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1

Fourth Family Neutrinos and the Higgs Boson at the LHC  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the LHC discovery potential for the fourth family Standard Model neutrinos in the process pp ? Z\\/h ? ?4 ¯ ?4 ? W ?W ?. We show that, depending on their masses, the simultaneous discovery of both the Higgs boson and the heavy neutrinos is probable at early stages of LHC operation. Results are presented for both Majorana

T. Çuhadar-Dönszelmann; M. Karagöz Ünel; V. E. Özcan; S. Sultansoy; G. Ünel

2

Fourth lepton family is natural in technicolor  

SciTech Connect

Imagine discovering a new fourth family of leptons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) but no signs of an associated fourth family of quarks. What would that imply? An intriguing possibility is that the new fermions needed to compensate for the new leptons gauge anomalies simultaneously address the big hierarchy problem of the standard model. A natural way to accomplish such a scenario is to have the Higgs itself be a composite of these new fermions. This is the setup we are going to investigate in this paper using as a template minimal walking technicolor. We analyze a general heavy neutrino mass structure with and without mixing with the standard model families. We also analyze the LHC potential to observe the fourth lepton family in tandem with the new composite Higgs dynamics. We finally introduce a model uniting the fourth lepton family and the technifermion sector at higher energies.

Frandsen, Mads T. [CP3 - Origins, IFK and IMADA, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Masina, Isabella [Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita degli Studi di Ferrara and INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); CP3 - Origins, IFK and IMADA, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Sannino, Francesco [CP3 - Origins, IFK and IMADA, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

2010-02-01

3

Search for Heavy Massive Fourth-Generation Neutrinos at CDF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the standard model of elementary particles we have dis- covered three generations of quarks and leptons. A natural extension would be the addition of a fourth generation, the lightest of which may be the neutrino. Using 4 fb-1 of data from collisions recorded by the CDF detector in proton-antiproton collisions at the Tevatron with center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, we present a search for such a fourth generation neutrino. We search for pair production of unstable massive fourth generation neutrinos each which decay to a heavy stable neutrino and a Z boson. We examine the mode in which one Z decays leptonically and the other hadronically, leading to a final state of two jets, two charged leptons and missing transverse momentum.

Vasquez, Jared

2011-04-01

4

Bounding CKM Mixing with a Fourth Family  

SciTech Connect

CKM mixing between third family quarks and a possible fourth family is constrained by global fits to the precision electroweak data. The dominant constraint is from nondecoupling oblique corrections rather than the vertex correction to Z {yields} {bar b}b used in previous analyses. The possibility of large mixing suggested by some recent analyses of FCNC processes is excluded, but 3-4 mixing of the same order as the Cabbibo mixing of the first two families is allowed.

Chanowitz, Michael S.

2009-04-22

5

Pair production of the fourth family charged sleptons at e+e- colliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the pair production of tilde l4, which is the supersymmetric partner of the fourth family charged lepton, at the e+e- colliders. It is shown that the investigation of this process at ILC/CLIC will give the opportunity to differentiate the MSSM with three and four families. The ILC with \\sqrt{s}=1\\,TeV and Lint=1 ab-1 has the potential for the observation of the fourth family slepton with mass up to 420 GeV, if the fourth SM family neutrino has a Dirac nature. The CLIC with \\sqrt{s}=3\\,TeV and Lint=1 ab-1 will enlarge the observation region up to m_{\\tilde{l}_4}=580\\,GeV .

Ar?, V.; Çak?r, O.; Çak?r, ?. T.; Sultansoy, S.

2011-04-01

6

Atmospheric and solar neutrinos from single right-handed neutrino dominance and U(1) family symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a natural explanation of both neutrino mass hierarchies and large neutrino mixing angles, as required by the atmospheric neutrino data, in terms of a single right-handed neutrino giving the dominant contribution to the 23 block of the light effective neutrino matrix, and illustrate this mechanism in the framework of models with U(1) family symmetries. Sub-dominant contributions from other

S. F. King

1999-01-01

7

Leptonic mixing, family symmetries, and neutrino phenomenology  

SciTech Connect

Tribimaximal leptonic mixing is a mass-independent mixing scheme consistent with the present solar and atmospheric neutrino data. By conveniently decomposing the effective neutrino mass matrix associated to it, we derive generic predictions in terms of the parameters governing the neutrino masses. We extend this phenomenological analysis to other mass-independent mixing schemes which are related to the tribimaximal form by a unitary transformation. We classify models that produce tribimaximal leptonic mixing through the group structure of their family symmetries in order to point out that there is often a direct connection between the group structure and the phenomenological analysis. The type of seesaw mechanism responsible for neutrino masses plays a role here, as it restricts the choices of family representations and affects the viability of leptogenesis. We also present a recipe to generalize a given tribimaximal model to an associated model with a different mass-independent mixing scheme, which preserves the connection between the group structure and phenomenology as in the original model. This procedure is explicitly illustrated by constructing toy models with the transpose tribimaximal, bimaximal, golden ratio, and hexagonal leptonic mixing patterns.

Medeiros Varzielas, I. de [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Fakultaet fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Gonzalez Felipe, R. [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Serodio, H. [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2011-02-01

8

Flavor changing neutral currents with a fourth family of quarks  

SciTech Connect

For a model with a fourth family of quarks, new sources of flavor changing neutral currents are identified by confronting the unitary 4x4 quark mixing matrix with the experimental measured values of the familiar 3x3 quark mixing matrix. By imposing as experimental constraints the known bounds for the flavor changing neutral currents, the largest mixing of the known quarks with the fourth family ones is established. The predictions are: a value for |V{sub tb}| significantly different from unity, large rates for rare top decays as t{yields}c{gamma} and t{yields}cZ, the last one reachable at the Large Hadron Collider, and large rates for rare strange decays s{yields}d{gamma} and s{yields}dg, where g stands for the gluon field, both processes reachable at the existing B factories.

Herrera, Johana A.; Benavides, Richard H.; Ponce, William A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellin (Colombia)

2008-10-01

9

Family Influence: Key to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To assess social and familial environmental influences on fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption of fourth- and fifth-graders living in a culturally diverse, urban setting. Design: In 2006, students from 9 fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms from a public school in the Washington-Baltimore Metropolitan Region were recruited as part of the…

Gross, Susan M.; Pollock, Elizabeth Davenport; Braun, Bonnie

2010-01-01

10

Probing the fourth neutrino existence by neutral current oscillometry in the spherical gaseous TPC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that, if the "new neutrino" implied by the Reactor Antineutrino Anomaly exists and is in fact characterized by the suggested relatively high mass squared difference and reasonably large mixing angle, it should clearly reveal itself in the oscillometry measurements. For a judicious neutrino source the "new oscillation length" L is expected shorter than 1.5 m. Thus the needed measurements can be implemented with a gaseous spherical TPC of modest dimensions with a very good energy and position resolution, detecting nuclear recoils following the coherent neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering. The best candidates for oscillometry, yielding both monochromatic neutrinos as well as antineutrinos, are discussed. A sensitivity in the mixing angle ?, sin(2?)=0.1 (99%), can be reached after a few months of data handling.

Vergados, J. D.; Giomataris, Y.; Novikov, Yu. N.

2012-01-01

11

Neutrino oscillations from discrete non-Abelian family symmetries  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses a SUSY-GUT model with a non-Abelian discrete family symmetry that explains the observed hierarchical pattern of quark and lepton masses. This SO(10) {times} {Delta}(75) model predicts modified quadratic seesaw neutrino masses and mixing angles which are interesting for three reasons: (1) they offer a solution to the solar neutrino problem, (2) the tau neutrino has the right mass for a cosmologically interesting hot dark matter candidate, and (3) they suggest a positive result for the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation searches by the CHORUS and NOMAD collaborations. However, the model shares some problems with many other predictive GUT models of quark and lepton masses. Well-known and once successful mass and angle relations, such as the SU(5) relation {lambda}{sub b}{sup GUT} = {lambda}{sub t}{sup GUT}, are found to be in conflict with the current experimental status. Attempts to correct these relations seem to lead to rather contrived models.

Schmaltz, M.

1994-11-01

12

Family Outing Activities and Achievement among Fourth Graders in Compensatory Education Funded Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study sought to identify the relationship between operationally-defined family outing activities and measures of achievement among fourth grade students from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. The results, collected for four successive years from 1715 students in urban Los Angeles, indicated that: (1) participation in family activities…

Griswold, Philip A.

13

Developing Cross-Cultural Competence: A Guide for Working with Children and Their Families. Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the U.S. population grows more and more diverse, how can professionals who work with young children and families deliver the best services while honoring different customs, beliefs, and values? The answers are in the fourth edition of this bestselling textbook, fully revised to reflect nearly a decade of population changes and best practices…

Lynch, Eleanor W., Ed.; Hanson, Marci J., Ed.

2011-01-01

14

Anomalous resonant production of the fourth-family up-type quarks at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the present limits on their masses from the Tevatron experiments, the fourth-family quarks are expected to have masses larger than the top quark. Because of their expected large masses, they could have different dynamics than the third-family quarks of the standard model. The resonant production of the fourth-family up-type quark t' has been studied via the anomalous production subprocess gqi?t' (where qi=u, c) at the LHC, with center-of-mass energies of 10 TeV and 14 TeV. The signatures of such a process are discussed within the standard model decay modes. The sensitivity to the anomalous coupling ?/?=0.1TeV-1 can be reached at s=10TeV and Lint=100pb-1.

Çak?r, I. T.; Y?ld?z, H. Duran; Çak?r, O.; Ünel, G.

2009-11-01

15

A family of new fourth-order solvers for a nonlinear damped wave equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a family of new three-level compact alternating direction implicit (ADI) difference schemes for solving a linear wave equation with a nonlinear damping function. By using a fourth-order accurate scheme to approximate the exact solution at the first time level, it is shown through the energy method that these difference schemes have fourth-order accuracy in space and second-order accuracy in time with respect to H1- and L?-norms. A class of Richardson extrapolation algorithms based on three time-grid parameters are presented to obtain approximate solution of fourth-order accuracy in both time and space in L?-norm. Numerical experiments are performed to support our theoretical results and test the accuracy and efficiency of our algorithms.

Deng, Dingwen; Zhang, Chengjian

2013-01-01

16

Neutrino astronomy and neutrino properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural sources of neutrinos and the energy of neutrinos derived from these sources are described. The present knowledge of the neutrino properties which most affect the astrophysics of neutrinos (such as the number of families and the neutrino mass, magnetic moment, and lifetime) is reviewed. The present neutrino telescopes and the telescopes planned for the 1990s are described, together with their threshold, mass, area, and angular resolution properties. Special attention is given to the supernova neutrino detectors.

Cline, David B.

1989-12-01

17

Neutrinos.  

PubMed

Neutrinos represent a new "window" to the Universe, spanning a large range of energy. We discuss the science of neutrino astrophysics and focus on two energy regimes. At "lower" energies ( approximately 1 MeV), studies of neutrinos born inside the sun, or produced in interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere, have allowed the first incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos have mass. At energies typically one thousand to one million times higher, sources further than the sun (both within the Milky Way and beyond) are expected to produce a flux of particles that can be detected only through neutrinos. PMID:10588680

Besson, D; Cowen, D; Selen, M; Wiebusch, C

1999-12-01

18

Higgs Mass Constraints on a Fourth Family: Upper and Lower Limits on CKM Mixing  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical and experimental limits on the Higgs boson mass restrict CKM mixing of a possible fourth family beyond the constraints previously obtained from precision electroweak data alone. Existing experimental and theoretical bounds on m{sub H} already significantly restrict the allowed parameter space. Zero CKM mixing is excluded and mixing of order {theta}{sub Cabbibo} is allowed. Upper and lower limits on 3-4 CKM mixing are exhibited as a function of m{sub H}. We use the default inputs of the Electroweak Working Group and also explore the sensitivity of both the three and four family fits to alternative inputs.

Chanowitz, Michael S.

2010-06-25

19

Large mixing angle MSW and atmospheric neutrinos from single right-handed neutrino dominance and U(1) family symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single right-handed neutrino dominance (SRHND) in the 23 sector of the light effective neutrino mass matrix has been proposed as a natural explanation for the concurrent large 23 mixing angle and large 23 mass hierarchy. In this paper we show how large 12 mixing angles, suitable for the large mixing angle (LMA) MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem, may

S. F. King

2000-01-01

20

Icosahedral (A5) family symmetry and the golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the possibility of using icosahedral symmetry as a family symmetry group in the lepton sector. The rotational icosahedral group, which is isomorphic to A5, the alternating group of five elements, provides a natural context in which to explore (among other possibilities) the intriguing hypothesis that the solar neutrino mixing angle is governed by the golden ratio, varphi=(1+5)\\/2. We

Lisa L. Everett; Alexander J. Stuart

2009-01-01

21

Anomalous single production of fourth family up-type quark associated with neutral gauge bosons at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fourth family quarks are expected to have mass larger than the top quark considering the results from recent studies on the allowed parameter space. They could also have different dynamics than the quarks of three families of the standard model. The single production of the fourth family up-type quark t? is studied via the anomalous production process pp ? t?VX (where V = g, Z, ?) at the LHC with the center of mass energy of 7 and 14 TeV. The signatures of such process are discussed within both the SM and the anomalous decay modes of t? quarks. The sensitivity to anomalous coupling ?/? = 0.004 TeV-1 can be reached at \\sqrt{s}=14 TeV and Lint = 100 pb-1.

Çak?r, O.; Çak?r, I. T.; Senol, A.; Tasci, A. T.

2012-05-01

22

Correlates of Alcohol Use and Misuse in Fourth-Grade Children: Psychosocial, Peer, Parental, and Family Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine level of alcohol use\\/misuse and to examine correlates of these behaviors, 1,314 fourth-grade students were surveyed. The questionnaire included 55 items concerning tolerance of deviance, deviant self-image, self-efficacy, susceptibility to peer pressure, personal and peer approval of alcohol use, peer adjustment, parent nurturance and monitoring, family adjustment, parental permissiveness, peer use of alcohol, and exposure to alcohol. The

Carol J. Loveland-Cherry; Sharon Leech; Virginia B. Laetz; Ted E. Dielman

1996-01-01

23

A direct determination of the number of light neutrino families from e+e--->??? at LEP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The L3 detector at LEP has been used to determine the number of light neutrino families by measuring the cross section of single photon even in e+e- collisions at energies near the Z0 resonance. We have observed 61 single photon candidates with more than 1.5 GeV of deposited energy in the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter, for a total integrated luminosity of 3.0 pb-1. From a likelihood fir to the single photon cross sections, we determin N?=3.24 +/- 0.46 (statistical) +/-0.22 (systematic). Supported by the German Bundesministerium für Forschung und Technologie.

Adeva, B.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Akbari, H.; Alcaraz, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; An, Q.; Anderhub, H.; Anderson, A. L.; Andreev, V. P.; Angelov, T.; Antonov, L.; Antreasyan, D.; Arce, P.; Arefiev, A.; Atamanchuk, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Baba, P. V. K. S.; Bagnaia, P.; Bakken, J. A.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Bao, J.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Behrens, J.; Beingessner, S.; Bencze, Gy. L.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Bizzarri, R.; Blaising, J. J.; Blömeke, P.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bocciolini, M.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Bouwens, B.; Brambilla, E.; Branson, J. G.; Brock, I. C.; Brooks, M.; Bruyant, F.; Buisson, C.; Bujak, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Burq, J. P.; Busenitz, J.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caria, M.; Carminati, F.; Cartacci, A. M.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J.; Chen, M.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, W. Y.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Chmeissani, M.; Civinni, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coan, T. E.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Contin, A.; Crijns, F.; Cui, X. Y.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Dénes, E.; Denes, P.; Denotaristefani, F.; Dhina, M.; Dibitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; Dimitrov, H. R.; Dionisi, C.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Driever, T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Extermann, P.; Fabbretti, R.; Fabre, M.; Falciano, S.; Fan, Q.; Fan, S. J.; Fackler, O.; Fay, J.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Fernandez, G.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.; Filthaut, F.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Foreman, T.; Freudenreich, K.; Friebel, W.; Fukushima, M.; Gailloud, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gallo, E.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gau, S. S.; Gele, D.; Gentile, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Gonzalez, E.; Gordeev, A.; Göttlicher, P.; Goujon, D.; Gratta, G.; Grinnell, C.; Gruenewald, M.; Guanziroli, M.; Guo, J. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gustafson, H. R.; Gutay, L. J.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Hauschildt, D.; He, C. T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, M.; Herten, G.; Herten, U.; Hervé, A.; Hilgers, K.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hu, G.; Hu, G. Q.; Ille, B.; Ilyas, M. M.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jezequel, S.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapinos, P.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Khokhar, S.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirby, D.; Kirsch, S.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Kornadt, O.; Koutsenko, V.; Koulbardis, A.; Kraemer, R. W.; Kramer, T.; Krastev, V. R.; Krenz, W.; Krovshich, A.; Krizmanic, J.; Kumar, K. S.; Kumar, V.; Kunin, A.; Landi, G.; Lanius, K.; Lanske, D.; Lanzano, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, D. M.; Leedom, I.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leistam, L.; Leiste, R.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Lettry, J.; Leytens, X.; Li, C.; Li, H. T.; Li, J. F.; Li, P. J.; Li, Q.; Li, X. G.; Liao, J. Y.; Lin, W. T.; Lin, Z. Y.; Linde, F. L.; Lindemann, B.; Linnhofer, D.; Liu, R.; Liu, Y.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Lubbers, J. M.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Ludovici, L.; Luminari, L.; Ma, W. G.; MacDermott, M.; Malhorta, P. K.; Malik, R.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mao, D. N.; Mao, Y. F.; Maolinbay, M.; Marchesini, P.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; Matsuda, T.; Mazumdar, K.; McBride, P.; McMahon, T.; McNally, D.; Meinholz, Th.; Merk, M.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mi, Y.; Mills, G. B.; Mir, Y.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Möller, M.; Monteleoni, B.; Morand, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulai, N. E.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Nadtochy, A.; Nagy, E.; Napolitano, M.; Newman, H.; Neyer, C.; Niaz, M. A.; Niessen, L.; Nowak, H.; Organtini, G.; Pandoulas, D.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Passaleva, G.; Paoletti, S.; Patricelli, S.; Pei, Y. J.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Perrier, J.; Pevsner, A.; Pieri, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Plasil, F.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Produit, N.; Qian, J. M.; Qureshi, K. N.; Raghavan, R.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Ricker, A.; Riemann, S.; Rind, O.; Rizvi, H. A.; Roe, B. P.; Röhner, M.; Röhner, S.; Romero, L.; Rose, J.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosmalen, R.; Rosselet, Ph.; Rubbia, A.; Rubio, J. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Salicio, J.; Salicio, J. M.; Sanders, G. S.; Santocchia, A.; Sarakinos, M. S.; Sartorelli, G.; Sauvage, G.; Savin, A.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmiemann, K.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.

1992-01-01

24

Effects of neutrino mixing on high-energy cosmic neutrino flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several cosmologically distant astrophysical sources may produce high-energy cosmic neutrinos (E >=106 GeV) of all flavors above the atmospheric neutrino background. We study the effects of vacuum neutrino mixing in the three flavor framework on this cosmic neutrino flux. We also consider the effects of possible mixing between the three active neutrinos and the (fourth) sterile neutrino with or without

H. Athar; M. Jezabek; O. Yasuda

2000-01-01

25

Guide to the Family and Medical Leave Act: Questions & Answers. Fourth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) provided workers with the right to take time off from work to care for their families or themselves without fear of losing their jobs. Although this law is relatively straightforward, some employees and employers may be unsure about how it actually works. This guide is designed to answer many…

National Partnership for Women and Families, Washington, DC.

26

Guide to the Family and Medical Leave Act: Questions & Answers. Fourth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) provided workers with the right to take time off from work to care for their families or themselves without fear of losing their jobs. Although this law is relatively straightforward, some employees and employers may be unsure about how it actually works. This guide is designed to answer many…

National Partnership for Women and Families, Washington, DC.

27

Neutrino oscillations in an SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified theory with U(2)×U(1)n family symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper we analyzed fermion masses (focusing on neutrino masses and mixing angles) in an SO(10) SUSY GUT with U(2)×U(1)n family symmetry. The model is ``natural'' containing all operators in the Lagrangian consistent with the states and their charges. With minimal family symmetry breaking vacuum expectation values (VEVs) the model is also predictive giving a unique solution to

T. Blazek; S. Raby; K. Tobe

2000-01-01

28

Icosahedral (A5) family symmetry and the golden ratio prediction for solar neutrino mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the possibility of using icosahedral symmetry as a family symmetry group in the lepton sector. The rotational icosahedral group, which is isomorphic to A5, the alternating group of five elements, provides a natural context in which to explore (among other possibilities) the intriguing hypothesis that the solar neutrino mixing angle is governed by the golden ratio, ?=(1+5)/2. We present a basic toolbox for model building using icosahedral symmetry, including explicit representation matrices and tensor product rules. As a simple application, we construct a minimal model at tree level in which the solar angle is related to the golden ratio, the atmospheric angle is maximal, and the reactor angle vanishes to leading order. The approach provides a rich setting in which to investigate the flavor puzzle of the standard model.

Everett, Lisa L.; Stuart, Alexander J.

2009-04-01

29

Cloning of the peroxiredoxin gene family in rats and characterization of the fourth member  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxiredoxin (PRx) exhibits thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity and constitutes a family of proteins. Four members of genes from rat tissues were isolated by PCR using degenerated primers based on the sequences which encode a pair of highly conserved Cys-containing domains, and were then cloned to full-length cDNAs. These included two genes which have previously been isolated in rats, PRx I and

Akio Matsumoto; Ayako Okado; Tsuneko Fujii; Junichi Fujii; Masayuki Egashira; Norio Niikawa; Naoyuki Taniguchi

1999-01-01

30

pgaE encodes a fourth member of the endopolygalacturonase gene family from Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

In the present study, the molecular and basic biochemical characterization of endopolygalacturonase E, the fourth Aspergillus niger N400 endopolygalacturonase, is reported. The entire endopolygalacturonase E gene consists of 1293 bp interrupted by three short introns (50, 50, and 59 bp, respectively) as concluded from the cDNA sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence comprises 378 residues that include 39 N-terminal amino acids of the prepropeptide. The calculated Mr and pI of the mature protein are 35,584 and 3.6, respectively. Compared with other endopolygalacturonases from A. niger N400, the mature protein endopolygalacturonase E has the highest sequence identity with endopolygalacturonase C (77.6%) followed by endopolygalacturonase I (57.6%) and endopolygalacturonase II (54.3%). For overproduction of endopolygalacturonase E, an A. niger multicopy strain was used that was transformed with a promoter gene fusion construct that directs expression from the glycolytic A. niger pyruvate kinase promoter. The enzyme was purified and characterized as an endopolygalacturonase based on product analysis after polygalacturonate hydrolysis and on bond cleavage frequencies of oligogalacturonates of different degree of polymerisation (n = 2-7). The pH optimum was 3.8. The Km and Vmax for polygalacturonate hydrolysis were 2.5 +/- 0.4 mg x ml(-1) and 1.3 +/- 0.2 microkat x mg(-1), respectively. A subsite map was calculated by the combination of the methods of Suganuma et al. [Suganuma, T., Matsuno, R., Ohnishi, M. & Hiromi, K. (1978) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 84, 293-316] and Nitta et al. [Nitta, Y., Mizushima, M., Hiromi, K. & Ono, S. (1971) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 69, 567-576]. This indicated that the enzyme was composed of at least five subsites. PMID:9492270

Parenicová, L; Benen, J A; Kester, H C; Visser, J

1998-01-15

31

Neutrino oscillations in an SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified theory with U(2)xU(1){sup n} family symmetry  

SciTech Connect

In a previous paper we analyzed fermion masses (focusing on neutrino masses and mixing angles) in an SO(10) SUSY GUT with U(2)xU(1){sup n} family symmetry. The model is ''natural'' containing all operators in the Lagrangian consistent with the states and their charges. With minimal family symmetry breaking vacuum expectation values (VEVs) the model is also predictive giving a unique solution to atmospheric (with maximal {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} mixing) and solar (with SMA MSW {nu}{sub e}{yields}{nu}{sub s} mixing) neutrino oscillations. In this paper we analyze the case of general family breaking VEVs. We now find several new solutions for three, four, and five neutrinos. For three neutrinos we now obtain SMA MSW, LMA MSW, or vacuum oscillation solutions for solar neutrinos. In all three cases the atmospheric data are described by maximal {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} mixing. In the four and five neutrino cases, in addition to fitting atmospheric and solar data as before, we are now able to fit LSND data. All this is obtained with the additional parameters coming from the family symmetry breaking VEVs, providing only minor changes in the charged fermion fits. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Blazek, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Raby, S. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 174 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Tobe, K. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 174 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2000-09-01

32

Searches for Fourth Generation Fermions  

SciTech Connect

We present the results from searches for fourth generation fermions performed using data samples collected by the CDF II and D0 Detectors at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider. Many of these results represent the most stringent 95% C. L. limits on masses of new fermions to-date. A fourth chiral generation of massive fermions with the same quantum numbers as the known fermions is one of the simplest extensions of the SM with three generations. The fourth generation is predicted in a number of theories, and although historically have been considered disfavored, stands in agreement with electroweak precision data. To avoid Z {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}} constraint from LEP I a fourth generation neutrino {nu}{sub 4} must be heavy: m({nu}{sub 4}) > m{sub Z}/2, where m{sub Z} is the mass of Z boson, and to avoid LEP II bounds a fourth generation charged lepton {ell}{sub 4} must have m({ell}{sub 4}) > 101 GeV/c{sup 2}. At the same time due to sizeable radiative corrections masses of fourth generation fermions cannot be much higher the current lower bounds and masses of new heavy quarks t' and b' should be in the range of a few hundred GeV/c{sup 2}. In the four-generation model the present bounds on the Higgs are relaxed: the Higgs mass could be as large as 1 TeV/c{sup 2}. Furthermore, the CP violation is significantly enhanced to the magnitude that might account for the baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Additional chiral fermion families can also be accommodated in supersymmetric two-Higgs-doublet extensions of the SM with equivalent effect on the precision fit to the Higgs mass. Another possibility is heavy exotic quarks with vector couplings to the W boson Contributions to radiative corrections from such quarks with mass M decouple as 1/M{sup 2} and easily evade all experimental constraints. At the Tevatron p{bar p} collider 4-th generation chiral or vector-like quarks can be either produced strongly in pairs or singly via electroweak production, where the latter can be enhanced for vector-like quarks. In the following we present searches for both pair and single production of heavy quarks performed by CDF and D0 Collaborations.

Ivanov, A.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01

33

Theoretical aspects of neutrino oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

I review some aspects concerning the physics of neutrino mixing and oscillations. I discuss in some detail the physical neutrino oscillations parameter space in the case of two and three family mixing, and briefly describe the current knowledge of neutrino mixing parameters according to the present solar, atmospheric, and reactor neutrino data. I also briefly comment on the possibility of

André de Gouvêa

2003-01-01

34

Indirect search for the fourth genration of quarks and leptons  

SciTech Connect

It is known that the Standard Model (SM) does not predict the number of fermion families; N. The only restriction comes from the asymptotic freedom of QCD which requires the number of quarks to be less than 17 and, therefore, the number of SM families to be N{<=}8. Before 1990A-circumflex Ss, many authors published articles related to the extra SM families and their phenomenological consequences. In early 1990A-circumflex Ss, the LEP data yields N is almost 3 where the neutral lepton mass for each family is less than half the mass of the Z boson. Generally, this result is interpreted as the exact value of N, since one assumes that the neutrinos must have very small masses. If we disregard this incorrect assumption, the LEP data does not exclude the existence of extra SM families with heavy neutrinos. Meanwhile, few papers arguing the existence of the fourth SM family have been publishing. These arguments are based on the A-circumflex Sflavor democracyA-circumflex S hypothesis. The study of FCNC in B decays can indirectly shed light on the SM4 family in quark sector and LFV is a good candidate to indirect search for 4th generation of leptons.

Bashiry, Vali [Engineering Faculty, Cyprus International University, Via Mersin 10 (Turkey)

2008-04-21

35

Neutrino masses from new generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reconsider the possibility that Majorana masses for the three known neutrinos are generated radiatively by the presence\\u000a of a fourth generation and one right-handed neutrino with Yukawa couplings and a Majorana mass term. We find that the observed\\u000a light neutrino mass hierarchy is not compatible with low energy universality bounds in this minimal scenario, but all present\\u000a data can

Alberto Aparici; Juan Herrero-García; Nuria Rius; Arcadi Santamaria

2011-01-01

36

Supporting Low-Income Parents of Young Children: The Palm Beach County Family Study Fourth Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Children's Services Council (CSC) of Palm Beach County funded Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago to conduct a 6-year longitudinal study to examine the use and effectiveness of an array of services in the county in promoting school readiness and school success and improving family functioning among children and families most in need of…

Spielberger, Julie; Rich, Lauren; Winje, Carolyn; Scannell, Molly

2010-01-01

37

Supporting Low-Income Parents of Young Children: The Palm Beach County Family Study Fourth Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Children's Services Council (CSC) of Palm Beach County funded Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago to conduct a 6-year longitudinal study to examine the use and effectiveness of an array of services in the county in promoting school readiness and school success and improving family functioning among children and families most in need of…

Spielberger, Julie; Rich, Lauren; Winje, Carolyn; Scannell, Molly

2010-01-01

38

Zero textures of the neutrino mass matrix from cyclic family symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the symmetry realization of the phenomenologically viable Frampton-Glashow-Marfatia (FGM) two zero texture neutrino mass matrices in the flavor basis within the framework of the type (I+II) seesaw mechanism natural to SO(10) grand unification. A small Abelian cyclic symmetry group Z is used to realize these textures except for class C for which the symmetry is enlarged to Z. The scalar sector is restricted to the Standard Model (SM) Higgs doublet to suppress the flavor changing neutral currents. Other scalar fields used for symmetry realization are at the most two scalar triplets and, in some cases, a complex scalar singlet. Symmetry realization of one zero textures has, also, been presented.

Dev, S.; Gupta, Shivani; Gautam, Radha Raman

2011-07-01

39

Astrophysical neutrinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three main aspects of neutrino astrophysics are surveyed: the use of neutrinos as a stellar probe; the exploration of neutrino properties by astrophysical observations; and the possibility and significance of cosmic neutrino fluxes.The anticipated early detection of solar neutrinos should accurately specify conditions at the centre of the sun. Details of the solar neutrino flux and detection are summarized together

M A Ruderman

1965-01-01

40

Neutrino oscillations, neutrino masses and supersymmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutrino mass matrix is constraint considering in a three-generation scenario, which includes or excludes LSND and considers the atmospheric neutrinos of Super-Kamiokande and the solar neutrino experiments. In this way one is able to construct the neutrino mass matrix, up to a mass scale and up to the Majorana neutrino CP eigenvalues. By using the expectation value of the electron neutrino mass obtained in the neutrinoless double beta decay, one can derive an upper limit of 2.53 [eV] for the sum of the masses of the three neutrinos. In a second part we use the R violating minimal supersymmetric model (R-MSSM) to construct the neutrino mass matrix. The contributions on the tree level yield by mixing with the neutralinos (photino, zino, higgsino 1 and higgsino 2) a separable 3 . 3 mass matrix, which has two mass eigenvalues, which are zero and a third eigenvalue different from zero. This yields a hierachichal structure of two neutrinos with small masses and a third neutrino with a larger mass. If one includes the loop diagrams of quarks and SUSY quarks and of leptons and SUSY leptons one obtains for the three neutrinos a sum of tree separable matrices. Such a separable mass matrix of rank 3 has 9 independent parameters. One can fit five parameters from the neutrino oscillations: the three mixing angles of the matrix transforming the neutrinos from the mass eigenstates to the weak eigenstates and the two differences of the squared masses. One therefore has to reduce the nine free parameters of the mass matrix in the R-MSSM from nine to five. This is possible imposing a constraint on the cubic couplings employing an additional U(1) flavour symmetry. This approach has been very successful in studying the Yukawa couplings to fix the masses of the quarks and the non-neutrino leptons. In this way it is possible to reduce the R-parity violating coupling constants of the the R-MSSM from six to one. This reduces the free parameters of the neutrino mass matrix obtained in the SUSY model to four. We find in a three-family mixing scheme an averaged Majorana neutrino mass, which in principle can be obtained from the neutrinoless double beta decay, of < m > = 0.009 to 0.045[eV]. These predictions can perhaps be tested by the next generation of neutrinoless double beta decay experiments.

Faessler, A.

2002-07-01

41

Family and Community Studies (FACS) Fourth Interim Report, Phase I and Activities and Timelines for Phase II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussed in this paper is a preliminary analysis of findings from data gathered during the first phase of a research project exploring the processes whereby the nature of the mother's occupation affects her family life, especially (1) her partnership in decisions about housework, child care and education and (2) the negotiation of the allocation…

Espinoza, Renato; And Others

42

Detection of giant muon families by the underground scintillation telescope at the Baksan neutrino observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for the detection of giant muon families with muon energies of 220 GeV and greater are discussed, and results of an analysis of muon detection data are presented. A muon detection method is described which makes it possible to obtain chemical composition data for primary energies of 10 exp 17 eV and above, which supplement EAS data in this

V. N. Bakatanov; S. N. Boziev; Yu. F. Novosel'Tsev; M. V. Novosel'Tseva; A. E. Chudakov

1993-01-01

43

Reactor experiments to test sterile neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent re-analysis of past reactor neutrino experiments has shown a significant discrepancy between measured and expected neutrino count rates at short distances (<100m). Various scenarios have been discussed to explain this reactor antineutrino anomaly, the most exciting one being the oscillation of active neutrinos into a fourth (sterile) neutrino species. While current reactor experiments were dedicated to non-proliferation purposes, a new generation of projects is under development to search for this sterile neutrino through a new short-baseline oscillation signature.

Gaffiot, J.

2013-04-01

44

Lepton sector of a fourth generation  

SciTech Connect

In extensions of the standard model with a heavy fourth generation, one important question is what makes the fourth-generation lepton sector, particularly the neutrinos, so different from the lighter three generations. We study this question in the context of models of electroweak symmetry breaking in warped extra dimensions, where the flavor hierarchy is generated by choosing the localization of the zero-mode fermions in the extra dimension. In this setup the Higgs sector is localized near the infrared brane, whereas the Majorana mass term is localized at the ultraviolet brane. As a result, light neutrinos are almost entirely Majorana particles, whereas the fourth-generation neutrino is mostly a Dirac fermion. We show that it is possible to obtain heavy fourth-generation leptons in regions of parameter space where the light neutrino masses and mixings are compatible with observation. We study the impact of these bounds, as well as the ones from lepton flavor violation, on the phenomenology of these models.

Burdman, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Da Rold, L. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Bariloche (Argentina); Matheus, R. D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2010-09-01

45

Topics in neutrino astroparticle physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of the dissertation, two neutrino properties such as neutrino mass measurement and neutrino dipole moment, in the terrestrial experiments, are examined with particular attention to exotic phenomena that may be observed for theories beyond the Standard Model. In the second part, we study a method for measuring the neutrino mass from a galactic supernova neutrino burst using an innovated detector concept. The neutral current based SNBO (Supernova Neutrino Burst Observatory) detector concept is discussed. We show that it is possible to measure a cosmologically significant neutrino mass, i.e., 5-50 eV directly from the flight time difference between the massive and massless neutrino using the SNBO detector concept. In the third part, very heavy unstable particles from the Big Bang decaying into neutrinos at cosmological epochs is discussed. In particular, we focus on a detection of such relic neutrinos from the decays in the neutrino window on earth, in the energy ranges 10-100 MeV, where the neutrino background is expected to be lowest. In the fourth part, neutrino emission from the explosion of Primordial Black Holes in the context of the Hawking radiation is presented. We suggest a new explosion mechanism inspired by new data from gamma ray bursts that might occur when the Primordial Black Hole reaches a certain surface temperature. We propose some observational tests that use a satellite detector and the proposed SNBO detector. In the last chapter, we examine a possible connection between the baryogenesis in the early universe and the lepton number violation processes.

Hong, Woopyo

1993-01-01

46

Homology modeling provides insights into the binding mode of the PAAD/DAPIN/pyrin domain, a fourth member of the CARD/DD/DED domain family  

PubMed Central

The PAAD/DAPIN/pyrin domain is the fourth member of the death domain superfamily, but unlike other members of this family, it is involved not only in apoptosis but also in innate immunity and several other processes. We have identified 40 PAAD domain-containing proteins by extensively searching the genomes of higher eukaryotes and viruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that there are five categories of PAAD domains that correlate with the domain architecture of the entire proteins. Homology models built on CARD and DD structures identified functionally important residues by studying conservation patterns on the surface of the models. Surface maps of each subfamily show different distributions of these residues, suggesting that domains from different subfamilies do not interact with each other, forming independent regulatory networks. Helix3 of PAAD is predicted to be critical for dimerization. Multiple alignment analysis and modeling suggest that it may be partly disordered, following a new paradigm for interaction proteins that are stabilized by protein–protein interactions.

Liu, Tong; Rojas, Ana; Ye, Yuzhen; Godzik, Adam

2003-01-01

47

Neutrino physics  

SciTech Connect

The field of neutrino physics has expanded greatly in recent years with the discovery that neutrinos change flavor and therefore have mass. Although there are many neutrino physics results since the last DIS workshop, these proceedings concentrate on recent neutrino physics results that either add to or depend on the understanding of Deep Inelastic Scattering. They also describe the short and longer term future of neutrino DIS experiments.

Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

2008-09-01

48

Neutrino tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrinos are produced in weak interactions as states with definite flavor--electron, muon, or tau--and these flavor states are superpositions of states of different mass. As a neutrino propagates through space, the different mass eigenstates interfere, resulting in time-dependent flavor oscillation. Though matter is transparent to neutrinos, the flavor oscillation probability is modified when neutrinos travel through matter. Herein, we present an introduction to neutrino propagation through matter in a manner accessible to advanced undergraduate students. As an interesting application, we consider neutrino propagation through matter with a piecewise-constant density profile. This scenario has relevance in neutrino tomography, in which the density profile of matter, like the Earth's interior, can be probed via a broad-spectrum neutrino beam. We provide an idealized example to demonstrate the principle of neutrino tomography.

Millhouse, Margaret A.; Latimer, David C.

2013-09-01

49

Quasi-Dirac neutrinos and solar neutrino data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present an analysis of the solar neutrino data in the context of a 3+1 quasi-Dirac neutrino model in which the lepton mixing matrix is given at tree level by the tribimaximal matrix. When radiative corrections are taken into account, new effects in neutrino oscillations, as ? e ? ? s , could appear. This oscillation is constrained by the solar neutrino data. In our analysis, we have found an allowed region for our two free parameters ? and m 1. The radiative correction, ?, can vary approximately from 5×10-9 to 10-6 and the calculated fourth mass eigenstate, m 4, varies in the interval 0.01-0.2 eV, at 2 ? level. These results are in agreement with the ones presented in the literature in 2+1 and 2+2 quasi-Dirac models.

Rossi-Torres, F.; Machado, A. C. B.; Pleitez, V.

2013-10-01

50

Neutrino physics  

SciTech Connect

Thanks to compelling evidence that neutrinos can change flavor, we now know that they have nonzero masses, and that leptons mix. In these lectures, we explain the physics of neutrino flavor change, both in vacuum and in matter. Then, we describe what the flavor-change data have taught us about neutrinos. Finally, we consider some of the questions raised by the discovery of neutrino mass, explaining why these questions are so interesting, and how they might be answered experimentally.

Kayser, Boris; /Fermilab

2005-06-01

51

Neutrino Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutrino was postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in the early 1930s, but could only be detected for the first time in the 1950s. Ever since scientists all around the world have worked on the detection and understanding of this particle which so scarcely interacts with matter. Depending on the origin and nature of the neutrino, various types of experiments have been developed and operated. In this entry, we will review neutrino detectors in terms of neutrino energy and associated detection technique as well as the scientific outcome of some selected examples. After a brief historical introduction, the detection of low-energy neutrinos originating from nuclear reactors or from the Earth is used to illustrate the principles and difficulties which are encountered in detecting neutrinos. In the context of solar neutrino spectroscopy, where the neutrino is used as a probe for astrophysics, three different types of neutrino detectors are presented - water ?erenkov, radiochemical, and liquid-scintillator detectors. Moving to higher neutrino energies, we discuss neutrinos produced by astrophysical sources and from accelerators. The entry concludes with an overview of a selection of future neutrino experiments and their scientific goals.

von Feilitzsch, Franz; Lanfranchi, Jean-Côme; Wurm, Michael

52

Stability of the Stanford-Binet Fourth Edition and K-ABC for Young Black and White Children from low Income Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of the Stanford-Binet: Fourth Edition and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children was investigated by administering the tests to a sample of 71 low SES children at age 4 and again at age 6. Data were analyzed by comparing group mean scores, computing correlation coefficients, and determining individual change scores from time one to time two. The SB:FE mean

Robert E. Lamp; Emily J. Krohn

1990-01-01

53

Neutrino oscillations in a predictive SUSY GUT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a predictive SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified theory with the family symmetry U(2)×U(1) which has several nice features. We are able to fit fermion masses and mixing angles, including recent neutrino data, with nine parameters in the charged fermion sector and four in the neutrino sector. The family symmetry plays a preeminent role. (i) The model

T. Blazek; S. Raby; K. Tobe

1999-01-01

54

Neutrino oscillometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrino oscillations are studied employing sources of low energy monoenergetic neutrinos following electron capture by the nucleus and measuring electron recoils. Since the neutrino energy is very low the oscillation length L23 appearing in this electronic neutrino disappearance experiment can be so small that the full oscillation can take place inside the detector so that one may determine very accurately the neutrino oscillation parameters. In particular, since the oscillation probability is proportional to sin22?13, one can measure or set a better limit on the unknown parameter ?13. One, however, has to pay the price that the expected counting rates are very small. Thus one needs a very intensive neutrino source and a large detector with as low as possible energy threshold and high energy and position resolution. Both spherical gaseous and cylindrical liquid detectors are studied. Different source candidates are considered.

Vergados, J. D.; Giomataris, Y.; Novikov, Yu. N.

2012-08-01

55

GUT implications from neutrino mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is given of the experimental neutrino mixing results and types of neutrino models proposed, with special attention to the general features of various GUT models involving intra-family symmetries and horizontal flavor symmetries. Many of the features are then illustrated by a specific SO(10) SUSY GUT model formulated by Barr and the author which can explain all four types of solar neutrino mixing solutions by various choices of the right-handed Majorana mass matrix. The quantitative nature of the model's large mixing angle solution is used to compare the reaches of a neutrino super-beam and a neutrino factory for determining the small Ue3 mixing matrix element.

Albright, Carl H.

2003-05-01

56

Possible LSND Effect as a Small Perturbation of the Bimaximal Texture for Three Active Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A particular form of mixing matrix for three active and one sterile neutrinos is proposed. Its 3 X 3 part describing three active neutrinos arises from the popular bimaximal mixing matrix that works satisfactorily in solar and atmospheric experiments if the LSND effect is ignored. Then, the sterile neutrino, effective in the fourth row and fourth column of the proposed mixing matrix, is responsible for the possible LSND effect by inducing one extra neutrino mass state to exist actively. The LSND effect, if it exists, turns out to reveal its perturbative nature related to small mixing of three active neutrinos with their sterile partner.

Krolikowski, Wojciech

2001-04-01

57

Neutrino mass  

SciTech Connect

The existence of a finite neutrino mass would have important consequences in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. Experimental sensitivities have continued to be pushed down without any confirmed evidence for a finite neutrino mass. Yet there are several observations of discrepancies between theoretical predictions and observations which might be possible indications of a finite neutrino mass. Thus, extensive theoretical and experimental work is underway to resolve these issues.

Bowles, T.J.

1994-04-01

58

Neutrino Oscillations and Neutrino Masses.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A few aspects of neutrino physics have been examined in three parts. As an introduction, we reviewed the Standard Model as well as the Solar and atmospheric neutrinos. Chapter 4 deals with a rigorous treatment of neutrino oscillations using the formalism of the quantum field theory without resorting to the concept of neutrino weak eigenstates. In Chapters 5, 6, and 7, we review and apply the finite temperature field theory to the calculation of the fermion effective masses at the temperature of 250 GeV and above. In Chapter 8, we present the maximal mixing among three generations of neutrinos as a unified solution to the Solar and atmospheric neutrino problems. Finally we conclude the thesis in Chapter 9.

Lee, Jaeyoung

1995-01-01

59

Fourth Amendment Applicability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large percentage of fourth amendment litigation involves the issues of applicability to place, waiver\\/consent, and the reasonable expectation of privacy. Not one of these issues, however, has the remotest thing to do with the ultimate substance of the fourth amendment protection itself. They deal exclusively with the threshold question of whether the fourth amendment is even involved. Only if

John O. Sonsteng

1990-01-01

60

How Are They Managing? A Six Month Retrospective of Cuyahoga County Families Leaving Welfare. Fourth Quarter of 1998 and First Quarter of 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides interim findings from a study of families leaving welfare in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. The study is designed to monitor the status of families leaving cash assistance at multiple times and to compare the experiences of exit cohorts drawn at quarterly intervals throughout the process of welfare reform implementation. The report…

Coulton, Claudia; Pasqualone, Cara; Bania, Neil; Martin, Toby; Lalich, Nina; Fernando, Margaret; Li, Fang

61

Quasidegenerate neutrinos and tribimaximal mixing  

SciTech Connect

We consider how, for quasidegenerate neutrinos with tribimaximal mixing at a high-energy scale, the mixing angles are affected by radiative running from high- to low-energy scales in a supersymmetric theory. The limits on the high-energy scale that follow from consistency with the observed mixing are determined. We construct a model in which a non-Abelian discrete family symmetry leads to both a quasidegenerate neutrino-mass spectrum and to near tribimaximal mixing.

Medeiros Varzielas, Ivo de [CFTP, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ross, Graham G.; Serna, Mario [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

2009-10-01

62

Solar Neutrinos Before and After Neutrino 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare, using a three neutrino analysis, the allowed neutrino oscillation parameters and solar neutrino fluxes determined by the experimental data available Before and After Neutrino 2004. New data available after Neutrino 2004 include refined KamLAND and gallium measurements. We use six different approaches to analyzing the KamLAND data. We present detailed results using all the available neutrino and anti-neutrino

John N. Bahcall; Maria C. Gonzalez-Garcia; Carlos Pena-Garay

2004-01-01

63

Neutrino mass  

SciTech Connect

Neutrinos play a dominant role in both particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. In the our present understanding of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces, the group structure of the Standard Model is SU(3){sub C} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} U(I){sub EM}. In the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow Standard Electroweak Model, left-handed neutrinos sit in a doublet, while right-handed neutrinos are in a singlet, and therefore do not interact with the other known particles. Also in this model, the neutrinos are intrinsically massless. However, while the W-S-G model provides an amazingly accurate picture of our present cold Universe, It has a number of deficits. The Standard Model does not explain the origin of the group structure, It does not reduce the number of coupling constants required, nor does it offer any prediction for the physical masses of the particles. Thus, it is generally assumed that the Standard Model is but a subset of some larger gauge theory. A wide variety of Grand Unified field Theories (GUTs), Super Symmetric Models (SUSY), and Superstring models have been proposed as the model for this larger structure. In general, these models predict nonzero neutrino masses and contain mechanisms that provide for lepton-number violation. Thus, a variety of new phenomena are predicted, including finite neutrino masses and the possibility that neutrinos can oscillate from one type to another. This report looks at the possibility of detecting neutrino vat mass.

Bowles, T.J.

1993-04-01

64

Neutrino mass  

SciTech Connect

Neutrinos play a dominant role in both particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. In the our present understanding of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces, the group structure of the Standard Model is SU(3)[sub C] [circle times] SU(2)[sub L] [circle times] U(I)[sub EM]. In the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow Standard Electroweak Model, left-handed neutrinos sit in a doublet, while right-handed neutrinos are in a singlet, and therefore do not interact with the other known particles. Also in this model, the neutrinos are intrinsically massless. However, while the W-S-G model provides an amazingly accurate picture of our present cold Universe, It has a number of deficits. The Standard Model does not explain the origin of the group structure, It does not reduce the number of coupling constants required, nor does it offer any prediction for the physical masses of the particles. Thus, it is generally assumed that the Standard Model is but a subset of some larger gauge theory. A wide variety of Grand Unified field Theories (GUTs), Super Symmetric Models (SUSY), and Superstring models have been proposed as the model for this larger structure. In general, these models predict nonzero neutrino masses and contain mechanisms that provide for lepton-number violation. Thus, a variety of new phenomena are predicted, including finite neutrino masses and the possibility that neutrinos can oscillate from one type to another. This report looks at the possibility of detecting neutrino vat mass.

Bowles, T.J.

1993-01-01

65

Neutrino astronomy  

SciTech Connect

Current knowledge and proposed experiments in the field of neutrino astronomy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on expected sources and existing and proposed detectors for intermediate-energy (10 to 50 MeV) and ultrahigh energy (greater than 10 GeV) neutrinos. Following a brief discussion of the counting rate obtained in the solar neutrino experiment of Davis (1978) and possible statistical sources for the discrepancy between the expected and observed rates, consideration is given to the physics of neutrino ejection in stellar gravitational collapse and sources of high-energy proton collisions giving rise to ultrahigh energy neutrinos. The capabilities of operating Cerenkov detectors at the Homestake Gold Mine, the Mt. Blanc Tunnel and in the Soviet Caucasus are considered in relation to the detection of gravitational collapse in the center of the galaxy, and it is pointed out that neutrino detectors offer a more reliable means of detecting collapses in the Galaxy than do gravitational wave detectors. The possibility of using Cerenkov detectors for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection is also indicated, and applications of large neutrino detectors such as the proposed DUMAND array to measure the lifetime of the proton are discussed.

Schramm, D.N.

1980-01-01

66

Neutrino Telescopes  

SciTech Connect

Neutrino telescopes complement gamma ray telescopes in the observations of energetic astronomical sources as well as in searching for the dark matter. This paper gives the status of the current generation neutrino telescopes projects: Baikal, AMANDA, NESTOR, NEMO and ANTARES with particular emphasis on the ANTARES telescope in the Mediterranean Sea.

Carr, John [Centre de Physiques des Particules de Marseille, IN2P3/CNRS (France)

2005-02-21

67

Neutrino Astrophysics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Neutrino or antineutrino emission from collapsing or bouncing stars is considered. Up to 10 exp 15 GM CCM exp -3 , a hot neutron fluid behaves like an ideal gas and the neutron--proton ratio is generally less than that of a cold neutron star. The neutrino...

S. A. Bludman

1975-01-01

68

Stellar neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

Neutrino provide an important diagnostic of behavior deep inside the solar core. They also play a major role in the evolution of red giants. Horizontal branch stars, and core-collapse supernovae. I discuss some of the interesting neutrino physics issues that have arisen in studies of stellar evolution.

Haxton, W.C.

1992-09-01

69

Spin Light of Neutrino in Gravitational Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop the quasiclassical theory of a massive neutrino spin evolution in the presence of gravitational fields, and the corresponding probability of the neutrino spin oscillations in gravitational fields is derived for the first time. On this basis we also predict a new mechanism for electromagnetic radiation by a neutrino moving in the vicinity of gravitating objects (the "spin light of neutrino," SL?, in gravitational fields). It is shown that the total power of this radiation is proportional to the neutrino gamma factor to the fourth power, and the emitted photon energy, for the case of an ultra relativistic neutrino, spans up to gamma-rays. We investigate the SL? caused by both gravitational and electromagnetic fields, also accounting for effects of arbitrary moving and polarized matter, in various astrophysical environments. In particular, we discuss the SL? emitted by a neutrino moving in the vicinity of a rotating neutron star, black hole surrounded by dense matter, as well as by a neutrino propagating in the relativistic jet from a quasar.

Dvornikov, Maxim; Grigoriev, Alexander; Studenikin, Alexander

70

New constraints on neutrino masses from cosmology  

SciTech Connect

By combining data from cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments (including the recent WMAP third year results), large scale structure (LSS) and Lyman-{alpha} forest observations, we derive upper limits on the sum of neutrino masses of {summation}m{sub v} < 0.17eV at 95% c.l.. We then constrain the hypothesis of a fourth, sterile, massive neutrino. For the 3 massless + 1 massive neutrino case we bound the mass of the sterile neutrino to m{sub s} < 0.26eV at 95% c.l.. These results exclude at high significance the sterile neutrino hypothesis as an explanation of the LSND anomaly. We then generalize the analysis to account for active neutrino masses which tightens the limit to m{sub s} < 0.23eV and the possibility that the sterile abundance is not thermal. In the latter case, the constraints in the (mass, density) plane are nontrivial. For a mass of > 1eV or < 0.05eV the cosmological energy density in sterile neutrinos is always constrained to be {omega}{sub v} < 0.003 at 95% c.l.. However, for a sterile neutrino mass of {omega}{sub v} 0.25eV, {omega}{sub v} can be as large as 0.01.

Melchiorri, A.; Serra, P.; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome; Dodelson, S.; /Fermilab; Slosar, A.; /Ljubljana U.

2006-01-01

71

Unveiling neutrino mixing and leptonic CP violation  

SciTech Connect

We review the present understanding of neutrino masses and mixings, discussing what are the unknowns in the three family oscillation scenario. Despite the anticipated success coming from the planned long baseline neutrino experiments in unraveling the leptonic mixing sector, there are two important unknowns which may remain obscure: the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} and the CP-phase {delta}. The measurement of these two parameters has led us to consider the combination of superbeams and neutrino factories as the key to unveil the neutrino oscillation picture.

Mena, Olga; /Fermilab

2005-01-01

72

Neutrino oscillations  

SciTech Connect

The interest in neutrino oscillations is such that there are several experiments approved or planned for the near future. There are experiments already complete which have searched for oscillations particularly between nu/sub ..mu../ ..-->.. nu/sub e/. We shall concentrate here on accelerator experiments and try to show the principal limitations on the experimental sensitivity to changes in neutrino flavor. We shall give a critical review of the methodology that has been used or proposed for accelerator experiments.

White, D.H.

1982-01-01

74

Is cosmology compatible with sterile neutrinos?  

SciTech Connect

By combining data from cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments (including the recent BOOMERANG-2K2 results), large scale structure (LSS) and Lyman-{alpha} forest observations, we constrain the hypothesis of a fourth, sterile, massive neutrino. For the 3 massless + 1 massive neutrino case we bound the mass of the sterile neutrino to m{sub s} < 0.55eV at 95% c.l.. These results exclude at high significance the sterile neutrino hypothesis as an explanation of the LSND anomaly. We then generalize the analysis to account for active neutrino masses (which tightens the limit to m{sub s} < 0.51eV) and the possibility that the sterile abundance is not thermal. In the latter case, the constraints in the (mass, density) plane are non-trivial. For a mass of > 1eV or < 0.05eV the cosmological energy density in sterile neutrinos is always constrained to be {omega}{sub {nu}} < 0.005 at 95% c.l.. However, for a sterile neutrino mass of {approx} 0.25 eV, {omega}{sub {nu}} can be as large as 0.015.

Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab; Melchiorri, Alessandro; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome; Slosar, Anze; /Ljubljana U.

2005-11-01

75

Large neutrino asymmetries from neutrino oscillations  

SciTech Connect

We reexamine neutrino oscillations in the early universe. Contrary to previous studies, we show that large neutrino asymmetries can arise due to oscillations between ordinary neutrinos and sterile neutrinos. This means that the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the mass and mixing of ordinary neutrinos with sterile neutrinos can be evaded. Also, it is possible that the neutrino asymmetries can be large enough ({approx_gt}10{percent}) to have a significant effect on BBN through nuclear reaction rates. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Foot, R.; Thomson, M.J.; Volkas, R.R. [Research Centre for High Energy Physics, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3052 (Australia)

1996-05-01

76

Neutrino physics at accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present and future neutrino experiments at accelerators are mainly concerned with understanding the neutrino oscillation phenomenon and its implications. Here a brief account of neutrino oscillations is given together with a description of the supporting data. Some current and planned accelerator neutrino experiments are also explained. Neutrinos are particles that interact only weakly and this gives them a somewhat special

Enrique Fernandez

77

The solar neutrino problem.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar neutrino problem (SNP) is reviewed on the bases of neutrino physics, solar neutrino detection and standard solar model. It is interesting that the detected neutrino flux values of different solar neutrino detectors are lower than the values calculated by SMM in different degree. The studies on SNP in particle physics and in astrophysics are also discussed respectively.

Xu, Renxin; Luo, Xianhan

1995-12-01

78

A fourth polymorph in the family of BEDT-TTF salts with thiocyanatocuprate(I) anions: (BEDT-TTF){<_4}Cu{<_3}(NCS){<_5}.  

SciTech Connect

A new crystallographic modification was found in the family of BEDT-TTF salts containing thiocyanatocuprate(I) anions. The cation radical salt crystallizes in the P{sup {bar 1}} space group with a = 8.2720(9) {angstrom}, b = 19.099(2) {angstrom}, c = 43.758(5) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 81.088(4){sup o}, {beta} = 87.253(4){sup o}, {gamma} = 83.790(4){sup o}, V = 6786.2(13) {angstrom}{sup 3} at 150 K. The BEDT-TTF radical cations pack in an {alpha}-type motif, but every four columns, there is a slip in the layer. Where this slip occurs, the stacks are coupled in a {beta}'' manner. The material exhibits semiconductive behavior with an activation energy of 0.13 eV above 250 K and 0.22 eV below. Packing motif of the (BEDT-TTF){sub 4}Cu{sub 3}(NCS){sub 5} structure.

Schlueter, J. A.; Geiser, U.; Wang, H. H.; Manson, J. L. (Materials Science Division); (Eastern Washington Univ.)

2012-05-01

79

NEUTRINO FACTORIES - PHYSICS POTENTIALS.  

SciTech Connect

The recent results from Super-Kamiokande atmospheric and solar neutrino observations opens a new era in neutrino physics and has sparked a considerable interest in the physics possibilities with a Neutrino Factory based on the muon storage ring. We present physics opportunities at a Neutrino Factory, and prospects of Neutrino oscillation experiments. Using the precisely known flavor composition of the beam, one could envision an extensive program to measure the neutrino oscillation mixing matrix, including possible CP violating effects. These and Neutrino Interaction Rates for examples of a Neutrino Factory at BNL (and FNAL) with detectors at Gran Sasso, SLAC and Sudan are also presented.

PARSA,Z.

2001-02-16

80

Crossing the fourth hurdle  

PubMed Central

The fourth hurdle, the requirement that pharmaceutical manufacturers can demonstrate that their new products represent good value for money as well as being of good quality, effective and safe, is increasingly being required by healthcare systems. In crossing this ‘fourth’ hurdle, companies will usually need to demonstrate that their products are more effective than relevant comparators and that the increased cost is offset by the enhanced benefits. Decision makers, however, must draw their conclusions not only on the basis of the underpinning science but also on the social values of the people they serve.

Rawlins, Michael D

2012-01-01

81

Solar neutrinos.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this paper is to review the progress made in the field of solar-neutrino physics with the results of the last-generation experiments together with the new perspectives suggested by the future projects. An elementary introduction to energy production mechanisms and stellar models is given. Neutrino properties and oscillations are discussed with particular interest in matter effects. Present experiments and future projects are reviewed. Particular attention is devoted to the compelling background and low-statistics problems. Finally, presently available results from running experiments are discussed, in the framework of the SNP. Some conclusions on the possibilities of the new proposed projects to actually slove the problem are also given.

Cremonesi, O.

1993-12-01

82

The fourth moment method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher moment analysis has typically been used to upper bound certain functions. In this paper, we introduce a new combinatorial method to lower bound the expectation of an absolute value by a fourth moment. We present a special case of this lower bound in a particularly useful form — yielding a general mathematical inequality on expectations. In the special case

Bonnie Berger

1991-01-01

83

Fourth Amendment First Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fourth Amendment today is an embarrassment. Much of what the Supreme Court has said in the last half century - that the Amendment generally calls for warrants and probable cause for all searches and seizures, and exclusion of illegally obtained evidence - is initially plausible but ultimately misguided. As a matter of text, history, and plain old common sense,

Akhil Reed Amar

1994-01-01

84

The history of neutrinos, 1930–1985. What have we learned about neutrinos? What have we learned using neutrinos?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt to remember some of the main events which highlight the evolution of our knowledge of the neutrinos and their properties, the "families" of particles, a few of the very interesting persons who contributed to this progress, as well as the contribution of neutrino beam experiments to the validation of the electro-weak and quantum-chromo-dynamic theories, and the structure of the nucleon.

Steinberger, J.

2013-02-01

85

The history of neutrinos, 1930-1985. What have we learned about neutrinos? What have we learned using neutrinos?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt to remember some of the main events which highlight the evolution of our knowledge of the neutrinos and their properties, the “families” of particles, a few of the very interesting persons who contributed to this progress, as well as the contribution of neutrino beam experiments to the validation of the electro-weak and quantum-chromo-dynamic theories, and the structure of the nucleon.

Steinberger, J.

2012-12-01

86

Search for fourth generation neutral heavy leptons  

SciTech Connect

A search for fourth generation neutral heavy leptons ({nu}{sub 4}) in W decays was carried out the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}{bar s} = 1.8 TeV. The {nu}{sub 4} is assumed to be produced via mixing with the first generation neutrino only. We looked for a three electron final state event topology. The data used in this analysis represent 12.2 pb{sup {minus}1} taken during the 1992--1993 run. No candidates were found. We set a preliminary limit beyond the LEP limit for the considered mixing case on the {vert_bar}U{sub e4}{vert_bar}{sup 2} {minus} m{sub {nu}4} plane.

Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M. [and others; D0 Collaboration

1995-07-01

87

Decays of Fourth Generation Bound States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the decay modes of the heavy q'\\bar {q}' bound states originating from Higgs boson exchange between quark-antiquark pair. In case of a small coupling between the fourth and lower generation the main decay mode is q'\\bar {q}' annihilation. We show that for a vector state the dominant decay modes are Higgs-gamma and Higgs-Z decays, while for a pseudoscalar state the strong two-gluon decay mode dominates. The bound states are very narrow. The ratio of the total width to the binding energy is less than 1% if we are not extremely close to the critical quark mass where the binding energy is very small. The discussed decay modes exist for any fermion-antifermion bound states including heavy leptons and heavy neutrinos if their masses are high enough to form a bound state due to attractive Higgs boson exchange potential.

Dmitriev, V. F.; Flambaum, V. V.

2012-12-01

88

Minimalistic neutrino mass model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the simplest model which solves the solar and atmospheric neutrino puzzles, in the sense that it contains the smallest amount of beyond the Standard Model ingredients. The solar neutrino data is accounted for by Planck-mass effects while the atmospheric neutrino anomaly is due to the existence of a single right-handed neutrino at an intermediate mass scale between 109

André de Gouvêa; José W. F. Valle

2001-01-01

89

Heavy neutrinos: the heterodox strikes back  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of a fourth generation doublet neutrino are severely constrained by the recent LEP results. This species is no longer a viable candidate for the dark for the dark matter pervades the universe. Those who favour the heterodox will be relieved to notice that neutrinos embedded inside electroweak gauge triplets - a promising if unconventional possibility - may still solve the astronomical missing mass conundrum. High energy physics and cosmological relevance favour such a neutrino to have a mass in the range 30-80 GeV. Whilst elusively absent from the Z0 boson peak width, these new dark matter candidates are associated by gauge symmetry to charged Dirac fermions whose discovery should not escape the LEP detectors once the beam energy reaches ~ 100 GeV. On leave of absence from LAPP, BP 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex, France and Université de Chambéry, F-73000 Chambéry, France.

Salati, Pierre

1991-01-01

90

New Constraints on Neutrino Physics from Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the most recent constraints on neutrino parameters from cosmology. Combining recent measurement of cosmic microwave background anisotropies, Hubble constant, and galaxy clustering, the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom is N=3.98±0.37 at 68% c.l., hinting towards the possible existence of a fourth sterile neutrino. However, this result strongly depends on the Hubble prior obtained from the HST. With a different prior on the Hubble constant, coming from a median statistic analysis, we have N=3.52±0.39 at 68% c.l.. The total neutrino mass is bounded to be below ?m?<0.36 eV at 95% c.l. in the case of the HST prior but relaxed to ?m?<0.60 eV at 95% c.l. in the case of the median statistic prior.

Melchiorri, A.; Archidiacono, M.; Calabrese, E.

2013-04-01

91

Future Neutrino Experiments  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of future neutrino experiments addressing fundamental questions about the neutrino and about what the neutrino can tell us about the universe. A class of these experiments are long baseline neutrino oscillation v{sub e} appearance searches which can measure the final unknowns of the 3x3 neutrino mixing matrix and look for CP violation in the neutrino sector. The massive detectors needed for these experiments can also search for proton decay and measure extra-terrestrial neutrino sources. There are a number of efforts worldwide to launch these experiments. These efforts, with a focus on US plans, are described.

Fleming, B. T. [Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 60510 (United States)

2009-12-17

92

Neurosurgery. Fourth edition  

SciTech Connect

The Fourth Edition of this volume in the Operative Surgery Series has been considerably revised to accommodate the many changes which have changed the practice of neurosurgery in the past eight years. There have been advances in technology, such as the wider application of CT scanning, in surgical technique, and in the design of new implantable materials. All these developments have substantially affected both the practice of neurosurgery and the prognosis for the patient and are fully reflected in the new edition.

Simon, L.; Thomas, D.G.T.; Clark, W.K.

1987-01-01

93

Supernova neutrino detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a massive star collapses at the end of its life, nearly all of the gravitational binding energy of the resulting remnant is released in the form of neutrinos. The burst of neutrinos from a Galactic core collapse supernova will be detected in neutrino detectors worldwide. This talk will cover supernova neutrino detection techniques in general, current supernova neutrino detectors, and prospects for specific future experiments.

Scholberg, Kate

2012-07-01

94

Constraining sterile neutrinos with AMANDA and IceCube atmospheric neutrino data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that atmospheric neutrino data accumulated with the AMANDA and the partially deployed IceCube experiments constrain the allowed parameter space for a hypothesized fourth sterile neutrino beyond the reach of a combined analysis of all other experiments, for ?m241lesssim1 eV2. Although the IceCube data wins the statistics in the analysis, the advantage of a combined analysis of AMANDA and IceCube data is the partial remedy of yet unknown instrumental systematic uncertainties. We also illustrate the sensitivity of the completed IceCube detector, that is now taking data, to the parameter space of 3+1 model.

Esmaili, Arman; Halzen, Francis; Peres, O. L. G.

2012-11-01

95

Fourth generation bound states  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the spectrum and wave functions of q{sup '}q{sup '} bound states for heavy fourth generation quarks (q{sup '}) that have a very small mixing with the three observed generations of standard model quarks. Such bound states come with different color, spin and flavor quantum numbers. Since the fourth generation Yukawa coupling, {lambda}{sub q}{sup '}, is large we include all perturbative corrections to the potential between the heavy quark and antiquark of order {lambda}{sub q}{sup '2}N{sub c}/16{pi}{sup 2} where N{sub c} is the number of colors, as well as relativistic corrections suppressed by (v/c){sup 2}. We find that the lightest fourth generation quark masses for which a bound state exists for color octet states. For the color singlet states, which always have a bound state, we analyze the influence that the Higgs couplings have on the size and binding energy of the bound states.

Ishiwata, Koji; Wise, Mark B. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91125 (United States)

2011-04-01

96

Tachyonic neutrinos and the neutrino masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a recent claim of superluminal neutrinos shown to be in error, 2012 may not be a propitious time to consider the evidence that one or more neutrinos may indeed be tachyons. Nevertheless, there are a growing number of observations that continue to suggest this possibility - albeit with an m?2<0 having a much smaller magnitude than was implied by the original OPERA claim. One recently published non-standard analysis of SN 1987A neutrinos supports a tachyonic mass eigenstate, and here we show how it leads to 3 + 3 mirror neutrino model having an unconventional mass hierarchy. The model incorporates one superluminal active-sterile neutrino pair, and it is testable in numerous ways, including making a surprising prediction about an unpublished aspect of the SN 1987A neutrinos. Additional supporting evidence involving earlier analyses of cosmic rays is summarized to add credence to the tachyonic neutrino hypothesis.

Ehrlich, Robert

2013-01-01

97

Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

Eberle, b

2004-01-28

98

Neutrino Mass and Flavour Models  

SciTech Connect

We survey some of the recent promising developments in the search for the theory behind neutrino mass and tri-bimaximal mixing, and indeed all fermion masses and mixing. We focus in particular on models with discrete family symmetry and unification, and show how such models can also solve the SUSY flavour and CP problems. We also discuss the theoretical implications of the measurement of a non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.

King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

2010-02-10

99

Fourth Generation Parity  

SciTech Connect

We present a very simple 4th-generation (4G) model with an Abelian gauge interaction under which only the 4G fermions have nonzero charge. The U(1) gauge symmetry can have a Z_2 residual discrete symmetry (4G-parity), which can stabilize the lightest 4G particle (L4P). When the 4G neutrino is the L4P, it would be a neutral and stable particle and the other 4G fermions would decay into the L4P leaving the trace of missing energy plus the standard model fermions. Because of the new symmetry, the 4G particle creation and decay modes are different from those of the sequential 4G model, and the 4G particles can be appreciably lighter than typical experimental bounds.

Lee, Hye-Sung [William and Mary College, BNL, JLAB; Soni, Amarjit [William and Mary College

2013-01-01

100

Implications of ultrahigh energy neutrino flux constraints for Lorentz-invariance violating cosmogenic neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the implications of Lorentz-invariance violation (LIV) on cosmogenic neutrino observations, with particular focus on the constraints imposed on several well-developed models for ultrahigh energy cosmogenic neutrino production by recent results from the ANITA long-duration balloon payload, and RICE at the South Pole. Under a scenario proposed originally by Coleman and Glashow, each lepton family may attain maximum velocities that can exceed c, leading to energy-loss through several interaction channels during propagation. We show that future observations of cosmogenic neutrinos will provide by far the most stringent limit on LIV in the neutrino sector. We derive the implied level of LIV required to suppress observation of predicted fluxes from several mainstream cosmogenic neutrino models, and specifically those recently constrained by the ANITA and RICE experiments. We simulate via detailed Monte Carlo code the propagation of cosmogenic neutrino fluxes in the presence of LIV-induced energy losses. We show that this process produces several detectable effects in the resulting attenuated neutrino spectra, even at LIV-induced neutrino superluminality of (u?-c)/c?10-26, about 13 orders of magnitude below current bounds.

Gorham, P. W.; Connolly, A.; Allison, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Belov, K.; Besson, D. Z.; Binns, W. R.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M. H.; Nam, J.; Saltzberg, D.; Varner, G. S.; Vieregg, A. G.

2012-11-01

101

Neutrino Physics at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Neutrino oscillations provide the first evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. I will briefly overview the neutrino 'hi-story', describing key discoveries over the past decades that shaped our understanding of neutrinos and their behavior. Fermilab was, is and hopefully will be at the forefront of the accelerator neutrino experiments. NuMI, the most powerful accelerator neutrino beam in the world has ushered us into the era of precise measurements. Its further upgrades may give a chance to tackle the remaining mysteries of the neutrino mass hierarchy and possible CP violation.

Saoulidou, Niki

2008-04-09

102

Neutrino properties and puzzles  

SciTech Connect

Sixty years after the existence of the neutrino was first postulated, we are still lacking in information on the fundamental properties of neutrinos. Measurements have consistently pushed the limits on the mass, magnetic moment, and possible mixing down. Solar neutrino experiments are now shedding more light on the solar neutrino problem'' and are starting to give a hint that perhaps these quantities are nonzero. The present status of our knowledge of neutrino properties, the newest experimental data on the solar neutrino problem,'' and future plans will be presented. 27 refs.

Bowles, T.J.

1990-01-01

103

Flavor Mixing, Neutrino Masses and Neutrino Oscillations  

SciTech Connect

We study a model for the mass matrices of the leptons. We are able to relate the mass eigenvalues of the charged leptons and of the neutrinos to the mixing angles and can predict the masses of the neutrinos. We find a normal hierarchy--the masses are 0.004 eV, 0.01 eV and 0.05 eV. The atmospheric mixing angle is given by the mass ratios of the charged leptons and the neutrinos. We find 38 degrees, consistent with the experiments. The mixing element, connecting the first neutrino with the electron, is found to be 0.05.

Fritzsch, H. [University of Munich, Physics Department, Munich (Germany)

2009-05-14

104

Test of neutrino oscillations using atmospheric neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

We study the distributions of 135 atmospheric neutrino events collected in 420 days of running in a large, deep underground detector. These events come from neutrinos with path lengths ranging from a few kilometers to over 10/sup 4/ kimometers. The average neutrino energy is 920 MeV. No evidence for neutrino oscillations is observed. Flux-independent limits for ..delta..m/sub ..nu..//sup 2/ in the range of 2.2 x 10/sup -5/ to 11.2 x 10/sup -5/ eV/sup 2/ are set for maximum mixing.

LoSecco, J.M.; Bionta, R.M.; Biewitt, G.; Bratton, C.B.; Casper, D.; Chrysicopoulou, P.; Claus, R.; Cortez, B.G.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.W.

1985-05-27

105

Oscillations of neutrino velocity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider the problem of quantum measurement of neutrino velocity. We show, that the well known neutrino flavor oscillations are always accompanied by the oscillations of neutrino velocity. In particular, the velocity of a freely moving neutrino is demonstrated to periodically exceed the speed of light. Unfortunately, the superluminal effect turns out to be too small to be experimentally detected. It is also shown that neutrino velocity significantly depends on the energy, size and shape of the neutrino wave packet. Owing to the big experimental error of the recent experiments, these dependences remained unnoticeable. Finally, we have shown that the recent claims that superluminal neutrinos should lose energy during their flight is not true. Instead, our formula suggests the approximate conservation of energy along neutrino trajectory. All these results have been obtained without violation of special theory of relativity.

Sazdovi?, Branislav; Vasili?, Milovan

2013-03-01

106

Neutrino physics-the link between the microcosmos and the macrocosmos, a study in two parts: (1) Theoretical-a look at the tau neutrino mass and other quantum electrodynamical effects in third family lepton interactions and (2) Experimental-underwater astronomy in Hawai'i, the short prototype string of the Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector project  

SciTech Connect

The nineteen eighties has been a time in which Cosmology and Particle Physics have come together. This dissertation reflects that trend. It does so in two ways. First, in Chapters 1 through 3, there is a theoretical investigation into some aspects of generational universality. The consequences of a third lepton, namely the tauon, and an associated tau neutrino, are explored in terms of phenomenology (mass and V-A consistency) that may shed insight into questions of neutrino mass and increased symmetry at higher energies. Second, in Chapters 4 through 11, there is an experimental investigation in the form of constructing and operating the first stage of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detection) project which was a ship suspended muon and neutrino telescope called the SPS (Short Prototype String). This detector is of the water Cherenkov type and is the first time such an instrument has been successfully built and tested for use in the ocean. Chapters 6 through 10 are devoted to the detailed documentation of the parts of the SPS and its technology integration that I designed, prototyped, and debugged. In particular, a complete description is given to the command and control communications system of the string, the digital control electronics and associated software for the Optical, Calibration, and Power modules as well as the fast digitizing electronics or String Bottom Controller (SBC). This includes the development of a microcontroller language UHPS (Underwater Hawai'i Programming System). Finally, Chapter 11 is an analysis of SPS data in terms of ascertaining a purely statistically based downward traveling muon rate at a depth of 4.0 Km yielding (2.06 {+-} 0.68) {times} 10{sup {minus}2} Hz.

Babson, J.F.

1989-01-01

107

Geo-neutrino Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of geo-neutrinos measure radiogenic heat production within the earth, providing information on the thermal history and dynamic processes of the mantle. Two detectors currently observe geo-neutrinos from underground locations. Other detection projects in various stages of development include a deep ocean observatory. This paper presents the current status of geo-neutrino observation and describes the scientific capabilities of the deep ocean observatory, with emphasis on geology and neutrino physics.

Dye, S. T.; Alderman, M.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Mahoney, J. M.; McDonough, W. F.; Pakvasa, S.; Rosen, M.; Smith, S.; Varner, G.

2009-12-01

108

Minimalistic Neutrino Mass Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the simplest model which solves the solar and atmospheric neutrino puzzles, in the sense that it contains the smallest amount of beyond the Standard Model ingredients. The solar neutrino data is accounted for by Planck-mass effects while the atmospheric neutrino anomaly is due to the existence of a single right-handed neutrino at an intermediate mass scale between 10^9

A De Gouvêa; Jose W. F. Valle

2000-01-01

109

Topics in neutrino astrophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, we investigate observable consequences of active and sterile neutrinos, in galactic, cluster, and cosmological scales. We assume that sterile neutrinos with masses of order 10's eV, 10's keV, and MeV were formed by oscillation of active neutrinos in the early universe. If sterile neutrinos with mass ~ 30 eV exist, they affect the structure of galaxies and

Man Ho Chan

2009-01-01

110

Neutrinos in the early universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutrinos from the Big Bang or the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB) carry precious information from the early epoch when our universe was only 1 s old. Although not yet directly detected, CNB may be revealed indirectly through cosmological observations due to neutrino important cosmological influence.We review the cosmological role of neutrinos and the cosmological constraints on neutrino characteristics. Namely, we discuss the impact of neutrinos in the early universe: the cosmic expansion, neutrino decoupling, the role of neutrinos in the primordial production of light elements, leptogenesis, etc. We briefly discuss the role of neutrino at later stages of the universe.Due to the considerable cosmological influence of neutrinos, cosmological bounds on neutrino properties from observational data exist. We review the cosmological constraints on the effective number of neutrino species, neutrino mass and mixing parameters, lepton number of the universe, presence of sterile neutrino, etc.

Kirilova, D.; Frere, J.-M.

2012-12-01

111

Supernova Neutrino Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutrino burst from a core collapse supernova can provide information about the explosion mechanism and the mechanisms of proto neutron star cooling but also about the intrinsic properties of the neutrino such as flavor oscillations. One important question is to understand to which extend can the supernova and the neutrino physics be decoupled in the observation of a single

Inés Gil-Botella

2011-01-01

112

Neutrino Physics with Opera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrino physics with the OPERA experiment will be discussed in this paper. First the OPERA physic goal will be presented. A description of the neutrino beam and of the detector will follow. The analysis of the beam induced neutrino interactions will then be presented.

Bertolin, Alessandro

2011-10-01

113

Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, v...

B. Eberle A. Ringwald

2004-01-01

114

Exploring the Neutrino Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrinos are the most elusive of the fundamental constituents of matter and are responsible for the biggest particle physics discovery of the past decade: contrary to theoretical expectations, it is now established that neutrinos have mass. I'll review what we have learned about neutrino properties, and describe a list of known unknowns that can only be addressed by several distinct

Andre de Gouvea

2008-01-01

115

Atmospheric neutrino fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed Monte Carlo simulation of neutrino fluxes of atmospheric origin is made taking into account the muon polarization effect on neutrinos from muon decay. There still remains a significant discrepancy between the calculated (ve+ve)\\/(vmu+vmu) ratio and that observed by the Kamiokande group, which can be explained by three neutrino oscillations. However, the ratio evaluated at the Frejus site and

M. Honda; K. Kasahara; K. Hidaka; S. Midorikawa

1990-01-01

116

Solar neutrino oscillations  

SciTech Connect

The special properties of solar neutrinos that render this flux so uniquely important in searches for neutrino masses and flavor mixing are reviewed. The effects of matter, including density fluctuations and turbulence, on solar neutrino oscillations are explained through analogies with more familiar atomic physics phenomena.

Haxton, W.C.

1993-12-31

117

Status of Sterile Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of ?e and ? disappearance experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations in the framework of 3+1 neutrino mixing is reviewed taking into account the Gallium anomaly, the reactor anomaly, solar neutrino data and ?eC scattering data.

Giunti, C.

2013-04-01

118

Neutrino Landau damping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetic regime of the collective interaction between neutrinos and electron plasma waves is described via the coupled kinetic equations for neutrinos and electrons. It is shown that neutrinos can Landau damp electron plasma waves. In dense stellar plasmas, this novel mechanism can play a significant role as an additional and much stronger turbulent plasma cooling process.

L. O. Silva; R. Bingham; J. M. Dawson; J. T. Mendonça; P. K. Shukla

2000-01-01

119

Neutrino oscillations and neutrino-electron scattering  

SciTech Connect

Neutrino flavor oscillations can significantly alter the cross section for neutrino-electron scattering. As a result, such oscillations can affect the comparison between existing reactor data and theories of neutral-current processes. They may also lead to strikingly large effects in high-energy accelerator experiments.

Kayser, B.; Rosen, S.P.

1980-10-01

120

Solar neutrinos: Probing the sun or neutrinos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The decade of the 1990's should prove to be a landmark period for the study of solar neutrino physics. Current observations show 2-3 times fewer neutrinos coming from the sun than are theoretically expected. As we enter the decade, new experiments are poi...

J. F. Wilkerson

1991-01-01

121

Neutrino observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory  

SciTech Connect

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

Ahmad, Q.R.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen, T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Barton,J.C.; Beier, E.W.; Bercovitch, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S.D.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R.J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler,M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Browne, M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Buhler, G.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, H.H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cowen, D.F.; Cox, G.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W.F.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky,M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A.P.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E.D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J.V.; Gil, S.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Hamian, A.A.; Handler, W.B.; Haq, R.U.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hepburn, J.D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime, A.; Hykawy, J.G.; Isaac,M.C.P.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N.A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Klein, J.R.; Knox, A.B.; Komar, R.J.; Kouzes, R.; Kutter,T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Manor, J.; Marino, A.D.; McCauley, N.; McDonald,D.S.; McDonald, A.B.; McFarlane, K.; McGregor, G.; Meijer, R.; Mifflin,C.; Miller, G.G.; Milton, G.; Moffat, B.A.; Moorhead, M.; Nally, C.W.; Neubauer, M.S.; Newcomer, F.M.; Ng, H.S.; Noble, A.J.; Norman, E.B.; Novikov, V.M.; O'Neill, M.; Okada, C.E.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Omori, M.; Orrell, J.L.; Oser, S.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Radcliffe, T.J.; Roberge, A.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rosendahl, S.S.E.; Rowley, J.K.; Rusu, V.L.; Saettler, E.; Schaffer, K.K.; Schwendener,M.H.; Schulke, A.; Seifert, H.; Shatkay, M.; Simpson, J.J.; Sims, C.J.; et al.

2001-09-24

122

Measuring the neutrino mass using intense photon and neutrino beams  

SciTech Connect

We compute the cross section for neutrino-photon scattering taking into account a neutrino mass. We explore the possibility of using intense neutrino beams, such as those available at proposed muon colliders, together with high powered lasers to probe the neutrino mass in photon-neutrino collisions.

Dicus, Duane A.; Repko, Wayne W.; Vega, Roberto

2000-11-01

123

Nucleosynthesis and Neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

Neutrinos play the critical roles in nucleosynthesis of light-to-heavy mass nuclei in core-collapse supernovae. We study the nucleosynthesis induced by neutrino interactions and find suitable average neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta. These isotopes are predominantly synthesized by the supernova {nu}-process. We also study the neutrino oscillation effects on their abundances and propose a method to determine the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, i.e. {theta}{sub 13} and mass hierarchy.

Kajino, Toshitaka [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2011-05-06

124

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is a second-generation water Cherenkov detector designed to determine whether the currently observed solar neutrino deficit is a result of neutrino oscillations. The detector is unique in its use of D2O as a detection medium, permitting it to make a solar model-independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by comparison of the charged- and neutral-current interaction rates. In this paper the physical properties, construction, and preliminary operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are described. Data and predicted operating parameters are provided whenever possible.

Boger, J.; Hahn, R. L.; Rowley, J. K.; Carter, A. L.; Hollebone, B.; Kessler, D.; Blevis, I.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; DeKok, A.; Farine, J.; Grant, D. R.; Hargrove, C. K.; Laberge, G.; Levine, I.; McFarlane, K.; Mes, H.; Noble, A. T.; Novikov, V. M.; O'Neill, M.; Shatkay, M.; Shewchuk, C.; Sinclair, D.; Clifford, E. T. H.; Deal, R.; Earle, E. D.; Gaudette, E.; Milton, G.; Sur, B.; Bigu, J.; Cowan, J. H. M.; Cluff, D. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Haq, R. U.; Hewett, J.; Hykawy, J. G.; Jonkmans, G.; Michaud, R.; Roberge, A.; Roberts, J.; Saettler, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Seifert, H.; Sweezey, D.; Tafirout, R.; Virtue, C. J.; Beck, D. N.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, X.; Dragowsky, M. R.; Dycus, F. W.; Gonzalez, J.; Isaac, M. C. P.; Kajiyama, Y.; Koehler, G. W.; Lesko, K. T.; Moebus, M. C.; Norman, E. B.; Okada, C. E.; Poon, A. W. P.; Purgalis, P.; Schuelke, A.; Smith, A. R.; Stokstad, R. G.; Turner, S.; Zlimen, I.; Anaya, J. M.; Bowles, T. J.; Brice, S. J.; Esch, E.-I.; Fowler, M. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hime, A.; McGirt, A. F.; Miller, G. G.; Teasdale, W. A.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Anglin, J. D.; Bercovitch, M.; Davidson, W. F.; Storey, R. S.; Biller, S.; Black, R. A.; Boardman, R. J.; Bowler, M. G.; Cameron, J.; Cleveland, B.; Ferraris, A. P.; Doucas, G.; Heron, H.; Howard, C.; Jelley, N. A.; Knox, A. B.; Lay, M.; Locke, W.; Lyon, J.; Majerus, S.; Moorhead, M.; Omori, M.; Tanner, N. W.; Taplin, R. K.; Thorman, M.; Wark, D. L.; West, N.; Barton, J. C.; Trent, P. T.; Kouzes, R.; Lowry, M. M.; Bell, A. L.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.; Dayon, M.; Duncan, F.; Erhardt, L. S.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Ford, R.; Hallin, A.; Hamer, A.; Hart, P. M.; Harvey, P. J.; Haslip, D.; Hearns, C. A. W.; Heaton, R.; Hepburn, J. D.; Jillings, C. J.; Korpach, E. P.; Lee, H. W.; Leslie, J. R.; Liu, M.-Q.; Mak, H. B.; McDonald, A. B.; MacArthur, J. D.; McLatchie, W.; Moffat, B. A.; Noel, S.; Radcliffe, T. J.; Robertson, B. C.; Skensved, P.; Stevenson, R. L.; Zhu, X.; Gil, S.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Komar, R. J.; Nally, C. W.; Ng, H. S.; Waltham, C. E.; Allen, R. C.; Bühler, G.; Chen, H. H.; Aardsma, G.; Andersen, T.; Cameron, K.; Chon, M. C.; Hanson, R. H.; Jagam, P.; Karn, J.; Law, J.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Simpson, J. J.; Tagg, N.; Wang, J.-X.; Alexander, C.; Beier, E. W.; Cook, J. C.; Cowen, D. F.; Frank, E. D.; Frati, W.; Keener, P. T.; Klein, J. R.; Mayers, G.; McDonald, D. S.; Neubauer, M. S.; Newcomer, F. M.; Pearce, R. J.; de Water, R. G. V.; Berg, R. V.; Wittich, P.; Ahmad, Q. R.; Beck, J. M.; Browne, M. C.; Burritt, T. H.; Doe, P. J.; Duba, C. A.; Elliott, S. R.; Franklin, J. E.; Germani, J. V.; Green, P.; Hamian, A. A.; Heeger, K. M.; Howe, M.; Drees, R. M.; Myers, A.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Smith, M. W. E.; Steiger, T. D.; Wechel, T. V.; Wilkerson, J. F.

2000-07-01

125

Geo-neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geo-neutrinos, electron anti-neutrinos produced in ?-decays of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes in the Earth, are a unique direct probe of our planet's interior. After a brief introduction about the Earth (mostly for physicists) and the very basics about the neutrinos and anti-neutrinos (mostly for geologists), I describe the geo-neutrinos' properties and the main aims of their study. An overview of the latest experimental results obtained by KamLand and Borexino experiments is provided. A short overview of future perspectives of this new inter-disciplinary field is given.

Ludhova, L.

2012-08-01

126

Fourth Generation Light Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concepts and designs are now being developed at laboratories around the world for light sources with performance levels that exceed present sources, including the very powerful and successful third generation synchrotron radiation sources that have come on line in the past few years. Workshops (M. Cornacchia and H. Winick (eds), Workshop on Fourth Generation Light Sources, Feb. 24-27, 1992, SSRL Report 92/02) (J.-L. Laclare (ed), ICFA Workshop on Fourth Generation Light Sources, Jan. 22-25, 1996, ESRF Report) have been held to review directions for future sources. A main thrust is to increase the brightness and coherence of the radiation using storage rings with lower electron-beam emittance or free-electron lasers (FELs). In the infra-red part of the spectrum very high brightness and coherence is already provided by FEL user facilities driven by linacs and storage rings. It now appears possible to extend FEL operation to the VUV, soft X-ray and even hard X-ray spectral range, to wavelengths down to the angstrom range, using high energy linacs equipped with high-brightness rf photoinjectors and bunch-length compressors. R&D to develop such sources is in progress at BNL, DESY, KEK, SLAC and other laboratories. In the absence of mirrors to form optical cavities, short wavelengths are reached in FEL systems in which a high peak current, low-emittance electron beam becomes bunch-density modulated at the optical wavelength in a single pass through a long undulator by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE); i.e.; startup from noise. A proposal to use the last kilometer of the three kilometer SLAC linac (the first two kilometers will be used for injection to the PEP II B-Factory) to provide 15 GeV electron beams to reach 1.5 Angstroms by SASE in a 100 m long undulator is in preparation.

Winick, Herman

1997-05-01

127

Absolute neutrino mass scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrino oscillation experiments firmly established non-vanishing neutrino masses, a result that can be regarded as a strong motivation to extend the Standard Model. In spite of being the lightest massive particles, neutrinos likely represent an important bridge to new physics at very high energies and offer new opportunities to address some of the current cosmological puzzles, such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter. In this context, the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale is a key issue within modern High Energy Physics. The talks in this parallel session well describe the current exciting experimental activity aiming to determining the absolute neutrino mass scale and offer an overview of a few models beyond the Standard Model that have been proposed in order to explain the neutrino masses giving a prediction for the absolute neutrino mass scale and solving the cosmological puzzles.

Capelli, Silvia; Di Bari, Pasquale

2013-04-01

128

Properties of neutrinos: Recent results  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress in experimental determinations of the properties of neutrinos is summarized. In particular, the extensive work on direct kinematic measurements of neutrino mass, on neutrino counting and on neutrino oscillations is highlighted. It is concluded that there may already be sufficient information to fix the masses of the neutrinos, but the evidence is still far from convincing. 63 refs., 13 figs.

Robertson, R.G.H.

1987-01-01

129

A spherical collapse solution with neutrino outflow  

SciTech Connect

A three-parameter family of solutions of Einstein's field equations is given that represents a collapsing perfect fluid with outgoing neutrino flux. Solutions with naked'' singularities are exhibited. They can be forbidden by requiring pressure less than or equal to the density as a condition of cosmic censorship.

Glass, E.N. (Physics Department, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada))

1990-08-01

130

High Energy Neutrinos with a Mediterranean Neutrino Telescope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The high energy neutrino detection by a km3 Neutrino Telescope placed in the Mediterranean sea provides a unique tool to both determine the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux and the neutrinonucleon cross section in the extreme kinematical region, which ...

E. Borriello G. Mangano G. Miele O. Pisanti S. Pastor

2007-01-01

131

Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prospects to detect neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes.

Blennow, Mattias; Edsjö, Joakim; Ohlsson, Tommy

2011-12-01

132

Probing neutrino dark energy with extremely high energy cosmic neutrinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a new non-standard-model neutrino interaction mediated by a light scalar field was proposed, which renders the big bang relic neutrinos of the cosmic neutrino background a natural dark energy candidate, the so-called neutrino dark energy. As a further consequence of this interaction, the neutrino masses become functions of the neutrino energy densities and are thus promoted to dynamical, time\\/redshift

Andreas Ringwald; Lily Schrempp

2006-01-01

133

Direct neutrino mass measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the neutrino rest mass plays an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. This topic is currently being addressed by two complementary approaches in laboratory experiments. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments probe whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determine an effective neutrino mass value. Single beta decay experiments such as KATRIN and MARE investigate the spectral shape of ?-decay electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino rest mass with a model-independent method. Owing to neutrino flavour mixing, the neutrino mass parameter appears as an average of all neutrino mass eigenstates contributing to the electron neutrino. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. Applying an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source and an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type, it allows ?-spectroscopy close to the T 2 end-point with unprecedented precision and will reach a sensitivity of 200 meV/ c 2 (90% C.L.) on the neutrino rest mass.

Thümmler, T.

2011-07-01

134

MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search  

SciTech Connect

The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} V{sub {tau}} transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling {approx}2.5 x 10{sup 20} protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

Koskinen, David Jason; /University Coll. London

2009-09-01

135

Charged Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-energy neutrino astronomy has grown up, with IceCube as one of its main experiments having sufficient sensitivity to test "vanilla" models of astrophysical neutrinos. I review predictions of neutrino fluxes as well as the status of cosmic ray physics. I comment also briefly on an improvement of the Fermi-LAT limit for cosmogenic neutrinos and on the two neutrino events presented by IceCube first at "Neutrino 2012".

Kachelrieß, M.

2013-04-01

136

Fourth Light at Paranal!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLT YEPUN Joins ANTU, KUEYEN and MELIPAL It was a historical moment last night (September 3 - 4, 2000) in the VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory , after nearly 15 years of hard work. Finally, four teams of astronomers and engineers were sitting at the terminals - and each team with access to an 8.2-m telescope! From now on, the powerful "Paranal Quartet" will be observing night after night, with a combined mirror surface of more than 210 m 2. And beginning next year, some of them will be linked to form part of the unique VLT Interferometer with unparalleled sensitivity and image sharpness. YEPUN "First Light" Early in the evening, the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN , was pointed to the sky for the first time and successfully achieved "First Light". Following a few technical exposures, a series of "first light" photos was made of several astronomical objects with the VLT Test Camera. This instrument was also used for the three previous "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). These images served to evaluate provisionally the performance of the new telescope, mainly in terms of mechanical and optical quality. The ESO staff were very pleased with the results and pronounced YEPUN fit for the subsequent commissioning phase. When the name YEPUN was first given to the fourth VLT Unit Telescope, it was supposed to mean "Sirius" in the Mapuche language. However, doubts have since arisen about this translation and a detailed investigation now indicates that the correct meaning is "Venus" (as the Evening Star). For a detailed explanation, please consult the essay On the Meaning of "YEPUN" , now available at the ESO website. The first images At 21:39 hrs local time (01:39 UT), YEPUN was turned to point in the direction of a dense Milky Way field, near the border between the constellations Sagitta (The Arrow) and Aquila (The Eagle). A guide star was acquired and the active optics system quickly optimized the mirror system. At 21:44 hrs (01:44 UT), the Test Camera at the Cassegrain focus within the M1 mirror cell was opened for 30 seconds, with the planetary nebula Hen 2-428 in the field. The resulting "First Light" image was immediately read out and appeared on the computer screen at 21:45:53 hrs (01:45:53 UT). "Not bad! - "Very nice!" were the first, "business-as-usual"-like comments in the room. The zenith distance during this observation was 44° and the image quality was measured as 0.9 arcsec, exactly the same as that registered by the Seeing Monitoring Telescope outside the telescope building. There was some wind. ESO PR Photo 22a/00 ESO PR Photo 22a/00 [Preview - JPEG: 374 x 400 pix - 128k] [Normal - JPEG: 978 x 1046 pix - 728k] Caption : ESO PR Photo 22a/00 shows a colour composite of some of the first astronomical exposures obtained by YEPUN . The object is the planetary nebula Hen 2-428 that is located at a distance of 6,000-8,000 light-years and seen in a dense sky field, only 2° from the main plane of the Milky Way. As other planetary nebulae, it is caused by a dying star (the bluish object at the centre) that shreds its outer layers. The image is based on exposures through three optical filtres: B(lue) (10 min exposure, seeing 0.9 arcsec; here rendered as blue), V(isual) (5 min; 0.9 arcsec; green) and R(ed) (3 min; 0.9 arcsec; red). The field measures 88 x 78 arcsec 2 (1 pixel = 0.09 arcsec). North is to the lower right and East is to the lower left. The 5-day old Moon was about 90° away in the sky that was accordingly bright. The zenith angle was 44°. The ESO staff then proceeded to take a series of three photos with longer exposures through three different optical filtres. They have been combined to produce the image shown in ESO PR Photo 22a/00 . More astronomical images were obtained in sequence, first of the dwarf galaxy NGC 6822 in the Local Group (see PR Photo 22f/00 below) and then of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 . All 8.2-m telesco

2000-09-01

137

Supernova Neutrino Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutrino burst from a core collapse supernova can provide information about the explosion mechanism and the mechanisms of proto neutron star cooling but also about the intrinsic properties of the neutrino such as flavor oscillations. One important question is to understand to which extend can the supernova and the neutrino physics be decoupled in the observation of a single supernova. The possibility to probe the neutrino mixing angle ?13 and the type of mass hierarchy from the detection of supernova neutrinos with liquid argon detectors is discussed in this paper. Moreover, a quantitatively study about the possibility to constrain the supernova parameters is presented. A very massive liquid argon detector (? 100 kton) is needed to perform accurate measurements of these parameters. Finally the possible detection of the diffuse supernova neutrino background in liquid argon detectors is also described.

Gil-Botella, Inés

2011-07-01

138

Neutrino Oscillations in MINOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MINOS experiment is a two detector experiment to study the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations, with the Near detector located at Fermilab, near Chicago and the Far detector located 734 km away, at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. A precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters 2??23 and ?m32^2 can be accomplished using charged current neutrino events, which record both the neutrino flavor and energy. A deficit of events in the Far detector relative to that expected from the Near detector is seen, especially at low energy. In this talk we will discuss the neutrino oscillation measurement, the techniques utilized to select charged current events, as well as the expected backgrounds from neutral current neutrino scattering. Most recent results from a data set corresponding to 3.3x10^20 protons on target will be given.

Ma, Jasmine

2009-05-01

139

Lunar neutrino physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection and investigation of neutrinos is considered in terms of lunar observation with reference to TeV astronomy, the detection of SSC-type neutrino-beams, and detection based on neutrino acoustic radiation. Reference is made to the limitations of earth-based observations related to neutrinos which result from cosmic rays incident on the atmosphere, and the practical aspects of lunar observations are listed. One square km of lunar surface can be used as a shield for cosmic rays and a target for TeV neutrinos within which emerging muons are observed. An EeV detector based on acoustic detection of the moon's core is also proposed to investigate this energy range. The TeV-detection and acoustical experiments are concluded to be feasible experiments (contingent upon development of the appropriate technologies) which can yield significant results in the field of neutrino physics.

Learned, J. G.

1990-03-01

140

Solar neutrino detection  

SciTech Connect

More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.

Miramonti, Lino [Physics department of Milano University and INFN (Italy)

2009-04-30

141

Solar neutrino detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.

Miramonti, Lino

2009-04-01

142

Novel Ideas for Neutrino Beams  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in neutrino physics, primarily the demonstration of neutrino oscillations in both atmospheric neutrinos and solar neutrinos, provide the first conclusive evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The simplest phenomenology of neutrino oscillations, for three generations of neutrino, requires six parameters - two squared mass differences, 3 mixing angles and a complex phase that could, if not 0 or {pi}, contribute to the otherwise unexplained baryon asymmetry observed in the universe. Exploring the neutrino sector will require very intense beams of neutrinos, and will need novel solutions.

Peach, Ken [John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Royal Holloway University of London, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

2007-04-23

143

Fourth World Conference On Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fourth World Conference On Women (4-15 September, Beijing, China) Web page offers general news, late breaking news, background information and more, updated daily. In French and English. Also available via gopher.

144

Neutrino Physics at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND), located at the LANSCE (formerly LAMPF) linear accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory, has seen evidence for the oscillation of neutrinos, and hence neutrino mass. That discovery was the impetus for this LDRD project, begun in 1996. The goal of this project was to define the appropriate technologies to use in a follow up experiment and to set in place the requirements for such an experiment.

Federspiel, F.; Garvey, G.; Louis, W.C.; Mills, G.B.; Tayloe, R.; Sandberg, V.; Sapp, B.; White, D.H.

1999-07-09

145

Neutrinos from gravitational collapse  

SciTech Connect

Detailed calculations are made of the neutrino spectra emitted during gravitational collapse events (Type II supernovae). Those aspects of the neutrino signal which are relatively independent of the collapse model and those aspects which are sensitive to model details are discussed. The easier-to-detect high energy tail of the emitted neutrinos has been calculated using the Boltzmann equation which is compared with the result of the traditional multi-group flux limited diffusion calculations. 8 figs., 28 refs.

Mayle, R.; Wilson, J.R.; Schramm, D.N.

1986-05-01

146

Neutrinos in the Electron  

SciTech Connect

I will show that one half of the rest mass of the electron consists of electron neutrinos and that the other half of the rest mass of the electron consists of the mass in the energy of electric oscillations. With this composition we can explain the rest mass of the electron, its charge, its spin and its magnetic moment We have also determined the rest masses of the muon neutrino and the electron neutrino.

Koschmieder, E. L. [Center for Statistical Mechanics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX 78712 (United States)

2007-04-28

147

Neutrinos in supernovae  

SciTech Connect

The role of neutrinos in Type II supernovae is discussed. An overall view of the neutrino luminosity as expected theoretically is presented. The different weak interactions involved are assessed from the standpoint of how they exchange energy, momentum, and lepton number. Particular attention is paid to entropy generation and the path to thermal and chemical equilibration, and to the phenomenon of trapping. Various methods used to calculate the neutrino flows are considered. These include trapping and leakage schemes, distribution-averaged transfer, and multi-energy group methods. The information obtained from the neutrinos caught from Supernova 1987a is briefly evaluated. 55 refs., 7 figs.

Cooperstein, J.

1986-10-01

148

Solar neutrinos: experimental approaches.  

PubMed

This article discusses the new experiments, under way or proposed, that will measure the flux of solar neutrinos and so probe the "solar neutrino puzzle." Both radiochemical and electronic detector experiments are analyzed in terms of possible findings relevant to astrophysics and neutrino properties. Important elements are sensitivity to the principal components of the solar neutrino spectrum, directionality of the detector response, and an energy-measuring capability that might provide a unique identifying signal. Experiments beyond those currently under way will probably be needed, and development of real-time detectors is particularly important. PMID:17753997

Friedlander, G; Weneser, J

1987-02-13

149

Multimessenger Astronomy and Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrinos play a very important role in multimessenger astronomy. In this talk, I start with a simple argument on how bright the Universe is in both photons and neutrinos. It is remarkable that one can easily show that the neutrinos, especially those emitted from past core-collapse supernovae, form the brightest radiation component in the Universe, ever emitted from astrophysical sources. The detection of this cosmic supernova neutrino background has not been made yet, but is almost guaranteed in the near future. Thus, I review theoretical predictions of the supernova neutrino background, and the latest upper limits experimentally obtained on its flux. Then I discuss prospects of detecting supernova neutrinos from nearby galaxies. With upcoming Mton detectors, or hopefully with a multi-Mton detector, one could study not only supernova neutrinos but also a true stellar death rate, hidden black-hole formation, etc. Finally, I discuss detectability of high-energy neutrinos and implications for underlying supernova-gamma-ray burst connection. Detecting neutrinos will not only give unique diagnostics but also help find gravitational waves.

Ando, Shin'ichiro

2013-04-01

150

Two-Zero mass matrices and sterile neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experimental data is indicative of the existence of sterile neutrinos. The minimal scheme that can account for the data and is consistent with cosmological observations is the 3+1 picture which consists of three predominantly active and one predominantly sterile neutrino with the fourth neutrino being heavier than the other three. Within this scheme there are two possibilities depending on whether the three light states obey normal or inverted hierarchy. In this paper we consider the two-zero textures of the low energy neutrino mass matrix in presence of one additional sterile neutrino. We find that among 45 possible two-zero textures for this case, 15 are consistent with all current observations. Remarkably, these correspond to the two-zero textures of a three active neutrino mass matrix. We discuss the mass spectrum and the parameter correlations that we find in the various textures. We also present the effective mass governing neutrinoless double beta decay as a function of the lowest mass.

Ghosh, Monojit; Goswami, Srubabati; Gupta, Shivani

2013-04-01

151

Neutrinos from collapsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are associated with the gravitational collapse of very massive stars. The central engine of a GRB can collimate relativistic jets that propagate inside the stellar envelope. The shock waves produced when the jet disrupts the stellar surface are capable of accelerating particles up to very high energies. Aims: If the jet has hadronic content, neutrinos will be produced via charged pion decays. The main goal of this work is to estimate the neutrino emission produced in the region close to the surface of the star, taking pion and muon cooling into account, along with subtle effects arising from neutrino production in a highly magnetized medium. Methods: We estimate the maximum energies of the different kinds of particles and solve the coupled transport equations for each species. Once the particle distributions are known, we calculate the intensity of neutrinos. We study the different effects on the neutrinos that can change the relative weight of different flavors. In particular, we consider the effects of neutrino oscillations, and of neutrino spin precession caused by strong magnetic fields. Results: The expected neutrino signals from the shocks in the uncorking regions of Population III events is very weak, but the neutrino signal produced by Wolf-Rayet GRBs with z < 0.5 is not far from the level of the atmospheric background. Conclusions: The IceCube experiment does not have the sensitivity to detect neutrinos from the implosion of the earliest stars, but a number of high-energy neutrinos may be detected from nearby long GRBs. The cumulative signal should be detectable over several years (~10 yr) of integration with the full 86-string configuration.

Vieyro, F. L.; Romero, G. E.; Peres, O. L. G.

2013-10-01

152

Extremely high energy cosmic neutrinos and relic neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

I review the essentials of ultrahigh-energy neutrino interactions, show how neutral-current detection and flavor tagging can enhance the scientific potential of neutrino telescopes, and sketch new studies on neutrino encounters with dark matter relics and on gravitational lensing of neutrinos.

Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

2006-03-01

153

Determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes from atmospheric neutrino data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard atmospheric neutrino data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based on the convolution of the primary cosmic ray spectrum with the expected yield of neutrinos per incident cosmic ray.

Concepciòn Gonzalez-Garcia; Michele Maltoni; Joan Rojo

2006-01-01

154

High Energy Neutrinos with a Mediterranean Neutrino Telescope  

SciTech Connect

The high energy neutrino detection by a km{sup 3} Neutrino Telescope placed in the Mediterranean sea provides a unique tool to both determine the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux and the neutrino nucleon cross section in the extreme kinematical region, which could unveil the presence of new physics. Here is performed a brief analysis of possible NEMO site performances.

Borriello, E.; /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Valencia U., IFIC; Cuoco, A.; /Aarhus U.; Mangano, G.; /Naples U. /INFN, Naples; Miele, G.; /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Valencia U., IFIC; Pastor, Sergio; /Valencia U., IFIC; Pisanti, O.; /Naples U. /INFN, Naples; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; /Fermilab

2007-09-01

155

Cosmological neutrino mass detection: The Best probe of neutrino lifetime  

SciTech Connect

Future cosmological data may be sensitive to the effects of a finite sum of neutrino masses even as small as {approx}0.06 eV, the lower limit guaranteed by neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a cosmological detection of neutrino mass at that level would improve by many orders of magnitude the existing limits on neutrino lifetime, and as a consequence on neutrino secret interactions with (quasi-)massless particles as in majoron models. On the other hand, neutrino decay may provide a way-out to explain a discrepancy {approx}< 0.1 eV between cosmic neutrino bounds and Lab data.

Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

2007-01-01

156

Neutrino Nuclear Responses for Neutrino Studies in Nuclear Femto Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental properties of neutrinos and neutrino nuclear interactions are of great interest from particle and astro-nuclear physics view points. They are well studied in nuclear femto laboratories, where neutrino nuclear responses are crucial. Neutrino masses and neutrino natures are studied by neutrino-less double beta decays (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) in nuclei. Here neutrino nuclear responses are required to extract neutrino properties from 0{nu}{beta}{beta} rates. Neutrino nuclear responses are sensitive to nuclear spin isospin correlations and nuclear structures. They are experimentally studied by nuclear probes for charge exchange nuclear reactions, photon EM probes for photo-nuclear reactions, and lepton probes for muon and neutrino capture reactions.

Ejiri, Hiroyasu [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Brehova, Prague (Czech Republic)

2010-11-24

157

Probing Grand Unification Through Neutrino Oscillations, Leptogenesis, and Proton Decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence in favor of supersymmetric grand unification including that based on\\u000athe observed family multiplet-structure, gauge coupling unification, neutrino\\u000aoscillations, baryogenesis, and certain intriguing features of quark-lepton\\u000amasses and mixings is noted. It is argued that attempts to understand (a) the\\u000atiny neutrino masses (especially Delta m^2 (nu_2 -nu_3)), (b) the baryon\\u000aasymmetry of the universe (which seems to need

Jogesh C. Pati

2003-01-01

158

Neutrino 2012: Outlook - theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing developments in theory and phenomenology are related to the measured large value of 1-3 mixing and indications of significant deviation of the 2-3 mixing from maximal one. "Race" for the mass hierarchy has started and there is good chance that multi-megaton scale atmospheric neutrino detectors with low threshold (e.g. PINGU) will establish the type of hierarchy. Two IceCube candidates of the PeV cosmic neutrinos if confirmed, is the beginning of new era of high energy neutrino astronomy. Accumulation of data on solar neutrinos (energy spectrum, D-N asymmetry, value of ?m212) may uncover some new physics. The Tri-bimaximal mixing is disfavored and the existing discrete symmetry paradigm may change. The confirmed QLC prediction, ?13??C/2, testifies for GUT, seesaw and some symmetry at very high scales. However, the same value of 1-3 mixing can be obtained in various ways which have different implications. The situation in lepton sector changes from special (with specific neutrino symmetries, etc.) to normal, closer to that in the quark sector. Sterile neutrinos are challenge for neutrino physics but also opportunity with many interesting phenomenological consequences. Further studies of possible connections between neutrinos and the dark sector of the Universe may lead to breakthrough both in particle physics and cosmology.

Smirnov, A. Yu.

2013-02-01

159

Neutrino masses and oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report on neutrino masses, mixing and oscillations, made in Dubna at the symposium dedicated to 100 years of the Rutherford's discovery of atomic nucleus, is presented. We start with the hypothesis of neutrino which was proposed by W. Pauli in December 1930 in order to solve some problems of nuclei (the problem of spin of $^{7}N_{14}$ and other nuclei

S. M. Bilenky

2011-01-01

160

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory  

SciTech Connect

A report is given on the status of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, presently under construction in the Creighton nickel mine near Sudbury, Ontario in Canada. Focus is upon the technical factors involving a measurement of the charged-current and neutral-current interactions of solar neutrinos on deuterium.

Hime, A.

1996-09-01

161

Particle Production by Neutrinos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review is given of particle production by neutrinos in charged-current inclusive and exclusive channels. The production rates for various particles in neutrino-nucleon interactions at a beam energy of 25 GeV are compared. The mesons are, of course, domi...

P. Schreiner

1979-01-01

162

Measurements of neutrino mass  

SciTech Connect

Direct experimental information of neutrino mass as derived from the study of nuclear and elementary-particle weak decays is reviewed. Topics include tritium beta decay; the /sup 3/He-T mass difference; electron capture decay of /sup 163/Ho and /sup 158/Tb; and limits on massive neutrinos from cosmology. 38 references. (WHK)

Robertson, R.G.H.

1985-01-01

163

Hierarchically acting sterile neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose that a hierarchical spectrum of sterile neutrinos (eV, keV, 1013-15 GeV) is considered as the explanation for MiniBooNE and LSND oscillation anomalies, dark matter, and baryon asymmetry of the universe (BAU), respectively. The scenario can also realize the smallness of active neutrino masses by the seesaw mechanism.

Chen, Chian-Shu; Takahashi, Ryo

2012-07-01

164

Summary of neutrino presentations  

SciTech Connect

This summary is divided into two sections. First, we concentrate on conventional neutrino physics interpreted in the context of standard electroweak theory. Second, we discuss double beta decay where gross violations of the predictions of the theory might appear, and also we discuss specific searches for consequences of finite neutrino mass. 11 figs., 5 tabs.

White, D.H.

1988-01-01

165

Neutrino Physics - Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

I discuss the new physics unveiled by neutrino oscillation experiments. It is fair to say that, while significant theoretical progress has been made, we are yet to construct a unique coherent picture that naturally explains non-zero, yet tiny, neutrino masses and the newly revealed pattern of lepton mixing. I discuss what the challenges are, and point to the fact that

André de Gouvêa

2005-01-01

166

Solar Interior: Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six experiments have observed solar NEUTRINOS, three of which are radiochemical experiments: Homestake (chlorine detector), GALLEX (gallium detector) and SAGE (gallium detectors). These radiochemical detectors register all neutrinos above a fixed threshold energy (0.8 MeV for chlorine, 0.2 MeV for gallium), with no further information about energy. Three other experiments, Kamiokande, SUPER-KAMIO...

Bahcall, J.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

167

Reactor neutrino anomaly and sterile neutrinos revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution we will present results from two separate experiments dealing with the neutrino response on 71Ga. Both experiments provide input to the calibration of the SAGE and GALLEX solar neutrino detectors and address a long-standing discrepancy between the measured and evaluated capture rates from the 51Cr and 37Ar neutrino calibration sources. The first is a 71Ga(3He,t)71Ge charge-exchange experiment performed at RCNP, Osaka, which allows to extract with high precision the Gamow-Teller transition strengths to the three lowest-lying states in 71Ge, i.e., the ground state (1/2-), the 175 (5/2-) and the 500 keV (3/2-) excited states. These are the states, which are populated via a charged-current reaction induced by neutrinos from reactor produced 51Cr and 37Ar sources. In the second part we present a new precision Q-value measurement for the 71Ga(nu,e-)71Ge reaction using the TITAN mass measurement facility at TRIUMF. From the results of the two experiments we now conclude that there are no further unknowns in the nuclear structure, which could remove the persistent discrepancy in the SAGE and GALLEX calibration measurement performed with neutrinos from 51Cr and 37Ar sources.

Lennarz, Annika

2012-10-01

168

Summary: Neutrinos and nonaccelerator physics  

SciTech Connect

This paper contains brief synopsis of the following major topics discussed in the neutrino and nonaccelerator parallel sessions: dark matter; neutrino oscillations at accelerators and reactors; gamma-ray astronomy; double beta decay; solar neutrinos; and the possible existence of a 17-KeV neutrino. (LSP)

Hoffman, C.M.

1991-01-01

169

Review of Neutrino Oscllations Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments have sought evidence for neutrino mass and mixing via the phenomenon of neutrino flavor oscillations. In a three neutrino model, these oscillations are described by three angles, two mass splittings, and one CP violating phase. Experiments using neutrinos from the Sun, the atmosphere, nuclear reactors, and particle accelerators have gathered considerable information on these angles and splittings. Two

M. D. Messier

2006-01-01

170

Highlights of Neutrinos in Cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrinos play unique roles in many epochs of the Universe's evolution. Important information can be gleaned from neutrino evolution during the big bang nucleosynthesis era, while at later times neutrinos have a significant impact on the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure power spectra. For example, cosmological data now place the tightest constraints on neutrino mass, though there is

Nicole Bell

2006-01-01

171

Neutrino Energies in a Neutrinosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energies of neutrinos in a neutrinosphere, the dense matter created after the gravitational collapse of a massive star are estimated. Cubic equations for energy eigenvalues of neutrinos are used with the effective masses found by taking the neutrinos at rest in neutrinosphere matter. Large differences in the effective mass of some neutrino species in a neutrinosphere compared to vacuum are found.

Kisslinger, Leonard S.

2013-11-01

172

Resonant neutrino oscillations and the neutrino signature of supernovae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effects of resonant neutrino oscillations, proposed as a solution to the solar neutrino puzzle, on the neutrino signature of a Type II supernova. We find that, for parameters corresponding to an adiabatic conversion of most of the 8B neutrino flux, the supernova neutrino signal in a water-Cerenkov detector is altered in the following way: (1) The isotropic-to-directional

Terry P. Walker; David N. Schramm

1987-01-01

173

Measurement of atmospheric neutrino flux consistent with tau neutrino appearance.  

PubMed

A search for the appearance of tau neutrinos from nu(mu) <--> nu(tau) oscillations in the atmospheric neutrinos has been performed using 1489.2 days of atmospheric neutrino data from the Super-Kamiokande-I experiment. A best fit tau neutrino appearance signal of 138+/-48(stat)-32(+15)(syst) events is obtained with an expectation of 78+/-26(syst). The hypothesis of no tau neutrino appearance is disfavored by 2.4 sigma. PMID:17155460

Abe, K; Hayato, Y; Iida, T; Ishihara, K; Kameda, J; Koshio, Y; Minamino, A; Mitsuda, C; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Obayashi, Y; Ogawa, H; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Ueshima, K; Higuchi, I; Ishihara, C; Ishitsuka, M; Kajita, T; Kaneyuki, K; Mitsuka, G; Nakayama, S; Nishino, H; Okumura, K; Saji, C; Takenaga, Y; Totsuka, Y; Clark, S; Desai, S; Dufour, F; Kearns, E; Likhoded, S; Litos, M; Raaf, J L; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Wang, W; Goldhaber, M; Casper, D; Cravens, J P; Kropp, W R; Liu, D W; Mine, S; Regis, C; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Hill, J E; Keig, W E; Jang, J S; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Scholberg, K; Tanimoto, N; Walter, C W; Wendell, R; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Guillian, E; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Messier, M D; Ichikawa, A K; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwashita, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Nitta, K; Oyama, Y; Suzuki, A T; Hasegawa, M; Kato, I; Maesaka, H; Nakaya, T; Nishikawa, K; Sasaki, T; Sato, H; Yamamoto, S; Yokoyama, M; Haines, T J; Dazeley, S; Hatakeyama, S; Svoboda, R; Sullivan, G W; Habig, A; Gran, R; Fukuda, Y; Sato, T; Itow, Y; Koike, T; Jung, C K; Kato, T; Kobayashi, K; Malek, M; McGrew, C; Sarrat, A; Terri, R; Yanagisawa, C; Tamura, N; Sakuda, M; Sugihara, M; Kuno, Y; Yoshida, M; Kim, S B; Yoo, J; Ishizuka, T; Okazawa, H; Choi, Y; Seo, H K; Gando, Y; Hasegawa, T; Inoue, K; Ishii, H; Nishijima, K; Ishino, H; Watanabe, Y; Koshiba, M; Kielczewska, D; Zalipska, J; Berns, H G; Shiraishi, K K; Washburn, K; Wilkes, R J

2006-10-23

174

Search for long-lived massive neutrinos in Z decays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We search for events in the Mark II detector at SLAC Linear Collider with the topology of a Z boson decaying into a pair of long-lived massive particles. No events that are consistent with the search hypothesis are found. Interpreting the long-lived particle as a sequential Dirac neutrino nu4 of the fourth generation, we exclude at the 95% confidence level

C. K. Jung; R. van Kooten; G. S. Abrams; C. E. Adolphsen; D. Averill; J. Ballam; B. C. Barish; T. Barklow; B. A. Barnett; J. Bartelt; S. Bethke; D. Blockus; G. Bonvicini; A. Boyarski; B. Brabson; A. Breakstone; F. Bulos; P. R. Burchat; D. L. Burke; R. J. Cence; J. Chapman; M. Chmeissani; D. Cords; D. P. Coupal; P. Dauncey; H. C. Destaebler; D. E. Dorfan; J. M. Dorfan; D. C. Drewer; R. Elia; G. J. Feldman; D. Fernandes; R. C. Field; W. T. Ford; C. Fordham; R. Frey; D. Fujino; K. K. Gan; C. Gatto; E. Gero; G. Gidal; T. Glanzman; G. Goldhaber; J. J. Gomez Cadenas; G. Gratta; G. Grindhammer; P. Grosse-Wiesmann; G. Hanson; R. Harr; B. Harral; F. A. Harris; C. M. Hawkes; K. Hayes; C. Hearty; C. A. Heusch; M. D. Hildreth; T. Himel; D. A. Hinshaw; S. J. Hong; D. Hutchinson; J. Hylen; W. R. Innes; R. G. Jacobsen; J. A. Jaros; J. A. Kadyk; J. Kent; M. King; S. R. Klein; D. S. Koetke; S. Komamiya; W. Koska; L. A. Kowalski; W. Kozanecki; J. F. Kral; M. Kuhlen; L. Labarga; A. J. Lankford; R. R. Larsen; F. Le Diberder; M. E. Levi; A. M. Litke; X. C. Lou; V. Lüth; J. A. McKenna; J. A. Matthews; T. Mattison; B. D. Milliken; K. C. Moffeit; C. T. Munger; W. N. Murray; J. Nash; H. Ogren; K. F. O'shaughnessy; S. I. Parker; C. Peck; M. L. Perl; F. Perrier; M. Petradza; R. Pitthan; F. C. Porter; P. Rankin; K. Riles; F. R. Rouse; D. R. Rust; H. F. Sadrozinski; M. W. Schaad; B. A. Schumm; A. Seiden; J. G. Smith; A. Snyder; E. Soderstrom; D. P. Stoker; R. Stroynowski; M. Swartz; R. Thun; G. H. Trilling; P. Voruganti; S. R. Wagner; S. Watson; P. Weber; A. Weigend; A. J. Weinstein; A. J. Weir; E. Wicklund; M. Woods; D. Y. Wu; M. Yurko; C. Zaccardelli; C. von Zanthier

1990-01-01

175

Solar Neutrino Physics  

SciTech Connect

With its heavy water target, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) offers the unique opportunity to measure both the 8B flux of electron neutrinos from the Sun and, independently, the flux of all active neutrino species reaching the Earth. A model-independent test of the hypothesis that neutrino oscillations are responsible for the observed solar neutrino deficit can be made by comparing the charged-current (CC) and neutral-current (NC) rates. This LDRD proposal supported the research and development necessary for an assessment of backgrounds and performance of the SNO detector and the ability to extract the NC/CC-Ratio. Particular emphasis is put upon the criteria for deployment and signal extraction from a discrete NC detector array based upon ultra-low background 3He proportional counters.

Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Esch, E.-I.; Fowler, M.M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hime, A.; McGirt, F.; Miller, G.G.; Thornewell, P.M.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Wouters, J.M.

1999-07-15

176

On neutrino flavor states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the issues associated with the construction of neutrino flavor states. We then provide a consistent proof that the flavor states are approximately well-defined only if neutrinos are ultra-relativistic or the mass differences are negligible compared to energy. However, we show that weak interactions can be consistently described by only neutrino mass eigenstates. Meanwhile, the second quantization of neutrino flavor fields generally has no physical relevance as their masses are indefinite. Therefore, the flavor states are not physical quantum states and they should simply be interpreted as definitions to denote specific linear combinations of mass eigenstates involved in weak interactions. We also briefly discuss the implication of this work for the mixing between active and heavy sterile neutrinos.

Ho, Chiu Man

2012-12-01

177

Astrophysical High Energy Neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

Astrophysical candidate sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-rays are also expected to produce high-energy neutrinos in situ and around their acceleration sites by interacting with abundant soft photons or nucleons. Detection of these neutrinos then may identify the yet unknown sources of the cosmic rays. I discuss different models of high-energy neutrino signals from astrophysical objects such as gamma-ray bursts and hyper-novae, and how detection/non-detection of these astronomical messengers may constrain the source models. I also discuss the detectability of these neutrinos in upcoming neutrino telescopes and how flavor tagging may be used to learn about the astrophysics of the sources.

Razzaque, Soebur [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2007-11-08

178

Solar neutrinos: Probing the sun or neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

The decade of the 1990's should prove to be a landmark period for the study of solar neutrino physics. Current observations show 2-3 times fewer neutrinos coming from the sun than are theoretically expected. As we enter the decade, new experiments are poised to attempt and discover whether this deficit is a problem with our understanding of how the sun works, is a hint of new neutrino properties beyond those predicted by the standard model of particle physics, or perhaps a combination of both. This paper will review the current status of the field and point out how future measurements should help solve this interesting puzzle. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Wilkerson, J.F.

1991-01-01

179

Absolute neutrino mass measurements  

SciTech Connect

The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

Wolf, Joachim [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), IEKP, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2011-10-06

180

Measurable neutrino mass scale in A{sub 4}xSU(5)  

SciTech Connect

We propose a supersymmetric A{sub 4}xSU(5) model of quasidegenerate neutrinos which predicts the effective neutrino mass m{sub ee} relevant for neutrinoless double beta decay to be proportional to the neutrino mass scale, thereby allowing its determination approximately independently of unknown Majorana phases. Such a natural quasidegeneracy is achieved by using A{sub 4} family symmetry (as an example of a non-Abelian family symmetry with real triplet representations) to enforce a contribution to the neutrino mass matrix proportional to the identity. Tribimaximal neutrino mixing as well as quark CP violation with {alpha}{approx_equal}90 deg. d a leptonic CP phase {delta}{sub MNS{approx_equal}}90 deg. arise from the breaking of the A{sub 4} family symmetry by the vacuum expectation values of four 'flavon' fields pointing in specific postulated directions in flavor space.

Antusch, S.; Spinrath, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)

2011-01-01

181

Review of Recent Neutrino Physics Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review recent research in neutrino physics, including neutrino oscillations to test time reversal and CP symmetry violations, the measurement of parameters in the U matrix, sterile neutrino emission causing pulsar kicks, and neutrino energies in the neutrinosphere.

Kisslinger, Leonard S.

2013-09-01

182

Teaching Literacy in Fourth Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fourth grade is an important year for literacy learning. Having left the primary grades behind, students must grapple with more demanding texts and content material. Effective, motivating instruction can help them succeed. This book helps teachers create an energized and organized learning environment in which all students can improve their…

Johnson, Denise

2008-01-01

183

Neutrino astronomy with MACRO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources can be detected as upward-going muons produced in charged-current interactions with the matter surrounding the detector. We present the results of a search for either a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux or a point-like source of neutrinos in the sample of upward-going muons gathered by MACRO. We find no evidence for either type of signal. The muon flux upper limit for the diffuse signal has been set at the level of 1.5 ×10-14 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 . 1 Neutrino astronomy: overview and motivation High energy neutrinos in the range from 100 GeV up to 107 GeV are expected from a wide class of galactic and extragalactic astrophysical objects. Neutrino production requires the existence of hadronic processes and is generally described in the picture of the so-called beam dump model (Gaisser, 1995): high energy protons accelerated in proximity of compact objects by shocks waves or plasma turbulence interact with photons or target matter surrounding the source, producing pions. Neutrinos of electron and muon flavors originate from decay of charged pions, as well as from decay of generated muons. In the same hadronic chains, high energy ?-rays are expected to be produced through neutral pion decay. Like ?-rays, neutrinos can travel undeflected through the Universe. Neutrinos however are much less absorbed than photons and thus make a more powerful tool for astronomy searches. Many of the candidate sources of neutrinos (binary systems, supernovae remnants, AGNs, GRBs etc) have already been recognized as gamma rays emitters at energies higher than 100 GeV: this provides an important hint to neutrino astronomy, even if the observed ?-ray energies are not high enough to exclude the electromagnetic production mechanisms, such as synchrotron or inverse Compton processes. In this scenario, the detection of high energy neutrinos would open a new field of research, complementary to ?-ray astronomy and essential in order to investigate the inner structure of the most interesting cosmic objects.

Perrone, L.; MACRO Collaboration

2001-08-01

184

Formation of neutrino halos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully general relativistic nonlinear model of the formation of massive neutrino halos in an Einstein-Straus universe was given by Fabbri, Jantzen and Ruffini (1982). The paper considers the role which a nonvanishing, repulsive cosmological constant Lambda greater than 0, admissible by observational limits, can have in the FJR model. The main conclusion is that the influence of Lambda is negligible in the FJR model for massive neutrinos with mass of about 10 eV, indicated by recent observations of SN 1987a. On the other hand, the cosmological constant is relevant in the model, if neutrinos have low mass, less than 0.2 eV.

Stuchlik, Zdenek

185

Neutrino Physics Without Oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a tremendous potential for neutrinos to yield valuable new information about strongly interacting systems. Here we provide a taste of this potential, beginning with the existence of a rigorous sum rule for the proton and neutron spin structure functions based on the measurement of the flavor singlet axial charge of the nucleon. We also comment on the NuTeV report of a 3? deviation of the value of sin2?W measured in neutrino (and anti-neutrino) scattering from that expected within the Standard Model.

Thomas, Anthony W.

2003-10-01

186

Diffractive Interaction of Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions of high-energy neutrinos expose hadronic properties, in particular, contain a strong diffractive channel. The Adler relation (AR) between soft interactions of neutrinos and pions, might look as a manifestation of pion dominance. However, neutrinos cannot fluctuate to pions because of conservation of the lepton current, and interact via much heavier hadronic components. This fact leads to nontrivial relations between interactions of different hadronic species, in particular, it links diagonal and off-diagonal diffractive interactions of pions. Absorptive corrections break these relations making the AR impossible to hold universally, for any target and at any energy.

Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Iván; Siddikov, M.

2013-06-01

187

2004 TASI Lectures on Neutrino Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

I discuss, in a semi-pedagogical way, our current understanding of neutrino physics. I present a brief history of how the neutrino came to be ``invented'' and observed, and discuss the evidence that led to the recent discovery that neutrinos change flavor. I then spend some time presenting mass-induced neutrino flavor change (neutrino oscillation), and how it pieces all the neutrino

Andre de Gouvea

2004-01-01

188

Neutrino oscillations at an entry-level neutrino factory and beyond  

SciTech Connect

We consider the parameters of an entry-level neutrino factory designed to make the first observation of {nu}{sub e}{yields}{nu}{sub {mu}} oscillations, measure the corresponding amplitude sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13}, and determine the sign of the atmospheric-scale {delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} via matter effects. A 50 kt detector, a stored muon energy E{sub {mu}}{>=}20 GeV and 10{sup 19} muon decays would enable these goals to be met provided sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13}>0.01. The determination of the sign of {delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} also requires a baseline L{>=}2000 km. An upgraded neutrino factory with O(10{sup 20}) decays would enable the first observation of {nu}{sub e}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations. With O(10{sup 21}) decays the effects of a large CP phase could be measured in the case of the large angle matter oscillation solution to the solar neutrino anomaly. Our analysis includes a family of three-neutrino models that can account for the atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation indications. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Barger, V. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Geer, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Raja, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Whisnant, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

2000-10-01

189

Neutrinos and Supernova Collapse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The neutrino emission resulting from stellar collapse and supernova formation is reviewed. The electron capture and consequent neutronization of the collapsing stellar matter at the end of evolution determines both the initial adiabat of core collapse as ...

S. A. Colgate A. G. Petschek

1980-01-01

190

WMAPping out Neutrino Masses  

SciTech Connect

Recent data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) place important bounds on the neutrino sector. The precise determination of the baryon number in the universe puts a strong constraint on the number of relativistic species during Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis. WMAP data, when combined with the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), also directly constrain the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. These results conflict with a neutrino oscillation interpretation of the result from the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND) over the entire favored mixing region. We also note that the Heidelberg--Moscow evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is only consistent with the WMAP+2dFGRS data for the largest values of the nuclear matrix element.

Pierce, Aaron T

2003-02-18

191

Overview: Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The astrophysical site of the r-process nucleosynthesis is not yet identified, but the neutrino-driven wind in a core-collapse supernova is one of the leading candidates. Neutrino interactions play a crucial role in such supernovae. Neutrino fluxes control the neutron-to-proton ratio in the high-entropy hot bubble which is where r-process nucleosynthesis is thought to take place. In this talk our current understanding of the role of neutrinos in core-collapse supernovae and the associated r-process nucleosynthesis will be reviewed. This work was supported in part by the U.S. National Science Foundation Grant No. PHY-0244384 and in part by the University of Wisconsin Research Committee with funds granted by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation.

Balantekin, Baha

2005-04-01

192

Neutrinos in Cosmology  

SciTech Connect

Neutrinos can contribute to various episodes of the evolution of the Universe. For instance, in the seesaw model, they may generate the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis. This conference proceedings briefly reviews lepton flavour effects in thermal leptogenesis.

Davidson, Sacha [IPN de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, Villeurbanne, 69622 cedex (France)

2008-02-21

193

Solar neutrinos: Theoretical status.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

I review the standard solar model, the disparities between its predictions an the solar neutrino flux measurements of the Homestake and Kamioka 2 collaborations, and possible particle physics resolutions of this puzzle. The effects of matter, including de...

W. C. Haxton

1991-01-01

194

Intermediate energy neutrino physics  

SciTech Connect

Occasionally, our understanding of a situation in physics is apparently so clear that consequences of a particular experimental result can imply a substantial confrontation with our view of the physical world. The standard model of electroweak interactions is now so clear that a number of experimental consequences are precisely predicted. This seems like a delightful situation for experimenters, but the bad news is that the experiments on which the predictions rest are at least hard and certainly expensive. We will focus on one such an experiment in this talk; the principal goal of the experiment was to measure neutrino-electron scattering, and also to measure a number of other exclusive channels in neutrino scattering which have bearing on our view of hadronic electroweak interactions. Study of neutrino-proton scattering and neutrino oscillation is also reported. 29 figs.

White, D.H.

1987-01-01

195

Neutrino mass: Recent results  

SciTech Connect

Some recent developments in the experimental search for neutrino mass are discussed. Simpson and Hime report finding new evidence for a 17-keV neutrino in the {beta} decay of {sup 3}H and {sup 35}S. New data from Los Alamos on the electron neutrino mass as measured in tritium beta decay give an upper limit of 13.5 eV at the 95% confidence level. This result is not consistent with the long-standing ITEP result of 26(5) eV within a model-independent'' range of 17 to 40 eV. It now appears that the electron neutrino is not sufficiently massive to close the universe by itself. 38 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

Robertson, R.G.H.

1989-01-01

196

Astroparticle Physics with Neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

The status and results of high energy neutrino telescopes that are operating (AMANDA, NT200) or under construction (IceCube, Antares, Nestor) are reviewed. Future projects, including novel ideas to extend the sensitivity to higher energies, are discussed.

Koepke, Lutz [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Physik, Staudinger Weg 7, D55099 (Germany)

2006-02-08

197

Sterile neutrino mixing with ??  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matrix element U?N of sterile neutrino N mixing with ?? is the least constrained in the literature among the three U?N (?=e, ?, ?) mixing parameters characterizing the sterile neutrino phenomenology. We study the contribution of massive dominantly sterile neutrinos to purely leptonic ? decays and semileptonic decays of ? and K, D mesons. We consider some decays allowed in the standard model as well as lepton flavor and lepton number violating decays forbidden in the standard model. From the existing experimental data on the branching ratios of these processes we derived new limits on U?N more stringent than the ones existing in the literature. These limits are extracted in a model independent way without any ad hoc assumptions on the relative size of the three different sterile neutrino mixing parameters.

Helo, Juan Carlos; Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Ivan

2011-09-01

198

WMAPping out neutrino masses  

SciTech Connect

Recent data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) place important bounds on the neutrino sector. The precise determination of the baryon number in the universe puts a strong constraint on the number of relativistic species during Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis. WMAP data, when combined with the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), also directly constrain the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. These results impinge upon a neutrino oscillation interpretation of the result from the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND).We also note that the Heidelberg-Moscow evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is only consistent with the WMAP+2dFGRS data for the largest values of the nuclear matrix element.

Pierce, Aaron; Murayama, Hitoshi

2003-10-28

199

Neutrino oscillations and uncertainty relations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that coherent flavor neutrino states are produced (and detected) due to the momentum-coordinate Heisenberg uncertainty relation. The Mandelstam-Tamm time-energy uncertainty relation requires non-stationary neutrino states for oscillations to happen and determines the time interval (propagation length) which is necessary for that. We compare different approaches to neutrino oscillations which are based on different physical assumptions but lead to the same expression for the neutrino transition probability in standard neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a Mössbauer neutrino experiment could allow us to distinguish different approaches and we present arguments in favor of the 163Ho-163Dy system for such an experiment.

Bilenky, S. M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Potzel, W.

2011-11-01

200

Neutrino Detectors: Challenges and Opportunities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper covers possible detector options suitable at future neutrino facilities, such as Neutrino Factories, Super Beams and Beta Beams. The Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND), which is the baseline detector at a Neutrino Factory, will be described and a new analysis which improves the efficiency of this detector at low energies will be shown. Other detectors covered include the Totally Active Scintillating Detectors (TASD), particularly relevant for a low energy Neutrino Factory, emulsion detectors for tau detection, liquid argon detectors and megaton scale water Cherenkov detectors. Finally the requirements of near detectors for long-baseline neutrino experiments will be demonstrated.

Soler, F. J. P.

2011-10-01

201

Experimental High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

Neutrinos are considered promising probes for high energy astrophysics. More than four decades after deep water Cerenkov technique was proposed to detect high energy neutrinos. Two detectors of this type are successfully taking data: BAIKAL and AMANDA. They have demonstrated the feasibility of the high energy neutrino detection and have set first constraints on TeV neutrino production astrophysical models. The quest for the construction of km3 size detectors have already started: in the South Pole, the IceCube neutrino telescope is under construction; the ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR Collaborations are working towards the installation of a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea.

Distefano, Carla [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)

2005-10-12

202

Topics in neutrino and gravitational astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide range of astrophysical phenomena are significantly influenced by weak interaction processes that involve the emission or absorption of neutrinos in matter at high density and/or temperature. Examples include red giant stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars, type la and type II (core-collapse) supernovae, and accretion disks of gamma-ray bursters. Depending on the density and temperature of ambient matter, the emission of neutrinos is an important energy-loss mechanism, whereas their scattering and absorption serve to deposit energy into matter. Detailed neutrino transport in such environments is described by the Boltzmann transport equation; its solution requires the corresponding kernels in the source term. In this work the neutrino production and absorption kernels for the plasma and photo neutrino processes together with their differential and total rates are derived. Full information about the emitted neutrinos was retained by evaluating the squared matrix elements for this process which was hitherto bypassed in obtaining the total neutrino emissivities. Numerical results for various temperatures and densities are provided. Approximate analytical results helpful in understanding the qualitative behaviors in limiting situations are also given. Binary mergers involving black holes and neutron stars have been proposed as major sources of gravitational waves, r-process nucleosynthesis, and gamma ray bursters. In addition, they represent an important observable that could distinguish between normal and self-bound neutron stars. These two families of stars have distinctly different mass-radius relationships resulting from their equations of state. We show how these differences are revealed during their mergers. Our analysis is performed at increasing levels of approximation for the gravitational potential: (i) Newtonian potential, (ii) pseudo-GR potentials, and (iii) the second order post-Newtonian analysis. These potentials are employed to study both the evolution of the binary and to describe the Roche lobe geometry that determines when and if mass transfer between the components begins. The Roche lobe problem with any pseudo-relativistic or post-Newtonian potential has not heretofore been considered. Our findings indicate possibly detectable differences between the two families of stars. The imprint of microphysics on the frequency and the amplitude of their gravitational signature is persistent and reveals a strong contrast between them.

Ratkovic, Sasa

203

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory  

SciTech Connect

Two experiments now in progress have reported measurements of the flux of high energy neutrinos from the Sun. Since about 1970, Davis and his co-workers have been using a [sup 37]Cl-based detector to measure the [sup 7]Be and [sup 8]B solar neutrino flux and have found it to be at least a factor of three lower than that predicted by the Standard Solar Model (SSM). The Kamiokande collaborations has been taking data since 1986 using a large light-water Cerenkov detector and have confirmed that the flux is about two times lower than predicted. Recent results from the SAGE and GALLEX gallium-based detectors show that there is also a deficit of the low energy pp solar neutrinos. These discrepancies between experiment and theory could arise because of inadequacies in the theoretical models of solar energy generation or because of previously unobserved properties of neutrinos. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) will provide the information necessary to decide which of these solutions to the solar neutrino problem'' is correct.

Norman, E.B.; Chan, Y.D.; Garcia, A.; Lesko, K.T.; Smith, A.R.; Stokstad, R.G.; Zlimen, I. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Hallin, A.; Lee, H.W.; Leslie, J.R.; MacArthur, J.D.; Mak, H.B.; McDonald, A.B.; McLatchie, W.; Robertson, B.C.; Skensved, P.; Sur, B. (Queen's Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics); Bonvin, E.; Earle, E.D.; Hepburn, D.; Milton, G.M. (Atomic Energ

1992-11-01

204

Core-collapse supernova neutrinos and neutrino properties  

SciTech Connect

Core-collapse supernovae are powerful neutrino sources. The observation of a future (extra-)galactic supernova explosion or of the relic supernova neutrinos might provide important information on the supernova dynamics, on the supernova formation rate and on neutrino properties. One might learn more about unknown neutrino properties either from indirect effects in the supernova (e.g. on the explosion or on in the r-process) or from modifications of the neutrino time or energy distributions in a detector on Earth. Here we will discuss in particular possible effects of CP violation in the lepton sector. We will also mention the interest of future neutrino-nucleus interaction measurements for the precise knowledge of supernova neutrino detector response to electron neutrinos.

Gava, J.; Volpe, C. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire Orsay, F-91406 Orsay CEDEX (France)

2008-08-29

205

Probing late neutrino mass properties with supernova neutrinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of late-time neutrino mass generation contain new interactions of the cosmic background neutrinos with supernova relic neutrinos (SRNs). Exchange of an on-shell light scalar may lead to significant modification of the differential SRN flux observed at earth. We consider an Abelian U(1) model for generating neutrino masses at low scales, and show that there are cases for which the

Joseph L. Baker; Haim Goldberg; Gilad Perez; Ina Sarcevic

2007-01-01

206

No-neutrino double beta decay: more than one neutrino  

SciTech Connect

Interference effects between light and heavy Majorana neutrinos in the amplitude for no-neutrino double beta decay are discussed. The effects include an upper bound on the heavy neutrino mass, and an A dependence for the effective mass extracted from double beta decay. Thus the search for the no-neutrino decay mode should be pursued in several nuclei, and particularly in Ca/sup 48/, where the effective mass may be quite large.

Rosen, S.P.

1983-01-01

207

Neutrino Interaction Classification from a High Energy Prompt Neutrino Beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an analysis of the different types of neutrino interactions in the DONUT experiment using neural nets. The neutrino beam was created by 800 GeV protons interacting in a high density absorber. A neural net analysis of short lifetime events from neutrino interactions will also be discussed and compared to our previous results.

N. Saoulidou; S. Aoki; B. Baller; S. Chung; C. Erickson; T. Hara; N. Hashizume; K. Heller; N. Hoshino; H. Iinuma; K. Ito; T. Jikou; K. Kobayashi; K. Kodama; M. Komatsu; B. Lundberg; E. Maher; M. Miyanishi; M. Nakamura; T. Nakano; K. Niwa; N. Nonaka; K. Okada; V. Paolone; R. Rameika; J. Rhee; T. Kafka; J. Song; S. Takahashi; G. Tzanakos; K. Ushida; T. Yamamori

2004-01-01

208

Neutrino mass hierarchy determination via atmospheric neutrinos with future detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the outstanding questions in neutrino physics. We consider the potential of hierarchy determination using atmospheric neutrinos as the source in three different proposed future detectors: A large Iron Calorimeter detector, a megaton Water Cerenkov detector and a large-mass Liquid Argon detector. If the mixing angle theta13 is about 10°

Raj Gandhi; Pomita Ghoshal; Srubabati Goswami; Poonam Mehta; S. Uma Sankar; Shashank Shalgar

2008-01-01

209

Physics of the tau neutrino.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The (nu)(sub (tau)) is, together with the top quark, the only fundamental constituent not yet observed experimentally. Ways of producing detectable fluxes of this third neutrino are discussed. In particular, the search for neutrino oscillations into the (...

F. Vannucci

1993-01-01

210

Steps towards the Neutrino Factory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the Standard Model. The study of sub-leading effects in neutrino oscillations has begun with the race to measure ?13. A consensus is emerging within the international community that a novel neutrino source is required to allow sensitive searches for leptonic CP violation to be carried out and the neutrino mass-hierarchy to be determined. The Neutrino Factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to out-perform the other proposed facilities. The physics case for the Neutrino Factory will be reviewed and the baseline design of the facility being developed by the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration will be described.

Long, K.

2012-08-01

211

Public School Searches and the Fourth Amendment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that school administrators encounter conflicts with the Fourth Amendment when they conduct searches of high school students. Discusses the reluctance of the courts to hold school officials to Fourth Amendment standards; why the Fourth Amendment should apply nonetheless; and an analytical model of how school searches can be accomplished.…

Trosch, Louis A.; And Others

1982-01-01

212

Review of Neutrino Oscllations Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments have sought evidence for neutrino mass and mixing via the\\u000aphenomenon of neutrino flavor oscillations. In a three neutrino model, these\\u000aoscillations are described by three angles, two mass splittings, and one CP\\u000aviolating phase. Experiments using neutrinos from the Sun, the atmosphere,\\u000anuclear reactors, and particle accelerators have gathered considerable\\u000ainformation on these angles and splittings. Two

M. D. Messier

2006-01-01

213

The Search for Neutrino Oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrinos offer insight into such fundamental questions as the dominance of matter over antimatter, the dynamics of supernovae, and the large scale structure of the universe. NOvA (NUMI Off-axis Neutrino Oscillations) is an experiment that will measure crucial neutrino properties using a Near Detector at Fermilab, where the neutrinos are generated in the NuMI beam, and a large Far Detector

Daniel Gershun

2011-01-01

214

Neutrino physics at muon colliders  

SciTech Connect

An overview is given of the neutrino physics potential of future muon storage rings that use muon collider technology to produce, accelerate and store large currents of muons. After a general characterization of the neutrino beam and its interactions, some crude quantitative estimates are given for the physics performance of a muon ring neutrino experiment (MURINE) consisting of a high rate, high performance neutrino detector at a 250 GeV muon collider storage ring.

King, B.J.

1998-03-01

215

Neutrino electron scattering at ISIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large volume 1 300 ton imaging water Cherenkov detector at the pulsed beam dump neutrino source ISIS could detect more than 1 000 nurho scatterings and more than 3 000 neutrino-oxygen-16 reactions per year. Designed as a high statistics low energy neutrino experiment the physics motivation of a kton water Cherenkov detector at ISIS is the high sensitivity search

B. Armbruster; G. Drexlin; V. Eberhard; J. Kleinfeller; B. Zeitnitz

1994-01-01

216

Gravitational Lensing of Supernova Neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

The black hole at the center of the galaxy is a powerful lens for supernova neutrinos. In the very special circumstance of a supernova near the extended line of sight from Earth to the galactic center, lensing could dramatically enhance the neutrino flux at Earth and stretch the neutrino pulse.

Mena, Olga; /Fermilab /Rome U.; Mocioiu, Irina; /Penn State U.; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

2006-10-01

217

Physics at a Neutrino Factory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the growing interest in building a Neutrino Factory to produce high intensity beams of electron- and muon-neutrinos and antineutrinos, in October 1999 the Fermilab Directorate initiated two six-month studies. The first study, organized by N. Holtkamp and D. Finley, was to investigate the technical feasibility of an intense neutrino source based on a muon storage ring. This

C. Albright; G. Anderson; V. Barger; R. Bernstein; G. Blazey; A. Bodek; E. Buckley-Geer; A. Bueno; M. Campanelli; D. Carey; D. Casper; A. Cervera; C. Crisan; F. DeJongh; S. Eichblatt; A. Erner; R. Fernow; D. Finley; J. Formaggio; J. Gallardo; S. Geer; M. Goodman; D. Harris; E. Hawker; J. Hill; R. Johnson; D. Kaplan; S. Kahn; B. Kayser; E. Kearns; B. J. King; H. Kirk; J. Krane; D. Krop; Z. Ligeti; J. Lykken; K. McDonald; K. McFarland; I. Mocioiu; J. Morfin; H. Murayama; J. Nelson; D. Neuffer; P. Nienaber; R. Palmer; S. Parke; Z. Parsa; R. Plunkett; E. Prebys; C. Quigg; R. Raja; S. Rigolin; A. Rubbia; H. Schellman; M. Shaevitz; P. Shanahan; R. Shrock; P. Spentzouris; R. Stefanski; J. Stone; L. Sulak; G. Unel; M. Velasco; K. Whisnant; J. Yu; E. D. Zimmerman

2000-01-01

218

Three neutrino oscillations applied to solar and long baseline experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Details of the Standard Solar model and experiments measuring neutrinos produced inside the sun and in the upper atmosphere are reviewed. Inconsistencies between theoretical calculations and experimental measurements are discussed, establishing the need for new physics beyond the Standard model of Particle Physics. Neutrino oscillations are introduced as a viable solution and the phenomenology in the two flavour case is reviewed. Calculations of neutrino oscillations at long baseline experiments are performed using realistic spectra and source/detector combinations. Both vacuum and matter enhanced oscillations of solar neutrinos are computed to account for the solar neutrino data, and allowed regions of parameter space are found. New analytical results are presented which determine the three family hamiltonian in matter. Oscillation probabilities in vacuum are calculated, and methods to account for matter effects are outlined. A numerical treatment to determine the CKM parameters in matter is shown to be identical to existing analytical results in the literature. Computer codes developed to calculate long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments through the earth's variable density are discussed. Several techniques used in a second set of programs written to determine solar neutrino survival probabilities in the three neutrino case are also reviewed. Symmetries between four different mass hierarchies which have two well-separated mass scales are studied. A two- fold degeneracy noted in the literature is shown to be inherent in experiments which only measure muon neutrino oscillations, and an expression relating the two sets of CKM parameters is calculated. Detailed computations illustrate how long baseline experiments can determine the CKM parameters. First order matter effects are included and numerical work shows where matter effects are likely to break some of the symmetries. The phenomenon of CP violation in both vacuum and matter is studied in the three neutrino scenario. Existing work on first order matter and CP corrections to oscillation probabilities at long baseline experiments is extended to second order. It is argued that since CP effects are very likely to be smaller than matter, second order corrections are necessary. In detailed calculations, second order effects are clearly apparent. At high energies the approximation breaks down, but numerical results yield accurate answers allowing further study. Several strategies to isolate CP violation from competing matter effects are suggested, including tuning the neutrino beam energy and a novel approach which combines data sets from accelerator and reactor based experiments. Finally, new analytical work is presented showing that CP violation may modify the ratio of ?-type to e-type neutrinos in the atmospheric flux. The magnitude of the effect is estimated and found to be significant. New techniques allow solar neutrino survival probabilities to be calculated including three mixing angles and two mass scales. A preliminary survey is performed assuming one relevant mass scale but including the three angular parameters. A distinct three neutrino solution is found by allowing the large neutrino mass squared difference to drop somewhat below the atmospheric neutrino data's best fit solution of 3×10-4 eV2. Then the high energy tail of the 8B neutrino flux is converted to ?? by a second resonance in the sun, leaving unique spectral characteristics to differentiate it from two neutrino models.

Hayward, Scott Kelly

1998-11-01

219

Atmospheric electron neutrinos in the MINOS far detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrinos produced as a result of cosmic-ray interactions in the earth's atmosphere offer a powerful probe into the nature of this three-membered family of low-mass, weakly-interacting particles. Ten years ago, the Super-Kamiokande Experiment has confirmed [1] earlier indications that neutrinos undergo lepton-flavor oscillations during propagation, proving that they are massive contrary to the previous Standard Model assumptions. The Soudan Underground Laboratory, located in northern Minnesota, was host to the Soudan2 Experiment, which has made important contributions to atmospheric neutrino research. This same lab has more recently been host to the MINOS far detector, a neutrino detector which serves as the downstream element of an accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino-oscillation experiment. This thesis has examined 418.5 live days of atmospheric neutrino data (fiducial exposure of 4.18 kton-years) collected in the MINOS far detector prior to the activation of the NuMI neutrino beam, with a specific emphasis on the investigation of electron-type neutrino interactions. Atmospheric neutrino interaction candidates have been selected and separated into showering or track-like events. The showering sample consists of 89 observed events, while the track-like sample consists of 112 observed events. Based on the Bartol atmospheric neutrino flux model of Barr et al. [2] plus a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of interactions in the MINOS detector, the expected yields of showering and track-like events in the absence of neutrino oscillations are 88.0 +/- 1.0 and 149.1 +/- 1.0 respectively (where the uncertainties reflect only the limited MC statistics). Major systematic uncertainties, especially those associated with the flux model, are cancelled by forming a double ratio of these observed and expected yields: Rdatatrk/shw/RMCtrk /shw=0.74+0.12-0.10 stat.+/-0.04syst. This double ratio should be equal to unity in the absence of oscillations, and the value above disfavors null oscillation with 96.0% confidence. In addition, the showering sample can be used to measure the atmospheric neutrino flux. Based on the analysis presented in this thesis, the Bartol flux should be scaled by a factor of: Satm=1.08+/-0.12stat. +/-0.08syst. This is larger than, but consistent with, a measurement at the same location by the Soudan2 Experiment [3] of Satm = 0:91 +/- 0:07.

Speakman, Benjamin Phillip

220

Supernova Neutrino-Process and Implication in Neutrino Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the supernova nucleosynthesis induced by neutrino interactions and found that several isotopes of rare elements like 7Li, 11B, 138La, 180Ta and many others are predominantly produced by the neutrino-process in core-collapse supernovae. These isotopes are strongly affected by the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect. We here propose a new novel method to determine the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, ?13 and mass hierarchy simultaneously from the supernova neutrino-process, combined with the r-process for heavy-element synthsis and the Galactic chemical evolution on light nuclei.

Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Fujiya, W.; Mathews, G. J.; Yoshida, T.; Shaku, K.; Nakamura, K.; Hayakawa, T.

2012-08-01

221

Neutrino dark energy with more than one neutrino species  

SciTech Connect

The mass varying neutrino scenario is a model that successfully explains the origin of dark energy while at the same time solves the coincidence problem. The model is, however, heavily constrained by its stability towards the formation of neutrino bound states when the neutrinos become nonrelativistic. We discuss these constraints and find that natural, adiabatic, stable models with the right amount of dark energy today do not exist. Second, we explain why using the lightest neutrino, which is still relativistic, as an explanation for dark energy does not work because of a feedback mechanism from the heavier neutrinos.

Bjaelde, Ole Eggers; Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark and Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, New York 10003 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2010-03-15

222

A four-neutrino mixing scheme for observed neutrino data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been observed that simultaneous explanation of the solar and atmospheric neutrino deficits and the reported evidence for ??-->?e oscillation from the Los Alamos Liquid Scintillator Detector (LSND) requires at least one extra neutrino species in addition to the three known ones. The extra neutrino must be sterile with respect to the known weak interactions. We present a new mass matrix for these four neutrinos in which the LSND effect and the atmospheric neutrino deficit are governed by only one parameter. We investigate the phenomenological implications of such a mass matrix ansatz and suggest possible ways to understand it in gauge theories.

Gibbons, S. C.; Mohapatra, R. N.; Nandi, S.; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

1998-07-01

223

A model for neutrino warm dark matter and neutrino oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The muon- and tau-neutrinos with the mass in the keV range, which are allowed in a low reheating temperature cosmology, can compose the warm dark matter of the universe. A model of four light neutrinos including the keV scale ?? and ?? is studied, which combines the seesaw mechanism and the Abelian flavor symmetry. The atmospheric neutrino anomaly is due to the ??-?? oscillation. The solar neutrino problem is answered by the oscillation into the light sterile neutrino, where the SMA, LMA, and LOW-QVO solutions can be accommodated in our scenario.

Liu, C.; Song, J.

2001-07-01

224

Probing late neutrino mass properties with supernova neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of late-time neutrino mass generation contain new interactions of the cosmic background neutrinos with supernova relic neutrinos (SRNs). Exchange of an on-shell light scalar may lead to significant modification of the differential SRN flux observed at earth. We consider an Abelian U(1) model for generating neutrino masses at low scales, and show that there are cases for which the changes induced in the flux allow one to distinguish the Majorana or Dirac nature of neutrinos, as well as the type of neutrino mass hierarchy (normal or inverted or quasidegenerate). In some region of parameter space the determination of the absolute values of the neutrino masses is also conceivable. Measurements of the presence of these effects may be possible at the next-generation water Cerenkov detectors enriched with Gadolinium, or a 100 kton liquid argon detector.

Baker, Joseph; Goldberg, Haim; Perez, Gilad; Sarcevic, Ina

2007-09-01

225

Probing Late Neutrino Mass Properties With SupernovaNeutrinos  

SciTech Connect

Models of late-time neutrino mass generation contain new interactions of the cosmic background neutrinos with supernova relic neutrinos (SRNs). Exchange of an on-shell light scalar may lead to significant modification of the differential SRN flux observed at earth. We consider an Abelian U(1) model for generating neutrino masses at low scales, and show that there are cases for which the changes induced in the flux allow one to distinguish the Majorana or Dirac nature of neutrinos, as well as the type of neutrino mass hierarchy (normal or inverted or quasi-degenerate). In some region of parameter space the determination of the absolute values of the neutrino masses is also conceivable. Measurements of the presence of these effects may be possible at the next-generation water Cerenkov detectors enriched with Gadolinium, or a 100 kton liquid argon detector.

Baker, Joseph; Goldberg, Haim; Perez, Gilad; Sarcevic, Ina

2007-08-08

226

Short-baseline neutrino oscillations at a neutrino factory  

SciTech Connect

Within the framework of three-neutrino and four-neutrino scenarios that can describe the results of the LSND experiment, we consider the capabilities of short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments at a neutrino factory. We find that, when short-baseline (L{approx}<100 km) neutrino factory measurements are used together with other accelerator-based oscillation results, the complete three-neutrino parameter space can best be determined by measuring the rate of {nu}{sub e}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations, and measuring CP violation with either {nu}{sub e}{yields}{nu}{sub {mu}} or {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations (including the corresponding antineutrino channels). With measurements of CP violation in both {nu}{sub e}{yields}{nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} it may be possible to distinguish between the three- and four-neutrino cases.

Barger, V.; Geer, S.; Raja, R.; Whisnant, K.

2001-02-01

227

Are neutrinos their own antiparticles?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explain the relationship between Majorana neutrinos, which are their own antiparticles, and Majorana neutrino masses. We point out that Majorana masses would make the neutrinos very distinctive particles, and explain why many theorists strongly suspect that neutrinos do have Majorana masses. The promising approach to confirming this suspicion is to seek neutrinoless double beta decay. We introduce a toy model that illustrates why this decay requires nonzero neutrino masses, even when there are both right-handed and left-handed weak currents.

Kayser, Boris

2009-06-01

228

Sterile Neutrinos and Supernova Nucleosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrinos play an important role in the core-collapse supernova environment, from facilitating the explosion mechanism to influencing the outflow's elemental composition. Traditional heavy element nucleosynthesis, the r-process, are stifled by electron neutrinos during the alpha particle formation epoch. Introduction of a sterile neutrino species can temper this alpha effect as well as generate an environment sufficiently neutron-rich for fission cycling to occur. Fission cycling in the r-process produces abundance patterns similar to the halo star data. Here we examine reductions in the neutrino flux necessary to achieve fission cycling; sterile neutrinos or other new physics may realize these reductions.

Beun, Joshua; McLaughlin, Gail; Surman, Rebecca; Hix, Raph

2006-10-01

229

Review of neutrino mass measurements  

SciTech Connect

The current status of the experimental search for neutrino mass is reviewed, with emphasis on direct kinematic methods. New data on the /tau/ neutrino from the Argus collaboration have reduced the upper mass limit a factor of 2. The situation concerning the electron neutrino mass as measured in tritium beta decay is essentially unchanged from a year ago. Simpson and Hime report finding evidence for a 17-keV neutrino in the ..beta.. decay of /sup 35/S. There may be evidence for neutrino mass and mixing in the SN1987a data. 62 refs., 4 figs.

Robertson, R.G.H.

1988-01-01

230

Review article "Geo-neutrinos"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geo-neutrinos, electron anti-neutrinos produced in ?-decays of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes in the Earth, are a unique direct probe of our planet's interior. After a brief introduction about the Earth (mostly for physicists) and the very basics about the neutrinos and anti-neutrinos (mostly for geologists), I describe the geo-neutrino properties and the main aims of their study. An overview of the latest experimental results obtained by KamLAND and Borexino experiments is provided. A short overview of future perspectives of this new inter-disciplinary field is given.

Ludhova, L.

2012-12-01

231

Neutrino physics: Summary talk  

SciTech Connect

This paper is organized as follows: First, I describe the state of neutrino phenomenology. Emphasis is placed on sin/sup 2/ /theta//sub W/, its present status and future prospects. In addition, some signatures of ''new physics'' are described. Then, kaon physics at Fermilab is briefly discussed. I concentrate on the interesting rare decay K/sub L/ /yields/ /pi//sup 0/e/sup +/e/sup /minus// which may be a clean probe direct CP violation. Neutrino mass, mixing, and electromagnetic moments are surveyed. There, I describe the present state and future direction of accelerator based experiments. Finally, I conclude with an outlook on the future. Throughout this summary, I have drawn from and incorporated ideas discussed by other speakers at this workshop. However, I have tried to combine their ideas with my own perspective on neutrino physics and where it is headed. 49 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Marciano, W.J.

1989-04-01

232

Ultrahigh energy neutrino scattering  

SciTech Connect

Estimates are made of ultrahigh energy neutrino cross sections based on an extrapolation to very small Bjorken x of the logarithmic Froissart dependence in x shown previously to provide an excellent fit to the measured proton structure function F{sub 2}{sup p}(x,Q{sup 2}) over a broad range of the virtuality Q{sup 2}. Expressions are obtained for both the neutral current and the charged current cross sections. Comparison with an extrapolation based on perturbative QCD shows good agreement for energies where both fit data, but our rates are as much as a factor of 10 smaller for neutrino energies above 10{sup 9} GeV, with important implications for experiments searching for extragalactic neutrinos.

Berger, Edmond L. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Block, Martin M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); McKay, Douglas W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Tan, C.-I [Physics Department, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

2008-03-01

233

Neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Core-collapse supernovae produce a hot protoneutron star that cools emitting huge amounts of neutrinos of all flavors. The interaction of these neutrinos with the outer layers of the protoneutron star produces an outflow of matter whose composition is determined by the luminosities and energies of the emitted neutrinos and antineutrinos. The presence of light nuclei like deuterons and tritons can have a big impact in the average energies of the emitted antineutrinos and consequently in the neutron-richness of the ejected matter. Recent hydrodynamical models show that the ejected matter is in fact proton-rich and constitutes the site of the ?p-process where antineutrino absorption reactions catalyze the nucleosynthesis of nuclei with A>64.

Martínez-Pinedo, G.; Arcones, A.

2010-04-01

234

Hilbert's twenty-fourth problem.  

SciTech Connect

For almost a century, a treasure lay hidden in a library in Germany, hidden until a remarkable discovery was made. Indeed, for most of the twentieth century, all of science thought that Hilbert had posed twenty-three problems, and no others. In the mid-1990s, however, as a result of a thorough reading of Hilbert's files, a twenty-fourth problem was found (in a notebook, in file Cod ms D Hilbert 600:3), a problem that might have a profound effect on research. This newly discovered problem focuses on the finding of simpler proofs and criteria for measuring simplicity. A proof may be simpler than previously known in one or more ways that include length, size (measured in terms of the total symbol count), and term structure. A simpler proof not only is more appealing aesthetically (and has fascinated masters of logic including C. A. Meredith, A. Prior, and I. Thomas) but is relevant to practical applications such as circuit design and program synthesis. This article presents Hilbert's twenty-fourth problem, discusses its relation to certain studies in automated reasoning, and offers researchers with varying interests the challenge of addressing this newly discovered problem. In particular, we include open questions to be attacked, questions that (in different ways and with diverse proof refinements as the focus) may prove of substantial interest to mathematicians, to logicians, and (perhaps in a slightly different manner) to those researchers primarily concerned with automated reasoning.

Thiele, R.; Wos, L.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. Leipzig

2002-01-01

235

Flavor oscillations of supernova neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrinos emitted by core-collapse supernovae (SNe) represent an important laboratory for both particle physics and astrophysics. While propagating in the dense SN environment, they can feel not only the presence of background matter (via ordinary Mikheev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects) but also of the gas of neutrinos and antineutrinos (via neutrino-neutrino interaction effects). The MSW effect would imprint on SN neutrinos a track of the shock-wave propagation and of the matter turbulences in the stellar envelope. Moreover, the neutrino-neutrino interactions appear to modify the flavor evolution of SN neutrinos in a collective way, completely different from the ordinary matter effects. In these conditions, the flavor evolution equations become highly nonlinear, sometimes resulting in surprising phenomena when the entire neutrino system oscillates coherently as a single collective mode. In this talk, I will present the recent results on supernova neutrino flavor conversions and I will discuss about the sensitivity of these effects to the ordering of the neutrino mass spectrum.

Mirizzi, Alessandro

2012-08-01

236

Geo-neutrino review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal source of energy for dynamic processes of the earth, such as plate tectonics is thought to come from the radioactive decays of 238U, 232Th, and 40K within the earth. These decays produce electron-antineutrinos, so-called geo-neutrinos, the measurement of which near the earth's surface allows for a direct measure of the total radiogenic heat production in the earth. The KamLAND and Borexino experiments have both measured a geo-neutrino flux significantly greater than zero. As shown in these proceedings, more precise future measurements will significantly constrain earth composition models.

Tolich, N.

2012-08-01

237

Tripartite neutrino mass matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3×3 Majorana neutrino mass matrix is written as a sum of 3 terms, i.e., M?=MA+MB+MC, where MA is proportional to the identity matrix and MB,C are invariant under different Z3 transformations. This M? is very suitable for understanding atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillations, with sin22?atm and tan2?sol fixed at 1 and 0.5 respectively, in excellent agreement with present data. It has in fact been proposed before, but only as an ansatz. This Letter uncovers its underlying symmetry, thus allowing a complete theory of leptons and quarks to be constructed.

Ma, Ernest

2004-03-01

238

Sterile neutrinos and RK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an enhancement in the violation of lepton flavour universality in light meson decays arising from modified Wl? couplings in the standard model minimally extended by sterile neutrinos. Due to the presence of additional mixings between the active neutrinos and the new sterile states, the deviation from unitarity of the leptonic mixing matrix intervening in charged currents might lead to a tree-level enhancement of RP = ?(P ? ev)/?(P ? ??), with P = K, ?. These enhancements are illustrated in the case of the inverse seesaw, showing that one can saturate the current experimental bounds on ?rK (and ?r?), while in agreement with the different experimental and observational constraints.

Vicente, A.

2013-07-01

239

Ultrahigh-energy neutrino scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We predict the neutrino-nucleon cross section at ultrahigh energies relevant in connection with the search for high-energy cosmic neutrinos. Our investigation, employing the color-dipole picture, among other things, allows us to quantitatively determine which fraction of the ultrahigh-energy neutrino-nucleon cross section stems from the saturation vs the color-transparency region. We disagree with various results in the literature that predict a strong suppression of the neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies above E?109GeV. Suppression in the sense of a diminished increase of the neutrino-nucleon cross section with energy only starts to occur at neutrino energies beyond E?1014GeV.

Kuroda, Masaaki; Schildknecht, Dieter

2013-09-01

240

Solar neutrinos - Questions and hypotheses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present theoretical understanding of the characteristics of neutrinos and their production in the sun is reviewed, along with experiments for detecting solar neutrinos. The thermonuclear reaction cycles which take place in the sun, defined since 1939, indicate that gamma rays and neutrinos will emerge since the fusion of four hydrogen atoms into one a helium atom will result in a mass deficit which has been experimentally confirmed. However, attempts to detect the neutrino emissions with an underground vat of dry cleaning fluid have not yielded counts of the predicted number of neutrinos. Adjustments which have been suggested to the standard model to account for the low neutrino flux are summarized, with emphasis placed on possible changes which neutrinos could undergo on their trip from the sun to the earth that would preclude their interaction with Cl-37 atoms in the tank.

Weneser, Joseph; Friedlander, Gerhart

1987-02-01

241

Neutrinos from a core collapse supernova  

SciTech Connect

The neutrino burst from a galactic supernova can help determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and {theta}{sub 13}, and provide crucial information about supernova astrophysics. Here we review our current understanding of the neutrino burst, flavor conversions of these neutrinos, and model independent signatures of various neutrino mixing scenarios.

Dighe, Amol [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

2008-02-21

242

Atmospheric neutrino flux: a review of calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretation and understanding of the evidence for neutrino oscillations depends on knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino beam. In this talk I assess how well various features are known. The goal is to determine to what extent uncertainties in the neutrino beam may limit the conclusions about neutrino properties and which features of the evidence for neutrino oscillations are most robust.

T. K. Gaisser

2000-01-01

243

Review of the physics of the neutrino  

SciTech Connect

The status of knowledge with respect to neutrinos is reviewed. Questions covered briefly include whether or not a neutrino is its own antiparticle and neutrino mass. Experimental studies are also considered, including neutrino oscillations, double beta decay, and direct neutrino mass measurements. (LEW)

Robertson, R.G.H.

1986-01-01

244

Three-flavour neutrino oscillation update  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the present status of three-flavour neutrino oscillations, taking into account the latest available neutrino oscillation data presented at the Neutrino 2008 Conference. This includes the data released this summer by the MINOS collaboration, the data of the neutral current counter phase of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) solar neutrino experiment, as well as the latest KamLAND and Borexino

Thomas Schwetz; Mariam Tórtola; José W. F. Valle

2008-01-01

245

Nonstandard neutrino interactions and transition magnetic moments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We constrain generic nonstandard neutrino interactions with existing experimental data on neutrino transition magnetic moments and derive strong bounds on tensorial couplings of neutrinos to charged fermions. We also discuss how some of these tensorial couplings can be constrained by other experiments, e.g., on neutrino-electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering.

Healey, Kristopher J.; Petrov, Alexey A.; Zhuridov, Dmitry

2013-06-01

246

Leptogenesis in a Hybrid Texture Neutrino Mass Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the CP asymmetry for a hybrid texture of the neutrino mass matrix predicted by Q8 family symmetry in the context of the type-I seesaw mechanism and examine its consequences for leptogenesis. We, also, calculate the resulting Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe (BAU) for this texture.

Dev, S.; Verma, Surender

247

Leptogenesis with single right-handed neutrino dominance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We make an analytic and numerical study of leptogenesis in the framework of the (supersymmetric) standard model plus the seesaw mechanism with a U(1) family symmetry and single right-handed neutrino dominance. In presenting our analytic and numerical results we make a clear distinction between the theoretically clean asymmetry parameter ?1 and the baryon asymmetry YB. In calculating YB we propose

M. Hirsch; S. F. King

2001-01-01

248

Overview of Neutrino Mixing Models and Their Mixing Angle Predictions  

SciTech Connect

An overview of neutrino-mixing models is presented with emphasis on the types of horizontal flavor and vertical family symmetries that have been invoked. Distributions for the mixing angles of many models are displayed. Ways to differentiate among the models and to narrow the list of viable models are discussed.

Albright, Carl H. [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States) and Theoretical Physics Department, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

2010-03-30

249

Neutrino and anti-neutrino transport in accretion disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We numerically solve the one-dimensional Boltzmann equation of the neutrino and antineutrino transport in accretion disks and obtain the fully energy-dependent and direction-dependent neutrino- and antineutrino-emitting spectra, under the condition that the distribution of the mass density, temperature and chemical components are given. Then, we apply the resulting neutrino- and antineutrino-emitting spectra to calculate the corresponding annihilation rate of neutrino pairs above the neutrino-dominated accretion disk and find that the released energy resulting from the annihilation of neutrino pairs cannot provide sufficient energy for the most energetic short gamma ray bursts whose isotropic luminosity can be as high as 1052ergs/s unless the high-temperature zone, where the temperature is beyond 10 MeV, can stretch over 200 km in the disk. We also compare the resulting luminosity of neutrinos and antineutrinos with the results from the two commonly used approximate treatments of the neutrino and antineutrino luminosity: the Fermi-Dirac black-body limit and a simplified model of neutrino transport, i.e., the gray-body model, and find that both of them overestimate the neutrino/antineutrino luminosity and their annihilation rate greatly. Additionally, as did in Sawyer (2003), we also check the validity of the two-stream approximation, and find that it is a good approximation to high accuracy.

Pan, Zhen; Yuan, Ye-Fei

2012-03-01

250

Anti-neutrino imprint in solar neutrino flare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A future neutrino detector at megaton mass might enlarge the neutrino telescope thresholds revealing cosmic supernova background and largest solar flares (SFs) neutrinos. Indeed the solar energetic (Ep>100 MeV) flare particles (protons, ?), while scattering among themselves on solar corona atmosphere must produce prompt charged pions, whose chain decays are source of a solar (electron muon) neutrino 'flare' (at tens or hundreds MeV energy). These brief (minutes) neutrino 'bursts' at largest flare peak may overcome by three to five orders of magnitude the steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, possibly leading to their detection above detection thresholds (in a full mixed three flavour state). Moreover the birth of anti-neutrinos at a few tens of MeV very clearly flares above a null thermal 'hep' anti-neutrino solar background and also above a tiny supernova relic and atmospheric noise. The largest prompt solar anti-neutrino 'burst' may be well detected in future Super Kamikande (gadolinium implemented) anti-neutrino \\bar\

Fargion, D.

2006-10-01

251

Experimental Neutrino Physics  

ScienceCinema

In this talk, I will review how a set of experiments in the last decade has given us our current understanding of neutrino properties.  I will show how experiments in the last year or two have clarified this picture, and will discuss how new experiments about to start will address remaining questions.  I will particularly emphasize the relationship between various experimental techniques.

252

Formation of neutrino halos.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully general relativistic non-linear model of the formation of massive neutrino halos in an Einstein-Straus universe was given by Fabbri, Jantzen and Ruffini. Here the author considers the role which a non-vanishing, repulsive cosmological constant ? > 0, admissible by observational limits, can have in the FJR model.

Stuchlík, Z.

253

Chlorine solar neutrino experiment  

SciTech Connect

The chlorine solar neutrino experiment in the Homestake Gold Mine is described and the results obtained with the chlorine detector over the last fourteen years are summarized and discussed. Background processes producing /sup 37/Ar and the question of the constancy of the production rate of /sup 37/Ar are given special emphasis.

Rowley, J.K.; Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.

1984-01-01

254

The neutrino electron accelerator  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that a wake of electron plasma oscillations can be created by the nonlinear ponderomotive force of an intense neutrino flux. The electrons trapped in the plasma wakefield will be accelerated to high energies. Such processes may be important in supernovas and pulsars. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Shukla, P.K. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Stenflo, L. [Department of Plasma Physics, Umea University, S-90187 Umea (Sweden); Bingham, R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bethe, H.A. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Dawson, J.M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Mendonca, J.T. [Department of Physics, University of Lisbon, 1096 Lisbon (Portugal)

1998-01-01

255

Neutrino-nucleon scattering  

SciTech Connect

In the following, the author tries to summarize the current status of neutrino-nucleon scattering as it bears on contemporary issues regarding the spin structure of the nucleon. It is straightforward to express the electroweak current of a hadron in terms of its underlying electroweak partonic currents. The matrix elements of these currents are, of course, presently uncalculable but may be characterized by form factors extracted from experiment. When neutrinos are used as probes, there are several problems associated with carrying out the required cross section measurements. Active neutrino detectors of necessity contain nuclei more complex than hydrogen. These nuclei create additional backgrounds and create complications of interpretation that make these experiments challenging. However, given the continued demonstrated difficulty of measuring and extracting the spin structure functions, it appears that there are no easy measurements to investigate the nucleon spin structure save the earlier experiments that fixed the axial vector form factors of well-known baryon decays (neutron, lambda, etc.). With the emergence of the provocative results from the EMC group on the spin structure function of the proton, there has been renewed interest in the information contained in the cross sections for neutral current neutrino-nucleon scattering. The theoretical background for describing this process has been worked out in detail. It is presented in briefest outline below to define the terms needed to describe experimental results.

Garvey, G.T.

1994-05-01

256

The search for Majorana neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions, neutrinos are strictly massless due to the absence of the right-handed chiral states and the requirement of gauge invariance and renormalizability. However, recent neutrino oscillation experiments have provided strong evidence that neutrinos are massive and their flavors defined with respect to the charged leptons oscillate, presenting a pressing need for physics beyond the Standard Model. We do not know the nature of mass generation; in particular, we do not know if neutrinos are of Dirac or Majorana type-the former preserves lepton number and the latter violates it by two units. Although the prevailing theoretical prejudice prefers Majorana neutrinos, experimentally testing the Dirac or Majorana nature of neutrinos is of fundamental importance. The unambiguous proof of the existence of a Majorana neutrino is the observation of a lepton number violating process. Since neutrinos interact so weakly and leave no trace in ordinary detectors, the only appropriate signatures must involve two like-sign charged leptons for a process that violates lepton number by two units. To establish the Majorana nature of neutrinos definitively many low energy and collider processes that probe Majorana neutrino masses over many orders of magnitude, from sub-electron-volt to hundreds of giga-electron-volt have been studied.

Atre, Anupama

257

Precision Solar Neutrino Measurements with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory  

SciTech Connect

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is the first experiment to measure the total flux of active, high-energy neutrinos from the sun. Results from SNO have solved the long-standing 'Solar Neutrino Problem' by demonstrating that neutrinos change flavor. SNO measured the total neutrino flux with the neutral-current interaction of solar neutrinos with 1000 tonnes of D{sub 2}O. In the first two phases of the experiment we detected the neutron from that interaction by capture on deuterium and capture on chlorine, respectively. In the third phase an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters was deployed in the detector. This allows a measurement of the neutral-current neutrons that is independent of the Cherenkov light detected by the PMT array. We are currently developing a unique, detailed simulation of the current pulses from the proportional-counter array that will be used to help distinguish signal and background pulses.

Oblath, Noah [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

2007-10-26

258

Toroidal magnetized iron neutrino detector for a neutrino factory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A neutrino factory has unparalleled physics reach for the discovery and measurement of CP violation in the neutrino sector. A far detector for a neutrino factory must have good charge identification with excellent background rejection and a large mass. An elegant solution is to construct a magnetized iron neutrino detector (MIND) along the lines of MINOS, where iron plates provide a toroidal magnetic field and scintillator planes provide 3D space points. In this paper, the current status of a simulation of a toroidal MIND for a neutrino factory is discussed in light of the recent measurements of large ?13. The response and performance using the 10 GeV neutrino factory configuration are presented. It is shown that this setup has equivalent ?CP reach to a MIND with a dipole field and is sensitive to the discovery of CP violation over 85% of the values of ?CP.

Bross, A.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez Cadenas, J. J.; Hernández, P.; Martín-Albo, J.; Burguet-Castell, J.

2013-08-01

259

Neutrino decays and neutrino electron elastic scattering in unparticle physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following Georgi's unparticle scheme, we examine the effective couplings between neutrinos and unparticle operators. As an immediate consequence, neutrinos become unstable and can decay into the unparticle stuff. Assuming the dimension transmutation scale is around ?˜1 TeV, we implement the cosmological limit on the neutrino lifetime to constrain the neutrino unparticle couplings for different scaling dimensions d. In addition, provided that the electron unparticle coupling is restricted due to the precise measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of electron, we calculate the unparticle contribution to the neutrino electron elastic scattering. It is more important to jointly deal with the couplings of the unparticle to the standard model particles rather than separately. Taking into account both electron and neutrino unparticle couplings, we find that the scaling dimension of the scalar unparticle should lie in the narrow range 1

Zhou, Shun

2008-01-01

260

Solar neutrinos as probes of neutrino–matter interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from solar neutrino and KamLAND experiments have led to a discovery of nonzero neutrino masses. Here we investigate what these data can tell us about neutrino interactions with matter, including the poorly constrained flavor-changing ?e–?? interactions. We give examples of the interaction parameters that are excluded by the solar\\/KamLAND data and are beyond the reach of other experiments. We

Alexander Friedland; Cecilia Lunardini; Carlos Peña-Garay

2004-01-01

261

A gauge model for right handed neutrinos as dark matter  

SciTech Connect

We suggest a simple extension of the electroweak group, SU(2){sub L}xU(1){sub Y}xU(1){sub B-L}, where the breaking of U(1){sub B-L} symmetry provides masses for right handed neutrinos, N, at an acceptable range for them to be Dark Matter (DM). We study the contributions to Moeller and Bhabha scattering due to B-L neutral boson to constrain its gauge coupling. We analize N decay rates to determine the number of families that should be considered as DM candidates. The decoupling temperature between active and sterile neutrinos is also calculated.

Hernandez-Pinto, R. J.; Perez-Lorenzana, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., Apdo. Post. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2008-07-02

262

Massive neutrinos and (heterotic) string theory  

SciTech Connect

String theories in principle address the origin and values of the quark and lepton masses. Perhaps the small values of neutrino masses could be explained generically in string theory even if it is more difficult to calculate individual values, or perhaps some string constructions could be favored by generating small neutrino masses. We examine this issue in the context of the well-known three-family standard-like Z{sub 3} heterotic orbifolds, where the theory is well enough known to construct the corresponding operators allowed by string selection rules, and analyze the D- and F-flatness conditions. Surprisingly, we find that a simple seesaw mechanism does not arise. It is not clear whether this is a property of this construction, or of orbifolds more generally, or of string theory itself. Extended seesaw mechanisms may be allowed; more analysis will be needed to settle that issue. We briefly speculate on their form if allowed and on the possibility of alternatives, such as small Dirac masses and triplet seesaws. The smallness of neutrino masses may be a powerful probe of string constructions in general. We also find further evidence that there are only 20 inequivalent models in this class, which affects the counting of string vacua.

Giedt, Joel; Kane, G.L.; Langacker, Paul; Nelson, Brent D. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada); Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103 (United States)

2005-06-01

263

Neutrino Flavor States and the Quantum Theory of Neutrino Oscillations  

SciTech Connect

The standard theory of neutrino oscillations is reviewed, highlighting the main assumptions: the definition of the flavor states, the equal-momentum assumption and the time = distance assumption. It is shown that the standard flavor states are correct approximations of the states that describe neutrinos in oscillation experiments. The equal-momentum assumption is shown to be unnecessary for the derivation of the oscillation probability. The time = distance assumption derives from the wave-packet character of the propagating neutrinos. We present a simple quantum-mechanical wave-packet model which allows us to describe the coherence and localization of neutrino oscillations.

Giunti, Carlo [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

2008-07-02

264

Electron-neutrino survival probability from solar-neutrino data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With SNO data [SNO Collaboration, nucl-ex/0106015] on electron-neutrino flux from the sun, it is possible to derive the ?e survival probability Pee(E) from existing experimental data of Super-Kamiokande, gallium experiments and Homestake. The combined data of SNO and Super-Kamiokande provide boron ?e flux and the total flux of all active boron neutrinos, giving thus Pee(E) for boron neutrinos. The Homestake detector, after subtraction of the signal from boron neutrinos, gives the flux of Be/+CNO neutrinos, and Pee for the corresponding energy interval, if the produced flux is taken from the Standard Solar Model (SSM). Gallium detectors, GALLEX, SAGE and GNO, detect additionally /pp-neutrinos. The /pp flux can be calculated subtracting from the gallium signal the rate due to boron, beryllium and CNO neutrinos. The ratio of the measured /pp-neutrino flux to that predicted by the SSM gives the survival probability for /pp-neutrinos. Comparison with theoretical survival probabilities shows that the best (among known models) fit is given by LMA and LOW solutions.

Berezinsky, V.; Lissia, M.

2001-11-01

265

Neutrino oscillations with disentanglement of a neutrino from its partners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We argue that in order to understand existing data on neutrino oscillations, and to design future experiments, it is imperative to appreciate the role of quantum entanglement. Once this is accounted for, the resulting energy-momentum-conserving phenomenology requires a single new parameter related to disentanglement of a neutrino from its partners. This parameter may not be CP symmetric. We illustrate the new ideas, with potentially measurable effects, in the context of a novel experiment recently proposed by Gavrin, Gorbachev, Veretenkin, and Cleveland. The strongest impact of our ideas is on the resolution of various anomalies in neutrino oscillations and on neutrino propagation in astrophysical environments.

Ahluwalia, D. V.; Horvath, S. P.

2011-07-01

266

When neutrinos attack - the impact of agressive neutrinos in astrophysics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of all the constituents within the standard model of particle physics our understanding of the neutrino has benefited the most from the interaction of astrophysics and `terraphysics'. Much has been learned about the properties of the neutrino from each: experiments here on Earth temper our appreciation of the role that neutrinos play in the cosmos while astrophysics can provide the densities and temperatures in which the neutrinos do more than simply flee. But their reluctance to interact means that it is not until we venture into the most extreme environments of astrophysics that we observe neutrinos pushing back' as hard as they are being pushed'. We review two sites where this occurs: the early Universe and the accretion disk, engines' of gamma ray bursts. Neutrinos play an important role in the evolution of the early Universe with a particular focus upon the electron neutrino in determining the primordial elemental composition via its participation in the most important reaction at that time. Within gamma ray burst accretion disks we again see the electron neutrinos at work in the nuclear reactions and through their function as the coolant' for the disk. Removal of the disk energy, and its deposition into the remnants of the massive star surrounding the disk, may lead to the formation of highly relativistic jets that will later be observed as the burst. We show what has been learned so far about the neutrino and its properties from the study of such environments and discuss where future research is heading.

Kneller, James

2004-11-01

267

Electromagnetic Forward Neutrino-Neutrino Scattering in Dense Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using covariant methods we calculate the coherent forward amplitude for the exchange of a virtual photon between neutrinos having medium-induced electromagnetic vertices. Such a process can affect the important Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mechanism in media with large neutrino asymmetries. It can be considered as a finite temperature and density (FTD) version of a two-loop contribution which gives rise to non-universal (??-dependent) radiative corrections to the forward scattering ?? ? ??. Assuming no inert neutrino species, we discuss the possible importance of this contribution to the MSW effect in a supernova core and in the early Universe with large but equal neutrino asymmetries.

Horvat, R.

268

Gauge Trimming of Neutrino Masses  

SciTech Connect

We show that under a new U(1) gauge symmetry, which is non-anomalous in the presence of one ''right-handed neutrino'' per generation and consistent with the standard model Yukawa couplings, the most general fermion charges are determined in terms of four rational parameters. This generalization of the B-L symmetry with generation-dependent lepton charges leads to neutrino masses induced by operators of high dimensionality. Neutrino masses are thus naturally small without invoking physics at energies above the TeV scale, whether neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac fermions. This ''Leptocratic'' Model predicts the existence of light quasi-sterile neutrinos with consequences for cosmology, and implies that collider experiments may reveal the origin of neutrino masses.

Chen, Mu-Chun; /Fermilab /UC, Irvine; de Gouvea, Andre; /Northwestern U. /Fermilab; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; /Fermilab

2006-12-01

269

Gauge trimming of neutrino masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that under a new U(1) gauge symmetry, which is nonanomalous in the presence of one “right-handed neutrino” per generation and consistent with the standard model Yukawa couplings, the most general fermion charges are determined in terms of four rational parameters. This generalization of the B L symmetry with generation-dependent lepton charges leads to neutrino masses induced by operators of high dimensionality. Neutrino masses are thus naturally small without invoking physics at energies above the TeV scale, whether neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac fermions. This “leptocratic” model predicts the existence of light quasisterile neutrinos with consequences for cosmology, and implies that collider experiments may reveal the origin of neutrino masses.

Chen, Mu-Chun; de Gouvêa, André; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.

2007-03-01

270

Gauge trimming of neutrino masses  

SciTech Connect

We show that under a new U(1) gauge symmetry, which is nonanomalous in the presence of one 'right-handed neutrino' per generation and consistent with the standard model Yukawa couplings, the most general fermion charges are determined in terms of four rational parameters. This generalization of the B-L symmetry with generation-dependent lepton charges leads to neutrino masses induced by operators of high dimensionality. Neutrino masses are thus naturally small without invoking physics at energies above the TeV scale, whether neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac fermions. This 'leptocratic' model predicts the existence of light quasisterile neutrinos with consequences for cosmology, and implies that collider experiments may reveal the origin of neutrino masses.

Chen, M.-C.; Gouvea, Andre de; Dobrescu, Bogdan A. [Theoretical Physics Department, Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Theoretical Physics Department, Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Theoretical Physics Department, Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

2007-03-01

271

Superluminal neutrino, flavor, and relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modified neutrino dispersion relations, which still obey the relativity principle, can have both a superluminal (muon-type) neutrino and a luminal (electron-type) neutrino, as long as neutrino-mass effects can be neglected. The idea is to allow for flavor-dependent deformed Lorentz transformations and an appropriate hierarchy of energy scales. If OPERA’s result on a superluminal velocity of the muon-neutrino is confirmed, the model has a matching superluminal velocity of the corresponding charged lepton, the muon, at equal particle energy. Assuming that this model is not already ruled out, new TeV-scale effects in the muon sector are predicted. Also discussed is a different model with a superluminal sterile neutrino propagating in the usual 4 spacetime dimensions.

Klinkhamer, F. R.

2012-01-01

272

Neutrino sector with Majorana mass terms and Friedberg-Lee symmetry  

SciTech Connect

We examine a recently proposed symmetry/condition by Friedberg and Lee in a framework where three right-handed neutrinos are added to the spectrum of the three-family minimal standard model. It is found that the right-handed neutrinos are very special, with respect to this symmetry. In the symmetry limit the neutrinos are massless, which could possibly be a hint about why they are light. Imposed as a condition and not as a full symmetry, we find that one of the three right-handed neutrinos simply decouples (has only gravitational interactions) and one of the interacting neutrinos is massless. The possible relation of the model to the seesaw mechanism is briefly discussed.

Jarlskog, C. [Division of Mathematical Physics, LTH, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

2008-04-01

273

Neutrino Magnetic Moments and Electromagnetic Leptogenesis  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the connection between neutrino magnetic moments and neutrino masses. Electroweak radiative corrections to the neutrino mass are used to derive naturalness upper bounds on neutrino magnetic moments, generated by physics above the electroweak scale. For Dirac (Majorana) neutrinos the bound is several orders of magnitude stronger (weaker) than present experimental limits. The discovery of a neutrino magnetic moment near the present experimental sensitivity would thus suggest that neutrinos are Majorana particles. We also outline a new baryogenesis-via-leptogenesis scenario where the lepton asymmetry is generated by CP violating decays of heavy right handed neutrinos via electromagnetic dipole moment couplings.

Bell, Nicole F. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

2009-12-17

274

Weighing Neutrinos: Weak Lensing Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the possibility for a measurement of neutrino mass using weak\\u000agravitational lensing. The presence of non-zero mass neutrinos leads to a\\u000asuppression of power at small scales and reduces the expected weak lensing\\u000asignal. The measurement of such a suppression in the weak lensing power\\u000aspectrum allows a direct measurement of the neutrino mass, in contrast to\\u000avarious

Asantha R. Cooray

1999-01-01

275

Exploring neutrino oscillations with superbeams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the medium- and long-baseline oscillation physics capabilities of intense muon-neutrino and muon-antineutrino beams produced using future upgraded megawatt-scale high-energy proton beams. In particular we consider the potential of these conventional neutrino ``superbeams'' for observing numu-->nue oscillations, determining the hierarchy of neutrino mass eigenstates, and measuring CP violation in the lepton sector. The physics capabilities of superbeams are explored

V. Barger; S. Geer; R. Raja; K. Whisnant

2001-01-01

276

Advancements in Solar Neutrino Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the results of solar neutrino physics, with particular attention to the data obtained and the analyses performed in the last decades, which were determinant to solve the solar neutrino problem (SNP), proving that neutrinos are massive and oscillating particles and contributing to refine the solar models. We also discuss the perspectives of the presently running experiments in this sector and of the ones planned for the near future and the impact they can have on elementary particle physics and astrophysics.

Miramonti, Lino; Antonelli, Vito

2013-05-01

277

GRB neutrino search with MAGIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescope was designed for the detection of photon sources >~50 GeV. The measurement of highly-inclined air showers renders possible the search for high-energy neutrinos, too. Only neutrinos can traverse the Earth without interaction, and therefore, events close to the horizon can be identified as neutrino-induced rather than photon-induced or hadronic events. In this

Julia K. Becker; Markus Gaug; Ching-Cheng Hsu; Wolfgang Rhode

2008-01-01

278

Neutrino helicity asymmetries in leptogenesis  

SciTech Connect

It is pointed out that the heavy singlet neutrinos characteristic of leptogenesis develop asymmetries in the abundances of the two helicity states as a result of the same mechanism that generates asymmetries in the standard lepton sector. Neutrinos and standard leptons interchange asymmetries in collisions with each other. It is shown that an appropriate quantum number, B-L{sup '}, combining baryon, lepton and neutrino asymmetries, is not violated as fast as the standard B-L. This suppresses the washout effects relevant for the derivation of the final baryon asymmetry. One presents detailed calculations for the period of neutrino thermal production in the framework of the singlet seesaw mechanism.

Bento, Luis; Santos, Francisco C. [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal)

2005-05-01

279

Neutrino oscillations beyond two flavours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I review some theoretical aspects of neutrino oscillations in the case when more than two neutrino flavours are involved. These include: approximate analytic solutions for 3-flavour (3f) oscillations in matter; matter effects in ?? ? ?? oscillations; 3f effects in oscillations of solar, atmospheric, reactor and supernova neutrinos and in accelerator long-baseline experiments; CP and T violation in neutrino oscillations in vacuum and in matter; the problem of Ue3; 4f oscillations. On leave from National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia. Supported by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation as a Gulbenkian Visiting Professor.

Akhmedov, E. Kh.

2003-04-01

280

Fourth order spatial derivative gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton’s potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

2011-10-01

281

Informants and the Fourth Amendment: A Reconsideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article argues that the Court's current interpretation of the Fourth Amendment, which sanctions the government's authority to insert secret spies and informants into our lives, is misguided. Part I highlights the historical background of the Fourth Amendment to show why its procedural safeguards are relevant when considering whether the government should be free of constitutional restraint when deploying informants

Tracey Maclin

1996-01-01

282

Academic Skills Problems. Fourth Edition Workbook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An ideal companion to "Academic Skills Problems, Fourth Edition", this indispensable workbook provides practice exercises and reproducible forms for use in direct assessment and intervention. Updated to reflect the changes in the fourth edition of the text, the workbook includes teacher and student interview forms, a complete guide to using the…

Shapiro, Edward S.

2010-01-01

283

Aging without agency: Theorizing the fourth age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the “fourth age” as a manifestation of the fragmentation of “old age”. We argue that the fourth age emerges from the institutionalization of the infirmities of old age set against the appearance of a third-age culture that negates past representations of old age. We outline the historical marginalization of old age from early modern society to

Chris Gilleard; P. Higgs

2010-01-01

284

FABRIC FILTER SYSTEM STUDY; FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the fourth year of operation (ending October 1, 1981) of a fabric filter installed by Southwestern Public Service Co. on its Harrington Station Unit 2 coal-fired boiler in Amarillo, Texas. Project work during the fourth year concentrated on fabric stud...

285

Subluminal Opera Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OPERA Collaboration has announced to have observed superluminal neutrinos with a mean energy 17.5 GeV, but afterward the superluminal interpretation of the OPERA results has been refuted theoretically by Cherenkov-like radiation and pion decay. In a recent work, we have proposed a kinematical resolution to this problem. A key idea in our resolution is that the OPERA neutrinos are not superluminal but subluminal since they travel faster than the observed speed of light in vacuum on the earth while they do slower than the true speed of light in vacuum determining the causal structure of events. In this paper, we dwell upon our ideas and present some concrete models, which realize our ideas, based on spin 0, 1 and 2 bosonic fields. We also discuss that the principle of invariant speed of light in special relativity can be replaced with the principle of a universal limiting speed.

Oda, Ichiro

286

Geo-neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review a new interdisciplinary field between Geology and Physics: the study of the Earth's geo-neutrino flux. We describe competing models for the composition of the Earth, present geological insights into the make up of the continental and oceanic crust, those parts of the Earth that concentrate Th and U, the heat producing elements, and provide details of the regional settings in the continents and oceans where operating and planned detectors are sited. Details are presented for the only two operating detectors that are capable of measuring the Earth's geo-neutrino flux: Borexino and KamLAND; results achieved to date are presented, along with their impacts on geophysical and geochemical models of the Earth. Finally, future planned experiments are highlighted.

Bellini, G.; Ianni, A.; Ludhova, L.; Mantovani, F.; McDonough, W. F.

2013-11-01

287

Natural Neutrino Dark Energy  

SciTech Connect

1 construct a general description for neutrino dark energy models, that do not require exotic particles or strange couplings. With the help of the above, this class of models is reduced to a single function with several constraints. It is shown that these models lead to some concrete predictions that can be verified (or disproved) within the next decade, using results from PLANK, EUCLID and JDEM.

Gurwich, Ilya [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2010-06-23

288

Standard solar neutrinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved standard solar model has been used to calculate the fluxes of\\u000astandard solar neutrinos. It includes premain sequence evolution, element\\u000adiffusion, partial ionization effects, and all the possible nuclear reactions\\u000abetween the main elements. It uses updated values for the initial solar element\\u000aabundances, the solar age, the solar luminosity, the nuclear reaction rates and\\u000athe radiative opacities.

Arnon Dar; Giora Shaviv

1996-01-01

289

The CNGS neutrino beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CERN to Gran Sasso Neutrino beam (CNGS) was commissioned at CERN in early August 2006 and was first sent at low intensity to Gran Sasso on August 17, 2006. The Borexino, LVD and OPERA detectors continued the commissioning of their detectors and started taking data with practically no dead time. The CNGS operated smoothly with good quality. In a short time the 3 detectors collected several hundred events with clean time distributions

Giacomelli, G.

2008-06-01

290

Fundamental Fermions (e.g. Neutrinos) as Topological Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new internal ``macroscopic'' description of fundamental fermions based on a matrix-generalization (F) of the scalar fermion-number f, predicts that only three families of quarks and leptons, and their associated neutrinos (?_e, ?_? and ?_?), exist [1]. Moreover, this description places important phtopological constraints on neutrino mixtures [2]. With respect to F, the topology of the ?e (?_? or ?_?) is that of a cylinder (Möbius strip). Assuming that topology-changing neutrino-neutrino transitions are suppressed (e.g., one cannot continuously deform a donut into a sphere), while topology-maintaining transitions are relatively enhanced, one may have an explanation for short-distance observations of (nearly) maximal ?_?-?_? mixing [3]. To test this idea, simple topological arguments were used to deduce a matrix describing long-distance neutrino mixtures, which is phidentical to that proposed by Georgi and Glashow on different grounds [4]. Experimental confirmation of this prediction would support the new description, which requires the ?e and (?_? or ?_?) to start ``life'' as topologically-distinct quantum objects.l [1] http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ISBN=0965569500, [2] G. L. Fitzpatrick, aps1999feb12\\underbar001 at http://publish.aps.org/eprint/, [3] hep-ex/981001, [4] hep-ph/9808293, p. 5, Eq. 20.

Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.

1999-05-01

291

Neutrino physics at LAMPF  

SciTech Connect

There are three neutrino experiments at LAMPF in various stages of completion or development. E225, the study of electron-neutrino electron scattering, which completed data taking in December 1986 and has just about completed all its analysis. E645, a search for /bar /nu///sub ..mu../ ..-->.. /bar /nu///sub e/ oscillation, is in its third and final year of data taking. The Large Cerenkov Detector (LCD), associated with E1015, has undergone extensive scientific and technical review and we are presently trying to obtain the necessary funds to build the detector, beam line, and target. In the following, each of these experiments will be briefly discussed. Before doing so, it is useful to show the characteristics of the neutrino spectrum resulting from the decay of ..pi../sup +/ at rest. It is also useful to realize that, on average, an 800-MeV proton from LAMPF produces about 0.1 ..pi../sup +/ decaying at rest. 16 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Garvey, G.T.

1989-01-01

292

Probing New Physics With Neutrino Interactions At The Pierre Auger Observatory  

SciTech Connect

The energy of the shower produced through neutrino-nucleon interactions depends on the neutrino flavor and the type of interaction. Electron neutrinos undergoing CC interactions produce a shower with both an electromagnetic and hadronic component: Esh,em=(1-y)Ev, Esh,had=yEv. Muon neutrinos undergoing CC interactions, along with all neutrino flavors undergoing NC interactions, produce a hadronic shower with an energy, Esh,had=Ev. Charged current interactions of tau neutrino are somewhat more complicated. The tau lepton produced in the initial CC neutrino interaction with sufficiently high energy generate a second hadronic shower from the tau decay spatially separated from the initial one, identifiable as a ''double bang'' event. The Auger capability for seeing these events allows to restrict models where non-perturbative effects are present, which induce an enhancement in the neutrino-nucleon cross-section (e.g. low-scale Quantum Gravity, EW instantons). We are interested to study EW-instantons, both the Standard Model as well as in an extension of the type SU(2)1 x SU(2)2 x U(1)Y, where the influence of new physics is only in the third family.

Diaz-Cruz, L.; Salazar, H. [Fac. de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP. Apdo. Postal 1364, C.P. 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Pedraza-Morales, M. I.; Rosado, A. [Instituto de Fisica, BUAP. Apdo. Postal J-48 Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

2006-09-25

293

Future neutrino physics with LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed large-volume detector LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) is a multi-purpose liquid-scintillator experiment. Its sensitive mass of 50 kt allows for high-statistic measurements of astrophysical and terrestrial low-energy neutrino sources. Moreover, new limits might be put on the lifetime of the proton decay channel into K+bar nu.

Winter, J.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Hellgartner, D.; Lewke, T.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Meindl, Q.; Möllenberg, R.; Oberauer, L.; Tippmann, M.; Wurm, M.

2012-07-01

294

Resonant solar neutrino oscillation versus laboratory neutrino oscillation experiments  

SciTech Connect

The interplay between resonant solar neutrino oscillations and neutrino oscillations in laboratory experiments is investigated in a 3 generation model. Due to the assumed hierarchy of neutrino masses, together with our choice of a convenient parameterization of the 3 generation mixing matrix, we can derive a simple analytic formula which reduces the solar neutrino problem to an effective 2 generation problem. The reduction makes it apparent that the allowed range of mixing and mass parameters crucially depend on whether the survival probability of solar neutrinos S satisfies S greater than or equal to 1/3 or not. The formulae for probabilities of laboratory neutrino oscillations are also greatly simplified. We argue that a combination of the observed solar neutrino depletion and data obtained from reactor experiments seems to rule out some range of neutrino masses. If a sizable nu/sub ..mu../ ..-->.. nu/sub e/ oscillation is observed at accelerators, as suggested at this Workshop, it severely restricts the range of 2 mixing angles.

Lim, Chong-Sa

1987-02-01

295

Neutrino masses from U(1) symmetries and the Super-Kamiokande data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the Super-Kamiokande data, we revisit models with U(1) symmetries and discuss the origin of neutrino masses and mixings in such theories. We show that, in models with just three light neutrinos and a hierarchy of neutrino masses, large (2-3) mixing fixes the lepton doublet U(1) charges and is thus related to the structure of the charged lepton mass matrix. We discuss the fermion mass structure that follows from the abelian family symmetry with an extended gauge group. Requiring that the quark and lepton masses be ordered by the family symmetry, we identify the most promising scheme. This requires large, but not necessarily maximal, mixing in the ?? sector and gives e? mixing in the range that is required for the small angle solution of the solar neutrino deficit.

Lola, Smaragda; Ross, Graham G.

1999-07-01

296

Excited neutrino production by ultrahigh energy neutrinos traversing the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We focus on the production of excited neutrinos by ultra high energy (UHE, E?>104GeV) neutrinos traversing the Earth. The surviving neutrino fluxes are calculated using the complete system of transport equations for ordinary neutrinos and their excited states, and we compare these results with the obtained using only Standard Model (SM) interactions. We extend the analysis by including the neutral current (NC) and decay regeneration effects, and computing the surviving flux for different values of f/?, where ? is the compositeness scale and f a coupling factor representing non-perturbative physics. Finally, we analyze the possibilities of detecting such fluxes in a neutrino telescope such as IceCube showing the allowed regions in the (m*,f/?) plane for two possible initial fluxes. We have considered the IC80 configuration of IceCube for an operation time of ten years.

Reynoso, Matías M.; Romero, Ismael; Sampayo, Oscar A.

2012-12-01

297

Minimal neutrino texture with neutrino mass ratio and Cabibbo angle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present neutrino mass matrix textures in a minimal framework of the type-I seesaw mechanism, where two right-handed Majorana neutrinos are introduced in order to reproduce experimental results of neutrino oscillations. The textures can lead to experimentally favored leptonic mixing angles described by tri-bimaximal mixing with one additional rotation. We present minimal and next to minimal textures for the normal mass hierarchy case in the context of the texture zero. A minimal texture in the inverted hierarchy case is also constructed, which does not have any vanishing entries in a Dirac neutrino mass matrix. We also discuss some cases in which the model parameters in the textures are supposed to be a neutrino mass ratio and/or the Cabibbo angle. Predicted regions of mixing angles, a leptonic CP-violation parameter, and an effective mass for the neutrinoless double beta decay are presented in all textures.

Shimizu, Yusuke; Takahashi, Ryo; Tanimoto, Morimitsu

2013-06-01

298

Supernovae, neutrino rest mass, and the middle-energy neutrino background in the universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrinos emitted during the formation of the neutron stars and black holes form, together with relict microwave radiation and relict neutrinos, a background for the present universe. The energy of the kind of neutrino emitted in neutron star formation, at 3-30 MeV, is much greater than that of relict neutrinos and much smaller than that of the cosmic ray neutrinos.

GENNADYI S. BISNOVATYI-KOGAN; ZAKIR F. SEIDOV

1984-01-01

299

Supernovae, neutrino rest mass, and the middle-energy neutrino background in the universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrinos emitted during the formation of the neutron stars and black holes form, together with relict microwave radiation and relict neutrinos, a background for the present universe. The energy of the kind of neutrino emitted in neutron star formation, at 3-30 MeV, is much greater than that of relict neutrinos and much smaller than that of the cosmic ray neutrinos;

G. S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan; Z. F. Seidov

1984-01-01

300

Relic neutrino asymmetries and big bang nucleosynthesis in a four neutrino model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oscillations between ordinary and sterile neutrinos can generate large neutrino asymmetries in the early universe. These asymmetries can significantly affect big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) through modification of nuclear reaction rates. We study this phenomenon within a model consisting of the three ordinary neutrinos plus one sterile neutrino that can be motivated by the neutrino anomalies and the dark matter problem.

N. F. Bell; R. Foot; R. R. Volkas

1998-01-01

301

Neutrinos, what we have learned about them and what we have learned using them  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt to remember some of the main events which highlight the evolution of our knowledge of the neutrinos and their properties, the "families" of particles, a few of the very interesting persons who contributed to this progress, as well as the contribution of neutrino beam experiments to the validation of the electro-weak and quantum-chromo-dynamic theories, and the structure of the nucleon.

Steinberger, J.

2013-02-01

302

A Numerical Algorithm for Modeling Multigroup Neutrino-Radiation Hydrodynamics in Two Spatial Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now generally agreed that multidimensional, multigroup, neutrino-radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) is an indispensable element of any realistic model of stellar-core collapse, core-collapse supernovae, and proto-neutron star instabilities. We have developed a new, two-dimensional, multigroup algorithm that can model neutrino-RHD flows in core-collapse supernovae. Our algorithm uses an approach similar to the ZEUS family of algorithms, originally developed by Stone

F. Douglas Swesty; Eric S. Myra

2009-01-01

303

Probing radiative solar neutrino decays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by a pilot experiment conducted by Vannucci et al. during a solar eclipse, we work out the geometry governing the radiative decays of solar neutrinos. Surprisingly, although a smaller proportion of the photons can be detected, the case of strongly non-degenerate neutrinos brings better limits in terms of the fundamental couplings. We advocate satellite-based experiments to improve the sensitivity.

Frère, J.-M.; Monderen, D.

1998-07-01

304

The emergence of neutrino astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a brief historical review of the quest to find neutrinos of extraterrestrial origin. In the context of the Victor Hess centenary, it is interesting to consider how the development of detectors for neutrinos from space relates to developments in cosmic-ray and particle physics over the same time span.

Gaisser, Thomas K.

2013-02-01

305

Solving the Solar Neutrino Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning with Ray Davis' pioneering Chlorine measurement in the mid-1960s, and continuing up through the recent Superkamiokande ^8B measurement, all solar neutrino experiments have observed far fewer neutrinos than predicted by theory. The mystery that has remained unsolved is the reason for this discrepancy. Do we really understand energy generation in the sun? Can the solar model calculations and the

John F. Wilkerson

2002-01-01

306

Is There a Massive Neutrino?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussed is the question of whether "heavy" neutrinos really do exist based on the evidence supplied by four research groups. The implications of its existence on the disciplines of particle physics, astrophsyics, and cosmology are discussed. Background information on the different types of neutrinos is provided. (KR)|

Selvin, Paul

1991-01-01

307

Neutrinos have Mass --- so What?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this brief review, we discuss the new physics unveiled by neutrino oscillation experiments over the past several years, and discuss several attempts at understanding the mechanism behind neutrino masses and lepton mixing. It is fair to say that, while significant theoretical progress has been made, we are yet to construct a coherent picture that naturally explains nonzero, yet tiny,

André de Gouvêa

2004-01-01

308

Neutrino physics - An expanding realm  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Pauli's neutrino (or antineutrino) is a neutral, massless, spin-half particle and its presence res- cues apparent violation of both energy and angular mo- mentum conservation in the beta decay process. Subsequently it was found by particle physicists that the neutrino comes in three flavours: ?e, ?? and ??. Schewartz, Steinberger and Lederman shared the Nobel Prize in 1988 for

Shankar Nath Mukherjee

309

Results of a Neutrino Oscillation Experiment Performed at a Meson Factory Beam-Stop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document describes a neutrino oscillation experiment performed at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The oscillation mode searched for is |nu _mu --> |nu_{e}. The first chapter is a review of the known properties of the neutrino and a description of the phenomenon of neutrino oscillation. Previous experimental limits on this unobserved phenomenon are also given. The second chapter describes the experimental apparatus used by the E645 experiment to detect neutrinos produced in the LAMPF beam stop. The salient features of the detector are its large mass (20 tons of CH_{rm 2}), its fine segmentation (to allow good particle tracking), good energy resolution, its recording of the history both before and after tracks appear in the detector, an active cosmic-ray anticoincidence shield, and 2000 gm/cm ^{rm 2} of passive cosmic -ray shielding. It is located 26.8 m from the neutrino source, which has a mean neutrino energy of 40 MeV. The third chapter details the reduction of the 1,3 million event data sample to a 49 event sample of neutrino candidates. Principle backgrounds are Michel electrons from stopping cosmic-ray muons and protons from np elastic scattering by cosmic -ray neutrons. The fourth chapter explains how background levels from neutrino-nuclear scattering are predicted. The result of maximum-likelihood analysis reveals no evidence for oscillation. 90% confidence levels are set at deltam^{rm 2} =.10 eV^{rm 2} for large mixing and sin^ 2(2 theta) =.014 for large delta m^{rm 2}.

Mitchell, Joseph William

310

The neutrino factory:beam and experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of neutrino oscillations marks a major milestone in the history of neutrino physics, and opens a new window to the still mysterious origin of masses and flavour-mixing. Many current and forthcoming experiments will answer open questions; however, a major step forward, up to and possibly including CP violation in the neutrino-mixing matrix, requires the neutrino beams from a

A Blondel; A G Bueno; M Campanelli; Anselmo Cervera-Villanueva; David B Cline; J Collot; M De Jong; Andrea Donini; Friedrich Dydak; R Edgecock; Maria Belen Gavela-Legazpi; J J Gómez-Cadenas; M Concepción González-Garciá; P M Gruber; D A Harris; Pilar Hernández; Y Kuno; P J Litchfield; K McFarland; O Mena; P Migliozzi; Vittorio Palladino; J Panman; I M Papadopoulos; A Para; C Peña-Garay; P Pérez; Stefano Rigolin; Andrea Romanino; André Rubbia; P Strolin; S G Wojcicki

2000-01-01

311

Thermodynamic Laws of Neutrino and Photon Emission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares neutrino and photon emissions, develops the thermodynamic blackbody laws of neutrino emission analogous to laws governing photon emission, points out that combined radiation from a "true blackbody" consists of both photon and neutrino emissions of comparable magnitude, and speculates upon the existence of blackbody neutrino emitters in…

Walsh, P. J.; Gallo, C. F.

1980-01-01

312

Phenomenological implications of neutrinos in extra dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard Model singlet neutrinos propagating in extra dimensions induce small Dirac neutrino masses. While it seems rather unlikely that their Kaluza-Klein excitations directly participate in the observed neutrino oscillations, their virtual exchange may lead to detectable signatures in future neutrino experiments and in rare charged lepton processes. We show how these effects can be described by specific dimension-six effective operators

André de Gouvêa; Gian Francesco Giudice; Alessandro Strumia; Kazuhiro Tobe

2002-01-01

313

Phenomenological implications of neutrinos in extra dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard Model singlet neutrinos propagating in extra dimensions induce small Dirac neutrino masses. While it seems rather unlikely that their Kaluza–Klein excitations directly participate in the observed neutrino oscillations, their virtual exchange may lead to detectable signatures in future neutrino experiments and in rare charged lepton processes. We show how these effects can be described by specific dimension-six effective operators

André de Gouvêa; Gian Francesco Giudice; Alessandro Strumia; Kazuhiro Tobe

2002-01-01

314

Phenomenological implications of neutrinos in extra dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard Model singlet neutrinos propagating in extra dimensions induce small Dirac neutrino masses. While it seems rather unlikely that their Kaluza-Klein excitations directly participate in the observed neutrino oscillations, their virtual exchange may lead to detectable signatures in future neutrino experiments and in rare charged lepton processes. We show how these effects can be described by specific dimension-six effective operators

Andre de Gouvea; Gian Francesco Giudice; Alessandro Strumia; Kazuhiro Tobe

2001-01-01

315

Neutrino mass models and CP violation  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical ideas on the origin of (a) neutrino masses (b) neutrino mass hierarchies and (c) leptonic mixing angles are reviewed. Topics discussed include (1) symmetries of neutrino mass matrix and their origin (2) ways to understand the observed patterns of leptonic mixing angles and (3)unified description of neutrino masses and mixing angles in grand unified theories.

Joshipura, Anjan S. [Physical Research Laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380 009 (India)

2011-10-06

316

OPERA and a Neutrino Dark Energy Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a neutrino dark energy model and study its implications for the neutrino superluminality reported recently by the OPERA collaboration. In our model the derivative couplings of the neutrino to the dark energy scalar result in a Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector. Furthermore, the coupling of the dark energy scalar field to the stress tensor of the Earth

Emilio Ciuffoli; Jarah Evslin; Jie Liu; Xinmin Zhang

2011-01-01

317

Probing thermonuclear supernova explosions with neutrinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: We present neutrino light curves and energy spectra for two representative type Ia supernova explosion models: a pure deflagration and a delayed detonation. Methods: We calculate the neutrino flux from beta processes using nuclear statistical equilibrium abundances convoluted with approximate neutrino spectra of the individual nuclei and the thermal neutrino spectrum (pair+plasma). Results: Although the two considered thermonuclear supernova

A. Odrzywolek; T. Plewa

2011-01-01

318

Solar Neutrino Measurement in Super-Kamiokande  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of solar neutrino data from the first phase of Super-Kamiokande are presented. Super-Kamiokande can measure not only the solar neutrino flux but also its energy spectrum and its time variations such as day vs. night and seasonal differences. This information can severely restrict parameters of solar neutrino oscillation. Combining flux results from other solar neutrino experiments with those

Yusuke Koshio

2005-01-01

319

The Observed Growth of Massive Galaxy Clusters IV: Robust Constraints on Neutrino Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the fourth of a series of papers in which we derive simultaneous\\u000aconstraints on cosmological parameters and X-ray scaling relations using\\u000aobservations of the growth of massive, X-ray flux-selected galaxy clusters.\\u000aHere we examine the constraints on neutrino properties that are enabled by the\\u000aprecise and robust constraint on the amplitude of the matter power spectrum at\\u000alow

Adam Mantz; Steven W. Allen; David Rapetti

2009-01-01

320

Neutrinos Get Under Your Skin  

SciTech Connect

The enigmatic neutrinos are among the most abundant of the tiny particles that make up our universe. They are a billion times more abundant than the particles of which the earth and we humans are made. Thus, to understand the universe, we must understand the neutrinos. Moving ghostlike, almost invisibly, through matter, these particles are very hard to pin down and study. However, dramatic progress has recently been made. In this lecture, the neutrinos will be introduced. Their behavior, so different from that of everyday objects, will be explained, and recent discoveries will be described. The open questions about neutrinos, forthcoming attempts to answer these questions, and the role of neutrinos in shaping the universe and making human life possible, will all be explained.

Kayser, Boris

2005-08-30

321

Reactor Monitoring with Neutrino Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the use of neutrino detectors to monitor nuclear reactors is currently a very active field of research. While neutrino detectors located close to reactors have been used to provide information about the global performance of the reactors, a general improvement of the technique is needed in order to use it in a practical way to monitor the fissile contents of the fuel of the nuclear reactors or the thermal power delivered. I describe the current status of the Angra Neutrino Project, aimed to building a low-mass neutrino detector to monitor the Angra II reactor of the Brazilian nuclear power plant Almirante Alvaro Ramos in order to explore new approaches to reactor monitoring with neutrino detectors.

Casimiro Linares, Edgar

2011-09-01

322

Neutrino masses in split supersymmetry  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the possibility of generating neutrino masses in the context of split supersymmetric scenarios where all sfermions are very heavy. All relevant contributions coming from the R-parity violating terms to the neutrino mass matrix up to one-loop level are computed showing the importance of the Higgs bosons one-loop corrections. We conclude that it is not possible to generate all neutrino masses and mixings in split SUSY with bilinear R-parity violating interactions. In the case of partial split SUSY, the one-loop Higgs bosons contributions are enough to generate the neutrino masses and mixings in agreement with the experiment. In the context of minimal SUSY SU(5), we find new contributions that help us to generate neutrino masses in the case of split SUSY.

Aurelio Diaz, Marco [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avenida Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Fileviez Perez, Pavel [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); CFTP, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenue Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Mora, Clemencia [Departement de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire, Universite de Geneve, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland)

2009-01-01

323

Neutrino oscillation results from MINOS  

SciTech Connect

The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) long-baseline experiment has been actively collecting beam data since 2005, having already accumulated 3 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target (POT). MINOS uses the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) neutrino beam measured in two locations: at Fermilab, close to beam production, and 735 km downstream, in Northern Minnesota. By observing the oscillatory structure in the neutrino energy spectrum, MINOS can precisely measure the neutrino oscillation parameters in the atmospheric sector. These parameters were determined to be |{Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2}| = 2.74{sub -0.26}{sup +0.44} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} and sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 23}) > 0.87 (68% C.L.) from analysis of the first year of data, corresponding to 1.27 x 10{sup 20} POT.

Sousa, Alexandre; /Oxford U.

2007-08-01

324

Lepton family number violation  

SciTech Connect

At present there is evidence from neutrino oscillation searches that the neutrinos are in fact massive particles and that they mix. If confirmed, this would imply that the conservation of LFN is not exact. Lepton family number violation (LFNV) has been searched for with impressive sensitivities in many processes involving charged leptons. The present experimental limits on some of them (those which the author shall consider here) are shown in Table 1. These stringent limits are not inconsistent with the neutrino oscillation results since, given the experimental bounds on the masses of the known neutrinos and the neutrino mass squared differences required by the oscillation results, the effects of LFNV from neutrino mixing would be too small to be seen elsewhere (see Section 2). The purpose of experiments searching for LFNV involving the charged leptons is to probe the existence of other sources of LFNV. Such sources are present in many extensions of the SM. In this lecture the author shall discuss some of the possibilities, focusing on processes that require muon beams. Other LFNV processes, such as the decays of the kaons and of the {tau}, provide complementary information. In the next Section he shall consider some sources of LFNV that do not require an extension of the gauge group of the SM (the added leptons or Higgs bosons may of course originate from models with extended gauge groups). In Section 3 he discusses LFNV in left-right symmetric models. In Section 4 he considers LFNV in supersymmetric models, first in R-parity conserving supersymmetric grand unified models, and then in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation. The last section is a brief summary of the author`s conclusions.

Herczeg, P.

1999-03-01

325

Review of Reactor Neutrino Oscillation Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this document we will review the current status of reactor neutrino oscillation experiments and present their physics potentials for measuring the ?13 neutrino mixing angle. The neutrino mixing angle ?13 is currently a high-priority topic in the field of neutrino physics. There are currently three different reactor neutrino experiments, DOUBLE CHOOZ, DAYA BAY and RENO and a few accelerator neutrino experiments searching for neutrino oscillations induced by this angle. A description of the reactor experiments searching for a nonzero value of ?13 is given, along with a discussion of the sensitivities that these experiments can reach in the near future.

Mariani, C.

326

Sterile neutrino-enhanced supernova explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the enhancement of lepton number, energy, and entropy transport resulting from active-sterile neutrino conversion ?e??s deep in the post-bounce supernova core followed by reconversion ?s??e further out, near the neutrino sphere. We explicitly take account of shock wave and neutrino heating modification of the active neutrino forward scattering potential which governs sterile neutrino production. We find that the ?e luminosity at the neutrino sphere could be increased by between ˜10% and ˜100% during the crucial shock reheating epoch if the sterile neutrino has a rest mass and vacuum mixing parameters in ranges which include those required for viable sterile neutrino dark matter. We also find sterile neutrino transport-enhanced entropy deposition ahead of the shock. This ‘‘preheating” can help melt heavy nuclei and thereby reduce the nuclear photo-dissociation burden on the shock. Both neutrino luminosity enhancement and preheating could increase the likelihood of a successful core collapse supernova explosion.

Hidaka, Jun; Fuller, George M.

2007-10-01

327

The solar-neutrino problem, 1995.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The status of the solar-neutrino problem (SNP), as is seen in 1995, is reviewed. Basically, there are two principal solutions to the SNP: (i) with standard neutrino (neutrino of SM of electroweak interactions) and (ii) with non-standard neutrino (neutrino beyond the SM). Actually, one can distinguish three solar-neutrino problems: the deficit of 8B neutrinos, the deficit of 7Be neutrinos and the HOMESTAKE/KAMIOKANDE conflict. The first problem probably can be solved with small correlated changes of nuclear cross-sections and the change of the central temperature of the Sun. The deficit of 7Be neutrinos looks like the key problem. The HOMESTAKE/KAMIOKANDE conflict strongly disfavours or excludes the standard neutrino (nuclear/astrophysical solution to the SNP). MSW conversion gives a most plausible explanation to the SNP.

Berezinsky, V.

1995-12-01

328

Beaming Neutrinos and Anti-neutrinos across the Earth to Disentangle Neutrino Mixing Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A result from MINOS seemed to indicate that the mass splitting and mixing angle of anti-neutrinos is different from that of neutrinos, suggesting a charge-parity-time (CPT) violation in the lepton sector. However, more recent MINOS data reduced the ??-\\bar{\

Fargion, Daniele; D'Armiento, Daniele; Desiati, Paolo; Paggi, Paolo

2012-10-01

329

Resonant neutrino oscillations and the neutrino signature of supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the effects of resonant neutrino oscillations, proposed as a solution to the solar neutrino puzzle, on the neutrino signature of a Type II supernova. We find that, for parameters corresponding to an adiabatic conversion of most of the 8B neutrino flux, the supernova neutrino signal in a water-?erenkov detector is altered in the following way: (1) The isotropic-to-directional event ratio increases; (2) The short time scale neutronization burst signal decreases by a factor 7, perhaps rendering it unobservable. Detection of these changes would allow one to distinguish between neutrino oscillations and solar model alterations as solutions to the solar neutrino problem. We also note that mixing of the higher energy ?? and ?r's to ?e's will enhance detection of the thermally produced ?-flux. We both wish to thank the hospitality of the Aspen Center for Physics where this work was discussed and completed. This work was supported in part by NSF and DOE grants at The University of Chicago, and by NASA at Fermilab.

Walker, Terry P.; Schramm, David N.

1987-09-01

330

Theory of neutrino oscillations with entanglement  

SciTech Connect

We show that, despite appearances, a theoretical approach to neutrino oscillation in which the neutrino and its interaction partners are entangled yields the standard result for the neutrino oscillation wavelength. We also shed some light on the question of why plane-wave approaches to the neutrino oscillation problem can yield the correct oscillation wavelength even though they do not explicitly account for the localization of the neutrino source and the detector.

Kayser, Boris; Kopp, Joachim; Robertson, R. G. Hamish; Vogel, Petr [Theoretical Physics Department, Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Department of Physics and Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Kellogg Radiation Laboratory and Physics Department, Caltech, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2010-11-01

331

Neutrino-induced muons observed with MINOS  

SciTech Connect

The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment's Far Detector has been operational since July 2003, taking cosmic ray and atmospheric neutrino data from its location in the Soudan Mine Underground Lab. Numerous neutrino-induced muons have been observed. The detector's magnetic field allows the first determination by a large underground detector of muon charge and thus neutrino versus anti-neutrino on an event by event basis.

Habig, A.; /Minnesota U., Duluth

2005-07-01

332

Sterile neutrino-enhanced supernova explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the enhancement of lepton number, energy, and entropy transport resulting from active-sterile neutrino conversion {sub e}{sub s} deep in the post-bounce supernova core followed by reconversion {sub s}{sub e} further out, near the neutrino sphere. We explicitly take account of shock wave and neutrino heating modification of the active neutrino forward scattering potential which governs sterile neutrino production.

Jun Hidaka; George M. Fuller

2007-01-01

333

Sterile neutrino-enhanced supernova explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the enhancement of lepton number, energy, and entropy transport resulting from active-sterile neutrino conversion nue-->nus deep in the post-bounce supernova core followed by reconversion nus-->nue further out, near the neutrino sphere. We explicitly take account of shock wave and neutrino heating modification of the active neutrino forward scattering potential which governs sterile neutrino production. We find that the

Jun Hidaka; George M. Fuller

2007-01-01

334

Calculation of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric neutrino fluxes are calculated over the wide energy range from 30 MeV to 3000 GeV for the study of neutrino physics using the data from underground neutrino detectors. In this calculation, a full Monte Carlo method is employed for low energy neutrinos (30 MeV-3 GeV), while a hybrid method is used for high energy neutrinos (1-3000 GeV). At low

M. Honda; T. Kajita; K. Kasahara; S. Midorikawa

1995-01-01

335

Theory Predictions for Inclusive atmospheric Neutrino flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the history of theory prediction of inclusive atmospheric neutrino flux shortly, then the 3-dimensional calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux in some detail. With the calculated atmospheric neutrino flux for INO and South Pole, we discuss on the relation of atmospheric neutrino flux and geomagnetic field. We find the full 3-dimensional scheme calculation is necessary for the theory prediction of the atmospheric neutrino flux.

Honda, Morihiro

2013-06-01

336

Neutrino anisotropies after Planck  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new constraints on the rest-frame sound speed, ceff2, and the viscosity parameter, cvis2, of the cosmic neutrino background from the recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite. While broadly consistent with the expectations of ceff2=cvis2=1/3 in the standard scenario, the Planck data set hints at a higher value of the viscosity parameter, with cvis2=0.60±0.18 at 68% C.L., and a lower value of the sound speed, with ceff2=0.304±0.013 at 68% C.L. We find a correlation between the neutrino parameters and the lensing amplitude of the temperature power spectrum AL. When the latter parameter is allowed to vary, we find a better consistency with the standard model with cvis2=0.51±0.22, ceff2=0.311±0.019, and AL=1.08±0.18 at 68% C.L. This result indicates that the anomalous large value of AL measured by Planck could be connected to nonstandard neutrino properties. Including additional data sets from baryon acoustic oscillation surveys and the Hubble Space Telescope constraint on the Hubble constant, we obtain cvis2=0.40±0.19, ceff2=0.319±0.019, and AL=1.15±0.17 at 68% C.L.; including the lensing power spectrum, we obtain cvis2=0.50±0.19, ceff2=0.314±0.015, and AL=1.025±0.076 at 68% C.L. Finally, we investigate further degeneracies between the clustering parameters and other cosmological parameters.

Gerbino, Martina; Di Valentino, Eleonora; Said, Najla

2013-09-01

337

Neutrinos and duality  

SciTech Connect

A phenomenological study of Bloom-Gilman duality is performed in electron and neutrino scattering on nuclei. In the resonance region the structure functions are calculated within the phenomenological models of Ghent and Giessen groups, where only the resonance contribution is taken into account, and the background one is neglected. Structure functions F{sub 2} in the resonance region are compared with the DIS ones, extracted directly from the experimental data. The results show, that within the models considered the Bloom-Gilman duality does not work well for nuclei: the integrated strength in the resonance region is considerably lower than in the DIS one.

Lalakulich, O.; Leitner, T.; Buss, O.; Mosel, U. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Praet, Ch.; Jachowicz, N.; Ryckebusch, J. [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

2009-11-25

338

Sterile neutrinos as dark matter  

SciTech Connect

The simplest model that can accommodate a viable nonbaryonic dark matter candidate is the standard electroweak theory with the addition of right-handed or sterile neutrinos. This model has been studied extensively in the context of the hot dark matter scenario. We reexamine this model and find that hot, warm, and cold dark matter are all possibilities. We focus on the case where sterile neutrinos are the dark matter. Since their only direct coupling is to left-handed or active neutrinos, the most efficient production mechanism is via neutrino oscillations. If the production rate is always less than the expansion rate, then these neutrinos will never be in thermal equilibrium. However, they may still play a significant role in the dynamics of the Universe and possibly provide the missing mass necessary for closure. We consider a single generation of neutrino fields ({nu}{sub L}, {nu}{sub R}) with a Dirac mass, {mu}, and a Majorana mass for the right-handed components only, M. For M {much_gt} {mu} we show that the number density of sterile neutrinos is proportional to {mu}{sup 2}/M so that the energy density today is independent of M. However M is crucial in determining the large scale structure of the Universe. In particular, M {approx_equal} 0.1--1.0 key leads to warm dark matter and a structure formation scenario that may have some advantages over both the standard hot and cold dark matter scenarios.

Dodelson, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Widrow, L.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics]|[Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Canadian Inst. for Theoretical Astrophysics

1993-03-01

339

Exploring neutrino oscillations with superbeams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the medium- and long-baseline oscillation physics capabilities of intense muon-neutrino and muon-antineutrino beams produced using future upgraded megawatt-scale high-energy proton beams. In particular we consider the potential of these conventional neutrino ``superbeams'' for observing ??-->?e oscillations, determining the hierarchy of neutrino mass eigenstates, and measuring CP violation in the lepton sector. The physics capabilities of superbeams are explored as a function of the beam energy, baseline, and the detector parameters (fiducial mass, background rates, and systematic uncertainties on the backgrounds). The trade-offs between very large detectors with poor background rejection and smaller detectors with excellent background rejection are illustrated. We find that, with an aggressive set of detector parameters, it may be possible to observe ??-->?e oscillations with a superbeam provided that the amplitude parameter sin22?13 is larger than a few ×10-3. If sin22?13 is of order 10-2 or larger, then the neutrino mass hierarchy can be determined in long-baseline experiments, and if in addition the large mixing angle MSW solution describes the solar neutrino deficit, then there is a small region of parameter space within which maximal CP violation in the lepton sector would be observable (with a significance of a few standard deviations) in a low-energy medium-baseline experiment. We illustrate our results by explicitly considering massive water Cherenkov and liquid argon detectors at superbeams with neutrino energies ranging from 1 GeV to 15 GeV, and baselines ranging from 295 km to 9300 km. Finally, we compare the oscillation physics prospects at superbeams with the corresponding prospects at neutrino factories. The sensitivity at a neutrino factory to CP violation and the neutrino mass hierarchy extends to values of the amplitude parameter sin22?13 that are one to two orders of magnitude lower than at a superbeam.

Barger, V.; Geer, S.; Raja, R.; Whisnant, K.

2001-06-01

340

Models and Phenomenology of Neutrino Masses circa 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review recent developments in models of neutrino masses and mixing. Emphases are given to models based on finite group family symmetries from which the tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing can arise. In particular, we describe one recent model based on SUSY SU(5) combined with a family symmetry based on the double tetrahedral group, T?. All 22 observable fermion masses and mixing angles and CP violating measures are fitted with only 9 parameters. In this model, a near tri-bimaximal MNS matrix and a realistic CKM matrix are simultaneously generated; the MNS matrix gets slightly modified by virtue of having the Georgi-Jarlskog relations. Due to the presence of complex Clebsch-Gordan coefficients in T?, CP violation in this model is entirely geometrical in origin. The prediction of the model for the leptonic Dirac CP phase is 227°, which turns out to be very close to the current best fit value of 220° from SuperK.

Chen, Mu-Chun; Mahanthappa, K. T.

2012-08-01

341

School Violence, School Reform, and the Fourth Amendment in Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses administrator responsibility and student rights under the Fourth Amendment. Reviews search and seizure case law in school settings, highlighting "New Jersey v. TLO,""Vernonia v. Acton," and other landmark decisions. Some experts advocate a moral or cultural ethos fostering a sense of family and community, character and pride, symbol and…

Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.; Guba, Gloria J.

1998-01-01

342

School Violence, School Reform, and the Fourth Amendment in Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses administrator responsibility and student rights under the Fourth Amendment. Reviews search and seizure case law in school settings, highlighting "New Jersey v. TLO,""Vernonia v. Acton," and other landmark decisions. Some experts advocate a moral or cultural ethos fostering a sense of family and community, character and pride, symbol and…

Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.; Guba, Gloria J.

1998-01-01

343

Youth at Risk: A Prevention Resource for Counselors, Teachers, and Parents. Fourth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The fourth revision of this text offers both tested prevention strategies for work with diverse at-risk populations and counseling techniques that address the complexities of destructive behavior from individual, family, school, and community perspectives. Drawing on the wisdom of 24 experts, this book provides concrete advice for creating and…

Capuzzi, David, Ed.; Gross, Douglas R., Ed.

344

LSND neutrino oscillation results  

SciTech Connect

The LSND (Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector) experiment at Los Alamos has conducted a search for muon antineutrino {r_arrow} electron antineutrino oscillations using muon neutrinos from antimuon decay at rest. The electron antineutrinos are detected via the reaction electron antineutrino + proton {r_arrow} positron + neutron, correlated with the 2.2-MeV gamma from neutron + proton {r_arrow} deuteron + gamma. The use of tight cuts to identify positron events with correlated gamma rays yields 22 events with positron energy between 36 and 60 MeV and only 4.6 {+-} 0.6 background events. The probability that this excess is due entirely to a statistical fluctuation is 4.1 {times} 10{sup -8}. A chi-squared fit to the entire positron sample results in a total excess of 51.8 {sup +18.7}{sub -16.9} {+-} 8.0 events with positron energy between 20 and 60 MeV. If attributed to muon antineutrino {r_arrow} electron antineutrino oscillations, this corresponds to an oscillation probability (averaged over the experimental energy and spatial acceptance) of (0.31 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.05){percent}. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Louis, W.C.; LSND Collaboration

1996-10-01

345

Neutrino interactions in neutron matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrino flow is the dominant mechanism of energy transfer in the latest stages of supernovae explosions and in compact stars. The Standard Model of particle physics and accelerator data, provide a satisfactory description of neutrino physics in vacuum up to TeV scale. Nevertheless modeling the dynamics of neutrino interaction in the nuclear environment involves severe difficulties. This thesis in mainly aimed at obtaining the weak response of infinite matter, using both the Correlated Basis Function theory and Landau Theory of Fermi liquid to take into account properly nucleon-nucleon hard core potential and long range correlation (quasi-particle, collective modes, ecc.)

Cipollone, Andrea

2012-12-01

346

Electroweak scale neutrinos and Higgses  

SciTech Connect

We present two different models with electroweak scale right-handed neutrinos. One of the models is created under the constraint that any addition to the Standard Model must not introduce new higher scales. The model contains right-handed neutrinos with electroweak scale masses and a lepton number violating singlet scalar field. The scalar phenomenology is also presented. The second model is a triplet Higgs model where again the right-handed neutrinos have electroweak scale masses. In this case the model has a rich scalar phenomenology and in particular we present the analysis involving the doubly charged Higgs.

Aranda, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo No. 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Dual CP Institute of High Energy Physics (Mexico)

2009-04-20

347

Report on solar neutrino experiments  

SciTech Connect

A summary is given of the status of solar neutrino research that includes results of the Brookhaven chlorine detector, a discussion of the development of the gallium, bromine, and lithium radiochemical detectors, and some proposals for direct counting detectors. The gallium and bromine radiochemical detectors are developed and are capable of giving critical information of interest about neutrino physics and the fusion reactions in the interior of the sun. A plan for building these detectors is outlined and a rough cost estimate is given. A review is given of the plans in the Soviet Union in solar neutrino research.

Davis, R. Jr.; Cleveland, B.T.; Rowley, J.K.

1984-01-01

348

Solar monopoles and terrestrial neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic monopoles captured in the core of the sun may give rise to a substantial flux of energetic neutrinos by catalyzing the decay of solar hydrogen. We discuss the expected neutrino flux in underground detectors under different assumptions about solar interior conditions. Although a monopole flux as low as F/sub M/ /approximately/ 10/sup /minus/24/ cm/sup /minus/2/ sec/sup /minus/1/ sr/sup /minus/1/ could give rise to a neutrino flux above atmospheric background, due to M/bar M/ annihilation, this does not translate into a reliable monopole flux bound stronger than the Parker limit. 8 refs., 1 fig.

Frieman, J.

1988-04-01

349

Textures for neutrino mass matrices  

SciTech Connect

We give a classification of heavy Majorana neutrino mass matrices with up to three texture zeros, assuming the Dirac masses of the neutrinos to be of the same form as the ones of the up quarks in the five texture zero solutions for the quark matrices. This is the case for many unified and partially unified models. We find that it is possible to have solutions which account for the solar and atmospheric neutrino problems as well as the COBE observations simultaneously, and we motivate the existence of such solutions from symmetries. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Leontaris, G.K.; Lola, S.; Scheich, C.; Vergados, J.D. [Theoretical Physics Division, Ioannina University, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece)]|[Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Univerisitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]|[Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain)]|[Department of Natural Sciences, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus)

1996-06-01

350

Nuclear statistical equilibrium neutrino spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral emission of neutrinos from a plasma in nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) is investigated. Particular attention is paid to the possible emission of high-energy (>10 MeV) neutrinos or antineutrinos. A newly developed numerical approach for describing the abundances of nuclei in NSE is presented. Neutrino emission spectra, resulting from general Fuller-Fowler-Newman conditions, are analyzed. Regions of T-?-Ye space favoring detectability are selected. The importance of critical Ye values with zero net rate of neutronization (Y?e) is discussed. Results are provided for the processing of matter under conditions typical for thermonuclear and core-collapse supernovae, presupernova stars, and neutron star mergers.

Odrzywolek, Andrzej

2009-10-01

351

Status of solar neutrino experiments  

SciTech Connect

A summary of the status of four solar neutrino experiments is presented. The Homestake {sup 37}Cl data are presented and the possible time dependence of the data is addressed. Data from 1040 days of operation of the Kamiokande II detector are presented next. The status of the {sup 71}Ga experiment in the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, which has operated for a short time, is discussed. The summary concludes with a discussion of the status of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, which has been under construction since the beginning of 1990. 7 refs., 6 figs.

Beier, E.W.; Davis, R. Jr.; Kim, S.B. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Elliott, S.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Jelley, N. (Oxford Univ. (UK))

1990-01-01

352

Non-Standard Neutrino Interactions  

SciTech Connect

In this talk, I will review non-standard interactions in neutrino physics, especially I will emphazise the impact of non-standard interactions on neutrino oscillations. First, I will give a brief introduction about non-standard interactions and what they are. Then, I will present what has been performed in the literature, what I have done in the field, and what could be done in the future. Next, I will discuss how important non-standard interactions are for neutrino cross-sections. Finally, I will give a summary of the field.

Ohlsson, Tommy [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)-AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2009-11-25

353

Simultaneous extraction of the Fermi constant and PMNS matrix elements in the presence of a fourth generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent studies performed on constraints of a fourth generation of quarks and leptons suffer from the ad-hoc assumption that 3 × 3 unitarity holds for the first three generations in the neutrino sector. Only under this assumption is one able to determine the Fermi constant G F from the muon lifetime measurement with the claimed precision of G F = 1.16637(1) × 10-5 GeV-2. We study how well G F can be extracted within the framework of four generations from leptonic and radiative ? and ? decays, as well as from K ?3 decays and leptonic decays of charged pions, and we discuss the role of lepton universality tests in this context. In the combined fit to leptonic and radiative ? and ? decays, K ?3 decays and leptonic decays of charged pions we find a p-value of 2.6 % for the fourth generation matrix element | U e4| = 0 of the neutrino mixing matrix. We emphasize that constraints on a fourth generation from quark and lepton flavour observables and from electroweak precision observables can only be obtained in a consistent way if these three sectors are considered simultaneously.

Lacker, H.; Menzel, A.

2010-07-01

354

Baryogenesis via Sterile neutrino oscillation and neutrino parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate baryogenesis in the ?MSM which is the Minimal Standard Model (MSM) extended by three right-handed neutrinos with Majorana masses being smaller than the weak scale. In this model three sterile neutrinos, which are almost right-handed states, play important roles in cosmology. The baryon asymmetry of the universe (BAU) is generated via mechanism through flavor oscillation between two sterile neutrinos N2 and N3 which are degenerate in masses. We consider the case when BAU is solely originated from the CP violating phases in the mixing matrix of active neutrinos, i.e., the Dirac phase ? and the Majorana phase ?, and study how BAU depends on these CP violating phases.

Asaka, Takehiko; Ishida, Hiroyuki

2010-04-01

355

The many aspects of neutrino physics  

SciTech Connect

In mid-November, over seventy physicists gathered at Fermilab for an informal workshop on the Many Aspects of Neutrino Physics, which dovetailed with and also helped lay the groundwork for the succeeding more narrowly focused conference on Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillations. The workshop indeed covered many of the interrelated aspects of neutrino physics: 17 keV neutrinos (experiments, theoretical models, and astrophysical constraints), neutrino properties (double beta decay experiments, neutrino magnetic moments), neutrinos from/as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in cosmology and astrophysics, atmospheric neutrinos, and solar neutrinos. In the following, I provide a brief and thoroughly biased account of only some of the many interesting developments discussed at the workshop.

Frieman, J.A.

1992-01-01

356

Neutrino mass hierarchy extraction using atmospheric neutrinos in ice  

SciTech Connect

We show that the measurements of 10 GeV atmospheric neutrinos by an upcoming array of densely-packed phototubes buried deep inside the IceCube detector at the South Pole can be used to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy for values of sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} close to the present bound, if the hierarchy is normal. These results are obtained for an exposure of 100 Mton years and systematic uncertainties up to 10%.

Mena, Olga [INFN Sez. di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', P.le A. Moro, 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Fac. Ciencies, Campus UAB, Bellaterra (Spain); Mocioiu, Irina [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Razzaque, Soebur [Space Science Division, Code 7653, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C. 20375 (United States)

2008-11-01

357

Detection of supernova neutrinos by neutrino-proton elastic scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose that neutrino-proton elastic scattering, nu+p-->nu+p, can be used for the detection of supernova neutrinos in scintillator detectors. Though the proton recoil kinetic energy spectrum is soft, with Tp~=2E2nu\\/Mp, and the scintillation light output from slow, heavily ionizing protons is quenched, the yield above a realistic threshold is nearly as large as that from nu¯e+p-->e++n. In addition, the measured

John F. Beacom; Will M. Farr; Petr Vogel

2002-01-01

358

Evidence for neutrino oscillations in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory  

SciTech Connect

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a large-volume heavy water Cerenkov detector designed to resolve the solar neutrino problem. SNO observes charged-current interactions with electron neutrinos, neutral-current interactions with all active neutrinos, and elastic-scattering interactions primarily with electron neutrinos with some sensitivity to other flavors. This dissertation presents an analysis of the solar neutrino flux observed in SNO in the second phase of operation, while {approx}2 tonnes of salt (NaCl) were dissolved in the heavy water. The dataset here represents 391 live days of data. Only the events above a visible energy threshold of 5.5 MeV and inside a fiducial volume within 550 cm of the center of the detector are studied. The neutrino flux observed via the charged-current interaction is [1.71 {+-} 0.065(stat.){+-}{sub 0.068}{sup 0.065}(sys.){+-}0.02(theor.)] x 10{sup 6}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, via the elastic-scattering interaction is [2.21{+-}0.22(stat.){+-}{sub 0.12}{sup 0.11}(sys.){+-}0.01(theor.)] x 10{sup 6}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, and via the neutral-current interaction is [5.05{+-}0.23(stat.){+-}{sub 0.37}{sup 0.31}(sys.){+-}0.06(theor.)] x 10{sup 6}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The electron-only flux seen via the charged-current interaction is more than 7{sigma} below the total active flux seen via the neutral-current interaction, providing strong evidence that neutrinos are undergoing flavor transformation as they travel from the core of the Sun to the Earth. The most likely origin of the flavor transformation is matter-induced flavor oscillation.

Marino, Alysia Diane

2004-08-10

359

The SNO-Experiment and Neutrino Oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the pre-SNO neutrino oscillation data of the solar and the atmospheric neutrino oscillations including and excluding the LSND (Los Alamos) measurements fits for the three mixing angle of the unitary transformation between the three neutrino mass eigenstates and the weak eigenstates are given. At the same time the differences of the squared masses are fitted to the data. Using an averaged upper value of delimiter "426830A m? e > = 0.62 eV from the neutrino double beta decay, one can limit the sum of the three neutrino masses to be less than 2.53 eV. The new data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory allow for the first time with the help of the SuperKamiokande data to determine the solar e and (? + ? ) neutrino fluxes separately. The sum is within errors identical to the theoretical electron neutrino flux from the sun. We thus see all expected solar neutrinos. They only oscillated partially from electron to ? + ? neutrinos. In the last part we report calculations of neutrino masses in the R-parity violating Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (R/ MSSM). The R-parity violating interaction mixes the three neutrino flavors by R-parity violation with the four neutralinos (photino, zino and the two higgsinos). One finds neutrino masses for the first two neutrinos between 0.001 and 0.04 eV and for the third one between 0.03 and 1 eV.

Faessler, Amand

2002-01-01

360

First measurement of the flux of solar neutrinos from the sun at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation solar neutrino detector. SNO is the first experiment that is able to measure both the electron neutrino flux and a flavor-blind flux of all active neutrino types, allowing a model-independent determination if the deficit of solar neutrinos known as the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillation. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory started taking production data in November, 1999. A measurement of the charged current rate will be the first indication if SNO too sees a suppression of the solar neutrino signal relative to the theoretical predictions. Such a confirmation is the first step in SNO's ambitious science program. In this thesis, we present evidence that SNO is seeing solar neutrinos and a preliminary ratio of the measured vs predicted rate of electrons as induced by 8B neutrinos in the ?e, + d --> p + p + e charged-current (CC) reaction.

Wittich, Peter

2000-12-01

361

Neutrino mass and mixing, and non-accelerator experiments  

SciTech Connect

We review the current status of experimental knowledge about neutrinos derived from kinematic mass measurements, neutrino oscillation searches at reactors and accelerators, solar neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and single and double beta decay. The solar neutrino results yield fairly strong and consistent indication that neutrino oscillations are occurring. Other evidence for new physics is less consistent and convincing.

Robertson, R.G.H.

1992-10-01

362

Neutrino mass and mixing, and non-accelerator experiments  

SciTech Connect

We review the current status of experimental knowledge about neutrinos derived from kinematic mass measurements, neutrino oscillation searches at reactors and accelerators, solar neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and single and double beta decay. The solar neutrino results yield fairly strong and consistent indication that neutrino oscillations are occurring. Other evidence for new physics is less consistent and convincing.

Robertson, R.G.H.

1992-01-01

363

Solar neutrinos: theory vs experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

I review the standard solar model, the disparities between its predictions and the solar neutrino flux measurements of the Homestake and Kamioka II collaborations, and possible particle physics resolutions of this puzzle. The effects of matter, including ...

W. C. Haxton

1991-01-01

364

An expansion for neutrino phenomenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a formalism for constructing the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (PMNS) matrix and neutrino masses using an expansion that originates when a sequence of heavy right handed neutrinos are integrated out, assuming a seesaw mechanism for the origin of neutrino masses. The expansion establishes relationships between the structure of the PMNS matrix and the mass differences of neutrinos, and allows symmetry implications for measured deviations from tri-bimaximal form to be studied systematically. Our approach does not depend on choosing the rotation between the weak and mass eigenstates of the charged lepton fields to be diagonal. We comment on using this expansion to examine the symmetry implications of the recent results from the Daya-Bay collaboration reporting the discovery of a non zero value for ? 13, indicating a deviation from tri-bimaximal form, with a significance of 5.2 ?.

Grinstein, Benjamín; Trott, Michael

2012-09-01

365

Neutrinos from supernova 1987A  

SciTech Connect

Observations of neutrinos emitted from SN 1987A, which were obtained in Japan and Ohio, are discussed. The discovery of neutrinos, the basic physics of neutrino, and the processes of stellar evolution and collapse, are reviewed. The agreement between the observations and theoretical predictions are examined. It was found that the total energy of the event was in the range 2-3 X 10 to the 53rd ergs. The thermal history and light curve of a cooling neutron star, and the neutrino signal of SN 1987A are depicted in graphs. The events inside a massive star which lead to the creation of a neutron star are illustrated and the possibility of future observations is considered.

Lattimer, J.M.; Burrows, A.S.

1988-10-01

366

Unparticle effects in neutrino telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently H. Georgi has introduced the concept of unparticles in order to describe the low energy physics of a nontrivial scale invariant sector of an effective theory. We investigate its physical effects on the neutrino flux to be detected in a kilometer cubic neutrino telescope such as IceCube. We study the effects, on different observables, of the survival neutrino flux after through the Earth, and the regeneration originated in the neutral currents. We calculate the contribution of unparticle physics to the neutrino-nucleon interaction and, then, to the observables in order to evaluate detectable effects in IceCUbe. Our results are compared with the bounds obtained by other nonunderground experiments. Finally, the results are presented as an exclusion plot in the relevant parameters of the new physics stuff.

González-Sprinberg, G.; Martínez, R.; Sampayo, Oscar A.

2009-03-01

367

AGS broad band neutrino beam  

SciTech Connect

We describe the broad band neutrino beam in the north area of the AGS and discuss the calculation of the neutrino flux. The horns were initially designed by Robert Palmer and this beam has been used for almost all neutrino running at the AGS. All of the wide band running for E734 has been done in the beam we discuss. E734 is an experiment designed to measure elastic scattering of neutrinos and antineutrinos on electrons and protons. The detector is sufficiently large (approx. =170 tons) that enough events can be detected to make precision measurements of cross sections. In particular, the reaction nu/sub ..mu../ + e ..-->.. nu/sub ..mu../ + e has been detected with more than 100 events, requiring a detailed understanding of the beam characteristics for normalization.

White, D.H.

1985-02-27

368

Status of non-standard neutrino interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of neutrino oscillations has been established as the leading mechanism behind neutrino flavor transitions, providing solid experimental evidence that neutrinos are massive and lepton flavors are mixed. Here we review sub-leading effects in neutrino flavor transitions known as non-standard neutrino interactions (NSIs), which is currently the most explored description for effects beyond the standard paradigm of neutrino oscillations. In particular, we report on the phenomenology of NSIs and their experimental and phenomenological bounds as well as an outlook for future sensitivity and discovery reach.

Ohlsson, Tommy

2013-04-01

369

Neutrino Oscillation Phase Shift from Quantum Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase shift of neutrino oscillation could be discussed in the frame work of quantum gravity. Quantum gravity (Planck scale effects) leads to an effective SU(2) L × U(1) invariant dimension-5 Lagrangian involving, neutrino and Higgs fields. On symmetry breaking, this operator gives rise to correction to the neutrino masses and mixing. We compute the neutrino oscillation phase due to Planck scale effects. The gravitational interaction ( M X = M pl ) demands that the element of this perturbation matrix should be independent of flavor indices. In this paper, we study the quantum gravity effects on neutrino oscillation phases, namely modified dispersion relation for neutrino oscillation phases.

Koranga, Bipin Singh

2012-12-01

370

Inclusive neutrino reactions in nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The charged current inclusive neutrino reaction cross section on a {sup 12}C target is obtained for electron neutrino energies from threshold to 100 MeV. An averaged cross section over the Michel spectrum is also obtained. The method here makes use of a tensor which describes the hadronic part of the interaction and which is obtained from total muon capture data and from electron scattering data in and around the giant dipole resonance. Applications to other nuclei are discussed.

Mintz, S.L.; Pourkaviani, M.

1993-04-01

371

Solar neutrino results from SAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the status of the Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE). The solar neutrino result for SAGE III, 20 runs during the measuring period May 1995 through December 1997, is 56.7 + 9.3?8.7(stat)+4.6?4.8(syst.) SNU. The combined result for 57 measurements from 1990 through 1997 (SAGE I + II + III) is 66.9 + 7.1?6.8 (stat) +5.4?5.7 (syst) SNU. The

J. N. Abdurashitov; T. J. Bowles; M. L. Cherry; B. T. Cleveland; T. Daily; R. Davis J; S. R. Elliott; V. N. Gavrin; S. V. Girin; V. V. Gorbachev; T. V. Ibragimova; A. V. Kalikhov; N. G. Khairnasov; T. V. Knodel; K. Lande; C. K. Lee; I. N. Mirmov; S. N. Nico; A. A. Shikhin; W. A. Teasdale; E. P. Veretenkin; V. M. Vermul; D. L. Wark; P. W. Wildenhain; J. F. Wilkerson; V. E. Yants; G. T. Zatsepin

1999-01-01

372

Solar neutrino results from SAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of ten years of solar neutrino observation by the Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE). The overall result of 70 runs during the measurement period January 1990 to October 1999 is 75.4 + 7.0\\/?6.8 (stat.) +3.5\\/?3.0 (syst.) SNU. This represents only slightly more than half of the predicted standard solar model rate of 129 SNU. The

J. N. Abdurashitovi; T. J. Bowles; M. L. Cherry; B. T. Cleveland; R. Davis; S. R. Elliott; V. N. Gavrin; S. V. Girin; V. V. Gorbachev; T. V. Ibragimova; A. V. Kalikhov; N. G. Khairnasov; T. V. Knodel; K. Lande; I. N. Mirmov; J. S. Nico; A. A. Shikhin; W. A. Teasdale; E. P. Veretenkin; V. M. Vermul; D. L. Wark; P. S. Wildenhain; J. F. Wilkerson; V. E. Yants; G. T. Zatsepin

2001-01-01

373

Gauge trimming of neutrino masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that under a new U(1) gauge symmetry, which is nonanomalous in the presence of one 'right-handed neutrino' per generation and consistent with the standard model Yukawa couplings, the most general fermion charges are determined in terms of four rational parameters. This generalization of the B-L symmetry with generation-dependent lepton charges leads to neutrino masses induced by operators of

M.-C. Chen; Andre de Gouvea; Bogdan A. Dobrescu

2007-01-01

374

Gauge trimming of neutrino masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that under a new U(1) gauge symmetry, which is non-anomalous in the\\u000apresence of one ``right-handed neutrino'' per generation and consistent with\\u000athe standard model Yukawa couplings, the most general fermion charges are\\u000adetermined in terms of four rational parameters. This generalization of the B-L\\u000asymmetry with generation-dependent lepton charges leads to neutrino masses\\u000ainduced by operators of

Mu-Chun Chen; Andre de Gouvea; Bogdan A. Dobrescu

2007-01-01

375

Gauge trimming of neutrino masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that under a new U(1) gauge symmetry, which is nonanomalous in the presence of one ``right-handed neutrino'' per generation and consistent with the standard model Yukawa couplings, the most general fermion charges are determined in terms of four rational parameters. This generalization of the B L symmetry with generation-dependent lepton charges leads to neutrino masses induced by operators

Mu-Chun Chen; André de Gouvêa; Bogdan A. Dobrescu

2007-01-01

376

Neutrinos Have Mass - So What?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this brief review, I discuss the new physics unveiled by neutrino\\u000aoscillation experiments over the past several years, and discuss several\\u000aattempts at understanding the mechanism behind neutrino masses and lepton\\u000amixing. It is fair to say that, while significant theoretical progress has been\\u000amade, we are yet to construct a coherent picture that naturally explains\\u000anon-zero, yet tiny,

Andre de Gouvea

2005-01-01

377

Gauge Trimming of Neutrino Masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that under a new U(1) gauge symmetry, which is non-anomalous in the presence of one ''right-handed neutrino'' per generation and consistent with the standard model Yukawa couplings, the most general fermion charges are determined in terms of four rational parameters. This generalization of the B-L symmetry with generation-dependent lepton charges leads to neutrino masses induced by operators of

Mu-Chun Chen; Andre de Gouvea; Bogdan A. Dobrescu

2006-01-01

378

Neutrino Factory Near Detector Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simulation with GENIE MC generator of the Neutrino Factory baseline near detector interaction rates for the purely leptonic process ??+e--->?e+?- and for ??+N-->?-+X scattering in view of measuring the first one and suppressing the second one for neutrino flux estimation. A set of most sensitive measurable quantities are discussed and their selective power against experimental uncertainties is examined.

Karadzhov, Yordan

2010-03-01

379

Proposed geological solar neutrino measurement  

SciTech Connect

It may be possible to measure the boron-8 solar neutrino flux, averaged over the past several million years, from the concentration of technetium-98 in molybdenum-rich ore. This geochemical experiment could provide the first test of nonstandard solar models that suggest a relation between the chlorine-37 solar neutrino puzzle and the most recent glacial epoch. The necessary conditions for achieving a meaningful measurement are identified and discussed.

Cowan, G.A.; Haxton, W.C.

1982-01-01

380

Sterile neutrinos at the CNGS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the potential of the CNGS beam in constraining the parameter space of a model with one sterile neutrino separated from three active ones by an Script O(eV2) mass-squared difference, ? mSBL2. We perform our analysis using the OPERA detector as a reference (our analysis can be upgraded including a detailed simulation of the ICARUS detector). We point out that the channel with the largest potential to constrain the sterile neutrino parameter space at the CNGS beam is ?????. The reason for that is twofold: first, the active-sterile mixing angle that governs this oscillation is the less constrained by present experiments; second, this is the signal for which both OPERA and ICARUS have been designed, and thus benefits from an extremely low background. In our analysis we also took into account ????e oscillations. We find that the CNGS potential to look for sterile neutrinos is limited with nominal intensity of the beam, but it is significantly enhanced with a factor 2 to 10 increase in the neutrino flux. Data from both channels allow us, in this case, to constrain further the four-neutrino model parameter space. Our results hold for any value of ? mSBL2gtrsim0.1 eV2, i.e. when oscillations driven by this mass-squared difference are averaged. We have also checked that the bound on ?13 that can be put at the CNGS is not affected by the possible existence of sterile neutrinos.

Donini, Andrea; Maltoni, Michele; Meloni, Davide; Migliozzi, Pasquale; Terranova, Francesco

2007-12-01

381

Neutrino flux ratios at neutrino telescopes: The role of uncertainties of neutrino mixing parameters and applications to neutrino decay  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we derive simple and general perturbative formulas for the flavor flux ratios R{sub {alpha}}{sub {beta}}={phi}{sub {nu}{sub {alpha}}}/{phi}{sub {nu}{sub {beta}}} that could be measured at neutrino telescopes. We discuss in detail the role of the uncertainties of the neutrino mixing parameters showing that they have to be seriously taken into account in any realistic discussion about flavor measurements at neutrino telescopes. In addition, we analyze the impact of such uncertainties in telling the standard neutrino oscillation framework from scenarios involving, e.g., neutrino decay and we find that the ratio R{sub e{mu}} is the most sensitive one to 'new physics' effects beyond the standard model. We also compute the more realistic muon-to-shower ratio for a particular configuration of the IceCube experiment, observing that using this experimental quantity a clear separation between standard and nonstandard neutrino physics cannot be obtained.

Meloni, Davide [INFN, Sezione di Roma and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita 'La Sapienza', IT-00185 Rome (Italy); Ohlsson, Tommy [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)-AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-06-15

382

Neutrinos and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early universe provides a unique laboratory for probing the frontiers of particle physics in general and neutrino physics in particular. The primordial abundances of the relic nuclei produced during the first few minutes of the evolution of the Universe depend on the electron neutrinos through the charged-current weak interactions among neutrons and protons (and electrons and positrons and neutrinos), and on all flavors of neutrinos through their contributions to the total energy density which regulates the universal expansion rate. The latter contribution also plays a role in determining the spectrum of the temperature fluctuations imprinted on the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) some 400 thousand years later. Using deuterium as a baryometer and helium-4 as a chronometer, the predictions of BBN and the CBR are compared to observations. The successes of, as well as challenges to the standard models of particle physics and cosmology are identified. While systematic uncertainties may be the source of some of the current tensions, it could be that the data are pointing the way to new physics. In particular, BBN and the CBR are used to address the questions of whether or not the relic neutrinos were fully populated in the early universe and, to limit the magnitude of any lepton asymmetry which may be concealed in the neutrinos.

Steigman, Gary

2006-03-01

383

High energy neutrino telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a review of the history, motivation and current status of high energy neutrino telescopes. Many years after these detectors were first conceived, the operation of kilometer-cubed scale detectors is finally on the horizon at both the South Pole and in the Mediterranean Sea. These new detectors will perhaps provide us the first view of high energy astrophysical objects with a new messenger particle and provide us with our first real glimpse of the distant universe at energies above those accessible by gamma-ray instruments. Some of the topics that can be addressed by these new instruments include the origin of cosmic rays, the nature of dark matter, and the mechanisms at work in high energy astrophysical objects such as gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, pulsar wind nebula and supernova remnants.

Hoffman, K. D.

2009-05-01

384

Cloning, expression and characterization of LeFRK3, the fourth tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) gene encoding fructokinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-length cDNA encoding a novel fourth fructokinase, LeFRK3, was cloned from green tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruits. The putative protein shares 70, 65.5 and 69% amino acid homology with the three previously identified tomato fructokinases encoded by LeFRK1, LeFRK2 and LeFRK4, respectively. This fourth fructokinase has signature patterns of the pfkB family of carbohydrate kinases as well as substrate

Marcelo A. German; Israel Asher; Marina Petreikov; Nir Dai; Arthur A. Schaffer; David Granot

2004-01-01

385

Dark energy from mass varying neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that mass varying neutrinos (MaVaNs) can behave as a negative pressure fluid which could be the origin of the cosmic acceleration. We derive a model independent relation between the neutrino mass and the equation of state parameter of the neutrino dark energy, which is applicable for general theories of mass varying particles. The neutrino mass depends on the local neutrino density and the observed neutrino mass can exceed the cosmological bound on a constant neutrino mass. We discuss microscopic realizations of the MaVaN acceleration scenario, which involve a sterile neutrino. We consider naturalness constraints for mass varying particles, and find that both eV cut-offs and eV mass particles are needed to avoid fine-tuning. In microscopic realizations of this scenario with a sterile neutrino, these considerations give the sterile neutrino a maximum mass today of order an eV, which could be detectable at MiniBooNE. Because the sterile neutrino was much heavier at earlier times, constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis on additional states are not problematic. We consider regions of high neutrino density and find that the most likely place today to find neutrino masses which are significantly different from the neutrino masses in our solar system is in a supernova. The possibility of different neutrino mass in different regions of the galaxy and the local group could be significant for Z-burst models of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We also consider the cosmology of and the constraints on the 'acceleron', the scalar field which is responsible for the varying neutrino mass, and briefly discuss neutrino density dependent variations in other constants, such as the fine structure constant.

Fardon, Rob; Nelson, Ann E.; Weiner, Neal

2004-10-01

386

Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

Howcroft, Caius L.F.; /Cambridge U.

2004-12-01

387

Clear cell ependymoma of the fourth ventricle.  

PubMed

Two cases of clear cell ependymoma (CCE) of the fourth ventricle are reported in a 49-year-old woman with dysphagia and a 59-year-old woman with dizziness and gait disturbance. CCE is a relatively new variant of ependymoma added to the WHO classification of tumors in 1993. Tumor cells display an oligodendroglioma-like appearance with a clear perinuclear halo. Most infratentorial CCE tumors are located in the cerebellum. There are only three cases, including the present two cases, that have been reported to affect the fourth ventricle. PMID:15641594

Katoh, Masahito; Satoh, Tsukasa; Nishiya, Mikio; Murata, Junichi; Ishii, Nobuaki; Saitoh, Hisatoshi; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Ohnishi, Akiko; Nagashima, Kazuo

2004-12-01

388

Some Unsettled Questions in the Problem of Neutrino Oscillations. Mechanisms of Neutrino Oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the modern theory of neutrino oscillations constructed in the framework of the theory particle physics there appears three types of neutrino transitions (oscillations). Then, in order to solve the question of which type of neutrino transitions (oscillations) are realized in nature, in experiments, it is necessary to study profile of neutrino transitions in dependence on distances for determination lengths

Khamidbi Muchamedovich Beshtoev

2003-01-01

389

A road map to solar neutrino fluxes, neutrino oscillation parameters, and tests for new physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze all available solar and related reactor neutrino experiments, as well as simulated future 7Be, p-p, and pep solar neutrino experiments. We treat all solar neutrino fluxes as free parameters subject to the condition that the total luminosity represented by the neutrinos equals the observed solar luminosity (the `luminosity constraint'). Existing experiments plus the luminosity constraint show that the

John N. Bahcall; Carlos Peña-Garay

2003-01-01

390

THE NEUTRINO MAGNETIC MOMENT AND TIME VARIATIONS OF THE SOLAR NEUTRINO FLUX  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present status of the neutrino magnetic moment solutions of the solar neutrino problem is summarized. After a brief review of the basics of the neutrino spin and spin-flavor precession I discuss the experimental data and show how the neutrino resonant spin-flavor precession (RSFP) mechanism can naturally account for sizeable time variations in the Homestake signal and no observable time

E. Kh

391

Can neutrino-electron scattering tell us whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles  

SciTech Connect

There has recently been interest in the possibility that neutrino-electron scattering experiments could determine whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles by providing information on their electromagnetic structure. We try to explain why studies of neutrino electromagnetic structure actually cannot distinguish between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. 9 refs.

Kayser, B.

1988-04-01

392

Supernova neutrinos: Earth matter effects and neutrino mass spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform a detailed study of the Earth matter effects on supernova neutrinos. The dependences of these effects on the properties of the original neutrino fluxes, on the trajectory of the neutrinos inside the Earth and on the oscillation parameters are described. We show that, for a large fraction (/~60%) of the possible arrival times of the signal, the neutrino flux crosses a substantial amount of the matter of the Earth at least for one of the existing detectors. For oscillation parameters from the LMA solution of the solar neutrino problem the Earth matter effect consists in an oscillatory modulation of the ?¯e and/or ?e energy spectra. The relative deviation with respect to the undistorted spectra can be as large as 20-30% for /E>~20 MeV and 70-100% for /E>~40 MeV. For parameters from the SMA and LOW solutions the effect is localized at low energies (/E<~10 MeV) and is not larger than /~10%. The Earth matter effects can be revealed (i) by the observation of oscillatory distortions of the energy spectra in a single experiment and (ii) by the comparison between the spectra at different detectors. For a supernova at distance /D=10 Kpc, comparing the results of SuperKamiokande (SK), SNO and LVD experiments one can establish the effect at (2-3)/? level, whereas larger statistical significance ((4-5)/?) is obtained if two experiments of SK-size or larger are available. Studies of the Earth matter effect will select or confirm the solution of the solar neutrino problem, probe the mixing Ue3 and identify the hierarchy of the neutrino mass spectrum.

Lunardini, C.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

2001-11-01

393

Reconciling solar and terrestrial neutrino oscillation evidence with minimum sacrifice  

SciTech Connect

The present possible evidence in favor of neutrino masses and mixings from solar, atmospheric, and accelerator experiments cannot all be reconciled in a three-family framework, unless some data are excluded. We grade all possible three-family scenarios according to their compatibility with the available data. A recently proposed scenario appears to emerge naturally as the most likely solution to all oscillation evidence, with the only exception being the angular dependence of multi-GeV atmospheric data in the Kamiokande experiment. We describe in detail the status and the phenomenological implications of this {open_quotes}minimum sacrifice{close_quotes} solution. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Fogli, G.L.; Lisi, E.; Montanino, D.; Scioscia, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Sezione INFN di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

1997-10-01

394

Neutrinos and cosmology: A lifetime relationship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the example of neutrino decays to illustrate the profound relation between laboratory neutrino physics and cosmology. Two case studies are presented: In the first one, we show how the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the FIRAS instrument on board of COBE, when combined with Lab data, have greatly changed bounds on the radiative neutrino lifetime. In the second case, we speculate on the consequence for neutrino physics of the cosmological detection of neutrino masses even as small as ~0.06 eV, the lower limit guaranteed by neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a detection at that level would improve by many orders of magnitude the existing limits on neutrino lifetime, and as a consequence on some models of neutrino secret interactions.

Serpico, Pasquale D.

2009-06-01

395

Collective Interactions between Neutrinos and Dense Plasmas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new interaction mechanism is described between neutrinos and dense plasmas. With the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces, analogous processes should occur for intense neutrino fluxes as for photon fluxes. Intense EM waves excite parametri...

R. J. Bingham J. M. Dawson J. J. Su

1992-01-01

396

Particle physics confronts the solar neutrino problem  

SciTech Connect

This review has four parts. In Part I, we describe the reactions that produce neutrinos in the sun and the expected flux of those neutrinos on the earth. We then discuss the detection of these neutrinos, and how the results obtained differ from the theoretical expectations, leading to what is known as the solar neutrino problem. In Part II, we show how neutrino oscillations can provide a solution to the solar neutrino problem. This includes vacuum oscillations, as well as matter enhanced oscillations. In Part III, we discuss the possibility of time variation of the neutrino flux and how a magnetic moment of the neutrino can solve the problem. WE also discuss particle physics models which can give rise to the required values of magnetic moments. In Part IV, we present some concluding remarks and outlook for the recent future.

Pal, P.B.

1991-06-01

397

Solar neutrino spectroscopy (before and after superkamiokande).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of solar neutrino spectroscopy based on data from four experiments are presented. Perspectives related to forthcoming experiments are discussed. Implications of the results for neutrino properties are considered. (author). 54 refs, 2 tabs. (Atomin...

A. Smirnov

1996-01-01

398

Neutrinos and cosmology: a lifetime relationship  

SciTech Connect

We consider the example of neutrino decays to illustrate the profound relation between laboratory neutrino physics and cosmology. Two case studies are presented: In the first one, we show how the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the FIRAS instrument on board of COBE, when combined with Lab data, have greatly changed bounds on the radiative neutrino lifetime. In the second case, we speculate on the consequence for neutrino physics of the cosmological detection of neutrino masses even as small as {approx}0.06 eV, the lower limit guaranteed by neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a detection at that level would improve by many orders of magnitude the existing limits on neutrino lifetime, and as a consequence on some models of neutrino secret interactions.

Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

2008-06-01

399

Decaying neutrinos: The long way to isotropy  

SciTech Connect

We investigate a scenario in which neutrinos are coupled to a pseudoscalar degree of freedom {phi} and where decays {nu}{sub 1{yields}{nu}2}+{phi} and inverse decays are the responsible mechanism for obtaining equilibrium. In this context we discuss the implication of the invisible neutrino decay on the neutrino-pseudoscalar coupling constant and the neutrino lifetime. Assuming the realistic scenario of a thermal background of neutrinos and pseudoscalar we update the bound on the (off-diagonal) neutrino-pseudoscalar coupling constant to g<2.6x10{sup -13} and the bound on the neutrino lifetime to {tau}>1x10{sup 13} s. Furthermore we confirm analytically that kinetic equilibrium is delayed by two Lorentz {gamma} factors--one for time dilation of the (decaying) neutrino lifetime and one from the opening angle. We have also confirmed this behavior numerically.

Basboell, Anders [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bjaelde, Ole Eggers [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik E, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2010-06-15

400

The neutrino sky at very high energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrino astronomy opens a new window for the observation and study of high-energy phenomena in our Universe. The emission of high-energy neutrinos in extragalactic sources or the cosmic environment is intimately related to that of ?-rays and cosmic rays. We will review the various indirect neutrino limits that arise from this cosmic connection and compare this to the present direct limits of neutrino observatories. Specific models of extragalactic TeV to PeV neutrino sources are already testable by large volume neutrino observatories like IceCube. At the EeV energy scale the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos associated with the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays in the cosmic radiation background seems to be the most promising contribution to the diffuse neutrino background. We will discuss its model dependence w.r.t. chemical composition and evolution of the sources and provide simple bolometric scaling relations.

Ahlers, Markus

2013-10-01

401

Salt Neutrino Detector for Ultrahigh-Energy Neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

Rock salt and limestone are studied to determine their suitability for use as a radio-wave transmission medium in an ultrahigh energy (UHE) cosmic neutrino detector. A sensible radio wave would be emitted by the coherent Cherenkov radiation from negative excess charges inside an electromagnetic shower upon interaction of a UHE neutrino in a high-density medium (Askar'yan effect). If the attenuation length for the radio wave in the material is large, a relatively small number of radio-wave sensors could detect the interaction occurring in the massive material. We measured the complex permittivity of the rock salt and limestone by the perturbed cavity resonator method at 9.4 and 1 GHz to good precision. We obtained new results of measurements at the frequency at 1.0 GHz. The measured value of the radio-wave attenuation length of synthetic rock salt samples is 1080 m. The samples from the Hockley salt mine in the United States show attenuation length of 180 m at 1 GHz, and then we estimate it by extrapolation to be as long as 900 m at 200 MHz. The results show that there is a possibility of utilizing natural massive deposits of rock salt for a UHE neutrino detector. A salt neutrino detector with a size of 2 x 2 x 2 km would detect 10 UHE neutrino/yr generated through the GZK process.

Chiba, M.; Yasuda, O. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Kamijo, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Chikashige, Y.; Kon, T.; Takeoka, Y.; Yoshida, R. [Seikei University, Department of Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)

2004-11-01

402

Measurement of the Solar Neutrino Capture Rate by SAGE and Implications for Neutrino Oscillations in Vacuum  

SciTech Connect

The Russian-American solar neutrino experiment has measured the capture rate of neutrinos on metallic gallium in a radiochemical experiment at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory. Eight years of measurement give the result 67.2{sup +7.2+3.5}{sub -7.0-3.0} solar neutrino units, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. The restrictions these results impose on vacuum neutrino oscillation parameters are given. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

Abdurashitov, J. N. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation); Bowles, T. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Cherry, M. L. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Cleveland, B. T. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Davis, R. Jr. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Elliott, S. R. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Gavrin, V. N. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation); Girin, S. V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation); Gorbachev, V. V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation); Ibragimova, T. V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation)] (and others)

1999-12-06

403

Neutrino properties and fundamental symmetries  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There are two components to this work. The first is a development of a new detection scheme for neutrinos. The observed deficit of neutrinos from the Sun may be due to either a lack of understanding of physical processes in the Sun or may be due to neutrinos oscillating from one type to another during their transit from the Sun to the Earth. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is designed to use a water Cerenkov detector employing one thousand tonnes of heavy water to resolve this question. The ability to distinguish muon and tau neutrinos from electron neutrinos is crucial in order to carry out a model-independent test of neutrino oscillations. We describe a developmental exploration of a novel technique to do this using {sup 3}He proportional counters. Such a method offers considerable advantages over the initially proposed method of using Cerenkov light from capture on NaCl in the SNO. The second component of this work is an exploration of optimal detector geometry for a time-reversal invariance experiment. The question of why time moves only in the forward direction is one of the most puzzling problems in modern physics. We know from particle physics measurements of the decay of kaons that there is a charge-parity symmetry that is violated in nature, implying time-reversal invariance violation. Yet, we do not understand the origin of the violation of this symmetry. To promote such an understanding, we are developing concepts and prototype apparatus for a new, highly sensitive technique to search for time-reversal-invariance violation in the beta decay of the free neutron. The optimized detector geometry is seven times more sensitive than that in previous experiments. 15 refs.

Bowles, T.J.

1996-07-01

404

A fourth hominin skull from Dmanisi, Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly discovered Homo remains, stone artifacts, and animal fossils from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia, provide a basis for better understand- ing patterns of hominin evolution and behavior in Eurasia ca. 1.77 mil- lion years ago. Here we describe a fourth skull that is nearly complete, lacking all but one of its teeth at the time of death. Both the maxillae

David Lordkipanidze; Abesalom Vekua; Reid Ferring; G. Philip Rightmire; Christoph P. E. Zollikofer; Marcia S. Ponce de León; Jordi Agusti; Gocha Kiladze; Alexander Mouskhelishvili; Medea Nioradze; Martha Tappen

2006-01-01

405

Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

Halpern, Diane F.

2011-01-01

406

The Egyptian Press: An Official Fourth Estate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A descriptive study based on Egyptian law, printed sources, and interviews clarifies our picture of the Egyptian Press by examining its status as a constitutionally mandated "Fourth Estate." The constitutional amendment, the resultant Egyptian Press Law, and the "Law Of Shame" (all passed in 1980), are designed to create a heavily controlled press…

Lawhorne, Clifton O.

407

Children, Play, and Development. Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children, Play, and Development, Fourth Edition, discusses the relationship of play to the physical, social, intellectual, and emotional growth of the child. Author Fergus P. Hughes focuses on the historical, sociocultural, and ethological context of play; the role of development in play; and the wide range of theories that provide a framework…

Hughes, Fergus P.

2010-01-01

408

Problem Solving Skills of Selected Fourth Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A comparison of three approaches to problem solving in fourth grade mathematics is presented. Three classes participated in the study. Class One studied problem solving in a structured classroom setting, Class Two studied problem solving incidentally, and Class Three studied problem solving when it appeared in the text. The structured study of…

Harvin, Virginia R.

409

Proceedings, Fourth AFCRL Scientific Balloon Symposium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is comprised of a series of papers presented at the Fourth AFCRL Scientific Balloon Symposium in September 1966. The range of subject matter was purposely selected to cover both the major branches of balloon technology and a limited number of...

J. F. Dwyer

1967-01-01

410

SUGGESTED SCHOOL HEALTH POLICIES. FOURTH EDITION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE FOURTH EDITION OF A GUIDE FIRST PUBLISHED IN 1940 OUTLINES IMPORTANT FEATURES OF AN ACCEPTABLE SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAM. HEALTH EDUCATION IS DEFINED AS AN APPLIED SCIENCE CONCERNED WITH MAN'S UNDERSTANDING OF HIMSELF IN RELATION TO HEALTH MATTERS IN A CHANGING SOCIETY. SUGGESTIONS ARE GIVEN FOR DEVELOPING A HEALTH EDUCATION CURRICULUM. POLICIES…

REICHERT, JOHN L.; AND OTHERS

411

Mars vehicle design: The fourth generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powerful new computational tools and small, expert teams have produced unprecedented levels of design detail in the latest cycle of engineering planning for human expeditions to Mars. This article reports on a study contract for NASA-MSFC which evolved mature fourth-generation Mars mission vehicle concepts, a set based on nuclear electric, solar electric, and nuclear thermal propulsion methods. The concept described

Brent Sherwood

1993-01-01

412

Mars vehicle design - The fourth generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourth generation of Mars mission vehicle concepts which are based on nuclear electric (NEP), solar electric (SEP), and nuclear thermal (NTP) propulsion methods are discussed. These concepts combine powerful computational tools with the tight coordination and multiple iterations to obtain high level of detail and cost-effective craftsmanship. Topics addressed include NTP vehicle and lander design, transfer vehicle design, engines and

Brent Sherwood

1993-01-01

413

Fourth-Generation War and Other Myths.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fourth Generation War (4GW) emerged in the late 1980s, but has become popular due to recent twists in the war in Iraq and terrorist attacks worldwide. Despite reinventing itself several times, the theory has several fundamental flaws that need to be expos...

I. A. Echevarria

2005-01-01

414

Fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator system development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, under a contract with Sandia for the Concentrator Initiative, the ENTECH team initiated the design and development of a fourth-generation concentrator module. In 1992, Sandia also contracted with ENTECH to develop a new control and drive system for the ENTECH array. This report documents the design and development work performed under both contracts. Manufacturing processes for the new

A. J. McDanal

1995-01-01

415

Fourth order magnetic moment of the electron  

Microsoft Academic Search

A more complete account is given of an estimation, by rigorous upper and ; lower bounds, of the fourth order magnetic moment of the electron which has ; already been published by the author. The method is illustrated for one typical ; term. Then the results of a more elaborate estimation are given. In the ; terminology used by Karplus

A. Petermann

1958-01-01

416

Terry and Fourth Amendment First Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty years after the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Terry v. Ohio and almost seven-times-thirty years after the adoption of the Fourth Amendment, many lawyers, scholars, and judges still fail to grasp the basic insights of the case and the first principles of the Amendment. Chief Justice Warren's opinion for the Court in Terry must bear some of the blame

Akhil Reed Amar

1998-01-01

417

Extended Mass Layoffs, Fourth Quarter 1998  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data from the fourth quarter 1998 release from the BLS, Extended Mass Layoffs, reveals that 1,660 mass layoff actions by employers resulted in 342,010 worker-job separations of more than 30 days from October through December of 1998.

418

Arrest Efficiency and the Fourth Amendment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, legal scholars have utilized the science of implicit social cognition to reveal how unconscious biases affect perceptions, behaviors, and judgments. Employing this science, scholars critique legal doctrine and challenge courts to take accurate theories of human behavior into account or to explain their failure to do so. Largely absent from this important conversation, however, are Fourth Amendment

Song Richardson

2011-01-01

419

Police Efficiency and the Fourth Amendment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of our Fourth Amendment jurisprudence is premised upon a profound misunderstanding of the nature of suspicion. When determining whether law enforcement officers had the reasonable suspicion necessary to justify a “stop and frisk,” courts currently assume that, in any given case, the presence or absence of reasonable suspicion can objectively be determined simply by examining the factual circumstances that

L. Song Richardson

2012-01-01

420

Fourth Annual Clinical Diabetes Technology Meeting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fourth Annual Clinical Diabetes Technology Meeting was presented by the Diabetes Technology Society at the Orlando Florida Hyatt Regency Hotel on April 11-12 2008. The first day covered Technologies for Diabetes Monitoring and the second day covered T...

D. C. Klonoff

2008-01-01

421

From Neutrino Factory to Muon Collider  

SciTech Connect

Both Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories require a muon source capable of producing and capturing {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This paper reviews the similarities and differences between Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider accelerator complexes, the ongoing R&D needed for a Muon Collider that goes beyond Neutrino Factory R&D, and some thoughts about how a Neutrino Factory on the CERN site might eventually be upgraded to a Muon Collider.

Geer, S.; /Fermilab

2010-01-01

422

Solar neutrinos with three flavor mixings  

SciTech Connect

The recent{sup 71}Ga solar neutrino observation is combined with the {sup 37}Cl and Kamiokande-II observations in an analysis for neutrino masses and mixings. The allowed parameter region is found for matter enhanced mixings among all three neutrino flavors. Distortions of the solar neutrino spectrum unique to three flavors are possible and may be observed in continuing and next generation experiments.

Harley, D.; Pantaleone, J. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory; Kuo, T.K. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

1992-12-31

423

Solar neutrinos with three flavor mixings  

SciTech Connect

The recent[sup 71]Ga solar neutrino observation is combined with the [sup 37]Cl and Kamiokande-II observations in an analysis for neutrino masses and mixings. The allowed parameter region is found for matter enhanced mixings among all three neutrino flavors. Distortions of the solar neutrino spectrum unique to three flavors are possible and may be observed in continuing and next generation experiments.

Harley, D.; Pantaleone, J. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory); Kuo, T.K. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics)

1992-01-01

424

Neutrino tridents and W-Z interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a measurement of neutrino tridents, muon pairs induced by neutrino scattering in the Coulomb field of a target nucleus, in the Columbia-Chicago-Fermilab-Rochester neutrino experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. The observed number of tridents after geometric and kinematic corrections, 37.0+\\/-12.4, supports the standard-model prediction of 45.3+\\/-2.3 events. This is the first demonstration of the W-Z destructive interference from neutrino

S. R. Mishra; S. A. Rabinowitz; C. Arroyo; K. T. Bachmann; R. E. Blair; C. Foudas; B. J. King; W. C. Lefmann; W. C. Leung; E. Oltman; P. Z. Quintas; F. J. Sciulli; B. G. Seligman; M. H. Shaevitz; F. S. Merritt; M. J. Oreglia; B. A. Schumm; R. H. Bernstein; F. Borcherding; H. E. Fisk; M. J. Lamm; W. Marsh; K. W. B. Merritt; H. Schellman; D. D. Yovanovitch; A. Bodek; H. S. Budd; P. de Barbaro; W. K. Sakumoto; P. H. Sandler; W. H. Smith

1991-01-01

425

Atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site  

SciTech Connect

To illustrate the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux, we briefly explain our calculation scheme and important components, such as primary cosmic ray spectra, interaction model, and geomagnetic model. Then, we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site in our calculation scheme. We compare the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes predicted at INO with those at other major neutrino detector sites, especially that at SK site.

Honda, Morihiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

2011-11-23

426

Status of 3+N Sterile Neutrino Fits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for one or more additional mass splittings in the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This would require the addition of at least one sterile (non-interacting) neutrino to the current model. This work summarizes fits to world data of models which include one, two, and three sterile neutrinos in the ˜1 eV range and provides motivation for future short baseline searches.

Ignarra, C. M.

2013-04-01

427

Atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To illustrate the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux, we briefly explain our calculation scheme and important components, such as primary cosmic ray spectra, interaction model, and geomagnetic model. Then, we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site in our calculation scheme. We compare the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes predicted at INO with those at other major neutrino detector sites, especially that at SK site.

Honda, Morihiro

2011-11-01

428

Semidirect product groups, vacuum alignment, and tribimaximal neutrino mixing  

SciTech Connect

The neutrino oscillation data are in very good agreement with the tribimaximal mixing pattern: sin{sup 2{theta}}{sub 23}=1/2, sin{sup 2{theta}}{sub 12}=1/3, and sin{sup 2{theta}}{sub 13}=0. Attempts to generate this pattern based on finite family symmetry groups typically assume that the family symmetry is broken into different subgroups in the charged-lepton and the neutrino mass matrices. This leads to a technical problem, where the cross couplings between the Higgs fields responsible for the two symmetry breaking chains force their vacuum expectation values to align, upsetting the desired breaking pattern. Here, we present a class of models based on the semidirect product group (S{sub 3}){sup 4}xA{sub 4}, where the lepton families belong to representations which are not faithful. In effect, the Higgs sector knows about the full symmetry while the lepton sector knows only about the A{sub 4} factor group. This can solve the alignment problem without altering the desired properties of the family symmetry. Inclusion of quarks into the framework is straightforward and leads to small and arbitrary Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing angles. Supersymmetry is not essential for our proposal, but the model presented is easily supersymmetrized, in which case the same family symmetry solves the supersymmetry flavor problem.

Babu, K. S.; Gabriel, S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

2010-10-01

429

Supernova neutrino detection in LAr TPCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutrino burst from a core collapse supernova can provide information about the explosion mechanism and the mechanisms of proto neutron star cooling but also about the intrinsic properties of the neutrino such as flavor oscillations. One important question is to understand to which extent can the supernova and the neutrino physics be decoupled in the observation of a single

Inés Gil-Botella

2011-01-01

430

Diffuse supernova neutrinos at underground laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

I review the physics of the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino flux (or Background, DSNB), in the context of future searches at the next generation of neutrino telescopes. The theory of the DSNB is discussed in its fundamental elements, namely the cosmological rate of supernovae, neutrino production inside a core collapse supernova, redshift, and flavor oscillation effects. The current upper limits are

Cecilia Lunardini

2010-01-01

431

Short-BaseLine Electron Neutrino Disappearance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed the electron neutrino data of the Gallium radioactive source experiments and the electron antineutrino data of the reactor Bugey and Chooz experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations. We found a hint of a CPT-violating asymmetry of the effective neutrino and antineutrino mixing angles.

Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

2011-08-01

432

Tau neutrino component to tritium beta decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework is given for explaining anomalous results of neutrino mass experiments that measure the high energy electron spectrum of tritium β decay. The experimental results have been fit to a negative neutrino mass square. We show that there is a consistent phenomenological interpretation due to a positive mass tau neutrino component of the β decay spectrum, with strong near

Snyderman

1995-01-01

433

Constraints on the Opera Superluminal Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OPERA collaboration has recently reported the superluminal neutrinos with velocity of (v? - c)/c 2.5 × 10-5. This result can be explained in the Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) models. The modified dispersion relation of neutrino lead to modified kinematics of the processes the neutrinos involved. For processes that neutrinos in the final states the processes are suppressed. We find to allow the neutrino production process ? ? ? + ??, the neutrino energy should be less than about 5 GeV if taking a large LIV parameter O(10-5) implied by OPERA data. For the processes that neutrinos in the initial states new processes that are forbidden in the LI scenario may open, such as the ? ? ? + ? or ? ? ? + e+ + e-, which lead neutrinos to lose energy quickly. As the atmospheric neutrino spectrum agrees well with expectation without LIV we find it can constrain the neutrino LIV parameter to O(10-12), which is 7 orders smaller than the value measured at OPERA. We further propose to study the astrophysical neutrino spectra, which can constrain the neutrino LIV parameter down to O(10-15).

Yin, Peng-Fei; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Yu, Zhao-Huan; Yuan, Qiang

2012-01-01

434

Massive neutrino search in the decay ?+-->e+?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence of massive neutrinos in the ?+-->e+? decay spectrum was sought with the background ?+-->?+-->e+ decay chain highly suppressed. Upper limits (90% C.L.) on the neutrino mixing matrix element |Uei|2 in the neutrino mass region 60-129 MeV/c2 were set at the level of 10-8.

Malbrunot, C.; Aoki, M.; Blecher, M.; Bryman, D. A.; Chen, S.; Ding, M.; Doria, L.; Gumplinger, P.; Hurst, C.; Hussein, A.; Igarashi, Y.; Ito, N.; Kettell, S. H.; Kurchaninov, L.; Littenberg, L.; Numao, T.; Poutissou, R.; Sher, A.; Sullivan, T.; Vavilov, D.; Yamada, K.; Yoshida, M.

2012-04-01

435

Oscillation Physics with a Neutrino Factory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generation of neutrino experiments have established that neutrinos mix and probably have mass. The mixing phenomenon points to processes beyond those of the Standard Model, possibly at the Grand Unification energy scale. A extensive sequence of of experiments will be required to measure precisely all the parameters of the neutrino mixing matrix, culminating with the discovery and study of

M. Apollonio; A. Blondel; A. Broncano; M. Bonesini; J. Bouchez; A. Bueno; J. Burguet-Castell; M. Campanelli; D. Casper; G. Catanesi; A. Cervera; S. Cooper; M. Donega; A. Donini; A. de Gouvea; A. de Min; R. Edgecock; J. Ellis; M. Fechner; E. Fernandez; F. Ferri; B. Gavela; G. Giannini; D. Gibin; S. Gilardoni; J. J. Gomez-Cadenas; P. Gruber; A. Guglielmi; P. Hernandez; P. Huber; M. Laveder; M. Lindner; S. Lola; D. Meloni; O. Mena; H. Menghetti; M. Mezzetto; P. Migliozzi; S. Navas-Concha; V. Palladino; I. Papadopoulos; K. Peach; E. Radicioni; S. Ragazzi; S. Rigolin; A. Romanino; J. Rico; A. Rubbia; G. Santin; G. Sartorelli; M. Selvi; M. Spiro; T. Tabarelli; A. Tonazzo; M. Velasco; G. Volkov; W. Winter; P. Zucchelli

2002-01-01

436

Neutrino Spectrum at the Far Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrino oscillation experiments often employ two identical detectors to minimize errors due to inadequately known neutrino beam. We examine various systematics effects related to the prediction of the neutrino spectrum in the `far' detector on the basis of the spectrum observed at the `near' detector. We propose a novel method of the derivation of the far detector spectrum. This method

M. Szleper; A. Para

2001-01-01

437

The Fermilab long-baseline neutrino program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fermilab is embarking upon a neutrino oscillation program which includes a long-baseline neutrino experiment MINOS. MINOS will be a 10 kiloton detector located 730 km Northwest of Fermilab in the Soudan underground laboratory. It will be sensitive to neutrino oscillations with parameters above ?m2~3×10-3eV2 and sin2(2?)~0.02.

Goodman, Maury

1997-05-01

438

Reconciling sterile neutrinos with Big Bang nucleosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reexamine the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the mixing of neutrinos with sterile species. These bounds depend on the assumption that the relic neutrino asymmetry Lnu is very small. We show that for Lnu large enough (greater than about 10-5) the standard BBN bounds do not apply. We apply this result to the sterile neutrino solution to the

R. Foot; R. R. Volkas

1995-01-01

439

The Renaissance of Neutrino Interaction Physics  

SciTech Connect

The advent of high intensity neutrino beams for neutrino oscillation experiments has produced a resurgence of interest in neutrino interaction physics. Recent experiments have been revisiting topics not studied since the bubble chamber era, and are exploring many interesting questions at the boundaries of particle and nuclear physics.

Gallagher, Hugh R. [Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States)

2009-12-17

440

Massive neutrinos in particle physics and astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

The concepts of Majorana and Dirac neutrinos are reviewed from an operational point of view and survey the experimental search for neutrino mass. Also reviewed are the work of Mikheyev and Smirnov on the enhancement of neutrino oscillations via the mechanism of Wolfenstein matter oscillations. Results of an extensive computation of MSW effects in the sun are described. 41 refs., 6 figs.

Rosen, S.P.

1986-01-01

441

Neutrino Masses and Mixings and Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we discuss the implications of light neutrino masses and neutrino flavor/type mixing for dark matter, big bang nucleosynthesis, and models of heavy element nucleosynthesis in super novae. We will also argue the other way and discuss possible constraints on neutrino physics from these astrophysical considerations.

Fuller, George M.

1998-10-01

442

THE SEARCH FOR MASSIVE NEUTRINOS - Short Contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double beta decay (DBD) has the potential to distinguish whether neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac particles. However, neutrinoless DBD (in violation of lepton number conservation) has not yet been observed. From the respective upper limits, limits on the neutrino restmass can be deduced if the neutrino is of Majorana type.

Kirsten, T.

443

Neutrino Beam Interactions in Dense Plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing the relativistic kinetic equations for neutrinos interacting with dense plasmas via the weak interaction force, we explore collective plasma instabilities driven by neutrinos. We examine the anomalous energy transfer between the neutrinos and the background plasma via excitation of electron plasma waves. We present the relativistic equations including the inclusion of external magnetic fields. Solutions of the dispersion equation

Luis Silva; Robert Bingham; Jose Tito Mendonca; Warren Mori; Padma Shukla

2003-01-01

444

Exploring neutrino oscillations with superbeams  

SciTech Connect

We consider the medium- and long-baseline oscillation physics capabilities of intense muon-neutrino and muon-antineutrino beams produced using future upgraded megawatt-scale high-energy proton beams. In particular we consider the potential of these conventional neutrino ''superbeams'' for observing {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillations, determining the hierarchy of neutrino mass eigenstates, and measuring CP violation in the lepton sector. The physics capabilities of superbeams are explored as a function of the beam energy, baseline, and the detector parameters (fiducial mass, background rates, and systematic uncertainties on the backgrounds). The trade-offs between very large detectors with poor background rejection and smaller detectors with excellent background rejection are illustrated. We find that, with an aggressive set of detector parameters, it may be possible to observe {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} oscillations with a superbeam provided that the amplitude parameter sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} is larger than a few x10{sup -3}. If sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} is of order 10{sup -2} or larger, then the neutrino mass hierarchy can be determined in long-baseline experiments, and if in addition the large mixing angle MSW solution describes the solar neutrino deficit, then there is a small region of parameter space within which maximal CP violation in the lepton sector would be observable (with a significance of a few standard deviations) in a low-energy medium-baseline experiment. We illustrate our results by explicitly considering massive water Cherenkov and liquid argon detectors at superbeams with neutrino energies ranging from 1 GeV to 15 GeV, and baselines ranging from 295 km to 9300 km. Finally, we compare the oscillation physics prospects at superbeams with the corresponding prospects at neutrino factories. The sensitivity at a neutrino factory to CP violation and the neutrino mass hierarchy extends to values of the amplitude parameter sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} that are one to two orders of magnitude lower than at a superbeam.

Barger, V.; Geer, S.; Raja, R.; Whisnant, K.

2001-06-01

445

Detection of supernova neutrinos with neutrino-iron scattering  

SciTech Connect

The {nu}{sub e}-{sup 56}Fe cross section is evaluated in the projected quasiparticle random phase approximation (PQRPA). This model solves the puzzle observed in RPA for nuclei with mass around {sup 12}C, because it is the only RPA model that treats the Pauli Principle correctly. The cross sections as a function of the incident neutrino energy are compared with recent theoretical calculations of similar models. The average cross section weighted with the flux spectrum yields a good agreement with the experimental data. The expected number of events in the detection of supernova neutrinos is calculated for the LVD detector, leading to an upper limit for the electron neutrino energy of particular importance in this experiment.

Samana, A. R.; Bertulani, C. A. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University Commerce, P. O. Box 3011, Commerce, 75429 Texas (United States)

2008-08-15

446

Detection of supernova neutrinos with neutrino-iron scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?e-Fe56 cross section is evaluated in the projected quasiparticle random phase approximation (PQRPA). This model solves the puzzle observed in RPA for nuclei with mass around C12, because it is the only RPA model that treats the Pauli Principle correctly. The cross sections as a function of the incident neutrino energy are compared with recent theoretical calculations of similar models. The average cross section weighted with the flux spectrum yields a good agreement with the experimental data. The expected number of events in the detection of supernova neutrinos is calculated for the LVD detector, leading to an upper limit for the electron neutrino energy of particular importance in this experiment.

Samana, A. R.; Bertulani, C. A.

2008-08-01

447

GRB neutrino search with MAGIC  

SciTech Connect

The Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescope was designed for the detection of photon sources > or approx. 50 GeV. The measurement of highly-inclined air showers renders possible the search for high-energy neutrinos, too. Only neutrinos can traverse the Earth without interaction, and therefore, events close to the horizon can be identified as neutrino-induced rather than photon-induced or hadronic events. In this paper, Swift-XRT-detected GRBs with given spectral information are used in order to calculate the potential neutrino energy spectrum from prompt and afterglow emission for each individual GRB. The event rate in MAGIC is estimated assuming that the GRB happens within the field of view of MAGIC. A sample of 568 long GRBs as detected by BATSE is used to compare the detection rates with 163 Swift-detected bursts. BATSE has properties similar to the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board of GLAST. Therefore the estimated rates give an estimate for the possibilities of neutrino detection with MAGIC from GLAST-triggered bursts.

Becker, Julia K.; Rhode, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Physik, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Gaug, Markus [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Hsu, C.-C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, Muenchen (Germany)

2008-05-22

448

GRB neutrino search with MAGIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescope was designed for the detection of photon sources >~50 GeV. The measurement of highly-inclined air showers renders possible the search for high-energy neutrinos, too. Only neutrinos can traverse the Earth without interaction, and therefore, events close to the horizon can be identified as neutrino-induced rather than photon-induced or hadronic events. In this paper, Swift-XRT-detected GRBs with given spectral information are used in order to calculate the potential neutrino energy spectrum from prompt and afterglow emission for each individual GRB. The event rate in MAGIC is estimated assuming that the GRB happens within the field of view of MAGIC. A sample of 568 long GRBs as detected by BATSE is used to compare the detection rates with 163 Swift-detected bursts. BATSE has properties similar to the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board of GLAST. Therefore the estimated rates give an estimate for the possibilities of neutrino detection with MAGIC from GLAST-triggered bursts.

Becker, Julia K.; Gaug, Markus; Hsu, Ching-Cheng; Rhode, Wolfgang

2008-05-01

449

Muon neutrino disappearance at MINOS  

SciTech Connect

A strong case has been made by several experiments that neutrinos oscillate, although important questions remain as to the mechanisms and precise values of the parameters. In the standard picture, two parameters describe the nature of how the neutrinos oscillate: the mass-squared difference between states and the mixing angle. The purpose of this thesis is to use data from the MINOS experiment to precisely measure the parameters associated with oscillations first observed in studies of atmospheric neutrinos. MINOS utilizes two similar detectors to observe the oscillatory nature of neutrinos. The Near Detector, located 1 km from the source, observes the unoscillated energy spectrum while the Far Detector, located 735 km away, is positioned to see the oscillation signal. Using the data in the Near Detector, a prediction of the expected neutrino spectrum at the Far Detector assuming no oscillations is made. By comparing this prediction with the MINOS data, the atmospheric mixing parameters are measured to be {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} = 2.45{sub +0.12}{sup -0.12} x 10{sub -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 32}) = 1.00{sub -0.04}{sup +0.00} (> 0.90 at 90% confidence level).

Armstrong, R.; /Indiana U.

2009-08-01

450

Determining neutrino mass hierarchy by precise measurements of two delta m**2 in electron-neutrino and muon-neutrino disappearance experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this talk, we discuss the possibility of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the two effective atmospheric neutrino mass squared differences measured, respectively, in electron, and in muon neutrino disappearance oscillation experiment...

H. Minakata H. Nunokawa R. Z. Funchal S. Parke

2006-01-01

451

Measuring Neutrinos with the ANTARES Telescope  

SciTech Connect

The ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope has been taking data since construction began in 2006. The telescope, completed in May of 2008, detects the Cerenkov radiation of charged leptons produced by high energy neutrinos interacting in or around the detector. The lepton trajectory is reconstructed with high precision, revealing the direction of the incoming neutrino. The performance of the detector will be discussed and recent data showing muons, electromagnetic showers and atmospheric neutrinos will be presented. Studies have been underway to search for neutrino point sources in the ANTARES data since 2007. Results from these studies will be presented, and the sensitivity of the telescope will be discussed.

Reed, Corey [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2009-12-17

452

PREFACE: Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics was held at Haga Slott in Enköping, Sweden during August 19 24, 2004. Invited to the symposium were around 40 globally leading researchers in the field of neutrino physics, both experimental and theoretical. In addition to these participants, some 30 local researchers and graduate students participated in the symposium. The dominant theme of the lectures was neutrino oscillations, which after several years were recently verified by results from the Super-Kamiokande detector in Kamioka, Japan and the SNO detector in Sudbury, Canada. Discussion focused especially on effects of neutrino oscillations derived from the presence of matter and the fact that three different neutrinos exist. Since neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have mass, this is the first experimental observation that fundamentally deviates from the standard model of particle physics. This is a challenge to both theoretical and experimental physics. The various oscillation parameters will be determined with increased precision in new, specially designed experiments. Theoretical physics is working intensively to insert the knowledge that neutrinos have mass into the theoretical models that describe particle physics. It will probably turn out that the discovery of neutrino oscillations signifies a breakthrough in the description of the very smallest constituents of matter. The lectures provided a very good description of the intensive situation in the field right now. The topics discussed also included mass models for neutrinos, neutrinos in extra dimensions as well as the `seesaw mechanism', which provides a good description of why neutrino masses are so small. Also discussed, besides neutrino oscillations, was the new field of neutrino astronomy. Among the questions that neutrino astronomy hopes to answer are what the dark matter in the Universe consists of and where cosmic radiation at extremely high energies comes from. For this purpose, large neutrino telescopes are built deep in the Antarctic ice, in the Baikal Lake, and in the Mediterranean Sea. Among prominent unanswered questions, highlighted as one of the most important, was whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles. By studying neutrino double beta decay, researchers hope to answer this question, but it will put very large demands on detectors. The programme also included ample time for lively and valuable discussions, which cannot normally be held at ordinary conferences. The symposium concluded with a round-table discussion, where participants discussed the future of neutrino physics.Without a doubt, neutrino physics today is moving toward a very exciting and interesting period. An important contribution to the success of the symposium was the wonderful setting that the Haga Slott manor house hotel and conference center offered to the participants.

Bergström, Lars; Botner, Olga; Carlson, Per; Hulth, Per Olof; Ohlsson, Tommy

2005-01-01

453

The Low Energy Neutrino Factory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that a low energy neutrino factory with a baseline of 1300 km and muon energy of 4.5 GeV has an excellent physics reach. The results of our optimisation studies demonstrate that such a setup can have remarkable sensitivity to ?13 and ? for sin2(2?13)>10-4, and to the mass hierarchy for sin2(2?13)>10-3. We also illustrate the power of the unique combination of golden and platinum channels accessible to the low energy neutrino factory. We have considered both a 20 kton totally active scintillating detector and a 100 kton liquid argon detector as possible detector technologies, finding that a liquid argon detector with very good background rejection can produce sensitivity to ?13 and ? with that of the International Design Study neutrino factory.

Bross, Alan; Ellis, Malcolm; Fernández Martínez, Enrique; Geer, Steve; Li, Tracey; Mena, Olga; Pascoli, Silvia

2010-03-01

454

Status of neutrino mass experiments  

SciTech Connect

In 1980 two experiments ignited a fertile field of research the determination of the neutrino masses. Subsequently, over 35 experiments using a variety of techniques have probed or are probing this question. Primarily I will discuss electron antineutrino (hereafter referred to as neutrino) mass experiments. However, let me begin in Section I to discuss astronomical and terrestrial observations which motivated these experiments. In Section II, I will quote limits from muon and tau mass determinations. These limits are more thoroughly discussed in other papers. I will continue by describing the four approaches used to measure the electron neutrino mass. In Section III, tritium beta decay mass determinations will be reviewed. This section includes a general summary of previous experimental results, and discussion of the major ongoing experiments. Section IV offers concluding remarks. 24 refs., 24 figs.

Fackler, O.

1985-12-01

455

Recent developments in neutrino physics  

SciTech Connect

I shall attempt to summarize recent developments in the experimental situation in neutrino physics. The paper will deal with recent results, drawing on either published work or research that has been presented in preprint form, as there is an adequate supply of interesting and controversial data restricting oneself to these generally more reliable sources. The discussion of the theoretical implication of these experimental results will be presented in the following paper by Boris Kayser. The topics to be covered in this presentation are: direct measurements of {bar {nu}}{sub e} mass via beta endpoint studies; status of solar neutrino observations; status of 17-keV neutrino'' reports; and the use of {nu}p elastic scattering to determine the strange quark'' content of the proton. 2 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

Garvey, G.T.

1991-01-01

456

Nuclear statistical equilibrium neutrino spectrum  

SciTech Connect

The spectral emission of neutrinos from a plasma in nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) is investigated. Particular attention is paid to the possible emission of high-energy (>10 MeV) neutrinos or antineutrinos. A newly developed numerical approach for describing the abundances of nuclei in NSE is presented. Neutrino emission spectra, resulting from general Fuller-Fowler-Newman conditions, are analyzed. Regions of T-{rho}-Y{sub e} space favoring detectability are selected. The importance of critical Y{sub e} values with zero net rate of neutronization (Y{sub e}) is discussed. Results are provided for the processing of matter under conditions typical for thermonuclear and core-collapse supernovae, presupernova stars, and neutron star mergers.

Odrzywolek, Andrzej [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland)

2009-10-15

457

The Low Energy Neutrino Factory  

SciTech Connect

We show that a low energy neutrino factory with a baseline of 1300 km and muon energy of 4.5 GeV has an excellent physics reach. The results of our optimisation studies demonstrate that such a setup can have remarkable sensitivity to theta{sub 13} and delta for sin{sup 2}(2theta{sub 13})>10{sup -4}, and to the mass hierarchy for sin{sup 2}(2theta{sub 13})>10{sup -3}. We also illustrate the power of the unique combination of golden and platinum channels accessible to the low energy neutrino factory. We have considered both a 20 kton totally active scintillating detector and a 100 kton liquid argon detector as possible detector technologies, finding that a liquid argon detector with very good background rejection can produce sensitivity to theta{sub 13} and delta with that of the International Design Study neutrino factory.

Bross, Alan; Geer, Steve [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia (United States); Ellis, Malcolm [Brunel University, London (United Kingdom); Fernandez Martinez, Enrique [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany); Li, Tracey; Pascoli, Silvia [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University (United Kingdom); Mena, Olga [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, IFIC CSIC and Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

2010-03-30

458

Mass varying neutrinos in supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the consequences on the neutrino oscillation parameter space, mixing angle (tan?2?), and vacuum mass difference (?m02) when mass varying neutrino (MaVaN) models are assumed in a supernova environment. We consider electronic to sterile channels ?e??s and ?¯e??¯s in two-flavor scenario. In a given model of MaVaN mechanism, we induce a position-dependent effective mass difference, ?m˜2(r), where r is the distance from the supernova core, that changes the neutrino and antineutrino flavor conversion probabilities. We study the constraints on the mixing angle and vacuum mass difference coming from r-process and the SN1987A data. Our result is the appearance of a new exclusion region for very small mixing angles, tan?2?=10-6-10-2, and small vacuum mass difference, ?m02=1-20eV2, due the MaVaN mechanism.

Rossi-Torres, F.; Guzzo, M. M.; de Holanda, P. C.; Peres, O. L. G.

2011-09-01

459

Probing the nature of the neutrino: The boron solar-neutrino experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a welter of neutrino scenarios and uncertain solar models to be unraveled, can solar-neutrino experiments really break new ground in neutrino physics\\? A new solar-neutrino detector BOREX, based on the nuclide 11B, promises the tools for a definitive exploration of the nature of the neutrino and the structure of the Sun. Using double-mode detection by neutrino excitation of 11B via the neutral-weak-current- and the charged-current-mediated inverse ? decay in the same target, independent measurements of the total neutrino flux regardless of flavor and the survival of electron neutrinos in solar matter and a vacuum can be made. Standard models of the Sun, and almost every proposed nonstandard model of the neutrino, can be subjected to sharp and direct tests. The development of BOREX, based on B-loaded liquid-scintillation techniques, is currently in progress.

Raghavan, R. S.; Pakvasa, Sandip

1988-02-01

460

?-K0 Analogy, Dirac-Majorana Neutrino Duality and the Neutrino Oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intent of this paper is to convey a new primary physical idea of a Dirac-Majorana neutrino duality in relation to the topical problem of neutrino oscillations. In view of the new atmospheric, solar and the LSND neutrino oscillation data, the Pontecorvo ? - K0 oscillation analogy is generalized to the notion of neutrino duality with substantially different physical meaning ascribed to the long-baseline and the short-baseline neutrino oscillations. At the level of CP-invariance, the suggestion of dual neutrino properties defines the symmetric two-mixing-angle form of the widely discussed four-neutrino (2 +2)-mixing scheme, as a result of the lepton charge conservation selection rule and a minimum of two Dirac neutrino fields. With neutrino duality, the two-doublet structure of the Majorana neutrino mass spectrum is a vestige of the two-Dirac-neutrino origin. The fine neutrino mass doublet structure is natural because it is produced by a lepton charge symmetry violating perturbation on a zero-approximation system of two twofold mass-degenerate Dirac neutrino-antineutrino pairs. A set of inferences related to the neutrino oscillation phenomenology in vacuum is considered.

Lipmanov, E. M.

461

Neutrino radiation hazards: A paper tiger  

SciTech Connect

Neutrinos are present in the natural environment due to terrestrial, solar, and cosmic sources and are also produced at accelerators both incidentally and intentionally as part of physics research programs. Progress in fundamental physics research has led to the creation of beams of neutrinos of ever-increasing intensity and/or energy. The large size and cost associated with these beams attracts, and indeed requires, public interest, support, and some understanding of the `exotic` particles produced, including the neutrinos. Furthermore, the very word neutrino (`little neutral one`, as coined by Enrico Fermi) can lead to public concern due to confusion with `neutron`, a word widely associated with radiological hazards. Adding to such possible concerns is a recent assertion, widely publicized, that neutrinos from astronomical events may have led to the extinction of some biological species. Presented here are methods for conservatively estimating the dose equivalent due to neutrinos as well as an assessment of the possible role of neutrinos in biological extinction processes. It is found that neutrinos produced by the sun and modern particle accelerators produce inconsequential dose equivalent rates. Examining recent calculations concerning neutrinos incident upon the earth due to stellar collapse, it is concluded that it is highly unlikely that these neutrinos caused the mass extinctions of species found in the paleontological record. Neutrino radiation hazards are, then, truly a `paper tiger`. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Cossairt, J.D.; Grossman, N.L.; Marshall, E.T.

1996-09-01

462

Sustaining a Family Dynasty: Key Issues Facing Complex Multigenerational Business and Investment-Owning Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a business family moves from the second to the third, fourth, and succeeding generations, and seeks to maintain shared family control of its often highly diversified financial and business assets, families around the world have created a complex web of structures, agreements, councils, and forms of accountability to manage their wealth. In working with such multigenerational dynasties around the

Dennis T. Jaffe

2004-01-01

463

Family Policies and Children's School Achievement in Single- versus Two-Parent Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the gap in math and science achievement of third- and fourth-graders who live with a single parent versus those who live with two parents in 11 countries. Finds single parenthood to be less detrimental when family policies equalize resources between single- and two-parent families. Concludes that national family policies can offset…

Pong, Suet-Ling; Dronkers, Jaap; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

2003-01-01

464

Fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator system development  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, under a contract with Sandia for the Concentrator Initiative, the ENTECH team initiated the design and development of a fourth-generation concentrator module. In 1992, Sandia also contracted with ENTECH to develop a new control and drive system for the ENTECH array. This report documents the design and development work performed under both contracts. Manufacturing processes for the new module were developed at the same time under a complementary PVMaT contract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Two 100-kW power plants were deployed in 1995 in Texas using the newly developed fourth-generation concentrator technology, one at the CSW Solar Park near Ft. Davis and one at TUE Energy Park in Dallas. Technology developed under the Sandia contracts has made a successful transition from the laboratory to the production line to the field.

O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J. [ENTECH, Inc., Dallas-Fort Worth Airport, TX (United States)

1995-10-01

465

Neutrino Factory Near Detector Simulation  

SciTech Connect

We present a simulation with GENIE MC generator of the Neutrino Factory baseline near detector interaction rates for the purely leptonic process nu{sub m}u+e{sup -}->nu{sub e}+mu{sup -} and for nu{sub m}u+N->mu{sup -}+X scattering in view of measuring the first one and suppressing the second one for neutrino flux estimation. A set of most sensitive measurable quantities are discussed and their selective power against experimental uncertainties is examined.

Karadzhov, Yordan [Department of Atomic Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, Sofia (Bulgaria)

2010-03-30

466

Super-Kamiokande Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillation Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their large variation in both energy and pathlength, atmospheric neutrinos have long served as broad probe of neutrino oscillations with primary sensitivity to ????? oscillations. However, with large statistics atmospheric neutrino data become increasingly sensitive to sub-leading oscillation effects driven by ?13 and the solar ?m122. Super-Kamiokande has collected 3903 days of atmospheric neutrino data and with the recent measurement ?13 they are used to study the remaining open questions in the standard neutrino oscillation framework, including the nature of the neutrino mass hierarchy, the octant of ?23, and value of ?. Results from the most recent analysis of the atmospheric neutrino data both with and without external constraints on the value of ?13 are presented.

Wendell, Roger

2013-04-01

467

Fourth-factor authentication: somebody you know  

Microsoft Academic Search

User authentication in computing systems traditionally de- pends on three factors: something you have (e.g., a hard- ware token), something you are (e.g., a fingerprint), and something you know (e.g., a password). In this paper, we explore a fourth factor, the social network of the user, that is, somebody you know. Human authentication through mutual acquaintance is an age-old practice.

John G. Brainard; Ari Juels; Ronald L. Rivest; Michael Szydlo; Moti Yung

2006-01-01

468

SEIZURE PREDICTION: THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP  

PubMed Central

The recently convened Fourth International Workshop on Seizure Prediction (IWSP4) brought together a diverse international group of investigators, from academia and industry, including epileptologists, neurosurgeons, neuroscientists, computer scientists, engineers, physicists, and mathematicians who are conducting interdisciplinary research on the prediction and control of seizures. IWSP4 allowed the presentation and discussion of results, an exchange of ideas, an assessment of the status of seizure prediction, control and related fields and the fostering of collaborative projects.

Zaveri, Hitten P.; Frei, Mark G.; Arthurs, Susan; Osorio, Ivan

2010-01-01

469

Mars vehicle design - The fourth generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourth generation of Mars mission vehicle concepts which are based on nuclear electric (NEP), solar electric (SEP), and nuclear thermal (NTP) propulsion methods are discussed. These concepts combine powerful computational tools with the tight coordination and multiple iterations to obtain high level of detail and cost-effective craftsmanship. Topics addressed include NTP vehicle and lander design, transfer vehicle design, engines and propulsion, crew habitats, and an ETO flight plan.

Sherwood, Brent

1993-09-01

470

Fourth generation: now, it is personal!  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a time when the second generation (2G) enjoys tremendous success and the third generation (3G, also known as IMT-2000) is nearing deployment, at least in Japan and Europe (2001-2), and with operators willing to pay billions of Euro\\/USD for the respective licenses, discussing fourth generation (4G) might seem premature, even far-fetched. But it is in this context, further dominated

J. M. Pereira

2000-01-01

471

Neutrino masses and mixing from the astrophysical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of neutrino masses and mixing in the astrophysical and cosmological context is reviewed. If neutrino mass differences are indeed as small as suggested by the current evidence for neutrino oscillations (?m? ? 1 eV), the overall neutrino mass scale in scenarios of degenerate neutrino masses is the most challenging open issue. Cosmological structure-formation arguments will continue to provide

Georg G. Raffelt

2001-01-01

472

Luminous bacteria in the deep-sea waters near the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope (Mediterranean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine luminous deep-sea bacteria may represent a potential source of signal perturbation for the ANTARES neutrino telescope installed between 2000 and 2475 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea. Using the CARD-FISH method, we have estimated the relative abundances of total prokaryotes of Bacteria, ? -proteobacteria and Vibrinoceae (domain, class and family affiliation of marine luminous bacteria, respectively) through the water

Badr Al Ali; Marc Garel; Philippe Cuny; Juan-Carlos Miquel; Tarik Toubal; Anne Robert; Christian Tamburini

2010-01-01

473

Are there consequences of Pontecorvo's neutrino oscillations for the neutrino emission of neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypothesis of Mazurek (1979) that neutrino oscillations act to remove the lepton degeneracy in the gravitational collapse of a massive star and thus reverse the collapse into an explosion is examined. Characteristic lengths for the propagation of neutrino oscillations between electron and muon neutrinos are calculated for conditions of a vacuum and extremely dense matter, and it is shown that the vacuum lengths greatly exceed those in dense matter. It is thus concluded that, if electron neutrinos are emitted during stellar core collapse, neutrino oscillations can not influence the neutrino emission of neutron stars and particularly will not effectively transfer leptonic energy to baryons.

Haubold, H. J.

474

FIRST NEUTRINO POINT-SOURCE RESULTS FROM THE 22-STRING ICECUBE DETECTOR  

SciTech Connect

We present new results of searches for neutrino point sources in the northern sky, using data recorded in 2007-08 with 22 strings of the IceCube detector (approximately one-fourth of the planned total) and 275.7 days of livetime. The final sample of 5114 neutrino candidate events agrees well with the expected background of atmospheric muon neutrinos and a small component of atmospheric muons. No evidence of a point source is found, with the most significant excess of events in the sky at 2.2 {sigma} after accounting for all trials. The average upper limit over the northern sky for point sources of muon-neutrinos with E{sup -2} spectrum is E{sup 2} {Phi}{sub {nu}{sub {mu}}} < 1.4 x 10{sup -1} TeV cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, in the energy range from 3 TeV to 3 PeV, improving the previous best average upper limit by the AMANDA-II detector by a factor of two.

IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer

2009-05-14

475

First Neutrino Point-Source Results from the 22 String Icecube Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new results of searches for neutrino point sources in the northern sky, using data recorded in 2007-2008 with 22 strings of the IceCube detector (approximately one-fourth of the planned total) and 275.7 days of live time. The final sample of 5114 neutrino candidate events agrees well with the expected background of atmospheric muon neutrinos and a small component of atmospheric muons. No evidence of a point source is found, with the most significant excess of events in the sky at 2.2? after accounting for all trials. The average upper limit over the northern sky for point sources of muon-neutrinos with E -2 spectrum is E^{2} ?_{?_{?}} < 1.4 × 10^{-11} TeV cm^{-2} s^{-1}, in the energy range from 3 TeV to 3 PeV, improving the previous best average upper limit by the AMANDA-II detector by a factor of 2.

Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bolmont, J.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Breder, D.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Day, C. T.; De Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; De Young, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Edwards, W. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Gozzini, R.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Heise, J.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Inaba, M.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Klepser, S.; Knops, S.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Leich, H.; Lennarz, D.; Lucke, A.; Lundberg, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McParland, C. P.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miyamoto, H.; Mohr, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Münich, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Patton, S.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Potthoff, N.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Rutledge, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schukraft, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoufer, M. C.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terranova, C.; Tilav, S.; Tluczykont, M.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Tur?an, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wiedemann, A.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Ice Cube Collaboration

2009-08-01

476

7. DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF FOURTH STREET VIADUCT SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF FOURTH STREET VIADUCT SHOWING ORNAMENTAL LIGHTING AND STAIRS AT MISSION STREET OVERCROSSING. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Fourth Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

477

Are Your Computer Files Protected Under the Fourth Amendment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, the government(s) in the United States can seize a copy of a hard drive of a computer and not violate the Fourth Amendment. This paper examines this situation and looks at ways to protect private computer files under the Fourth Amendment. This paper analyzes the historical context of the Fourth Amendment and its affinity toward tangible private property. Physical

Marianne Hoebich

2008-01-01

478

Hybrid model of neutrino masses and oscillations: Bulk neutrinos in the split-fermion scenario  

SciTech Connect

Higher-dimensional models of neutrino physics with one or more right-handed neutrinos in the bulk have attracted considerable attention in recent years. However, a critical issue for such models is to find a way of introducing the required flavor dependence needed for generating neutrino oscillations. In this paper, we point out that a natural minimal framework that accomplishes this can be constructed by combining the bulk-neutrino hypothesis for right-handed neutrinos with the split-fermion scenario for left-handed neutrinos. This combination leads to a unique flavor signature for neutrino phenomenology which easily incorporates large flavor mixing angles. This hybrid scenario also has a number of additional important features. For example, one previous difficulty of the split-fermion scenario applied to neutrinos has been that the mass matrix is exponentially sensitive to neutrino displacements within the brane. However, in our hybrid scenario, the interactions between the brane and bulk naturally convert this dependence from exponential to linear. Another important feature is that our hybrid scenario provides its own natural regulator for Kaluza-Klein sums. Thus, in our scenario, all Kaluza-Klein summations are manifestly finite, even in cases with multiple extra dimensions. But most importantly, our mechanism completely decouples the effective neutrino flavor mixing angles from the sizes of the overlaps between the neutrino wave functions within the brane. Thus, we are able to obtain large neutrino mixing angles even when these neutrinos have significant spatial separations and their overlaps vanish.

Dienes, Keith R. [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Hossenfelder, Sabine [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2006-09-15

479

Extraction of active and sterile neutrino mixing parameters with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a 1 kilotonne heavy-water Cerenkov detector designed to study fundamental properties of neutrinos produced by thermonuclear fusion reactions in the core of the Sun. The uniqueness of SNO resides in its capability to distinctively measure the total flux of all active neutrino flavours as well as the flux of electron neutrinos, through the Neutral-Current (NC) and Charged-Current (CC) interactions of neutrinos on deuterium, respectively. The measurements of the NC and CC fluxes for neutrinos originated from 8B disintegration inside the Sun unambiguously proved that neutrinos change their flavour while traveling to the Earth. These results are consistent with predictions from a neutrino oscillation hypothesis on neutrino flavour transitions due to the mixing of massive neutrino states. The NC measurement from SNO also solved the long-standing Solar Neutrino Problem (SNP). in this dissertation, the measurements of the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular their mixing parameters, are presented. Data samples from SNO and other experiments are used to extract the mixing parameters of active and sterile neutrino states. Under the assumption on the two-neutrino oscillation hypothesis, the mixing parameters for active neutrinos (the squared-mass difference Deltam2 and the mixing angle theta) are obtained from a global analysis of solar and reactor neutrino data. The extracted mixing parameters from this analysis are Dm2=7.59+0.21-0.19x 10-5eV2 and q=34.4+1.3-1.2 degrees. The errors on both parameters are reduced compared to the previous results from SNO, that further constrains the solar neutrino mixing parameter region. The mixing parameters for the sterile neutrino state (the ratio RD=Dm201/D m221 and the mixing angle sin2 2alpha) are determined by comparing the predictions from a weakly mixed sterile neutrino model with the solar neutrino data. For the first time a complete parameter region for the weakly mixed sterile state is fully scanned numerically to place the error on RDelta and to set an upper limit at 90% CL on sin2 2alpha. A global solar neutrino analysis yields RD=0.11+0.04-0.03 and places an upper limit of sin2 2alpha < 9.9 x 10-3 at 90% CL. This result shows that the rare effects from physics beyond the three active neutrino scenario cannot be excluded, yet. Future prospects and challenge in solar neutrino physics are also summarized.

Tesic, Gordana

480

Neutrino physics: A theoretical perspective  

SciTech Connect

Experimental measurements of sin/sup 2/theta/sub W/ are surveyed. They are shown to test electroweak unification at the quantum loop level and constrain new physics beyond the standard model. Neutrino oscillations are also examined in the framework of 3 generation mixing. Searches for nu/sub ..mu../ ..-->.. nu/sub tau/ oscillation at aceelerator facilities are advocated.

Marciano, W.J.

1987-04-01