.C., has been at the center of this work and presents three schools as examples: Ravenscroft School in Raleigh, N.C., the African Leadership Academy in Johannesburg, South…

  20. Drug prohibition and public health: 25 years of evidence.

    PubMed

    Drucker, E

    1999-01-01

    FOR THE PAST 25 YEARS, the US has pursued a drug policy based on prohibition and the vigorous application of criminal sanctions for the use and sale of illicit drugs. The relationship of a prohibition-based drug policy to prevalence patterns and health consequences of drug use has never been fully evaluated. To explore that relationship, the author examines national data on the application of criminal penalties for illegal drugs and associated trends in their patterns of use and adverse health outcomes for 1972-1997.Over this 25-year period, the rate at which criminal penalties are imposed for drug offenses has climbed steadily, reaching 1.5 million arrests for drug offenses in 1996, with a tenfold increase in imprisonment for drug charges since 1979. Today, drug enforcement activities constitute 67% of the $16 billion Federal drug budget and more than $20 billion per year in state and local enforcement expenditures, compared with $7.6 billion for treatment, prevention, and research.Despite an overall decline in the prevalence of drug use since 1979, we have seen dramatic increases in drugrelated emergency department visits and drug-related deaths coinciding with this period of increased enforcement.Further, while black, Hispanic, and white Americans use illegal drugs at comparable rates, there are dramatic differences in the application of criminal penalties for drug offenses. African Americans are more than 20 times as likely as whites to be incarcerated for drug offenses, and drug-related emergency department visits, overdose deaths, and new HIV infections related to injecting drugs are many times higher for blacks than whites.These outcomes may be understood as public health consequences of policies that criminalize and marginalize drug users and increase drug-related risks to life and health. PMID:9925168

  1. Drug Prohibition and Public Health: 25 Years of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Drucker, Ernest

    1999-01-01

    FOR THE PAST 25 YEARS, the US has pursued a drug policy based on prohibition and the vigorous application of criminal sanctions for the use and sale of illicit drugs. The relationship of a prohibition-based drug policy to prevalence patterns and health consequences of drug use has never been fully evaluated. To explore that relationship, the author examines national data on the application of criminal penalties for illegal drugs and associated trends in their patterns of use and adverse health outcomes for 1972–1997. Over this 25-year period, the rate at which criminal penalties are imposed for drug offenses has climbed steadily, reaching 1.5 million arrests for drug offenses in 1996, with a tenfold increase in imprisonment for drug charges since 1979. Today, drug enforcement activities constitute 67% of the $16 billion Federal drug budget and more than $20 billion per year in state and local enforcement expenditures, compared with $7.6 billion for treatment, prevention, and research. Despite an overall decline in the prevalence of drug use since 1979, we have seen dramatic increases in drugrelated emergency department visits and drug-related deaths coinciding with this period of increased enforcement. Further, while black, Hispanic, and white Americans use illegal drugs at comparable rates, there are dramatic differences in the application of criminal penalties for drug offenses. African Americans are more than 20 times as likely as whites to be incarcerated for drug offenses, and drug-related emergency department visits, overdose deaths, and new HIV infections related to injecting drugs are many times higher for blacks than whites. These outcomes may be understood as public health consequences of policies that criminalize and marginalize drug users and increase drug-related risks to life and health. Imagesp14-ap15-ap16-ap21-ap24-a PMID:9925168

  2. River Protection Project FY 2000 Multi Year Work Plan Summary

    SciTech Connect

    LENSEIGNE, D.L.

    1999-08-27

    The River Protection Project (RPP), formerly the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), is a major part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP). The ORP was established as directed by Congress in Section 3139 of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The ORP was established to elevate the reporting and accountability for the RPP to the DOE-Headquarters level. This was done to gain Congressional visibility and obtain support for a major $10 billion high-level liquid waste vitrification effort.

  3. Small business report to Congress for fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report describes the various programs of the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization designed to ensure small businesses have an equitable opportunity to do business with the Department of Energy. In addition, this report covers 33 organizational components of the Department and details the extent to which small business firms are participating in the procurement process as well as efforts taken to ensure continued involvement. During fiscal year 1992, the Department met or exceeded its percentage and dollar goals for 8(a) concerns, labor surplus area set-asides, and for-subcontracting to small businesses. The Department`s contract awards to small businesses totaled $3.1 billion (17.3 percent of the 18.1 billion the Department spent on contracts), which consisted of Departmental prime contracts and management and operating contracts. During fiscal year 1992, the Department awarded contracts totaling $307 million to small disadvantaged businesses under Section 8(a) of the U.S. Small Business Act. This total represents 1.7 percent of all prime contracts over $25,000 awarded by the Department during that period. The Department and its management and operating contractors awards to women-owned businesses and labor surplus area set-asides totaled $327 million and $596 million, respectively. The achievements in small business subcontracting for fiscal year 1992 was $234 million, including $23 million to small disadvantaged firms.

  4. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

  5. Quantifying the heart of darkness with GHALO - a multi-billion particle simulation of our galactic halo

    E-print Network

    Joachim Stadel; Doug Potter; Ben Moore; Jürg Diemand; Piero Madau; Marcel Zemp; Michael Kuhlen; Vicent Quilis

    2008-08-22

    We perform a series of simulations of a Galactic mass dark matter halo at different resolutions, our largest uses over three billion particles and has a mass resolution of 1000 M_sun. We quantify the structural properties of the inner dark matter distribution and study how they depend on numerical resolution. We can measure the density profile to a distance of 120 pc (0.05% of R_vir) where the logarithmic slope is -0.8 and -1.4 at (0.5% of R_vir). We propose a new two parameter fitting function that has a linearly varying logarithmic density gradient which fits the GHALO and VL2 density profiles extremely well. Convergence in the density profile and the halo shape scales as N^(-1/3), but the shape converges at a radius three times larger at which point the halo becomes more spherical due to numerical resolution. The six dimensional phase-space profile is dominated by the presence of the substructures and does not follow a power law, except in the smooth under-resolved inner few kpc.

  6. Microfabricated gas chromatograph for the selective determination of trichloroethylene vapor at sub-parts-per-billion concentrations in complex mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Kyu; Chang, Hungwei; Zellers, Edward T

    2011-09-15

    A complete field-deployable microfabricated gas chromatograph (?GC) is described, and its adaptation to the analysis of low- and subparts-per-billion (ppb) concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE) vapors in complex mixtures is demonstrated through laboratory testing. The specific application being addressed concerns the problem of indoor air contamination by TCE vapor intrusion. The ?GC prototype employs a microfabricated focuser, dual microfabricated separation columns, and a microsensor array. These are interfaced to a nonmicrofabricated front-end pretrap and high-volume sampler module to reduce analysis time and limits of detection (LOD). Selective preconcentration and focusing are coupled with rapid chromatographic separation and multisensor detection for the determination of TCE in the presence of up to 45 interferences. Autonomous operation is possible via a laptop computer. Preconcentration factors as high as 500?000 are achieved. Sensitivities are constant over the range of captured TCE masses tested (i.e., 9-390 ng), and TCE is measured in a test atmosphere at 120 parts-per-trillion (ppt), with a projected LOD of 40 ppt (4.2 ng captured, 20 L sample) and a maximum sampling + analytical cycle time of 36 min. Short- and medium-term (1 month) variations in retention time, absolute responses, and response patterns are within acceptable limits. PMID:21859085

  7. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program`s oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994.

  8. Final Year Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hubsch, Tristan

    2013-06-20

    In the last years of this eighteen-year grant project, the research efforts have focused mostly on the study of off-shell representations of supersymmetry, both on the worldline and on the world- sheet, i.e., both in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and in supersymmetric field theory in 1+1-dimensional spacetime.

  9. Celebrating 50 Years!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansdottir, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The author congratulates members of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) on celebrating the 50th anniversary of their annual conference. These conferences have kept the spirit alive from the early years, especially the engagement in investigative, collaborative, and reasoning activities. In the 50th year as an association, the author…

  10. Double Spring Year

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William; von Holten, Leslie

    2006-12-13

    --and such an anomaly is practically an astrological guarantee of marital bliss. To fuel the frenzy even further, this double spring year will be followed by the ominous Year of the Widow which pretty much everyone would argue sounds like a bad time to get married...

  11. Probing the Preretirement Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Laura

    1975-01-01

    To find out what happens to a major segment of the working population over several years, the Manpower Administration is sponsoring a 10-year study on the work lives of middle-aged men. The article discusses data from a monograph reporting the completion of the first half of the study. (Author/AJ)

  12. Galaxy Evolution Explorer Celebrates Five Years in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    Since its launch five years ago, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has photographed hundreds of millions of galaxies in ultraviolet light. M106 is one of those galaxies, and from 22 light years away, it strikes a pose in blue and gold for this new commemorative portrait.

    The galaxy's extended arms are the blue filaments that curve around its edge, creating its outer disk. Tints of blue in M106's arms reveal hot, young massive stars. Traces of gold toward the center show an older stellar population and indicate the presence of obscuring dust.

    From 24 million light-years away, neighboring galaxy NGC 4248 also makes a memorable appearance, sitting just right of M106. The irregular galaxy looks like a yellow smudge, with a bluish-white bar in the center. The galaxy's outer golden glow indicates a population of older stars, while the blue central region shows a younger stellar demographic.

    Dwarf galaxy UGC 7365 emerges at the bottom center of this image, as a faint yellow smudge directly below M106. This galaxy is not forming any new stars, and looks much smaller than M106 despite being closer to Earth, at 14 million light-years away.

    Over the past five years, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has imaged half a billion objects over 27,000 square degrees of sky equivalent to an area that would be covered by 138,000 full moons. The telescope orbits Earth every 94 minutes and travels approximately 408,470 million miles per day. Its overarching question is: how do galaxies grow and change over 10 billion years of cosmic history?

    M106, also known as NGC 4258, is located in the constellation Canes Venatici. This image is a two-color composite, where far-ultraviolet light is blue, and near-ultraviolet light is red.

  13. 1 Year 2 Years 3 Years 4 Years 5 Years 6 Years 6 Years + 2005 118 10% 16% 25% 26% 27% 27% 29%

    E-print Network

    % As of 6/15/2014 Social and Behavioral Sciences Program Profile PhD Attrition Cohort Entry Year of Social and Behavioral Sciences and complete their PhD in a different broad field category are included and Behavioral Sciences Program Profile PhD Completion Cohort Entry Year # of entering PhD students* Cumulative

  14. Validation of an evacuated canister method for measuring part-per-billion levels of chemical warfare agent simulants.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Christopher C; LeBouf, Ryan F; Calvert, Catherine A; Slaven, James E

    2011-08-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) research on direct-reading instruments (DRIs) needed an instantaneous sampling method to provide independent confirmation of the concentrations of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. It was determined that evacuated canisters would be the method of choice. There is no method specifically validated for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. The purpose of this study was to validate an evacuated canister method for sampling seven specific VOCs that can be used as a simulant for CWA agents (cyclohexane) or influence the DRI measurement of CWA agents (acetone, chloroform, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, hexane, and carbon tetrachloride [CCl4]). The method used 6-L evacuated stainless-steel fused silica-lined canisters to sample the atmosphere containing VOCs. The contents of the canisters were then introduced into an autosampler/preconcentrator using a microscale purge and trap (MPT) method. The MPT method trapped and concentrated the VOCs in the air sample and removed most of the carbon dioxide and water vapor. After preconcentration, the samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph with a mass selective detector. The method was tested, evaluated, and validated using the NIOSH recommended guidelines. The evaluation consisted of determining the optimum concentration range for the method; the sample stability over 30 days; and the accuracy, precision, and bias of the method. This method meets the NIOSH guidelines for six of the seven compounds (excluding acetone) tested in the range of 2.3-50 parts per billion (ppb), making it suitable for sampling of these VOCs at the ppb level. PMID:21874953

  15. ``GiGa'': the Billion Galaxy HI Survey-Tracing Galaxy Assembly from Reionization to the Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhorst, R. A.; Cohen, S. H.; Hathi, N. P.; Jansen, R. A.; Ryan, R. E.

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we review the Billion Galaxy Survey that will be carried out at radio-optical wavelengths to micro-nanoJansky levels with the telescopes of the next decades. These are the Low-Frequency Array, the Square Kilometer Array and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope as survey telescopes, and the Thirty Meter class Telescopes for high spectral resolution plus AO, and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for high spatial resolution near-mid-IR follow-up. With these facilities, we will be addressing fundamental questions like how galaxies assemble with super-massive black-holes inside from the epoch of First Light until the present, how these objects started and finished the reionization of the universe, and how the processes of star-formation, stellar evolution, and metal enrichment of the IGM proceeded over cosmic time. We also summarize the high-resolution science that has been done thus far on high redshift galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Faint galaxies have steadily decreasing sizes at fainter fluxes and higher redshifts, reflecting the hierarchical formation of galaxies over cosmic time. HST has imaged this process in great structural detail to z<~6. We show that ultradeep radio-optical surveys may slowly approach the natural confusion limit, where objects start to unavoidably overlap because of their own sizes, which only SKA can remedy with HI redshifts for individual sub-clumps. Finally, we summarize how the 6.5 meter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will measure first light, reionization, and galaxy assembly in the near-mid-IR.

  16. STABILITY OF PARTS-PER-BILLION HAZARDOUS ORGANIC CYLINDER GASES AND PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS OF SOURCE TEST AND AMBIENT AIR MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS. STATUS REPORT 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    A repository of 14 gaseous organic compounds at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels in compressed gas cylinders has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objectives of this on-going project are: (1) to provide accurate gas mixtures to EPA, sta...

  17. STABILITY OF PARTS-PER-BILLION HAZARDOUS ORGANIC CYLINDER GASES AND PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS OF SOURCE TEST AND AMBIENT AIR MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS. STATUS REPORT 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    A repository of 22 gaseous organic compounds at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels in compressed gas cylinders has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objectives of this ongoing project are: (1) to provide accurate gas mixtures to EPA, stat...

  18. New Schools, Overcrowding Relief, and Achievement Gains in Los Angeles--Strong Returns from a $19.5 Billion Investment. Policy Brief 12-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, William; Coghlan, Erin; Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to relieve overcrowded schools operating on multiple tracks, the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) has invested more than $19 billion to build 130 new facilities over the past decade. District leaders asked researchers at Berkeley to estimate the achievement effects of this massive initiative--benefits that may stem from entering…

  19. The litany of alarming observations about water use and misuse is now familiar--over a billion people without access to safe drinking water;

    E-print Network

    people without access to safe drinking water; almost every major river dammed and diverted; increasingThe litany of alarming observations about water use and misuse is now familiar--over a billion conflicts over the delivery of water in urban areas; continuing threats to water quality from agricultural

  20. Physical activity and sedentary behavior during the early years in Canada: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity and sedentary behavior habits are established during early childhood, yet only recently has objectively measured data been available on children aged 5 years and younger. This study presents data on the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of Canadian children aged 3–5 years. Methods Data were collected as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey between 2009 and 2011. A nationally-representative sample (n?=?459) of children aged 3–5 years wore Actical accelerometers during their waking hours for 7 consecutive days. Data were collected in 60-sec epochs and respondents with ?4 valid days were retained for analysis. Parents reported their child’s physical activity and screen time habits in a questionnaire. Results Eighty-four percent of 3–4 year old children met the physical activity guideline of 180 minutes of total physical activity every day while 18% met the screen time target of <1 hour per day. Fourteen percent of 5 year old children met the physical activity guideline of 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) while 81% met the screen time target of <2 hours per day. Children aged 3–4 years accumulated an average of 352 min/d of total physical activity and 66 minutes of MVPA while 5 year old children accumulated an average of 342 min/d of total physical activity and 68 minutes of MVPA. Children were sedentary for approximately half of their waking hours and spent an average of 2 hours per day in front of screens. Only 15% of 3–4 year olds and 5% of 5 year olds are meeting both the physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines. Conclusions Promoting physical activity while reducing sedentary behavior is important at all stages of life. The findings of the present study indicate that there remains significant room for improvement in these behaviors among young Canadian children. PMID:23642258

  1. [Pacemakers 16 years later].

    PubMed

    Dodinot, B

    1976-01-01

    In 1976, 10 years after the first successful implantations, the pacemaker technique is perfectly well accepted. Transvenous placement of the electrode is preferred in 95 % of the cases. Besides the 15 years nuclear power pacers (1970), conventional mercury pacemakers may reach a longevity of 4 to 5 years because of the reduction of the current drain. Lithium iodine seems a very promising source of energy. The mini-pacemakers with various iodine anodes are particularly attractive. The future is probably a well designed medium sized lithium pacemaker lasting more than 7 years. Patient follow-up is very much improved. All pacemakers exhibit an obvious rate reduction when their source of energy runs down. Therefore general practitioner and even the patients may detect this symptom. The main problem remains the lead resistance. The reduction of the frequency of pacemaker replacements and of the medical check-up makes life more simple for the pacemaker patient. PMID:1087802

  2. FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL SPRINGFALL SPRING YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    -273Q (MATH 224). CHMY-373 (CHEM 324) could be taken Spring of year 3. Take the FE Exam your last semester before graduation E Math Placement ExamB M-172-Q (MATH 182) 4 cr Chemical Engineering Prerequisite

  3. 5 Year Rate Changes

    Cancer.gov

    Close Window State Cancer Profiles Quick Reference Guides ? Quick Reference Guides Index 5 Year Rate Changes Send to Printer Text description of this image. Site Home Policies Accessibility Viewing Files FOIA Contact Us U.S. Department of Health and

  4. Fiscal Year 2003

    Cancer.gov

    The Nation’s Investment in Cancer Research A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 P re p a r ed by the Dir e c t o r National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 . . . bringing together the resources to stimulate and support scientific discovery and its application to achieve a future when all cancers are uncommon and easily treated.

  5. The federal medical loss ratio rule: implications for consumers in year 2.

    PubMed

    McCue, Michael J; Hall, Mark A

    2014-05-01

    For the past two years, the Affordable Care Act has required health insurers to pay out a minimum percentage of premiums in the form of medical claims or quality improvement expenses--known as a medical loss ratio (MLR). Insurers with MLRs below the minimum must rebate the difference to consumers. This issue brief finds that total rebates for 2012 were $513 million, half the amount paid out in 2011, indicating greater compliance with the MLR rule. Spending on quality improvement remained low, at less than 1 percent of premiums. Insurers continued to reduce their administrative and sales costs, such as brokers' fees, without increasing profit margins, for a total reduction in overhead of $1.4 billion. In the first two years under this regulation, total consumer benefits related to the medical loss ratio--both rebates and reduced overhead--amounted to more than $3 billion. PMID:24881098

  6. Congress passes space year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The year 1992 will mark the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' arrival in America and the 35th anniversary of both the International Geophysical Year and the launch of Sputnik. The U.S. Senate passed a joint resolution (S.J.Res. 177) on November 21 recommending that the President endorse an International Space Year (ISY) in 1992. A similar resolution introduced in the House of Representatives was incorporated into the conference report (House Report 99-379) accompanying the authorization bill for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and approved by both houses, also on November 21. As Eos went to press, the NASA authorization bill (H.R. 1714) awaited President Ronald Reagan's signature.

  7. Emergent technologies: 25 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rising, Hawley K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

  8. Developmental milestones record - 2 years

    MedlinePLUS

    Growth milestones for children - 2 years; Normal childhood growth milestones - 2 years; Childhood growth milestones - 2 years ... a cause for concern if not seen by 2 years.) Can run with better coordination. (May still ...

  9. An Extraordinary Year for Managing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    It's wonderful to be back home again in Indiana. I am honored to be here with you today to share two important results of effective technology management. The first is the indirect return on investment that Americans get from NASA's relatively lean annual budget, and the second is the direct economic benefits that the great state of Indiana and businesses nationwide realize through multiple contracts with NASA. As a proud Purdue graduate and deputy director of one of NASA's highest-priority, multi-billion dollar projects, I have a vested interest in this conference and in the outcome of this work. My goal today is to help you better understand the types of work in which NASA engages and to provide avenues for you to pursue opportunities with America's space Agency, if that is a good fit for your company. You may already know that NASA and various Indiana businesses and universities are partners in the pursuit of improving life on Earth through scientific discoveries that pay dividends in terms of expanded knowledge, as well as big-picture conveniences and a multitude of spin-offs. Whether your organization is large or small, NASA offers numerous opportunities to participate. Before I provide some motivating facts and figures about the aerospace industry and its economic impact, I want to set the stage by sharing several notable examples of how 2005 was an extraordinary year for technology management at NASA, a subject that I can speak about firsthand.

  10. Project Year Project Team

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    be impossible to access in their original forms. Technologies Used Courseware (WebCT), Graphic Design, PhotoshopProject Year 2003 Project Team Faculty: Mary Ryan, History Department, Krieger School of Arts & Sciences Fellows: Andre Young, History Department, Krieger School of Arts & Sciences; Zhao Ma, History

  11. ISME Celebrates 50 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Music, 2004

    2004-01-01

    When members of the International Society for Music Education (ISME) met in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain in July for the 26th ISME World Conference, the gathering was an opportunity to share music from around the world, and to attend music education workshops. It was also an opportunity for its members to look back on the rich 50-year history…

  12. The Lost Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann; Mousa, Yasmine

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of children were deprived of schooling in the difficult aftermath of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq five years ago. During those times, more than 2 million Iraqis have fled their homeland, mainly to Jordan and Syria. Even though the schoolchildren who came to these neighboring Arab lands with their families are now given seats in…

  13. Understanding Early Years Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldock, Peter; Fitzgerald, Damien; Kay, Janet

    2005-01-01

    The book is about policy in the area of early years services and that phrase may need some clarification. For the most part, therefore, this book deals with nursery schools and classes and with services provided by full day care nurseries, pre-schools, creches, childminders, after-school clubs and holiday play schemes. This book begins with…

  14. Year In Review Information

    E-print Network

    Gopalakrishnan, K.

    of a campus-wide IT management plan. a. We are now developing the budgeting metrics. b. A next step and Enterprise Project Management we will better approximate at a true cost of IT at ECU. c. The new Systems The management team at ITCS is pleased to offer the 2007-08 Year In Review. One theme that is evident throughout

  15. Year of the Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

    1980-01-01

    President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

  16. Books of the Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2004

    2004-01-01

    It's that time of year again and "Adults Learning" has once more asked some of the outstanding authors who have contributed to the journal over the past 12 months to nominate their best and most valuable reads of 2004. The authors are: (1) Judith Summers; (2) Thomas Sticht; (3) Alison Wolf; (4) Tom Schuller; (5) Linden West; (6) Brian Groombridge;…

  17. Graduate Fellowship Academic Year

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    Graduate Fellowship Appointees Handbook Academic Year 2014-2015 Graduate Awards Office Suite 212 York 13244-1200 January 2014 #12;Table of Contents Page Acceptance of a Graduate Fellowship Appointment 2 Information About Your Fellowship Award Fellowships Funded by Externally Sponsored Grants

  18. Project Year Summer 2010

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    .306.01), and Separation (540.304.01), with an additional venue for the demonstration at the USA Science Fair in WashingtonProject Year Summer 2010 Project Title Lab-on-a-Chip Simulation Project Team German Drazer, Whiting and popular science websites. Our model will mimic the fluid behavior inside a "Lab-on-a-Chip," a relatively

  19. Project Year Project Team

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    : Stephen Stone, Music Theory, Peabody Institute Project Title Testing the Ability to Read Music: UsingProject Year 2001 Project Team Faculty: Paul Mathews, Music Theory, Peabody Institute Fellow Javascript Objects to Enter Musical Notes Audience This tool will be used by over 600 students applying

  20. Smog - the learning years

    SciTech Connect

    Heinen, C.M.; Fagley, W.S. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    35 years of continuous work by government and industry and the public have led to a very sophisticated system of emission controls. This paper is intended to recall and perhaps to honor those who participated in the hectic early period, when instrumentation, basic knowledge, and primitive devices competed for the attention of these pioneers with strident demands from policitians.

  1. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  2. Year-Round Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChesney, Jim

    1996-01-01

    One avenue being explored as a way to cut costs while maintaining the quality of programs and services is year-round education (YRE). In most cases, the known benefits and drawbacks of an existing component of traditional scheduling must be weighed against the theoretical advantages and disadvantages of YRE. The five articles reviewed in this…

  3. 1 Year 2 Years 3 Years 4 Years 5 Years 6 Years 6 Years + 2005 5 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 -

    E-print Network

    /26/2015 Clinical Psychology Program Profile PhD Attrition Cohort Entry Year # of entering PhD students* Cummulative - 2009 4 0% 0% 0 - 2010 8 0% 0 - As of 3/26/2015 Clinical Psychology Program Profile PhD Completion

  4. 1 Year 2 Years 3 Years 4 Years 5 Years 6 Years 6 Years + 2005 12 8% 8% 25% 25% 25% 25% 25% 0 -

    E-print Network

    - 2013 9 22% 0 - As of 3/26/2015 Psychology Program Profile PhD Attrition Cohort Entry Year # of entering 10 0% 40% 60% 0 - 2009 15 0% 40% 0 - 2010 16 6% 0 - As of 3/26/2015 Psychology Program Profile Ph

  5. Eight Years of SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, Bernhard

    Since its launch on 2 December 1995, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO mission has provided a wealth of information about the Sun, from its interior, through the hot and dynamic atmosphere, to the solar wind and its interaction with the interstellar medium. At the same time, SOHO's easily accessible images and movies have captured the imagination of the science community and the general public alike. This article summarizes some of the key findings from 8 years of SOHO.

  6. 75 Years of the Junior Year in Munich

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Not only has the US Senate designated 2006 the Year of Study Abroad; the year also marks the anniversary of a distinguished tradition of study abroad in Germany that reaches back 75 years. Founded in 1931, suspended during the war years, and re-opened in 1953 by Wayne State University, the Junior Year in Munich is America's oldest study abroad…

  7. Twenty years of marriages.

    PubMed

    Nault, F

    1996-01-01

    In 1994, a total of 159,959 marriages were performed in Canada, up only slightly from 159,316 the year before. This small increase had no effect on the crude marriage rate, which remained at 5.5 marriages per 1,000 population. Aside from a brief uptum in the late 1980s, Canada's marriage rate has fallen quite steadily since the early 1970s. The overall decline is also evident when rates are disaggregated by the prior marital status of the bride and groom (single, divorced or widowed). Since 1974, the average ages of brides and grooms have risen about five years to 30.1 and 32.6, respectively. Nonetheless, the peak ages for marriage are the twenties. In this age range, women's marriage rates exceed those of men, but at older ages, men's rates are higher. And at progressively older ages, a growing proportion of grooms have brides at least 10 years their junior. The marriage patterns of Quebec residents differ from those of other Canadians. Quebec residents are much more likely to remain single or live common-law, and if they do marry, they are slightly more likely to divorce. Once divorced or widowed, people in Quebec are less likely than those in the rest of Canada to remarry. This article is based on data compiled by Statistics Canada from marriage registration forms provided by the central Vital Statistics Registry in each province and territory. PMID:9110964

  8. Five Year Flashlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An ultra-reliable flashlight, initially developed for rescue signaling and utility use by NASA astronauts and military aircrews, has attracted a broad commercial market. Called the Five Year Light, it has a shelf life at least that long because there is no power drain on the batteries when the flashlight is not in use. The NASA version of the light was developed under contract with Langley Research Center by ACR Electronics, Inc., now known as the Chromalloy Electronics Division of Chromalloy American Corporation, Hollywood, Florida. NASA wanted a light that had long shelf life and assured reliability in case it was needed in an emergency. Reliability was designed into the flashlight by means of a unique switch. Instead of the customary thumb-button, the Five Year Light is turned on by rotating its collar to make contact with the battery terminal; the turning motion wipes away any corrosion that might be present and makes contact virtually certain. The Five Year Light available commercially is a repackaged version of the NASA light. It is sold for car, home, industrial, police, firefighting, recreational and a variety of other uses, and sales have topped two million units.

  9. 40 Years of Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, B; Heller, A

    2003-07-08

    History is most interesting when seen through the eyes of those who lived it. In this 40th anniversary retrospective of bioscience research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we've asked 19 scientists to share their personal recollections about a major accomplishment in the program's history. We have not tried to create a comprehensive or seamless story. Rather, we've attempted to capture the perspectives of key individuals, each of whom worked on a research program that met significant milestones. We have focused particularly on programs and accomplishments that have shaped the current Biology and Biotechnology Research Program (BBRP). In addition, we have included a timeline of biosciences at LLNL, a history of the directorate that appeared in the Laboratory's magazine, ''Science & Technology Review'', in 2002, and a list of bioscience-related articles that have appeared over the years in ''Science & Technology Review and its predecessor, Energy & Technology Review''. The landscape of biological science today is stunningly different from 40 years ago. When LLNL bioscience began in 1963, we knew about the structure of DNA and that it was the carrier of genetic information. However, it would be another year before scientists would understand how DNA codes for the production of proteins and more than a decade before the earliest DNA sequence would be known. It is sometimes difficult to remember that it was only 15 years ago that the polymerase chain reaction, a synthetic method to amplify pieces of DNA was developed, and that only within the last half-dozen years has sequence data for entire organisms begun to be available. In this publication, we have tried to capture some of the landmark and seminal research history: radiation effects studies, which were a major reason for founding the biological research program, and flow sorting and chromosome painting, which dramatically changed our ability to study DNA damage and enabled the creation of chromosome-specific clone libraries, a key step toward sequencing the human genome. Several histories relate to the Human Genome Project itself and surrounding technologies, and several to long-standing research themes such as DNA repair, food mutagens, and reproductive biology. Others describe more recent developments such as computational biology, health-care technologies, and biodefense research.

  10. FOREIGN TRADE IN FISHERY PRODUCTS IMPORTSIMPORTS. U.S. imports of edible fishery products in 1995 were valued at $6.8 billion, $146.6 million more than in

    E-print Network

    REVIEW FOREIGN TRADE IN FISHERY PRODUCTS IMPORTSIMPORTS. U.S. imports of edible fishery products consisted of 2.6 billion pounds of fresh and frozen products valued at $6.1 billion, 378.4 million pounds of canned products valued at $503.4 million, 70.9 million pounds of cured products valued at $135.8 million

  11. The Year In Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskill, Jack D.

    1986-12-01

    This past year brought a number of changes to Optical Engineering, the most significant of which was the increase in publication frequency from bimonthly to monthly. A few changes were merely cosmetic in nature (e.g., an increase in type size), where-as others were adopted to make the journal more informative' and interesting to the reader (inclusion of reference titles, biographical sketches and photos of authors, etc.). Based on the many positive comments I have received, I am convinced that the majority of readers appreciate these changes and regard them as improvements to the journal.

  12. Dean's End of Year Bulletin Volume 3, Issue 2

    E-print Network

    Salvaggio, Carl

    in Computational Finance. Fourteen high school juniors in the Rochester area will work as science researchers through the Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science internship program this summer. For seven weeks; one in the Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science and the other in the School of Mathematical

  13. [Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: a 15-year retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Moniz, Paula; Casal, Diogo; Mavioso, Carlos; Castro, José Videira e; Almeida, Maria Angélica

    2011-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), Overlap Syndrome (OS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrosis (TEN) are rare medical emergencies associated with a high morbidity and mortality. The literature on the characteristics of these diseases in Portugal is scarce. A retrospective study was conducted based on the clinical notes of the 20 patients admitted to São José Burn Unit in the previous 15 years with the diagnosis of SJS, OS or TEN. Most patients had TEN (65%), followed by OS (25%) and SJS (10%). Average age was 57,1 ± 19,0 years. The mean duration of stay in the Burn Unit was 12,6 ± 7,8 days. Mortality was 50%, being significantly higher than the 16,4% overall mortality in the general Burn Unit population in the same period (p < 0,01). The mean surface area involved was 43,9 ± 28,6 %. Allopurinol was the causal agent most frequently implicated (35%) followed by UV light exposure (15%). Fourteen patients (70%) were treated with steroids in the first days, whereas six patients were treated conservatively (30%). Mortality was inferior in the patients treated with steroids (42,8 vs. 66,7%), even though this difference did not reach statistical significance. Infection rates were not significantly different between the two groups. SCORTEN score proved to be a good predictor of mortality. Further studies are needed to reduce mortality in these diseases. PMID:21672443

  14. Effects of Growth Hormone Administration on Muscle Strength in Men over 50 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, A. B. W.; Micmacher, E.; Biesek, S.; Assumpção, R.; Redorat, R.; Veloso, U.; Vaisman, M.; Farinatti, P. T. V.; Conceição, F.

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) use has been speculated to improve physical capacity in subjects without GH deficiency (GHD) through stimulation of collagen synthesis in the tendon and skeletal muscle, which leads to better exercise training and increased muscle strength. In this context, the use of GH in healthy elderly should be an option for increasing muscle strength. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of GH therapy on muscle strength in healthy men over 50 years old. Fourteen healthy men aged 50–70 years were evaluated at baseline for body composition and muscle strength (evaluated by leg press and bench press exercises, which focus primarily on quadriceps—lower body part and pectoralis major—upper body part—muscles, resp.). Subjects were randomised into 2 groups: GH therapy (7 subjects) and placebo (7 subjects) and reevaluated after 6 months of therapy. Thirteen subjects completed the study (6 subjects in the placebo group and 7 subjects in the GH group). Subjects of both groups were not different at baseline. After 6 months of therapy, muscle strength in the bench press responsive muscles did not increase in both groups and showed a statistically significant increase in the leg press responsive muscles in the GH group. Our study demonstrated an increase in muscle strength in the lower body part after GH therapy in healthy men. This finding must be considered and tested in frail older populations, whose physical incapacity is primarily caused by proximal muscle weakness. The trial was registered with NCT01853566. PMID:24382963

  15. The 34 Year Starship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosanov, J.; Shapiro, A.; Garrett, H.

    2012-09-01

    In 1974, the designers and leadership of a mission then known as ``Mariner Jupiter Saturn 1977'' decided that the name was a mouthful. They briefly deliberated and decided to rename it ``Voyager'' [1]. Similarly, we believe that ``DARPA 100 Year Starship'' is unnecessarily verbose. We propose to call it ``Enterprise.'' Among the many challenges facing such a mission is that of earning public support - we should let half a century of Hollywood storytelling do that for us. This paper is composed of four parts. Part 1 will discuss the parallels between the Voyager program and a future Enterprise program. Part 2 will go into greater detail regarding the Voyager program and the challenges and opportunities that defined it. Part 3 will discuss some of the major technical challenges for Voyager and Enterprise in greater detail. Part 4 will discuss next steps and various strategies to meet DARPA's challenge of sustainable industry-funded research into interstellar flight.

  16. Electroencephalography 60 years later.

    PubMed

    Kugler, J

    1991-03-01

    The birthday of Electroencephalography (EEG) is dated back to the 22nd of April 1929. On this date Hans Berger submitted the first of his 14 contributions "Uber das Elektrenkephalogramm des Menschen" to the "Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten" for publication. Therefore in 1989 Electroencephalography was 60 years of age. In spite of controversy over its usefulness during this period, Electroencephalography substantially contributed to progress in medicine. Today is the beginning of its Renaissance due to a dramatic diversification of Clinical Electroencephalography into applied neurophysiological specialties. Progress became possible by the introduction of new techniques. However it will become obvious that new instrumentations cannot replace intelligence and human understanding. The dispute of importance and nonsense, use and misuse of Electroencephalography is without doubt useful and stimulates new orientations. PMID:2047558

  17. Twenty Years of KSHV

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill’s Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men—in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) since its initial description in 1994. PMID:25386844

  18. Atmospheric methane evolution the last 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalsøren, S. B.; Myhre, C. L.; Myhre, G.; Gomez-Pelaez, A. J.; Søvde, O. A.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Weiss, R. F.; Harth, C. M.

    2015-11-01

    Observations at surface sites show an increase in global mean surface methane (CH4) of about 180 parts per billion (ppb) (above 10 %) over the period 1984-2012. Over this period there are large fluctuations in the annual growth rate. In this work, we investigate the atmospheric CH4 evolution over the period 1970-2012 with the Oslo CTM3 global Chemical Transport Model (CTM) in a bottom-up approach. We thoroughly assess data from surface measurement sites in international networks and select a subset suited for comparisons with the output from the CTM. We compare model results and observations to understand causes both for long-term trends and short-term variations. Employing the Oslo CTM3 model we are able to reproduce the seasonal and year to year variations and shifts between years with consecutive growth and stagnation, both at global and regional scales. The overall CH4 trend over the period is reproduced, but for some periods the model fails to reproduce the strength of the growth. The observed growth after 2006 is overestimated by the model in all regions. This seems to be explained by a too strong increase in anthropogenic emissions in Asia, having global impact. Our findings confirm other studies questioning the timing or strength of the emission changes in Asia in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory over the last decades. The evolution of CH4 is not only controlled by changes in sources, but also by changes in the chemical loss in the atmosphere and soil uptake. We model a large growth in atmospheric oxidation capacity over the period 1970-2012. In our simulations, the CH4 lifetime decreases by more than 8 % from 1970 to 2012, a significant shortening of the residence time of this important greenhouse gas. This results in substantial growth in the chemical CH4 loss (relative to its burden) and dampens the CH4 growth. The change in atmospheric oxidation capacity is driven by complex interactions between a number of chemical components and meteorological factors. In our analysis, we are able to detach the key factors and provide simple prognostic equations for the relations between these and the atmospheric CH4 lifetime.

  19. Budget Issues: Effects of the Fiscal Year 1990 Sequester on the Department of Education. Fact Sheet for the Chairman, Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, as amended, establishes deficit targets to lead to a balanced unified budget by fiscal year 1993. If the Office of Management and Budget projects a deficit in excess of the target amount plus $10 billion, the President must issue a sequester order to reduce budget resources…

  20. EDITORIAL: Happy New Year!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue-ming

    2006-02-01

    As many of you are aware that Chinese science is at the crucial stage of development. We are now seeing more and more high quality works being produced by Chinese scientists working in China. However, high quality scientific works are rarely published in Chinese scientific journals so far. Therefore, the development of scientific journals publishing in China now becomes a more and more important indication of the science development in China. In the development of the chemical physics research field in China, the Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics (CJCP) has made significant contributions in the past 18 years. Since CJCP is primarily a Journal published in Chinese previously, its impact in the international scientific community has been quite limited. At this moment, we believe CJCP should increase its impact in the international community. We believe that making CJCP an English journal is a crucial step to increase its influence internationally. Therefore, upon the recommendation of senior editorial members, we now change CJCP into an full English journal from this issue on. We have also formed a high quality editorial board to help the editorial matters in CJCP, and a prestigious advisory board to advise us of the future development. I am very honored to be selected as the new Editor-in-Chief for the next four years. I hope by the end of my term, the impact of this journal is significantly improved through the efforts of our editorial team. Building a high quality scientific journal is not an easy task. I hope that every member of our chemical physics community can provide strong support to this journal by sending your high quality research papers in the future. We are also thinking about adding new sections of this journal to attract more readers. With the support of our community, I am confident that we can make this journal a more successful one. Here, I want to take this opportunity to thank the great leadership provided by the Editor-in-Chief since the foundation of this journal, Professor Nan-quan Lou, who has just become a senior advisory board member of this journal. I also want to thank the senior associate editor, Prof. Shu-qin Yu, who has made great contributions to the development of CJCP. Many thanks also go to the other senior associate editors, Profs. Die-yan Chen, Hai-lung Dai, Xing-xiao Ma, Han-qing Wang, Hou-wen Xin, Cun-hao Zhang and Qi-he Zhu, who have made important contributions to CJCP in the past 18 years. We plan that CJCP will soon become available online so that members of our community can access this journal easily through internet. This will also help us to provide greater visibility of this journal in the international research community.

  1. Projects of the year

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    2007-01-15

    The Peabody Hotel, Orlando, Florida was the site of Power Engineering magazine's 2006 Projects of the Year Awards Banquet, which kicked-off the Power-Gen International conference and exhibition. The Best Coal-fired Project was awarded to Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association Inc., owner of Springenville Unit 3. This is a 400 MW pulverized coal plant in Springeville, AZ, sited with two existing coal-fired units. Designed to fire Powder River Basin coal, it has low NOx burners and selective catalytic reduction for NOx control, dry flue gas desulfurization for SO{sub 2} control and a pulse jet baghouse for particulate control. It has a seven-stage feedwater heater and condensers to ensure maximum performance. Progress Energy-Carolinas' Asheville Power Station FGD and SCR Project was awarded the 2006 coal-fired Project Honorable Mention. This plant in Skyland, NC was required to significantly reduce NOx emissions. When completed, the improvements will reduce NOx by 93% compared to 1996 levels and SO{sub 2} by 93% compared to 2001 levels. Awards for best gas-fired, nuclear, and renewable/sustainable energy projects are recorded. The Sasyadko Coal-Mine Methane Cogeneration Plant near Donezk, Ukraine, was given the 2006 Honorable Mention for Best Renewable/Sustainable Energy Project. In November 2004, Ukraine was among 14 nations to launch the Methane to Markets partnership. The award-winning plant is fuelled by methane released during coal extraction. It generates 42 MW of power. 4 photos.

  2. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

  3. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

  4. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

  5. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

  6. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

  7. An efficient and comprehensive method for drainage network extraction from DEM with billions of pixels using a size-balanced binary search tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Rui; Li, Tiejian; Huang, Yuefei; Li, Jiaye; Wang, Guangqian

    2015-06-01

    With the increasing resolution of digital elevation models (DEMs), computational efficiency problems have been encountered when extracting the drainage network of a large river basin at billion-pixel scales. The efficiency of the most time-consuming depression-filling pretreatment has been improved by using the O(NlogN) complexity least-cost path search method, but the complete extraction steps following this method have not been proposed and tested. In this paper, an improved O(NlogN) algorithm was proposed by introducing a size-balanced binary search tree (BST) to improve the efficiency of the depression-filling pretreatment further. The following extraction steps, including the flow direction determination and the upslope area accumulation, were also redesigned to benefit from this improvement. Therefore, an efficient and comprehensive method was developed. The method was tested to extract drainage networks of 31 river basins with areas greater than 500,000 km2 from the 30-m-resolution ASTER GDEM and two sub-basins with areas of approximately 1000 km2 from the 1-m-resolution airborne LiDAR DEM. Complete drainage networks with both vector features and topographic parameters were obtained with time consumptions in O(NlogN) complexity. The results indicate that the developed method can be used to extract entire drainage networks from DEMs with billions of pixels with high efficiency.

  8. P53 Research: The Past Thirty Years and the Next Thirty Years

    PubMed Central

    Lane, David; Levine, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Thirty years of research on the p53 family of genes has generated almost fifty thousand publications. The first of these papers detected the p53 protein associated with a viral oncogene product in transformed cells and tumors and focused the field on cancer biology. Subsequent manuscripts have shown a wide variety of functions for the p53 family of genes and their proteins. These proteins are involved in reproduction, genomic repair, fidelity and recombination, the regulation of metabolic processes, longevity, surveillance of the stability of development, the production of stem cells and changes in epigenetic marks, the development of the nervous system (p73), the immune system (p73) and skin (p63), as well as the better known roles for the family in tumor suppression. The p53 family of genes has been found in the modern day ancestors of organisms with over one billion years of evolutionary history where they play a role in germ-line fidelity over that time span. As the body plan of the vertebrates emerged with the regeneration of tissues by stem cells over a lifetime, the p53 gene and its protein were adapted to be a tumor suppressor of somatic stem and progenitor cells complementing its' past functions in the germ line. Because the p53 family of genes has played a role in germ-line fidelity and preservation of the species, even in times of stress, these genes have been under constant selection pressure to change and adapt to new situations. This has given rise to this diversity of functions all working to preserve homeostatic processes that permit growth and reproduction in a world that is constantly challenging the fidelity of information transfer at each generation. The p53 family of gene products has influenced the rates of evolutionary change, just as evolutionary changes have altered the p53 family and its functions. PMID:20463001

  9. 2004 YEAR IN TORNADOES: WHAT A YEAR IT WAS!

    E-print Network

    2004 YEAR IN TORNADOES: WHAT A YEAR IT WAS! Daniel McCarthy and Joseph Schaefer NOAA/NWS Storm Prediction Center, Norman, OK 1. INTRODUCTION 2004 will be known as the biggest tornado year since recordkeeping began in 1950. The sheer numbers of tornadoes were unprecedented: 1,819. This number eclipsed

  10. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, L.E.

    1991-12-16

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program.

  11. Assessment of the labor impacts of coal gasification systems: Project No. 61027. Final report. [Considers a 250 billion Btu/day coal gasification plant, in each of 17 counties with sufficient coal, in terms of available labor and in-migration necessary

    SciTech Connect

    Donakowski, T.D.; Daniels, E.J.

    1980-12-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has estimated the labor requirements and their impacts for construction and operation of coal gasification systems (mine and plant). Commercial-size high-, medium-, and low-Btu systems were studied. For the high-Btu system (1000 Btu/SCF) producing 250 billion Btu/day, the labor requirements are shown in Table ES-1. For small, low-Btu systems (150 Btu/SCF) producing 1.5 billion Btu/day, we determined that about 300 systems have equivalent labor requirements to one high-Btu system. Requirements include both mining and gasifying coal. Both basic and secondary (supportive) labor were considered during the 4-year construction and 20-year operation phases of the system. The requirements are expected values based on a sample of 17 counties that we consider as potential sites for gasification. Labor availability at the county level was obtained from the Social and Economic Assessment Model developed by Argonne National Laboratory. This model allowed us to estimate in-migration requirements. If one assmes a commercialization scenario of ten systems under construction simultaneously, the average number of workers required during the 4-year construction period is the sum of basic and secondary labor, or about 77,830. If ten systems are operating simultaneously, about 47,000 workers are required for 20 years. In-migration (or training) impacts during the construction phase of this scenario is about 49,270 workers; during the operation phase, it is about 13,900. A qualitative evaluation of future labor supply by types of occupations indicates that shortages are possible for engineers, painters, pipefitters, ironworkers, and cement masons as coal gasification technology becomes increasingly commercialized.

  12. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

  13. NATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM DURING THE ARRA PERIOD: PROGRAM YEARS 2009-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M; Schmoyer, Richard L; Eisenberg, Joel Fred; Ternes, Mark P; Schweitzer, Martin; Hendrick, Timothy P

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the third major evaluation of the Program, encompassing program years 2009 to 2011. In this report, this period of time is referred to as the ARRA Period. This is a special period of time for the Program because the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 has allocated $5 billion of funding for the Program. In normal program years, WAP s annual appropriation is in the range of $200-250 million, supporting the weatherization of approximately 100,000 homes. With the addition of ARRA funding during these program years, the expectation is that weatherization activity will exceed 300,000 homes per year. In addition to saving energy and reducing low-income energy bills, expanded WAP funding is expected to stimulate the economy by providing new jobs in the weatherization field and allowing low-income households to spend more money on goods and services by spending less on energy.

  14. *whamilto@mines.edu Hamilton, W.B., 2007, Earth's first two billion years--The era of internally mobile crust, in Hatcher, R.D., Jr., Carlson, M.P., McBride, J.H., and Martnez Cataln,

    E-print Network

    of Archean geology into plate-tectonic frameworks reflects unwarranted faith in uniformitarianism to behave as rigid plates, required, by definition, for plate tectonics. None of the geologic indicators and is still largely unfractionated, and that rocks of all ages must be explained with plate-tectonic processes

  15. ALMA imaging of gas and dust in a galaxy protocluster at redshift 5.3: [C II] emission in 'typical' galaxies and dusty starbursts ?1 billion years after the big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Capak, Peter L.; Yan, Lin; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Smol?i?, Vernesa; Schinnerer, Eva; Yun, Min; Cox, Pierre; Bertoldi, Frank; Karim, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    We report interferometric imaging of [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}?{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) and OH({sup 2}?{sub 1/2} J = 3/2?1/2) emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z = 5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [C II], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 ?m continuum emission toward the SMG. The [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}?{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ?}, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of ?{sub SFR} = 530 M {sub ?} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}. This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at ?{sub SFR} approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [C II] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}?{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ?95 kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not detected in the continuum, suggesting far-infrared SFRs of <18-54 M {sub ?} yr{sup –1}, consistent with a UV-based estimate of 22 M {sub ?} yr{sup –1}. The spectral energy distribution of these galaxies is inconsistent with nearby spiral and starburst galaxies, but resembles those of dwarf galaxies. This is consistent with expectations for young starbursts without significant older stellar populations. This suggests that these galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, 'normal' star-forming galaxies at z > 5, showing that ALMA can detect the interstellar medium in 'typical' galaxies in the very early universe.

  16. Language Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 2 Year Olds Article Body Your two-year- ... At this time, there’s more variation in language development than in any other area. While some preschoolers ...

  17. Smoking behavior among 14-17 year old students: a comparison between Pakistan and the UK.

    PubMed

    Husain, M O; Duddu, V; Husain, M; Drury, A; Chaudhry, N; Husain, N

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a major public problem concern the world over. It is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. Fourteen to seventeen year olds are among a vulnerable group of individuals in society and susceptible to cigarette smoking. Older students act as role models to younger pupils and could influence smoking behavior. In a cross-sectional study we compared the differences in smoking between high school students in Pakistan and the United Kingdom. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire, adapted from a WHO questionnaire about tobacco smoking, was distributed to the students. In the UK, 235 participants were recruited; 16% (n = 38) were regular smokers. In Pakistan, 350 participants were recruited; 17% (n = 58) were regular smokers. In both countries males were significantly more likely to smoke. Reasons for smoking varied between the UK and Pakistan. In the UK, the majority smoked for recreational or social purposes and in Pakistan peer pressure played the major role. Beliefs regarding smoking were similar between the two countries. The lifetime prevalence of smoking was higher in the UK, but more students in Pakistan smoked daily. There were important differences in the smoking patterns between the two countries, which have potential public health implications. PMID:23082573

  18. Fractures and refractures in intercollegiate athletes. An eleven-year experience.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, J A; Fleagle, S B; Kalenak, A

    1981-01-01

    This report on fractures and refractures in intercollegiate athletes covers an 11-year period from the early Fall of 1968 through the Spring of 1979. Two hundred thirty-one fractures occurred in 219 athletes. Of these athletes, 185 were male and 34 were female. Fractures occurred in 18 sports. Of these 18, football, basketball, wrestling, and soccer led in number for Men's (M) teams, and gymnastics, lacrosse, and volleyball led for Ladies' (L) teams. (Because of this institution's early involvement with Title IX, and the strong position taken by our administration, our teams are designated Gentlemen (Men for short), which constitute the LIONS, and Ladies, which make up the LADY LIONS.) No fractures were noted in the other 11 intercollegiate teams of cheerleading (M and L), bowling (M and L), golf (M and L), fencing (L), rifle (coed), tennis (M and L), and volleyball (M). Boxing, ice hockey, rugby, soccer, and synchronized swimming are club sports at the Pennsylvania State University and are not included in this study. The most common of the 17 fracture sites were the finger, hand, face, foot, nose, and leg, regardless of sport or gender. Fourteen of fifteen refractures occurred in collision/contact sports, and essentially the same mechanical forces caused both fractures. In football most fractures occurred during highly successful seasons. PMID:7316018

  19. Year 1 Fall Year 1 Spring Year 2 Fall Year 2 Spring Year 3 Fall Year 3 Spring Total Semester Credit Hours 19 18 20 19 10 14 100

    E-print Network

    Nicholson, Bruce J.

    Year 1 Fall Year 1 Spring Year 2 Fall Year 2 Spring Year 3 Fall Year 3 Spring Total Semester Credit Hours 19 18 20 19 10 14 100 TOTAL IN-STATE PROGRAM COSTS Year 1 Fall Year 1 Spring Year 2 Fall Year 2 Spring Year 3 Fall Year 3 Spring Total Tuition 3,810$ 3,610$ 4,011$ 3,810$ 2,005$ 2,808$ 20,054$ Fees 2

  20. The chemical composition and sources of PM2.5 during the 2009 Chinese New Year's holiday in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jialiang; Sun, Peng; Hu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Minghong; Fu, Jiamo

    2012-11-01

    China is virtually shut down during the week-long Chinese New Year's holiday. This implies that the anthropogenic emissions would be greatly decreased during the period thus providing an opportunity to study the air quality in China under reduced emissions, and the drastic emission changes during a short period of time allows the comparison of source contributions under significantly different conditions. Seventeen PM2.5 samples were collected during the 2009 Chinese New Year's holiday in Shanghai to study the composition and sources of the fine particles. Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), eight water-soluble ions, fourteen metals and solvent extractable organic compounds (SEOC) including alkanes, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fatty acids were measured. Diagnostic PAH ratios, correlation analysis of OC, EC, n-alkanes, hopanes and PAHs showed that vehicle emissions were the main source of n-alkanes and EC, and an important source of the locally emitted particulate PAHs in urban Shanghai, while coal burning should be the main source of the transported PAHs from the inland areas. The composition of n-fatty acids also provided some clue on the significance of the contribution by kitchen activities. In the New Year's Eve's sample, 75% of the particle mass was estimated to be from fireworks, and K+, SO42 -, Cl-, OC, Al and Ba were the main components. Firework fine particles had high OC/EC ratio and low NO3-/SO42 - ratio.

  1. An International Year of Light

    E-print Network

    Faure, Claudie

    PROSPECTUS An International Year of Light Science ­ Technology ­ Nature ­ Culture ­ Development ­ Sustainability ­ Education ­ History International Year of Light Partnership April 2013 #12;A resolution welcoming and endorsing an International Year of Light in 2015 was adopted by the UNESCO Executive Board

  2. The Year 1999 in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speights, Dave

    2001-01-01

    From the perspective of the field of adult literacy, the year 1999 is best seen not as the penultimate year of the millennium but as the year bookended by the reauthorization of the National Literacy Act in late 1998 and the National Literacy Summit of early 2000. Both of those events represent a huge milestone, and 1999 may be regarded as the…

  3. What happens to the posterior compartment and bowel symptoms after sacrocolpopexy? Evaluation of 5-year outcomes from E-Care

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Cara; Lukacz, Emily S.; Gantz, Marie G.; Warren, Lauren Klein; Brubaker, Linda; Zyczynski, Halina M.; Richter, Holly E.; Jelovsek, J. Eric; Cundiff, Geoffrey; Fine, Paul; Visco, Anthony G.; Zhang, Min; Meikle, Susan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe posterior prolapse (pPOP) and obstructed defecation (OD) symptoms 5 years after open abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC). METHODS We grouped Extended Colpopexy And urinary Reduction Efforts (E-CARE) trial participants with baseline and 5-year outcomes into 3 groups using baseline posterior POP-Q points and concomitant posterior repair (PR): No PR (Ap<0); No PR (Ap?0); and +PR. Posterior colporrhaphy, perineorrhaphy or sacrocolpoperineopexy were included as PR, which was performed at surgeon’s discretion. Outcomes were dichotomized into presence/absence of pPOP (Ap?0) and OD symptoms (?2 on one or more questions about digital assistance, excessive straining, or incomplete evacuation). Composite failure was defined by both pPOP and OD symptoms or pPOP reoperation. RESULTS Ninety participants completed baseline and 5 year outcomes or were retreated with mean follow-up of 7.1±1.0 years. Of those with No PR (Ap<0), two women [2/36 (9%)] developed new pPOP with OD symptoms; 1 underwent subsequent PR. Nearly all [23/24 (96%)] with No PR (Ap?0) demonstrated sustained resolution of pPOP and none underwent PR. Fourteen percent (4/29) of +PR underwent repeat PR within 5 years and 12% had recurrent pPOP. Regardless of PR, OD symptoms improved in all groups after ASC, although OD symptoms were still present in 17-19% at 5 years. CONCLUSION Symptomatic pPOP is common 5 years after ASC regardless of concomitant PR. OD symptoms may improve after ASC regardless of PR. Recurrent pPOP and/or reoperation was highest among those who received concomitant PR at ASC. Further studies identifying criteria for concomitant PR at the time of ASC are warranted. PMID:25181375

  4. Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2008-09-01

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, fourteen local earthquakes were recorded during the third quarter of fiscal year 2008. The largest event recorded by the network during the third quarter (May 18, 2008 - magnitude 3.7 Mc) was located approximately 17 km east of Prosser at a depth of 20.5 km. With regard to the depth distribution, five earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earthquakes were classified as random events. The largest event recorded by the network during the third quarter occurred on May 18 (magnitude 3.7 Mc) and was located approximately 17 km east of Prosser at a depth of 20.5 km. This earthquake was the highest magnitude event recorded in the 46-47 N. latitude / 119-120 W. longitude sector since 1975. The May 18 event, not reported as being felt on the Hanford site or causing any damage, was communicated to the PNNL Operations Center per HSAP communications procedures. The event is not considered to be significant with regard to site safety and not unprecedented given the site’s seismic history. The Hanford strong motion accelerometer (SMA) stations at the 200 East Area, 300 Area, and the 400 Area were triggered by the May 18 event. The reportable action level of 2% g for Hanford facilities is approximately 12 times larger than the peak acceleration (0.17%) observed at the 300 Area SMA station and no action was required.

  5. Six climate change-related events in the United States accounted for about $14 billion in lost lives and health costs.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Kim; Rotkin-Ellman, Miriam; Geballe, Linda; Max, Wendy; Solomon, Gina M

    2011-11-01

    The future health costs associated with predicted climate change-related events such as hurricanes, heat waves, and floods are projected to be enormous. This article estimates the health costs associated with six climate change-related events that struck the United States between 2000 and 2009. The six case studies came from categories of climate change-related events projected to worsen with continued global warming-ozone pollution, heat waves, hurricanes, infectious disease outbreaks, river flooding, and wildfires. We estimate that the health costs exceeded $14 billion, with 95 percent due to the value of lives lost prematurely. Actual health care costs were an estimated $740 million. This reflects more than 760,000 encounters with the health care system. Our analysis provides scientists and policy makers with a methodology to use in estimating future health costs related to climate change and highlights the growing need for public health preparedness. PMID:22068410

  6. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, L.E.

    1991-12-16

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven`s Medical Research Center program.

  7. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  8. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  9. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  10. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  11. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  12. Five-Year Strategic Plan: Fiscal Years 2011-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the U.S. Department of Education (Department) Office of Inspector General (OIG) Strategic Plan for fiscal years 2011 through 2015. This plan describes the focus and direction of OIG's operations over the next five years, establishes its organizational goals, and outlines the strategies it will employ to reach those goals and…

  13. Exotic minerals in 3,500 million year old rocks: Evidence for large meteorite impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byerly, G. R.; Lowe, D. R.; Asaro, F.

    1988-01-01

    A relatively small area of mountainous terrain in southern Africa provides scientists from all over the world a look at what the surface of the earth was like three and a half billion years ago. The Barberton Mountains lie astride the borders of the Republic of South Africa, Mozambique, and the Kingdom of Swaziland. The discovery of several widely distributed deposits that were likely formed by major terrestrial impacts of large extraterrestrial bodies during this early period of earth's history is reported. The Barberton impact deposits are being studied by electron microscopy. The impact deposits were examined for minerals that show the effects of shock metamorphism or compositions unusual in terrestrial rocks.

  14. Modifiable variables in physical therapy education programs associated with first-time and three-year National Physical Therapy Examination pass rates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Chad; Engelhard, Chalee; Landry, Michel D.; McCallum, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the modifiable programmatic characteristics reflected in the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) Annual Accreditation Report for all accredited programs that reported pass rates on the National Physical Therapist Examination, and to build a predictive model for first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates. Methods: This observational study analyzed programmatic information from the 185 CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs in the United States and Puerto Rico out of a total of 193 programs that provided the first-time and three-year ultimate pass rates in 2011. Fourteen predictive variables representing student selection and composition, clinical education length and design, and general program length and design were analyzed against first-time pass rates and ultimate pass rates on the NPTE. Univariate and multivariate multinomial regression analysis for first-time pass rates and logistic regression analysis for three-year ultimate pass rates were performed. Results: The variables associated with the first-time pass rate in the multivariate analysis were the mean undergraduate grade point average (GPA) and the average age of the cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that mean undergraduate GPA was associated with the three-year ultimate pass rate. Conclusions: Mean undergraduate GPA was found to be the only modifiable predictor for both first-time and three-year pass rates among CAPTE-accredited physical therapy programs. PMID:26395081

  15. 150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

  16. Millions and Billions of Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, Darren; Horowitz, Paul

    The history of the Harvard SETI group is inextricably linked with the history of Paul Horowitz. Horowitz became enamored with SETI as a student at Harvard, reading Ed Purcell's paper "Radio Astronomy and Communication Through Space" (Purcell, 1960), discussing with his roommates a class that Carl Sagan was teaching there using a draft of Shklovskii and Sagan's "Intelligent Life in the Universe" (Shklovskii and Sagan, 1966) as a text, and finally attending a Loeb Lecture series at Harvard by Frank Drake (Drake, 1969). The series was officially about pulsars but Drake did manage to slip in one inspiring talk about SETI. Horowitz says that "It was this lecture that launched me into this field; it was a revelation that you could go beyond idle speculation - you could actually calculate stuff."

  17. Environmental NO2 Level is Associated with 2-Year Mortality in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An ongoing issue related to global urbanization is the association of air pollution with increased incidences of morbidity and mortality. However, no in-depth study has investigated this issue focusing on peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of traffic-related air pollutants and other important mortality-associated factors on 2-year mortality in PD patients. A total of 160 PD patients were recruited in this 2-year retrospective observational study. Differences in air quality were analyzed with respect to the patients’ living areas. The PD patients were categorized into 2 groups according to high (n?=?65) and low (n?=?95) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure. Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, air pollutants, and dialysis-related data were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used for 2-year mortality analysis. A total of 160 PD patients (38 men and 122 women) were enrolled. Fourteen patients (8.8%) died within 2 years; among them, the causes of death were infection (n?=?10), malignancy (n?=?1), and cardiovascular events (n?=?3). Among the 10 patients who died from infection, 5, 4, and 1 died from pneumonia, PD-related peritonitis, and sepsis of unknown origin, respectively. All patients who died from pneumonia were living in high environmental NO2 exposure areas. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.073, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.013–1.137]; P?=?0.017), white blood cell count (HR 1.41, 95% CI [1.116–1.781]; P?=?0.004), log normalized protein nitrogen appearance (HR 0.0001, 95% CI [0–0.073]; P?=?0.005), high cardiothoracic ratio (HR 14.28, 95% CI [1.778–114.706]; P?=?0.012), and high environmental NO2 exposure (HR 3.776, 95% CI [1.143–12.47]; P?=?0.029) were significantly associated with 2-year mortality. PD patients with high environmental NO2 exposure had a higher 2-year mortality rate than those with low exposure. Therefore, air pollution may be associated with 2-year mortality in such patients. PMID:25569659

  18. Project LIFT: Year 1 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) is currently in the second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,…

  19. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  20. NETL: The First 100 Years

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-21

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory celebrates 100 years of innovative energy technology development. NETL has been a leader in energy technology development. This video takes a look back at the many accomplishments over the past 100 years. These advances benefit the American people, enhance our nation's energy security and protect our natural resources.

  1. Social Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 1 Year Olds Article Body During his second year, your toddler will develop a very specific image of his social world, friends, and acquaintances. He is at its center, and while you may be close at hand, ...

  2. Ten Years in the Limelight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Priscilla

    1997-01-01

    Now in its 10th year, the National Superintendent of the Year Award recognizes outstanding executive leadership, based on candidates' prowess at meeting students' needs, communication skills, administrative knowledge, and community involvement. The nine previous winners are still working in education, regard the award as a career highlight, and…

  3. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    E-print Network

    Hitoshi Murayama

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the big questions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  4. Review 08--A Year in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Barack Obama's monumental presidential campaign took the nation by storm, a history-making and future-defining feat sure to keep academicians busy for many years to come. How America addresses race as a result of Obama's sweeping victory remains to be seen, but his election came in the same year New York state installed its first Black governor,…

  5. Visualizing Twenty Years of Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Potel, Mike; Wong, Pak C.

    2014-11-01

    This issue of IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications marks the 20th anniversary of the Applications department as a regular feature of the magazine. We thought it might be interesting to look back at the 20 years of Applications department articles to assess its evolution over that time. By aggregating all twenty years of articles and applying a little statistical and visual analytics, we’ve uncovered some interesting characteristics and trends we thought we’d share to mark this 20 year milestone.

  6. Reconsidering Municipal Solid Waste as a Renewable Energy Feedstock For many years, opposition to the use of municipal solid waste (MSW) as an energy resource has been nearly universal among

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    that diverting all landfill waste to ethanol production could yield up to 21 billion gallons of renewable fuel and packaging, food wastes and yard trimmings, and miscellaneous inorganic wastes."6 The term does not includeReconsidering Municipal Solid Waste as a Renewable Energy Feedstock July 2009 For many years

  7. Two year maintenance treatment of duodenal ulcer disease with ranitidine 150 mg: a prospective multicentre randomised study. GEMUD (Groupe d'Etude de la Maladie Ulcéreuse Duodénale).

    PubMed Central

    Ruszniewski, P; Slama, A; Pappo, M; Mignon, M

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance treatment of duodenal ulcer (DU) with ranitidine 150 mg/day was compared with placebo in a two year prospective multicentre randomised study. Three hundred and ninety nine patients were included (mean age: 44.7 years, M/F ratio = 2.47/1; 37.6% of smokers) in placebo (n = 202) and ranitidine (n = 197) groups. Efficacy was assessed by the length of time to the first ulcer pain attack (with or without endoscopic confirmation) or DU complication. One hundred and fourteen patients of 399 (28.6%) had incomplete follow up. Actuarial survival curves of patients without ulcer pain (26 and 53% at two years in placebo and ranitidine groups, respectively) were significantly different (p < 0.0001). Endoscopies were performed depending on physicians' decision (mainly where there was severe pain or complication). Patients without relapses from endoscopy were more frequent in the ranitidine group (83%) than in the placebo group (47%, p < 0.0001). A greater incidence of complications, mainly bleeding, was also seen in the placebo group (13 complications v two in the ranitidine group, p < 0.002). No factor predicting DU relapse was identified. No important side effect was encountered. Ranitidine 150 mg/day is effective and well tolerated in preventing ulcer pain attacks and DU complications for up to two years. PMID:8282251

  8. Language Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 1 Year Olds Article Body Early in ... assured, it’s not your imagination. He’s developing his language and comprehension skills right on schedule. This giant ...

  9. Five Year Plan for Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, M. O.; Swann, Claire C.

    1981-01-01

    A five-year plan for admissions in a large state university is presented that considers current and projected enrollment, budget, space, equipment, computer liaison, recruitment, research personnel, publications, orientation, and public relations. (MSE)

  10. Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

  11. Chapeau! First-Year French

    E-print Network

    Dinneen, David A.; Kernen, Madeleine

    1989-01-01

    Chapeau! is a first-year college text. Although it may appear, at first glance, o move very fast and introduce a large amount of material early, the vocabulary and grammatical structures that we expect students to control ...

  12. Communications satellites - The experimental years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, B. I.

    1983-01-01

    Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

  13. Sixty years of genome biology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sixty years after Watson and Crick published the double helix model of DNA's structure, thirteen members of Genome Biology's Editorial Board select key advances in the field of genome biology subsequent to that discovery. PMID:23651518

  14. Social Development:: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 2 Year Olds Article Body By nature, ... and they serve as valuable rehearsals for future social encounters. They’ll also help you appreciate the ...

  15. World's biodiversity needs to be preserved Biodiversity -the billions of life forms that exist on earth -ranges in size from microscopic

    E-print Network

    Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    through complex chemical reactions about 3.6 bil- Mammals lion years ago. These living entities, being on such a large scale that arrived about 300 m years ago,birds and mammals about temperatures on earth have'increased could live on land instead of water. Insects and reptiles sil fuels and decimated forests

  16. Tank waste remediation system multi-year work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) documents the detailed total Program baseline and was constructed to guide Program execution. The TWRS MYWP is one of two elements that comprise the TWRS Program Management Plan. The TWRS MYWP fulfills the Hanford Site Management System requirement for a Multi-Year Program Plan and a Fiscal-Year Work Plan. The MYWP addresses program vision, mission, objectives, strategy, functions and requirements, risks, decisions, assumptions, constraints, structure, logic, schedule, resource requirements, and waste generation and disposition. Sections 1 through 6, Section 8, and the appendixes provide program-wide information. Section 7 includes a subsection for each of the nine program elements that comprise the TWRS Program. The foundation of any program baseline is base planning data (e.g., defendable product definition, logic, schedules, cost estimates, and bases of estimates). The TWRS Program continues to improve base data. As data improve, so will program element planning, integration between program elements, integration outside of the TWRS Program, and the overall quality of the TWRS MYWP. The MYWP establishes the TWRS baseline objectives to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The TWRS Program will complete the baseline mission in 2040 and will incur costs totalling approximately 40 billion dollars. The summary strategy is to meet the above objectives by using a robust systems engineering effort, placing the highest possible priority on safety and environmental protection; encouraging {open_quotes}out sourcing{close_quotes} of the work to the extent practical; and managing significant but limited resources to move toward final disposition of tank wastes, while openly communicating with all interested stakeholders.

  17. Mining beyond the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Wyllie, R.J.M.

    1980-07-01

    NCB engineers crystal gaze possible developments in machine mining, gasification technology and what's in store for coal in the next century. By the year 2000 those current mines which survive, plus new producers, are likely to offer reserves for as much as 300 years of output at 150,000,000 annual tons by present methods of mining, coupled with reasonable projections in terms of efficiency. Several hundred further years of reserves exist in as yet unexploited areas and several hundred years more in coal which is too deep for present mining methods. The reserves in all categories can only have been increased by the successful exploration work conducted in recent years delineating coalfields at Selby, North East Leicestershire (Belvoir), Warwickshire, and elsewhere. The report's estimates did not include coal which is under the North Sea at distances which prevent it being accessed from land at present. Mechanical breakage, at its best, sets standards of efficiency which are superior to those of other, more indirect, methods, e.g. in hydraulic mining. The idea of a tele-operated miner is regarded as something that might just lead somewhere. It is perhaps in the methods of in-situ energy extraction that we may expect revolutionary advances in the future.

  18. Why Is the Year 2000 a Leap Year?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2000-01-01

    The study of leap year and its development offers an interesting real-world situation for students to exercise qualitative reasoning about operations on decimals. Presents an activity in which students investigate time measurement by studying a variety of calendars, past and present. (ASK)

  19. Comparison of sample loops constructed of several different materials for gas chromatographic analysis of parts-per-billion-level organic gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.M.; Jayanty, R.K.M.; von Lehmden, D.J.

    1987-07-15

    The ability to accurately quantify very low concentration levels of volatile toxic organic compounds is of great importance in ambient air and source emission measurements. For this reason, 27 gaseous organic compounds at parts-per-billion (ppb) concentration levels in compressed gas cylinders have been selected by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for use in auditing ambient air and source emission measurement systems. The method of analysis for the cylinder gases is gas chromatography (GC). Introduction of the gas-phase samples is accomplished by means of an automated gas sampling valve, which incorporates a sample loop having a typical internal volume of 3-10 cmT. It has been observed in the authors laboratory that the chromatographic peaks obtained from the analysis of certain oxygenated or polar compounds suffered from varying degrees of tailing. This peak tailing results in a significant reduction in the precision of the analysis. Other compounds included in the cylinders show no significant peak tailing. The source of the peak tailing of the oxygenated compounds is clearly an interaction between the compounds and one or more components of the gas chromatographic system (i.e. sampling valve, sample loop, transfer lines, gas chromatographic column, and/or detector). The inner surfaces are usually heterogeneous and contain sites with high adsorption energies from which desorption into the gas phase is slow. Interaction of the compounds with the sample loop was considered to be a likely source of the observed peak tailing. Therefore, a study was undertaken to compare the performance of sample loops constructed of several different materials.

  20. 35 years of DEB research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Jaap; Klok, Chris; Kearney, Michael R.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2014-11-01

    Research on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory started 35 years ago. Initially much emphasis was put on the development of a consistent theory. During recent years attention was paid on parameterizing DEB models for a huge collection of species. This enables the search for patterns in parameter values in an ecological and evolutionary context. This special issue presents some of the results of this quest, among other things focusing on the development of metabolic acceleration, combined with various applications of DEB theory in fisheries, aquaculture, climate science and ecotoxicology.

  1. [Senior years, subjectivation, and biopolitics].

    PubMed

    Birman, Joel

    2015-12-01

    The article explores the historical emergence of "senior years" as a contemporary signifier and concept that has left behind the previous interpretation of the aging process in modernity. It addresses this vital shift that occurred in the history of the West from an interdisciplinary perspective that encompasses social, economic, political, and familial interpretations. Emphasizing forms of subjectivation found during the senior years, it offers a critical interpretation of theoretical writings in psychopathology and neurology and highlights the process of social exclusion suffered by the elderly in the historical context of modernity. PMID:26625918

  2. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude

    SciTech Connect

    Benford, G. California Univ., Irvine, CA . Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ . Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. ); Pasqualetti, M.J. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ )

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. From SIAM News, Volume 45, Number 2, March 2012 Sometime around last Halloween, the world population reached 7 billion. So we all wanted to make a fuss about the 7 billionth baby. Who

    E-print Network

    Trefethen, Nick

    Nargis. Of course, everybody knows these choices are arbitrary. The world's population is a tenFrom SIAM News, Volume 45, Number 2, March 2012 Sometime around last Halloween, the world population reached 7 billion. So we all wanted to make a fuss about the 7 billionth baby. Who was she

  4. Follow the money: How the billions of dollars that flow from smokers in poor nations to companies in rich nations greatly exceed funding for global tobacco control and what might be done about it

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The business of selling cigarettes is increasingly concentrated in the hands of five tobacco companies that collectively control almost 90% of the world's cigarette market, four of which are publicly traded corporations. The economic activities of these cigarette manufacturers can be monitored through their reports to shareholders and other public documents. Reports for 2008 show that the revenues of these five companies exceeded $300 billion, of which more than $160 billion was provided to governments as taxes, and that corporate earnings of the four publicly traded companies were over $25 billion, of which $14 billion was retained after corporate income taxes were paid. By contrast, funding for domestic and international tobacco control is not reliably reported. Estimated funding for global tobacco control in 2008, at $240 million, is significantly lower than resources provided to address other high-mortality global health challenges. Tobacco control has not yet benefited from the innovative finance mechanisms that are in place for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The Framework Convention On Tobacco Control (FCTC) process could be used to redirect some of the earnings from transnational tobacco sales to fund FCTC implementation or other global health efforts. PMID:20610436

  5. ( )Ministers delay decision on site for 10-billion-dollar nuclear fusion reactor 20/12/2003 The European Union, the United States and four other countries failed in talks agree on a

    E-print Network

    /12/2003 The European Union, the United States and four other countries failed in talks agree on a site for a 10-billion-dollar international nuclear fusion reactor. Delegates from the European Union, the United States, China, Japan, South negotiator Philippe Busquin replied: "It might be in February, but not before." The European Union, Russia

  6. The federal medical loss ratio rule: implications for consumers in year 3.

    PubMed

    McCue, Michael J; Hall, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    For the past three years, the Affordable Care Act has required health insurers to pay out a minimum percentage of premiums in medical claims or quality improvement expenses--known as a medical loss ratio (MLR). Insurers with MLRs below the minimum must rebate the difference to consumers. This issue brief finds that total rebates for 2013 were $325 million, less than one-third the amount paid out in 2011, indicating much greater compliance with the MLR rule. Insurers' spending on quality improvement remained low, at less than 1 percent of premiums. Insurers' administrative and sales costs, such as brokers' fees, and profit margins have reduced slightly but remain fairly steady. In the first three years under this regulation, total consumer benefits related to the medical loss ratio--both rebates and reduced overhead--amounted to over $5 billion. This was achieved without a great exodus of insurers from the market. PMID:25890979

  7. Lost in space: SDI struggles through its sixth year

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, B.W.

    1989-09-01

    After six years of debate, it is clear that Congress is willing to support a robust research program for SDI, but it is also clear that Congress will not support SDI annual outlays on the order of $10 billion. Thus the policy choice is between a good research program that meshes with fiscal reality, or an inadequate and wasteful development program that continues to focus on preparing for a Phase I deployment for which the funds simply will not be available. The Bush administration so far seems trapped by its own rhetoric from coming to grips with the implications of the new SDI reality. The responsibility for getting SDI on a steadier course toward more realistic research objectives thus seems to lie with Congress in the near term. Since Congress has been reluctant to earmark SDI research funds for specific objectives, it will take a change in administration perceptions before SDI program goals can be changed away from Phase I deployment. The only likely way this could happen in the near term would be as a result of a Congress-executive branch summit agreement on SDI objectives and funding levels. In the absence of such an agreement, SDI will be sailing under ever weaker fiscal and political winds and runs the risk of finding itself becalmed, working ceaselessly toward goals that will never be fulfilled.

  8. Clustering of developmental delays in Bavarian preschool children – a repeated cross-sectional survey over a period of 12 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While most children display a normal development, some children experience developmental delays compared to age specific development milestones assessed during school entry examination. Data exist on prevalence of delays in single areas, but there is lack of knowledge regarding the clustering patterns of developmental delays and their determinants. Methods During the observation period 1997-2008, 12 399 preschool children (5-7 years of age) in one district of Bavaria, Germany, were assessed in twelve schooling-relevant development areas. The co-occurrence of developmental delays was studied by means of Pearson’s correlation. Subsequently, a two-step cluster algorithm was applied to identify patterns of developmental delays, and multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify variables associated with the specific patterns. Results Fourteen percent of preschool children displayed developmental delays in one and 19% in two or more of the studied areas. Among those with at least two developmental delays, most common was the combination of delays in "fine motor skills"?+?"grapho-motor coordination" (in 9.1% of all children), followed by "memory/concentration"?+?"endurance" (5.8%) and "abstraction"?+?"visual perception" (2.1%). In the cluster analysis, five distinct patterns of delays were identified, which displayed different associations with male gender and younger age. Conclusions While developmental delays can affect single areas, clustering of multiple developmental delays is common. Such clustering should be taken into account when developing diagnostic tests, in pediatric practice and considering interventions to reduce delays. PMID:24450504

  9. Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Annual Monitoring Status Report for Fiscal Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Howard Forsythe

    2010-02-04

    This report documents the status of Fiscal Year 2009 groundwater monitoring performed in Waste Area Group 10 at the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho National Laboratory Site, as identified in the Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan for Operable Unit 10-08. Twelve of the fourteen required wells were sampled, and all ten required intervals from the Westbay wells were sampled. Two wells were not sampled because they were in the process of being converted into multiple-sample-interval Westbay wells by the U.S. Geological Survey. Groundwater samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds identified on the Contract Laboratory Program target analyte list as well as metals (filtered), anions, and radionuclides (i.e., I-129, tritium, Tc-99, gross alpha, gross beta, and Sr-90). No contaminant exceeded maximum contaminant levels in wells along the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory Site or in guard wells. Iron was above its secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 ug/L in one well. The cause of the elevated iron concentration is uncertain. Lead was detected just below its action level. However, the zinc concentration was also elevated in these wells, and the source of the lead is probably galvanized riser pipe in the wells. Once the galvanized pipe is replaced, both lead and zinc concentrations should decline, as has been observed at other Waste Area Group 10 wells.

  10. 2012: A Year in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2012-01-01

    When historians review 2012 for its noteworthy moments, events and milestones, they will find the year was a trying one for the American higher education system, despite its being able to educate and enlighten thousands in search of more choices and preparation for adult self-sufficiency. Many academicians and students worked for and celebrated…

  11. 2007: A Year In Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The most high-profile story of the year touching the higher education community was undisputedly the killings at Virginia Tech in April when student Seung-Hui Cho opened fire, leaving 33 people dead, including himself. To date, it is the deadliest campus shooting in U.S. history. However, in September, the Delaware State University (DSU) community…

  12. Annual Review of the Year

    E-print Network

    's objectives in the year to come. Public awareness of the challenge of climate change grew significantly over - a contribution equivalent to the whole of the transport sector. Thanks to a sustained commitment by successive done so in the central areas of urban population as well as in the more traditional rural areas. We

  13. NCGIA Annual Report, Year 5

    E-print Network

    National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (UC Santa Barbara, SUNY at Buffalo, University of Maine)

    1994-01-01

    and water quality models. UC Santa Barbara SUNY at BuffaloWater Authority, NY William R. Greiner, President, SUNY at BuffaloBuffalo University of Maine NCGIA Annual Report, Year 5 December 1, 1992 - November 30, 1993 Peter Haynes, President, Consumers Water

  14. Fifty Years of Aeronautical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains a detailed review of the aeronautical research conducted at Langley Research Center during the 50 years after its construction in 1917 as the first research laboratory for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The research is discussed in five parts, by decades: 1917-27, 1928-37, 1938-47, 1948-57, 1958-67.…

  15. 70 Years and Going Strong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    The survival and prosperity of the California Council on the Education of Teachers/California Council on Teacher Education (CCET/CCTE) over its 70 years of existence is remarkable, especially given the historic roller coaster of educational policy and practice in the United States--the ups and downs of school financing, in addition to the ins and…

  16. The Year of Secret Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Jaclyn

    2004-01-01

    The path to "novelist" was a convoluted one for Moriarty, who began writing fiction as doctoral student at Cambridge University. Her interest in young adults stems from an appreciation for the "troubles, strengths, and surprises of that age group." Now, in a uniquely formatted book titled "The Year of Secret Assignments," we peek inside the mind…

  17. Budget Response: Fiscal Year 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissonnette, Jocelyn, Ed.; Ellerson, Noelle, Ed.; Jones, Lindsay, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Committee for Education Funding (CEF), a coalition of over 85 national education associations and institutions from preschool to postgraduate education, applauds President Obama's Fiscal Year 2012 budget for recognizing the importance of investing in education to our nation's economic growth and competitiveness. Within a constrained fiscal…

  18. Academic Year THE ECONOMIC IMPACT

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Academic Year 2013­2014 THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE, ON THE STATE OF TENNESSEE #12;The Economic Impact of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, on the State of Tennessee: (865) 974-5441 Fax: (865) 974-3100 http://cber.bus.utk.edu #12;THE ECONOMIC IMPACT

  19. HAPPY NEW YEAR! Semiconductor Spintronics

    E-print Network

    Nikolic, Branislav K.

    HAPPY NEW YEAR! #12;Semiconductor Spintronics Niu Burkov Culcer Nunez Nomura Yao Sinova Sinitsyn Dietl Koenig Lin Timm Jungwirth Lee Fernandez-Rossier U. Texas at Austin 2005 Taiwan Spintronics Workshop #12;Spintronics Toolbag Ferromagnetic Semiconductors (Ga,Mn)As .... others Coupled Spin Charge

  20. Projects in the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Jeanette A.; Eckerty, Carolyn

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that the growing interest in project work in early childhood education is in response to the call for developmentally appropriate practices. Defines projects and discusses the beginning of a project. Discusses the three phases of the "construction site/house project" by four- and five-year olds and provides responses to frequently asked…

  1. ARITHMETIC, SECOND YEAR. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GARBER, CLAIRE N.

    IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THE SECOND YEAR OF ARITHMETIC INSTRUCTION SHOULD BEGIN, IF NECESSARY, WITH REVIEW OF THE WORK OF THE PREVIOUS GRADE. THE NUMBER SYSTEM SHOULD BE DEVELOPED WITH BACKWARD AND FORWARD COUNTING AND THE INTRODUCTION OF 10 AND THE ZERO. THE WHOLE NUMBERS UNIT SHOULD DEVELOP MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION FACTS THROUGH GROUPS UP TO…

  2. METEORITE CENTER MARKS 50 YEARS

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    METEORITE CENTER MARKS 50 YEARS Center commemorates golden anniversary with symposium, lecture's largest mass extinction event MEET THE METEORITE MEN Science Channel's meteorite hunters Geoff Notkin and Steve Arnold talk space rocks TALES FROM THE VAULT Explore what's in the meteorite vault S O U R C ES O

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM FRESHMAN YEAR

    E-print Network

    Chandy, John A.

    ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM FRESHMAN YEAR First Semester Second Semester MATH 1131Q Elective (3) (Take as an on-line course) CE 2110 ­ Applied Mechanics I (3) ENVE 2310 ­ Environmental Engineering (3) ENVE 2330 ­ Decision Analysis in Civil & Environmental Engineering (3) ENVE 3200

  4. Teen Parenting: The First Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCamey, Jody

    This guide for teenage mothers discusses the needs of the mother and her child during the first year of the child's life. Information on the child's and the mother's behavior and emotions just after the child's birth is presented. Also presented is information on the following: procuring items needed for tending the baby; playing; crying; breast…

  5. "Lake Woebegone," Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, John Jacob

    2006-01-01

    Almost 20 years ago, the author wrote--and then privately published--the two "Lake Woebegone" reports, named after Garrison Keillor's mythical Minnesota town where "all the women are strong, all the men are good-looking, and all the children are above average." The first "Lake Woebegone" report documented that all 50 states were testing above the…

  6. Model Curriculum Outline FRESHMAN YEAR

    E-print Network

    Hung, I-Kuai

    PSY 133 3 CSC 101 or CSC 121 3 SOC 139/ANT 231 3 Prescribed Elective I 3 COM 111 or COM 170 3 TOTALS 16 16 SOPHOMORE YEAR HMS 236/236L or 4 MTH 220 3 PSY 376/HMS 336 3 BIO 308 4 HMS 239 or HMS 355 3 NUR

  7. Yearbook 1988. IWGIA: 20 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Andrew

    The theme of this yearbook is the work of the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) during the 20 years of its existence and the enormous growth of the indigenous movement in that time. Section 1 traces IWGIA's history and includes the annual report for 1988. Section 2 is a global view of the main events in the indigenous world…

  8. MA in Psychology Typical Course Sequences Concentration Fall Year 1 Spring Year 1 Fall Year 2 Spring Year 2

    E-print Network

    Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

    Spring Year 2 General PSY 555 Res Meth 1/Stat (4) PSY 589 Meth 2/Exp (3) PSY 595 Semin. or elective (3 Meth 1/Stat (4) PSY 596 Practicum in ABA (2) Analysis/Clinical PSY 517 Learning (3) PSY 580 Res Pract 2

  9. Digital Smithsonian Fiscal Years 20102015

    E-print Network

    Miller, Scott

    Creating a Digital Smithsonian Fiscal Years 2010­2015 DIgItIzatIOn StRatEgIC Plan #12;IntroductIon 2 Extending Reach/Enhancing Meaning 3 What, Exactly, Is Digitization? 3 What Are We Digitizing? 4GIc Goals 11 Goal 1: Digital Assets 11 Goal 2: Digitization Program 12 Goal 3: Organizational Capacity 13

  10. FEMP Year in Review 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    In 2009, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)undertook an ambitious reorganization of its program structure to be more responsive to the needs of its Federal agency customers. In this Year in Review 2009, you will learn more about FEMP achievements under its new program areas.

  11. The Year of the Pond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Water gardens became popular in China during the Tang Dynasty and goldfish were domesticated more than 1000 years ago. Beyond being beautiful and tranquil, water gardens have the potential for much learning in an educational setting, especially for learning through art. In this article, the author shares how he collaborated with another teacher in…

  12. ESD Publications Calendar Year 2003

    E-print Network

    Temperate Deciduous Forest Responses to Changing Precipitation Regimes. Ecological Studies. Vol. 166. 2003 Temperate Deciduous Forest Responses to Changing Precipitation Regimes, P.J. Hanson and S.D. Wullschleger of a southeastern upland Quercus forest from an 8-year biometric record, in North American Temperate Deciduous

  13. NIH and NCI grant-related changes during fiscal years 2014 and 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Rosemary S. L.

    2015-03-01

    The 2014 fiscal year (FY) continued to be a challenging one for all federal agencies despite the many Congressional strategies proposed to address the U.S. budget deficit. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 passed by the House and Senate in December 2013 approved a two-year spending bill which cancelled the FY2014 and FY2015 required sequestration cuts (i.e., 4-5% National Institute of Health (NIH)/National Cancer Institute (NCI) budget reduction initiated on March 1, 2013), but extended the sequestration period through FY2023. This bill passage helped minimize any further budget reductions and resulted in a final FY2014 NIH budget of 29.9 billion and a NCI budget of 4.9 billion. Both NIH and NCI worked hard to maintain awarding the same number of NIH/NCI investigator-initiated R01 and exploratory R21 grants funded in FY2014 and similar to the level seen in FY2013 and previous years (see Tables 1 and 2). Since Congress only recently passed the 2015 spending bill in December 16, 2014, the final NIH and NCI budget appropriations for FY2015 remains unknown at this time and most likely will be similar to the FY2014 budget level. The NCI overall success and funding rates for unsolicited investigator-initiated R01 applications remained at 15%, while the success rate for exploratory R21 applications was 12% in FY2014 with similar rates seen in FY2013 (see Tables 1 and 2). The success rate for biomedical research applications in the Photodynamic Therapy and laser research field will be provided for the past few years. NIH provides numerous resources to help inform the extramural biomedical research community of new and current grant applicants about new grant policy changes and the grant submission and review processes.

  14. Stabilization Wedges and the Management of Global Carbon for the next 50 years

    ScienceCinema

    Socolow, Robert [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

    2009-09-01

    More than 40 years after receiving a Ph.D. in physics, I am still working on problems where conservation laws matter. In particular, for the problems I work on now, the conservation of the carbon atom matters. I will tell the saga of an annual flow of 8 billion tons of carbon associated with the global extraction of fossil fuels from underground. Until recently, it was taken for granted that virtually all of this carbon will move within weeks through engines of various kinds and then into the atmosphere. For compelling environmental reasons, I and many others are challenging this complacent view, asking whether the carbon might wisely be directed elsewhere. To frame this and similar discussions, Steve Pacala and I introduced the 'stabilization wedge' in 2004 as a useful unit for discussing climate stabilization. Updating the definition, a wedge is the reduction of CO2 emissions by one billion tons of carbon per year in 2057, achieved by any strategy generated as a result of deliberate attention to global carbon. Each strategy uses already commercialized technology, generally at much larger scale than today. Implementing seven wedges should enable the world to achieve the interim goal of emitting no more CO2 globally in 2057 than today. This would place humanity, approximately, on a path to stabilizing CO2 at less than double the pre-industrial concentration, and it would put those at the helm in the following 50 years in a position to drive CO2 emissions to a net of zero in the following 50 years. Arguably, the tasks of the two half-centuries are comparably difficult.

  15. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote

    2002-05-01

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  16. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, E.C.; Fuhrman, P.W.

    2002-05-30

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  17. Conserved metallomics in two insect families evolving separately for a hundred million years.

    PubMed

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Afshar, Negar; Osorio, Beatriz; Barajas-Aceves, Martha; Szular, Joanna; Ahmad, Sohel; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Tomas, Ulysses Sto; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Salomon, Mor; Vreysen, Marc J B; Nestel, David; Missirlis, Fanis

    2014-12-01

    ?etal cofactors are required for enzymatic catalysis and structural stability of many proteins. Physiological metal requirements underpin the evolution of cellular and systemic regulatory mechanisms for metal uptake, storage and excretion. Considering the role of metal biology in animal evolution, this paper asks whether metal content is conserved between different fruit flies. A similar metal homeostasis was previously observed in Drosophilidae flies cultivated on the same larval medium. Each species accumulated in the order of 200 µg iron and zinc and approximately ten-fold less manganese and copper per gram dry weight of the adult insect. In this paper, data on the metal content in fourteen species of Tephritidae, which are major agricultural pests worldwide, are presented. These fruit flies can be polyphagous (e.g., Ceratitis capitata) or strictly monophagous (e.g., Bactrocera oleae) or oligophagous (e.g., Anastrepha grandis) and were maintained in the laboratory on five distinct diets based on olive oil, carrot, wheat bran, zucchini and molasses, respectively. The data indicate that overall metal content and distribution between the Tephritidae and Drosophilidae species was similar. Reduced metal concentration was observed in B. oleae. Feeding the polyphagous C. capitata with the diet of B. oleae resulted in a significant quantitative reduction of all metals. Thus, dietary components affect metal content in some Tephritidae. Nevertheless, although the evidence suggests some fruit fly species evolved preferences in the use or storage of particular metals, no metal concentration varied in order of magnitude between these two families of Diptera that evolved independently for over 100 million years. PMID:25298233

  18. Modelfest: year one results and plans for future years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Thom; Tyler, Christopher W.; Watson, Andrew B.; Makous, Walter; Beutter, Brent; Chen, Chien-Chung; Norcia, Anthony M.; Klein, Stanley A.

    2000-06-01

    A robust model of the human visual system (HVS) would have a major practical impact on the difficult technological problems of transmitting and storing digital images. Although most HVS models exhibit similarities, they may have significant differences in predicting performance. Different HVS models are rarely compared using the same set of psychophysical measurements, so their relative efficacy is unclear. The Modelfest organization was formed to solve this problem and accelerate the development of robust new models of human vision. Members of Modelfest have gathered psychophysical threshold data on the year one stimuli described at last year's SPIE meeting. Modelfest is an exciting new approach to modeling involving the sharing of resources, learning from each other's modeling successes and providing a method to cross-validate proposed HVS models. The purpose of this presentation is to invite the Electronic Imaging community to participate in this effort and inform them of the developing database, which is available to all researchers interested in modeling human vision. In future years, the database will be extended to other domains such as visual masking, and temporal processing. This Modelfest progress report summarizes the stimulus definitions and data collection methods used, but focuses on the results of the phase one data collection effort. Each of the authors has provided at least one dataset from their respective laboratories. These data and data collected subsequent to the submission of this paper are posted on the WWW for further analysis and future modeling efforts.

  19. A YEAR IN REVIEWFOUNDATION 2014 2 2014 A YEAR IN REVIEW 32014 A YEAR IN REVIEW

    E-print Network

    Wapstra, Erik

    the Tasmanian devil while at the same time supporting conservation research that ensures the long-term viability Securing the future Save the Tasmanian Devil Appeal 28 A torch lights the way Access Scholarships of this iconic Tasmanian animal. In this, our 125th year, we have much to celebrate. We are delighted our alumna

  20. Bachelor of Science in Geology Year 1 Year 3Year 2

    E-print Network

    , Su GE 2000 UNDERSTANDING THE EARTH (3 CREDITS) F, S, Su MA 2160 CALCULUS W/ TECH II (4 CREDITS) F, S 1151 15 CREDITS HASS ELECTIVE (3 CREDITS) F, S, Su Year 4 Fall Spring CH 1150 CH 1151 GE 3320 EARTH Requirements (12 Credits) (http://www.mtu.edu/registrar/pdfs/HASS-Distribution-List.pdf) - 6 credits 3000

  1. Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Actions and Resolutions for each site. Ten disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. Six have achieved final stabilization. The remaining four sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

  2. Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2013-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: Summary of each site Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location Actions and Resolutions for each site. Six disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. One has achieved final stabilization. The remaining five sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

  3. 100 Years of Brownian motion

    E-print Network

    Peter Hänggi; Fabio Marchesoni

    2005-02-02

    In the year 1905 Albert Einstein published four papers that raised him to a giant in the history of science of all times. These works encompass the photon hypothesis (for which he obtained the Nobel prize in 1921), his first two papers on (special) relativity theory and, of course, his first paper on Brownian motion, entitled "\\"Uber die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der W\\"arme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Fl\\"ussigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen'' (submitted on May 11, 1905). Thanks to Einstein intuition, the phenomenon observed by the Scottish botanist Rober Brown in 1827 - a little more than a naturalist's curiosity - becomes the keystone of a fully probabilistic formulation of statistical mechanics and a well-established subject of physical investigation which we celebrate in this Focus issue entitled - for this reason - : ``100 Years of Brownian Motion''.

  4. International Year of Astronomy 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesarsky, Catherine

    2008-05-01

    Following an unanimous resolution at the 2003 General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has launched 2009 as the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) under the theme "The Universe, yours to discover." IAU is associated with UNESCO for this endeavor. On 20 December 2007 the International Year of Astronomy 2009 was proclaimed by the United Nations 62nd General Assembly. IYA2009 marks the four hundredth anniversary of the first astronomical observation through a telescope by Galileo Galilei. It will be a global celebration of astronomy and its contributions to society and culture, with a strong emphasis on education, public engagement and involvement of young people. There will be events at national, regional, and global levels throughout the whole of 2009. IYA 2009 will also highlight for the general public the on going explosion of knowledge on the universe. I will describe the main activities foreseen and emphasize the importance of this celebration for international astronomy .

  5. 40 years of neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Frederick

    Wolfgang Pauli and Enrico Fermi pioneered the hypothesis and characteristics of the weak interaction and the elementary particle called the neutrino. Since its discovery some forty years ago the neutrino has been shown to be a fundamental constituent of matter with a surprisingly rich, and in very many ways unexpected, set of characteristics ranging from basic roles in the generation of energy in the sun to supernovæ.

  6. Sixty Years of Casting Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2015-11-01

    The 60 years of solidification research since the publication of Chalmer's constitutional undercooling in 1953 has been a dramatic advance of understanding which has and continues to be an inspiration. In contrast, 60 years of casting research has seen mixed fortunes. One of its success stories relates to improvements in inoculation of gray irons, and another to the discovery of spheroidal graphite iron, although both of these can be classified as metallurgical rather than casting advances. It is suggested that true casting advances have dated from the author's lab in 1992 when a critical surface turbulence condition was defined for the first time. These last 20 years have seen the surface entrainment issues of castings developed to a sufficient sophistication to revolutionize the performance of light alloy and steel foundries. However, there is still a long way to go, with large sections of the steel and Ni-base casting industries still in denial that casting defects are important or even exist. The result has been that special ingots are still cast poorly, and shaped casting operations have suffered massive losses. For secondary melted and cast materials, electro-slag remelting has the potential to be much superior to expensive vacuum arc remelting, which has cost our aerospace and defense industries dearly over the years. This failure to address and upgrade our processing of liquid metals is a serious concern, since the principle entrainment defect, the bifilm, is seen as the principle initiator of cracks in metals; in general, bifilms are the Griffith cracks that initiate failures by cracking. A new generation of crack resistant metals and engineering structures can now be envisaged.

  7. Spirit Begins Third Martian Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    As it finished its second Martian year on Mars, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit was beginning to examine a group of angular rocks given informal names corresponding to peaks in the Colorado Rockies. A Martian year the amount of time it takes Mars to complete one orbit around the sun lasts for 687 Earth days. Spirit completed its second Martian year on the rover's 1,338th Martian day, or sol, corresponding to Oct. 8, 2007.

    Two days later, on sol 1,340 (Oct. 10, 2007), Spirit used its front hazard-identification camera to capture this wide-angle view of its robotic arm extended to a rock informally named 'Humboldt Peak.' For the rocks at this site on the southern edge of the 'Home Plate' platform in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills inside Gusev Crater, the rover team decided to use names of Colorado peaks higher than 14,000 feet. The Colorado Rockies team of the National League is the connection to the baseball-theme nomenclature being used for features around Home Plate.

    The tool facing Spirit on the turret at the end of the robotic arm is the Moessbauer spectrometer.

  8. Earth: 15 Million Years Ago

    E-print Network

    Masataka Mizushima

    2008-10-13

    In Einstein's general relativity theory the metric component gxx in the direction of motion (x-direction) of the sun deviates from unity due to a tensor potential caused by the black hole existing around the center of the galaxy. Because the solar system is orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s, the theory shows that the Newtonian gravitational potential due to the sun is not quite radial. At the present time, the ecliptic plane is almost perpendicular to the galactic plane, consistent with this modification of the Newtonian gravitational force. The ecliptic plane is assumed to maintain this orientation in the galactic space as it orbits around the galactic center, but the rotational angular momentum of the earth around its own axis can be assumed to be conserved. The earth is between the sun and the galactic center at the summer solstice all the time. As a consequence, the rotational axis of the earth would be parallel to the axis of the orbital rotation of the earth 15 million years ago, if the solar system has been orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s. The present theory concludes that the earth did not have seasons 15 million years ago. Therefore, the water on the earth was accumulated near the poles as ice and the sea level was very low. Geological evidence exists that confirms this effect. The resulting global ice-melting started 15 million years ago and is ending now.

  9. Thirty years through vanadium chemistry.

    PubMed

    Costa Pessoa, J

    2015-06-01

    The relevance of vanadium in biological systems is known for many years and vanadium-based catalysts have important industrial applications, however, till the beginning of the 80s research on vanadium chemistry and biochemistry did not receive much attention from the scientific community. The understanding of the broad bioinorganic implications resulting from the similarities between phosphate and vanadate(V) and the discovery of vanadium dependent enzymes gave rise to an enormous increase in interest in the chemistry and biological relevance of vanadium. Thereupon the last 30years corresponded to a period of enormous research effort in these fields, as well as in medicinal applications of vanadium and in the development of catalysts for use in fine-chemical synthesis, some of these inspired by enzymatic active sites. Since the 80s my group in collaboration with others made contributions, described throughout this text, namely in the understanding of the speciation of vanadium compounds in aqueous solution and in biological fluids, and to the transport of vanadium compounds in blood plasma and their uptake by cells. Several new types of vanadium compounds were also synthesized and characterized, with applications either as prospective therapeutic drugs or as homogeneous or heterogenized catalysts for the production of fine chemicals. The developments made are described also considering the international context of the evolution of the knowledge in the chemistry and bioinorganic chemistry of vanadium compounds during the last 30years. This article was compiled based on the Vanadis Award presentation at the 9th International Vanadium Symposium. PMID:25843361

  10. CT Angiography after 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Leipsic, Jonathon; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Fleischmann, Dominik; Napel, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Through a marriage of spiral computed tomography (CT) and graphical volumetric image processing, CT angiography was born 20 years ago. Fueled by a series of technical innovations in CT and image processing, over the next 5–15 years, CT angiography toppled conventional angiography, the undisputed diagnostic reference standard for vascular disease for the prior 70 years, as the preferred modality for the diagnosis and characterization of most cardiovascular abnormalities. This review recounts the evolution of CT angiography from its development and early challenges to a maturing modality that has provided unique insights into cardiovascular disease characterization and management. Selected clinical challenges, which include acute aortic syndromes, peripheral vascular disease, aortic stent-graft and transcatheter aortic valve assessment, and coronary artery disease, are presented as contrasting examples of how CT angiography is changing our approach to cardiovascular disease diagnosis and management. Finally, the recently introduced capabilities for multispectral imaging, tissue perfusion imaging, and radiation dose reduction through iterative reconstruction are explored with consideration toward the continued refinement and advancement of CT angiography. PMID:24848958

  11. CTIO: The Next 50 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. C.

    2015-05-01

    After 50 years of solid scientific productivity, CTIO has established a strong reputation as a world-leading international observatory. The next 50 years are filled with opportunities to build on this foundation, continuing to put CTIO at the forefront of astronomy. In the near term (the next 10 years) we will be taking advantage of the power of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to map the southern skies, both as part of Dark Energy Survey (DES) and as part of a wide variety of community projects spanning scientific areas from near-earth asteroids to the most distant gravitationally-lensed galaxies. In addition, we will add new spectroscopic capabilities, both in the optical, with COSMOS, and the near-infrared, with TripleSpec. With the combination of these new facilities with those coming to SOAR, including SAM, SIFS, and STELES, CTIO will provide a highly-efficient suite of capabilities to support astronomers for this decade. And of course we will be preparing for the next decade, which will be the decade of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). CTIO continues to play a central role in supporting the development of LSST during its construction on Cerro Pachón over the next 5 years. However, even more important will be the role CTIO facilities will play in the science of the LSST era. While astronomers will certainly be able to do many new and innovative projects with only the LSST database, a significant fraction of the scientific potential of LSST relies upon optical and infrared followup. The telescopes and instruments of CTIO, from the tenant 1m telescopes to the instruments on the Blanco and SOAR, will be a critical part of the newly rebalanced observing "system". Given that cutting-edge instrumentation can take 5-10 years to move from conception to first light, today is not too early to decide which new instruments we must start developing now in order to fulfill the needs of the community in the next decade.

  12. Fall Semester Year 1 required coursework for

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Year One Year Two Year Three Fall Semester Year 1 required coursework for PharmD, 18 credits PMBA 2100, 2 credits PMBA 2200, 2 credits Total semester credits = 16 Fall Semester Year 2 required coursework for PharmD, 18.5 credits MBA 8211, 2 credits PMBA 2400, 2 credits Total semester credits = 22

  13. Investigating First Year Education Students' Stress Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen; Midford, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the stress levels of first-year education students who undertake teaching practicum and theory units during their first year of teacher education program. First, 139 first-year and 143 other years' education students completed the PSS-10 scale, which measures perceived level of stress. Then, 147 first-year education…

  14. Fiscal year 2013 energy department budget: Proposed investments in clean energy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Energy and environmental research programs generally fared well in President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the Department of Energy (DOE) for fiscal year (FY) 2013. In his State of the Union address, Obama called for the United States to pursue an “all of the above” energy strategy that includes fossil fuels, as well as a variety of renewable sources of energy. The DOE budget request supports that strategy, Energy Secretary Steven Chu said in a 13 February press briefing announcing the budget proposal. The proposed budget gives DOE $27.2 billion overall, a 3.2% increase from the FY 2012 enacted budget (see Table 1). This budget “reflects some tough choices,” Chu said. The proposed budget would cut $4 billion in subsidies for oil and gas companies; many Republican members of Congress have already indicated that they oppose such cuts, suggesting that congressional approval of this budget may run into stumbling blocks. The budget would also cut funding for research and development projects that are already attracting private-sector investment or that are not working, and would reduce some of the department's operational costs.

  15. Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncrieff, M. W.; Waliser, D. E.

    2009-05-01

    Tropical convection and the multi-scale organization of precipitating convection are associated with scale interactions that are fundamental to the atmospheric circulation and its interaction with the ocean. The realistic representation of tropical convection and its multi-scale organization is a long-standing challenge for numerical weather prediction and climate models. Incomplete knowledge and practical issues disadvantage the representation of important phenomena and processes in global models, such as the ITCZ, monsoons, MJO, and easterly waves and tropical cyclones. The tropical-extratropical interactions of tropical convection are key aspects of the Predictability and Dynamical Processes of THORPEX. The WCRP and WWRP/THORPEX are jointly coordinating a year of observing, modeling, and forecasting with a focus on the multi-scale organization of tropical convection, prediction, and predictability: Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC). Satellite, in-situ, and field-campaign measurements (e.g., TPARC), operational prediction, and cloud-system resolving models will be utilized. The temporal scales addressed, up to seasonal, enables the above phenomena to be modeled at high resolution, and seamless prediction issues at the intersection of weather and climate addressed. The 'Year', the period 1 May 2008 - 31 October 2009, began with the archiving of ECMWF T799 (i.e., 25 km) products: i) complete global analysis; ii) deterministic forecasts; and iii) special diagnostics. Plans are underway to obtain similar NCEP and NASA GEOS-5 data, and to integrate various multi-sensor satellite products. The YOTC Science Plan, which is available at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/wwrp/new/documents/ YOTC_Science_Plan.pdf, has been published as a WMO Technical Document. The YOTC Implementation Plan, presently being drafted, will be discussed and finalized at an international workshop in July 2009. This talk summarizes programmatic aspects; science issues involving the multiscale organization of precipitating convection; progress with MJO studies; steps towards implementation; and future directions of the YOTC project.

  16. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  17. [100 years' of clinical electrocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bergovec, Mijo

    2003-01-01

    In 1903 Willem Einthoven published in Pflügers Arch his classic article on the investigation of human electrocardiogram by his string galvanometer. Many historians of medicine, Einthoven also marked that publication as the beginning of clinical electrocardiography. Many investigators like Galvani, Manteucci, Kölliker, Müller, Lipmann, Waller, Ader, Einthoven, Lewis, Wilson and others participated in creation and development of electrocardiogram. From that time electrocardiogram quickly became, and has remained the most essential diagnostic laboratory tool in investigation of heart diseases. The aim of this article is to remind us of the beginning of this part of cardiology 100 years ago. PMID:15209030

  18. Exercise During the Childbearing Year

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Roger L.; Perkins, Jan; Parr, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Many women wish to continue to pursue an active lifestyle during pregnancy, while the pregnancy itself may provide the motivation for other more sedentary women to begin an exercise program for the sake of improved health/fitness. Also, female competitive athletes, upon becoming pregnant, may wish to continue sports performance and require careful monitoring to assure maternal-fetal safety. This review is designed to assist the perinatal educator who is in the position to advise the pregnant patient on the risks and benefits of physical activity during the childbearing year and provide suggestions for developing individualized exercise programs. PMID:17273187

  19. Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Nordstrom; Mike Lewis

    2010-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

  20. A hundred years of gemellology.

    PubMed

    Gedda, L; Brenci, G

    1978-09-01

    Over the past hundred years, since Sir Francis Galton first pointed out its scientific value, the study of twins has considerably widened its scope and significance. Gemellology has come to represent an important branch of human genetics and to be applied to the most diverse fields of biomedical and behavioral research, besides obviously contributing to the study of the specific biological, medical, and psychological aspects of the twin condition. More recently, then, it has in turn originated a new branch of modern genetic research, chronogenetics. Finally, sponsored and coordinated by the Mendel Institute in Rome, an International Society for Twins Studies has developed. PMID:570213