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1

First Fourteen Years of Lake Mead  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This circular summarizes the results of recent studies of Lake Mead and its environs. Area-capacity tables, prepared on the basis of a hydrographic survey of the lake in 1948-49, show that the capacity of the reservoir was reduced 4.9 percent during the first 14 years after Hoover Dam was completed, but the usable capacity was reduced only 3.2 percent. Practically all of this reduction was caused by accumulation of sediment in the reservoir. Studies of inflow and outflow indicate that the reservoir has a total storage capacity about 12 percent greater than that shown by the area-capacity table, because of 'bank' storage, or ground-water storage in the bottom and sides of the reservoir. Thus the total capacity in 1949 was greater than the quantity shown by the original area-capacity table, even though large quantities of sediment had been deposited in the reservoir during the 14 years. According to computations of the volume and weight of the accumulated sediment, about 2,000 million tons were deposited in the reservoir by the Colorado River in 14 years; this is within 2 percent of the amount calculated from measurements of the suspended sediment carried by the in flowing rivers. It is estimated that the sediment capacity of the reservoir, when filled to the level of the permanent spillway crest, is about 75,000 million tons. The sediment contributed by the Colorado River averages about 45 percent sand and 55 percent silt and clay. If the sediment carried by the river in the years 1926-50 represents the long-term average rate of accumulation in Lake Mead, it will be a century before the sediment at the dam reaches the level of the lowest gates in the intake towers, and more than 4 centuries before the reservoir is filled with sediment to the level of the permanent spillway crest. The rate of sedimentation since the first year of Lake Mead (1935) has been about 20 percent lower, and if that rate continues in the future, the life of the reservoir will be correspondingly greater. Construction of upstream reservoirs to capture some of the inflowing sediment, or transportation of sediment in the outflow through Hoover Dam, would also increase the life of the reservoir. In the first 12 years of Lake Mead, the dissolved mineral matter in the outflowing water was significantly greater than the average in the in flowing water, owing in part to solution of gypsum and rock salt from the bed of the reservoir. Currently the increased dissolved solids in the outflowing water can be accounted for almost entirely by evaporation from the reservoir, which is about 5 fo 7 percent of the annual inflow. The water from Lake Mead is habitually of better quality than that diverted from the river for irrigation prior to regulation by Hoover Dam, because it represents an average of the poor water of low stages and the excellent water from melting snow. Geodetic surveys of the Lake Mead area show that the weight of water has caused subsidence of the earth's crust amounting to about 120 millimeter at Hoover Dam, and an even greater amount in the principal area of storage in the reservoir.

Thomas, Harold E.

1954-01-01

2

Fourteen years of resonance of Vanguard orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tracking of Vanguard 3 and the Vanguard 2 rocket with Baker-Nunn cameras and the U.S. Navy's Space Surveillance (radio interferometer) system over a 14 year period revealed resonant fluctuations of up to 0.035 deg in inclination (peak to peak). Six geopotential terms (lumped coefficients) of 11th order and three of 22nd order were measured using orbit inclinations derived from this tracking record. The terms of 11th order are significantly smaller than Kaula's rule. (The lumped coefficients are sensitive to geopotential effects as high as 37th degree.) These observed terms are compatible with a recent 27-satellite geopotential solution whose formal coefficient errors are increased by a factor of 3.3.

Wagner, C. A.

1975-01-01

3

29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS...May Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions § 779.507 Fourteen-year...limits. Under the provisions of Child Labor Regulations, subpart...

2010-07-01

4

29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions § 779.507...of 14- and 15-year-old children in a limited number of occupations...limits. Under the provisions of Child Labor Regulations, subpart...performed on trains or any other media of transportation or at...

2012-07-01

5

29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions § 779.507...of 14- and 15-year-old children in a limited number of occupations...limits. Under the provisions of Child Labor Regulations, subpart...performed on trains or any other media of transportation or at...

2011-07-01

6

29 CFR 779.507 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Affect Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions § 779.507...of 14- and 15-year-old children in a limited number of occupations...limits. Under the provisions of Child Labor Regulations, subpart...performed on trains or any other media of transportation or at...

2013-07-01

7

Cavernous sinus hemangioma: a fourteen year single institution experience.  

PubMed

Cavernous sinus hemangioma (CSH) is a rare extra-axial vascular neoplasm that accounts for 2% to 3% of all cavernous sinus tumors. Their location, propensity for profuse bleeding during surgery, and relationship to complex neurovascular structures are factors which present difficulty in excising these lesions. The authors describe their experience of 22 patients with CSH over 14 years at a tertiary care center. Patients were managed with microsurgical resection using a purely extradural transcavernous approach (13 patients) and with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS; Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) (nine patients). Retrospective data analysis found headache and visual impairment were the most common presenting complaints, followed by facial hypesthesia and diplopia. All but one patient had complete tumor excision in the surgical series. Transient ophthalmoparesis (complete resolution in 6-8 weeks) was the most common surgical complication. In the GKRS group, marked tumor shrinkage (>50% tumor volume reduction) was achieved in two patients, slight shrinkage in five and no change in two patients, with symptom improvement in the majority of patients. To our knowledge, we describe one of the largest series of CSH managed at a single center. Although microsurgical resection using an extradural transcavernous approach is considered the treatment of choice in CSH and allows complete excision with minimal mortality and long-term morbidity, GKRS is an additional tool for treating residual symptomatic lesions or in patients with associated comorbidities making surgical resection unsuitable. PMID:24524951

Bansal, Sumit; Suri, Ashish; Singh, Manmohan; Kale, Shashank Sharad; Agarwal, Deepak; Sharma, Manish Singh; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

2014-06-01

8

Book Review The Mermaid's Tale: Four Billion Years of Cooperation  

E-print Network

Book Review The Mermaid's Tale: Four Billion Years of Cooperation in the Making of Living Things.00 (cloth). The motivation for The Mermaid's Tale: Four Billion Years of Cooperation in the Making of Living from this book largely unconvinced and sometimes annoyed. The Mermaid's Tale is presented in three

Hochberg, Michael

9

Conservation of protein structure over four billion years  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Little is known with certainty about the evolution of protein structures in general and the degree of protein structure conservation over planetary time scales in particular. Here we report the X-ray crystal structures of seven laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins dating back up to ~4 billion years before present. Despite considerable sequence differences compared with extant enzymes, the ancestral proteins display the canonical thioredoxin fold while only small structural changes have occurred over 4 billion years. This remarkable degree of structure conservation since a time near the last common ancestor of life supports a punctuated-equilibrium model of structure evolution in which the generation of new folds occurs over comparatively short periods of time and is followed by long periods of structural stasis. PMID:23932589

Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Delgado-Delgado, Asuncion; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Fernandez, Julio M.; Gaucher, Eric A.; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.; Gavira, Jose A.

2013-01-01

10

Early Archean (3.3-billion to 3.5-billion-year-old) microfossils from Warrawoona Group, Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cellularly preserved filamentous and colonial fossil microorganisms have been discovered in bedded carbonaceous cherts from the Early Archean Apex Basalt and Towers Formation of northwestern Western Australia. The cell types detected suggest that cyanobacteria, and therefore oxygen-producing photosynthesis, may have been extant as early as 3.3 billion to 3.5 billion years ago. These fossils are among the oldest now known from the geologic record; their discovery substantiates previous reports of Early Archean microfossils in Warrawoona Group strata.

Schopf, J. W.; Packer, B. M.

1987-01-01

11

Constraining the geodynamo and magnetopause during Earth's first billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key parameter in determining solar-terrestrial interactions for the early Earth is the magnetopause standoff distance, determined by the balance between the geomagnetic field and solar wind pressure. The oldest constraints are for 3.45 Ga, during which the magnetopause standoff was less than half the distance of present-day, suggesting an environment where enhanced volatile loss (including water) from the atmosphere seems unavoidable (Tarduno et al., Science, 2010). As we look further back in time there are two vastly different, but currently viable models for the geodynamo. In one the dynamo started shortly after core formation, whereas in the other the dynamo was delayed by as much as 1 billion years by slow lower mantle cooling. A further uncertainty in standoff calculations is solar mass loss for the first 700 million years of the young Sun. Here we address both the uncertainties in solar winds and Earth's dipole moment. We constrain solar mass loss using a new model for the evolution of solar magnetic topology with time, allowing us to extend our prior calculations to the earliest Sun. Extant rocks suitable for paleomagnetic analysis are not available older than ca. 3.47 Ga, however, silicate minerals containing magnetic inclusions composing sedimentary rocks could preserve an ancient record of the geodynamo. Among these, the Jack Hills metaconglomerate (Yilgarn craton, Western Australia) is a promising unit because cobbles pass a conglomerate test (Tarduno and Cottrell, EPSL, 2013). Following our work on zircons and other single silicate crystals hosting magnetic inclusions in the Rochester laboratory since 1997, we discuss the first successful Thellier-Thellier paleointensity results on zircons measured in situ in quartz and as isolated crystals. We employ a CO2 laser demagnetization system and a small bore (6.3 mm) 3-component DC SQUID magnetometer; the latter offers the highest currently available moment resolution. We will discuss our related geochronological studies, and the implications for the early history of the geodynamo, atmospheric loss by solar wind erosion and planetary habitability.

Cottrell, R. D.; Tarduno, J. A.; Davis, W. J.; Mamajek, E.

2013-12-01

12

A SWIRE Picture is Worth Billions of Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: SWIRE View of Distant Galaxies [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3 Figure 4

These spectacular images, taken by the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Legacy project, encapsulate one of the primary objectives of the Spitzer mission: to connect the evolution of galaxies from the distant, or early, universe to the nearby, or present day, universe.

The Tadpole galaxy (main image) is the result of a recent galactic interaction in the local universe. Although these galactic mergers are rare in the universe's recent history, astronomers believe that they were much more common in the early universe. Thus, SWIRE team members will use this detailed image of the Tadpole galaxy to help understand the nature of the 'faint red-orange specks' of the early universe.

The larger picture (figure 2) depicts one-sixteenth of the SWIRE survey field called ELAIS-N1. In this image, the bright blue sources are hot stars in our own Milky Way, which range anywhere from 3 to 60 times the mass of our Sun. The fainter green spots are cooler stars and galaxies beyond the Milky Way whose light is dominated by older stellar populations. The red dots are dusty galaxies that are undergoing intense star formation. The faintest specks of red-orange are galaxies billions of light-years away in the distant universe.

Figure 3 features an unusual ring-like galaxy called CGCG 275-022. The red spiral arms indicate that this galaxy is very dusty and perhaps undergoing intense star formation. The star-forming activity could have been initiated by a near head-on collision with another galaxy.

The most distant galaxies that SWIRE is able to detect are revealed in a zoom of deep space (figure 4). The colors in this feature represent the same objects as those in the larger field image of ELAIS-N1.

The observed SWIRE fields were chosen on the basis of being 'empty' or as free as possible from the obscuring dust, gas, and stars of our own Milky Way. Because Earth is located within the Milky Way galaxy, there is always a screen of Milky Way objects blocking our view of the rest of the universe. In some places, our view of the larger universe is less obscured than others and for the most part is considered 'empty.' These are prime observing spots for astronomers interested in studying objects beyond the Milky Way. ELAIS-N1 is only one of six SWIRE survey fields. The full survey covers 49 square degrees of the sky, equivalent to the area covered by about 250 full moons.

The SWIRE images are 3-channel false-color composites, where blue represents visible green light (light that would appear to be blue/green to the human eye), green captures infrared light of 3.6 microns, and red represents infrared emissions of 8 microns. The infrared data are from Spitzer's infrared array camera and the visible-light data are from the Isaac Newton Telescope, Spain.

2005-01-01

13

A plastic whistle incarcerated in bronchus diagnosed fourteen years after ‘swallowed’: a case report  

PubMed Central

Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common disease in pre-school children but easily overlooked by physicians. In this article, we report a case with bronchial stenosis that is not typical and misdiagnosed for 14 years, in the end bronchoscopy retrieval was successfully performed after adequate preparation. Pitfalls and recommendations in diagnosis and management of FBA are briefly included. PMID:24977017

Wang, Xin

2014-01-01

14

Food Web Changes over Fourteen Years Following Introduction of Rainbow Smelt into a Colorado Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainbow smelt Osmerus mordaxwere introduced into Horsetooth Reservoir, Colorado, in 1983 to increase prey availability for walleyes Stizostedion vitreum.The introduction was highly successful. Rainbow smelt abundance reached at least 0.4 fish\\/m 3 within 6 years, and walleye growth improved by 50%. Zooplankton sampling provided the first clues that the Horsetooth Reservoir food web was undergoing dramatic changes in response to

Brett M. Johnson; John P. Goettl

1999-01-01

15

Prognostic Factors in Encephalocele: A Fourteen-Year Survey at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes a 14-year follow-up of infants with en- cephalocele seen at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from 1988 to 2002. Out of 13 cases, only ten were born among the 35,851 births recorded in that period. Only occipital subtype was found. Three of them had meningocele, nine cases had meningoencephalocele and only one had me- ningoencephalocystocele. Eight patients developed

ABU ELENEIN; AMAL A. AL; OSAMA M. RAYES

2004-01-01

16

Fourteen years follow up after Lisfranc fracture-dislocation: functional and radiological results.  

PubMed

Injuries to the Lisfranc joint have a high potential for chronic disability. Posttraumatic arthritis remains the most common complication but not all patients who develop degenerative radiographic changes are symptomatic. A cohort of 32 patients with a Lisfranc fracture dislocation was reviewed. Initial reduction and secondary displacement were measured by the Myerson scale. Radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis (OA) was also investigated. Long-term radiographical data were classified as good, fair or poor results. Functional outcome was measured using several different scales. Mean follow up was 14 years. Seventeen patients with anatomic close reduction but instability were treated with closed reduction and K-wire fixation followed by cast immobilisation. Eight patients with stable anatomic close reduction were treated with closed reduction and cast. Seven patients with unacceptable closed reduction were treated with open reduction and K-wire stabilisation. The analysis of radiological long-term data showed 15 patients with good results, 8 with fair results and 9 with poor results. Final mean AOFAS score was 91.7/100. There was no statistically significant difference between overall PFS scores and different type of treatment, Hardcastle long-term radiological scores or Hardcastle type of fracture (p >0.05). Overall, there was a poor association between the extent of radiological arthritis and clinical scores. We advocate that for the evaluation of long-term outcome of these injuries functional parameters should be the focus of assessment, instead of radiological changes. PMID:23622999

Marín-Peña, Oliver R; Viloria Recio, Fernando; Sanz Gómez, Tomas; Larrainzar Garijo, Ricardo

2012-12-01

17

1. Fourteen Years Of Diffuse CO2 Monitoring At Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

7. Cerro Negro is an active basaltic volcano belonging to the active Central American Volcanic Belt, which includes a 1,100 Km long chain of 41 active volcanoes from Guatemala to Panama. Cerro Negro first erupted in 1850 and has experienced 21 eruptive eruptions with inter eruptive average periods between 7 and 9 years. Since the last eruption occurred on 5 August 1999, with erupted lava flows and ash clouds together with gas emissions, a collaborative research program between INETER and ITER was established for monitoring diffuse CO2 emissions from this volcano. Until 2012, twelve soil CO2 emission surveys covering an area of 0,6 km2 have been performed by means of the accumulation chamber method to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of CO2 degassing rate in relation to the eruptive cycle of Cerro Negro. A total diffuse CO2 emission output of 1,869 t•d-1 was estimated for the 1999 survey; just 3 months after the 1999 eruption which can be considered within the post-eruptive phase. For the April, 2002 and March, 2008 surveys, considered within the inter-eruptive phase, a clear decreasing tendency on the total diffuse CO2 output was observed, with estimates of 431 and 10 t•d-1, respectively, except a small increment in 2004, to 256 t d-1, associated with an anomalous seismic activity. The higher anomalies are located around the crater of 1995 and 1999. An increasing on the total CO2 emission has been observed, from December 2008 to February 2011, with total diffuse CO2 output estimates from 12 t•d-1 to 43 t•d-1, respectively. These temporal variations show a close relationship between diffuse CO2 emission and the eruptive cycle at Cerro Negro. This relationship indicates that monitoring CO2 emission is an important geochemical tool for the volcanic surveillance at Cerro Negro. References: (1) Rodríguez et al. (2009) AGU Fall Meeting 2009. EOS, AGU,V21-2017 . (2) Padilla et al. (2008). IV Reunión de la Red Española de Volcanología, Almagro 2008. (3) Melián et al. (2003). EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 84, 46, F11514. (4) Parkinson K. J. (1981). Journal of Applied Ecology 18, 221-228. (5) Salazar et al. (2001). Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 22, 4275 - 4278.

Barrancos Martinez, Jose; Melián, Gladys; Ibarra, Martha; Álvarez, Julio; Rodríguez, Fátima; Nolasco, Dácil; Padilla, Germán; Calvo, David; Dionis, Samara; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Iñigo; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Muñoz, Angélica

2013-04-01

18

3.4-Billion-Year-Old Biogenic Pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: Sulfur Isotope Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate,

Hiroshi Ohmoto; Takeshi Kakegawa; Donald R. Lowe

1993-01-01

19

3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

Ohmoto, H.; Kakegawa, T.; Lowe, D. R.

1993-01-01

20

Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal  

E-print Network

Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabo- lism that is complimentary to

Fischer, Woodward

21

Electron microscopy reveals unique microfossil preservation in 1 billion-year-old lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron microscopy was applied to the study of 1 billion-year-old microfossils from northwest Scotland in order to investigate their 3D morphology and mode of fossilization. 3D-FIB-SEM revealed high quality preservation of organic cell walls with only minor amounts of post-mortem decomposition, followed by variable degrees of morphological alteration (folding and compression of cell walls) during sediment compaction. EFTEM mapping plus SAED revealed a diverse fossilizing mineral assemblage including K-rich clay, Fe-Mg-rich clay and calcium phosphate, with each mineral occupying specific microenvironments in proximity to carbonaceous microfossil cell walls.

Saunders, M.; Kong, C.; Menon, S.; Wacey, D.

2014-06-01

22

Triploblastic animals more than 1 billion years ago: trace fossil evidence from india  

PubMed

Some intriguing bedding plane features that were observed in the Mesoproterozoic Chorhat Sandstone are biological and can be interpreted as the burrows of wormlike undermat miners (that is, infaunal animals that excavated tunnels underneath microbial mats). These burrows suggest that triploblastic animals existed more than a billion years ago. They also suggest that the diversification of animal designs proceeded very slowly before the appearance of organisms with hard skeletons, which was probably the key event in the Cambrian evolutionary explosion, and before the ecological changes that accompanied that event. PMID:9756480

Seilacher; Bose; Pfluger

1998-10-01

23

Evidence for arsenic metabolism and cycling by microorganisms 2.7 billion years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of microbes to metabolize arsenic may have emerged more than 3.4 billion years ago. Some of the modern environments in which prominent arsenic metabolism occurs are anoxic, as were the Precambrian oceans. Early oceans may also have had a relatively high abundance of arsenic. However, it is unclear whether arsenic cycling occurred in ancient environments. Here we assess the chemistry and nature of cell-like globules identified in salt-encrusted portions of 2.72-billion-year-old fossil stromatolites from Western Australia. We use Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence to show that the globules are composed of organic carbon and arsenic (As). We argue that our data are best explained by the occurrence of a complete arsenic cycle at this site, with As(III) oxidation and As(V) reduction by microbes living in permanently anoxic conditions. We therefore suggest that arsenic cycling could have occurred more widely in marine environments in the several hundred million years before the Earth’s atmosphere and shallow oceans were oxygenated.

Sforna, Marie Catherine; Philippot, Pascal; Somogyi, Andrea; van Zuilen, Mark A.; Medjoubi, Kadda; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Visscher, Pieter T.

2014-11-01

24

A massive galaxy in its core formation phase three billion years after the Big Bang.  

PubMed

Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores in early cosmic epochs. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes, but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we report a candidate core in the process of formation 11 billion years ago, at redshift z = 2.3. This galaxy, GOODS-N-774, has a stellar mass of 100 billion solar masses, a half-light radius of 1.0 kiloparsecs and a star formation rate of solar masses per year. The star-forming gas has a velocity dispersion of 317 ± 30 kilometres per second. This is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, which are compact quiescent galaxies at z ? 2 (refs 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 seem to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of this galaxy we infer that many star-forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys. PMID:25162527

Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha Förster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Leja, Joel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine; Wuyts, Stijn

2014-09-18

25

Survival and Recurrent Strokes in Patients with Different Subtypes of Stroke: A Fourteen-Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 339 patients (154 men, 185 women) with a median age of 74 years (range 23–97) admitted to the Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology in 1986, have been followed up for 14 years. The diagnoses were intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH; 30, 8.8%), cardioembolic cerebral infarction (CE, 71, 20.9%), lacunar infarction (LI; 47, 13.9%) and atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI; 191,

Sven-Erik Eriksson; Jan-Edvin Olsson

2001-01-01

26

Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, procarbazine, and prednisone (CVPP) for Hodgkin disease: fourteen-year follow-up results.  

PubMed

Thirty-eight patients with advanced Hodgkin disease were treated with a combination of cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, procarbazine, and prednisone (CVPP) from 1970 to 1973 and followed prospectively. Long-term results after a median follow-up of 14 years are reported. Seventeen of the 28 complete responders (61%) survived more than 10 years from the initiation of chemotherapy. At the current time, 12 of the 28 patients (43%) are continuously disease-free 12.8 to 15.3 years after completing induction chemotherapy. Two additional patients are alive in third and fifth remissions. All relapses occurred within 5.5 years of completing induction chemotherapy. Late complications included sterility, aseptic osteonecrosis, severe pulmonary fibrosis, and chronic uveitis. Four of the complete responders (14%) developed second neoplasms, including acute myelogenous leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and small cell carcinoma of the lung. All second malignancies were fatal and developed 5-13 years after initiation of induction chemotherapy. Our data confirm that cure is possible with alternative regimens to MOPP (nitrogen mustard, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone). PMID:3414672

Dusenbery, K E; Peterson, B A; Bloomfield, C D

1988-08-01

27

Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism  

E-print Network

The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites ...

Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.

28

Applied Psychology in the Junior High School: Teaching ESL Communicative Skills to Twelve-to-Fourteen-Year-Olds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boys and girls in the early years of adolescence can best learn ESL communicative skills if the instructor has an understanding of the main characteristics of early adolescence and an appreciation of the teaching techniques best adaped to them. Characteristics which should be taken into account when designing an ESL course include the following:…

Adams-Smith, Diana E.

29

The Impact of Timing of Puberty on Psychosomatic Symptoms among Fourteen- to Sixteen-Year-Old Finnish Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied whether pubertal age affects reports of psychosomatic symptoms among 14- to 16-year-old girls. Considered whether differences in dating and alcohol use might be mediating factors in the relation between pubertal age and psychosomatic symptoms. Subjects were 935 Finnish eighth-grade pupils who completed questionnaires three times during a…

Aro, Hillevi; Taipale, Vappu

1987-01-01

30

Atmospheric carbon dioxide: a driver of photosynthetic eukaryote evolution for over a billion years?  

PubMed Central

Exciting evidence from diverse fields, including physiology, evolutionary biology, palaeontology, geosciences and molecular genetics, is providing an increasingly secure basis for robustly formulating and evaluating hypotheses concerning the role of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Such studies span over a billion years of evolutionary change, from the origins of eukaryotic algae through to the evolution of our present-day terrestrial floras, and have relevance for plant and ecosystem responses to future global CO2 increases. The papers in this issue reflect the breadth and depth of approaches being adopted to address this issue. They reveal new discoveries pointing to deep evidence for the role of CO2 in shaping evolutionary changes in plants and ecosystems, and establish an exciting cross-disciplinary research agenda for uncovering new insights into feedbacks between biology and the Earth system. PMID:22232760

Beerling, David J.

2012-01-01

31

Atmospheric carbon dioxide: a driver of photosynthetic eukaryote evolution for over a billion years?  

PubMed

Exciting evidence from diverse fields, including physiology, evolutionary biology, palaeontology, geosciences and molecular genetics, is providing an increasingly secure basis for robustly formulating and evaluating hypotheses concerning the role of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Such studies span over a billion years of evolutionary change, from the origins of eukaryotic algae through to the evolution of our present-day terrestrial floras, and have relevance for plant and ecosystem responses to future global CO(2) increases. The papers in this issue reflect the breadth and depth of approaches being adopted to address this issue. They reveal new discoveries pointing to deep evidence for the role of CO(2) in shaping evolutionary changes in plants and ecosystems, and establish an exciting cross-disciplinary research agenda for uncovering new insights into feedbacks between biology and the Earth system. PMID:22232760

Beerling, David J

2012-02-19

32

Exploring the Impact of Galaxy Interactions over Seven Billion Years with CAS  

E-print Network

We explore galaxy assembly over the last seven billion years by characterizing "normal" galaxies along the Hubble sequence, against strongly disturbed merging/interacting galaxies with the widely used CAS system of concentration (C), asymmetry (A), and 'clumpiness' (S) parameters, as well as visual classification. We analyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ACS images of ~4000 intermediate and high mass (> 10^9 solar masses) galaxies from the GEMS survey, one of the largest HST surveys conducted to date in two filters. We explore the effectiveness of the CAS criteria [A>S and A>~0.35] in separating normal and strongly disturbed galaxies at different redshifts, and quantify the recovery and contamination rate. We also compare the average star formation rate and the cosmic star formation rate density as a function of redshift between normal and interacting systems identified by CAS.

Miller, Sarah H; Conselice, C; Penner, K; Bell, E; Zheng, X; Papovich, C; Skelton, R; Somerville, R; Rix, H; Barazza, F; Barden, M; Borch, A; Beckwith, S; Caldwell, J; Haeussler, B; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; McIntosh, D; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C; Robaina, A; Sanchez, S; Wisotzki, L; Wolf, C

2008-01-01

33

Exploring the Impact of Galaxy Interactions over Seven Billion Years with CAS  

E-print Network

We explore galaxy assembly over the last seven billion years by characterizing "normal" galaxies along the Hubble sequence, against strongly disturbed merging/interacting galaxies with the widely used CAS system of concentration (C), asymmetry (A), and 'clumpiness' (S) parameters, as well as visual classification. We analyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ACS images of ~4000 intermediate and high mass (> 10^9 solar masses) galaxies from the GEMS survey, one of the largest HST surveys conducted to date in two filters. We explore the effectiveness of the CAS criteria [A>S and A>~0.35] in separating normal and strongly disturbed galaxies at different redshifts, and quantify the recovery and contamination rate. We also compare the average star formation rate and the cosmic star formation rate density as a function of redshift between normal and interacting systems identified by CAS.

Sarah H. Miller; S. Jogee; C. Conselice; K. Penner; E. Bell; X. Zheng; C. Papovich; R. Skelton; R. Somerville; H. Rix; F. Barazza; M. Barden; A. Borch; S. Beckwith; J. Caldwell; B. Haeussler; C. Heymans; K. Jahnke; D. McIntosh; K. Meisenheimer; C. Peng; A. Robaina; S. Sanchez; L. Wisotzki; C. Wolf

2008-02-26

34

A change in the geodynamics of continental growth 3 billion years ago.  

PubMed

Models for the growth of continental crust rely on knowing the balance between the generation of new crust and the reworking of old crust throughout Earth's history. The oxygen isotopic composition of zircons, for which uranium-lead and hafnium isotopic data provide age constraints, is a key archive of crustal reworking. We identified systematic variations in hafnium and oxygen isotopes in zircons of different ages that reveal the relative proportions of reworked crust and of new crust through time. Growth of continental crust appears to have been a continuous process, albeit at variable rates. A marked decrease in the rate of crustal growth at ~3 billion years ago may be linked to the onset of subduction-driven plate tectonics. PMID:22422979

Dhuime, Bruno; Hawkesworth, Chris J; Cawood, Peter A; Storey, Craig D

2012-03-16

35

IRON AND {alpha}-ELEMENT PRODUCTION IN THE FIRST ONE BILLION YEARS AFTER THE BIG BANG  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of carbon, oxygen, silicon, and iron in quasar absorption systems existing when the universe was roughly one billion years old. We measure column densities in nine low-ionization systems at 4.7 < z < 6.3 using Keck, Magellan, and Very Large Telescope optical and near-infrared spectra with moderate to high resolution. The column density ratios among C II, O I, Si II, and Fe II are nearly identical to sub-damped Ly{alpha} systems (sub-DLAs) and metal-poor ([M/H] {<=} -1) DLAs at lower redshifts, with no significant evolution over 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 6. The estimated intrinsic scatter in the ratio of any two elements is also small, with a typical rms deviation of {approx}< 0.1 dex. These facts suggest that dust depletion and ionization effects are minimal in our z > 4.7 systems, as in the lower-redshift DLAs, and that the column density ratios are close to the intrinsic relative element abundances. The abundances in our z > 4.7 systems are therefore likely to represent the typical integrated yields from stellar populations within the first gigayear of cosmic history. Due to the time limit imposed by the age of the universe at these redshifts, our measurements thus place direct constraints on the metal production of massive stars, including iron yields of prompt supernovae. The lack of redshift evolution further suggests that the metal inventories of most metal-poor absorption systems at z {approx}> 2 are also dominated by massive stars, with minimal contributions from delayed Type Ia supernovae or winds from asymptotic giant branch stars. The relative abundances in our systems broadly agree with those in very metal-poor, non-carbon-enhanced Galactic halo stars. This is consistent with the picture in which present-day metal-poor stars were potentially formed as early as one billion years after the big bang.

Becker, George D.; Carswell, Robert F. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sargent, Wallace L. W. [Palomar Observatory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rauch, Michael, E-mail: gdb@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: acalver@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: wws@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: mr@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

2012-01-10

36

A Closer Look Fourteen years  

E-print Network

University Jane DelGiorno Under Howard Part's leadership, the Boonshoft School of Medicine n Created a new & Premier Health Partners Neuroscience Institute and the National Center for Medical Readiness. n Opened in the Department of Internal Medicine. Between 1990 and 1998, Part held a variety of leadership positions at Wright

Alvarez, Francisco J.

37

New research indicates that asteroids barraged the Earth's surface for an additional two billion years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ancient asteroids kept on cominghttp://www.nature.com/news/ancient-asteroids-kept-on-coming-1.10504Dinosaurs were declining before asteroid struck, say scientistshttp://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2012/0501/Dinosaurs-were-declining-before-asteroid-struck-say-scientists-videoTriceratops was already on road to extinction before asteroid wiped out dinosaurshttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/dinosaurs/9238658/Triceratops-was-already-on-road-to-exctinction-before-asteroid-wiped-out-dinosaurs.htmlBBC Nature: Prehistoric Life: Dinosaurshttp://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/life/DinosaurDinobasehttp://dinobase.gly.bris.ac.uk/It is generally believed that a massive asteroid impact some 65 million years ago killed off the dinosaurs, ending their long reign as the dominant vertebrates on the planet. However, a recent pair of studies has revealed that such occurrences were much more common than previously thought. Before now, scientists thought that the intense period of asteroid impacts ended almost 3.7 billion years ago. Both of these new studies seem to indicate that over 70 asteroid impacts at least as severe as the one that likely killed off the dinosaurs continued over an additional period of 2 billion years. The scientists think that the potential culprits were asteroids originating from the E belt, which is quite small in the present day. Of course, there is some dissent between the two studies about the range of speeds at which the asteroids were traveling before impact, and both groups of scientists will continue to compare their respective findings. The first link leads to a podcast and article on this recent discovery from the Scientific American's "60-Second Space" series. The second link will whisk users away to a detailed piece by Nature's Helen Thompson which provides additional insights into the recently published studies on the asteroids. The third link takes interested parties to a nice piece from The Christian Science Monitor about those groups of dinosaurs that were already in decline before a massive meteor struck the Earth's surface some 65 million years ago. Moving on, the fourth link leads to a piece from this Tuesday's Telegraph about this steady decline, with a focus on the Hadrosaurs and the Triceratops. The fifth link leads to a site created by the BBC about the world of the dinosaurs. Here visitors can look over renderings of these fabulous creatures, and learn more about them in sections such as When they lived, What their world was like, and Behaviours. The final link leads to a wonderful database of photos, blogs, forums and so on (annotated in this week's Scout Report) from the University of Bristol on the subject of dinosaurs.

Grinnell, Max

2012-05-04

38

Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by ?-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

Lowenstern, J. B.; Evans, W. C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, A. G.

2014-02-01

39

Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents1. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot2. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by ?-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

Lowenstern, J.B.; Evans, W.C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, A.G.

2014-01-01

40

Constraints on the first billion years of the geodynamo from paleointensity studies of zircons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several lines of reasoning, including new ideas on core thermal conductivity, suggest that onset of a strong geomagnetic field might have been delayed by one billion years (or more) after the lunar forming event. Here we extend the Proterozoic/Archean to Paleoarchean record of the geomagnetic field constrained by single crystal paleointensity (SCP) analyses (Tarduno et al., Science, 2010) to older times using zircons containing minute magnetic inclusions. Specifically, we focus on samples from the Jack Hills (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia). We employ a CO2 laser demagnetization system and a small bore (6.3 mm) 3-component DC SQUID magnetometer; the latter offers the highest currently available moment resolution. Sample age is analyzed using SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology. Preliminary data support the presence of a relatively strong Paleoarchean field produced by a core dynamo, extending the known record by at least 100 million years, to approximately 3.55 Ga. These data only serve to exacerbate the apparent problem posed by the presence of a Paleoarchean dynamo. Alternative dynamo driving mechanisms, or efficient core/lowermost mantle heat loss processes unique to the Paleoarchean (and older times) might have been at work. We will discuss these processes, and our efforts to study even older Eoarchean-Hadean zircons.

Tarduno, John; Cottrell, Rory; Davis, William

2014-05-01

41

The First Billion Years project: dark matter haloes going from contraction to expansion and back again  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effect of baryons on the inner dark matter profile of the first galaxies using the First Billion Years simulation between z = 16 and 6 before secular evolution sets in. Using a large statistical sample from two simulations of the same volume and cosmological initial conditions, one with and one without baryons, we are able to directly compare haloes with their baryon-free counterparts, allowing a detailed study of the modifications to the dark matter density profile due to the presence of baryons during the first billion years of galaxy formation. For each of the ?5000 haloes in our sample (3 × 107 M? ? Mtot ? 5 × 109 M?), we quantify the impact of the baryons using ?, defined as the ratio of dark matter mass enclosed in 100 pc in the baryonic run to its counterpart without baryons. During this epoch of rapid growth of galaxies, we find that many haloes of these first galaxies show an enhancement of dark matter in the halo centre compared to the baryon-free simulation, while many others show a deficit. We find that the mean value of ? is close to unity, but there is a large dispersion, with a standard deviation of 0.677. The enhancement is cyclical in time and tracks the star formation cycle of the galaxy; as gas falls to the centre and forms stars, the dark matter moves in as well. Supernova (SN) feedback then removes the gas, and the dark matter again responds to the changing potential. We study three physical models relating the motion of baryons to that of the dark matter: adiabatic contraction, dynamical friction, and rapid outflows. We find that dynamical friction plays only a very minor role, while adiabatic contraction and the rapid outflows due to feedback describe well the enhancement (or decrement) of dark matter. For haloes which show significant decrements of dark matter in the core, we find that to remove the dark matter requires an energy input between 1051 and 1053 erg. For our SN feedback proscription, this requires as a lower limit a constant star formation rate between 0.002 and 0.2 M? yr-1 for the previous 5 Myr. We also find that heating due to reionization is able to prevent the formation of strong cusps for haloes which at z ˜ 12 have ?108 M?. The lack of a strong cusp in these haloes remains down to z = 6, the end of our simulation.

Davis, Andrew J.; Khochfar, Sadegh; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio

2014-09-01

42

A Massive Galaxy in its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years After the Big Bang  

E-print Network

Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z=2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0x10^11 Msun, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90[+45-20]Msun/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317+-30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z~2 and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavil...

Nelson, Erica; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha Förster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Leja, Joel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine; Wuyts, Stijn

2014-01-01

43

Evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis half a billion years before the Great Oxidation Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early Earth was characterized by the absence of oxygen in the ocean-atmosphere system, in contrast to the well-oxygenated conditions that prevail today. Atmospheric concentrations first rose to appreciable levels during the Great Oxidation Event, roughly 2.5-2.3 Gyr ago. The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis is generally accepted to have been the ultimate cause of this rise, but it has proved difficult to constrain the timing of this evolutionary innovation. The oxidation of manganese in the water column requires substantial free oxygen concentrations, and thus any indication that Mn oxides were present in ancient environments would imply that oxygenic photosynthesis was ongoing. Mn oxides are not commonly preserved in ancient rocks, but there is a large fractionation of molybdenum isotopes associated with the sorption of Mo onto the Mn oxides that would be retained. Here we report Mo isotopes from rocks of the Sinqeni Formation, Pongola Supergroup, South Africa. These rocks formed no less than 2.95 Gyr ago in a nearshore setting. The Mo isotopic signature is consistent with interaction with Mn oxides. We therefore infer that oxygen produced through oxygenic photosynthesis began to accumulate in shallow marine settings at least half a billion years before the accumulation of significant levels of atmospheric oxygen.

Planavsky, Noah J.; Asael, Dan; Hofmann, Axel; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Knudsen, Andrew; Wang, Xiangli; Ossa Ossa, Frantz; Pecoits, Ernesto; Smith, Albertus J. B.; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Bekker, Andrey; Johnson, Thomas M.; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Rouxel, Olivier J.

2014-04-01

44

Physicists believe that our universe began with a huge explosion about thirteen billion years ago, called the Big Bang.  

E-print Network

#12;#12;1 Big Bang Physicists believe that our universe began with a huge explosion about thirteen billion years ago, called the Big Bang. Immediately after, the temperature is believed to have been the cooling period, after the Big Bang explosion, quarks and electrons were formed, followed by protons

Kazama, Hokto

45

2 billion year old natural analogs for nuclear waste disposal: the natural nuclear fission reactors in Gabon (Africa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two billion years ago, the increase of oxygen in atmosphere and the high 235U\\/238U uranium ratio (>3%) made possible the occurrence of natural nuclear reactors on Earth. These reactors are considered to be a good natural analogue for nuclear waste disposal. Their preservation during such a long period of time is mainly due to the geological stability of the site,

François Gauthier-Lafaye

2002-01-01

46

Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 43.5 billion years ago  

E-print Network

here, including the effects of flares and activity cycles, using a solar-like star that has the sameHabitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4­3.5 billion years ago of the circumstances under which life formed on Earth. The quantity that is received depends on two main variables

Utrecht, Universiteit

47

Preservation of hydrocarbons and biomarkers in oil trapped inside fluid inclusions for >2 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil-bearing fluid inclusions occur in a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying deltaic McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of the oil reveal a wide range of compounds, including CH 4, CO 2, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, low molecular weight cyclic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring biomarkers. Maturity ratios show that the oil was generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. This is remarkable, given that the oils were exposed to upper prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism (280-350 °C) either during migration or after entrapment. The fluid inclusions are closed systems, with high fluid pressures, and contain no clays or other minerals or metals that might catalyse oil-to-gas cracking. These three attributes may all contribute to the thermal stability of the included oil and enable survival of biomarkers and molecular ratios over billions of years. The biomarker geochemistry of the oil in the Matinenda Formation fluid inclusions enables inferences about the organisms that contributed to the organic matter deposited in the Palaeoproterozoic source rocks from which the analysed oil was generated and expelled. The presence of biomarkers produced by cyanobacteria and eukaryotes that are derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before ca. 2.2 Ga is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution through Earth's early history that avoids the potential contamination problems affecting shale-hosted hydrocarbons.

George, Simon C.; Volk, Herbert; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger

2008-02-01

48

Evidence for Oxygenic Photosynthesis Half a Billion Years Before the Great Oxidation Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite detailed investigations over the past 50 years, there is still intense debate about when oxygenic photosynthesis evolved. Current estimates span over a billion years of Earth history, ranging from prior to 3.8 Ga, the age of the oldest sedimentary rocks, to 2.5-2.3 Ga, coincident with the rise of atmospheric oxygen ("The Great Oxidation Event" or GOE). Hitherto, geochemical and biomarker evidence for the development of oxygenic photosynthesis prior to the GOE has been inconclusive and so a new, independent perspective is needed to constrain when oxygenesis evolved. Through the use of molybdenum (Mo) isotopes, we can track the onset of manganese(II) (Mn2+) oxidation, which requires free oxygen. It is only through photosynthesis that free oxygen is produced in significant quantities, allowing local oxygen build up in aqueous environments. Therefore, if we find a clear signal for appreciable Mn oxidation in the sedimentary rock record, oxygenic photosynthesis must have evolved by that time. There are large Mo isotope fractionations associated with the sorption of Mo onto Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides, with an approximately -2.7‰ ?98Mo fractionation associated with Mo sorption onto Mn oxyhydroxides. In contrast, sorption of Mo onto the common Fe oxyhydroxide ferrihydrite results in a fractionation of only ca. -1.1‰. Because of these differences in Mo isotope fractionations, Mo isotope values should become lighter with increasing Mn content if Mn oxidation occurs during deposition and is an important vector of Mo transfer to the sediment. In other words, a negative correlation between Fe/Mn ratios and Mo isotope values in chemical sediments is an unambiguous signal for Mn oxidation. Importantly, this Mo isotope approach holds up regardless of the original isotopic composition of seawater. We found a strong negative correlation between ?98Mo values and Fe/Mn ratios in iron formations deposited before and after the Great Oxidation Event. Most strikingly, Mo isotope data and Fe/Mn ratios correlate over a 2.5‰ range in ?98Mo in iron formations of the 2.95 Ga Sinqeni Formation, South Africa. In the Sinqeni Formation, we find this signal for Mn(II) oxidation despite Mn being predominantly reduced (Mn2+) and associated with Fe-Mn carbonates, pointing to retention of the primary ?98Mo despite subsequent reduction of the Mn host. The iron formations of the Sinqeni Formation were deposited in an epicontinental sea that was likely restricted at times. There would have been a limited supply of deep-water-sourced reductants (e.g. methane, ammonium, ferrous iron) to this depositional setting, which likely allowed for local, perhaps anomalous oxygen accumulation to levels supporting Mn oxidation beneath a globally anoxic atmosphere. Our Mo isotope data establish that there was biological oxygen production well before its first appreciable accumulation in the atmosphere (the GOE).

Planavsky, N.; Asael, D.; Reinhard, C.; Hofmann, A.; Lyons, T. W.; Rouxel, O.

2012-12-01

49

Evidence from massive siderite beds for a CO2-rich atmosphere before ~ 1.8 billion years ago  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally thought that, in order to compensate for lower solar flux and maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth, methane must have been an important greenhouse gas before ~2.2 billion years (Gyr) ago. This is based upon a simple thermodynamic calculation that relates the absence of siderite (FeCO3) in some pre-2.2-Gyr palaeosols to atmospheric CO2 concentrations that would

Hiroshi Ohmoto; Yumiko Watanabe; Kazumasa Kumazawa

2004-01-01

50

Study: Sun Will End Earthly Life in 2.8 Billion Years1 The planet will become too hot for even the hardiest microbes.2  

E-print Network

Study: Sun Will End Earthly Life in 2.8 Billion Years1 The planet will become too hot for even the hardiest microbes.2 by Andrew Fazekas for National Geographic3 4 5 The final days of life on Earth temperature for life on Earth, our aging sun will slowly warm over its lifetime. Within about five billion

South Bohemia, University of

51

Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years ago - Evidence at Kolar, south India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Archean Kolar Schist Belt, south India, is a suture zone where two gneiss terranes and at least two amphibolite terranes with distinct histories were accreted. Amphibolites from the eastern and western sides of the schist belt have distinct incompatible element and isotopic characteristics suggesting that their volcanic protoliths were derived from different mantle sources. The amphibolite and gneiss terranes were juxtaposed by horizontal compression and shearing between 2530 and 2420 million years ago (Ma) along a zone marked by the Kolar Schist Belt. This history of accretion of discrete crustal terranes resembles those of Phanerozoic convergent margins and thus suggests that plate tectonics operated on earth by 2500 Ma.

Krogstad, E. J.; Hanson, G. N.; Balakrishnan, S.; Rajamani, V.; Mukhopadhyay, D. K.

1989-03-01

52

Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years ago - Evidence at Kolar, south India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Archean Kolar Schist Belt, south India, is a suture zone where two gneiss terranes and at least two amphibolite terranes with distinct histories were accreted. Amphibolites from the eastern and western sides of the schist belt have distinct incompatible element and isotopic characteristics suggesting that their volcanic protoliths were derived from different mantle sources. The amphibolite and gneiss terranes were juxtaposed by horizontal compression and shearing between 2530 and 2420 million years ago (Ma) along a zone marked by the Kolar Schist Belt. This history of accretion of discrete crustal terranes resembles those of Phanerozoic convergent margins and thus suggests that plate tectonics operated on earth by 2500 Ma.

Krogstad, E. J.; Hanson, G. N.; Balakrishnan, S.; Rajamani, V.; Mukhopadhyay, D. K.

1989-01-01

53

Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?  

SciTech Connect

China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

2007-07-01

54

Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11thFive-Year Plan  

SciTech Connect

China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious targetfor energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country sgross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and bindingtarget has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift inChina's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energydevelopment. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates intoan annual reduction of over one billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making theChinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in theworld today. While it is still too early to tell whether China willachieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend inenergy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options towardmeeting the 20 percent target using a detailed endues energymodel.

Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

2007-05-01

55

Millikan Chapter 14 CHAPTER FOURTEEN  

E-print Network

will attract the gaze of a human infant in the first weeks of life, thus focusing its attention on human facesMillikan Chapter 14 CHAPTER FOURTEEN DETACHING REPRESENTATIONS OF OBJECTS Beginning with minimally representations, keeping a special eye out for developments that begin to separate the pushmi from the pullyu

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

A One Billion Year Martian Climate Model: The Importance of Seasonally Resolved Polar Caps and the Role of Wind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind deflation and deposition are powerful agents of surface change in the present Mars climate regime. Recent studies indicate that, while the distribution of regions of potential deflation (or erosion) and deposition is remarkably insensitive to changes in orbital parameters (obliquity, timing of perihelion passage, etc.), rates of aeolian surface modification may be highly sensitive to these parameters even if the atmospheric mass remains constant. But previous work suggested the atmospheric mass is likely to be sensitive to obliquity, especially if a significant mass of carbon dioxide can be stored in the regolith or deposited in the form of massive polar caps. Deflation and erosion are highly sensitive to surface pressure, so feedback between orbit variations and surface pressure can greatly enhance the sensitivity of aeolian modification rates to orbital parameters. We used statistics derived from a 1 Gyr orbital integration of the spin axis of Mars, coupled with 3D general circulation models (GCMs) at a variety of orbital conditions and pressures, to explore this feedback. We also employed a seasonally resolved 1D energy balance model to illuminate the gross characteristics of the longterm atmospheric evolution, wind erosion and deposition over one billion years. We find that seasonal polar cycles have a critical influence on the ability for the regolith to release CO2 at high obliquities, and find that the atmospheric CO2 actually decreases at high obliquities due to the cooling effect of polar deposits at latitudes where seasonal caps form. At low obliquity, the formation of massive, permanent polar caps depends critically on the values of the frost albedo, A(sub frost), and frost emissivity, E(sub frost). Using our 1D model with values of A(sub frost) = 0.67 and E(sub frost) = 0.55, matched to the NASA Ames GCM results, we find that permanent caps only form at low obliquities (< 10 degrees). Thus, contrary to expectations, the Martian atmospheric pressure is remarkable static over time, and decreases both at high and low obliquity. Also, from our one billion year orbital model, we present new results on the fraction of time Mars is expected to experience periods of high and low obliquity. Finally, using GCM runs at a variety of pressures, we examine the likely role of wind erosion under an early more massive Martian atmosphere.

Armstrong, J. C.; Leovy, C. B.; Quinn, T. R.; Haberle, R. M.; Schaeffer, J.

2003-01-01

57

Fourteen-Year Follow-Up of Children with and without Speech/Language Impairments: Speech/Language Stability and Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 14-year prospective, longitudinal study of children with (n=114) and without (n=128) speech and/or language impairments found (1) high rates of continued communication difficulties; (2) considerable stability in language performance over time; and (3) better long-term outcomes for those with initial speech impairments than for those with…

Johnson, Carla J.; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Young, Arlene; Escobar, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Wilson, Beth; Brownlie, E. B.; Douglas, Lori; Taback, Nathan; Lam, Isabel; Wang, Min

1999-01-01

58

Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism.  

PubMed

The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites contain laminae rich in organic carbon, interpreted as the fossil remains of ancient microbial mats. To better understand the biogeochemistry of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur, including both ?(33)S and . This approach allows us to tie physiological inference from isotope ratios directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabolism that is complimentary to, and independent from, inorganic proxies (e.g., pyrite). ?(33)S values of the kerogen reveal mass-anomalous fractionations expected of the Archean sulfur cycle, whereas values show large fractionations at very small spatial scales, including values below -15‰. We interpret these isotopic patterns as recording the process of sulfurization of organic matter by H(2)S in heterogeneous mat pore-waters influenced by respiratory S metabolism. Positive ?(33)S anomalies suggest that disproportionation of elemental sulfur would have been a prominent microbial process in these communities. PMID:22949693

Bontognali, Tomaso R R; Sessions, Alex L; Allwood, Abigail C; Fischer, Woodward W; Grotzinger, John P; Summons, Roger E; Eiler, John M

2012-09-18

59

Evidence from massive siderite beds for a CO2-rich atmosphere before approximately 1.8 billion years ago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is generally thought that, in order to compensate for lower solar flux and maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth, methane must have been an important greenhouse gas before approximately 2.2 billion years (Gyr) ago. This is based upon a simple thermodynamic calculation that relates the absence of siderite (FeCO3) in some pre-2.2-Gyr palaeosols to atmospheric CO2 concentrations that would have been too low to have provided the necessary greenhouse effect. Using multi-dimensional thermodynamic analyses and geological evidence, we show here that the absence of siderite in palaeosols does not constrain atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Siderite is absent in many palaeosols (both pre- and post-2.2-Gyr in age) because the O2 concentrations and pH conditions in well-aerated soils have favoured the formation of ferric (Fe3+)-rich minerals, such as goethite, rather than siderite. Siderite, however, has formed throughout geological history in subsurface environments, such as euxinic seas, where anaerobic organisms created H2-rich conditions. The abundance of large, massive siderite-rich beds in pre-1.8-Gyr sedimentary sequences and their carbon isotope ratios indicate that the atmospheric CO2 concentration was more than 100 times greater than today, causing the rain and ocean waters to be more acidic than today. We therefore conclude that CO2 alone (without a significant contribution from methane) could have provided the necessary greenhouse effect to maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth.

Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yumiko; Kumazawa, Kazumasa

2004-01-01

60

When the universe came into being 13.7 billion years ago, there was initially only radiation.A few hundred million years later, however, the space was filled with galaxies  

E-print Network

When the universe came into being 13.7 billion years ago, there was initially only radiation.A few factories that don't fit quite so well with the image of a gradual cosmic evolution. Researchers like Fabian

61

~2.3 to 1.8 billion years ago display rela-tively large ratios compared to either older or  

E-print Network

1059 ~2.3 to 1.8 billion years ago display rela- tively large ratios compared to either older much of the world's steel production depends] and pyrite. Iron oxides were formed in the water column Planet. Sci. 22, 499 (1994). 8. D. E. Canfield, Nature 396, 450 (1998). 9. The stage designations

Brody, Carlos

62

More than $115 billion of freight moves via marine shipping in the United States each year. Maintaining the ports and waterways that  

E-print Network

More than $115 billion of freight moves via marine shipping in the United States each year-growing demand for larger ships and increased port capacity. At the same time, environmental regu- lations to safeguard the quality of our terrestrial and marine environments require that expansion and maintenance

Neimark, Alexander V.

63

Deposition of 1.88-billion-year-old iron formations as a consequence of rapid crustal growth.  

PubMed

Iron formations are chemical sedimentary rocks comprising layers of iron-rich and silica-rich minerals whose deposition requires anoxic and iron-rich (ferruginous) sea water. Their demise after the rise in atmospheric oxygen by 2.32?billion years (Gyr) ago has been attributed to the removal of dissolved iron through progressive oxidation or sulphidation of the deep ocean. Therefore, a sudden return of voluminous iron formations nearly 500?million years later poses an apparent conundrum. Most late Palaeoproterozoic iron formations are about 1.88?Gyr old and occur in the Superior region of North America. Major iron formations are also preserved in Australia, but these were apparently deposited after the transition to a sulphidic ocean at 1.84?Gyr ago that should have terminated iron formation deposition, implying that they reflect local marine conditions. Here we date zircons in tuff layers to show that iron formations in the Frere Formation of Western Australia are about 1.88?Gyr old, indicating that the deposition of iron formations from two disparate cratons was coeval and probably reflects global ocean chemistry. The sudden reappearance of major iron formations at 1.88?Gyr ago--contemporaneous with peaks in global mafic-ultramafic magmatism, juvenile continental and oceanic crust formation, mantle depletion and volcanogenic massive sulphide formation--suggests deposition of iron formations as a consequence of major mantle activity and rapid crustal growth. Our findings support the idea that enhanced submarine volcanism and hydrothermal activity linked to a peak in mantle melting released large volumes of ferrous iron and other reductants that overwhelmed the sulphate and oxygen reservoirs of the ocean, decoupling atmospheric and seawater redox states, and causing the return of widespread ferruginous conditions. Iron formations formed on clastic-starved coastal shelves where dissolved iron upwelled and mixed with oxygenated surface water. The disappearance of iron formations after this event may reflect waning mafic-ultramafic magmatism and a diminished flux of hydrothermal iron relative to seawater oxidants. PMID:22538613

Rasmussen, Birger; Fletcher, Ian R; Bekker, Andrey; Muhling, Janet R; Gregory, Courtney J; Thorne, Alan M

2012-04-26

64

Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology in Strain Development Every year, we consume about 27 billion barrels of fossil oil.  

E-print Network

billion barrels of fossil oil. This enormous amount of oil is used for fueling our cars and airplanes, such as shale gas, are becoming available as new energy and chemical sources, these fossil resources they are formed. Furthermore, environmental problems and climate change issues are urging us to move away from our

65

Recrystallized Granite Surface Fissures Of Wasatch Range, Produced Not Later Than 1\\/4 Billion Years Ago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our studies of numerous recrystallized fissures in 4 granite plutons of Wasatch Range, i.e., Mount T-W-M^1,6,7 Bonanza Pk.-Midway,^2 Little Cottonwood and Ferguson Canyon plutons, all of which formed magma chambers reaching Earth-atm. interface, estab. that they resulted from high thermal gradients and not passages of earthquake waves.^4 Magma chambers formed, solidified during Permo-Carboniferous Ice Age (roughly 1\\/3...1\\/4 billion yr ago),

K. L. McDonald

2002-01-01

66

Recrystallized Granite Surface Fissures Of The Wasatch Range, Produced Not Later Than 1\\/4 Billion Years Ago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our studies of numerous recrystallized fissures in 4 granite plutons of Wasatch Range, namely, Mount Tuscarora-Wolverine-Millicent,^1,6,7 Bonanza Peak-Midway,^2 Little Cottonwood Canyon and Ferguson Canyon plutons, all of which formed magma chambers reaching Earth-atmosphere interface, establish that they resulted from high thermal gradients rather than passages of earthquake waves. Magma chambers formed, solidified during Permo-Caroniferous Ice Age(roughly, 1\\/3...1\\/4 billion yr ago,

Keith L. McDonald

2000-01-01

67

Exceptional preservation of aragonite in a circa 3.3 billion year old microbial mat from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exceptional preservation of aragonite in a circa 3.3 billion year old microbial mat from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa Frances Westall, Barbara Cavalazzi, Laurence Lemelle, Yves Marrocchi, Jean-Noël Rouzaud, Alexandre Simionovici, Murielle Salomé, Smail Mostefaoui, Caroline Andreazza, Frédéric Foucher, Jan Toporski, Andrea Jauss, Volker Thiel, Axel Hofmann, Anders Meibom, François Robert Aragonite occurs as a biologically-formed mineral precipitate within modern calcifying microbial mats. It is, however, rarely preserved in the geological record because, as one of the least stable polymorphs of calcium carbonate, it readily converts to calcite in present environmental conditions at the Earth's surface. In an in situ investigation at the micro- to nanometer-scale, we show that 5-10 nm sized nanocrystals of aragonite are preserved within the organic framework of a partially calcified microbial mat from the ~ 3.3 billion year-old Josefsdal Chert in the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa. Transformation of the aragonite to calcite was blocked by a combination of chemical inhibitors within the crystal lattice, organic molecules coating the nanocrystals and, in particular, to the precocious permeation of the mat by hydrothermal silica. Apart from its exceptional preservation for 3.3 billion years, the identification of aragonite in the Josefsdal microbial mat is the earliest evidence for in situ calcification of a microbial mat. Furthermore, the indications of associated sulphur-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity with calcification strongly support a photosynthetic origin for the mat. This is the most direct evidence for photosynthesis in early Archaean rocks.

Westall, Frances; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Lemelle, Laurence; Marrochhi, Yves; Rouzaud, Jean-Noel; Simionovici, Alexandre; Andreazza, Caroline; Foucher, Frédéric; Thiel, Volker; Hofmann, Axel

2010-05-01

68

Fourteen Days of Acclimatization 551 Effect of Fourteen Days of Acclimatization  

E-print Network

, body mass loss, heart rate (HR), and performance. The results showed that 1) the mean tympanicFourteen Days of Acclimatization · 551 Effect of Fourteen Days of Acclimatization on Athletic of fourteen days of acclimatization on athletic performance in tropical climate. Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 27

Boyer, Edmond

69

Microbially induced sedimentary structures recording an ancient ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 billion-year-old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia.  

PubMed

Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) result from the response of microbial mats to physical sediment dynamics. MISS are cosmopolitan and found in many modern environments, including shelves, tidal flats, lagoons, riverine shores, lakes, interdune areas, and sabkhas. The structures record highly diverse communities of microbial mats and have been reported from numerous intervals in the geological record up to 3.2 billion years (Ga) old. This contribution describes a suite of MISS from some of the oldest well-preserved sedimentary rocks in the geological record, the early Archean (ca. 3.48 Ga) Dresser Formation, Western Australia. Outcrop mapping at the meter to millimeter scale defined five sub-environments characteristic of an ancient coastal sabkha. These sub-environments contain associations of distinct macroscopic and microscopic MISS. Macroscopic MISS include polygonal oscillation cracks and gas domes, erosional remnants and pockets, and mat chips. Microscopic MISS comprise tufts, sinoidal structures, and laminae fabrics; the microscopic laminae are composed of primary carbonaceous matter, pyrite, and hematite, plus trapped and bound grains. Identical suites of MISS occur in equivalent environmental settings through the entire subsequent history of Earth including the present time. This work extends the geological record of MISS by almost 300 million years. Complex mat-forming microbial communities likely existed almost 3.5 billion years ago. PMID:24205812

Noffke, Nora; Christian, Daniel; Wacey, David; Hazen, Robert M

2013-12-01

70

The Evolution of the Galaxy Rest-Frame Ultraviolet Luminosity Function Over the First Two Billion Years  

E-print Network

We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function at z=4-8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the CANDELS/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the Year 1 Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations. These surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 x 10^6 Mpc^3 over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for bright (M_UV 1000 galaxies at z~6-8. We measure the luminosity function using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end our results agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright galaxies at z>6, with M* ~ -21 at z>5, different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift. At z=8, a single power-law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z=6 and 7, an exponential cutoff at the bright-end is moderately preferred. We compare to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in M* is cons...

Finkelstein, Steven L; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Song, Mimi; Somerville, Rachel; Ferguson, Henry C; Salmon, Brett; Giavalisco, Mauro; Koekemoer, Anton M; Ashby, Matthew L N; Behroozi, Peter; Castellano, Marco; Dunlop, James S; Faber, Sandy M; Fazio, Giovanni G; Fontana, Adriano; Grogin, Norman A; Hathi, Nimish; Jaacks, Jason; Kocevski, Dale D; Livermore, Rachael; McLure, Ross J; Merlin, Emiliano; Mobasher, Bahram; Newman, Jeffrey A; Rafelski, Marc; Tilvi, Vithal; Willner, S P

2014-01-01

71

The Next Billion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"In 1999 the world population passed the 6 billion mark. In this lesson, students predict when it will reach 7 billion. Students discuss the reliability of their predictions, compare them to past trends, and discuss social factors that can affect population growth." from NCTM Illuminations.

Mathematics, Illuminations N.

2009-12-08

72

Two Billion Cars: Driving Toward Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, there are roughly a billion cars in the world. Yet within twenty years, the number will double to 2 billion, largely a consequence of China's and India's explosive growth. Given that greenhouse gases are already creating havoc with our climate and that violent conflict in unstable oil-rich nations is on the rise, does this mean that matters will

Daniel Sperling; Deborah Gordon

73

A reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on molecular fossils from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old Mount Bruce Supergroup, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitumens extracted from 2.7 to 2.5 billion-year-old (Ga) shales of the Fortescue and Hamersley Groups in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, contain traces of molecular fossils. Based on a combination of molecular characteristics typical of many Precambrian bitumens, their consistently and unusually high thermal maturities, and their widespread distribution throughout the Hamersley Basin, the bitumens can be characterized as ‘probably

Jochen J Brocks; Roger Buick; Roger E Summons; Graham A Logan

2003-01-01

74

One in a Billion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you get students to understand a number as small as one-billionth? Through a hands-on dilution activity using food coloring, students will learn about parts per billion. A matching card game helps students further understand one-billionth by giving real examples, including nanoscale examples.

Taylor, Amy R.; Broadwell, Bethany P.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.

2007-01-01

75

29 CFR 570.119 - Fourteen-year minimum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS...Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards...1938, as Amended Oppressive Child Labor § 570.119...

2010-07-01

76

Fourteen Years of R/qtl: Just Barely Sustainable  

PubMed Central

R/qtl is an R package for mapping quantitative trait loci (genetic loci that contribute to variation in quantitative traits) in experimental crosses. Its development began in 2000. There have been 38 software releases since 2001. The latest release contains 35k lines of R code and 24k lines of C code, plus 15k lines of code for the documentation. Challenges in the development and maintenance of the software are discussed. A key to the success of R/qtl is that it remains a central tool for the chief developer's own research work, and so its maintenance is of selfish importance.

Broman, Karl W.

2014-01-01

77

Six Billion and Beyond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last week, the world population reached six billion (see the October 13, 1999 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). PBS offers this site as a companion to their timely airing this month of the documentary "Six Billion and Beyond." The site provides background information on the UN Summits on Population in 1994 and 1999, including interviews with prominent delegates such as Hillary Clinton and Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund. Also featured are sections focusing on population issues in six disparate nations -- the US, Mexico, India, China, Kenya, and Italy -- examining in each country the related topics of the environment, reproductive health, the economy, and women's status. Both the study guide and the library, which provides online resources, are quite useful, making the site substantial enough to serve as the basis, along with an available video of the documentary, for a complete unit on population issues in a high school or college social sciences course.

78

TOU' rates hold out $13-billion prize  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 2000, U.S. electric utilities will add 90,000 MW of generating capacity to meet peaking needs. Rather than spend $45 billion on these power plants, which will be used only a couple of hundred hours each year, electric utilities could use incentive pricing-residential time-of-use (TOU) rates-to save consumers up to $13 billion. The combination of market forces and new technology

Slaboszewicz

1994-01-01

79

ANALYSIS OF CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE FOR FOURTEEN CITIES USING HAPEM-MS3 (FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes results and findings of applying the Hazardous Air Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM) for mobile sources, Version 3. This version is formally known as HAPEM-MS3. The application is to fourteen urban areas for calendar year 1990. The urban areas modeled inclu...

80

BOILER HOUSE, INTERIOR. BOILERS TWELVE, THIRTEEN AND FOURTEEN TO THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BOILER HOUSE, INTERIOR. BOILERS TWELVE, THIRTEEN AND FOURTEEN TO THE RIGHT, BAGASSE STORAGE AREA TO THE LEFT. VIEW FROM WEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

81

BOILER HOUSE, INTERIOR. BOILERS TWELVE, THIRTEEN AND FOURTEEN TO THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BOILER HOUSE, INTERIOR. BOILERS TWELVE, THIRTEEN AND FOURTEEN TO THE RIGHT. VIEW FROM NORTHWEST FROM CATWALK IN BAGASSE STORAGE AREA - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

82

Allozyme variation in fourteen natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster  

E-print Network

Allozyme variation in fourteen natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster collected from allozyme variation of 6 gene loci in 14 populations of Drosophila melanogaster originating from different to enable much genetic differentiation. Key words : Drosophila melanogaster, biochemical polymorphism

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

83

Ultra-dense billion year memory chip  

SciTech Connect

This video shows an iron nanoparticle shuttle moving through a carbon nanotube in the presence of a low voltage electrical current. The shuttles position inside the tube can function as a high-density nonvolatile memory element. (Courtesy of /Zettl Research Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California at Berkeley.)

None

2009-01-01

84

Palaeoclimates: the first two billion years  

PubMed Central

Earth's climate during the Archaean remains highly uncertain, as the relevant geologic evidence is sparse and occasionally contradictory. Oxygen isotopes in cherts suggest that between 3.5 and 3.2?Gyr ago (Ga) the Archaean climate was hot (55–85?°C); however, the fact that these cherts have experienced only a modest amount of weathering suggests that the climate was temperate, as today. The presence of diamictites in the Pongola Supergroup and the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa suggests that by 2.9?Ga the climate was glacial. The Late Archaean was relatively warm; then glaciation (possibly of global extent) reappeared in the Early Palaeoproterozoic, around 2.3–2.4?Ga. Fitting these climatic constraints with a model requires high concentrations of atmospheric CO2 or CH4, or both. Solar luminosity was 20–25% lower than today, so elevated greenhouse gas concentrations were needed just to keep the mean surface temperature above freezing. A rise in O2 at approximately 2.4?Ga, and a concomitant decrease in CH4, provides a natural explanation for the Palaeoproterozoic glaciations. The Mid-Archaean glaciations may have been caused by a drawdown in H2 and CH4 caused by the origin of bacterial sulphate reduction. More work is needed to test this latter hypothesis. PMID:16754607

Kasting, James F; Ono, Shuhei

2006-01-01

85

For the billion people.  

PubMed

Humans need food to survive. The encroachment of deserts, losses of water and generic and cultural resources, as well as climatic changes, however, threaten our long-term survival. Desertification in the world's arid and semiarid regions is one of the most serious problems our planet and its people face. It is one of the principal barriers to sustainable food security and sustainable livelihoods. Moreover, desertification is not a future threat, but an active local reality which needs to be reversed. Since World War II, an area the size of China and India combined has experienced moderate to extreme soil deterioration. More than 75% of this degradation has occurred in developing regions, mostly in arid and semiarid regions. The author explains how the UN Development Program is strengthening its capacity to help countries address desertification as we face the challenge of tripling world food output over the next 50 years given likely population increases. PMID:12345684

Speth, J G

1994-06-01

86

The nonprofit sector's $100 billion opportunity.  

PubMed

Imagine what an extra $100 billion a year could do for philanthropic and other nonprofit institutions. According to a new study, the nonprofit sector could free that amount--maybe even more--by making five changes in the way it operates. The study asked two central questions: Does the sector's money flow from its source to its ultimate use as efficiently and effectively as possible? If not, where are the big opportunities to increase social benefit? According to former senator Bill Bradley and McKinsey's Paul Jansen and Les Silverman, nonprofits could save roughly $25 billion a year by changing the way they raise funds. By distributing funds more quickly, they could put an extra $30 billion to work. Organizations could generate more than $60 billion a year by streamlining and restructuring the way in which they provide services and by reducing administrative costs. And they could free up even more money--an amount impossible to estimate--by better allocating funds among service providers. The authors admit that making those changes won't be easy. The nonprofit world, historically seen as a collection of locally focused charities, has become an enormous sector, but it lacks the managerial processes and incentives that help keep the for-profit world on track. And when the baby boomers start to retire in less than a decade, public budgets will be squeezed even more than they are today. If the nonprofit sector is to help the nation cope with the stresses ahead, it must become more efficient and challenge its traditional concepts of stewardship. PMID:12747166

Bradley, Bill; Jansen, Paul; Silverman, Les

2003-05-01

87

Discovery of fourteen new ZZ Cetis with SOAR  

E-print Network

We report the discovery of fourteen new ZZ Cetis with the 4.1m Southern Astrophysical Research telescope, at Cerro Pachon, in Chile. The candidates were selected from the SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) DA white dwarf stars with Teff obtained from the optical spectra fit, inside the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Considering these stars are multi-periodic pulsators and the pulsations propagate to the nucleus of the star, they carry information on the structure of the star and evolution of the progenitors. The ZZ Cetis discovered till 2003 are mainly within 100 pc from the Sun, and probe only the solar vicinity. The recently discovered ones, and those reported here, may sample a distinct population as they were selected mainly perpendicular to the galactic disk and cover a distance up to ~400pc.

S. O. Kepler; B. G. Castanheira; M. F. O. Saraiva; A. Nitta; S. J. Kleinman; F. Mullally; D. E. Winget; D. J. Eisenstein

2005-07-20

88

Colleges' Billion-Dollar Campaigns Feel the Economy's Sting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economy's collapse has caught up with the billion-dollar campaign. In the past 12 months, the amount of money raised by a dozen of the colleges engaged in higher education's biggest fund-raising campaigns fell 32 percent from the year before. The decline, which started before the worst of the recession, has forced colleges to postpone…

Masterson, Kathryn

2009-01-01

89

Human fatalities from wild elephant attacks--a study of fourteen cases.  

PubMed

Human-wild elephant conflicts are frequently reported from various parts of the country. Encroaching of animal habitat by human civilization is a primary reason for this. The present study comprises of fourteen autopsy cases conducted at the department of Forensic Medicine, B.S Medical College, Bankura, West Bengal, India over a period of three years. The study attempts to find out the nature of injuries caused by wild elephant attack and the common factors contributing to human-wild elephant conflict so that vulnerable population can be cautioned to avoid conflicts. A distinct seasonal as well as diurnal variation of attack incidences was noted. Attacks were sudden and unprovoked. Killer elephants were wild tuskers in all the cases. Victims were from the low socioeconomic group and the cause of death was due to trampling on the vital organs like chest and head. PMID:21550563

Das, Sobhan Kr; Chattopadhyay, Saurabh

2011-05-01

90

Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

91

Initial Costs vs. Operational Costs. A Study of Building Improvement Projects in Fourteen Schools in the School District of Greenville County, South Carolina.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether initial facility improvement costs were paid back by the reduced operational costs resulting from the improvement projects, this study examined the relationship between initial costs and operational costs of fourteen school buildings improved during the 1978-79 school year in Greenville County, South Carolina. With energy…

Chan, Tak Cheung

92

Review of the Berosus Leach of Venezuela (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Berosini) with description of fourteen new species  

E-print Network

The species of the water scavenger beetle genus Berosus Leach occurring in Venezuela are reviewed. Thirty-six species are recorded, including fifteen new species, fourteen of which are described here as new: Berosus aragua sp. n., Berosus...

Oliva, Adriana; Short, Andrew E. Z.

2012-07-06

93

Fourteen Years of Education and Public Outreach for the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer Mission  

E-print Network

The Sonoma State University (SSU) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) group leads the Swift Education and Public Outreach program. For Swift, we have previously implemented broad efforts that have contributed to NASA's Science Mission Directorate E/PO portfolio across many outcome areas. Our current focus is on highly-leveraged and demonstrably successful activities, including the wide-reaching Astrophysics Educator Ambassador program, and our popular websites: Epo's Chronicles and the Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) Skymap. We also make major contributions working collaboratively through the Astrophysics Science Education and Public Outreach Forum (SEPOF) on activities such as the on-line educator professional development course NASA's Multiwavelength Universe. Past activities have included the development of many successful education units including the GEMS Invisible Universe guide, the Gamma-ray Burst Educator's guide, and the Newton's Laws Poster set; informal activities including support for the International Ye...

Cominsky, Lynn; Simonnet, Aurore

2014-01-01

94

Herbicide treatment effects on properties of mountain big sagebrush soils after fourteen years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of sagebrush conversion on the soil properties of a high-elevation portion of the Western Intermountain Sagebrush Steppe (West, 1983) are described. Changes were found in only a few soil chemical properties after conversion to grassland. It was found that surface concentrations of N were lower under grass vegetation than under undisturbed vegetation. Undershrub net N mineralization rates were higher under shrubs in the sagebrush vegetation than under former shrubs in the grass vegetation.

Burke, I. C.; Reiners, W. A.; Sturges, D. L.; Matson, P. A.

1987-01-01

95

Billion shot flashlamp for spaceborne lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A billion-shot flashlamp developed under a NASA contract for spaceborne laser missions is presented. Lifetime-limiting mechanisms are identified and addressed. Two energy loadings of 15 and 44 Joules were selected for the initial accelerated life testing. A fluorescence-efficiency test station was used for measuring the useful-light output degradation of the lamps. The design characteristics meeting NASA specifications are outlined. Attention is focused on the physical properties of tungsten-matrix cathodes, the chemistry of dispenser cathodes, and anode degradation. It is reported that out of the total 83 lamps tested in the program, 4 lamps reached a billion shots and one lamp is beyond 1.7 billion shots, while at 44 Joules, 4 lamps went beyond 100 million shots and one lamp reached 500 million shots.

Richter, Linda; Schuda, Felix; Degnan, John

1990-01-01

96

Spherule Beds 3.47-3.24 Billion Years Old in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa: A Record of Large Meteorite Impacts and Their Influence on Early Crustal and Biological Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four layers, S1-S4, containing sand-sized spherical particles formed as a result of large meteorite impacts, occur in 3.47-3.24 Ga rocks of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Ir levels in S3 and S4 locally equal or exceed chondritic values but in other sections are at or only slightly above background. Most spherules are inferred to have formed by condensation of impact-produced rock vapor clouds, although some may represent ballistically ejected liquid droplets. Extreme Ir abundances and heterogeneity may reflect element fractionation during spherule formation, hydraulic fractionation during deposition, and/or diagenetic and metasomatic processes. Deposition of S1, S2, and S3 was widely influenced by waves and/or currents interpreted to represent impact-generated tsunamis, and S1 and S2 show multiple graded layers indicating the passage of two or more wave trains. These tsunamis may have promoted mixing within a globally stratified ocean, enriching surface waters in nutrients for biological communities. S2 and S3 mark the transition from the 300-million-year-long Onverwacht stage of predominantly basaltic and komatiitic volcanism to the late orogenic stage of greenstone belt evolution, suggesting that regional and possibly global tectonic reorganization resulted from these large impacts. These beds provide the oldest known direct record of terrestrial impacts and an opportunity to explore their influence on early life, crust, ocean, and atmosphere. The apparent presence of impact clusters at 3.26-3.24 Ga and approx. 2.65-2.5 Ga suggests either spikes in impact rates during the Archean or that the entire Archean was characterized by terrestrial impact rates above those currently estimated from the lunar cratering record.

Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.; Kyte, Frank T.; Shukolyukov, Alexander; Asaro, Frank; Krull, Alexander

2003-01-01

97

Spherule beds 3.47-3.24 billion years old in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa: a record of large meteorite impacts and their influence on early crustal and biological evolution.  

PubMed

Four layers, S1-S4, containing sand-sized spherical particles formed as a result of large meteorite impacts, occur in 3.47-3.24 Ga rocks of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Ir levels in S3 and S4 locally equal or exceed chondritic values but in other sections are at or only slightly above background. Most spherules are inferred to have formed by condensation of impact-produced rock vapor clouds, although some may represent ballistically ejected liquid droplets. Extreme Ir abundances and heterogeneity may reflect element fractionation during spherule formation, hydraulic fractionation during deposition, and/or diagenetic and metasomatic processes. Deposition of S1, S2, and S3 was widely influenced by waves and/or currents interpreted to represent impact-generated tsunamis, and S1 and S2 show multiple graded layers indicating the passage of two or more wave trains. These tsunamis may have promoted mixing within a globally stratified ocean, enriching surface waters in nutrients for biological communities. S2 and S3 mark the transition from the 300-million-year-long Onverwacht stage of predominantly basaltic and komatiitic volcanism to the late orogenic stage of greenstone belt evolution, suggesting that regional and possibly global tectonic reorganization resulted from these large impacts. These beds provide the oldest known direct record of terrestrial impacts and an opportunity to explore their influence on early life, crust, ocean, and atmosphere. The apparent presence of impact clusters at 3.26-3.24 Ga and approximately 2.65-2.5 Ga suggests either spikes in impact rates during the Archean or that the entire Archean was characterized by terrestrial impact rates above those currently estimated from the lunar cratering record. PMID:12804363

Lowe, Donald R; Byerly, Gary R; Kyte, Frank T; Shukolyukov, Alexander; Asaro, Frank; Krull, Alexandra

2003-01-01

98

306 BOOK REVIEWS Building Planet Earth: Five Billion Years  

E-print Network

some welcome additions, most notably in format and in quality of many of the illustrations.The book in this section is a discussion of the nature of the fossil record and the methods of gathering and using and the evolutionary and ecological processes that have shaped it. For example, Paleozoic life is only brought up under

McRoberts, Christopher A.

99

12/13/13 14 Billion years of History  

E-print Network

birth 4) Galaxy maps: the galaxy web 5) Infant galaxies ­ wild 9mes. 6 Evolu9on; Young Galaxies Telescopes are a kind of time-machine. The Hubble Deep Fields #12;12/13/13 5 Deep fields are small 3 5 The HUDF includes galaxies

Whittle, Mark

100

F-LE In the Billions and Exponential Modeling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The data in the table below was taken from Wikipedia. Year World Population in Billions (Estimate) 1804 1 1927 2 1960 3 1974 4 1987 5 1999 6 2012 7 For...

101

Beyond Six Billion: Forecasting the World's Population  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of their continuing practice of making recently published titles available in their entirety online, the National Academy Press last month posted Beyond Six Billion: Forecasting the World's Population, written by the National Research Council's Panel on Population Projections. The study examines national and global population projections from such agencies as the United Nations Population Division, the World Bank, and the US Census Bureau. The panel assesses the "assumptions behind the projections of these various agencies, estimates their accuracy and uncertainty, evaluates the implications of current demographic research, and recommends changes in protocol and new research that might improve projections."

102

Supporting the Employment of Mothers: Policy Variation Across Fourteen Welfare States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their broadly similar political and economic systems, the rates and patterns of mothers' employment vary considerably across industrialized countries. This variation raises questions about the role played by government policies in enabling mothers to choose employment and, in turn, in shaping both gender equality and family economic well-being. This paper compares fourteen OECD countries, as of the middle-to-late 1980s,

Janet C. Gornick; Marcia K. Meyers; Katherin E. Ross

1996-01-01

103

Simulating Billion-Task Parallel Programs  

SciTech Connect

In simulating large parallel systems, bottom-up approaches exercise detailed hardware models with effects from simplified software models or traces, whereas top-down approaches evaluate the timing and functionality of detailed software models over coarse hardware models. Here, we focus on the top-down approach and significantly advance the scale of the simulated parallel programs. Via the direct execution technique combined with parallel discrete event simulation, we stretch the limits of the top-down approach by simulating message passing interface (MPI) programs with millions of tasks. Using a timing-validated benchmark application, a proof-of-concept scaling level is achieved to over 0.22 billion virtual MPI processes on 216,000 cores of a Cray XT5 supercomputer, representing one of the largest direct execution simulations to date, combined with a multiplexing ratio of 1024 simulated tasks per real task.

Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL] [ORNL; Park, Alfred J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

104

Efficient Subgraph Matching on Billion Node Graphs  

E-print Network

The ability to handle large scale graph data is crucial to an increasing number of applications. Much work has been dedicated to supporting basic graph operations such as subgraph matching, reachability, regular expression matching, etc. In many cases, graph indices are employed to speed up query processing. Typically, most indices require either super-linear indexing time or super-linear indexing space. Unfortunately, for very large graphs, super-linear approaches are almost always infeasible. In this paper, we study the problem of subgraph matching on billion-node graphs. We present a novel algorithm that supports efficient subgraph matching for graphs deployed on a distributed memory store. Instead of relying on super-linear indices, we use efficient graph exploration and massive parallel computing for query processing. Our experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of performing subgraph matching on web-scale graph data.

Sun, Zhao; Wang, Haixun; Shao, Bin; Li, Jianzhong

2012-01-01

105

10/10/2007 04:26 PMScientists' Good News: Earth May Survive Sun's Demise in 5 Billion Years -New York Times Page 1 of 2http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/13/science/13planet.html?_r=2&oref=slogin&pagewanted=print  

E-print Network

colleagues were able to discern subtle modulations in the six-minute cycle, suggesting that the star OVERBYE There is new hope that Earth, if not the life on it, might survive an apocalypse five billion of its home star, suggesting there is some hope that Earth could survive the aging and swelling

Rasio, Frederic A.

106

Plans to distribute the next billion computers by 2015 creates lead pollution risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major computer and software companies, along with governments and philanthropic organizations have embarked on ambitious plans to put computers in the hands of more than one billion new computer users over the next five to six years in untapped markets in emerging economies. The most frequently proposed solution to overcome the electricity shortfall in communities where new computer users will

Christopher R. Cherry; Perry Gottesfeld

2009-01-01

107

Queensland's 1.7 million cars use nearly 3 billion litres of petrol  

E-print Network

Queensland's 1.7 million cars use nearly 3 billion litres of petrol per year. In December 2001 to lead-free petrol without modification. "I have been running my car on E10 since June and two of my, the EPA's 85 fleet cars will then start using E10, and the facility will be available to vehicles from

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

108

The Billion Dollar Eigenvector The mathematics behind Google's  

E-print Network

The Billion Dollar Eigenvector The mathematics behind Google's pagerank algorithm Dan Christensen #12;The Web Google came to prominence, and became a multi-billion dollar corporation, because and Tanya Leise at http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~bryan/google.html Or just put "google eigenvector

Christensen, Dan

109

The Billion Dollar Eigenvector The mathematics behind Google's  

E-print Network

The Billion Dollar Eigenvector The mathematics behind Google's pagerank algorithm Dan Christensen #12;The Web Google came to prominence, and became a multi-billion dollar corporation, because of Middlesex College, or the excellent article by Kurt Bryan and Tanya Leise at http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~bryan/google

Christensen, Dan

110

[Determination of fourteen trace elements in chinese traditional medicines by atomic absorption spectrometry].  

PubMed

Seven kinds of Chinese traditional medicines, including laoniankechuan tablet, fufangbanxia tablet, weitongning tablet, quanshen tablet, shengshijiangtang capsule, xiasangju particle, and American yangshen tablet, were digested with HNO3-HClO4 mixed acid. The fourteen trace elements, including calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, potassium, sodium, manganese, copper, chromium, cobalt, strontium, nickel, cadmium and lead in the drugs were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The effects of the type of mixed acid, the ratio of HNO3 to HClO4 in mixed acid, the volume of digesting solution, and the digesting time were also investigated in detail. The results obtained show that the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, K and Na in seven kinds of Chinese traditional medicines are higher than those of other elements. Moreover, shengshijiangtang capsule for the treatment of diabetes contains plenty of Mn, and weitongning tablet for the treatment of stomach disease contains plenty of Sr, Mn and Cu. PMID:16379304

Liu, Yan-ming; Wang, Hui; Han, Jin-tu; Chang, Hong-chao; Peng, Qin-long

2005-09-01

111

Academic Pork Barrel Tops $2-Billion for the First Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how, despite the growing budget deficit, Congress directed a record $2 billion to college projects in 2003, many of them dealing with security and bioterrorism. Includes data tables on the earmarks. (EV)

Brainard, Jeffrey; Borrego, Anne Marie

2003-01-01

112

NSF Fiscal 2005 Budget Request Is $5.745 Billion  

NSF Publications Database

... br/>Press Release 04-012NSF Fiscal 2005 Budget Request Is $5.745 Billion This series of three ... Science Foundation FY2005 Budget Priority Areas FY 2005 Budget Request Slides Media Contacts Bill ...

113

Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People  

ScienceCinema

Daniel Nocera, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor whose recent research focuses on solar-powered fuels, presents a Brookhaven Science Associates Distinguished Lecture, titled "Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People -- One at a Time."

Daniel Nocera

2013-07-19

114

Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People  

SciTech Connect

Daniel Nocera, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor whose recent research focuses on solar-powered fuels, presents a Brookhaven Science Associates Distinguished Lecture, titled "Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People -- One at a Time."

Daniel Nocera

2011-09-12

115

Deep space communication - A one billion mile noisy channel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep space exploration is concerned with the study of natural phenomena in the solar system with the aid of measurements made at spacecraft on deep space missions. Deep space communication refers to communication between earth and spacecraft in deep space. The Deep Space Network is an earth-based facility employed for deep space communication. It includes a network of large tracking antennas located at various positions around the earth. The goals and achievements of deep space exploration over the past 20 years are discussed along with the broad functional requirements of deep space missions. Attention is given to the differences in space loss between communication satellites and deep space vehicles, effects of the long round-trip light time on spacecraft autonomy, requirements for the use of massive nuclear power plants on spacecraft at large distances from the sun, and the kinds of scientific return provided by a deep space mission. Problems concerning a deep space link of one billion miles are also explored.

Smith, J. G.

1982-01-01

116

Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Comprehensive fourteen year report, 1968-1982  

SciTech Connect

A testing procedure is being developed which may reduce the incidence of birth defects. The procedure uses in vitro cultures of whole rat embryos. Early studies on the nutrition of embryos involved attempts to culture whole chick embryos on protein-free chemically defined media. Media containing proteins from whole egg were superior. No single protein would support growth and development, at least two proteins were required. One protein was a transferrin, the second protein could be either ovalbumin or lipovitellin. To determine the path taken by nutrient proteins from medium to embryo, radioactive ovalbumin was prepared. The results showed that intact ovalbumin was taken up by the extra-embryonic yolk-sac and degraded to constituent amino acids within this structure. This observation was difficult to reconcile with the observed responses of the embryo to nutrient proteins. Consideration was given to yolk-sac function. When isolated yolk-sacs were incubated in Ringer's salt solution, they synthesized and secreted a distinct group of proteins. Yolk-sacs cultured on media containing various protein constituents synthesized serum proteins in relative amounts that were distinct for each medium. This suggested that the embryo responses to various culture media were mediated by changes in the relative synthesis of serum proteins. This hypothesis led to two lines of experimentation: what are the mechanisms regulating the relative synthesis of serum proteins by the yolk-sac; and do serum proteins actually provide signals of developmental significance. The first question led to studies with cultures of endodermal cells while the second question led to work on the development of a test for teratological surveillance. (ERB)

Klein, N.W.

1982-07-01

117

The Bottom Billion and What We Can Do to Help  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter is an edited version of one of the keynote speeches given at the ISBEE World Congress. In it, the divergence\\u000a of the poorest 1 billion from the other 5 billion people in the world is reviewed; these people lack credible hope of ever\\u000a emerging from their poverty. And their position has been made worse by commodity booms and

Paul Collier

118

Multi-Billion Shot, High-Fluence Exposure of Cr(4+): YAG Passive Q-Switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is developing the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) employing a diode pumped, Q-Switched, ND:YAG laser operating at 40 Hz repetition rate. To meet the five-year mission lifetime goal, a single transmitter would accumulate over 6.3 billion shots. Cr(4+):YAG is a promising candidate material for passively Q-switching the laser. Historically, the performance of saturable absorbers has degraded over long-duration usage. To measure the multi-billion shot performance of Cr(4+):YAG, a passively Q-switched GLAS-like oscillator was tested at an accelerated repetition rate of 500 Hz. The intracavity fluence was calculated to be approximately 2.5 J/cm(exp 2). The laser was monitored autonomously for 165 days. There was no evidence of change in the material optical properties during the 7.2 billion shot test.. All observed changes in laser operation could be attributed to pump laser diode aging. This is the first demonstration of multi-billion shot exposure testing of Cr(4+):YAG in this pulse energy regime

Stephen, Mark A.; Dallas, Joseph L.; Afzal, Robert S.

1997-01-01

119

The reproductive revolution among China's billion people.  

PubMed

The government of China is waging the world's most comprehensive battle to control population growth. The current attitude contrasts sharply with that of the pronatalist days of the 1950s. The urgency of the issue is the result of pressures from population growth during the last 330 years, which has resulted in a 20-fold increase in the country's population. Extensive studies of the impact of population size on resources, environment, and development over the next 100 years have shown that China should aim at a total of no more than 700 million people. These studies show that unless immediate and drastic action is taken to cut fertility there is no likelihood of raising China's nutritional intake to a level comparable to that of developed countries. In response to the potential crisis of overpopulation, the government has adopted population policies based on a novel "U shaped" transition curve. The theory behind it is that fertility should be brought down to below replacement level, kept there for a number of years, and then raised to realize replacement level fertility at the ideal population size. The pursuit of this goal has resulted in the single child policy. The family planning program has been impressive. A national survey conducted in 1982 demonstrated that the average number of births per woman had been cut by at least half from 1972-81. The attainment of almost universal consensus favoring birth control can be attributed to an ingenious pyramidal social structure that links the central administration in Beijing with individuals in the village. Socioeconomic adjustments and reorientation of traditional values have not had time to catch up with government policy throughout China. Urban areas seem to have accepted the 1 child policy, but the vast number of villages are reluctant to forego their preference for large families. As long as villages remain underdeveloped and their residents lack a comprehensive social security system for old age protection, there is good reason for the villagers to evade the new family planning policy. This situation is responsible for dreadful incidents such as maltreatment of women who give birth to daughters and infanticide of females. If these horrible incidents demonstrate the hardship of adjustment from traditional values to the 1 child family, the question that arises is whether the policy should be repealed. Most likely the maltreatment of females stems from the clash of the single child policy with traditional values such as family continuation, the value of male labor, and the desire to bear a son for protection in one's old age. Problems such as infanticide did not become apparent until the 1 child policy was enforced in the 1970s. The current task is to convince rural villagers to accept the single child limit by synchronizing political mobilization and ideological education with economic measures. PMID:12338972

Tuan, C H

1983-08-01

120

Eight billion asteroids in the Oort cloud  

E-print Network

The Oort cloud is usually thought of as a collection of icy comets inhabiting the outer reaches of the Solar system, but this picture is incomplete. We use simulations of the formation of the Oort cloud to show that ~4% of the small bodies in the Oort cloud should have formed within 2.5 au of the Sun, and hence be ice-free rock-iron bodies. If we assume these Oort cloud asteroids have the same size distribution as their cometary counterparts, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should find roughly a dozen Oort cloud asteroids during ten years of operations. Measurement of the asteroid fraction within the Oort cloud can serve as an excellent test of the Solar system's formation and dynamical history. Oort cloud asteroids could be of particular concern as impact hazards as their high mass density, high impact velocity, and low visibility make them both hard to detect and hard to divert or destroy. However, they should be a rare class of object, and we estimate globally catastrophic collisions should only occur ...

Shannon, Andrew; Veras, Dimitri; Wyatt, Mark

2014-01-01

121

Food and population: beyond five billion.  

PubMed

The developing countries, with about 3/4 of the world's population, account for less than 1/2 of the production of major food crops. The Third World's per capita food production of 260 kilograms in 1983 was only 1/3 of that in the developed countries. Yet China and India, the most populous countries in the world, have cut fertility rates and moved to food self-sufficiency. An illustration of the food/population dynamic is that although production of food staples in North Africa and the Middle East is projected to expand at about the same rate as that of Asia, about 2.9% annually, owing to a much more rapid rate of population increase, they will achieve only a 0.2% increase in output per person per year, compared with a 1.4% annual growth rate in Asia. In the longer term, higher dietary levels per capita for a world population double that of the present would imply at least a tripling of demand for dietary staples. But more intensive cultivation would place natural resources, many already degraded, under much greater stress. Balancing population, food, and resources for sustained survival is a continual process. The principle cause of hunger and malnutrition is poverty; it is more determinative of nutritional status than aggregate food production. PMID:12341721

Hendry, P

1988-04-01

122

[Six billion people: how the continents were populated--yesterday, today, and tomorrow].  

PubMed

World population growth from settlement of the continents to future population size is broadly traced in this work. Population growth has accelerated greatly in the past two centuries and especially since 1950. The first billion was reached only in 1850, while the fifth billion, in 1986, required only 11 years. Past population growth was slow, irregular, and variable from continent to continent. Population estimates for prehistory have a margin of error of around 50%. Modern man first appeared in Africa or possibly the Middle East around 100,000 BC. The three great centers of population in China, India, and the Middle East and Mediterranean area developed during the Neolithic Revolution and have maintained their importance. At least 500,000 years ago, humans began using fire and clothing to escape the limits of their biotype and geographic area of origin. The peopling of the continents was not achieved by massive displacement of surplus population, but by movement of small groups into empty space where they proliferated. World population was an estimated 460-510 million in 1500, with probably 135 million in China, 95 million in India, and 80 million in Europe. The balance between fertility and mortality postulated by transition theory has not occurred in Europe. World population is projected to increase from 2.5 billion to 6 billion between 1950 and 2000, with 61% in Asia, 12% in Africa, 9% in Latin America, and 5% in Europe. The world rate of population growth is still about 1.4% annually. The demographic explosion will have been a transitory episode in human history, but revolutionary in its impact. PMID:12179517

Dupaquier, J

1998-01-01

123

Phylogeny of fourteen Culex mosquito species, including the Culex pipiens complex, inferred from the internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribosomal DNA sequence divergence in the internal transcribed spacer regions (1TS-1 and 1TS-2) was examined for fourteen species and four subgenera (sixty-two clones) in the mosquito genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae). A neighbout-joining tree pro- duced with Kimura 2-parameter distances showed that each of the four subgenera was monophyletic at confidence probabilities of 70-99%. Culex (Lutzia) formed the sister group of

B. R. Miller; M. B. Crabtree; H. M. Savage

1996-01-01

124

Turning a regular microscope into billion-pixel imaging system  

E-print Network

Turning a regular microscope into billion-pixel imaging system Engineers at Caltech say that their approach -- computing their way past optical limitations -- could bring high-performance microscopes 100 times more information than those produced by conventional microscope platforms. (Credit: Yan

Yang, Changhuei

125

In an announcement this week, the Indian Prime Minister pledges $5 billion in support to Africa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

India prime minister pledges billions to Africahttp://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-13515993Africa Can End Povertyhttp://blogs.worldbank.org/africacan/United States African Development Foundationhttp://www.adf.gov/Africa Region: Working Paper Serieshttp://www.worldbank.org/afr/wps/In recent years, China has increased its investment in Africa by billions of dollars as they work with governments there to build new power plants, factories, and other pieces of key infrastructure. This week, another world power announced that they would be entering this competitive market. On Tuesday, Indian Prime Minster Manmohan Singh pledged $5 billion towards new projects in Africa, including tele-medicine for a virtual university and information technology investments. The announcement was made at the Africa-India Forum Summit in Addis Ababa, where Singh remarked, "The India-Africa partnership is unique and owes its origins to history and our common struggle against colonialism, apartheid, poverty, disease, illiteracy and hunger." India is hoping to catch up with China's tremendous economic relationship with Africa, which totaled approximately $126.9 billion in 2010. Along with this announcement, Prime Minister Singh also remarked that India would sponsor five new institutes in Africa and invite all African airlines to fly to several different Indian cities over the next couple of years.The first link leads to helpful article about the specifics of this development, courtesy of the Times of India. The second link whisks users away to a news update from the BBC website about this pledge of $5 billion. The third link leads to a blog from Shanta Devarajan, the World Bank Chief Economist for Africa, about the challenges (and successes) of ending poverty in Africa. The fourth link takes users to the homepage of the US African Development Foundation, which works on a range of important projects on the African continent. Finally, the last link leads to the World Bank's Africa Region Working Paper Series, which covers applied research and policy studies on cotton production, technological innovation, and other important developments.

Grinnell, Max

2011-05-27

126

Energy tax price tag for CPI: $1. 2 billion, jobs, and production  

SciTech Connect

If President Clinton's proposed energy tax had been fully in place last year, it would have cost the US chemical industry an additional $1.2 billion and 9,900 jobs, according to Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA; Washington) estimates. It also would have driven output down 3% and prices up 5%, CMA says. Allen Lenz, CMA director/trade and economics, says the increase in production costs that would accompany the tax will not be shared by foreign competitors, cannot be neutralized with higher border taxes because of existing trade agreements, and provides another reason to move production offshore. Worse, the US chemical industry's generally impressive trade surplus declined by $2.5 billion last year, and a further drop is projected for this year. The margin of error gets thinner all the time as competition increases, Lenz says. We're not concerned only with the chemical industry, but the rest of US-based manufacturing because they taken half our output, he adds. One problem is the energy intensiveness of the chemical process industries-a CMA report says that 55% of the cost of producing ethylene glycol is energy related. And double taxation of such things as coproducts returned for credit to oil refineries could add up to $115 million/year, the report says.

Begley, R.

1993-03-03

127

FOURTEEN-THROUGH I8-MONTH-OLD INFANTS DIFFERENTIALLY IMITATE INTENTlONAL  

E-print Network

, children as young as 3 years of age have been found to be able to distinguish intentional actions from Tomasello Emory University This study explored infants' ability to discriminate between, and their tendency mistakes, reflexes, and passive movements (Shultz, Wells, & Sarda; 1980; see also Shultz & Wells, 1985

Carpenter, M.alinda

128

Report to the Congress on candidate sites for expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared in response to the Senate Report No. 101-534 accompanying the bill which was enacted as the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 1991. Senate Report 101-534 requested the Department of Energy to initiate construction planning for an expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels and to report to the Committees on Appropriations by March 15, 1991, regarding recommended storage sites, the proposed method of storage, a conceptual plan for storage and distribution facilities, and preliminary construction cost estimates. The Department of Energy's 1989 Report to the Congress entitled Report to Congress on Expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to One Billion Barrels provides a background and point of departure for this report. An analysis of expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve has been directed toward the expected US petroleum market and likely crude oil distribution systems in the Year 2000. The projections in this report do not assume implementation of the National Energy Strategy (NES). The Department has initiated an environmental review process in accordance with NEPA and completed an analysis of the 1976 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and its 1979 Supplement which addressed expansion of the Reserve to one billion barrels. The analysis concludes that another supplement to the Reserve's Programmatic EIS likely will not be required to support its expansion to one billion barrels. The appropriate site-specific NEPA document will be prepared. 72 refs., 27 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1991-03-01

129

The day the world population reached five billion--July 11, 1987.  

PubMed

Only 13 years ago, world population numbered 4 billion; on July 11, 1987, it reached 5 billion. By the turn of the century world population will have reached 6 billion, half of the world's population will be urban, and most of it will live in developing countries. Not only will there be a larger population, it will also be older. The world's population growth is slowing down, but it will take about 100 years before it stops. Developing countries are expected to grow 3 times faster than their developed country counterparts. Sub-Saharan Africa's growth rate of 3% is about double that of the rest of the world. Falling birth rates throughout Europe reflect a profound shift in norms and attitudes away from concerns for family and offspring to the rights and self-fulfillment of individuals. A tide of materialism, progressiveness, and post-materialism is moving people away from marriage and parenthood in Northern and Western Europe. Cohabitation is increasingly accepted as normal, and there are indications that as few as 50-60% of men and women in future generations will ever marry. Having a child is now more and more a deliberate choice made to achieve greater individual self-fulfillment. Many Europeans are convinced that below-replacement fertility and aging populations signal the end of national influence in world affairs and the collapse of social security funds. Large-scale immigration may become a major component of European population growth if recent restrictions are eased. The world's least developed countries are experiencing the slowest economic growth, with upper-middle income countries growing the fastest. PMID:12341237

Rusoff, D

1987-08-01

130

CDC Study Finds Annual Cost of Motor Vehicle Crashes Exceeds $99 Billion  

MedlinePLUS

... 3286 CDC Study Finds Annual Cost of Motor Vehicle Crashes Exceeds $99 Billion Cost amounts to nearly $ ... and productivity losses associated with injuries from motor vehicle crashes exceeded $99 billion – with the cost of ...

131

$75 Billion in Formula Grants Failed to Drive Reform. Can $5 Billion in Competitive Grants Do the Job? Education Stimulus Watch. Special Report 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In early 2009, Congress passed and President Barack Obama signed into law the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the federal government's nearly $800 billion stimulus legislation. According to key members of Congress and the Obama administration, the education portions of the law, totaling about $100 billion, were designed both to…

Smarick, Andy

2009-01-01

132

Parametrization and Classification of 20 Billion LSST Objects: Lessons from SDSS  

E-print Network

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain, starting in 2015, multiple images of the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg$^2$ region about 1000 times during the anticipated 10 years of operations (distributed over six bands, $ugrizy$). Each 30-second long visit will deliver 5$\\sigma$ depth for point sources of $r\\sim24.5$ on average. The co-added map will be about 3 magnitudes deeper, and will include 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. We discuss various measurements that will be automatically performed for these 20 billion sources, and how they can be used for classification and determination of source physical and other properties. We provide a few classification examples based on SDSS data, such as color classification of stars, color-spatial proximity search for wide-angle binary stars, orbital-color classification of asteroid families, and the recognition of main Galaxy components based on the distribution of stars in the position-metallicity-kinematics space. Guided by these examples, we anticipate that two grand classification challenges for LSST will be 1) rapid and robust classification of sources detected in difference images, and 2) {\\it simultaneous} treatment of diverse astrometric and photometric time series measurements for an unprecedentedly large number of objects.

Z. Ivezic; T. Axelrod; A. C. Becker

2008-10-28

133

United Nations Environment Programme: The Billion Tree Campaign  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Painters and poets throughout the millennia have explored the aesthetic beauty of trees in great detail, and in the past few centuries, humans have become intimately aware of how trees form the foundation of many natural systems. Recently, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) launched their major worldwide tree planting campaign, "Plant for the Planet: Billion Tree Campaign". One major component of their outreach efforts is this very fine website, which includes sections such as "Facts and Figures", "Trees and Humanity", and of course, "How to Plant a Tree". On the site, visitors also have the option to pledge their support for the project in a variety of ways. The "Facts and Figures" section is also helpful, as it contains answers to a number of basic questions such as "Where are forests found?" and some more specific information on the importance of this project.

134

GPU-Based Interactive Visualization of Billion Point Cosmological Simulations  

E-print Network

Despite the recent advances in graphics hardware capabilities, a brute force approach is incapable of interactively displaying terabytes of data. We have implemented a system that uses hierarchical level-of-detailing for the results of cosmological simulations, in order to display visually accurate results without loading in the full dataset (containing over 10 billion points). The guiding principle of the program is that the user should not be able to distinguish what they are seeing from a full rendering of the original data. Furthermore, by using a tree-based system for levels of detail, the size of the underlying data is limited only by the capacity of the IO system containing it.

Tamas Szalay; Volker Springel; Gerard Lemson

2008-11-13

135

Gap5--editing the billion fragment sequence assembly  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Existing sequence assembly editors struggle with the volumes of data now readily available from the latest generation of DNA sequencing instruments. Results: We describe the Gap5 software along with the data structures and algorithms used that allow it to be scalable. We demonstrate this with an assembly of 1.1 billion sequence fragments and compare the performance with several other programs. We analyse the memory, CPU, I/O usage and file sizes used by Gap5. Availability and Implementation: Gap5 is part of the Staden Package and is available under an Open Source licence from http://staden.sourceforge.net. It is implemented in C and Tcl/Tk. Currently it works on Unix systems only. Contact: jkb@sanger.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20513662

Bonfield, James K.; Whitwham, Andrew

2010-01-01

136

Bigger, Better Catalog Unveils Half a Billion Celestial Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These frames are samples from the photographic sky surveys, which have been digitized by a technical team at the Space Telescope Science Institute to support the Hubble Space Telescope operations. The team processed these images to create a new astronomical catalog, called the Guide Star Catalog II. This project was undertaken by the Space Telescope Science Institute as an upgrade to an earlier sky survey and catalog (DSS-I and GSC-I), initially done to provide guide stars for pointing the Hubble Space Telescope. By virtue of its sheer size, the DSS-II and GSC-II have many research applications for both professional and amateur astronomers. [Top] An example from the DSS-II shows the Rosette Nebula, (originally photographed by the Palomar Observatory) as digitized in the DSS-I (left) and DSS-II (right). The DSS-II includes views of the sky at both red and blue wavelengths, providing invaluable color information on about one billion deep-sky objects. [Bottom] This blow-up of the inset box in the raw DSS-I scan shows examples of the GSC-I and the improved GSC-II catalogs. Astronomers extracted the stars from the scanned plate of the Rosette and listed them in the catalogs. The new GSC-II catalog provides the colors, positions, and luminosities of nearly half a billion stars -- over 20 times as many as the original GSC-I. The GSC-II contains information on stars as dim as the 19th magnitude. Credit: NASA, the DSS-II and GSC-II Consortia (with images from the Palomar Observatory-STScI Digital Sky Survey of the northern sky, based on scans of the Second Palomar Sky Survey are copyright c 1993-1999 by the California Institute of Technology)

2002-01-01

137

Anti-bacterial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of methanolic extracts of fourteen different edible vegetables from Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of fourteen different edible vegetables methanolic extract from Bangladesh. Methods The antibacterial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion assay method against 12 bacteria (both gram positive and gram negative). The plant extracts were also screened for cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay method and the lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined at 95% confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with “Finney Programme”. Results All the vegetable extracts showed low to elevated levels of antibacterial activity against most of the tested strains (zone of inhibition=5-28 mm). The most active extract against all bacterial strains was from Xanthium indicum which showed remarkable antibacterial activity having the diameter of growth inhibition zone ranging from 12 to 28 mm followed by Alternanthera sessilis (zone of inhibition=6-21 mm). All extracts exhibited considerable general toxicity towards brine shrimps. The LC50 value of the tested extracts was within the range of 8.447 to 60.323 µg/mL with respect to the positive control (vincristine sulphate) which was 0.91 µg/mL. Among all studied extracts, Xanthium indicum displayed the highest cytotoxic effect with LC50 value of 8.447 µg/mL. Conclusions The results of the present investigation suggest that most of the studied plants are potentially good source of antibacterial and anticancer agents. PMID:23570009

Ullah, M. Obayed; Haque, Mahmuda; Urmi, Kaniz Fatima; Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md.; Anita, Elichea Synthi; Begum, Momtaj; Hamid, Kaiser

2013-01-01

138

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12992 Prodigious degassing of a billion years of  

E-print Network

. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio rates from thermal areas across Yellowstone National Park10­13 . One clear result has been that the very helium at Yellowstone J. B. Lowenstern1 , W. C. Evans1 , D. Bergfeld1 & A. G. Hunt2 Helium is used

Cai, Long

139

Terranes of Mexico Revisited: A 1.3 Billion year Odyssey  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Precambrian and Paleozoic, Mexican terranes were either part of or proximal to Laurentia and Middle America (basements of Mesozoic Maya, Oaxaquia, and Chortis terranes that bordered Amazonia). Obduction of the Sierra Madre proximal terrane in the Late Ordovician was followed by Permo-Carboniferous amalgamation of all proximal terranes into Pangea. Middle Jurassic breakup of Pangea resulted in two continental

J. Duncan Keppie

2004-01-01

140

The discovery of fullerenes in the 1.85 billion-year-old Sudbury meteorite crater  

SciTech Connect

Fullerenes (C{sub 60}, C{sub 70}) have been identified by laser time-of-flight and electron-ionization mass spectroscopy in rock samples (black tuff in the Onaping formation) from the crater. They were likely synthesized within the impact plume from carbon contained in the meteorite. The isotopic ratios suggest {sup 13}C enrichment. They are associated with sulfur which may have protected them. This is the largest known deposit of naturally occurring fullerenes.

Becker, L.; Bada, J.L. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Winans, R.E.; Hunt, J.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bunch, T.E. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, CA (United States). Ames Research Center; French, B.M. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-02-01

141

Mathematical Model for the 0.5 Billion Years Aged Sun  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is given for constructing evolutionary tracks for a star with the mass equal to one solar mass. The presented model can be applied to the stars belonging to the inferior main sequence, which have the proton-proton reaction as energy source and present a radiative core and a convective shell. This paper presents an original way of solving the

E. Tatomir

2000-01-01

142

The Pilbara: one Billion Years of the Early Evolution of Earth's Surface Environments and Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pilbara contains the most complete sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rocks dating from 3.5 to 2.4 Ga. Because many of these rocks have experienced only low-grade metamorphism it is our best available natural laboratory for studying the origins and early evolution of life on Earth (and other planets) and the environments it inhabited. Indeed discoveries of the oldest possible

M. E. Barley

2004-01-01

143

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations before 2.2 billion years ago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The composition of the Earth's early atmosphere is a subject of continuing debate. In particular, it has been suggested that elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide would have been necessary to maintain normal surface temperatures in the face of lower solar luminosity in early Earth history. Fossil weathering profiles, known as palaeosols, have provided semi-quantitative constraints on atmospheric oxygen partial pressure (pO2) before 2.2 Gyr ago. Here we use the same well studied palaeosols to constrain atmospheric pCO2 between 2.75 and 2.2 Gyr ago. The observation that iron lost from the tops of these profiles was reprecipitated lower down as iron silicate minerals, rather than as iron carbonate, indicates that atmospheric pCO2 must have been less than 10(-1.4) atm--about 100 times today's level of 360 p.p.m., and at least five times lower than that required in one-dimensional climate models to compensate for lower solar luminosity at 2.75 Gyr. Our results suggest that either the Earth's early climate was much more sensitive to increases in pCO2 than has been thought, or that one or more greenhouse gases other than CO2 contributed significantly to the atmosphere's radiative balance during the late Archaean and early Proterozoic eons.

Rye, R.; Kuo, P. H.; Holland, H. D.

1995-01-01

144

For the first billion years of life on Earth,prokaryotes had the place to  

E-print Network

these relationships can span a vast continuum from fleeting to requisite and from beneficial to pathogenic Wolbachia are reproductive para- sites in insects but obligate mutualists in nematodes. Beetles' symbionts frequently. Relationships are obligate or facultative from the symbionts' point of view, as well

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

145

A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman

J. Stuart B. Wyithe; Abraham Loeb

2004-01-01

146

The rapid formation of a large rotating disk galaxy three billion years after the Big Bang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations and theoretical simulations have established a framework for galaxy formation and evolution in the young Universe. Galaxies formed as baryonic gas cooled at the centres of collapsing dark-matter haloes; mergers of haloes and galaxies then led to the hierarchical build-up of galaxy mass. It remains unclear, however, over what timescales galaxies were assembled and when and how bulges and

R. Genzel; L. J. Tacconi; F. Eisenhauer; N. M. Förster Schreiber; A. Cimatti; E. Daddi; N. Bouché; R. Davies; M. D. Lehnert; D. Lutz; N. Nesvadba; A. Verma; R. Abuter; K. Shapiro; A. Sternberg; A. Renzini; X. Kong; N. Arimoto; M. Mignoli

2006-01-01

147

A high abundance of massive galaxies 3-6 billion years after the Big Bang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchical galaxy formation is the model whereby massive galaxies form from an assembly of smaller units. The most massive objects therefore form last. The model succeeds in describing the clustering of galaxies, but the evolutionary history of massive galaxies, as revealed by their visible stars and gas, is not accurately predicted. Near-infrared observations (which allow us to measure the stellar

Karl Glazebrook; Roberto G. Abraham; Patrick J. McCarthy; Sandra Savaglio; Hsiao-Wen Chen; David Crampton; Rick Murowinski; Inger Jørgensen; Kathy Roth; Isobel Hook; Ronald O. Marzke; R. G. Carlberg

2004-01-01

148

Detection of Pristine Gas Two Billion Years after the Big Bang  

E-print Network

In the current cosmological model, only the three lightest elements were created in the first few minutes after the Big Bang; all other elements were produced later in stars. To date, however, heavy elements have been observed in all astrophysical environments. We report the detection of two gas clouds with no discernible elements heavier than hydrogen. These systems exhibit the lowest heavy-element abundance in the early universe and thus are potential fuel for the most metal poor halo stars. The detection of deuterium in one system at the level predicted by primordial nucleosynthesis provides a direct confirmation of the standard cosmological model. The composition of these clouds further implies that the transport of heavy elements from galaxies to their surroundings is highly inhomogeneous.

Fumagalli, Michele; Prochaska, J Xavier

2011-01-01

149

Networks of bZIP Protein-Protein Interactions Diversified Over a Billion Years of Evolution  

E-print Network

Differences in biomolecular sequence and function underlie dramatic ranges of appearance and behavior among species. We studied the basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors and quantified bZIP dimerization ...

Reinke, Aaron W.

150

ON THE LAST 10 BILLION YEARS OF STELLAR MASS GROWTH IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

The star formation rate-stellar mass relation (SFR-M{sub *}) and its evolution (i.e., the SFR main sequence) describe the growth rate of galaxies of a given stellar mass and at a given redshift. Assuming that present-day star-forming galaxies (SFGs) were always star forming in the past, these growth rate observations can be integrated to calculate average star formation histories (SFHs). Using this Main Sequence Integration (MSI) approach, we trace present-day massive SFGs back to when they were 10%-20% of their current stellar mass. The integration is robust throughout those epochs: the SFR data underpinning our calculations are consistent with the evolution of stellar mass density in this regime. Analytic approximations to these SFHs are provided. Integration-based results reaffirm previous suggestions that current SFGs formed virtually all of their stellar mass at z < 2. It follows that massive galaxies observed at z > 2 are not the typical progenitors of SFGs today. We also check MSI-based SFHs against those inferred from analysis of the fossil record-from spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of SFGs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of resolved stars in dwarf irregular galaxies. Once stellar population age uncertainties are accounted for, the main sequence is in excellent agreement with SED-based SFHs (from VESPA). Extrapolating SFR main sequence observations to dwarf galaxies, we find differences between MSI results and SFHs from CMD analysis of Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury and Local Group galaxies. Resolved dwarfs appear to grow much slower than main sequence trends imply, and also slower than slightly higher mass SED-analyzed galaxies. This difference may signal problems with SFH determinations, but it may also signal a shift in star formation trends at the lowest stellar masses.

Leitner, Samuel N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2012-02-01

151

The role of bars in AGN fueling in disk galaxies over the last seven billion years  

E-print Network

We present empirical constraints on the influence of stellar bars on the fueling of active galactic nuclei (AGN) out to z=0.84 using a sample of X-ray-selected AGN hosted in luminous face-on disk galaxies from the Chandra COSMOS survey. Using high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging to identify bars, we find that the fraction of barred active galaxies displays a similar behavior as that of inactive spirals, declining with redshift from 71% at z~0.3, to 35% at z~0.8. With active galaxies being typically massive, we compare them against a mass-matched sample of inactive spirals and find that the AGN bar fraction is higher, with this enhancement being marginal at z>0.4, but becoming more pronounced at low redshift. The presence of a bar has no influence on the AGN strength, with barred and unbarred active galaxies showing equivalent X-ray luminosity distributions, though barred galaxies on average seem to show higher levels of central star formation. From our results, we conclude that the role of bars is r...

Cisternas, Mauricio; Salvato, Mara; Knapen, Johan H; Civano, Francesca; Santini, Paola

2014-01-01

152

Black Hole Growth and Host Galaxy Co-Evolution Over 8 Billion Years of Cosmic Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although much progress has been made in the investigation of the co-evolution of black holes and galaxies, the nature of AGN accretion triggers and AGN-host feedback remain open questions. Using samples of hard X-ray selected, moderate-luminosity AGN and their host galaxies from 0.25 < z < 2.67 in the GOODS deep multi-wavelength survey fields, this thesis assesses the growth rates and histories of these black holes, and uses their host galaxy morphologies and colors to test the applicability of established quasar-triggering models to lower-powered AGN. The analysis includes simulations of over 50,000 AGN+host galaxy images to assess the reliability of AGN-host decomposition, as well as a new technique to separate the spectral energy distribution of an obscured AGN from its dominant host galaxy. Moderate-luminosity AGN span a range of growth rates but are typically in a phase of slow growth (with ? 80% of the sample growing at less than 10% of the Eddington limit) with relatively high black hole masses (? 75% of the sample has MBH > 5 × 107 M? , implying that they must have been growing at higher rates in the past in order to grow to the masses we observe. Additionally, a significant fraction of the host galaxies of moderate-luminosity AGN are disk-dominated: at the highest redshifts of the sample more than half of the host galaxies have at least 80% of their optical light from a disk. A further one-quarter to one-third of the sample (depending on redshift) has a significant disk contribution, with a stronger, but likely not dominant, bulge. Because major mergers both form bulges and destroy disks, this result indicates that models requiring major mergers to trigger the growth of black holes do not describe the majority of AGN. The range of both black hole growth rates and host galaxy colors and morphologies in the sample imply that secular processes are important to the growth of moderate-luminosity AGN, which collectively comprise a substantial fraction of the overall black hole growth in the universe.

Simmons, Brooke D.

153

The violent youth of bright and massive cluster galaxies and their maturation over 7 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate the formation and evolution mechanisms of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) over cosmic time. At high redshift (z ˜ 0.9), we selected BCGs and most massive cluster galaxies (MMCGs) from the Cl1604 supercluster and compared them to low-redshift (z ˜ 0.1) counterparts drawn from the MCXC meta-catalogue, supplemented by Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging and spectroscopy. We observed striking differences in the morphological, colour, spectral, and stellar mass properties of the BCGs/MMCGs in the two samples. High-redshift BCGs/MMCGs were, in many cases, star-forming, late-type galaxies, with blue broad-band colours, properties largely absent amongst the low-redshift BCGs/MMCGs. The stellar mass of BCGs was found to increase by an average factor of 2.51 ± 0.71 from z ˜ 0.9 to z ˜ 0.1. Through this and other comparisons, we conclude that a combination of major merging (mainly wet or mixed) and in situ star formation are the main mechanisms which build stellar mass in BCGs/MMCGs. The stellar mass growth of the BCGs/MMCGs also appears to grow in lockstep with both the stellar baryonic and total mass of the cluster. Additionally, BCGs/MMCGs were found to grow in size, on average, a factor of ˜3, while their average Sérsic index increased by ˜0.45 from z ˜ 0.9 to z ˜ 0.1, also supporting a scenario involving major merging, though some adiabatic expansion is required. These observational results are compared to both models and simulations to further explore the implications on processes which shape and evolve BCGs/MMCGs over the past ˜7 Gyr.

Ascaso, B.; Lemaux, B. C.; Lubin, L. M.; Gal, R. R.; Kocevski, D. D.; Rumbaugh, N.; Squires, G.

2014-07-01

154

Could organic matter have been preserved on Mars for 3.5 billion years?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About 3.5 Gyr ago, when it is thought that Mars and earth had similar climates, biological evolution on earth had made considerable progress, such that life was abundant. It is therefore surmised that prior to this time period, the advent of chemical evolution and subsequent origin of life occurred on earth and may have occurred on Mars. Analysis for organic compounds in the soil buried beneath the Martian surface may yield useful information regarding the occurrence of chemical evolution and possibly biological evolution. Calculations based on the stability of amino acids lead to the conclusion that remnants of these compounds, if they existed on Mars 3.5 Gyr ago, might have been preserved buried beneath the surface oxidizing layer. For example, if phenylalanine, an amino acid of average stability, existed on Mars 3.5 Gyr ago, then 1.6 percent would remain buried today. Martian soil may exist from remnants of meteoritic and cometary bombardment, assuming that 1 percent of the organics survived impact.

Kanavarioti, Anastassia; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

1990-01-01

155

Federal Agencies and Black Colleges. Fiscal Year 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fiscal year 1970, the Federal Government spent $3,668 billion to aid colleges and universities throughout the nation as compared to $3,782 billion in the previous year. Despite this decline in total Federal aid to higher education, the support awarded to the black college community increased 16% between fiscal years 1969 and 1970. The $125.5…

Federal Interagency Committee on Education, Washington, DC.

156

Federal Support for Education: Fiscal Years 1980 to 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report attempts to provide a comprehensive picture of total federal financial support for education since fiscal year 1980. Federal support for education, excluding estimated federal tax expenditures, was an estimated $128.1 billion in fiscal year 2001, an increase of $65.3 billion since fiscal year 1990. The report divides federal education…

Hoffman, Charlene M.

157

Executing the Will of the Voters?: A Roadmap to Mend or End the California Legislature’s Multi-Billion-Dollar Death Penalty Debacle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since reinstating the death penalty in 1978, California taxpayers have spent roughly $4 billion to fund a dysfunctional death penalty system that has carried out no more than 13 executions. The current backlog of death penalty cases is so severe that most of the 714 prisoners now on death row will wait well over 20 years before their cases are

Paula M. Mitchell

2011-01-01

158

Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion  

E-print Network

Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion passengers each year. Air traffic delays have become a huge problem, implementation, and evaluation of practical algorithms for air transportation systems to help air traffic

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

159

21Dawn Spacecraft sees Asteroid Vesta Up Close! On July 15, 2011 the NASA spacecraft Dawn completed a 2.8 billion  

E-print Network

. Vesta is the second largest asteroid in the Asteroid Belt. Its diameter is 530 kilometers. After one21Dawn Spacecraft sees Asteroid Vesta Up Close! On July 15, 2011 the NASA spacecraft Dawn completed a 2.8 billion kilometer journey taking four years, and went into orbit around the asteroid Vesta

160

Site geotechnical considerations for expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to one billion barrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight Gulf Coast salt domes have emerged as candidate sites for possible expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to one billion barrels. Two existing SPR sites, Big Hill, TX, and Weeks Island, LA, are among the eight that are being considered. To achieve the billion barrel capacity, some 25 new leached caverns would be constructed, and would probably be

J. T. Neal; D. W. Whittington; T. R. Magorian

1991-01-01

161

Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters  

E-print Network

Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters Shoibal Chakravartya the engagement of 1.13 billion high emitters, roughly equally distributed in 4 regions: the U.S., the OECD minus on emissions of the world's lowest CO2 emitters and demonstrate that climate mitigation and alleviation

162

Sex-Role Stereotyping in Television Commercials: A Review and Comparison of Fourteen Studies Done on Five Continents Over 25 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the pioneering content-analytic study byMcArthur and Resko (1975) on sex-role stereotyping oftelevision advertisements in America, many others haveused a similar methodology and coding scheme to examine similar stereotypes in their owncountries. This study compares and contrasts 14 studies,all using the McArthur and Resko (1975) scheme: 3 fromAmerica, 1 each from Australia, Denmark, and France, and 2 and one from

Adrian Furnham; Twiggy Mak

1999-01-01

163

Fourteen years of applying zero and conventional tillage, crop rotation and residue management systems and its effect on physical and chemical soil quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil management systems may negatively affect the quality of the soil. Policymakers and farmers need scientific information to make appropriate land management decisions. Conventional (CT) and zero tillage (ZT) are two common soil management systems. Comparative field studies under controlled conditions are required to determine the impact of these systems on soil quality and yields. The research presented studied plant

Mariela Fuentes; Bram Govaerts; Fernando De León; Claudia Hidalgo; Luc Dendooven; Ken D. Sayre; Jorge Etchevers

2009-01-01

164

Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people  

SciTech Connect

Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

2003-06-01

165

NASA's Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA announced an $18.7 billion budget request for fiscal year 2012 that supports a reinvigorated path of innovation, technological development and scientific discovery. The budget supports all ele...

166

Immigrants contributed an estimated $115.2 billion more to the Medicare Trust Fund than they took out in 2002-09.  

PubMed

Many immigrants in the United States are working-age taxpayers; few are elderly beneficiaries of Medicare. This demographic profile suggests that immigrants may be disproportionately subsidizing the Medicare Trust Fund, which supports payments to hospitals and institutions under Medicare Part A. For immigrants and others, we tabulated Trust Fund contributions and withdrawals (that is, Trust Fund expenditures on their behalf) using multiple years of data from the Current Population Survey and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. In 2009 immigrants made 14.7 percent of Trust Fund contributions but accounted for only 7.9 percent of its expenditures-a net surplus of $13.8 billion. In contrast, US-born people generated a $30.9 billion deficit. Immigrants generated surpluses of $11.1-$17.2 billion per year between 2002 and 2009, resulting in a cumulative surplus of $115.2 billion. Most of the surplus from immigrants was contributed by noncitizens and was a result of the high proportion of working-age taxpayers in this group. Policies that restrict immigration may deplete Medicare's financial resources. PMID:23720486

Zallman, Leah; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David; Bor, David; McCormick, Danny

2013-06-01

167

Determination of Fluorine in Fourteen Microanalytical Geologic Reference Materials using SIMS, EPMA, and Proton Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE) Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine (F) is a volatile constituent of magmas and hydrous minerals, and trace amounts of F are incorporated into nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine and clinopyroxene. Microanalytical techniques are routinely used to measure trace amounts of F at both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution in glasses and crystals. However, there are few well-established F concentrations for the glass standards routinely used in microanalytical laboratories, particularly standards of low silica, basaltic composition. In this study, we determined the F content of fourteen commonly used microanalytical glass standards of basaltic, intermediate, and rhyolitic composition. To serve as calibration standards, five basaltic glasses with ~0.2 to 2.5 wt% F were synthesized and characterized. A natural tholeiite from the East Pacific Rise was mixed with variable amounts of CaF2. The mixture was heated in a 1 atmosphere furnace to 1440 °C at fO2 = NNO for 30 minutes and quenched in water. Portions of the run products were studied by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The EPMA used a 15 µm diameter defocused electron beam with a 15 kV accelerating voltage and a 25 nA primary current, a TAP crystal for detecting FK? X-rays, and Biotite 3 as the F standard. The F contents by EPMA agreed with the F added to the basalts after correction for mass loss during melting. The SIMS analyses used a primary beam of 16O- and detection of low-energy negative ions (-5 kV) at a mass resolution that resolved 18OH. Both microanalytical techniques confirmed homogeneity, and the SIMS calibration defined by EPMA shows an excellent linear trend with backgrounds of 2 ppm or less. Analyses of basaltic glass standards based on our synthesized calibration standards gave the following F contents and 2? errors (ppm): ALV-519 = 83 ± 3; BCR-2G = 359 ± 6; BHVO-2G = 322 ± 15; GSA-1G = 10 ± 1; GSC-1G = 11 ± 1; GSD-1G = 19 ± 2; GSE-1G = 173 ± 1; KL2G (MPI-DING) = 101 ± 1; ML3B-G (MPI-DING) = 49 ± 17. These values are lower than published values for BCR-2 and BHVO-2 (unmelted powders) and the “information values” for the MPI-DING glass standards. Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) was tested for the high silica samples. PIGE analyses (1.7 MeV Tandem Accelerator; reaction type: 19F(p, ??)16O; primary current = 20-30 nA; incident beam voltage = 1.5 MeV) were calibrated with a crystal of fluor-topaz (F = 20.3 wt%) and gave F values of: NIST 610 = 266 ± 14 ppm; NIST 620 = 54 ± 5 ppm; and UTR-2 = 1432 ± 32 ppm. SIMS calibration defined by the PIGE analyses shows an excellent linear trend with low background similar to the basaltic calibration. The F concentrations of intermediate MPI-DING glasses were determined based on SIMS calibration generated from the PIGE analysis above. The F concentrations and 2? errors (ppm) are: T1G = 219.9 ± 6.8; StHs/680-G = 278.0 ± 2.0 ppm. This study revealed a large matrix effect between the high-silica and basaltic glasses, thus requiring the use of appropriate standards and separate SIMS calibrations when analyzing samples of different compositions.

Guggino, S. N.; Hervig, R. L.

2010-12-01

168

Simultaneous analysis of fourteen tertiary amine stimulants in human urine for doping control purposes by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the simultaneous screening and confirmation of the presence of fourteen tertiary amine stimulants in human urine by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) in combination with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS\\/MS) has been developed and validated. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) approaches were utilized for the pre-treatment of the urine samples. The study indicated that the

Jianghai Lu; San Wang; Ying Dong; Xiaobing Wang; Shuming Yang; Jianli Zhang; Jing Deng; Yang Qin; Youxuan Xu; Moutian Wu; Gangfeng Ouyang

2010-01-01

169

Definitions of Bullying: A Comparison of Terms Used, and Age and Gender Differences, in a Fourteen-Country International Comparison.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used stick-figure cartoons depicting various peer social situations to investigate meanings given by children in 14 countries to native terms cognate to bullying. Found that 8-year- olds primarily discriminated nonaggressive and aggressive situations; 14-year-olds discriminated fighting versus physical bullying and verbal bullying versus social…

Smith, Peter K.; Cowie, Helen; Olafsson, Ragnar F.; Liefooghe, Andy P.D.

2002-01-01

170

Federal R&D Support to Nonprofit Institutions Exceeds $3 Billion  

NSF Publications Database

Federal R&D Support to Nonprofit Institutions Exceeds $3 Billion (July 24, 2001) This is a synopsis ... Federal obligations (R&D and R&D plant) to independent nonprofit institutions. From the Survey of ...

171

Total Stock of Academic Research Instruments Tops $6 Billion in 1993  

NSF Publications Database

Total Stock of Academic Research Instruments Tops $6 Billion in 1993(June 6, 1997) This SRS Data ... findings from the 1993 Survey of Academic Research Instruments and Instrumentation Needs concerning ...

172

Rules Set for $4 Billion Race to Top Contest: Final Rules Give States Detailed Map in Quest for $4 Billion in Education Stimulus Aid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For a good shot at $4 billion in grants from the federal Race to the Top Fund, states will need to make a persuasive case for their education reform agendas, demonstrate significant buy-in from local school districts, and devise plans to evaluate teachers and principals based on student performance, according to final regulations released last…

McNeil, Michele

2009-01-01

173

Large data analysis: automatic visual personal identification in a demography of 1.2 billion persons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest biometric deployment in history is now underway in India, where the Government is enrolling the iris patterns (among other data) of all 1.2 billion citizens. The purpose of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is to ensure fair access to welfare benefits and entitlements, to reduce fraud, and enhance social inclusion. Only a minority of Indian citizens have bank accounts; only 4 percent possess passports; and less than half of all aid money reaches its intended recipients. A person who lacks any means of establishing their identity is excluded from entitlements and does not officially exist; thus the slogan of UIDAI is: To give the poor an identity." This ambitious program enrolls a million people every day, across 36,000 stations run by 83 agencies, with a 3-year completion target for the entire national population. The halfway point was recently passed with more than 600 million persons now enrolled. In order to detect and prevent duplicate identities, every iris pattern that is enrolled is first compared against all others enrolled so far; thus the daily workflow now requires 600 trillion (or 600 million-million) iris cross-comparisons. Avoiding identity collisions (False Matches) requires high biometric entropy, and achieving the tremendous match speed requires phase bit coding. Both of these requirements are being delivered operationally by wavelet methods developed by the author for encoding and comparing iris patterns, which will be the focus of this Large Data Award" presentation.

Daugman, John

2014-05-01

174

Definitions of bullying: a comparison of terms used, and age and gender differences, in a fourteen-country international comparison.  

PubMed

The study of school bullying has recently assumed an international dimension, but is faced with difficulties in finding terms in different languages to correspond to the English word bullying. To investigate the meanings given to various terms, a set of 25 stick-figure cartoons was devised, covering a range of social situations between peers. These cartoons were shown to samples of 8- and 14-year-old pupils (N = 1,245; n = 604 at 8 years, n = 641 at 14 years) in schools in 14 different countries, who judged whether various native terms cognate to bullying, applied to them. Terms from 10 Indo-European languages and three Asian languages were sampled. Multidimensional scaling showed that 8-year-olds primarily discriminated nonaggressive and aggressive cartoon situations; however, 14-year-olds discriminated fighting from physical bullying, and also discriminated verbal bullying and social exclusion. Gender differences were less appreciable than age differences. Based on the 14-year-old data, profiles of 67 words were then constructed across the five major cartoon clusters. The main types of terms used fell into six groups: bullying (of all kinds), verbal plus physical bullying, solely verbal bullying, social exclusion, solely physical aggression, and mainly physical aggression. The findings are discussed in relation to developmental trends in how children understand bullying, the inferences that can be made from cross-national studies, and the design of such studies. PMID:12146737

Smith, Peter K; Cowie, Helen; Olafsson, Ragnar F; Liefooghe, Andy P D; Almeida, Ana; Araki, Hozumi; del Barrio, Cristina; Costabile, Angela; Dekleva, Bojan; Houndoumadi, Anastasia; Kim, Kenneth; Olafsson, Ragnar P; Ortega, Rosario; Pain, Jacques; Pateraki, Lena; Schafer, Mechthild; Singer, Monika; Smorti, Andrea; Toda, Yuichi; Tomasson, Helgi; Wenxin, Zhang

2002-01-01

175

F-LE In The Billions and Linear Modeling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The data in the table below was taken from Wikipedia. Year World Population (Estimate) 1804 1 1927 2 1960 3 1974 4 1987 5 1999 6 2012 7 Based on the da...

176

Public School Desegregation/Redesign: A Case Study in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. Urban Education Reports Number Fourteen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents a case study of the public school desegregation and redesign program of the East Baton Rouge Parish (Louisiana) School System, focusing on the 5 years from 1987 to 1992. Chapter 1 describes the setting and background, the sociocultural history of the area since pre-Revolutionary War days, the role and treatment of African…

Stone, Frank Andrews

177

Shear Strength at 75 F to 500 F of Fourteen Adhesives Used to Bond a Glass-fabric-reinforced Phenolic Resin Laminate to Steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fourteen adhesives used to bond a glass-fabric-reinforced phenolic resin laminate to steel were tested in order to determine their shear strengths at temperatures from 75 F to 500 F. Fabrication methods were varied to evaluate the effect of placing cloth between the facing surfaces to maintain a uniform bond-line thickness. One glass-fabric supported phenolic adhesive was found to have a shear strength of 3,400 psi at 300 F and over 1,000 psi at 500 F. Strength and fabrication data are tabulated for all adhesives tested.

Davidson, John R

1956-01-01

178

Residence Life Programs and the First-Year Experience. The Freshman Year Experience. Monograph Series No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph contains papers which suggest means of implementing residential programs, services, and facilities that will help to meet the needs of first-year college students. Fourteen papers are presented and are as follows: "Reflections on the First Year Residential Experience" (John N. Gardner); "The Role of Residential Programs in the…

Zeller, William, Ed.; And Others

179

LIFE'S STRUGGLE TO SURVIVE There might be 40 billion Earth-like planets in our Galaxy.  

E-print Network

'll just talk about some obstacles life on our planet had to overcome to reach the point where other some obstacles life on our planet had to overcome to reach the point where other civilizations mightLIFE'S STRUGGLE TO SURVIVE John Baez #12;There might be 40 billion Earth-like planets in our Galaxy

Baez, John

180

California agriculture is large, diverse, complex and dynamic. It generated nearly $37.5 billion  

E-print Network

California agriculture is large, diverse, complex and dynamic. It generated nearly $37.5 billion in cash receipts in 2010. California has been the nation's top agricultural state in cash receipts every in 1960 to about 12 percent in 2010. UniversityofCalifornia AgriculturalIssuesCenter The Measure

California at Davis, University of

181

Clean air that you're breathing may cost hundreds of billions of dollars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clean Air Act of 1970 could cost over $400 billion in 1980 dollars by 1987 unless it is modified in the current Congressional review. Industry and business groups want to simplify the law and change some of the procedures for setting standards, while environmentalists want tighter regulations to deal with acid rain, fine particulates, and toxic chemicals. Congress is

1981-01-01

182

High-Stakes Hustle: Public Schools and the New Billion Dollar Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-stakes testing costs up to $50 billion per annum, has no impact on student achievement, and has changed the focus of American public schools. This article analyzes the benefits and costs of the accountability movement, as well as discusses its roots in the eugenics movements of the early 20th century.

Baines, Lawrence A.; Stanley, Gregory Kent

2004-01-01

183

The Chief Executives' Club at Queen's `Competition in a World of 7 Billion Citizens  

E-print Network

plans. He is passionate about "connecting the dots of innovation, climate change, business and the near a business model that helps to marry the demands for business profit while protecting and maximising useThe Chief Executives' Club at Queen's `Competition in a World of 7 Billion Citizens: A New Model

Paxton, Anthony T.

184

The President's 2011 Budget provides $28.4 billion for the Department of Energy (DOE) to  

E-print Network

69 The President's 2011 Budget provides $28.4 billion for the Department of Energy (DOE) to support,secure,andeffectivenuclearweaponsstockpile. · ContinuestheNation'seffortstoreduceenvironmentalrisksandsafelymanagenuclear materials. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY #12;70 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Encourages the Early Commercial Use of New, Innovative Energy Technologies

185

A Billion Keys, but Few Locks: The Crisis of Web Single Sign-On  

E-print Network

A Billion Keys, but Few Locks: The Crisis of Web Single Sign-On San-Tsai Sun, Yazan Boshmaf) with sufficient incentives to become relying parties (RPs). In addition, the pressure from users and identity should build identity support into browsers in order to facilitate RPs' adoption. Categories and Subject

186

Duplicate Discovery on 2 Billion Internet Images Xin-Jing Wang, Lei Zhang  

E-print Network

reliable and efficient through aggregation and assignment within each cluster. Although duplicate discovery database to a query image [23, 13, 15]. However, such approaches can hardly scale up to billions differently, it is straightforward to aggregate annotations from the dupli- cates of an input image to obtain

Oliva, Aude

187

Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy  

SciTech Connect

April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

Daniel Sperling

2009-04-15

188

Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually.  

E-print Network

Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually. Emissions of concern: ~Direct atmospheric effects: CO2(from production of fertilizer using fossil fuels), NOx. (fertilizers that use nitric acid or ammonium bicarbonate result in emissions of nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide

Toohey, Darin W.

189

Parallel Media Processors for the Billion-Transistor Era Jason Fritts, Zhao Wu, and Wayne Wolf  

E-print Network

Parallel Media Processors for the Billion-Transistor Era Jason Fritts, Zhao Wu, and Wayne Wolf Dept}@ee.princeton.edu Abstract This paper describes the challenges presented by single- chip parallel media processors (PMPs to realize the full potential of programmable media processors. This paper provides both a survey of research

Fritts, Jason

190

A huge collection of billions to trillions of stars and the interstellar material  

E-print Network

two galaxies collide and merge. Mass: 10 Million - 10 Trillion SM StarPower Points: 15 Galaxy Galaxy. Most galaxies have a black hole or quasar at their center. Mass:1 Million - 1,000 Billion SM StarPower Points: 14 Galaxy Quasar A super massive black hole at the center of a galaxy. Quasars are formed when

Bechtold, Jill

191

Quality evaluation of commercial Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang based on simultaneous determination of fourteen major chemical constituents using high performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT), comprising Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Phellodendri Cortex and Gardeniae Fructus, is one of the commonly used Chinese medicine formulas for clearing heat and detoxifying. Quality control of the herbal complex like Chinese medicine formulas still remains a challenge. The successful approval of botanical drug Veregen by FDA indicated the importance of quantitative analysis in quality control of herbal medicines. In this study, an effective quantitative method based on conventional HPLC-DAD was developed for simultaneous determination of fourteen major ingredients (seven alkaloids, four flavonoids, three terpenes) in HLJDT. The established method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability and then successfully applied to quality evaluation of commercial HLJDT samples. The developed method can quantitatively determine up to 70% of the chemicals of commercial HLJDT sample and effectively revealed the significant variation in the quality of the commercial HLJDT samples collected from different locations. PMID:23973454

Kwok, Ka-Yan; Xu, Jun; Ho, Hing-Man; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Min; Lang, Yan; Han, Quan-Bin

2013-11-01

192

Medicare overpayments to private plans, 1985-2012: shifting seniors to private plans has already cost Medicare US$282.6 billion.  

PubMed

Previous research has documented Medicare overpayments to the private Medicare Advantage (MA) plans that compete with traditional fee-for-service Medicare. This research has assessed individual categories of overpayment for, at most, a few years. However, no study has calculated the total overpayments to private plans since the program's inception. Prior to 2004, selective enrollment of healthier seniors was the major source of excess payments. We estimate this has added US$41 billion to Medicare's costs since 1985. Medicare adopted a risk-adjustment scheme in 2004, but this has not curbed private plans' ability to game the payment system. This has added US$122.5 billion to Medicare's costs since 2004. Congress mandated increased payment to private plans in the 2003 Medicare Modernization Act, which was mitigated, to a degree, by the subsequent Affordable Care Act. In total, we find that Medicare has overpaid private insurers by US$282.6 billion since 1985. Risk adjustment does not work in for-profit MA plans, which have a financial incentive, the data, and the ingenuity to game whatever system Medicare devises. It is time to end Medicare's costly experiment with privatization. The U.S. needs to adopt a single-payer national health insurance program with effective methods for controlling costs. PMID:23821907

Hellander, Ida; Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

2013-01-01

193

FOURTEEN RUSTS FROM NORTHEAST IRAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Surveys of fields, parks, and forests in the Golestan province of northeast Iran resulted in the record of four- teen rust-induced diseases on weeping willow, black poplar, blackberry, rose, estragon, garlic, wild oat, barley, ryegrass, wheat, peach, plum, alfalfa, and broad bean. Causal agents were identified as Melampsora coleospori- oides, M. allii-populina, Phragmidium bulbosum, Ph. vio- laceum, Ph. rosae-pimpinellifoliae,

M. Sadravi; Y. Ono; M. Pei; K. Rahnama

2007-01-01

194

Fourteen Ways To Save Money.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts have come up with some money-saving practices that include auditing utility bills, turning off lights, installing light fixtures that are more cost-efficient, keeping track of what the district owns, and shopping for better deals with utilities. (MLF)

Jones, Rebecca

1998-01-01

195

Project Solo; Newsletter Number Fourteen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Revised material from earlier Project Solo newsletters is presented here. The revised material updates programs to explain the law of sines and cosines and to apply the idea of rectangular coordinates approach to aircraft navigation systems such as VORTAC. A brief discussion of the value of off-line as opposed to on-line activity is also…

Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Project Solo.

196

Earth: The Early Years We discuss ...  

E-print Network

Earth: The Early Years We discuss ... · What happened to the Earth during the first few billion)? · What is the relationship to (early) life? #12;Age of Earth James Ussher (17th C) biblical account: 6: 20-40 m.y. (million years!) Charles Darwin evolution >300 m.y. Lord Kelvin (1880's) cooling Earth: 50

197

How to Bring Solar Energy to Seven Billion People (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

SciTech Connect

By exploiting the powers of nanotechnology and taking advantage of non-toxic, Earth-abundant materials, Berkeley Lab's Cyrus Wadia has fabricated new solar cell devices that have the potential to be several orders of magnitude less expensive than conventional solar cells. And by mastering the chemistry of these materials-and the economics of solar energy-he envisions bringing electricity to the 1.2 billion people now living without it.

Wadia, Cyrus

2009-04-06

198

How to Bring Solar Energy to Seven Billion People (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

ScienceCinema

By exploiting the powers of nanotechnology and taking advantage of non-toxic, Earth-abundant materials, Berkeley Lab's Cyrus Wadia has fabricated new solar cell devices that have the potential to be several orders of magnitude less expensive than conventional solar cells. And by mastering the chemistry of these materials-and the economics of solar energy-he envisions bringing electricity to the 1.2 billion people now living without it.

Wadia, Cyrus

2011-04-28

199

U.S. Wind projected to Be $60 billion business by 2013  

SciTech Connect

A recent U.S. Department of Energy report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to meeting 20 percent of U.S. electricity generation from wind by 2030, but identified upgrading of the transmission grid as a major challenge, requiring a $60+ billion investment. One major obstacle is the highly fragmented ownership of the 200,000-mile network among some 500 diverse, intensely territorial entities.

NONE

2008-11-15

200

Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.  

PubMed

Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes. PMID:22158244

McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

2011-12-01

201

Meniscus Allograft Transplantation: Ten-Year Results of Cryopreserved Allografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We report the results of cryopreserved meniscus allograft transplantations with 10 or more years of follow-up. Methods: Fourteen medial and 8 lateral meniscus allografts were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 141 months (range, 115 to 167 months). The clinical outcome and failure rate was evaluated by use of a Lysholm score and modified pain score in 22 patients.

Jan Pieter Hommen; Gregory R. Applegate; Wilson Del Pizzo

2007-01-01

202

Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: "Child Development, Molecular Genetics, and What to Do With Genes Once They Are Found" (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental…

Plomin, Robert

2013-01-01

203

Simultaneous analysis of fourteen tertiary amine stimulants in human urine for doping control purposes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for the simultaneous screening and confirmation of the presence of fourteen tertiary amine stimulants in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) approaches were utilized for the pre-treatment of the urine samples. The study indicated that the capillary temperature played a significant role in the signal abundances of the protonated molecules of cropropamide and crotethamide under positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions. In addition, comparison studies of two different pre-treatment approaches as well as the two ionization modes were conducted. The LODs of the developed method for all the analytes were lower than the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) as set forth in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) technical document for laboratories. The human urine sample obtained after oral administration of prolintane.HCl was successfully analyzed by the developed method, which demonstrated the applicability and reliability of the method for routine doping control analysis. PMID:19951756

Lu, Jianghai; Wang, San; Dong, Ying; Wang, Xiaobing; Yang, Shuming; Zhang, Jianli; Deng, Jing; Qin, Yang; Xu, Youxuan; Wu, Moutian; Ouyang, Gangfeng

2010-01-01

204

The Black Hills: a Keystone of North American Continental Evolution for over 2.6 Billion Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Black Hills region provides an excellent field laboratory to study numerous aspects of the continental evolution of North America from the Neoarchean to the Recent. The Neoarchean basement consists of 2.60- 2.56 Ga gneissic granitoids that formed during an early episode of convergent thermotectonism. In the Paleoproterozoic the region experienced rifting at 2.48-1.98 Ga and renewed convergence at 1.75-1.71

M. S. Hubbard; P. S. Dahl; G. Duke; E. F. Duke; P. I. Nabelek

2006-01-01

205

Organic-walled microfossils in 3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine siliciclastic deposits  

E-print Network

morphologies similar to some microfossils4,5 , and hydrothermal fluids have the potential to produce abiotic, occurrence in populations, taphonomic features of soft wall deformation, and the geological context plausible carbonaceous microstructures have been described mostly from hydrothermal and sedimentary cherts1

Bekker, Andrey

206

Recrystallized Granite Surface Fissures of Wasatch Range Produced Not Later Than 1\\/4Billion Years Ago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our studies of numerous recrystallized fissures in 4 granite plutons of Wasatch Range, i.e., Mount T-W-M, (K.L. McDonald, Bul. A.P.S., 32 (4), 1124),(37 (5), 1256-7),(38 (1), 740) Bonanza Pk.-Midway,(35 (9), 2132) Little Cottonwood and Ferguson Canyon plutons, all of which formed magma chambers reaching Earth-atm. interface, estab that they resulted from high thermal gradients and not passages of earthquake waves.(33

Keith McDonald

2000-01-01

207

Northwest Africa 8159: An approximately 2.3 Billion Year Old Martian Olivine-Bearing Augite Basalt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on petrology, mineralogy, and bulk composition, the new NWA 8159 martian meteorite is distinct from all known samples from Mars. In particular, the augite compositional trends are unique, but most similar to those of nakhite intercumulus. Whether NWA 8159 represents a new lithology or is related to a known meteorite group remains to be determined. Sr and Nd isotopic analyses will allow comparison of source characteristics with SNC and other new ungrouped meteorites (e.g., NWA 7635). Here we report initial Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for NWA 8159 with the objective to determine its formation age and to potentially identify similarities and potential source affinities with other martian rocks.

Simon, J. I.; Peters, T. J.; Tappa, M. J.; Agee, C. B.

2014-01-01

208

The First Billion Years project - III: The impact of stellar radiation on the coevolution of Populations II and III  

E-print Network

With the first metal enrichment by Population (Pop) III supernovae (SNe), the formation of the first metal-enriched, Pop II stars becomes possible. In turn, Pop III star formation and early metal enrichment are slowed by the high energy radiation emitted by Pop II stars. Thus, through the SNe and radiation they produce, Populations II and III coevolve in the early Universe, one regulated by the other. We present large (4 Mpc)^3, high resolution cosmological simulations in which we self-consistently model early metal enrichment and the stellar radiation responsible for the destruction of the coolants (H2 and HD) required for Pop III star formation. We find that the molecule-dissociating stellar radiation produced both locally and over cosmological distances reduces the Pop III star formation rate at z > 10 by up to an order of magnitude compared to the case in which this radiation is not included. However, we find that the effect of LW feedback is to enhance the amount of Pop II star formation. We attribute th...

Johnson, Jarrett L; Khochfar, Sadegh

2012-01-01

209

Clusters of Galaxies in the last 5 Billion Years: from the Brightest Cluster Galaxy to the Intra-Cluster Light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the physical processes which shape the galaxy population in the high density environment of galaxy clusters as a function of cosmic time is a central open question in galaxy evolution studies. With the Frontier Field Initiative, HST will provide an ultra-deep view and an unprecedented multi-wavelength dataset to study the galaxy population in and around galaxy clusters at intermediate redshift. With our study, we aim at providing the first self-consistent theoretical framework based on cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to understand the evolution of cluster galaxies: our analysis is designed to complement and aid the interpretation of the wealth of observational data within the LCDM Cosmology. In particular, we plan an in-depth analysis of a sample of 15 haloes with masses between 7x10^13 and 2x10^15 Msun at z=0, simulated with the gravity+hydrodynamics code Arepo. The numerical scheme and the galaxy formation model adopted in this study have already been successfully tested against a series of global measurements: they will allow us to follow the fate, within each cluster, of hundreds of well-resolved galaxies with stellar masses above 5x10^9 Msun. Our analysis will include the assembly properties of the central brightest galaxies as well as the demographics of the satellite populations and their cluster-centric gradients of colors, morphologies and star formation rates. Our setup is suitable to quantify the effects of environment on star formation, stripping, and quenching across an unprecedented range of galaxy masses, cluster masses and spatial scales, in addition to providing valuable clues about the diffuse intra-cluster light.

Pillepich, Annalisa

2014-10-01

210

Half a billion years of reworking of Hadean mafic crust to produce the Nuvvuagittuq Eoarchean felsic crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt is dominated by mafic rocks, called the Ujaraaluk unit, that are mostly composed of cummingtonite-plagioclase-biotite with variable amounts of garnet. While the oldest zircons contained in thin intrusive trondhjemitic bands are ?3.8 Ga, 146Sm-142Nd systematics suggest that the Ujaraaluk unit is as old as 4.4 Ga. The Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt is surrounded by Eoarchean TTGs that have geochemical and isotopic compositions consistent with their derivation by partial melting of a source similar in composition and age to the Ujaraaluk unit. New zircon dates reported here show the Nuvvuagittuq TTGs to consist at least of four distinct age units of 3.76 Ga, 3.66 Ga, 3.5-3.4 Ga and 3.35 Ga. The Hf isotopic compositions of zircons from the TTG are consistent with derivation from Hadean mafic crust. The 3.66 Ga to 3.35 Ga TTGs appear to have been formed primarily from melting of a source compositionally similar to the 4.4 Ga Ujaraaluk unit, whereas the more radiogenic Hf of the zircons from the 3.76 Ga TTGs may suggest derivation from melting of a source compositionally similar to 4.1 Ga intrusive gabbros. Alternatively, the distinct rare earth element patterns of the 3.76 Ga and 3.66 Ga TTGs suggest their derivation from sources with variable amounts of residual garnet and hence formation at different depths. The composition of the older TTGs is indicative of a deeper source that may have involved a greater interaction between the melt and the mantle to explain the more radiogenic Hf isotopic compositions of their zircons. Sources compositionally similar to the Ujaraaluk unit and intrusive gabbros appear to be the most likely candidates for the Hadean precursor of the Nuvvuagittuq TTGs.

O'Neil, Jonathan; Boyet, Maud; Carlson, Richard W.; Paquette, Jean-Louis

2013-10-01

211

Massive Galaxies Near and Far: The Evolution of an Unbiased Population Over the Last Ten Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent deep near-infrared surveys have extended the study of the buildup of stellar mass in galaxies to ever-increasing redshifts. We present a new photometric redshift code, EAZY, which provides precise redshift estimates that allow us to exploit the full depth of surveys that frequently reach much fainter than is currently feasible for large spectroscopic campaigns. EAZY includes a carefully-determined template set and a novel "template error function" that accounts for systematic differences between the templates and true galaxy SEDs. We present results from the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey, a 75-night program recently undertaken with the Mayall 4-m, that uses 5 medium-width NIR filters designed to measure precise photometric redshifts and rest-frame colors at z > 1.5. We find that the color bimodality between "red and dead" and blue star-forming galaxies, prominent at lower redshifts, persists to at least z ˜ 2.5. The separation of the two populations is greatly improved after accounting for the effects of dust-reddening of star-forming galaxies. The existence of apparently "dead" galaxies at these high redshifts is remarkable, given the large gas reservoir available at early times and the fact that the average star formation rate in the Universe was much higher than it is today. The mass density of quiescent galaxies with M > 10^11 M? increases by ˜1 dex from z = 2.2 to the present day, whereas the mass density in star-forming galaxies is flat or decreases over the same time periods. Using a simple toy model, we show that modest mass growth (i.e., a factor of two) of individual galaxies can explain much of the strong density evolution of quiescent galaxies, due to the steepness of the exponential end of the mass function. We argue that mergers are a primary mechanism for building up the massive quiescent galaxy population, while less massive quiescent galaxies are continuously formed by transforming galaxies from the star-forming population. We conclude with a case study of a M = 4 × 10^11 M? quiescent galaxy at z = 1.902 using spatially-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy with the WFC3 grism on the Hubble Space Telescope , demonstrating the promise of this technique for further bridging the gap between photometric and spectroscopic surveys.

Brammer, Gabriel Barnes

2010-08-01

212

Aerospace propulsion system materials in the next 25 years—composites take off  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although advanced materials are making significant headway, high-performance alloys will remain the materials of choice beyond the turn of the century. Though the markets for advanced materials are growing more rapidly than those for the conventional alloys, a 1 billion to 2 billion market for conventional alloys over the next eleven years still is substantial.

Bryant, Richard W.

1990-12-01

213

estimate that saltwater anglers spent an estimated $5.8 billion on trip-based expenditures (e.g., ice, bait, and fuel) and another $25.6 billion on fishing equipment and durable goods (e.g.,  

E-print Network

.g., ice, bait, and fuel) and another $25.6 billion on fishing equipment and durable goods (e.g., fishing-response bias and survey mode differences and these findings are also discussed. The last section places

214

A Fifteen-billion Solar Mass Black Hole at the End of Reionzation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of luminous quasars at z>6 indicates a rapid growth of supermasive black holes (BHs) in the early universe. Here we request to carry out GNIRS Near-IR spectroscopy of a newly discovered ultra-luminous quasar J0100+2802 at z=6.30. At z_AB=18.4, it is the most luminous object ever discovered at z>6 and ten times brighter than an average SDSS quasar at this redshift. We find a lower limit on the BH mass of fifteen billion solar masses, derived from its bolometric luminosity assuming Eddington accretion. Because of the quasar's high luminosity, with only one hour of integration using GNIRS, we will be able to detect and measure the properties of all major board emission lines. The CIV and MgII line width will allow us to accurate determine the quasar BH mass and Eddington ratio. The new observation will confirm whether we have discovered the first BH exceeding 10 billion solar masses at z>6, thus shed light on the nature of extreme BH accretion at the end of reionization. Emission line ratios will also be used the determine the chemical abundance within quasar broad emission line region and constrain star formation and chemical enrichment in the quasar environment.

Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; Mcgreer, Ian; Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Bian, Fuyan; Wang, Ran

2014-08-01

215

U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry  

SciTech Connect

The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small-diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result of a burgeoning worldwide demand and concerns about long-term supplies. By the end of the summer, oil pri

Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

2011-08-01

216

K-12 Budget Picture: Lean Years Ahead. Education Outlook. No. 10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While educators are eager to forget the financial woes of the past two years and return to the familiar routine of steady budget increases, the fiscal outlook for America's fourteen thousand school districts is bleak--not just for next year, but for a half decade or more. This calls for a new mindset among educators and an unfamiliar,…

Hess, Frederick M.; Downs, Whitney

2010-01-01

217

Collision-free spatial hash functions for structural analysis of billion-vertex chemical bond networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State-of-the-art molecular dynamics (MD) simulations generate massive datasets involving billion-vertex chemical bond networks, which makes data mining based on graph algorithms such as K-ring analysis a challenge. This paper proposes an algorithm to improve the efficiency of ring analysis of large graphs, exploiting properties of K-rings and spatial correlations of vertices in the graph. The algorithm uses dual-tree expansion (DTE) and spatial hash-function tagging (SHAFT) to optimize computation and memory access. Numerical tests show nearly perfect linear scaling of the algorithm. Also a parallel implementation of the DTE + SHAFT algorithm achieves high scalability. The algorithm has been successfully employed to analyze large MD simulations involving up to 500 million atoms.

Zhang, Cheng; Bansal, Bhupesh; Branicio, Paulo S.; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Sharma, Ashish; Vashishta, Priya

2006-09-01

218

Investigation of Radar Propagation in Buildings: A 10 Billion Element Cartesian-Mesh FETD Simulation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper large scale full-wave simulations are performed to investigate radar wave propagation inside buildings. In principle, a radar system combined with sophisticated numerical methods for inverse problems can be used to determine the internal structure of a building. The composition of the walls (cinder block, re-bar) may effect the propagation of the radar waves in a complicated manner. In order to provide a benchmark solution of radar propagation in buildings, including the effects of typical cinder block and re-bar, we performed large scale full wave simulations using a Finite Element Time Domain (FETD) method. This particular FETD implementation is tuned for the special case of an orthogonal Cartesian mesh and hence resembles FDTD in accuracy and efficiency. The method was implemented on a general-purpose massively parallel computer. In this paper we briefly describe the radar propagation problem, the FETD implementation, and we present results of simulations that used over 10 billion elements.

Stowell, M L; Fasenfest, B J; White, D A

2008-01-14

219

State Implementation and Perceptions of Title I School Improvement Grants under the Recovery Act: One Year Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), also known as the stimulus package, appropriated $100 billion for education and included $3 billion for school improvement grants (SIGs) to help reform low-performing schools. This amount was in addition to the $546 million provided by the regular fiscal year 2009 appropriations bill for…

McMurrer, Jennifer; McIntosh, Shelby

2012-01-01

220

Evaluation testing of a portable vapor detector for Part-Per-Billion (PPB) level UDMH and N2H4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace level detection of hydrazine (N2H4), monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) has been receiving increased attention over the past several years. In May 1995 the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) lowered their acceptable threshold limit value (TLV) from 100 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 10 ppb. Several types of ppb-level detectors are being developed by the United States Air Force (USAF) Space and Missile Systems Center (SMSC). A breadboard version of a portable, lightweight hydrazine detection sensor was developed and produced by Giner Corp. for the USAF. This sensor was designed for ppb level UDMH and N2H4 vapor detection in near real-time. This instrument employs electrochemical sensing, utilizing a three electrode cell with an anion-exchange polymer electrolyte membrane as the only electrolyte in the system. The sensing, counter and reference electrodes are bonded to the membrane forming a single component. The only liquid required to maintain the sensor is deionized water which hydrates the membrane. At the request of the USAF SMSC, independent testing and evaluation of the breadboard instrument was performed at NASA's Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) for response to ppb-level N2H4 and UDMH and MMH. The TVDL, located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the unique ability to generate calibrated sample vapor streams of N2H4, UDMH, and MMH over a range from less than 10 ppb to thousands of parts per million (ppm) with full environmental control of relative humidity (0-90%) and temperature (0-50 C). The TVDL routinely performs these types of tests. Referenced sensors were subjected to extensive testing, including precision, linearity, response/recovery times, zero and span drift, humidity and temperature effects as well as ammonia interference. Results of these tests and general operation characteristics are reported.

Curran, Dan; Lueck, Dale E.

1995-01-01

221

Sub-parts-per-billion level detection of NO2 using room-temperature quantum cascade lasers  

PubMed Central

We report the sub-parts-per-billion-level detection of NO2 using tunable laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy where the laser radiation is obtained from a room-temperature continuous-wave high-power quantum cascade laser operating in an external grating cavity configuration. The continuously tunable external grating cavity quantum cascade laser produces maximum single-frequency output of ?300 mW tunable over ?350 nm centered at 6.25 ?m. We demonstrate minimum detection level of ?0.5 parts per billion of NO2 in the presence of humidified air. PMID:16829569

Pushkarsky, Michael; Tsekoun, Alexei; Dunayevskiy, Ilya G.; Go, Rowel; Patel, C. Kumar N.

2006-01-01

222

Ballography: A Billion Nanosecond History of the Bee Bluff Impact Crater of South Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bee Bluff Structure of South Texas in Zavala County near Uvalde has been found to exhibit unusual features permitting study of impactites and meteorite impact processes from the standpoint of grain-level, nanosecond shock-compression science. The site is characterized by a thin cap of Carrizo Sandstone covering a thin hard Indio fm calcareous siltstone. A soft calcareous silt lies below the hard cap. Calculations based on the Earth Impact Effects web-based program indicate that the site is best described by a 60 m diameter iron meteorite striking the ground at 11 km/sec. Such an impact into sandstone is expected to produce a shock pressure of 250 GPa. A large release wave originates from the bottom of the hard target with upward moving melt-vaporization waves of solid, liquid and vapor products that become trapped at the impact interface. Numerous distinctive types of impactites result from this `bottom-up' release behavior. Evidence for hydrodynamic instabilities and resulting density gradients are abundant at the impact interface. An unusually valuable breccia sample called `The Uvalde Crater Rosetta Stone' contains at least seven types of impactites in a well defined arrangement that can be used to read the billion nanosecond history of the impact and identify scattered impactites relative to their place in that history.

Graham, R. A.

2006-07-01

223

Broadcasts for a billion: the growth of commercial television in China.  

PubMed

At present, Chinese television reaches 35% of the population (80-90% in urban areas) and is used by the government as a source of education and information. In recognition of the potential market represented by 1.1 billions consumers, Western advertisers have commissioned elaborate market research studies. Drama, sports, news, and movies are consistently identified as the favorite type of programming among Chinese television viewers. About 75% of Beijing adults watch television daily, making the medium both an important target for advertising campaigns and a way for Westerners to influence Chinese business and government leaders. Western advertisers have tended to concentrate their investments in the more urban, affluent regions where products have the greatest likelihood of being sold. There has been a recent trend, however, toward industrial commercials, with British and French companies buying television time to promote their image as partners in China's modernization. Key to the future of commercial advertising on Chinese Television. In many provinces, local television stations have developed a unique character and portray different sociocultural values than the national channel. Outside advertisers have sometimes experienced problems with local networks that substitute local advertising without informing the network. To correct this situation, the government is enacting pro-sponsor regulations that forbid the preemption of the national channel and its advertisements. At the same time, efforts are being made to improve relationships with local television stations by either paying them a fee or airing local commercials on the national network. PMID:12342936

Schmuck, C

1987-01-01

224

A divide-and-conquer/cellular-decomposition framework for million-to-billion atom simulations of chemical reactions  

E-print Network

-and-conquer (EDC) framework: first principles-based fast reactive force- field (F-ReaxFF) MD; and quantum simulations--0.56 billion-atom F-ReaxFF MD and 1.4 million-atom (0.12 trillion grid points) EDC­DFT MD

Southern California, University of

225

ULTRASCALABLE IMPLICIT FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSES IN SOLID MECHANICS WITH OVER A HALF A BILLION DEGREES OF FREEDOM  

E-print Network

ULTRASCALABLE IMPLICIT FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSES IN SOLID MECHANICS WITH OVER A HALF A BILLION of unstructured implicit finite element analysis in solid mechanics with complex geometry, this is the first. This work is significant because in the domain of unstructured implicit finite element analysis in solid

Adams, Mark

226

Global MSW Generation in 2007 estimated at two billion tons Global Waste Management Market Assessment 2007, Key Note Publications Ltd ,  

E-print Network

-gas emissions, water pollution, air pollution and noise/visual impact (of recycling/waste disposal facilitiesGlobal MSW Generation in 2007 estimated at two billion tons Global Waste Management Market analyses the global waste market, with particular reference to municipal solid waste (MSW). Key Note

Columbia University

227

EVALUATION OF PARTS-PER-BILLION (PPB) ORGANIC CYLINDER GASES FOR USE AS AUDITS DURING HAZARDOUS WASTE TRIAL BURN TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A repository of 14 gaseous organic compounds at parts-per-billion levels (7-430 ppb) in compressed gas cylinders has been established by the Environmental Protection Agency. This repository was established to provide audit materials for use in conducting performance audits to ass...

228

$100 Billion: For Reform...or to Subsidize the Status Quo? Education Stimulus Watch. Special Report 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first in a quarterly series of special reports on the K-12 education implications of the federal government's economic stimulus package, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). That the ARRA, which was signed into law in February, will pump nearly $100 billion--an unprecedented sum of federal money--into K-12 education is…

Smarick, Andy

2009-01-01

229

WHY SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL AND HOW TO DETECT ANOTHER 10 BILLION SMALL MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS. Henning Haack1  

E-print Network

WHY SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL ­ AND HOW TO DETECT ANOTHER 10 BILLION SMALL MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS. Henning. Introduction: Estimates of the size distribution of main belt asteroids suggest that there is a population- tant sub-kilometer asteroids in the main belt. Long intergration times cannot be used unless the object

Andersen, Anja C.

230

Three-Year Results of Prevention Programs on Marijuana Use: The New Hampshire Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects on marijuana use of a drug prevention curriculum, as well as this curriculum with added parent and other adult community activities in comparison with a control community. Baseline information on drug-related behaviors from a sample of fourth, fifth and sixth graders aged nine to fourteen years (N=1,200) in rural New…

Stevens, Marguerite M.; And Others

1996-01-01

231

Australian ten year olds' perceptions of foods: II. Social status effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were carried out into the relationships between paternal social status and ten year olds’ perceptions of food. The first examined 420 children's views of fourteen foods on eleven food properties. The influence of paternal social status was minimal.The second study, of 580 children, examined their views of 40 foods over 16 attributes. A randomized sample of foods was

A. Worsley; W. Coonan; P. A. Baghurst; M. Peters

1984-01-01

232

his year the International Social and Cultural Diversity course was taught in India. Fourteen students from GW's Art Therapy and Psychology programs and one student from Boston University's Occupational Therapy program  

E-print Network

's Occupational Therapy program traveled to Chennai, India led by Heidi Bardot and Lisa Garlock with the help students from GW's Art Therapy and Psychology programs and one student from Boston University, as the therapist, were the minority." Experiences in India 2 Integrating the Arts 3 Director's Cut 4 GW Art Therapy

Schmitt, William R.

233

Lives of Promise: What Becomes of High School Valedictorians. A Fourteen-Year Study of Achievement and Life Choices. The Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reports on the Illinois Valedictorian Project, an ongoing longitudinal study of the life paths of 81 high school valedictorians. Chapter 1 describes the 1981 high school graduation of the valedictorians and traces the diverging life paths of two top working-class students. Chapter 2 plots the road to the top of the high school class.…

Arnold, Karen D.

234

Survey of ocular irritation predictive capacity using Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test historical data for 319 personal care products over fourteen years.  

PubMed

The Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test are widely used to predict ocular irritation potential for consumer-use products. These in vitro assays do not require live animals, produce reliable predictive data for defined applicability domains compared to the Draize rabbit eye test, and are rapid and inexpensive. Data from 304 CAMVA and/or BCOP studies (319 formulations) were surveyed to determine the feasibility of predicting ocular irritation potential for various formulations. Hair shampoos, skin cleansers, and ethanol-based hair styling sprays were repeatedly predicted to be ocular irritants (accuracy rate=0.90-1.00), with skin cleanser and hair shampoo irritation largely dependent on surfactant species and concentration. Conversely, skin lotions/moisturizers and hair styling gels/lotions were repeatedly predicted to be non-irritants (accuracy rate=0.92 and 0.82, respectively). For hair shampoos, ethanol-based hair stylers, skin cleansers, and skin lotions/moisturizers, future ocular irritation testing (i.e., CAMVA/BCOP) can be nearly eliminated if new formulations are systematically compared to those previously tested using a defined decision tree. For other tested product categories, new formulations should continue to be evaluated in CAMVA/BCOP for ocular irritation potential because either the historical data exhibit significant variability (hair conditioners and mousses) or the historical sample size is too small to permit definitive conclusions (deodorants, make-up removers, massage oils, facial masks, body sprays, and other hair styling products). All decision tree conclusions should be made within a conservative weight-of-evidence context, considering the reported limitations of the BCOP test for alcohols, ketones, and solids. PMID:21147215

Donahue, D A; Kaufman, L E; Avalos, J; Simion, F A; Cerven, D R

2011-03-01

235

No Photon Left Behind: How Billions of Spectral Lines are Transforming Planetary Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of realistic potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) descriptions, theoretically computed linelists can now synthesize accurate spectral parameters for billions of spectral lines sampling the untamed high-energy molecular domain. Being the initial driver for these databases the characterization of stellar spectra, these theoretical databases, in combination with decades of precise experimental studies (nicely compiled in community databases such as HITRAN and GEISA), are leading to unprecedented precisions in the characterization of planetary atmospheres. Cometary sciences are among the most affected by this spectroscopic revolution. Even though comets are relatively cold bodies (T˜100 K), their infrared molecular emission is mainly defined by non-LTE solar fluorescence induced by a high-energy source (Sun, T˜5600 K). In order to interpret high-resolution spectra of comets acquired with extremely powerful telescopes (e.g., Keck, VLT, NASA-IRTF), we have developed advanced non-LTE fluorescence models that integrate the high-energy dynamic range of ab-initio databases (e.g., BT2, VTT, HPT2, BYTe, TROVE) and the precision of laboratory and semi-empirical compilations (e.g., HITRAN, GEISA, CDMS, WKMC, SELP, IUPAC). These new models allow us to calculate realistic non-LTE pumps, cascades, branching-ratios, and emission rates for a broad range of excitation regimes for H2O, HDO, HCN, HNC and NH3. We have implemented elements of these compilations to the study of Mars spectra, and we are now exploring its application to modeling non-LTE emission in exoplanets. In this presentation, we present application of these advanced models to interpret highresolution spectra of comets, Mars and exoplanets.

Villanueva, Geronimo L.

2014-06-01

236

A highly functional synthetic phage display library containing over 40 billion human antibody clones.  

PubMed

Several synthetic antibody phage display libraries have been created and used for the isolation of human monoclonal antibodies. The performance of antibody libraries, which is usually measured in terms of their ability to yield high-affinity binding specificities against target proteins of interest, depends both on technical aspects (such as library size and quality of cloning) and on design features (which influence the percentage of functional clones in the library and their ability to be used for practical applications). Here, we describe the design, construction and characterization of a combinatorial phage display library, comprising over 40 billion human antibody clones in single-chain fragment variable (scFv) format. The library was designed with the aim to obtain highly stable antibody clones, which can be affinity-purified on protein A supports, even when used in scFv format. The library was found to be highly functional, as >90% of randomly selected clones expressed the corresponding antibody. When selected against more than 15 antigens from various sources, the library always yielded specific and potent binders, at a higher frequency compared to previous antibody libraries. To demonstrate library performance in practical biomedical research projects, we isolated the human antibody G5, which reacts both against human and murine forms of the alternatively spliced BCD segment of tenascin-C, an extracellular matrix component frequently over-expressed in cancer and in chronic inflammation. The new library represents a useful source of binding specificities, both for academic research and for the development of antibody-based therapeutics. PMID:24950200

Weber, Marcel; Bujak, Emil; Putelli, Alessia; Villa, Alessandra; Matasci, Mattia; Gualandi, Laura; Hemmerle, Teresa; Wulhfard, Sarah; Neri, Dario

2014-01-01

237

Assessment of the Projected One Billion Ton Biomass for Cellulosic Biofuel Production and Its Potential Implications on Regional Water Quality and Availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DOE and USDA joint study, also commonly referred as the "Billion-Ton" study, assessed the cellulosic feedstock resources potential in the U.S. for producing second generation biofuel to replace 30 percent of the country's transportation fuels by year 2030. The available resource is expected to come from changing cropping pattern, increasing crop yield, harvesting agricultural and forest wood residues, and developing energy crops. Such large-scale changes in land use and crop managements are likely to affect the associated water quality and resources at both regional and local scales. To address the water sustainability associated with the projected biomass production in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), we have developed a SWAT watershed model that simulate the changes in water quality (nitrogen, phosphorus, and soil erosion) and resources (soil water content, evapotranspiration, and runoff) of the region due to future biomass production scenario estimated by the Billion-Ton study. The scenario is implemented by changing the model inputs and parameters at subbasin and hydrologic response unit levels, as well as by improving the SWAT model to represent spatially varying crop properties. The potential impacts on water quality and water availability were compared with the results obtained from a baseline simulation which represents current watershed conditions and existing level of feedstock production. The basin level results suggested mixed effects on the water quality. The projected large-scale biomass production scenario is expected to decrease loadings of total nitrogen and nitrate in the streams while increase total phosphorus and suspended sediment. Results indicate an increase in the rate of evapotranspiration and a decrease in the soil water content and in surface runoff. discharge to the streams. The impacts at the subbasin or local scale varies spatially and temporally depending on the types of land use change, their locations, and crop managements, suggesting needs to further optimize the sustainable biomass production from water resource perspective at both regional and local levels.

Demissie, Y. K.; Yan, E.; Wu, M.

2011-12-01

238

Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country's present petroleum consumption--the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

Perlack, R.D.

2005-12-15

239

Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a booster dose of a combined diphtheria, tetanus, and tricomponent acellular pertussis vaccine at fourteen to twenty-eight months of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The primary objective was to assess the nature and incidence of adverse events after a fourth dose of a tricomponent acellular pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus vaccine given in the second year of life after primary vaccination with the same vaccine at 3, 4, and 5 months of age. A secondary objective was to analyze the immunogenicity of the booster vaccination.Design: Of the

Heinz-J. Schmitt; Karin Beutel; Anne Schuind; Markus Knuf; Sabine Wagner; Simone Müschenborn; Hugues Bogaerts; Hans L. Bock; Ralf Clemens

1997-01-01

240

2011: A Year of Extremes In 2011, the United States of America has already seen a record 12 disasters that each inflicted  

E-print Network

-dollar weather/climate event of the year. This 10th U.S. billion-dollar disaster officially breaks the annual assessed, but early estimates indicate the significant flooding caused millions of dollars in damages disasters that each inflicted more than a billion dollars in damages. The total damage amounts are estimated

241

Recovery Act Put $2.5 Billion in Ohioans' Pockets A County-by-County Review of Direct Benefits in 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

he $787 billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) was split between formula funding for state and local government programs, competitive grants, and direct benefits to Americans. The State of Ohio is expected to receive $8.2 billion in formula funding, and competitive grants in excess of $817 million have al- ready been awarded to Ohio entities. This report

Emily Campbell

242

Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences  

PubMed Central

We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA) sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime) and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity). Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to “classic” open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, “classic” open-reference OTU clustering is often faster). We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons). To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of “classic” open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by “classic” open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME’s uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository) that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced). Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in QIIME’s OTU picking workflows and make recommendations on settings for these free parameters to optimize runtime without reducing the quality of the results. These optimized parameters can vastly decrease the runtime of uclust-based OTU picking in QIIME. PMID:25177538

Rideout, Jai Ram; He, Yan; Navas-Molina, Jose A.; Walters, William A.; Ursell, Luke K.; Gibbons, Sean M.; Chase, John; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Clemente, Jose C.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Huse, Susan M.; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Knight, Rob

2014-01-01

243

Multimillion-to-billion atom molecular dynamics simulations of deformation, damage, nanoindentation, and fracture in silica glass and energetic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimillion-to-billion molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to study atomistic mechanisms of deformation, damage and failure in silica glass and energetic materials. The simulations are based on experimentally validated interatomic potentials and employ highly efficiently algorithms for parallel architectures. The onset of void-void interaction is investigated by performing MD simulations of amorphous silica under hydrostatic tension. The simulations reveal

Yi-Chun Chen

2008-01-01

244

Quantifying the heart of darkness with GHALO - a multi-billion particle simulation of our galactic halo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform a series of simulations of a Galactic mass dark matter halo at\\u000adifferent resolutions, our largest uses over three billion particles and has a\\u000amass resolution of 1000 M_sun. We quantify the structural properties of the\\u000ainner dark matter distribution and study how they depend on numerical\\u000aresolution. We can measure the density profile to a distance of

Joachim Stadel; Doug Potter; Ben Moore; Jürg Diemand; Piero Madau; Marcel Zemp; Michael Kuhlen; Vicent Quilis

2008-01-01

245

Academic Plan Freshman Year Sophomore Year Junior Year Senior Year  

E-print Network

Academic Plan Freshman Year Sophomore Year Junior Year Senior Year Fall Fall Fall Fall ` Spring. Engineering Distribution (2) 8. Approved (free) electives. (2) 9. Indicate technical writing course. II. Refer

Van Loan, Charles F.

246

Report to the Regents First Quarter, Fiscal Year 2011  

E-print Network

traveling for 10.8 billion years--80 percent of the age of the universe. The detection was facilitated. Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids that pass close to Earth. Scientists study them for insights into the young solar system, and they are of concern because of the potential for collisions with Earth

Mathis, Wayne N.

247

The global burden of intestinal nematode infections — Fifty years on  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty years after Stoll published his ‘This Wormy World’ article, the global prevalence of infections with intestinal nematodes remains virtually unchanged. The main species involved are Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, and there are now approximately one billion infections with each of these, worldwide. Given these large numbers, Man-Suen Chan here focuses on attempting to quantify the disease burden

M. S. Chan

1997-01-01

248

INTRODUCTION Every year in the United States, about six mil-  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Every year in the United States, about six mil- lion traffic accidents occur due to automobile crashes. In 2003 alone, these accidents account- ed for $230 billion in damaged property, 2, such as vehicle mechanical problems and bad weather, driver behavior is considered to be the leading cause of more

Chen, Yuanzhu Peter

249

Seeing the forest for the trees: tourism and the International Year of Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The year 2011 is the United Nations International Year of Forests. In addition to performing extremely significant environmental, economic, and social services, forests are also important tourism attractions in their own right and locations for recreation and tourism activities. The limited statistical data available suggest that there are billions of tourism and recreational visits to forests each year. This paper

C. Michael Hall

2011-01-01

250

State Governments to Spend $39.3-Billion on Colleges and Universities in 1989-90.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State governments will spend 14.3 percent more than two years ago on higher education. In general, farm-belt states are providing generous increases, while northeast states are preparing for austerity. (MSE)

Jaschik, Scott

1989-01-01

251

The Effect of Text Messaging on 9- and 10-Year-Old Children's Reading, Spelling and Phonological Processing Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an intervention study that considered the impact of text messaging on 9- to 10-year-old children's literacy skills. One hundred and fourteen children who had never owned a mobile phone before were recruited and randomly allocated to either the intervention or control conditions. All children were pre- and post-tested on a…

Wood, C.; Jackson, E.; Hart, L.; Plester, B.; Wilde, L.

2011-01-01

252

Domestic crude oil production projected to the year 2,000 on the basis of resource capability  

SciTech Connect

Assuming that the original, recoverable crude oil resource in the US was 248.31 billion barrels, a region-by-region analysis based upon past exploratory and production success ratios indicates that domestic crude oil production may decline by 17% from 2.952 billion barrels in 1982 to 2.45 billion barrels in the year 2000. Even to achieve this reduced level of production, new oil fields will have to be discovered at almost three times historical rates. 36 references, 2 figures, 54 tables.

Riva, J.P. Jr.

1984-01-01

253

Dragon Year  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Can you believe it? It's New Year again. It seems like only yesterday we were celebrating the advent of the year of the Rabbit and now, here it is, the year of the Dragon. January 22nd is New Year's Eve according to the Lunar...

Hacker, Randi

2012-01-11

254

With GI Bill's Billions at Stake, Colleges Compete to Lure Veterans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the Post-9/11 GI Bill nears its fourth year, with more than 550,000 veterans enrolled in thousands of institutions, advocacy groups, lawmakers, and President Obama warn that veterans are vulnerable in a higher-education marketplace eager for their GI Bill dollars--with some purveyors, particularly for-profits, recruiting aggressively. The…

Sander, Libby

2012-01-01

255

Neglected Tropical Diseases Over ONE BILLION Infected--One in Six People Worldwide  

E-print Network

organizations with decades of ontheground experience in fighting disabling, disfiguring, and deadly NTDs + monitoring and evaluation _________________________ $ 0.50 per person per year For every dog we deworm in the U.S., we could deworm 100 people in Africa NTD control, in context with deworming a dog

Davis, Richard E.

256

Current Biology Vol 22 No 1 been controlling itself for billions of  

E-print Network

and then into teaching kindergarten. I loved this last job and still believe that six-year-olds have perfect minds friend with the idea that he was secretly plotting to murder her. He protested, but she wasn't convinced mind, mostly because I'd had an excellent

Johnsen, Sönke

257

Performance as Promised: How the Chandra X-ray Observatory Accomplished One of Nasa's Most Challenging Missions for Billions of Dollars Less than Originally Planned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the nation looks toward bold new ventures in space, the Chandra X-ray Observatory program offers an example of how billion-dollar missions can be successfully developed within tightening fiscal constraints. Chandra experienced many of challenges facing bold space programs (state-of-the-art technical requirements and budget-induced slips and restructurings), and yet the Chandra team achieved nearly all the originally envisioned performance for dramatically lower cost. This was accomplished by a combination of team- work, systems engineering, advanced technology insertion, and effective approaches for program implementation. A thorough tradeoff of science utility vs. cost led to the selection of a highly elliptical orbit with uncrewed robotic delivery, deployment, and maintenance. Progressive, focused technology demonstrations were accomplished prior to commitment of major resources to critical elements of the system design, such as the high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA). Pathfinder hardware was developed to reduce risks. A variety of schedule risk reduction measures were implemented and resulted in the X-ray calibration taking place exactly within five days of its originally planned date after after five years of development. The team worked together in an effective manner to contain requirements creep. reductions such as the ACIS-2 chip device. It is estimated that the above combination of measures achieved the avoidance of over $4B in costs, while enabling a highly successful mission.

Davidson, Greg; Hefner, Keith

2004-01-01

258

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2011  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Budget includes three new robust exploration programs: (1) Technology demonstration program, $7.8 five years. Funds the development and demonstration of technologies that reduce the cost and expand the capabilities of future exploration activities, including in-orbit refueling and storage. (2) Heavy-Lift and Propulsion R&D, $3.1 billion over five years. Funds R&D for new launch systems, propellants, materials, and combustion processes. (3) Robotic precursor missions, $3.0 billion over five years. Funds cost-effective means to scout exploration targets and identify hazards and resources for human visitation and habitation. In addition, the Budget enhances the current Human Research Program by 42%; and supports the Participatory Exploration Program at 5 million per year for activities across many NASA programs.

2010-01-01

259

Old Sol's new use Fourteen solar ar-  

E-print Network

, that provides a means for calculating the number of intelligent civilizations that it is possible for humans,theregion's sexual violence ranks among the worst in the world, going beyond that which often accompanies war) reviewed how life on Earth arose and the many, sometimes improbable steps it took to create intelligence

260

Fourteen Points for Energy Conservation in Lighting  

E-print Network

goal, this very often adds up to an expensive lighting system in terms of installed ini tial cost. The purpose of this report and 14 suggestions is to demonstrate that quality illumination, quality fix tures, quality esthetics, and lower energy costs... can all be had without increasing the typical lighting budget. Recommendation No.1 - Buy a light meter and know what the IES minimum lighting levels are. Consider a 1ibrary, would you think the recommended minimum level of lighting in a reading area...

Zekowski, G.

1979-01-01

261

Fourteen cases of imposed upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imposed upper airway obstruction was diagnosed as the cause of recurrent and severe cyanotic episodes in 14 patients. Episodes started between 0.8 and 33 months of age (median 1.4) and occurred over a period of 0.8 to 20 months (median 3.5). Diagnosis was made by covert video surveillance, instituted after either (a) the observation that episodes began only in the

M P Samuels; W McClaughlin; R R Jacobson; C F Poets; D P Southall

1992-01-01

262

White-light demonstration of one hundred parts per billion irradiance suppression in air by new starshade occulters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mission concept for direct imaging of exo-solar planets called New Worlds Observer (NWO) has been proposed. It involves flying a meter-class space telescope in formation with a newly-conceived, specially-shaped, deployable star-occulting shade several meters across at a separation of some tens of thousands of kilometers. The telescope would make its observations from behind the starshade in a volume of high suppression of incident irradiance from the star around which planets orbit. For an efficacious mission, the required level of irradiance suppression by the starshade is of order 0.1 to 10 parts per billion in broadband light. We discuss an experiment to accurately measure the irradiance suppression ratio at the null position behind candidate starshade forms to these levels. We also present results of broadband measurements which demonstrated suppression levels of less than 100 parts per billion in air using the Sun as a light source. A simulated spatial irradiance distribution surrounding the null from an analytical model developed for starshades is compared with a photograph of actual irradiance captured in situ behind a candidate starshade.

Leviton, Douglas B.; Cash, Webster C.; Gleason, Brian; Kaiser, Michael J.; Levine, Sarah A.; Lo, Amy S.; Schindhelm, Eric; Shipley, Ann F.

2007-09-01

263

The Upper End of the Supermassive Black Hole Mass Function: Pushing the 10 Billion Solar Mass Limit.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1994, HST provided the first secure detection of a supermassive black hole {SBH} in a galactic nucleus. The galaxy was M87, the black hole almost 4 billion solar masses. Since then, two dozen additional SBH detections have been the outcome of the several hundred orbits of HST time devoted to this cause. Yet, M87's black hole is still the most massive known, and in only two other galaxies have SBHs in excess of a billion solar masses been detected. The aim of this proposal is to characterize the high mass end of the local SBH mass function. Four brightest cluster galaxies have been carefully selected. Their large masses, luminosites and stellar velocity dispersions, as well as their having a merging history which is unmatched by galaxies in less crowded environments, make these galaxies the most promising hosts of the most massive SBHs in the local Universe. It is in the high mass regime that the unavoidable link between the evolution of supermassive black holes and the hierarchical build-up of galaxies leaves its clearest signature. It is these galaxies that are expected to be the relicts of the most luminous high redshift quasars, those so spectacularly targeted by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Expanding {and extending} the high mass end of the local SBH mass function is the next obligatory step we need to take to improve our understanding of how SBHs, and their hosts, formed and evolved.

Ferrarese, Laura

2003-07-01

264

White Light Demonstration of One Hundred Parts per Billion Irradiance Suppression in Air by New Starshade Occulters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new mission concept for the direct imaging of exo-solar planets called the New Worlds Observer (NWO) has been proposed. The concept involves flying a meter-class space telescope in formation with a newly-conceived, specially-shaped, deployable star-occulting shade several meters across at a separation of some tens of thousands of kilometers. The telescope would make its observations from behind the starshade in a volume of high suppression of incident irradiance from the star around which planets orbit. The required level of irradiance suppression created by the starshade for an efficacious mission is of order 0.1 to 10 parts per billion in broadband light. This paper discusses the experimental setup developed to accurately measure the suppression ratio of irradiance produced at the null position behind candidate starshade forms to these levels. It also presents results of broadband measurements which demonstrated suppression levels of just under 100 parts per billion in air using the Sun as a light source. Analytical modeling of spatial irradiance distributions surrounding the null are presented and compared with photographs of irradiance captured in situ behind candidate starshades.

Levinton, Douglas B.; Cash, Webster C.; Gleason, Brian; Kaiser, Michael J.; Levine, Sara A.; Lo, Amy S.; Schindhelm, Eric; Shipley, Ann F.

2007-01-01

265

The apoptotic machinery as a biological complex system: analysis of its omics and evolution, identification of candidate genes for fourteen major types of cancer, and experimental validation in CML and neuroblastoma  

PubMed Central

Background Apoptosis is a critical biological phenomenon, executed under the guidance of the Apoptotic Machinery (AM), which allows the physiologic elimination of terminally differentiated, senescent or diseased cells. Because of its relevance to BioMedicine, we have sought to obtain a detailed characterization of AM Omics in Homo sapiens, namely its Genomics and Evolution, Transcriptomics, Proteomics, Interactomics, Oncogenomics, and Pharmacogenomics. Methods This project exploited the methodology commonly used in Computational Biology (i.e., mining of many omics databases of the web) as well as the High Throughput biomolecular analytical techniques. Results In Homo sapiens AM is comprised of 342 protein-encoding genes (possessing either anti- or pro-apoptotic activity, or a regulatory function) and 110 MIR-encoding genes targeting them: some have a critical role within the system (core AM nodes), others perform tissue-, pathway-, or disease-specific functions (peripheral AM nodes). By overlapping the cancer type-specific AM mutation map in the fourteen most frequent cancers in western societies (breast, colon, kidney, leukaemia, liver, lung, neuroblastoma, ovary, pancreas, prostate, skin, stomach, thyroid, and uterus) to their transcriptome, proteome and interactome in the same tumour type, we have identified the most prominent AM molecular alterations within each class. The comparison of the fourteen mutated AM networks (both protein- as MIR-based) has allowed us to pinpoint the hubs with a general and critical role in tumour development and, conversely, in cell physiology: in particular, we found that some of these had already been used as targets for pharmacological anticancer therapy. For a better understanding of the relationship between AM molecular alterations and pharmacological induction of apoptosis in cancer, we examined the expression of AM genes in K562 and SH-SY5Y after anticancer treatment. Conclusion We believe that our data on the Apoptotic Machinery will lead to the identification of new cancer genes and to the discovery of new biomarkers, which could then be used to profile cancers for diagnostic purposes and to pinpoint new targets for pharmacological therapy. This approach could pave the way for future studies and applications in molecular and clinical Medicine with important perspectives both for Oncology as for Regenerative Medicine. PMID:19402918

Di Pietro, Cinzia; Ragusa, Marco; Barbagallo, Davide; Duro, Laura R; Guglielmino, Maria R; Majorana, Alessandra; Angelica, Rosario; Scalia, Marina; Statello, Luisa; Salito, Loredana; Tomasello, Luisa; Pernagallo, Salvo; Valenti, Salvo; D'Agostino, Vito; Triberio, Patrizio; Tandurella, Igor; Palumbo, Giuseppe A; La Cava, Piera; Cafiso, Viviana; Bertuccio, Taschia; Santagati, Maria; Li Destri, Giovanni; Lanzafame, Salvatore; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Stefani, Stefania; Mishra, Bud; Purrello, Michele

2009-01-01

266

Thirty years of development and application of CFD at Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Seattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 30 years, Boeing has developed, manufactured, sold, and supported hundreds of billions of dollars worth of commercial airplanes. During this period, it has been absolutely essential that Boeing aerodynamicists have access to tools that accurately predict and confirm vehicle flight characteristics. Thirty years ago, these tools consisted almost entirely of analytic approximation methods, wind tunnel tests, and

Forrester T. Johnson; Edward N. Tinoco; N. Jong Yu

2005-01-01

267

40 CFR 35.910-11 - Allotment of Fiscal Year 1980 appropriation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Allotment of Fiscal Year 1980 appropriation. 35.910-11 ...§ 35.910-11 Allotment of Fiscal Year 1980 appropriation. (a) Title...for FY 1980 and rounding to the nearest hundred dollars. (c) The $3.4 billion...

2010-07-01

268

40 CFR 35.910-10 - Allotment of Fiscal Year 1979 appropriation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Allotment of Fiscal Year 1979 appropriation. 35.910-10 ...§ 35.910-10 Allotment of Fiscal Year 1979 appropriation. (a) Title...for FY 1979 and rounding to the nearest hundred dollars. (c) The $4.2 billion...

2010-07-01

269

DSM spending levels expected to rise to $3.8 billion by 1997  

SciTech Connect

Here today, here tomorrow best sums up the future of demand-side management (DSM) programs at electric utilities. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), expenditures and savings from DSM over the past few years have been on the rise and continue to grow. In the future DSM can be expected to become more customer driven and will be used by utilities to provide their customers with least-cost energy services. Integrating DSM with real-time information services will allow utilities to unbundle service options, promote innovative pricing and reengineer system-operating practices. DSM must undergo fundamental design changes to remain compatible with the changing nature of the utility industry as a whole. To usher in those changes is a new generation in which programs must focus more on not only achieving energy efficiency, but also on contributing to economic productivity and environmental quality.

Warkentin, D.

1995-08-01

270

Nursery and landscape industries are fast growing segments of U.S. agriculture, contributing around $147 billion each year to the U.S.  

E-print Network

the impacts of insecticides on honey bees and native pollinators. Heavy use of pesticides also increases, monitoring, pheromones, trapping, weeding, and judicious chemical pesticide use. To implement IPM, more focus of NCERA-193 scientists has been evaluating reduced-risk chemical pesticides, biopesticides

Rutledge, Steven

271

Sedimentology of the Onverwacht Group (3.4 Billion Years), Transvaal, South Africa, and Its Bearing on the Characteristics and Evolution of the Early Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strata of the upper part of the Onverwacht Group (3.4 b.y.), Transvaal, South Africa, are composed mainly of chert representing silicified quartz-poor volcaniclastic detritus. Layers of carbonate, silicified carbonate, volcaniclastic debris, and possible primary silica make up minor parts of most sections. Deposition took place largely in shallow water, but no evidence was found to indicate whether the water was

Donald R. Lowe; L. P. Knauth

1977-01-01

272

The great billion-year war between ribosome- and capsid-encoding organisms (cells and viruses) as the major source of evolutionary novelties.  

PubMed

Our conceptions on the origin, nature, and role of viruses have been shaken recently by several independent lines of research. There are many reasons to believe now that viruses are more ancient than modern cells and have always been more abundant and diverse than their cellular targets. Viruses can be defined as capsid-encoding organisms that transform their "host" cell into a viral factory. If capsid-encoding organisms (viruses) and ribosome-encoding organisms (cells) are the major types of living entities on our planet, it seems logical to conclude that their conflict has been a major engine of biological evolution (in the framework of natural selection). In particular, many novelties first selected in the viral world might have been transferred to cells as a consequence of the continuous flow of viral genes into cellular genomes. We discuss recent observations and hypotheses suggesting that viruses have played a major role at different stages of biological evolution, such as the RNA to DNA transition, the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus, or, alternatively, the origin of unique features in multicellular macrobes. PMID:19845628

Forterre, Patrick; Prangishvili, David

2009-10-01

273

The evolution of dust-obscured star formation activity in galaxy clusters relative to the field over the last 9 billion years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare the star formation (SF) activity in cluster galaxies to the field from z = 0.3 to 1.5 using Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver 250 ?m imaging and utilizing 274 clusters from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS). These clusters were selected as rest-frame near-infrared overdensities over the 9 square degree Boötes field. This sample allows us to quantify the evolution of SF in clusters over a long redshift baseline without bias against active cluster systems. Using a stacking analysis, we determine the average star formation rates (SFRs) and specific SFRs (SSFR = SFR/M?) of stellar mass-limited (M ? 1.3 × 1010 M?), statistical samples of cluster and field galaxies, probing both the star-forming and quiescent populations. We find a clear indication that the average SF in cluster galaxies is evolving more rapidly than in the field, with field SF levels at z ? 1.2 in the cluster cores (r < 0.5 Mpc), in good agreement with previous ISCS studies. By quantifying the SF in cluster and field galaxies as an exponential function of cosmic time, we determine that cluster galaxies are evolving approximately two times faster than the field. Additionally, we see enhanced SF above the field level at z ˜ 1.4 in the cluster outskirts (r > 0.5 Mpc). These general trends in the cluster cores and outskirts are driven by the lower mass galaxies in our sample. Blue cluster galaxies have systematically lower SSFRs than blue field galaxies, but otherwise show no strong differential evolution with respect to the field over our redshift range. This suggests that the cluster environment is both suppressing the SF in blue galaxies on long time-scales and rapidly transitioning some fraction of blue galaxies to the quiescent galaxy population on short time-scales. We argue that our results are consistent with both strangulation and ram pressure stripping acting in these clusters, with merger activity occurring in the cluster outskirts.

Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra; Brodwin, Mark; Atlee, David W.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gettings, Daniel P.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Mancone, Conor L.; Moustakas, John; Snyder, Gregory F.; Stanford, S. Adam; Stern, Daniel; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Zeimann, Gregory R.

2014-01-01

274

Galaxy Zoo: an independent look at the evolution of the bar fraction over the last eight billion years from HST-COSMOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measure the redshift evolution of the bar fraction in a sample of 2380 visually selected disc galaxies found in Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. The visual classifications used both to identify the disc sample and to indicate the presence of stellar bars were provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) project. We find that the overall bar fraction decreases by a factor of 2, from 22 ± 5 per cent at z = 0.4 (tlb = 4.2 Gyr) to 11 ± 2 per cent at z = 1.0 (tlb = 7.8 Gyr), consistent with previous analysis. We show that this decrease, of the strong bar fraction in a volume limited sample of massive disc galaxies [stellar mass limit of log (M?/M?) ? 10.0], cannot be due to redshift-dependent biases hiding either bars or disc galaxies at higher redshifts. Splitting our sample into three bins of mass we find that the decrease in bar fraction is most prominent in the highest mass bin, while the lower mass discs in our sample show a more modest evolution. We also include a sample of 98 red disc galaxies. These galaxies have a high bar fraction (45 ± 5 per cent), and are missing from other COSMOS samples which used SED fitting or colours to identify high-redshift discs. Our results are consistent with a picture in which the evolution of massive disc galaxies begins to be affected by slow (secular) internal process at z ˜ 1. We discuss possible connections of the decrease in bar fraction to the redshift, including the growth of stable disc galaxies, mass evolution of the gas content in disc galaxies, as well as the mass-dependent effects of tidal interactions.

Melvin, Thomas; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Chris; Nichol, Robert C.; Simmons, Brooke; Bamford, Steven P.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Cheung, Edmond; Edmondson, Edward M.; Fortson, Lucy; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Smith, Arfon M.; Willett, Kyle W.

2014-03-01

275

Sulfur isotope mass-independent fractionation in impact deposits of the 3.2 billion-year-old Mapepe Formation, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical and experimental studies have shown that atmospheric SO2 isotopologue self-shielding effects in the 190-220 nm region of the solar spectrum are the likely cause for mass independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S-MIF). The main products of this photochemical reaction - SO3 and S0 - typically define a compositional array of ca. ?33S/?34S = 0.06-0.14. This is at odds with the generally observed trend in Archean sulfides, which broadly defines an array of ca. ?33S/?34S = 0.9. Various explanations have been proposed, including a diminution of ?34S caused by chemical and biogenic mass-dependent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (S-MDF), mixing with photolytic products produced during felsic volcanic events, or partial blocking of the low-wavelength part of the spectrum due to the presence of reduced atmospheric gases or an organic haze. Early in Earth history large meteorite impacts would have ejected dust and gas clouds into the atmosphere that shielded solar radiation and affected global climate. It is thus likely that at certain time intervals of high meteorite flux the atmosphere was significantly perturbed, having an effect on atmospheric photochemistry and possibly leaving anomalous sulfur isotopic signatures in the rock record. Here we describe the sulfur isotopic signatures in sulfides of spherule beds S2, S3 and S4 of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. In particular, in spherule bed S3 - and to a lesser extent S4 - a trend of ca. ?33S/?34S = 0.23 is observed that closely follows the expected trend for SO2-photolysis in the 190-220 nm spectral range. This suggests that an impact dust cloud (deposited as spherule beds), which sampled the higher region of the atmosphere, specifically incorporated products of SO2 photolysis in the 190-220 nm range, and blocked photochemical reactions at higher wavelengths (250-330 nm band). By implication, the generally observed Archean trend appears to be the result of mixing of different MIF-S sources arising from a variety of photochemical reactions that took place in the lower part of the atmosphere.

van Zuilen, M. A.; Philippot, P.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Lepland, A.

2014-10-01

276

Galaxy Zoo: An independent look at the evolution of the bar fraction over the last eight billion years from HST-COSMOS  

E-print Network

We measure the redshift evolution of the bar fraction in a sample of 2380 visually selected disc galaxies found in Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. The visual classifications used to identify both the disc sample and to indicate the presence of stellar bars were provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) project. We find that the overall bar fraction decreases by a factor of two, from 22+/-5% at z=0.4 (tlb = 4.2 Gyr) to 11+/-2% at z=1.0 (tlb = 7.8 Gyr), consistent with previous analysis. We show that this decrease, of the strong bar fraction in a volume limited sample of massive disc galaxies [stellar mass limit of log(Mstar/Msun) > 10.0], cannot be due to redshift dependent biases hiding either bars or disc galaxies at higher redshifts. Splitting our sample into three bins of mass we find that the decrease in bar fraction is most prominent in the highest mass bin, while the lower mass discs in our sample show a more modest evolution. We also include a...

Melvin, Thomas; Lintott, Chris; Nichol, Robert C; Simmons, Brooke; Bamford, Steven P; Casteels, Kevin R V; Cheung, Edmond; Edmondson, Edward M; Fortson, Lucy; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A; Smith, Arfon M; Willett, Kyle W

2014-01-01

277

A TALE OF DWARFS AND GIANTS: USING A z = 1.62 CLUSTER TO UNDERSTAND HOW THE RED SEQUENCE GREW OVER THE LAST 9.5 BILLION YEARS  

SciTech Connect

We study the red sequence in a cluster of galaxies at z = 1.62 and follow its evolution over the intervening 9.5 Gyr to the present day. Using deep YJK{sub s} imaging with the HAWK-I instrument on the Very Large Telescope, we identify a tight red sequence and construct its rest-frame i-band luminosity function (LF). There is a marked deficit of faint red galaxies in the cluster that causes a turnover in the LF. We compare the red-sequence LF to that for clusters at z < 0.8, correcting the luminosities for passive evolution. The shape of the cluster red-sequence LF does not evolve between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 but at z < 0.6 the faint population builds up significantly. Meanwhile, between z = 1.62 and 0.6 the inferred total light on the red sequence grows by a factor of {approx}2 and the bright end of the LF becomes more populated. We construct a simple model for red-sequence evolution that grows the red sequence in total luminosity and matches the constant LF shape at z > 0.6. In this model the cluster accretes blue galaxies from the field whose star formation is quenched and who are subsequently allowed to merge. We find that three to four mergers among cluster galaxies during the 4 Gyr between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 match the observed LF evolution between the two redshifts. The inferred merger rate is consistent with other studies of this cluster. Our result supports the picture that galaxy merging during the major growth phase of massive clusters is an important process in shaping the red-sequence population at all luminosities.

Rudnick, Gregory H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Malott room 1082, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Tran, Kim-Vy; Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Momcheva, Ivelina [Observatories, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Willmer, Christopher, E-mail: grudnick@ku.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2012-08-10

278

A Tale of Dwarfs and Giants: Using a z = 1.62 Cluster to Understand How the Red Sequence Grew over the Last 9.5 Billion Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the red sequence in a cluster of galaxies at z = 1.62 and follow its evolution over the intervening 9.5 Gyr to the present day. Using deep YJKs imaging with the HAWK-I instrument on the Very Large Telescope, we identify a tight red sequence and construct its rest-frame i-band luminosity function (LF). There is a marked deficit of faint red galaxies in the cluster that causes a turnover in the LF. We compare the red-sequence LF to that for clusters at z < 0.8, correcting the luminosities for passive evolution. The shape of the cluster red-sequence LF does not evolve between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 but at z < 0.6 the faint population builds up significantly. Meanwhile, between z = 1.62 and 0.6 the inferred total light on the red sequence grows by a factor of ~2 and the bright end of the LF becomes more populated. We construct a simple model for red-sequence evolution that grows the red sequence in total luminosity and matches the constant LF shape at z > 0.6. In this model the cluster accretes blue galaxies from the field whose star formation is quenched and who are subsequently allowed to merge. We find that three to four mergers among cluster galaxies during the 4 Gyr between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 match the observed LF evolution between the two redshifts. The inferred merger rate is consistent with other studies of this cluster. Our result supports the picture that galaxy merging during the major growth phase of massive clusters is an important process in shaping the red-sequence population at all luminosities. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal through ESO program 386.A-0514(A).

Rudnick, Gregory H.; Tran, Kim-Vy; Papovich, Casey; Momcheva, Ivelina; Willmer, Christopher

2012-08-01

279

LoCuSS: THE STEADY DECLINE AND SLOW QUENCHING OF STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTER GALAXIES OVER THE LAST FOUR BILLION YEARS  

SciTech Connect

We present an analysis of the levels and evolution of star formation activity in a representative sample of 30 massive galaxy clusters at 0.15 < z < 0.30 from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey, combining wide-field Spitzer/MIPS 24 ?m data with extensive spectroscopy of cluster members. The specific SFRs of massive (M > or approx. 10{sup 10} M{sub ?}) star-forming cluster galaxies within r{sub 200} are found to be systematically ?28% lower than their counterparts in the field at fixed stellar mass and redshift, a difference significant at the 8.7? level. This is the unambiguous signature of star formation in most (and possibly all) massive star-forming galaxies being slowly quenched upon accretion into massive clusters, their star formation rates (SFRs) declining exponentially on quenching timescales in the range 0.7-2.0 Gyr. We measure the mid-infrared Butcher-Oemler effect over the redshift range 0.0-0.4, finding rapid evolution in the fraction (f{sub SF}) of massive (M{sub K} < – 23.1) cluster galaxies within r{sub 200} with SFRs > 3 M{sub ?} yr{sup –1}, of the form f{sub SF}?(1 + z){sup 7.6±1.1}. We dissect the origins of the Butcher-Oemler effect, revealing it to be due to the combination of a ?3 × decline in the mean specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies since z ? 0.3 with a ?1.5 × decrease in number density. Two-thirds of this reduction in the specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies is due to the steady cosmic decline in the specific SFRs among those field galaxies accreted into the clusters. The remaining one-third reflects an accelerated decline in the star formation activity of galaxies within clusters. The slow quenching of star formation in cluster galaxies is consistent with a gradual shut down of star formation in infalling spiral galaxies as they interact with the intracluster medium via ram-pressure stripping or starvation mechanisms. The observed sharp decline in star formation activity among cluster galaxies since z ? 0.4 likely reflects the increased susceptibility of low-redshift spiral galaxies to gas removal mechanisms as their gas surface densities decrease with time. We find no evidence for the build-up of cluster S0 bulges via major nuclear starburst episodes.

Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Egami, E.; Rawle, T. D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Smith, G. P.; Sanderson, A. J. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Babul, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-0014 Helsinki (Finland); Merluzzi, P.; Busarello, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Okabe, N., E-mail: cphaines@as.arizona.edu [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2013-10-01

280

NEW VIEW of the young earth covered in oceans of liquid water as early as 4.4 billion years ago  

E-print Network

contrasts sharply with the hot, hostile world typically depicted in textbooks. 58 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN COPYRIGHT 2005 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. #12;ACool EarlyEarth? The textbook view that the earth spent its AMERICAN 59 COPYRIGHT 2005 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. #12;60 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN OCTOBER 2005 the earth

Carlson, Anders

281

A billion years of crustal evolution recorded in the Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt: Pb-Hf evidence for Eoarchean TTGs produced from melting of Hadean mafic crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of Earth's primitive crust is limited by the scarcity of Eoarchean/Hadean terrains. Most of these terrains are dominated by felsic Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks. These felsic rocks however, cannot be directly produced from melting of the mantle but must instead have been derived from the melting of an older mafic precursor. Obtaining accurate ages on old terrestrial mafic rocks is challenging. The geochronology constraints on Archean mafic rocks commonly come from long-lived radiogenic isotopic systems that can be affected by younger metamorphic/metasomatic events. The short-lived 146Sm-142Nd isotopic system is less susceptible to partial resetting because 146Sm became extinct prior to ~4 Ga. The mafic rocks from the Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt (NGB), called the Ujaraaluk unit, have 146Sm-142Nd systematics consistent with them being formed in the Hadean, between 4.3 and 4.4 Ga. This age has been challenged because the oldest U-Pb ages on zircons obtained in the NGB are ~3.8 Ga. The ~3.8 Ga zircons, however, are from trondhjemetic bands intruding the NGB and thus provide only a minimum age for the mafic rocks. The NGB is surrounded by 3.65 Ga tonalites having deficits in 142Nd suggesting derivation from an Hadean precursor such as the Ujaraaluk unit. We have now identified two additional tonalite generations dated at 3.75 Ga and 3.4-3.5 Ga suggesting a more complex thermal history for the NGB. In order to better constrain the geologic relationship between the mafic and the felsic rocks and the evolution of the NGB through time, we present whole-rock Lu-Hf data for the Nuvvuagittuq rocks as well as combined Pb-Hf analyses in zircons from a series of surrounding TTGs dated at 3.35 Ga, 3.4-3.5 Ga, 3.65 Ga and 3.75 Ga. The Lu-Hf isotopic compositions of the NGB mafic rocks have been partially reset by a Neoarchean metamorphic/metasomatic event, consistent with what is observed for the long-lived 147Sm-143Nd system. Zircons from the 3.35 to 3.65 TTGs have strongly subchondritic initial ?Hf values and display an ?Hf vs. age array consistent with their derivation from a 4.3-4.4 Ga mafic precursor. The 3.75 Ga TTGs have initial ?Hf values consistent either with derivation from the ~4.2 Ga NGB gabbros or with incorporation of more juvenile mantle-derived material. The Hf-zircon and 142Nd data for the Eoarchean NGB TTGs is consistent with their formation from the melting of the Hadean Ujaraaluk unit. The time integrated ?Hf-zircon data also is consistent with the Hf isotopic compositions of the Jack Hills zircons suggesting a similar primitive mafic precursor for the Eoarchean/Hadean TTGs forming Earth's early crust.

O'Neil, J.; Boyet, M. M.; Carlson, R. W.; Paquette, J.

2012-12-01

282

A 4.2 billion year old impact basin on the Moon: U-Pb dating of zirconolite and apatite in lunar melt rock 67955  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sharp rise in the flux of asteroid-size bodies traversing the inner Solar System at 3.9 Ga has become a central tenet of recent models describing planetary dynamics and the potential habitability of early terrestrial environments. The prevalence of ˜3.9 Ga crystallization ages for lunar impact-melt breccias and U-Pb isotopic compositions of lunar crustal rocks provide the primary evidence for a short-lived, cataclysmic episode of late heavy bombardment at that time. Here we report U-Pb isotopic compositions of zirconolite and apatite in coarse-grained lunar melt rock 67955, measured by ion microprobe, that date a basin-scale impact melting event on the Moon at 4.22±0.01 Ga followed by entrainment within lower grade ejecta from a younger basin approximately 300 million yr later. Significant impacts prior to 3.9 Ga are also recorded by lunar zircons although the magnitudes of those events are difficult to establish. Other isotopic evidence such as 40Ar-39Ar ages of granulitic lunar breccias, regolith fragments, and clasts extracted from fragmental breccias, and Re-Os isotopic compositions of lunar metal is also suggestive of impact-related thermal events in the lunar crust during the period 4.1-4.3 Ga. We conclude that numerous large impactors hit the Moon prior to the canonical 3.9 Ga cataclysm, that some of those pre-cataclysm impacts were similar in size to the younger lunar basins, and that the oldest preserved lunar basins are likely to be significantly older than 3.9 Ga. This provides sample-based support for dynamical models capable of producing older basins on the Moon and discrete populations of impactors. An extended period of basin formation implies a less intense cataclysm at 3.9 Ga, and therefore a better opportunity for preservation of early habitable niches and Hadean crust on the Earth. A diminished cataclysm at 3.9 Ga suggests that the similarity in the age of the oldest terrestrial continental crust with the canonical lunar cataclysm is likely to be coincidental with no genetic significance.

Norman, Marc D.; Nemchin, Alexander A.

2014-02-01

283

An HPLC-ESI-MS method for simultaneous determination of fourteen metabolites of promethazine and caffeine and its application to pharmacokinetic study of the combination therapy against motion sickness.  

PubMed

The combination therapy, promethazine and caffeine had been proven effective in treating motion sickness and counteracting some possible side effects of using promethazine alone while the mechanism and interaction remained unclear. Therefore, an HPLC-ESI-MS method for simultaneous determination of both drugs, and their metabolites was developed for purpose of pharmacokinetic study. To determine as many metabolites as possible, the influence of parameters such as column, flow rate and pH value of mobile phase, ionization polarity and fragmentation voltage were optimized. Fourteen target analytes were well separated and all of them could be identified and determined in plasma after administration of promethazine and caffeine. The LODs and LOQs were 0.9-6.0 and 2.50-16.0 ng/ml, respectively; the recoveries of three levels of quality control samples were from 86.7% to 102%; the intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 3% and 9%, separately; and the RSDs of compound stability were all lower than 10% within 24h after sample preparation. As a pharmacokinetic study of the combination therapy in 30 healthy volunteers, concentration-time curves of the drugs and metabolites were studied. The present method for simultaneous measurement of more than ten metabolites is valuable for the study of mechanism and interaction of the combination therapy. PMID:22264564

Huang, Min; Gao, Jian-yi; Zhai, Zhi-gang; Liang, Qiong-lin; Wang, Yi-ming; Bai, Yan-qiang; Luo, Guo-an

2012-03-25

284

Spin noise spectroscopy in semiconductors: from a billion down to single spins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin noise spectroscopy in semiconductors has matured during the past nine years into a versatile and well developed technique being capable to unveil the intrinsic and unaltered spin dynamics in a wide range of semiconductor systems. Originating from atom and quantum optics as a potential true quantum non-demolition measurement technique, SNS is capable of unearthing the intricate dynamics of free or localized electron and hole spins in semiconductors being eventually coupled to the nuclear spin bath as well. In this contribution, we review shortly the major steps which inspired the success of spin noise spectroscopy in semiconductors and present the most recent extensions into the low-invasive detection regime of the spin dynamics for the two extreme limits of very high and extremely low rates of spin decoherence, respectively. On the one hand, merging ultrafast laser spectroscopy with spin noise spectroscopy enables the detection of spin noise with picosecond resolution, i.e., with THz bandwidths yielding access to otherwise concealed microscopic electronic processes. On the other hand, we present very high sensitivity SNS being capable to measure the extremely long spin coherence of single holes enclosed in individual quantum dots venturing a step forward towards true optical quantum non-demolition experiments in semiconductors. In addition, higher-order spin noise statistics of, e.g., single charges can give information beyond the linear response regime governed by the fundamental fluctuationdissipation theorem and thereby possibly shed some light on the nested coupling between electronic and nuclear spins.

Hübner, J.; Dahbashi, R.; Berski, F.; Wiegand, J.; Kuhn, H.; Lonnemann, J.; Oestreich, M.

2014-08-01

285

Billions of Planetary Systems: Turning Point at Mid-20th Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for planetary systems, an elusive goal for most of the 20th century, is reminiscent of the search for stellar parallax in earlier centuries. Of the latter, John Herschel once wrote that it seemed within reach of the astronomer, "only to elude his seizure when apparently just within his grasp, continually hovering just beyond the limits of his distinct apprehension, and so leading him on in hopeless, endless, and exhausting pursuit." Such was the case for planetary systems, until the discovery of pulsar planets in 1992, and of planets around solar-type stars beginning in 1995. For the early decades of the century the Jeans-Jeffreys tidal theory of planet formation via close stellar encounters predicted that planets should be very rare. But the 15 years between 1943 and 1958 saw a remarkable turning point in the fortunes of planetary systems. It began with Russell's criticism of the Jeans-Jeffreys theory, but was fueled by the revival of a modified nebular hypothesis (von Weizsacker, 1944), developments in fields as diverse as double star astronomy (Kuiper, 1951), the measurement of stellar rotation periods (Struve, 1950), and geochemistry (Urey, 1952) and - most surprising of all - by claims that planetary systems, or their effects had actually been observed (Strand, 1943; Reuyl and Holmberg, 1943). Struve (1952) even suggested a means for planet detection by the radial velocity method. As Harlow Shapley made clear in his work Of Stars and Men: Human Response to an Expanding Universe (1958), the new cosmology was a continual force in the background favoring abundant planetary systems. All this work was in the background as Peter van de Kamp played out his solitary search for planetary systems, culminating in the announcement (1963) of a planet around Barnard's star. The limits that Herschel spoke of have now been breached, and the search is no longer solitary.

Dick, S. J.

2002-12-01

286

BMI at 4 years of age is associated with previous and current protein intake and with paternal BMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To evaluate possible associations between body mass index (BMI) at 4 years of age, current and previous dietary intakes and parental BMI.Methods:A follow-up of dietary intake and anthropometry in 127 4-year-old children corresponding to 54% of children who completed an initial intervention study at 18 months of age.Results:Fourteen percent of the girls and 13% of the boys were overweight (age-adjusted

I Öhlund; O Hernell; A Hörnell; H Stenlund; T Lind

2010-01-01

287

[20 years without smallpox].  

PubMed

It is 20 years since the 33rd World Health Assembly (WHA) declared that "worldwide eradication of smallpox" was achieved. This was the outcome of many years intensive work of the World Health Organization (WHO) and its member countries. In 1958 the WHA adopted the recommendation that WHO should initiate the eradication of smallpox on a worldwide scale. In 1967 the eradication activities in hitherto endemic countries became more intense. Smallpox affected 31 countries and 15 countries recorded from occasional cases. Every year more than 10 million people contracted the disease and two million of them died. A ten-year limit for the eradication was set. Gradually smallpox were eradicated in South America, then in Asia and last in Africa where the last case of endemic smallpox was recorded in 1977 in Somalia. WHO ensured international collaboration, close coordination of activities and mobilization of financial, personal and material resources. It ensured also that tested methods were fully applied in the affected countries regardless of their political, religious and cultural differences. In the eradication activities participated hundreds of thousands of local and 700 health professionals from abroad, incl. 20 Czechoslovak epidemiologists. The worldwide costs of eradication amounted to some 300 million dollars, i.e. some 23 million per year. The most important contribution of the eradication of smallpox was in addition to the termination of human suffering, worldwide financial savings estimated to 1-2 billion US dollars per year. These saved personal and financial resources could be used for other important health projects. The eradication of variola was defined as eradication of clinical forms of smallpox not as the final eradication of the variola virus. The importance of laboratories keeping the variola virus increased steeply at the time when clinical cases of smallpox were eradicated. From the beginning of the eighties WHO made an effort to reduce their number to a minimum. Since 1984 strains of variola are officially kept only in two centres collaborating with WHO. The Organization suggested destruction of the kept viruses in 1987, i.e. ten years after the eradication of smallpox. Unfortunately some political and scientific circles did not agree with this intention. Even recommendations to destroy the virus in 1993 and again in 1999 were not accepted. In the nineties fear of bio-terrorism and secret modernization of biological weapons influenced some member countries to change their opinion on the intended destruction of the virus. Despite this in May 1999 the WHA adopted a resolution that the final destruction of all variola strains is the objective of all member countries of WHO and recommended to postpone the destruction of the virus to the year 2002. The reason for postponement is current research of new antiviral preparations and better vaccines. There is again hope that all that will be left of the variola virus will be magnetic signals on computer diskettes. PMID:11040489

Jezek, Z

2000-08-01

288

Developing a Billion Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intentionally developing the leadership capacity of all students is a necessary requirement for schools around the world. The Center for Creative Leadership in Greensboro, N.C., has been at the center of this work and presents three schools as examples: Ravenscroft School in Raleigh, N.C., the African Leadership Academy in Johannesburg, South…

Gergen, Christopher; Rego, Lyndon; Wright, Joel

2014-01-01

289

Quantifying the heart of darkness with GHALO - a multi-billion particle simulation of our galactic halo  

E-print Network

We perform a series of simulations of a Galactic mass dark matter halo at different resolutions, our largest uses over three billion particles and has a mass resolution of 1000 M_sun. We quantify the structural properties of the inner dark matter distribution and study how they depend on numerical resolution. We can measure the density profile to a distance of 120 pc (0.05% of R_vir) where the logarithmic slope is -0.8 and -1.4 at (0.5% of R_vir). We propose a new two parameter fitting function that has a linearly varying logarithmic density gradient which fits the GHALO and VL2 density profiles extremely well. Convergence in the density profile and the halo shape scales as N^(-1/3), but the shape converges at a radius three times larger at which point the halo becomes more spherical due to numerical resolution. The six dimensional phase-space profile is dominated by the presence of the substructures and does not follow a power law, except in the smooth under-resolved inner few kpc.

Joachim Stadel; Doug Potter; Ben Moore; Jürg Diemand; Piero Madau; Marcel Zemp; Michael Kuhlen; Vicent Quilis

2008-08-21

290

Utilizing Bioenergy By-products in Beef Production Systems The newly expanded renewable fuels standard requires 36 billion gallons of renewable  

E-print Network

expansion of starch-based ethanol production from present levels estimated at 7.9 billion gallons to 15- grounding diets, finishing diets, and the ability to characterize digestion characteris- tics in metabolism health, performance, and efficiency· Nutrient utilization and metabolism· Environmental implications

291

New Schools, Overcrowding Relief, and Achievement Gains in Los Angeles--Strong Returns from a $19.5 Billion Investment. Policy Brief 12-2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aiming to relieve overcrowded schools operating on multiple tracks, the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) has invested more than $19 billion to build 130 new facilities over the past decade. District leaders asked researchers at Berkeley to estimate the achievement effects of this massive initiative--benefits that may stem from entering…

Welsh, William; Coghlan, Erin; Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke

2012-01-01

292

Ames Research Center (ARC) Agency Introduction: The FY 2012 budget request for NASA is $18.7 billion, the FY 2010 enacted number.  

E-print Network

1 Ames Research Center (ARC) Agency Introduction: The FY 2012 budget request for NASA is $18.7 billion, the FY 2010 enacted number. The NASA Authorization Act of 2010 has provided a clear direction for NASA, and the skilled workforce at NASA Centers is critical to the success of the Act's important

293

STABILITY OF PARTS-PER-BILLION HAZARDOUS ORGANIC CYLINDER GASES AND PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS OF SOURCE TEST AND AMBIENT AIR MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS. STATUS REPORT 2  

EPA Science Inventory

A repository of 22 gaseous organic compounds at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels in compressed gas cylinders has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objectives of this ongoing project are: (1) to provide accurate gas mixtures to EPA, stat...

294

Global Collaboration defines IBM's Supply Chain vision Who does a global corporation, with a multi-billion dollar budget, ask when it wants to determine the future  

E-print Network

that the main challenges to Supply Chains lie in five areas: Visibility, Risk Management, Increasing CustomerGlobal Collaboration defines IBM's Supply Chain vision Who does a global corporation, with a multi-billion dollar budget, ask when it wants to determine the future direction of its Supply Chain? In the case

295

STABILITY OF PARTS-PER-BILLION HAZARDOUS ORGANIC CYLINDER GASES AND PERFORMANCE AUDIT RESULTS OF SOURCE TEST AND AMBIENT AIR MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS. STATUS REPORT 1  

EPA Science Inventory

A repository of 14 gaseous organic compounds at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels in compressed gas cylinders has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objectives of this on-going project are: (1) to provide accurate gas mixtures to EPA, sta...

296

The Florida Panther's Last Stand (806 words; file: t-tribune-ave-maria) When taxpayers approved $ 8 billion to restore Eastern Everglades, decades of poorly  

E-print Network

if it is self-contained and even if Immokalee's poor receive neither tax nor employment benefits. Monaghan also billion to restore Eastern Everglades, decades of poorly planned development had nearly destroyed it Catholic values like the preferential option for the poor and stewardship of the environment? Regarding

Shrader-Frechette, Kristin

297

Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 1997-98.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents national and state information on public education finances, including revenues by source, current expenditures by function, and current expenditures per pupil. About $326 billion of revenues were raised by local, state, and federal governments to finance public education through grade 12 in school year 1997-1998. (Author/SLD)

Johnson, Frank

2000-01-01

298

The Safe Dates program: 1-year follow-up results.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: An earlier report described desirable 1-month follow-up effects of the Safe Dates program on psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence. Mediators of the program-behavior relationship also were identified. The present report describes the 1-year follow-up effects of the Safe Dates program. METHODS: Fourteen schools were in the randomized experiment. Data were gathered by questionnaires in schools before program activities and 1 year after the program ended. RESULTS: The short-term behavioral effects had disappeared at 1 year, but effects on mediating variables such as dating violence norms, conflict management skills, and awareness of community services for dating violence were maintained. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are considered in the context of why program effects might have decayed and the possible role of boosters for effect maintenance. PMID:11029999

Foshee, V A; Bauman, K E; Greene, W F; Koch, G G; Linder, G F; MacDougall, J E

2000-01-01

299

Galactic Environment of A Twenty-Billion Solar-Mass Black Hole at the End of Reionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When did the first supermassive black holes (SMBHs) appear in the universe? How do they co-evolve with and impact their galactic environment? We propose to carry out deep HST ACS and WFC/IR imaging of a newly discovered ultra-luminous quasar at z=6.30. At about 10 times brighter than an average SDSS z~6 quasar, this object is the most luminous quasar yet known at z>5.5 and is powered by a SMBH with an estimated mass of 20 billion M_sun, comparable to the most massive SMBHs found in the local universe. It is among the most massive systems in the observable early universe and likely resides in the densest and most biased environment at the end of cosmic reionization. Our WFC/IR J and H band observations will reveal the rest-frame UV emission in the quasar host galaxy, directly probing the coeval star formation in quasar host when the SMBH is accreting at the highest rate. Deep HST images will be used to rule out or confirm lensing magnification and to search for signatures of major merger activity. We will use the ACS i and z band imaging, combined with WFC/IR imaging, to select young star forming galaxies in the quasar environment and to study whether this ultra-luminous quasar lives in a significant galaxy overdensity, or whether early reionization has suppressed galaxy formation in the quasar environment. The HST observations will provide key insight into the formation and evolution of the earliest 10^10 M_sun BH systems in the universe.

Fan, Xiaohui

2014-10-01

300

Past Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Ancestry and early days; 2. Schooldays; 3. Relation with other boys at school; 4. Education; 5. Influence of the Royal Institution; 6. Later education in London; 7. Reminiscences of Bedford College; 8. Scientific work and friends in London; 9. Personal retrospect; 10. Romance; 11. Influence of the British Association; 12. Reminiscences of Coopers Hill and assistants and popular lectures; 13. Liverpool; 14. Scientific work at Liverpool; 15. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 16. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 17. Electric waves and the beginnings of wireless; 18. Other friends; 19. Family life; 20. Holidays; 21. Side issues; 22. Early experiences in psychical research; 23. Psychical research; 24. Further psychic adventures, and psycho-physical phenomena; 25. Reminiscences of my years at the university of Birmingham; 26. Birmingham friendships and recollections; 27. Scientific retrospect; 28. Apologia pro vita mea; Index.

Lodge, Oliver

2012-07-01

301

Reproductive parameters over a 37-year period of free-ranging female Borneo orangutans at Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed the reproductive parameters of free-ranging female orangutans at Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre (SORC)\\u000a on Borneo Island, Sabah, Malaysia. Fourteen adult females produced 28 offspring in total between 1967 and 2004. The average\\u000a censored interbirth interval (IBI) (i.e. offspring was still alive when mother produced a next offspring) was 6 years. This\\u000a was shorter than censored IBIs reported in the

Noko Kuze; Symphorosa Sipangkui; Titol Peter Malim; Henry Bernard; Laurentius N. Ambu; Shiro Kohshima

2008-01-01

302

Two-year biochemical, virological, and histological follow-up in patients with chronic hepatitis c responding in a sustained fashion to interferon alfa-2b treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen patients with chronic hepatitis C who had a sustained response to a 60-week interferon alfa-2b treatment course were followed, biochemically and virologically, 2 years after treatment cessation. Biopsies were repeated in 12 of 14 for histological and virological evaluation at 2-year follow-up. All 14 patients had normal serum alanine transaminase (s-ALT) levels and were negative for hepatitis C virus

Olle Reichard; Hans Glaumann; Aril Frydén; Gunnar Norkrans; Robert Schvarcz; Anders Sonnerborg; Zhi-Bing Yun; Ola Weiland

1995-01-01

303

Million-to-Billion Atom Simulation of Chemical Reactions: Embedded Divide-and-Conquer and Hierarchical Cellular Decomposition Frameworks for Scalable Scientific Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulating chemical reactions involving billions of atoms has been a dream of scientists, with broad societal impacts. This paper realizes the dream through novel simulation methods, algorithms, and parallel computing and visualization techniques. We have designed O(N) embedded divide-and-conquer (EDC) algorithms for 1) first principles-based parallel reactive force-field (P-ReaxFF) molecular dynamics (MD), and 2) density functional theory (DFT) on adaptive

Aiichiro Nakano; Rajiv K. Kali; Ken-ichi Nomura; Ashish Sharma; Priya Vashishta; Fuyuki Shimojo; Adri C. T. van Duin; William A. Goddard; Rupak Biswas; Deepak Srivastava

304

Five Years at the Movies  

E-print Network

GAIA is an astrometric satellite which has been approved by the European Space Agency for launch in about 2010. It will measure the angles between objects in fields that are separated on the sky by about a radian. Data will stream continuously at 1 Mbps from GAIA's three telescopes, providing information on the positions and velocities of the billion or more astrophysical objects brighter than 20th magnitude. The motion of objects across the sky caused by their space motion and their parallactic motion, and the variability of objects in 15 wavebands, will be measured because each object is observed at least 150 times during the 5 year mission lifetime. From the raw time series, a three-dimensional movie of the motions of stars in the Galaxy will be synthesized. The alert despatcher in the GAIA mission will provide forewarning of many kinds of bursting and variable phenomena. We discuss two applications of the GAIA movie show in detail here. First, the astrometric microlensing signal will allow us to take a complete inventory of all objects -- no matter how dark -- in the solar neighbourhood. Second, the catalogue of supernovae detections will be the largest ever taken. It will provide opportunities both for follow-ups in other wavebands and numerous examples of scarce phenomena (like subluminous SNe).

N. W. Evans; V. Belokurov

2002-12-02

305

Ten Years at the Calif. Energy Commission White Roofs to Cool your Building, your City and  

E-print Network

available at www.ArtRosenfeld.org File Name DinnerTalk Life at CEC. Path: ARPA-E #12;E If Energy Star If Energy Star TWH/Year Value(billion$/year) Comparison of 3 Gorges to Refrigerator and AC" 32" 37" 42" 50" CEC Max Screen Area (1400 in2 or ~57.4 diagonal inches) Energy Star 3.0 TVs (10

Kammen, Daniel M.

306

There were times in the past when little permanent ice existed on Earth for millions of years (e.g. the Cretacious  

E-print Network

of the current "ice age", the Pleistocene, occurred. #12;Over the 4.6 billions years of the Earth's history to the Earth's orbit around the sun. The current "ice age" includes colder "glacial" times and temperate "inter5 There were times in the past when little permanent ice existed on Earth for millions of years (e

Allan, Richard P.

307

School Districts' Perspectives on the Economic Stimulus Package: Teaching Jobs Saved in 2009-10 but Teacher Layoffs Loom for Next School Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2009, school districts began receiving the first wave of federal economic stimulus money from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). Totaling about $100 billion over two years--more than double the fiscal year 2009 budget for the U.S. Department of Education (ED)--the education portion of the stimulus package…

Kober, Nancy; Scott, Caitlin; Rentner, Diane Stark; McMurrer, Jennifer; Dietz, Shelby

2010-01-01

308

Federal Statistics. A Special Report on the Statistical Programs and Activities of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on the statistical programs and activities of the Federal Government covers some 70 Federal agencies or separate departmental units budgeting at least $500,000 in any of fiscal years 1985-87. The budgets of agencies whose sole mission is statistical represent less than half the $1.6 billion that the Federal Government will spend on…

Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC. Statistical Policy Div.

309

Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992  

SciTech Connect

During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

Not Available

1992-12-31

310

Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993  

SciTech Connect

During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program`s oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994.

Not Available

1993-12-31

311

Child Development and Molecular Genetics: 14 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Fourteen years ago, the first article on molecular genetics was published in this journal: Child Development, Molecular Genetics, andWhat to Do With Genes Once They Are Found (R. Plomin & M. Rutter, 1998). The goal of the article was to outline what developmentalists can do with genes once they are found. These new directions for developmental research are still relevant today. The problem lies with the phrase “once they are found”: It has been much more difficult than expected to identify genes responsible for the heritability of complex traits and common disorders, the so-called missing heritability problem. The present article considers reasons for the missing heritability problem and possible solutions. PMID:22469254

Plomin, Robert

2013-01-01

312

River Protection Project FY 2000 Multi Year Work Plan Summary  

SciTech Connect

The River Protection Project (RPP), formerly the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), is a major part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP). The ORP was established as directed by Congress in Section 3139 of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The ORP was established to elevate the reporting and accountability for the RPP to the DOE-Headquarters level. This was done to gain Congressional visibility and obtain support for a major $10 billion high-level liquid waste vitrification effort.

LENSEIGNE, D.L.

1999-08-27

313

Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis  

SciTech Connect

In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

NONE

1996-01-01

314

Evidence for basaltic volcanism on the Moon within the past 100 million years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bulk of basaltic magmatism on the Moon occurred from 3.9 to 3.1 billion years ago on the ancient lunar mare plains. There is evidence for basaltic volcanism as recently as 2.9 billion years ago from crystallization ages and a billion years ago from stratigraphy. An enigmatic surface formation named Ina (18.65° N, 5.30° E) may represent much younger mare volcanism, but age estimates are poorly constrained. Here we investigate 70 small topographic anomalies, termed irregular mare patches (100-5,000 m maximum dimension), on the lunar nearside with irregular morphologies and textures similar to Ina, using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter narrow angle camera images, digital terrain models and wide angle camera colour ratios. The irregular mare patches exhibit sharp, metre-scale morphology with relatively few superposed impact craters larger than ten metres in diameter. Crater distributions from the three largest irregular mare patches imply ages younger than 100 million years, based on chronology models of the lunar surface. The morphology of the features is also consistent with small basaltic eruptions that occurred significantly after the established cessation of lunar mare basaltic volcanism. Such late-stage eruptions suggest a long decline of lunar volcanism and constrain models of the Moon's thermal evolution.

Braden, S. E.; Stopar, J. D.; Robinson, M. S.; Lawrence, S. J.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.

2014-11-01

315

The federal medical loss ratio rule: implications for consumers in year 2.  

PubMed

For the past two years, the Affordable Care Act has required health insurers to pay out a minimum percentage of premiums in the form of medical claims or quality improvement expenses--known as a medical loss ratio (MLR). Insurers with MLRs below the minimum must rebate the difference to consumers. This issue brief finds that total rebates for 2012 were $513 million, half the amount paid out in 2011, indicating greater compliance with the MLR rule. Spending on quality improvement remained low, at less than 1 percent of premiums. Insurers continued to reduce their administrative and sales costs, such as brokers' fees, without increasing profit margins, for a total reduction in overhead of $1.4 billion. In the first two years under this regulation, total consumer benefits related to the medical loss ratio--both rebates and reduced overhead--amounted to more than $3 billion. PMID:24881098

McCue, Michael J; Hall, Mark A

2014-05-01

316

A Year at the Moon on Chandrayaan-1: Moon Mineralogy Mapper Data in a Global Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper, M3, a high-fidelity high-resolution imaging spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1 has completed two of its four scheduled optical periods during its maiden year in lunar orbit, collecting over 4.6 billion spectra covering most of the lunar surface. These imaging periods (November 2008-February 2009 and April 2009-August 2009) correspond to times of equatorial solar zenith angle less than sixty

J. W. Boardman; C. M. Pieters; R. N. Clark; J. Combe; R. O. Green; P. Isaacson; S. Lundeen; E. Malaret; T. B. McCord; J. W. Nettles; N. E. Petro; M. Staid; P. Varanasi

2009-01-01

317

Racial disparities in smoking-attributable mortality and years of potential life lost --- Missouri, 2003-2007.  

PubMed

An estimated 443,000 deaths in the United States occur each year as a result of cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. These deaths cost the nation approximately $97 billion in lost productivity and $96 billion in health-care costs. During 2000-2004 in Missouri, smoking caused 9,600 deaths, 132,000 years of potential life lost (YPLL), $2.4 billion in productivity losses, and $2.2 billion in smoking-related health-care expenditures annually. To limit the adverse health consequences of tobacco use, states implement comprehensive tobacco control programs that identify disparities among population groups and target those disproportionately affected by tobacco use. This report compares the public health burden of smoking among whites and blacks in Missouri by estimating the number of smoking-attributable deaths and YPLL in these population subgroups during 2003-2007. The findings indicate that the average annual smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) rate in the state was 18% higher for blacks (338 deaths per 100,000) than for whites (286 deaths per 100,000). The relative difference in smoking-attributable mortality rates between blacks and whites was larger for men (28%) than women (11%). For Missouri, these estimates provide an important benchmark for measuring the success of tobacco control programs in decreasing the burden of smoking-related diseases in these populations and reaffirm the need for full implementation of the state's comprehensive tobacco control program. PMID:21102406

2010-11-26

318

Galaxy Evolution Explorer Celebrates Five Years in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

Since its launch five years ago, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has photographed hundreds of millions of galaxies in ultraviolet light. M106 is one of those galaxies, and from 22 light years away, it strikes a pose in blue and gold for this new commemorative portrait.

The galaxy's extended arms are the blue filaments that curve around its edge, creating its outer disk. Tints of blue in M106's arms reveal hot, young massive stars. Traces of gold toward the center show an older stellar population and indicate the presence of obscuring dust.

From 24 million light-years away, neighboring galaxy NGC 4248 also makes a memorable appearance, sitting just right of M106. The irregular galaxy looks like a yellow smudge, with a bluish-white bar in the center. The galaxy's outer golden glow indicates a population of older stars, while the blue central region shows a younger stellar demographic.

Dwarf galaxy UGC 7365 emerges at the bottom center of this image, as a faint yellow smudge directly below M106. This galaxy is not forming any new stars, and looks much smaller than M106 despite being closer to Earth, at 14 million light-years away.

Over the past five years, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer has imaged half a billion objects over 27,000 square degrees of sky equivalent to an area that would be covered by 138,000 full moons. The telescope orbits Earth every 94 minutes and travels approximately 408,470 million miles per day. Its overarching question is: how do galaxies grow and change over 10 billion years of cosmic history?

M106, also known as NGC 4258, is located in the constellation Canes Venatici. This image is a two-color composite, where far-ultraviolet light is blue, and near-ultraviolet light is red.

2008-01-01

319

Year-by-Year Analysis of the Bush Tax Cuts Shows Growing Tilt to the Very Rich  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently released by the Citizens for Tax Justice (CTJ) and the Children's Defense Fund, this study examines those who are most likely to benefit from the 2001-enacted Bush tax cuts in each year from 2001 through 2010. According to the report, by 2010, (if Bush's tax reductions are still in effect) 52% of the total tax cuts will go to the richest one percent of the American population. In other words, of the estimated $234 billion in tax cuts scheduled for the year 2010, $121 billion will go to those individuals with an income of $1.5 million and above. In contrast, the vast majority of American taxpayers have already received most of their tax cuts from the 2001 legislation. "As a result, freezing the Bush tax cuts at their 2002 levels would have little or no effect on 99 percent of the taxpayers, whose tax cuts are already mostly or completely 'frozen.'" Viewable in HTML or Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format, this report is concise, easily readable, and requires no more than fifteen minutes of reading time.

2002-01-01

320

Knee extensor function before and 1 year after simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty: is there asymmetry between limbs?  

PubMed

One year after unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA), there is interlimb knee extensor function asymmetry. In the study reported here, we investigated whether there was knee extensor function "asymmetry" between limbs 1 year after simultaneous bilateral TKA. Fourteen patients volunteered to participate in this study before undergoing simultaneous bilateral TKA secondary to knee osteoarthritis. One year after surgery, 8 patients agreed to participate in follow-up testing. Torque production, work, and range of motion of knee extensors were assessed isokinetically at 1.047 radians . second(-1). Before surgery, there was no difference between limbs in peak torque, work, or range of motion during isokinetic testing. One year after surgery, this pattern persisted. The strength asymmetry evident in patients 1 year after unilateral TKA did not exist in patients who underwent simultaneous bilateral TKA. There is a symmetrical pattern between limbs for knee extensor function 1 year after the bilateral procedure. PMID:21720583

Rossi, Mark D; Brown, Lee E; Whitehurst, Michael

2011-01-01

321

Budget Issues: Effects of the Fiscal Year 1990 Sequester on the Department of Education. Fact Sheet for the Chairman, Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, as amended, establishes deficit targets to lead to a balanced unified budget by fiscal year 1993. If the Office of Management and Budget projects a deficit in excess of the target amount plus $10 billion, the President must issue a sequester order to reduce budget resources…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

322

Fourteen at One Blow: The Market Entry of Turquoise  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the market entry of Turquoise in September 2008. Turquoise started trading stocks from 14 European countries at (almost) the same time. We find that Turquoise gained higher market shares in larger and less volatile stocks, and in stocks that had excessively high pre-entry spreads. The entry of Turquoise led to a decrease in spreads but not to

Jordis Hengelbrock; Erik Theissen

2009-01-01

323

The International Academic Profession: Portraits of Fourteen Countries. Special Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis of the academic profession in 14 nations was based on responses received from an international survey of nearly 20,000 college and university faculty members from Australia, Brazil, Chile, England, West Germany, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, and the United States. Data were analyzed and…

Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

324

Determining Work Culture Scores for Fourteen Developed Nations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As business relationships become increasingly global in nature, a new methodology for understanding the approach to work in various nations is needed. When involved in business dealings with international partners, it is crucial that the modern businessperson understand and empathize with the culture of the company with which he or she is working.…

Belote, Michael D.

2005-01-01

325

Volatile organic compounds in fourteen U.S. retail stores.  

PubMed

Retail buildings have a potential for both short-term (customer) and long-term (occupational) exposure to indoor pollutants. However, little is known about volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the retail sector and influencing factors, such as ventilation, in-store activities, and store type. We measured VOC concentrations and ventilation rates in 14 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania. With the exception of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, VOCs were present in retail stores at concentrations well below health guidelines. Indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 4.6 ppb to 67 ppb. The two mid-sized grocery stores in the sample had the highest levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde, with concentrations up to 2.6 ppm and 92 ppb, respectively, possibly due to the preparation of dough and baking activities. Indoor-to-outdoor concentration ratios indicated that indoor sources were the main contributors to indoor VOC concentrations for the majority of compounds. There was no strong correlation between ventilation and VOC concentrations across all stores. However, increasing the air exchange rates at two stores led to lower indoor VOC concentrations, suggesting that ventilation can be used to reduce concentrations for some specific stores. PMID:24471978

Nirlo, E L; Crain, N; Corsi, R L; Siegel, J A

2014-10-01

326

Fourteen-Month-Old Infants Learn Similar-Sounding Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can infants, in the very first stages of word learning, use their perceptual sensitivity to the phonetics of speech while learning words? Research to date suggests that infants of 14 months cannot learn two similar-sounding words unless there is substantial contextual support. The current experiment advances our understanding of this failure by…

Yoshida, Katherine A.; Fennell, Christopher T.; Swingley, Daniel; Werker, Janet F.

2009-01-01

327

Managed competition in practice: 'value purchasing' by fourteen employers.  

PubMed

Many large U.S. companies have transformed their procurement of health benefits in the 1990s by combining the principles of managed competition with other business tactics to create a business-savvy hybrid of the private sector's own design, often referred to as "value purchasing." Until recently, few policymakers or health care observers believed that large firms would be a force in health system reform. Yet to implement value purchasing, the large companies in this study created new organizational forms, provided employees with financial incentives to select low-cost health plans, and used business tactics such as competitive bidding to negotiate more favorable rates and to improve quality among health plans. The financial results were impressive for the companies studied. In addition, the companies' demands on the health care delivery system are multiplying as the interface between business firms and health care organizations changes. These demands will only increase as the practices we found become more widespread. PMID:9637978

Maxwell, J; Briscoe, F; Davidson, S; Eisen, L; Robbins, M; Temin, P; Young, C

1998-01-01

328

R E P O R T Summer 2010 Volume Fourteen  

E-print Network

explores the evolution of the most severe economic downturn since the Great Depression, and proposes how new tools to create advances in the study of the genetics of human populations. 12 Rediscovering Molecular biologist Steve Jacobsen is using novel approaches that are clarifying functions at the genetic

Williams, Gary A.

329

Light microscopic morphometry of the kidneys of fourteen avian species.  

PubMed Central

Kidney volume and the volume proportions of the cortex, medulla, blood vessels larger than capillaries and ureter and ureteral ducts were investigated in 61 birds from 14 species representing passeriformes, psittaciformes, podicipediformes, anseriformes, galliformes, and columbiformes. The kidneys were fixed in situ by perfusion via their arterial supply. Kidney volume and body weight were strongly correlated (r = 0.991); the allometric function relating kidney volume (Vk) to body weight (W) was: Vk = 13.96W0.902. Histological sections of one kidney from each bird were analysed by point counting with a Zeiss integrating eyepiece to estimate the volume proportions and subsequently the absolute volumes of the main components of the kidney. The avian kidney was found to consist of a very large cortex (range 71-81%), a relatively small medulla (range 5-15%), blood vessels larger than capillaries (range 10-13%). For all the birds, the mean volume proportions of the kidney components were as follows: cortex, 77%; medulla, 10%; blood vessels larger than capillaries, 12%; ureter and ureteral ducts, 1%. The values for the absolute volume of each of the main components of the kidney were well correlated with body weight. The allometric equations and correlation coefficients (r) relating: (a) the volume of cortex (Vc) and the body weight (W) was Vc = 10.06W0.914, r = 0.991; (b) the volume of medulla (Vm) and body weight was Vm = 2.27W0.795, r = 0.974; (c) the volume of blood vessels larger than capillaries (Vb) and body weight was Vb = 1.76W0.894, r = 0.988. All the birds were divided into two groups in the following five sets: (a) passeriform and non-passeriform orders; (b) galliform and non-galliform orders; (c) small and large birds weighing less than and more than 500 g respectively; (d) aquatic and non-aquatic birds; (e) desert and non-desert birds. In the two groups of each set the differences between kidney volume per gram body weight and those between the respective percentage proportions of cortex, medulla and blood vessels larger than capillaries were assessed by Student's t-test. The differences between kidney volume per gram body weight were significant for all sets except desert and non-desert birds; those between the respective percentage proportions of cortex and medulla were significant for all sets; those between the percentage proportions of blood vessels larger than capillaries were significant only in desert and non-desert birds.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 1 PMID:2808116

Warui, C N

1989-01-01

330

Millions and Billions of Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the Harvard SETI group is inextricably linked with the history of Paul Horowitz. Horowitz became enamored with SETI as a student at Harvard, reading Ed Purcell's paper "Radio Astronomy and Communication Through Space" (Purcell, 1960), discussing with his roommates a class that Carl Sagan was teaching there using a draft of Shklovskii and Sagan's "Intelligent Life in the Universe" (Shklovskii and Sagan, 1966) as a text, and finally attending a Loeb Lecture series at Harvard by Frank Drake (Drake, 1969). The series was officially about pulsars but Drake did manage to slip in one inspiring talk about SETI. Horowitz says that "It was this lecture that launched me into this field; it was a revelation that you could go beyond idle speculation - you could actually calculate stuff."

Leigh, Darren; Horowitz, Paul

331

Comparison of ozone injury to vegetation during moist and drought years  

SciTech Connect

Ozone is the most important phytotoxic air pollutant in the US. It has been estimated that ozone is responsible for a yearly agricultural yield loss of around $3 billion. The severity of ozone injury to plants in influence by a number of factors. Experimental studies have demonstrated that drought stress is one factor that can ameliorate the phytotoxic effects of ozone. the purpose of this note is to report the results of field surveys of ozone injury during years of varying rainfall and ozone concentrations.

Showman, R.E. (American Electric Power Service Corp., Columbus, OH (USA))

1991-01-01

332

Follow the money: how the billions of dollars that flow from smokers in poor nations to companies in rich nations greatly exceed funding for global tobacco control and what might be done about it.  

PubMed

The business of selling cigarettes is increasingly concentrated in the hands of five tobacco companies that collectively control almost 90% of the world's cigarette market, four of which are publicly traded corporations. The economic activities of these cigarette manufacturers can be monitored through their reports to shareholders and other public documents. Reports for 2008 show that the revenues of these five companies exceeded $300 billion, of which more than $160 billion was provided to governments as taxes, and that corporate earnings of the four publicly traded companies were over $25 billion, of which $14 billion was retained after corporate income taxes were paid. By contrast, funding for domestic and international tobacco control is not reliably reported. Estimated funding for global tobacco control in 2008, at $240 million, is significantly lower than resources provided to address other highmortality global health challenges. Tobacco control has not yet benefited from the innovative finance mechanisms that are in place for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The Framework Convention On Tobacco Control (FCTC) process could be used to redirect some of the earnings from transnational tobacco sales to fund FCTC implementation or other global health efforts. PMID:20610436

Callard, Cynthia

2010-08-01

333

Follow the money: How the billions of dollars that flow from smokers in poor nations to companies in rich nations greatly exceed funding for global tobacco control and what might be done about it  

PubMed Central

The business of selling cigarettes is increasingly concentrated in the hands of five tobacco companies that collectively control almost 90% of the world's cigarette market, four of which are publicly traded corporations. The economic activities of these cigarette manufacturers can be monitored through their reports to shareholders and other public documents. Reports for 2008 show that the revenues of these five companies exceeded $300 billion, of which more than $160 billion was provided to governments as taxes, and that corporate earnings of the four publicly traded companies were over $25 billion, of which $14 billion was retained after corporate income taxes were paid. By contrast, funding for domestic and international tobacco control is not reliably reported. Estimated funding for global tobacco control in 2008, at $240 million, is significantly lower than resources provided to address other high-mortality global health challenges. Tobacco control has not yet benefited from the innovative finance mechanisms that are in place for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The Framework Convention On Tobacco Control (FCTC) process could be used to redirect some of the earnings from transnational tobacco sales to fund FCTC implementation or other global health efforts. PMID:20610436

2010-01-01

334

From SIAM News, Volume 45, Number 2, March 2012 Sometime around last Halloween, the world population reached 7 billion. So we all wanted to make a fuss about the 7 billionth baby. Who  

E-print Network

expression with 94 terms, a typical term being (195/86656)exp(-1)sin(26). How in the world do you know population reached 7 billion. So we all wanted to make a fuss about the 7 billionth baby. Who was she? In the Philippines, newborn Danica May Camacho was offered as a candidate. India put forward a baby girl called

Trefethen, Nick

335

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Children's Hospital of  

E-print Network

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 July General Pediatric Children's Hospital of Michigan High Risk Obstetrics Hutzel Women's Hospital Biochemical Genetics Lab/Metabolic Clinic Harper Hospital/ Children's Hospital of Michigan Reproductive Genetics Hutzel Women's Hospital August General Pediatric Children

Finley Jr., Russell L.

336

Year of the Tiger  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Xin nian kuai le! That's happy New Year in Chinese. It's a Tiger year. The Chinese zodiac runs on a 12 year cycle and each year is governed by an animal: rat, ox , tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, goat, monkey, rooster, dog...

Hacker, Randi

2010-02-03

337

An Extraordinary Year for Managing Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It's wonderful to be back home again in Indiana. I am honored to be here with you today to share two important results of effective technology management. The first is the indirect return on investment that Americans get from NASA's relatively lean annual budget, and the second is the direct economic benefits that the great state of Indiana and businesses nationwide realize through multiple contracts with NASA. As a proud Purdue graduate and deputy director of one of NASA's highest-priority, multi-billion dollar projects, I have a vested interest in this conference and in the outcome of this work. My goal today is to help you better understand the types of work in which NASA engages and to provide avenues for you to pursue opportunities with America's space Agency, if that is a good fit for your company. You may already know that NASA and various Indiana businesses and universities are partners in the pursuit of improving life on Earth through scientific discoveries that pay dividends in terms of expanded knowledge, as well as big-picture conveniences and a multitude of spin-offs. Whether your organization is large or small, NASA offers numerous opportunities to participate. Before I provide some motivating facts and figures about the aerospace industry and its economic impact, I want to set the stage by sharing several notable examples of how 2005 was an extraordinary year for technology management at NASA, a subject that I can speak about firsthand.

Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2006-01-01

338

Big Data is part of every function of the global economy. Cyber attacks cost the economy up to 27 billion per year. However, people with the right set of skills are in  

E-print Network

programmes* in Artificial intelligence and information Security *subject to validation #12;682808/13 Royal, Google, and Yahoo) and Cloud Computing. information Security Focusing on critical and highly relevant areas of information security including network security, malicious software and cryptography

Royal Holloway, University of London

339

Healthy Homes Program Logic Model Issue(s): Economic losses from unhealthy housing costs billions annually to consumers and communities. Every year, unhealthy housing is the source of an estimated 250,000  

E-print Network

,000 cases of childhood lead poisonings, 800,000 asthma-related emergency room visits, 20,000 carbon monoxide · Reduction in asthma episodes/attacks · Reduction of poisonings in the home · Reduction in elevated blood

340

Tall earthfill dam key to flood plan: California`s most hazardous basin scene of $1.3-billion Corps program  

SciTech Connect

In semiarid Southern California, {open_quotes}The Big One{close_quotes} generally connotes a seismic even. For those near the usually docile Santa Ana River, however, the major destructive event could be a flood. The Corps of Engineers says it could cover 170 sq miles with about 3 ft of water, jeopardizing more than 3 million persons and 255,000 structures. To avert that, the agency launched a $1.3-billion program. Half of the total cost is for major construction. About $500 million will go for land acquisition and relocations, while some $170 million is for planning, engineering and project management. Seven Oaks will be a rock and earthfill embankment standing 550 ft above the streambed with a crest length of 3,000 ft. An excavated and grouted foundation trench will extend as far as 80 ft below the dam. The structure will contain 43 million cu yd. {open_quotes}It`s between two branches of the San Andreas Fault,{close_quotes} says Robert L. Hall, chief of the design branch in the Corps` Los Angeles district office. {open_quotes}We ended up with a criterion of 4 ft of displacement in any direction that the dam must withstand.{close_quotes} That could be produced by a quake of magnitude 8-plus resulting in maximum horizontal acceleration of 0.7 g. But Hall adds that the dam is in a geological compression zone. In the event of a quake there would be {open_quotes} just slippage. The dam would heal itself.{close_quotes}

Soast, A.

1994-11-07

341

24 Fall 2011 Year 2 Year 3  

E-print Network

to plant peanuts or cotton or even watermelons, it would be in a field (recently covered with) bahiagrass that if they had a choice of where to plant peanuts or cotton or even watermelons, it would be in a field (recently, a plant pathologist, Wright is now into his 12th year on a project that he's convinced holds incalculable

Guo, Jing

342

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the differences in the weather in each season? Students will identify the seasons of the year. Also, describing the seasonal changes in the weather. All 4 Season of the Year. Spring. Summer. Fall. Winter. ...

Thompson, Miss

2010-03-25

343

100 patient-years of ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed Central

More than 100 patient-years' experience has been acquired in the treatment of 133 patients with ambulatory home total parenteral nutrition (TPN) between May 1974 and December 1983. Indications for chronic or permanent home TPN include short bowel syndrome, malabsorption, scleroderma, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide syndrome. Indications for acute or temporary home TPN include Crohn's disease, malignancies, gastrointestinal fistulas, ulcerative colitis, anorexia nervosa, and numerous other disorders. Eighty-two patients in the acute group were treated primarily with percutaneously placed standard subclavian catheters and 51 patients in the chronic group have been treated thus far with implanted silicone rubber, Dacron-cuffed catheters for a cumulative total of 38,939 patient days. Of the 125 implanted catheters, 115 were placed in the superior vena cava and ten in the inferior vena cava for an average duration of 250 catheter-days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for more than 8 1/2 years. Catheter-related sepsis occurred 33 times with the implanted catheters, or once every 2.6 catheter-years. One hundred and fourteen temporary catheters were placed percutaneously in the superior vena cava via a subclavian vein for an average duration of 68 days, the longest single catheter remaining in situ for 213 days. Catheter-related sepsis occurred seven times, equivalent to one episode per 3 catheter-years. Total catheter-related complications were quite infrequent and were directly related to duration of catheterization. They included venous thrombosis (12), clotted catheter (11), catheter failure or rupture (8), catheter compression (5) and inadvertent catheter removal (4). Twenty-six catheters were repaired or spliced in situ when the external segment was accidentally damaged or deteriorated secondary to long-term material fatigue. One remarkable patient has been maintained exclusively by TPN originally as an inpatient and subsequently as an outpatient for the entire 13 years of his life. Images Fig. 1. Figs. 2A and B. Figs. 3A-C. PMID:6428331

Dudrick, S J; O'Donnell, J J; Englert, D M; Matheny, R G; Blume, E R; Nutt, R E; Hickey, M S; Barroso, A O

1984-01-01

344

Year 1 Year 2 Anne 3 Anne 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7Year 3 Year 4 INGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIENINGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIEN  

E-print Network

: Biology / Chemistry / Computer Science / Economics / Energy / Mechanics and Environmental Sciences / Mathematics and Applied Mathematics / Physics / Science, Technology & Society / Software Systems / Innovation Duration: 2 years - Possibility to be directly admitted to Year 2 Master of ScienceMaster of Science #12

Cengarle, María Victoria

345

Reconsidering Municipal Solid Waste as a Renewable Energy Feedstock For many years, opposition to the use of municipal solid waste (MSW) as an energy resource has been nearly universal among  

E-print Network

, opposition to the use of municipal solid waste (MSW) as an energy resource has been nearly universal amongReconsidering Municipal Solid Waste as a Renewable Energy Feedstock July 2009 For many years that diverting all landfill waste to ethanol production could yield up to 21 billion gallons of renewable fuel

Columbia University

346

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 1999  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. They also locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consists of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The operational rate for the first quarter of FY99 for stations in the HSN was 99.8%. There were 121 triggers during the first quarter of fiscal year 1999. Fourteen triggers were local earthquakes; seven (50%) were in the Columbia River Basalt Group, no earthquakes occurred in the pre-basalt sediments, and seven (50%) were in the crystalline basement. One earthquake (7%) occurred near or along the Horn Rapids anticline, seven earthquakes (50%) occurred in a known swarm area, and six earthquakes (43%) were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometer during the first quarter of FY99.

DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

1999-05-26

347

Final Year Project Report  

SciTech Connect

In the last years of this eighteen-year grant project, the research efforts have focused mostly on the study of off-shell representations of supersymmetry, both on the worldline and on the world- sheet, i.e., both in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and in supersymmetric field theory in 1+1-dimensional spacetime.

Hubsch, Tristan [Howard University

2013-06-20

348

Multi-year ice  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

ARCTIC OCEAN - A multi-year ice floe slides down the starboard side of the Coast Guard Cutter Healy Aug. 11, 2009, as the ship heads north into even thicker ice. "You can tell that this is a multi-year ice floe by the light blue melt ponds that have formed on top of the floe," said Pablo Clemente-Co...

2010-02-19

349

NATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM DURING THE ARRA PERIOD: PROGRAM YEARS 2009-2011  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the third major evaluation of the Program, encompassing program years 2009 to 2011. In this report, this period of time is referred to as the ARRA Period. This is a special period of time for the Program because the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 has allocated $5 billion of funding for the Program. In normal program years, WAP s annual appropriation is in the range of $200-250 million, supporting the weatherization of approximately 100,000 homes. With the addition of ARRA funding during these program years, the expectation is that weatherization activity will exceed 300,000 homes per year. In addition to saving energy and reducing low-income energy bills, expanded WAP funding is expected to stimulate the economy by providing new jobs in the weatherization field and allowing low-income households to spend more money on goods and services by spending less on energy.

Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Rose, Erin M [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL; Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL

2012-08-01

350

Potentiometric-level monitoring program: Mississippi and Louisiana. Annual status report for fiscal year 1984  

SciTech Connect

Potentiometric-level data presented in this report were collected from October 1983 through September 1984 at 79 wells in Mississippi and Louisiana. These wells are located near Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi and Vacherie Dome in Louisiana. Fourteen wells were added to the program during this period. Two of these wells were not measurable. Two wells previously unmeasurable were located and measured. One well was destroyed during military maneuvers in the area. Analysis of the data indicated minimal, if any, change in potentiometric levels during the past year in the Citronelle, Hattiesburg, Cockfield, Sparta, and Wilcox Formations in Mississippi. A continuing decline in potentiometric levels, ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 foot per year, occurred in the wells screened in the caprock at Richton and Cypress Creek Domes. The Catahoula Formation experienced a continuing decline in potentiometric levels of about 2 feet per year. Two wells in the Cook Mountain Formation showed a continuing rise in potentiometric levels ranging from 8 to 30 ft during the past fiscal year. Wells screened in the Austin Formation in Louisiana showed a fall in potentiometric levels of 2 to 3 ft over the past fiscal year. Other formations in Louisiana generally showed no change in potentiometric levels over the past year. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1986-07-01

351

Pictures of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the oldest and most prestigious photojournalism competitions, Pictures of the Year was established 58 years ago by a University of Missouri-Columbia photojournalism professor. This year's overall winners will be announced on April 19, but in the meantime, readers can view the winning photos and those that received the Award of Excellence in the three major categories: Newspaper, Magazine, and General. These images were selected from over 32,000 entries, and they run the full gamut of subject matter and emotion. Visitors will find images that are amusing, inspiring, beautiful, and heartbreaking. Highly recommended and well worth a visit.

352

Double Spring Year  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: South Korean fiancés are under pressure and the country's esteemed fortune tellers are turning up the heat. Why? Because this lunar year has two first days of spring--one last January, and another ...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William; vonHolten, Leslie

2006-12-13

353

100 years young  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the International Year of Crystallography and is a time to reflect on the success of the discipline. Looking ahead the field is well placed to produce further exciting contributions to science.

2014-08-01

354

Biochemistry Biochemist 6 years  

E-print Network

Biochemistry Biochemist ­ 6 years Objective To train professionals of a high scientific of studies has the following orientations: Vegetal and Ground Biochemistry; Microbiology and Inmunobiology ; Basic Biochemistry, Biotechnology; Clinic Biochemistry; Food Science and Nutrition. Besides, students

Groisman, Pablo

355

SDO: Year One  

NASA Video Gallery

On April 21st, 2010 the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite's amazing imagery was revealed for the first time. Marking the one year anniversary of the First Light press conference, this vide...

356

Vitamins: preparing for the next 100 years.  

PubMed

The insights gained from the last 100 years of vitamin research and applications have contributed substantially to our fundamental understanding of biology and importantly to the promotion of human health. There is no reason to think that the next 100 years will be any less fruitful if we are committed to preparing for them, particularly by changing four critical nutrition paradigms. First, we must move beyond the concept of preventing vitamin deficiencies and inadequacies to establishing health and, further, to creating optimal physiological functions. Each essential vitamin possesses different concentration thresholds for its variety of effects and the required balance necessary to achieving each has yet to be fully defined. Second, we must apply the research approaches and methods of ?-omics,? systems biology, and imaging technologies to define the dynamic role of vitamins and their broad array of genomic, molecular, biochemical, and functional interactions. Such work is necessary to understand the multiplicity of vitamin actions and ultimately apply them directly at the level of the individual. Third, we must revise the concept of evidence-based nutrition away from its current hierarchical system to recognize in a comprehensive and integrated way the attributes of each type of approach to research. To adhere to a single gold standard of the randomized clinical trial ignores both how we have moved forward so productively during the last 100 years and the vital information to be gained from basic research and other human studies; further, it acts to stifle innovation in both scientific and regulatory affairs. Fourth, we must understand that changes in the supply and distribution of food during the next century are likely to be at least as dramatic as those which have occurred over this last one. For example, inevitable environmental constraints will require more food protein be derived from plant than animal sources, a shift that will directly impact the dietary sources for vitamins. To meet the challenge of achieving global health in 2113 among a population of 9 billion people, effectively managing these four changes demands new and creative ways in which those in academia, government and non-government organizations, and industry must work together. PMID:23798056

Blumberg, Jeffrey B

2012-10-01

357

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the seasons of the year? First, watch this video about seasons. Video on seasons Next, paint a picture about the seasons. painting the seasons After you have painted a picture, play a game to identify the seasons. Game about seasons Now, go through a step by step guide about the seasons. Different seasons in a year Next, watch another video about the seasons. Video on seasons Last, fill out this chart about the seasons. In each block, ...

2012-04-05

358

SETI: The NASA Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter, on the years of SETI in NASA, was initially prepared in 2000 for the celebration of Frank Drake's 70th birthday, but has never been previously published. All the material in these pages remains as valid today, in 2010, as it was 10 years ago. So it fits well into this volume on SETI Past, Present, and Future, with only minor revisions, and I am delighted that it is now seeing the light of day.

Billingham, John

359

Yearly Arctic Temperature Anomaly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the yearly temperature anomaly over the Arctic region from 1981-82 through 2002-03. Years run from August 1 through July 31. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -7.0 to +7.0 degrees Celsius in increments of .25 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

360

Fiscal Year 2003  

Cancer.gov

The Nation’s Investment in Cancer Research A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 P re p a r ed by the Dir e c t o r National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 . . . bringing together the resources to stimulate and support scientific discovery and its application to achieve a future when all cancers are uncommon and easily treated.

361

The year in review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The year 1983 was an exciting one, filled with intense activity by oceanographers in all disciplines. The year started with confirmation that we were indeed experiencing a major and unusual El Niño. The awareness of the role of the ocean in climate variation was enhanced both by the severity of the El Niño and the new reports on the effect of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere.The year continued with remarkable demonstrations of the power of satellite-borne instruments to reveal new physical, biological, and geological features of the ocean. We saw the retirement of the Glomar Challenger as a deep sea drilling vessel after 15 successful years and the start of a major new drilling program destined to be aboard a larger vessel. The year ended with planning for new, expanded studies on the interaction of the tropical ocean with the global atmosphere and on the general circulation of the ocean. The prospects of global studies of biogeochemical fluxes were under discussion.

Baker, D. James

362

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson demonstrates the link between the tilt of the Earth's axis to the plane of the ecliptic and seasons of the year, length of day, effectiveness of sunlight, and polar day and night. It discusses how the inclination of the Earth's rotation axis causes seasons of the year, by varying the length of the local day and the angle at which the Sun's rays arrive on the surface of the Earth, and to recognize that seasons in the southern hemisphere (at middle latitudes) occur at opposite parts of the year from seasons in the US and Europe. The student will also realize that the seasons in the middle-latitudes in US and Europe are quite different from seasons experienced near the equator and also know about the polar day, when the Sun never sets but just marches around the horizon, and the polar night, when it never rises.

Stern, David

363

New year, old hat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is only August, but October 1 looms large on the calendar. That is the day when the 1997 fiscal year (FY ?97) begins for the U.S. federal government, and like last year, that day might come without a budget.In a flurry of summer activity, the U.S. Congress has passed several landmark bills on welfare reform, expansion of health coverage for workers between jobs, a raise in the minimum wage, and a Safe Drinking Water Act. The House of Representatives even passed all 13 of its annual appropriations bills before Congress took its August recess.

American Geological Institute; American Institute of Physics; American Associationthe Advancement of Science; Carlowicz, Michael

364

Recasting the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators consider the final year of high school to be a "vast wasteland," an epidemic of disengagement. Although high schools across the country have struggled with senioritis, their approaches to the problem have largely fallen into one of three types of responses: vertical acceleration; remediation; and structured containment. New Trier…

Drels, Janice; Rehage, Larry

2008-01-01

365

ACADEMIC YEAR 1997 POSTGRADUATE  

E-print Network

Postgraduate School is an academic institution whose emphasis is on study and research programs relevant1 ACADEMIC YEAR 1997 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL CATALOG #12;2 OVERVIEW The School The Naval, on the Pacific Ocean 120 miles south of San Francisco, the Naval Postgraduate School campus covers 627 acres

366

The Lost Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thousands of children were deprived of schooling in the difficult aftermath of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq five years ago. During those times, more than 2 million Iraqis have fled their homeland, mainly to Jordan and Syria. Even though the schoolchildren who came to these neighboring Arab lands with their families are now given seats in…

Zehr, Mary Ann; Mousa, Yasmine

2008-01-01

367

Black Studies Year One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though Dubois tried to begin a series of scientific studies on the Negro problem in America more than 70 years ago, only recently have attempts been made to present a true history of the Black man in institutions of higher learning. Until that time, the experience of the Black man was defined in Euro-American terms, or in most cases was completely…

Long, Richard A.

368

The Year Ahead: Minorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The college outlook is grim for blacks 25 years after James Meredith became the first black to enroll at the University of Mississippi. Both Hispanics and Asian-Americans are misunderstood by college officials, and too little attention has been focused on community colleges, the institutions that serve the most minority students. (MLW)

Jaschik, Scott

1987-01-01

369

Year of the Coast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

1980-01-01

370

Project Year Project Team  

E-print Network

several paper-based mechanisms and devoted a considerable amount of instructional time to addressing. Some of these resources might be repurposed for the study of other foreign languages. Pedagogical Issue By the time students reach the advanced year in foreign language learning, there tend to be two major areas

Gray, Jeffrey J.

371

Project Year Project Title  

E-print Network

Project Year 2011-2012 Project Title Using M-Health and GIS Technology in the Field to Improve into teams and having each team use a different m-health data collection tool (e.g., cellular phones, smart health patterns. The Tech Fellow, Jacqueline Ferguson, will assist in creating an m-health project

Gray, Jeffrey J.

372

20 Years of ECM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Elliptic Curve Method for integer factorization (ECM) was invented by H. W. Lenstra, Jr., in 1985 (14). In the past 20 years, many improvements of ECM were proposed on the mathematical, algo- rithmic, and implementation sides. This paper summarizes the current state-of-the-art, as implemented in the GMP-ECM software.

Paul Zimmermann; Bruce Dodson

2006-01-01

373

Smog - the learning years  

SciTech Connect

35 years of continuous work by government and industry and the public have led to a very sophisticated system of emission controls. This paper is intended to recall and perhaps to honor those who participated in the hectic early period, when instrumentation, basic knowledge, and primitive devices competed for the attention of these pioneers with strident demands from policitians.

Heinen, C.M.; Fagley, W.S. Jr.

1989-01-01

374

Chinese New Year Dragons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

Balgemann, Linda

2000-01-01

375

100 years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1897 Antonia Maury discovered chemically peculiar stars; for the first time 100 years ago female students got permission to study at the University of Vienna. In commemoration of these events, some details about education and training and about the careers of women at the turn of the century are presented.

Schnell, A.

1998-04-01

376

The Turbulent Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary of the Fourth Annual Conference on Major Transitions in the Human Life Cycle contains a preface, introductory section on adolescence and young adulthood (ages 14 through 24 years), and the following presentations, complete with discussion text: (1) "Historical Treatment of the Age Group" (John Demos); (2) "Demographic Considerations"…

Scanlon, John, Ed.

377

150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS  

EPA Science Inventory

Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

378

Table set thinly as Food Summit pledges to halve world hunger in 20 years.  

PubMed

By 2030, global population will grow from the current size of 5.7 billion to 8.7 billion. Just maintaining current levels of food availability will require rapid and sustainable production gains, for supplies must be increased by more than 75% without destroying the planet's natural resources. At current levels of food availability, however, 840 million people worldwide are chronically undernourished because they are unable to acquire enough food to meet their body's energy or nutrient requirements. More than 200 million children under age 5 years suffer from basic protein and energy deficiencies, while millions suffer from diseases and retarded development related to diet deficiencies. Each year, almost 13 million children die unnecessarily as a direct or indirect result of hunger and malnutrition. The World Food Summit took place in Rome during November 13-17, 1996. 9863 delegates from 186 countries participated in charting the course toward achieving universal food security by adopting the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the World Food Summit Plan of Action. The documents also pledge efforts to halve the number of hungry in the world no later than 2015. PMID:12348018

1996-01-01

379

Cloud fraction at the ARM SGP site. Instrument and sampling considerations from 14 years of ARSCL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site has a rich history of actively sensed cloud observations. Fourteen years (1997-2010) of observations from the Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR), Micropulse Lidar (MPL), and Belfort/Vaisala Ceilometers are used to understand how instrument selection and sampling impacts estimates of Cloud Fraction (CF) at this location. Although all instruments should be used in combination for the best estimates of CF, instrument downtime limits available samples and increases observational errors, demanding that users make sacrifices when calculating CF at longer intervals relevant to climate studies. Selection of MMCR or MMCR + MPL cloud masks changes very little in the overall understanding of total CF. Addition of the MPL increases the 14-year average CF by 9 %, mainly through an increase in optically thin high clouds year-round, and mid-level clouds during the summer months. Splitting the period into two equal 7-year periods reveals negligible change in MMCR + MPL CF. For the MMCR, however, CF deceases by 6.1 %. This sudden change in CF occurs around the time the radar was upgraded, suggesting that this decrease is tied to hardware sensitivity or scanning strategy changes. Users must be cognizant of this and other issues when calculating CF from the variety of observations available at the ARM SGP site.

Kennedy, Aaron D.; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike

2014-01-01

380

Five Year Flashlight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ultra-reliable flashlight, initially developed for rescue signaling and utility use by NASA astronauts and military aircrews, has attracted a broad commercial market. Called the Five Year Light, it has a shelf life at least that long because there is no power drain on the batteries when the flashlight is not in use. The NASA version of the light was developed under contract with Langley Research Center by ACR Electronics, Inc., now known as the Chromalloy Electronics Division of Chromalloy American Corporation, Hollywood, Florida. NASA wanted a light that had long shelf life and assured reliability in case it was needed in an emergency. Reliability was designed into the flashlight by means of a unique switch. Instead of the customary thumb-button, the Five Year Light is turned on by rotating its collar to make contact with the battery terminal; the turning motion wipes away any corrosion that might be present and makes contact virtually certain. The Five Year Light available commercially is a repackaged version of the NASA light. It is sold for car, home, industrial, police, firefighting, recreational and a variety of other uses, and sales have topped two million units.

1978-01-01

381

[Effects of vegetable cultivation years on microbial biodiversity and abundance of nitrogen cycling in greenhouse soils].  

PubMed

The effects of facility vegetable cultivation years (three, nine, fourteen or seventeen years) on biodiversity and abundance of soil microorganisms, such as bacteria, ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nirK type denitrifying bacteria, in the greenhouse soils in Wuwei of Gansu Province, China were determined by the combined analyses of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that the dominant population structure and abundance of bacteria, AOB, nirK type denitrifying bacteria in the soils were significantly different from those in the farmland fields. The dominant population also changed with the cultivation years. With the increase of vegetable cultivation years, the abundance of 16S rRNA and nirK gene in the 0-20 cm soil layer first increased and then decreased, with the maximum values of 9.67 x 10(9) and 2.30 x 10(7) copies x g(-1) soil at year 14 and year 9, being as 1.51 and 1.52 times of that of the 3-year, respectively. However, the abundance of amoA gene showed an opposite trend. The amoA gene copy number in the 14-year sample was 3.28 x 10(7) copies x g(-1) soil, which was only 45.7% of that of the 3-year. These results illustrated that the ecological adaptation mechanisms of the different functional microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycling had significant differences in the facility vegetable soils, and provided a base for further researches on exploring and explaining the characteristics and adaptation mechanisms of microorganisms in greenhouse soil. PMID:25011307

Wang, Ya-Nan; Zeng, Xi-Bai; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Bai, Ling-Yu; Su, Shi-Ming; Wu, Cui-Xia; Li, Lian-Fang; Duan, Ran

2014-04-01

382

Speed and agility of 12- and 14-year-old elite male basketball players.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were (a) to identify and compare the speed and agility of 12- and 14-year-old elite male basketball players and (b) to investigate relations between speed and agility for both age groups of basketball players, to help coaches to improve their work. Sixty-four players aged 12 (M = 11.98 years, SD = 0.311) and 54 players aged 14 (M = 14.092 years, SD = 0.275) were tested. Three agility tests: agility t-test, zigzag agility drill, and agility run 4 × 15 m and 3 speed tests: 20-m run, 30-m run, and 50-m run were applied. Fourteen-year-old players achieved significantly better results in all speed and agility tests compared with 12-year-old players. The correlation coefficient (r = 0.81, p = 0.001) showed that 12-year-old players have the same ability in the 30- and 50-m runs. The other correlation coefficient (r = 0.59, p = 0.001) indicated that 20- and 30-m runs had inherently different qualities. The correlation coefficients between agility tests were <0.71, and therefore, each test in this group represents a specific task. In 14-year-old players, the correlation coefficients between the speed test results were <0.71. In contrast, the correlation coefficients between the agility tests were >0.71, which means that all the 3 tests represent the same quality. During the speed training of 12-year-old players, it is advisable to focus on shorter running distances, up to 30 m. During the agility training of the same players, it is useful to apply exercises with various complexities. In speed training of the 14-year-old players, the 30- and 50-m runs should be applied, and agility training should include more specific basketball movements and activities. PMID:22067243

Jakovljevic, Sasa T; Karalejic, Milivoje S; Pajic, Zoran B; Macura, Marija M; Erculj, Frane F

2012-09-01

383

40 Years of Discovery  

SciTech Connect

History is most interesting when seen through the eyes of those who lived it. In this 40th anniversary retrospective of bioscience research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we've asked 19 scientists to share their personal recollections about a major accomplishment in the program's history. We have not tried to create a comprehensive or seamless story. Rather, we've attempted to capture the perspectives of key individuals, each of whom worked on a research program that met significant milestones. We have focused particularly on programs and accomplishments that have shaped the current Biology and Biotechnology Research Program (BBRP). In addition, we have included a timeline of biosciences at LLNL, a history of the directorate that appeared in the Laboratory's magazine, ''Science & Technology Review'', in 2002, and a list of bioscience-related articles that have appeared over the years in ''Science & Technology Review and its predecessor, Energy & Technology Review''. The landscape of biological science today is stunningly different from 40 years ago. When LLNL bioscience began in 1963, we knew about the structure of DNA and that it was the carrier of genetic information. However, it would be another year before scientists would understand how DNA codes for the production of proteins and more than a decade before the earliest DNA sequence would be known. It is sometimes difficult to remember that it was only 15 years ago that the polymerase chain reaction, a synthetic method to amplify pieces of DNA was developed, and that only within the last half-dozen years has sequence data for entire organisms begun to be available. In this publication, we have tried to capture some of the landmark and seminal research history: radiation effects studies, which were a major reason for founding the biological research program, and flow sorting and chromosome painting, which dramatically changed our ability to study DNA damage and enabled the creation of chromosome-specific clone libraries, a key step toward sequencing the human genome. Several histories relate to the Human Genome Project itself and surrounding technologies, and several to long-standing research themes such as DNA repair, food mutagens, and reproductive biology. Others describe more recent developments such as computational biology, health-care technologies, and biodefense research.

Weinstein, B; Heller, A

2003-07-08

384

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart Financial Profile - Charts - Income 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_002c.htm06/07/2004 13:01:28 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - Expenditure 5 Year Financial

385

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart Financial Profile - Charts - Income 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_001c.htm06/07/2004 13:02:48 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - Expenditure 5 Year Financial

386

75 Years of the Junior Year in Munich  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not only has the US Senate designated 2006 the Year of Study Abroad; the year also marks the anniversary of a distinguished tradition of study abroad in Germany that reaches back 75 years. Founded in 1931, suspended during the war years, and re-opened in 1953 by Wayne State University, the Junior Year in Munich is America's oldest study abroad…

Ferguson, Mark

2007-01-01

387

First Year Learning Options foUndaTional Year  

E-print Network

First Year Learning Options foUndaTional Year ProGraMS #12;#12;The University of Toronto offers you learning options for arts, science and business students. The Foundational Year Programs build community the extraordinary. If you're looking for an exceptional first-year experience, consider U of T's Foundational Year

Toronto, University of

388

500 years after Columbus.  

PubMed

The astonishing range of plants and animals of Central America's 7 countries (Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama) is disappearing, as 60% of its forests have been cut for lumber and firewood as well as for cotton, cattle, or subsistence crops. Up to 5 million Mayans lived sustainably for thousands of years in an area now being destroyed by a few hundred thousand inhabitants. The Spanish colonization that started 500 years ago was concentrated in Panama, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. The majority of the English-speaking country of Belize are descended from the black slave population whose culture spread down the coast to Central America. Panama's service economy is based on the Panama Canal and trade and finance. Costa Rica benefits from a tourist industry based on its natural beauty, however, it also has the highest rate of deforestation and its fast population growth could jeopardize earlier social and economic progress. In El Salvador and Guatemala long periods of civil conflict have taken their toll on the economy and the environment. El Salvador has a mountainous territory and limited natural resources and industrialization, while the best land is in the hands of a few families. Honduras and Nicaragua retain the highest proportion of forest cover of the countries in the region, despite Nicaragua's years of tyranny, then revolution and the Contra war, and Honduras's own turmoils. Belize has achieved some stability, and is now strengthening its Central American links. Its coral reefs and coastal areas offer potential for sustainable development through fishing and tourism. Central American countries face the challenges of their fragile environments and major social problems. PMID:12317700

Imbach, A

1992-01-01

389

TRMM 3-Year Anniversary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ever wonder about the rain? Beyond the practicality of needing an umbrella, climate researchers have wondered about the science of rainfall for a long time. But it's only in the past few years that they've begun to roll back some of its secrets. One of their tools for doing so is a powerful satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, or TRMM. Now, after three years of continual operation, project scientists have released dramatic new maps of rainfall patterns gathered across a wide band of the Earth. And with measurements from one of the satellite's advanced sensors, meteorologists are now able to calibrate ground-based rain monitoring systems with greater precision than ever before. A complete accounting of the world's total rainfall has long been a major goal of climate researchers. Rain acts as the atmosphere's fundamental engine for heat exchange; every time a raindrop falls, the atmosphere gets churned up and latent heat flows back into the total climate system. Considering that rainfall is the primary driving force of heat in the atmosphere, and that two thirds of all rain falls in the tropics, these measurements are significant for our understanding of overall climate. The above image shows a one month average of rainfall measurements taken by the TRMM's unique precipitation radar during January of 1998. Areas of low rainfall are colored light blue, while regions with heavy rainfal are colored orange and red. TRMM began collecting data in December of 1997, and continues today. For more information about TRMM's 3-year anniversary, read Maps of Falling Water To learn more about the TRMM mission or order TRMM data, see the TRMM Home Page. Image courtesy TRMM Science team and the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

2002-01-01

390

100 Years of Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Industrial Designers Society of America, this interesting site highlights some of the most influential people and groundbreaking products in this field. Titled 100 Years of Design, the site has content that spans the 20th century and "is a monthly installment of excerpts from a proposed book" along the same lines. Fifteen famous designers are profiled, along with over 50 products. One of the people mentioned is Harley Earl, the subject of a recent line of television commercials. Many of the products are related to the automobile, but other examples include the Polaroid camera and the Wurlitzer jukebox.

Gantz, Carroll.

2002-01-01

391

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You are going to watch some videos of the seasons of the year.Use your worksheet to help you remember the types of weather and the clothes we wear during the different seasons. What is different about each season? Seasons Chart 1. This is what you will click on to watch the video on winter. Winter Video 2. In the spring video make sure you notice the changes in weather Spring Video 3. Now watch the summer video Summer Video 4.This is what you will click on to watch the video on fall. Fall Video 5. Click here to watch a video ...

Larrimore, Ms.

2012-04-11

392

20 Years of AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), May 31 marked the 20-year anniversary of the first discovery of AIDS. Perhaps not surprisingly, the Web has seen a corresponding flurry of activity devoted to the history and current status of research on the disease. The CDC has posted this site, which collects research findings from the Centers' Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, videos covering the epidemic's history and current status, and CDC bulletins and commentary. For further sites devoted to AIDS/HIV see the June 6, 2001 Scout Report for Science & Engineering).

2001-01-01

393

financial report Fiscal years  

E-print Network

.3 265.1 Debt $ 4,054.5 $ 3,376.0 $ 3,067.2 $ 1,954.6 $1,954.3 Statement of Activities Highlights (see.2 $ 33.0 $ 12.7 $ 7.4 Five-Year Enrollment Statistics 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 Student Fees: Yale College,321 Yield 67.8% 68.7% 70.6% 70.9% 71.3% Total Enrollment: Yale College 5,268 5,266 5,300 5,319 5

394

Helsinki 50 years on.  

PubMed

Ever since its adoption the Declaration of Helsinki has been universally recognised as a key landmark in the ethics of medical research involving human subjects. Over fifty years it has been revised seven times and supplemented twice with explanatory notes. The debate surrounding its contents and organisation continues unabated and becomes particularly lively every time the text is reviewed. One of the most controversial issues is recourse to the placebo: the conditions laid down for its use are held by many to offer insufficient guarantees for the protection of those receiving it. PMID:25203329

Petrini, C

2014-01-01

395

Global crop yield reductions due to surface ozone exposure: 2. Year 2030 potential crop production losses and economic damage under two scenarios of O 3 pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the potential global risk of increasing surface ozone (O 3) exposure to three key staple crops (soybean, maize, and wheat) in the near future (year 2030) according to two trajectories of O 3 pollution: the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES) A2 and B1 storylines, which represent upper- and lower-boundary projections, respectively, of most O 3 precursor emissions in 2030. We use simulated hourly O 3 concentrations from the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers version 2.4 (MOZART-2), satellite-derived datasets of agricultural production, and field-based concentration:response relationships to calculate crop yield reductions resulting from O 3 exposure. We then calculate the associated crop production losses and their economic value. We compare our results to the estimated impact of O 3 on global agriculture in the year 2000, which we assessed in our companion paper [Avnery et al., 2011]. In the A2 scenario we find global year 2030 yield loss of wheat due to O 3 exposure ranges from 5.4 to 26% (a further reduction in yield of +1.5-10% from year 2000 values), 15-19% for soybean (reduction of +0.9-11%), and 4.4-8.7% for maize (reduction of +2.1-3.2%) depending on the metric used, with total global agricultural losses worth 17-35 billion USD 2000 annually (an increase of +6-17 billion in losses from 2000). Under the B1 scenario, we project less severe but still substantial reductions in yields in 2030: 4.0-17% for wheat (a further decrease in yield of +0.1-1.8% from 2000), 9.5-15% for soybean (decrease of +0.7-1.0%), and 2.5-6.0% for maize (decrease of + 0.3-0.5%), with total losses worth 12-21 billion annually (an increase of +1-3 billion in losses from 2000). Because our analysis uses crop data from the year 2000, which likely underestimates agricultural production in 2030 due to the need to feed a population increasing from approximately 6 to 8 billion people between 2000 and 2030, our calculations of crop production and economic losses are highly conservative. Our results suggest that O 3 pollution poses a growing threat to global food security even under an optimistic scenario of future ozone precursor emissions. Further efforts to reduce surface O 3 concentrations thus provide an excellent opportunity to increase global grain yields without the environmental degradation associated with additional fertilizer application or land cultivation.

Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Liu, Junfeng; Horowitz, Larry W.

2011-04-01

396

International Year of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations has declared the year 2010 as the year of biodiversity, and none too soon. The definition and importance of biodiversity is explained on the "About" page, but in brief, it's a "rich diversity [in nature which] is being lost at a greatly accelerated rate because of human activities. This...weakens the ability of the living systems, on which we depend, to resist growing threats such as climate change." The list of "Major Upcoming Celebrations" is on the middle of the homepage below the written and video "Welcome Messages" from various representatives of national governments and large non-profits. Some of the celebrations include an International Art Exhibition by young people. Visitors can click on "More Celebrations" to be taken to an interactive map of celebrations "By Countries", "Calendar" or "Success Stories". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Red List", which can be found on the homepage or in the "About" section. The "Red List of Threatened Species" highlights one species of plant or animal each day, with a photo and a couple of paragraphs on its location, vulnerability, origins, etc. The current month is shown, but visitors can view the species of the days for the "Previous Months" of 2010 as well.

2010-03-26

397

Einstein Year 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Einstein Year marks the centenary of the three papers that Albert Einstein published in 1905, which of course, included the paper on photoelectric effect that led to his Nobel Prize in Physics. The primary aim of Einstein Year is "to enthuse young people, and those who influence them, about physics, whilst building a sustainable increase in public awareness of physics and its role in society." On the site, visitors can learn about the various ongoing activities being coordinated around the world, read a biography about Einstein, and check out the "Experiment" section, where users can explore physics through a number of simple and thoughtful experiments. A real highlight of the site is the "If you could teach the world just one thing about science" feature, which was conducted by the online magazine, _spiked_. The magazine asked dozens of scientists what "one thing" they would pick to teach the world about science, and their responses (including a few video clips) are posted on the site.

398

Projects of the year  

SciTech Connect

The 2005 Projects-of-the-Year award winners were recognized at Power-Gen International in Las Vegas in early December. EPCOR and TransAlta's Genessee 3, an advanced coal-fired facility near Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, won the Best Coal-fired Project-of-the-year Award. This features the first use of supercritical technology in Canada. It has a 43.6% efficiency rating and greenhouse gas emissions as low as those from a natural gas combined-cycle plant. The best gas-fired project award went to We Energies 500 MW Port Washington Generating Station (PWGS). Features of the plant are described in the article. FPL won the nuclear project award for replacing reactor vessel heads on its Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 with new components to eliminate repairs. The world's largest photovoltaic project, Bavaria Solarpark, won the renewables project award. The East Kentucy Power Cooperative received an honorable mention for the E.A. Gilbert Unit 3 power plant in Kentucky. This is a 268 MW coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler located on the same site as the Spurlock Power Station. 1 tab., 6 photos.

Hansen, T.

2006-01-15

399

Phosphogenesis in the 2460 and 2728 million-year-old banded iron formations as evidence for biological cycling of phosphate in the early biosphere.  

PubMed

The banded iron formation deposited during the first 2 billion years of Earth's history holds the key to understanding the interplay between the geosphere and the early biosphere at large geological timescales. The earliest ore-scale phosphorite depositions formed almost at ?2.0-2.2 billion years ago bear evidence for the earliest bloom of aerobic life. The cycling of nutrient phosphorus and how it constrained primary productivity in the anaerobic world of Archean-Palaeoproterozoic eons are still open questions. The controversy centers about whether the precipitation of ultrafine ferric oxyhydroxide due to the microbial Fe(II) oxidation in oceans earlier than 1.9 billion years substantially sequestrated phosphate, and whether this process significantly limited the primary productivity of the early biosphere. In this study, we report apatite radial flowers of a few micrometers in the 2728 million-year-old Abitibi banded iron formation and the 2460 million-year-old Kuruman banded iron formation and their similarities to those in the 535 million-year-old Lower Cambrian phosphorite. The lithology of the 535 Million-year-old phosphorite as a biosignature bears abundant biomarkers that reveal the possible similar biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the Later Archean and Palaeoproterozoic oceans. These apatite radial flowers represent the primary precipitation of phosphate derived from the phytoplankton blooms in the euphotic zones of Neoarchean and Palaoeproterozoic oceans. The unbiased distributions of the apatite radial flowers within sub-millimeter bands do not support the idea of an Archean Crisis of Phosphate. This is the first report of the microbial mediated mineralization of phosphorus before the Great Oxidation Event when the whole biosphere was still dominated by anaerobic microorganisms. PMID:23404127

Li, Yi-Liang; Sun, Si; Chan, Lung S

2012-01-01

400

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart:04:21 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - Income 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_006a.htm06/07/2004 13:04:24 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - Expenditure 5 Year Financial

401

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart:05:51 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - Income 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_007a.htm06/07/2004 13:05:55 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - Expenditure 5 Year Financial

402

In Brief: O'Keefe to leave NASA; Record year for temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sean O'Keefe, who became NASA administrator in December 2001, submitted his resignation on 13 December 2004. O'Keefe is one of a number of officials departing from the Bush Administration as U.S. President George W. Bush prepares to begin his second term of office. O'Keefe's departure comes after the agency has begun to implement its new Vision for Space Exploration. He leaves NASA on good fiscal footing, with a fiscal year 2005 budget of $16.2 billion. However, U.S. Rep. Bart Gordon (D-Tenn.), the ranking member of the House of Representatives Science Committee said the next administrator will need to deal with ``reconciling the agency's goals with the constrained budgets it is likely to be facing in the years ahead.''

Showstack, Randy

2004-12-01

403

Twenty Years of KSHV  

PubMed Central

Twenty years ago, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill’s Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men—in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) since its initial description in 1994. PMID:25386844

Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick

2014-01-01

404

Twenty Years of KSHV.  

PubMed

Twenty years ago, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill's Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men-in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) since its initial description in 1994. PMID:25386844

Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick

2014-01-01

405

The 34 Year Starship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1974, the designers and leadership of a mission then known as ``Mariner Jupiter Saturn 1977'' decided that the name was a mouthful. They briefly deliberated and decided to rename it ``Voyager'' [1]. Similarly, we believe that ``DARPA 100 Year Starship'' is unnecessarily verbose. We propose to call it ``Enterprise.'' Among the many challenges facing such a mission is that of earning public support - we should let half a century of Hollywood storytelling do that for us. This paper is composed of four parts. Part 1 will discuss the parallels between the Voyager program and a future Enterprise program. Part 2 will go into greater detail regarding the Voyager program and the challenges and opportunities that defined it. Part 3 will discuss some of the major technical challenges for Voyager and Enterprise in greater detail. Part 4 will discuss next steps and various strategies to meet DARPA's challenge of sustainable industry-funded research into interstellar flight.

Nosanov, J.; Shapiro, A.; Garrett, H.

2012-09-01

406

[Thirty years of activity at the center for cystic fibrosis in Parma].  

PubMed

One hundred fourteen patients (52 males, age range 1 to 40 yr, median age 16 yr) affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF) are currently followed by the CF Centre of Parma. Forty two percent of them are adults. Most patients live in Emilia Romagna (59%) and Lombardia (19%). With respect to CF genotype, delta F508 mutation has been found in 54% of patients. Despite of the improvement in knowledge of CF, its diagnosis is still based on the clinical features and sweat test is usually used to confirm the diagnosis. Recent diagnostic tools, such as the genetic analysis and the potential difference measurement, could also be helpful in ambiguous situations. In the CF Centre of Parma, in agreement with the literature, the disease is now diagnosed earlier than in the past. Particularly, in the last year the median age of diagnosis was seven months, while it was 20 months in the 1980s. The early diagnosis and the improvement in the treatment of lung disease has significantly increased the median survival age of our patients, changing from 7.5 years in 1975 to 20 years in 1999. A significant improvement in CF prognosis could be further achieved by potential investigational agents, such as "protein-repair" addressed to CFTR activation. However, the gold standard for CF therapy is represented by gene therapy, although it is not yet available. PMID:11424611

Grzincich, G; Pisi, G; Spaggiari, C; Marvasi, R; Battistini, A

2000-01-01

407

Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds Article Body Throughout her second year, ... for shelter. She may seem to change from one moment to the next, or she may seem ...

408

The epidemiology of injury in a rural state: 5,322 cases over 6 years.  

PubMed

Presently, descriptions of rural trauma are complications of national sample statistics and local data from states projected to rural areas. This study reviews all hospital discharges (36,866) for children (aged 0 to 18 years) from January 1985 through December 1990 in an entirely rural state. Fourteen percent of admissions (5,322) were due to traumatic injury and 63% of these occurred in boys. Injury rates were age dependent with children 15 to 18 years experiencing an incidence of 110/10,000; 10 to 14 years 55/10,000; 5 to 9 years 39/10,000; 1 to 4 years 35/10,000; and < 1 year 39.5/10,000. Mean age for the entire population was 11.4 +/- 5.7 years. Thirty-five percent of children had more than one major site of injury. Sixty-three percent of admissions were for blunt trauma and only 4.8% were penetrating. The remainder were due to burns, hanging, ingestion, and other toxic agents. Falls constituted the most prevalent cause of injury in this population occurring in 25.9%, motor vehicle accidents 22.9%, struck by an object 9.6%, suicide attempts 8.5%, poisoning 4.7%, fire 1.2%, drowning 0.7%, and farm machinery 0.3%. The vast majority of motor vehicle accidents involved the child as an operator or occupant of the vehicle. Less than 10% involved a pedestrian being struck and less than 5% involved a child being struck while on a bicycle. Less than 6% of all injuries involved a bicycle. Child maltreatment was recorded in less than 2% of this population. Only 3.3% of injured children required transfer to another acute care facility (1/3 because of a motor vehicle accident and 1/4 because of a fall).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8263690

Vane, D W; Spanknebel, K; Murphy, E T; Wald, S L; Rogers, F B; Shackford, S R

1993-10-01

409

Broadcast Education Curricula in 2-Year and 4-Year Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares broadcasting curricula of two-year and four-year colleges. Finds that most broadcast programs implement a blend of practical and theoretical courses, and that students at two-year and four-year schools are subjected to comparable course work and internship/practicum experience. Suggests that many students are not receiving enough…

Koch, Erin; Kang, Jong G.; Allen, David S.

1999-01-01

410

URAT: year 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USNO Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) is now in the third year of observing. Survey observing began in April 2012 at the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS). URAT has taken over 50,000 exposures of the northern sky with multiple overlaps, 28 sq. degrees with a single exposure at 0.9"/pixel resolution. Raw data processing, quality control, and scheduling are performed automatically. In normal survey mode URAT covers stars in the R = 10.5 to 18.0 magnitude range. Utilizing an objective grating and the clocked anti blooming feature of the 4 CCD chips results in a bright limit of 3rd magnitude. Exposures taken on the east and west side of the pier enable the calibration of potentially significant systematic errors.URAT mean positions are predicted to be on the 5 to 20 mas level depending on brightness and sky coverage. URAT will also provide proper motions and parallaxes for nearby stars, independent of any selection criteria. We are currently working on the reduction pipeline and a first astrometric catalog is expected to be released in 2014.

Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; DiVittorio, Mike; Ferguson, Eric; Harris, Hugh C.; Harris, Fred; Kilian, Chris; Rafferty, Ted; Rhodes, Albert; Schultheis, Michael; Subasavage, John; Tilleman, Trudy; Wieder, Gary

2014-05-01

411

Projects of the year  

SciTech Connect

The Peabody Hotel, Orlando, Florida was the site of Power Engineering magazine's 2006 Projects of the Year Awards Banquet, which kicked-off the Power-Gen International conference and exhibition. The Best Coal-fired Project was awarded to Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association Inc., owner of Springenville Unit 3. This is a 400 MW pulverized coal plant in Springeville, AZ, sited with two existing coal-fired units. Designed to fire Powder River Basin coal, it has low NOx burners and selective catalytic reduction for NOx control, dry flue gas desulfurization for SO{sub 2} control and a pulse jet baghouse for particulate control. It has a seven-stage feedwater heater and condensers to ensure maximum performance. Progress Energy-Carolinas' Asheville Power Station FGD and SCR Project was awarded the 2006 coal-fired Project Honorable Mention. This plant in Skyland, NC was required to significantly reduce NOx emissions. When completed, the improvements will reduce NOx by 93% compared to 1996 levels and SO{sub 2} by 93% compared to 2001 levels. Awards for best gas-fired, nuclear, and renewable/sustainable energy projects are recorded. The Sasyadko Coal-Mine Methane Cogeneration Plant near Donezk, Ukraine, was given the 2006 Honorable Mention for Best Renewable/Sustainable Energy Project. In November 2004, Ukraine was among 14 nations to launch the Methane to Markets partnership. The award-winning plant is fuelled by methane released during coal extraction. It generates 42 MW of power. 4 photos.

Hansen, T.

2007-01-15

412

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_008a.htm06/07/2004 12:51:18 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - zoom 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_008b.htm06/07/2004 12:51:21 #12;5 Year Financial Profile

413

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart_005a.htm06/07/2004 13:00:25 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - zoom 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_005b.htm06/07/2004 13:00:29 #12;5 Year Financial Profile

414

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_009a.htm06/07/2004 12:37:13 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - zoom 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_009b.htm06/07/2004 12:37:20 #12;5 Year Financial Profile

415

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_004a.htm06/07/2004 12:55:59 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - zoom 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_004b.htm06/07/2004 12:57:08 #12;5 Year Financial Profile

416

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_010a.htm06/07/2004 10:57:04 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - zoom 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_010b.htm06/07/2004 10:57:23 #12;5 Year Financial Profile

417

Lost in space: SDI struggles through its sixth year  

SciTech Connect

After six years of debate, it is clear that Congress is willing to support a robust research program for SDI, but it is also clear that Congress will not support SDI annual outlays on the order of $10 billion. Thus the policy choice is between a good research program that meshes with fiscal reality, or an inadequate and wasteful development program that continues to focus on preparing for a Phase I deployment for which the funds simply will not be available. The Bush administration so far seems trapped by its own rhetoric from coming to grips with the implications of the new SDI reality. The responsibility for getting SDI on a steadier course toward more realistic research objectives thus seems to lie with Congress in the near term. Since Congress has been reluctant to earmark SDI research funds for specific objectives, it will take a change in administration perceptions before SDI program goals can be changed away from Phase I deployment. The only likely way this could happen in the near term would be as a result of a Congress-executive branch summit agreement on SDI objectives and funding levels. In the absence of such an agreement, SDI will be sailing under ever weaker fiscal and political winds and runs the risk of finding itself becalmed, working ceaselessly toward goals that will never be fulfilled.

MacDonald, B.W.

1989-09-01

418

20 Years of RECONS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) turns 20 in 2014, so we take this opportunity to review some of the highlights of the RECONS effort over the past two decades. Through comprehensive searches for new nearby stars, as well as characterization of the stars and exploration of their environments, the RECONS team has made significant contributions to our understanding of the solar neighborhood, and of our own place in the Universe. Here we highlight results detailed in more than 30 papers in The Solar Neighborhood series published in The Astronomical Journal, including: (1) a census indicating that at least 75% of all stars are red dwarfs, which have more real estate available for habitable planets than any other type of star, (2) more than 300 new stellar systems with accurate trigonometric parallaxes placing them within 25 pc, including 12 of the nearest 100 systems, (3) thousands of additional nearby star candidates identified through traditional proper motion searches and novel photometric searches for stars exhibiting minimal proper motions, (4) increases of more than 20% in the nearest white dwarf and cool subdwarf populations, (5) discovery of the nearest star, AP Col, younger than 100 million years, (6) knowledge that more than half of stellar systems contain only one star, dominated by the red dwarf multiplicity rate of only about 30%, (7) definition of the smallest main sequence star, with a radius only 9% that of the Sun (smaller than Jupiter) and a temperature of 2100K, and (8) a revelation that the smallest stars are rarely orbited by giant planets, including the elimination of planets down to half a Jupiter mass orbiting Proxima Centauri. As RECONS enters its third decade, we continue our reconnaissance of the solar neighborhood via a comprehensive survey to understand the nature of star formation by determining accurate luminosity and mass functions for the nearest stars. In addition, we are taking an inventory of nearby planets, including an astrometric search of several hundred of the nearest red dwarfs for planetary systems. This effort is supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402 and AST-1109445, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

Henry, Todd J.; RECONS

2014-01-01

419

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-11-01

420

Body size and body composition change trends in preschool children over a period of five years.  

PubMed

The study investigated the changes of body size and composition in the sample of 296 preschool urban dwelling children aged 6.5 +/- 0.8 years over a period of five years. Fourteen anthropometric measures were taken. Body mass index (BMI), the sum of skinfolds, the fat percentage and fat-free mass (FFM) were computed. The significant changes in body size and composition over the observed period were found. A significant increase in height and weight was registered in the boys. The average BMI did not change significantly while body fatness was significantly enlarged (from 10.79% to 16.96%, P = 0.0001) with no changes in FFM. In the girls there were no significant changes in height, weight and BMI, while again fatness was significantly enlarged (from 15.5% to even 19.44%, P = 0.003), with a significantly decreased share of FFM (P < 0.05), primarily due to the decrease of the upper limbs' muscular mass. The greatest contribution to the discriminant function was obtained by the skinfolds in the boys and by the arm length and forearm circumference in the girls. PMID:19408611

Horvat, Vatroslav; Misigoj-Durakovi?, Marjeta; Prskalo, Ivan

2009-03-01

421

2004 YEAR IN TORNADOES: WHAT A YEAR IT WAS!  

E-print Network

2004 YEAR IN TORNADOES: WHAT A YEAR IT WAS! Daniel McCarthy and Joseph Schaefer NOAA/NWS Storm Prediction Center, Norman, OK 1. INTRODUCTION 2004 will be known as the biggest tornado year since recordkeeping began in 1950. The sheer numbers of tornadoes were unprecedented: 1,819. This number eclipsed

422

Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection  

SciTech Connect

This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program.

Farr, L.E.

1991-12-16

423

Endowment Performance, Fiscal Years 1981-2011 Fiscal Year  

E-print Network

Endowment Performance, Fiscal Years 1981-2011 Fiscal Year Year-end market value (in 000's) Return REPORTS Market Value of Endowment Funds as of June 30, 2011 Endowment Market Value Market Value % of Total and Sciences includes: Continuing Education, College Library, FAS Museums, GSAS, Athletics, College Life

424

Endowment Performance, Fiscal Years 1982-2012 Fiscal Year  

E-print Network

Endowment Performance, Fiscal Years 1982-2012 Fiscal Year Year-end market value (in 000's) Return Market Value of Endowment Funds as of June 30, 2012 Endowment Market Value Market Value % of Total Arts Education, College Library, FAS Museums, GSAS, Athletics, College Life and Student Services, and Dumbarton

425

Nepal Migration Year Book 2011 Migration Year Book  

E-print Network

Nepal Migration Year Book 2011 1 #12;Nepal Migration Year Book 2011 NIDS NCCR North-South #12;Book Nepal Migration Year Book 2011 Publishers Nepal Institute of Development Studies (NIDS) G.P.O. Box: 7647, Kathmandu, Nepal Email: nids@mail.com.np Web: www.nids.org.np National Centre of Competence in Research

Richner, Heinz

426

A Global Need, a Global Resource Nuclear Power and the New Millennium: In Contrast to the 25 Billion Tons of Carbon Dioxide Emitted into the Atmosphere Each Year as Fossil Fuel Waste, the Spent Fuel Produced Yearly from All the World's Reactors Would Fit inside a Two-Story Structure Built on a Basketball Court  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The technological literacy standards were developed to act as a beacon for educators to guide them in their quest to develop a population of technically literate citizens who possess the skills, abilities, and knowledge necessary to actively and constructively participate in the democratic, technologically dependent society of the United States.…

Baird, Stephen L.

2004-01-01

427

EARLY YEARS CONFERENCE SHAPING CHILDHOOD  

E-print Network

EARLY YEARS CONFERENCE SHAPING CHILDHOOD: Factors that Matter 2014 Sponsored by In co 31 FEBRUARY 1to 2014 #12;EARLY YEARS CONFERENCE 2014 | SHAPING CHILDHOOD: FACTORS THAT MATTER 2 research on early childhood development

Handy, Todd C.

428

20-Year CCOP Research Bases  

Cancer.gov

Community Clinical Oncology Program Celebrates 20 Years of Research 20-Year CCOP Research Bases Research Bases develop and implement the cancer prevention and control clinical trials of the CCOP program. The following Research Bases have been a continuous

429

Five Years at Beaumont College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beaumont College in Lancaster, England offers 2 year courses with emphasis on social learning and personal development (including career and leisure skills) for students 16 to 19 years old with physical disabilities and specific learning difficulties. (CL)

Brindley, Allan; Marshall, George

1982-01-01

430

EARLY YEARS CONFERENCE SHAPING CHILDHOOD  

E-print Network

EARLY YEARS CONFERENCE SHAPING CHILDHOOD: Factors that Matter 2014 Sponsored by In co 31 FEBRUARY 1to 2014 #12;Early Years Conference 2014: Shaping Childhood: Factors that Matter Social. The Early Years Conference 2014 - SHAPING CHILDHOOD: Factors that Matter was designed to broaden our

Pulfrey, David L.

431

The Year 1999 in Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the perspective of the field of adult literacy, the year 1999 is best seen not as the penultimate year of the millennium but as the year bookended by the reauthorization of the National Literacy Act in late 1998 and the National Literacy Summit of early 2000. Both of those events represent a huge milestone, and 1999 may be regarded as the…

Speights, Dave

2001-01-01

432

Geology -Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4  

E-print Network

Geology - Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 32160 or BL2170, and CH 1120 are not required for the Earth and Space Science teaching major as described by the Department of Education. The B.S. in Geology with the Earth and Space Science Education

433

Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope - Science Highlights for the First Two Years on Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fermi science objectives cover probably everything in high energy astrophysics: How do super massive black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei create powerful jets of material moving at nearly light speed? What are the jets made of? What are the mechanisms that produce Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) explosions? What is the energy budget? How does the Sun generate high-energy gamma-rays in flares? How do the pulsars operate? How many of them are around and how different are they? What are the unidentified gamma-ray sources found by EGRET? What is the origin of the cosmic rays that pervade the Galaxy? What is the nature of dark matter? Fermi LAT successfully operates on the orbit for more than 2 years and demonstrates excellent performance, which is continuously monitored and calibrated. LAT collected> 100 billion on-orbit triggers

Moiseev, Alexander

2011-01-01

434

Multiple Brain Tuberculomas in a 32-year-old Woman with Chronic Headache.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) has re-emerged in the two past decades as a major health problem worldwide. Presently, more than 2 billion people (one third of the world population) are infected with TB, of which approximately 10% will develop the clinical disease. The incidence of central nervous system (CNS) TB is related to the prevalence of TB in the community, and it is still the most common type of chronic CNS infection in developing countries. We describe a 32-year-old woman, who presented with chronic headache, followed by gaze palsy and decreased level of consciousness. The disease was diagnosed through TB PCR of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Anti TB drugs and corticosteroid were started for her and she responded successfully to treatment. We conclude that TB of CNS should be considered in patients with chronic headache, particularly in endemic regions because its diagnosis may be missed. PMID:25305774

Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Nashibi, Roohangiz; Naghieh, Masih; Feizi, Jalil; Shirmardi, Mohammad

2014-10-01

435

Rapid variations in atmospheric methane concentration during the past 110,000 years  

SciTech Connect

A methane record from the GISP2 ice core reveals that millennial-scale variations in atmospheric methane concentration characterized much of the past 110,00 years. As previously observed in a shorter record from central Greenland, abrupt concentration shifts of about 50 to 300 parts per billion by volume were coeval with most of the interstadial warming events (better known as Dansgaard-Oeschger events) recorded in the GISP2 ice core throughout the last glacial period. The magnitude of the rapid concentration shifts varied on a longer time scale in a manner consistent with variations in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, which suggest that insolation may have modulated the effects of interstadial climate change on the terrestrial biosphere. 38 refs., 2 figs.

Brook, E.J.; Orchardo, J. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States); Sowers, T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1996-08-23

436

The breakup of a main-belt asteroid 450 thousand years ago.  

PubMed

Collisions in the asteroid belt frequently lead to catastrophic breakups, where more than half of the target's mass is ejected into space. Several dozen large asteroids have been disrupted by impacts over the past several billion years. These impact events have produced groups of fragments with similar orbits called asteroid families. Here we report the discovery of a very young asteroid family around the object 1270 Datura. Our work takes advantage of a method for identification of recent breakups in the asteroid belt using catalogs of osculating (i.e., instantaneous) asteroid orbits. The very young families show up in these catalogs as clusters in a five-dimensional space of osculating orbital elements. PMID:16763141

Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Bottke, William F

2006-06-01

437

The Great War: 80 Years On: BBC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

November 11 marks the 80th anniversary of the armistice that ended "the war to end all wars," a conflict which took as many as ten million lives, wiped out a generation of young men in Europe, and helped to spark a revolution in Russia. This new site from the BBC commemorates the war and offers users a number of interesting resources. Multimedia offerings include a ten-minute video collage of photos and newsreel footage produced by the Imperial War Museum and a selection of fascinating and poignant audio interviews of veterans, including one man who was just fourteen when he left to fight in France. The site also contains a selection of soldiers' letters home, overviews of four major battles (Gallipoli, Verdun, the Somme, and Passchendaele), and a number of topical articles.

438

Feasibility of atlantoaxial pedicle screws' placement in children 6-8 years of age: a cadaveric and tomographic study.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate the linear and angular dimensions of children's atlantoaxial pedicle using cadavers combined with axial computed tomography (CT) and to examine the feasibility of placing atlantoaxial pedicle screws (3.5 mm diameter) on the vertebrae of children 6-8 years of age. Fourteen cadaveric specimens, ranging in age from 6 to 8 years, were dissected to obtain their atlantoaxial vertebrae. We manually measured 12 linear anatomic parameters related to the atlantoaxial pedicle, its lateral mass, and the posterior arch under the vertebral artery groove. CT axial scanning of the atlantoaxial region was performed on 32 healthy children ranging in age from 6 to 8 years. The length of the atlantoaxial pedicles and the angle between the pedicle axis and the midline of the vertebral body were measured on the atlantoaxial transverse CT imaging. It is feasible to place a 3.5 mm screw in the atlantoaxial pedicle of children ranging in age from 6 to 8 years when the appropriate entry point and trajectory of the screw are chosen. PMID:23764758

Lin, Bin; Xu, Yang; Guo, Zhi-Min; Liu, Hui; Chen, Zhi-Wen; He, Min-Chang

2013-09-01

439

Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection  

SciTech Connect

This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven`s Medical Research Center program.

Farr, L.E.

1991-12-16

440

Injuries from batteries among children aged <13 years--United States, 1995-2010.  

PubMed

Injuries to children caused by batteries have been documented in the medical literature and by poison control centers for decades. Of particular concern is the ingestion of button batteries, especially those ?20 mm in diameter (coin size), which can lodge in the esophagus, leading to serious complications or death. To estimate the number of nonfatal battery injuries among children aged <13 years, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) staff analyzed 1997-2010 data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). To identify fatal battery exposures, other CPSC databases covering 1995-2010 were examined, including the 1) Injury and Potential Injury Incident File; 2) Death Certificate Database (DTHS); and 3) In-Depth Investigation File (INDP). From 1997 to 2010, an estimated 40,400 children aged <13 years were treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs) for battery-related injuries, including confirmed or possible battery ingestions. Nearly three quarters of the injuries involved children aged ?4 years; 10% required hospitalization. Battery type was reported for 69% of cases, and of those, button batteries were implicated in 58%. Fourteen fatal injuries were identified in children ranging in age from 7 months to 3 years during 1995-2010. Battery type was reported in 12 of these cases; all involved button batteries. CPSC is urging the electronics industry and battery manufacturers to develop warnings and industry standards to prevent serious injuries and deaths from button batteries. Additionally, public health and health-care providers can encourage parents to keep button batteries and products containing accessible button batteries (e.g., remote controls) away from young children. PMID:22932299

2012-08-31

441

Chandra Sees Shape of Universe During Formative, Adolescent Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have taken a snapshot of the adolescent universe from about five billion years ago when the familiar web-like structure of galaxy chains and voids first emerged. The observation reveals distant and massive galaxies dotting the sky, clustered together under the gravitational attraction of deep, unseen pockets of dark matter. This provides important clues of how the universe matured from its chaotic beginnings to its elegant structure we see today. These results are presented today in a press conference at the meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society at Mt. Tremblant, Quebec. "Piece by piece, we are assembling a photo album of the universe through the ages," said Yuxuan Yang, a doctorate candidate at the University of Maryland, College Park, who conducted the analysis. "Last month we saw a picture of the infant universe taken with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Now we can add a snapshot of its adolescence." The Chandra observation traced a patch of sky known as the Lockman Hole in the constellation Ursa Major (containing the Big Dipper). Chandra saw a rich density of active galaxies, seven times denser than what has been detected in previous optical and radio surveys at similar distances. This provides the clearest picture yet at the large-scale structure of the universe at such distances (and age), according to Dr. Richard Mushotzky of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., who led the observation. Lockman Hole JPEG, TIFF, PS An image that has been "blurred" to allow better view of the structures outlined by the X-ray sources. The color represents the spectra of the AGN. The red color indicates the sources on average radiates at longer wavelength while green and blue colors indicates the sources radiates at shorter wavelength. The Green and blue regions appear to form a wall, or shows more lumpiness than the "red" sources. If one could capture the universe in a box, scientists say that the large scale structure -- that is, galaxies, galaxy clusters and voids of seemingly empty space -- takes the appearance of a web. Galaxies and intergalactic gas are strung like pearls on unseen filaments of dark matter, which comprises over 85 percent of all matter. Galaxies are attracted to dark matter's gravitational potential. Dark matter does not shine, like ordinary matter made of atoms, and may very well be intrinsically different. Chandra's observation of distant galaxies in the Lockman Hole, spread out over several billion light years from Earth, essentially maps the distribution of dark matter. This provides clues to how the universe grew. "We are seeing the universe during its formative years," said Mushotzky. "This is billions of years after galaxies were born, during a period when the universe began to take on the trappings of an adult." The galaxies that the team saw with Chandra were either dim or altogether undetectable with optical and radio telescopes. This may be because they are enshrouded in dust and gas, which blocks radio waves and optical light. X-rays, a higher-energy form of light, can penetrate this shroud. "Chandra is the only X-ray telescope with a spatial resolution comparable to the optical telescopes," according to Dr. Amy Barger of University of Wisconsin at Madison, who led the optical follow-up with the 10-meter Keck telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. "This is critical to unambiguously identify the optical counterparts of the X-ray sources and measuring distances, or redshifts. This allows scientists to create a three-dimensional image of the large-scale structure." The additive effect of future deep and long Chandra surveys over the next few years will provide an even sharper picture of the young universe. Other scientists who participated in this observation include Drs. Len Cowie and Dave Sanders of the University of Hawaii, and Ph.D. student Aaron Steffen of the University of Wisconsin at Madison. NASA's Mar

2003-03-01

442

A 10 Billion MeV Cyclotron  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the design of a device which serves to demonstrate the principle of acceleration and phase stability by accelerating gravitationally a ball bearing along a spiral groove. Application of the design principle to the acceleration aspect of a linear accelerator is recommended. (CC)

Edge, R. D.

1974-01-01

443

Food and Population: Beyond Five Billion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principle cause of hunger and malnutrition is poverty. The extent of popular access to gainful employment, to arable land, to suitable technologies determines nutritional status more than aggregate food production. World food production is rising; but population is also increasing, along with the numbers of those who, either temporarily or…

Hendry, Peter

1988-01-01

444

Billions of Us: Scale and Population  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Population is increasingly important as both a scientific and a political subject. The world is getting more crowded. Providing students with the tools to understand population numbers is not only important for their basic understanding of their world, but it is also essential for their future navigation of social and political subjects ranging from energy use and the environment to globalization and the economy. How many people live in your city? Your state? Your country? Your world? How many people live in the United States versus China? This exercise helps students explore the magnitudes of populations and build familiarity with the scales of city, country, and world populations. A related exercise explores the connection between population and energy consumption by comparing the populations of various countries and their corresponding use of oil. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Introduction, and Index. As a special bonus, the chapter entitled, That's Hot! The Effect of Size on Rate of Heat Loss is also included.

Taylor, Amy R.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.

2009-04-01

445

[A census of one billion people (summary)].  

PubMed

The national census which was conducted in 1982 has provided reliable population data for formulating policies and plans in China's modernization process. A great deal of experience has been acquired from this census. (1) The census was based upon China's practical situation and a unique system of methods suitable to China's situation was used. (2) Census workers have found appropriate methods through practical experience and also learned the skill of using computers in handling census data. (3) The general public was very cooperative and worked closely with the leadership and professional cadres. (4) Measures were taken to ensure the quantity and quality of the census work so that the goal of promoting the data's quantity and quality could be reached. (5) The spirit of patriotism was developed, and the people realized that the national census is a necessary measure to be taken for China's construction and modernization. The work of the 1982 national census was successful. The unfinished work which lies ahead is still very heavy. The census should keep on learning from the successful experience of foreign countries and try to overcome difficulties so that the work on China's population statistics may be pushed forward. PMID:12159340

Li, C

1984-05-29

446

The $7-Billion Patch for Campus Maintenance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges are facing a growing deferred-maintenance problem, which at many public institutions adds up to repair bills in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Sometimes state legislatures have not supported those colleges at levels needed to maintain campus infrastructure. But at the same time, colleges continue to expand their campuses even as…

Carlson, Scott

2009-01-01

447

Five-Year Strategic Plan: Fiscal Years 2011-2015  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the U.S. Department of Education (Department) Office of Inspector General (OIG) Strategic Plan for fiscal years 2011 through 2015. This plan describes the focus and direction of OIG's operations over the next five years, establishes its organizational goals, and outlines the strategies it will employ to reach those goals and…

US Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

448

Partnerships Between Two-Year Colleges and Four Year Institutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presentation by Keith Clay, Edward Price and Mel Sabella at the 2012 PhysTEC Conference about the relationship between two-year colleges and four-year institutions. Each presents on the specific relationship at their institutions regarding teacher preparation, including challenges, successes and lessons learned.

Sabella, Mel; Clay, Keith; Price, Edward

2012-02-27

449

Undecided First-Year Students: A 25-Year Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed over 25 years first-year students entering college undecided about a major. Entering students' responses were consistent in terms of their demographic characteristics, reasons for attending college, and levels of undecidedness. Their levels of anxiety about choosing a major increased only slightly. They did not differ significantly from a…

Gordon, Virginia N.; Steele, George E.

2003-01-01

450

Outcome of left heart mechanical valve replacement in West African children - A 15-year retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background The West African sub-region has poor health infrastructure. Mechanical valve replacement in children from such regions raises important postoperative concerns; among these, valve-related morbidity and complications of lifelong anticoagulation are foremost. Little is known about the long-term outcome of mechanical valve replacement in West Africa. We sought to determine the outcome of mechanical valve replacement of the left heart in children from this sub-region. Method We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive left heart valve replacements in children (< 18 years old) from January 1993 - December 2008. The study end-points were mortality, valve-related morbidity, and reoperation. Results One hundred and fourteen patients underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR), aortic valve replacement (AVR) or mitral and aortic valve replacements (MAVR). Their ages ranged from 6-18 years (13.3 ± 3.1 years). All patients were in NYHA class III or IV. Median follow up was 9.1 years. MVR was performed in 91 (79.8%) patients, AVR in 13 (11.4%) and MAVR in 10 (8.8%) patients. Tricuspid valve repair was performed concomitantly in 45 (39.5%) patients. There were 6 (5.3%) early deaths and 6 (5.3%) late deaths. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction < 45%) was the most important factor contributing to both early and late mortality. Actuarial survival at 1 and 15 years were 98.1% and 94.0% respectively. Prosthetic valve thrombosis occurred in 5 patients at 0.56% per patient-year. There was 1(0.9%) each of major bleeding event and prosthetic valve endocarditis. Two reoperations were performed at 0.22% per patient-year. Actuarial freedom from reoperation was 99.1% at 1 and 10 years, and 85.1% at 15 years. Conclusion Mechanical valve replacement in West African children has excellent outcomes in terms of mortality, valve-related events, and reoperation rate. Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction is the primary determinant of mortality within the first 2 years of valve replacement. The risk of valve-related complications is acceptably low. Anticoagulation is well tolerated with a very low risk of bleeding even in this socioeconomic setting. PMID:21504613

2011-01-01

451

High-ozone summer last years brings repercussions this year  

SciTech Connect

The hot summer of 1995 brought a dramatic increase in the number of ozone exceedences across the country, and it`s resulting in many nonattainment areas taking another look at fuels requirements to return to attainment status. In a few cases, reformulated gasoline opt-ins are being discussed with more interest than at any time in the past several years. Partial-year RFG seasons have been mentioned. And fuel additives are getting more attention, too, as evidence is s;ought to confirm their ozone and NO{sub x}-reduction potential. Experts say that the latest RFG tide will diminish if voluntary measures adopted in most regions combine with this year`s cooler summer to avert another year of many exceedences.

Adler, K.

1996-09-01

452

Evaluation of radon mitigation systems in 14 houses over a two-year period.  

PubMed

Fourteen single-family detached houses in Spokane, Washington, and Coeur D'Alene, Idaho, were monitored for two years after high concentrations of indoor radon had been mitigated. Each house was monitored quarterly using mailed alpha-track radon detectors deployed in each zone of the structure. To assess performance of mitigation systems during the second heating season after mitigation, radon concentrations in seven houses were monitored continuously for several weeks, mitigation systems in all houses were inspected, and selected other measurements were taken. In addition, occupants were also interviewed regarding their maintenance, operation, and subjective evaluation of the radon mitigation systems. Quarterly alpha-track measurements showed that radon levels had increased in most of the homes during many follow-up measurement periods when compared with concentrations measured immediately after mitigation. Mitigation-system performance was adversely affected by (1) accumulated outdoor debris blocking the outlets of subsurface pressurization pipes; (2) fans being turned off (e.g., because of excessive noise or vibration); (3) air-to-air heat exchanger, basement pressurization, and subsurface ventilation fans being turned off and fan speeds reduced; and (4) crawl-space vents being closed or sealed. PMID:2354048

Prill, R J; Fisk, W J; Turk, B H

1990-05-01

453

National human papillomavirus vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13--17 years --- national immunization survey -- teen, United States, 2011.  

PubMed

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. An estimated 14 million persons are newly infected with HPV each year; approximately half of new HPV infections occur among persons aged 15-24 years. Although the majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic and resolve, persistent infections can cause disease, including cancers. No cure exists for HPV infection; treatments can be directed only at HPV-associated lesions (e.g., warts, precancerous lesions, and cancers). Annual costs of cervical cancer screening and treatment of HPV-associated health outcomes have been estimated at $8 billion (in 2010 U.S. dollars). Almost all cervical cancers and many vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers are attributable to persistent, oncogenic HPV infections. In 2009, approximately 35,000 HPV-associated cancers were reported in the United States. Of these, 39% occurred in males. PMID:25208260

Curtis, C Robinette; Dorell, Christina; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Chesson, Harrell; Saraiya, Mona; Gold, Rebecca; Dunne, Eileen F; Stokley, Shannon

2014-09-12

454

Twenty years of plasma physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first major activity at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics was the International Seminar on Plasma Physics held in Trieste from October 5-31, 1964, followed in 1965 by a highly successful full year's working group activity in plasma theory. This volume, Twenty Years of Plasma Physics, represents a commemoration of the 1964 Seminar, hopefully will be similarly useful, and

Mc Namara

1985-01-01

455

Faraday, Maxwell And 150 Years  

E-print Network

It was 150 years ago that the English scientist Michael Faraday discovered that he could generate electricity's Conversations on Chemistry. ____________ Origins Michael Faraday was born on the 22nd of September, 1791#12;#12;LINES AND WAVES Faraday, Maxwell And 150 Years Of Electromagnetism Robert D. Friedel Center

Jones, R. Victor

456

Language Development: 2 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... Ages & Stages > Toddler > Language Development: 2 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Language Development: 2 Year Olds Article Body Your two- ... school. You can help enrich his vocabulary and language skills by making reading a part of your everyday routine. At this age, he can follow a story line and will ...

457

Outlook: The Next Twenty Years  

SciTech Connect

I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

Murayama, Hitoshi

2003-12-07

458

From the Primitive Soup to Cyanobacteria: It May have Taken Less Than 10 Million Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most scientific discussions on the likelihood of extraterrestrial life have been constrained by the characteristics of life on our planet and the environmental conditions under which it may have emerged. Although it has been generally assumed that this process must have been extremely slow, involving hundreds of millions or even billions of years, a number of recent discoveries have led to a considerable compression of the time believed necessary for life to appear. It is now recognized that during its early history the Earth and other bodies of the inner Solar System went through a stage of intense collisions. Some of these impacts by large asteroids or comets may have raised the terrestrial surface to sterilizing temperatures and may have evaporated the oceans and killed off life as late as 3.8 x 10(exp 9) years ago. However, there is also ample paleontological evidence derived from the 3.5 x 10(exp 9) year old Warrawoona sediments showing that only 300 million years after the period of intense impacts ended, our planet was populated by phototactic, stromatolite-forming microorganisms. Although these discoveries are now generally interpreted to imply that the origin and early evolution of life were rapid, no attempts have been made to estimate the actual time required for these processes to occur.

Miller, Stanley L.; Lazcano, Antonio

1996-01-01

459

Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.  

PubMed

Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide. PMID:23842443

2013-07-12

460

Canada Year Book Historical Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about Canada's past just became a bit easier with the Canada Year Book Historical Collection website. The site provides access to one hundred years worth of the annual "Canada Year Book". These books cover the years 1867 to 1967, and visitors will get the opportunity to learn about social and economic history from across the provinces. Visitors can browse by year or topic, and looking over the topics, which include "Occupations" and Economic Gains" is a good way to start. Additionally, visitors can also browse tables, charts, and maps as they see fit. Educators will want to look through the "Tools and Reference" area, as it contains lesson plans and a set of links to related sites.

461

Communications satellites - The experimental years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

Edelson, B. I.

1983-01-01

462

Accountability report - fiscal year 1997  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

NONE

1998-04-01

463

Celebrating 20 Years of Hubble  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope began a remarkable journey of discovery on April 24, 1990. After 20 years in space, the observatory has shown humanity more of the universe than ever before. With the ...

464

The First Year and Beyond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Gardner reflects on everything from current efforts to improve the first-year experience to the assessment movement, student expectations of college, professional preparation for student affairs, and more. (Author)

Schroeder, Charles

2003-01-01

465

HAPPY NEW YEAR! Semiconductor Spintronics  

E-print Network

HAPPY NEW YEAR! #12;Semiconductor Spintronics Niu Burkov Culcer Nunez Nomura Yao Sinova Sinitsyn Workshop #12;Spintronics Toolbag Ferromagnetic Semiconductors (Ga,Mn)As .... others Coupled Spin Charge Effects Toolbag Zeeman Coupling Semiconductor Ferromagnetism Ferromagnetism Spin-Orbit Coupling Optical

Nikolic, Branislav K.

466

Sixty years of genome biology  

PubMed Central

Sixty years after Watson and Crick published the double helix model of DNA's structure, thirteen members of Genome Biology's Editorial Board select key advances in the field of genome biology subsequent to that discovery. PMID:23651518

2013-01-01

467

Biology in the Third Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an "environmental biology" syllabus offered to third year students at Ounsdale Comprehensive School. Six project areas are described: an individual investigation, a plant project, human biology, rural science, habitat surveys, interdependence. (CS)

Wilcox, R. J.

1977-01-01

468

25 Years of Landsat 5  

NASA Video Gallery

Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

469

Communications satellites - The experimental years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

Edelson, B. I.

1983-10-01

470

MSU Bozeman Year Founded: 1893  

E-print Network

College Pro- grams Mascot: Bobcat Athletic Conference: Big Sky, NCAA Division I MSU Billings Year Founded responsible leadership and systematic guidance to preserve and advance the physical environment of MSU

Maxwell, Bruce D.

471