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Sample records for fourth generation solution

  1. 2040: Fourth Generation Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    It is predicted that by the year 2040, there will be no distinction between a commercial airliner and a commercial launch vehicle. Fourth Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) will be so safe and reliable that no crew escape system will be necessary. Every year there will be in excess of 10,000 flights and the turn-around time between flights will be just hours. The onboard crew will be able to accomplish a launch without any assistance from the ground. Provided is an artist's concept of these fourth generation space vehicles.

  2. Fourth generation bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiwata, Koji; Wise, Mark B.

    2011-04-01

    We investigate the spectrum and wave functions of q{sup '}q{sup '} bound states for heavy fourth generation quarks (q{sup '}) that have a very small mixing with the three observed generations of standard model quarks. Such bound states come with different color, spin and flavor quantum numbers. Since the fourth generation Yukawa coupling, {lambda}{sub q}{sup '}, is large we include all perturbative corrections to the potential between the heavy quark and antiquark of order {lambda}{sub q}{sup '2}N{sub c}/16{pi}{sup 2} where N{sub c} is the number of colors, as well as relativistic corrections suppressed by (v/c){sup 2}. We find that the lightest fourth generation quark masses for which a bound state exists for color octet states. For the color singlet states, which always have a bound state, we analyze the influence that the Higgs couplings have on the size and binding energy of the bound states.

  3. Fourth Generation Parity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Sung; Soni, Amarjit

    2013-01-01

    We present a very simple fourth generation (4G) model with an Abelian gauge interaction under which only the 4G fermions have nonzero charge. The U(1) gauge symmetry can have a Z2 residual discrete symmetry (4G parity), which can stabilize the lightest 4G particle (L4P). When the 4G neutrino is the L4P, it would be a neutral and stable particle and the other 4G fermions would decay into the L4P, leaving the trace of missing energy plus the standard model fermions. Because of the new symmetry, the 4G particle creation and decay modes are different from those of the sequential 4G model, and the 4G particles can be appreciably lighter than typical experimental bounds.

  4. Fourth Generation Parity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hye-Sung; Soni, Amarjit

    2013-01-01

    We present a very simple 4th-generation (4G) model with an Abelian gauge interaction under which only the 4G fermions have nonzero charge. The U(1) gauge symmetry can have a Z_2 residual discrete symmetry (4G-parity), which can stabilize the lightest 4G particle (L4P). When the 4G neutrino is the L4P, it would be a neutral and stable particle and the other 4G fermions would decay into the L4P leaving the trace of missing energy plus the standard model fermions. Because of the new symmetry, the 4G particle creation and decay modes are different from those of the sequential 4G model, and the 4G particles can be appreciably lighter than typical experimental bounds.

  5. Fourth generation light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Winick, H.

    1997-05-01

    Concepts and designs are now being developed at laboratories around the world for light sources with performance levels that exceed present sources, including the very powerful and successful third generation synchrotron radiation sources that have come on line in the past few years. Workshops, have been held to review directions for future sources. A main thrust is to increase the brightness and coherence of the radiation using storage rings with lower electron-beam emittance or free-electron lasers (FELs). In the infra-red part of the spectrum very high brightness and coherence is already provided by FEL user facilities driven by linacs and storage rings. It now appears possible to extend FEL operation to the VUV, soft X-ray and even hard X-ray spectral range, to wavelengths down to the angstrom range, using high energy linacs equipped with high-brightness rf photoinjectors and bunch-length compressors. R&D to develop such sources is in progress at BNL, DESY, KEK, SLAC and other laboratories. In the absence of mirrors to form optical cavities, short wavelengths are reached in FEL systems in which a high peak current, low-emittance electron beam becomes bunch-density modulated at the optical wavelength in a single pass through a long undulator by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE); i.e.; startup from noise. A proposal to use the last kilometer of the 3 kilometer SLAC linac (the first 2 kilometers will be used for injection to the PEP II B-Factory) to provide 15 GeV electron beams to reach 1.5 {angstrom} by SASE in a 100 m long undulator is in preparation.

  6. A fourth generation reliability predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1988-01-01

    A reliability/availability predictor computer program has been developed and is currently being beta-tested by over 30 US companies. The computer program is called the Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP). HARP was developed to fill an important gap in reliability assessment capabilities. This gap was manifested through the use of its third-generation cousin, the Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation (CARE III) program, over a six-year development period and an additional three-year period during which CARE III has been in the public domain. The accumulated experience of the over 30 establishments now using CARE III was used in the development of the HARP program.

  7. Mars vehicle design: The fourth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1993-09-01

    Powerful new computational tools and small, expert teams have produced unprecedented levels of design detail in the latest cycle of engineering planning for human expeditions to Mars. This article reports on a study contract for NASA-MSFC which evolved mature fourth-generation Mars mission vehicle concepts, a set based on nuclear electric, solar electric, and nuclear thermal propulsion methods. The concept described in this article covers propulsion vehicle and lander design, transfer vehicle design, engines and propulsion components, crew habitats, and the earth-to-orbit (ETO) flight plan. The vehicle design integration has taken full advantage of modern numerical capabilities, including the following: supercomputer flight dynamics calculations; automated radiation dose analysis; and computer-aided design, drafting, performance modeling, and image representation. Fourth-generation methodology has established a challenging benchmark against which future concepts will be judged.

  8. Fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator system development

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1995-10-01

    In 1991, under a contract with Sandia for the Concentrator Initiative, the ENTECH team initiated the design and development of a fourth-generation concentrator module. In 1992, Sandia also contracted with ENTECH to develop a new control and drive system for the ENTECH array. This report documents the design and development work performed under both contracts. Manufacturing processes for the new module were developed at the same time under a complementary PVMaT contract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Two 100-kW power plants were deployed in 1995 in Texas using the newly developed fourth-generation concentrator technology, one at the CSW Solar Park near Ft. Davis and one at TUE Energy Park in Dallas. Technology developed under the Sandia contracts has made a successful transition from the laboratory to the production line to the field.

  9. CP violation in fourth generation quark decays

    SciTech Connect

    Arhrib, Abdesslam; Hou Weishu

    2009-10-01

    We show that, if a fourth generation is discovered at the Tevatron or LHC, one could study CP violation (CPV) in b{sup '}{yields}s decays. Asymmetries could reach 30% for b{sup '}{yields}sZ for m{sub b{sup '}} < or approx. 350 GeV, while it could be greater than 50% for b{sup '}{yields}s{gamma} and extend to higher m{sub b{sup '}}. Branching ratios are 10{sup -3}-10{sup -5}, and CPV measurement requires tagging. Once measured, however, the CPV phase can be extracted with little theoretical uncertainty.

  10. Toward a fourth-generation light source.

    SciTech Connect

    Moncton, D. E.

    1999-05-03

    Historically, x-ray research has been propelled by the existence of urgent and compelling scientific questions and the push of powerful and exquisite source technology. These two factors have gone hand in hand since Rontgen discovered x-rays. Here we review the progress being made with existing third-generation synchrotron-radiation light sources and the prospects for a fourth-generation light source with dramatically improved laser-like beam characteristics. The central technology for high-brilliance x-ray beams is the x-ray undulator, a series of alternating-pole magnets situated above and below the particle beam. When the particle beam is oscillated by the alternating magnetic fields, a set of. interacting and interfering wave fronts is produced, which leads to an x-ray beam with extraordinary properties. Third-generation sources of light in the hard x-ray range have been constructed at three principal facilities: the European Synchrotrons Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France; the Super Photon Ring 8-GeV (or Spring-8) in Japan; and the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the US. Undulator technology is also used on a number of low-energy machines for radiation in the ultraviolet and soft x-ray regimes. At the APS, these devices exceed all of our original expectations for beam brilliance, tunability, spectral range, and operational flexibility. Shown in Fig. 1 are the tuning curves of the first few harmonics, showing x-ray production from a few kV to better than 40 keV. High-brilliance radiation extends to over 100 keV.

  11. Static solutions for fourth order gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, William

    2010-11-15

    The Lichnerowicz and Israel theorems are extended to higher order theories of gravity. In particular it is shown that Schwarzschild is the unique spherically symmetric, static, asymptotically flat, black-hole solution, provided the spatial curvature is less than the quantum gravity scale outside the horizon. It is then shown that in the presence of matter (satisfying certain positivity requirements), the only static and asymptotically flat solutions of general relativity that are also solutions of higher order gravity are the vacuum solutions.

  12. Combined search for the quarks of a sequential fourth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Kreuzer, P.; Magass, C.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Papacz, P.; Pieta, H.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Weber, M.; Bontenackels, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Nowack, A.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Sauerland, P.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Castro, E.; Costanza, F.; Dammann, D.; Diez Pardos, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Knutsson, A.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Marienfeld, M.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Olzem, J.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Rosin, M.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sen, N.; Spiridonov, A.; Stein, M.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Autermann, C.; Blobel, V.; Draeger, J.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Gebbert, U.; Görner, M.; Hermanns, T.; Höing, R. S.; Kaschube, K.; Kaussen, G.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Lange, J.; Mura, B.; Nowak, F.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, M.; Schum, T.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Thomsen, J.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hackstein, C.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Heinrich, M.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Honc, S.; Katkov, I.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Martschei, D.; Mueller, S.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Oehler, A.; Ott, J.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Ratnikova, N.; Röcker, S.; Scheurer, A.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Troendle, D.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Manolakos, I.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Mavrommatis, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Patras, V.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Choudhury, R. K.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mehta, P.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Aziz, T.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Hashemi, M.; Hesari, H.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Lusito, L.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; De Guio, F.; Di Matteo, L.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Massironi, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Sala, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Cavallo, N.; De Cosa, A.; Dogangun, O.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Lucaroni, A.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Taroni, S.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Fanelli, C.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Sigamani, M.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; De Remigis, P.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Heo, S. G.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Chang, S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kong, D. J.; Park, H.; Ro, S. R.; Son, D. C.; Son, T.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Cho, Y.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Bilinskas, M. J.; Grigelionis, I.; Janulis, M.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Ansari, M. H.; Asghar, M. I.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. 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D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; St. John, J.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Ferapontov, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Tsang, K. V.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. 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D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Roh, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Johnston, C.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Yohay, R.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Leonard, J.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Results are presented from a search for a fourth generation of quarks produced singly or in pairs in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5fb-1 recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2011. A novel strategy has been developed for a combined search for quarks of the up and down type in decay channels with at least one isolated muon or electron. Limits on the mass of the fourth-generation quarks and the relevant Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements are derived in the context of a simple extension of the standard model with a sequential fourth generation of fermions. The existence of mass-degenerate fourth-generation quarks with masses below 685 GeV is excluded at 95% confidence level for minimal off-diagonal mixing between the third- and the fourth-generation quarks. With a mass difference of 25 GeV between the quark masses, the obtained limit on the masses of the fourth-generation quarks shifts by about ±20GeV. These results significantly reduce the allowed parameter space for a fourth generation of fermions.

  13. Constraints on the masses of fourth generation quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, S.; Radkhorrami, Y.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Moshaii, A.; Tazik, N.

    2009-06-01

    We study the one-loop contribution of the down-type quark of the standard model-like fourth generation (b{sup '}) on the top quark electric dipole moment. Using the known limits on the top quark electric dipole moments, we place limits on the b{sup '} mass. Then, from the estimated ratio for the masses of the fourth generation of quarks from other studies and the achieved bound from top quark electric dipole moments on m{sub b{sup '}}, we obtain a limit for the up-type quark of fourth generation (t{sup '}) mass.

  14. Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a

  15. Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

  16. The Fourth Generation of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, James Alan

    2000-11-01

    The outlook for nuclear power in the U.S. is currently very bright. The economics, operations and safety performance of U.S. nuclear power plants is excellent. In addition, both the safety and economic regulation of nuclear power are being changed to produce better economic parameters for future nuclear plant operations and the licenses for plant operations are being extended to 60 years. There is further a growing awareness of the value of clean, emissions-free nuclear power. These parameters combine to form a firm foundation for continued successful U.S. nuclear plant operations, and even the potential In order to realize a bright future for nuclear power, we must respond successfully to five challenges: Nuclear power must remain economically competitive, The public must remain confident in the safety of the plants and the fuel cycle. Nuclear wastes and spent fuel must be managed and the ultimate disposition pathways for nuclear wastes must be politically settled. The proliferation potential of the commercial nuclear fuel cycle must continue to be minimized, and We must assure a sustained manpower supply for the future and preserve the critical nuclear technology infrastructure. The Generation IV program is conceived to focus the efforts of the international nuclear community on responding to these challenges.

  17. Implementation Frailties of Guba and Lincoln's "Fourth Generation" Evaluation Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Tom

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of a science education project for teachers in Durban (South Africa) illustrates some problems inherent in the application of the fourth-generation evaluation approach of Guba and Lincoln. One of the strongest concerns is that full participation by stakeholders may be an unrealistic assumption. (SLD)

  18. Installing an Integrated System and a Fourth-Generation Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, David; Ferguson, Linda

    1987-01-01

    In the spring of 1986 Indiana State University converted to the Series Z software of Information Associates, an IBM mainframe, and Information Builders' FOCUS fourth-generation language. The beginning of the planning stage to product selection, training, and implementation is described. (Author/MLW)

  19. Reviving bino dark matter with vectorlike fourth generation particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohammad; Feng, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    We supplement the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) with vectorlike copies of standard model particles. Such fourth generation particles can raise the Higgs boson mass to the observed value without requiring very heavy superpartners, improving naturalness and the prospects for discovering supersymmetry at the LHC. Here we show that these new particles are also motivated cosmologically: in the MSSM, pure bino dark matter typically overcloses the Universe, but fourth generation particles open up new annihilation channels, allowing binos to have the correct thermal relic density without resonances or coannihilation. We show that this can be done in a sizable region of parameter space while preserving gauge coupling unification and satisfying constraints from collider, Higgs, precision electroweak, and flavor physics.

  20. Final Report for CORBA for Fourth Generation Language

    SciTech Connect

    Svetlana Shasharina

    2005-06-28

    The standard for object based networking is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). However, CORBA is not available for Fourth Generation Languages (4GL's) such as Visual Numerics? PV-WAVE or Research Systems? Interactive Data Language (RSI-IDL), which are widely used by scientists and engineers for data visualization and analysis. The proposed work would provide a set of tools to allow 4GL's to interoperate with CORBA.

  1. Masses of a Fourth Generation with Two Higgs Doublets

    SciTech Connect

    Bellantoni, Leo; Erler, Jens; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Ramirez-Homs, Enrique; /Texas U., El Paso

    2012-05-01

    We use sampling techniques to find robust constraints on the masses of a possible fourth sequential fermion generation from electroweak oblique variables. We find that in the case of a light (115 GeV) Higgs from a single electroweak symmetry breaking doublet, inverted mass hierarchies are possible for both quarks and leptons, but a mass splitting more than MW in the quark sector is unlikely. We also find constraints in the case of a heavy (600 GeV) Higgs in a single doublet model. As recent data from the Large Hadron Collider hints at the existence of a resonance at 124.5 GeV and a single Higgs doublet at that mass is inconsistent with a fourth fermion generation, we examine a Type II two Higgs doublet model. In this model, there are ranges of parameter space where the Higgs sector can potentially counteract the effects of the fourth generation. Even so, we find that such scenarios produce qualitatively similar fermion mass distributions.

  2. Background-Free Fourth-Order Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schleeger, Michael; Grechko, Maksim; Bonn, Mischa

    2015-06-01

    The recently developed 2D sum frequency generation spectroscopy offers new possibilities to analyze the structure and structural dynamics of interfaces in a surface-specific manner. Its implementation, however, has so far remained limited to the pump-probe geometry, with its inherent restrictions. Here we present 2D SFG experiments utilizing a novel noncollinear geometry of four incident laser pulses generating a 2D SFG response, analogous to the triangle geometry applied in bulk-sensitive 2D infrared spectroscopy. This approach allows for background-free measurements of fourth-order nonlinear signals, which is demonstrated by measuring the fourth-order material response from a GaAs (110) surface. The implementation of phase-sensitive detection and broadband excitation pulses allows for both highest possible time resolution and high spectral resolution of the pump axis of a measured 2D SFG spectrum. To reduce the noise in our spectra, we employ a referencing procedure, for which we use noncollinear pathways and individual focusing for the signal and local oscillator beams. The 2D spectra recorded from the GaAs (110) surface show nonzero responses for the real and imaginary component, pointing to contributions from resonant electronic pathways to the ?((4)) response. PMID:26266512

  3. Development of a fourth generation predictive capability maturity model.

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Richard Guy; Witkowski, Walter R.; Urbina, Angel; Rider, William J.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2013-09-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is an expert elicitation tool designed to characterize and communicate completeness of the approaches used for computational model definition, verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification associated for an intended application. The primary application of this tool at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been for physics-based computational simulations in support of nuclear weapons applications. The two main goals of a PCMM evaluation are 1) the communication of computational simulation capability, accurately and transparently, and 2) the development of input for effective planning. As a result of the increasing importance of computational simulation to SNL's mission, the PCMM has evolved through multiple generations with the goal to provide more clarity, rigor, and completeness in its application. This report describes the approach used to develop the fourth generation of the PCMM.

  4. Dynamic performance of a synchronous generator - Fourth order microcomputer model

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Elnaga, M.M.; Alden, R.T.H.

    1989-02-01

    Developments in the microcomputer field have enabled a new type of computer usage that is complementary to practical experience. This paper describes a highly interactive computer program that enables the student to examine the dynamic performance of a synchronous generator described by a fourth order model. The facilities provided in this program are intended to significantly improve student understanding of physical system behavior which is one of the main objectives of engineering education. The program is written in FORTRAN with calls to the ZABLIB library and implemented on a TI microcomputer that uses the MS-DOS operating system. The algorithms described in this program include eigenvalue tracking and time response plotting. The different facilities and the associated menus and screens are presented and discussed.

  5. Nanopore-based Fourth-generation DNA Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yanxiao; Zhang, Yuechuan; Ying, Cuifeng; Wang, Deqiang; Du, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore-based sequencers, as the fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology, have the potential to quickly and reliably sequence the entire human genome for less than $1000, and possibly for even less than $100. The single-molecule techniques used by this technology allow us to further study the interaction between DNA and protein, as well as between protein and protein. Nanopore analysis opens a new door to molecular biology investigation at the single-molecule scale. In this article, we have reviewed academic achievements in nanopore technology from the past as well as the latest advances, including both biological and solid-state nanopores, and discussed their recent and potential applications. PMID:25743089

  6. Joint Development of a Fourth Generation Single Crystal Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walston, S.; Cetel, A.; MacKay, R.; OHara, K.; Duhl, D.; Dreshfield, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new, fourth generation, single crystal superalloy has been jointly developed by GE Aircraft Engines, Pratt & Whitney, and NASA. The focus of the effort was to develop a turbine airfoil alloy with long-term durability for use in the High Speed Civil Transport. In order to achieve adequate long-time strength improvements at moderate temperatures and retain good microstructural stability, it was necessary to make significant composition changes from 2nd and 3rd generation single crystal superalloys. These included lower chromium levels, higher cobalt and rhenium levels and the inclusion of a new alloying element, ruthenium. It was found that higher Co levels were beneficial to reducing both TCP precipitation and SRZ formation. Ruthenium caused the refractory elements to partition more strongly to the ' phase, which resulted in better overall alloy stability. The final alloy, EPM 102, had significant creep rupture and fatigue improvements over the baseline production alloys and had acceptable microstructural stability. The alloy is currently being engine tested and evaluated for advanced engine applications.

  7. Higgs phenomenology in warped extra dimensions with a fourth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Mariana; Korutlu, Beste; Toharia, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    We study a warped extra-dimension scenario where the standard model fields lie in the bulk, with the addition of a fourth family of fermions. We concentrate on the flavor structure of the Higgs couplings with fermions in the flavor anarchy ansatz. Even without a fourth family, these couplings will be generically misaligned with respect to the standard model fermion mass matrices. The presence of the fourth family typically enhances the misalignment effects and we show that one should expect them to be highly nonsymmetrical in the (34) intergenerational mixing. The radiative corrections from the new fermions and their flavor-violating couplings to the Higgs affect negligibly known experimental precision measurements such as the oblique parameters and Z?bb or Z??+?-. On the other hand, ?F=1, 2 processes, mediated by tree-level Higgs exchange, as well as radiative corrections to b?s? and ??e? put some generic pressure on the allowed size of the flavor-violating couplings. But more importantly, these couplings will alter the Higgs decay patterns as well as those of the new fermions, and produce very interesting new signals associated to Higgs phenomenology in high energy colliders. These signals might become very important indirect signals for these type of models as they would be present even when the KK mass scale is high and no heavy KK particle is discovered.

  8. Higgs phenomenology in warped extra dimensions with a fourth generation

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Mariana; Korutlu, Beste; Toharia, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    We study a warped extra-dimension scenario where the standard model fields lie in the bulk, with the addition of a fourth family of fermions. We concentrate on the flavor structure of the Higgs couplings with fermions in the flavor anarchy ansatz. Even without a fourth family, these couplings will be generically misaligned with respect to the standard model fermion mass matrices. The presence of the fourth family typically enhances the misalignment effects and we show that one should expect them to be highly nonsymmetrical in the (34) intergenerational mixing. The radiative corrections from the new fermions and their flavor-violating couplings to the Higgs affect negligibly known experimental precision measurements such as the oblique parameters and Z{yields}bb or Z{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. On the other hand, {Delta}F=1, 2 processes, mediated by tree-level Higgs exchange, as well as radiative corrections to b{yields}s{gamma} and {mu}{yields}e{gamma} put some generic pressure on the allowed size of the flavor-violating couplings. But more importantly, these couplings will alter the Higgs decay patterns as well as those of the new fermions, and produce very interesting new signals associated to Higgs phenomenology in high energy colliders. These signals might become very important indirect signals for these type of models as they would be present even when the KK mass scale is high and no heavy KK particle is discovered.

  9. Painlev analysis and exact solutions of the fourth-order equation for description of nonlinear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, Nikolay A.

    2015-11-01

    The fourth-order equation for description of nonlinear waves is considered. A few variants of this equation are studied. Painlev test is applied to investigate integrability of these equations. We show that all these equations are not integrable, but some exact solutions of these equations exist. Analytic solutions in closed-form of the equations are found.

  10. The Quark-Lepton Mass Matrices with the Fourth Generation and the Renormalization Group Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, M.; Hayashi, T.; Najima, R.; Wakaizumi, S.

    1986-11-01

    We study the effect of the fourth generation of quarks and leptons on the third one. We take two typical mass matrices at the grand unified scale: the Fritzsch type and the Stech type ones which are successful in the three generation scheme, and then calculate the evolutions of the yukawa couplings and the mixing between the third generation quarks and the fourth ones using the renormalization group equations. We investigate them for the three cases: one Higgs doublet model, two Higgs doublets model and supersymmetric model, and obtain a rather large mixing, sin θ = 0.02 sim 0.54 at the electroweak scale.

  11. Foundations for the Fourth Generation of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, James Alan

    2000-11-01

    Plentiful, affordable electrical energy is a critically important commodity to nations wishing to grow their economy. Energy, and more specifically electricity, is the fuel of economic growth. More than one-third of the worlds population (more than 2 billion people), however, live today without access to any electricity. Further, another 2 billion people in the world exist on less than 100 watts of electricity per capita. By comparison, the large economies of Japan and France use more than 800 watts of electricity per capita, and the United States uses nearly 1500 watts of electricity per capita. As the governments of developing nations strive to improve their economies, and hence the standard of living of their people, electricity use is increasing. Several forecasts of electrical generation growth have concluded that world electricity demand will roughly double in the next 2025 years, and possibly triple by 2050. This electrical generation growth will occur primarily in the rapidly developing and growing economies in Asia and Latin America. This net growth is in addition to the need for replacement generating capacity in the United States and Europe as aging power plants (primarily fossil-fueled) are replaced. This very substantial worldwide electricity demand growth places the issue of where this new electricity generation capacity is to come from squarely in front of the developed countries. They have a fundamental desire (if not a moral obligation) to help these developing countries sustain their economic growth and improve their standard of living, while at the same time protecting the energy (and economic) security of their own countries. There are currently 435 power reactors generating about 16 percent of the worlds electricity. We know full well that nuclear power shows great promise as an economical, safe, and emissions-free source of electrical energy, but it also carries at least the perception of great problems, from public safety to dealing with radioactive wastes. I will have more to say about this later. For the moment, let me put forth the proposition that nuclear power should (and must) play a role in the future world energy supply, and perhaps should play an increasing role as the only technology capable of large-scale, near-term deployment without greenhouse gas emissions. If there is a moral imperative to assure the world of abundant, affordable, and clean electricity supplies, then there is no less of a moral imperative for us to assure that nuclear power is capable of taking its rightful place in this energy mix

  12. Internet-based Real Time Language Education: Towards a Fourth Generation Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuping; Sun, Chengzheng

    2001-01-01

    Through examination of the development of distance education for foreign languages, puts forth a theory on the emergence of a fourth generation of distance language education, challenging the generally accepted three-generation theory. Argues that with the use of Internet-based real time technology, distance language learning becomes synchronous

  13. Field accuracy of fourth-generation rapid diagnostic tests for acute HIV-1: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Joseph M.; Macpherson, Peter; Adams, Emily R.; Ochodo, Eleanor; Sands, Anita; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fourth-generation HIV-1 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect HIV-1 p24 antigen to screen for acute HIV-1. However, diagnostic accuracy during clinical use may be suboptimal. Methods: Clinical sensitivity and specificity of fourth-generation RDTs for acute HIV-1 were collated from field evaluation studies in adults identified by a systematic literature search. Results: Four studies with 17?381 participants from Australia, Swaziland, the United Kingdom and Malawi were identified. All reported 0% sensitivity of the HIV-1 p24 component for acute HIV-1 diagnosis; 26 acute infections were missed. Specificity ranged from 98.3 to 99.9%. Conclusion: Fourth-generation RDTs are currently unsuitable for the detection of acute HIV-1. PMID:26558545

  14. Electroweak constraints on the fourth generation at two loop order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanowitz, Michael S.

    2013-07-01

    If the Higgs-like particle at 125 GeV is the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson, then SM4, the simplest four generation (4G) extension of the SM, is inconsistent with the most recent LHC data. However, 4G variations (BSM4) are possible if the new particle is not the SM Higgs boson and/or if other new quanta modify its production and decay rates. Since LHC searches have pushed 4G quarks to high mass and strong coupling where perturbation theory eventually fails, we examine the leading nondecoupling electroweak (EW) corrections at two loop order to estimate the domain of validity for perturbation theory. We find that the two loop hypercharge correction, which has not been included in previous EW fits of 4G models, makes the largest quark sector contribution to the rho parameter, much larger even than the nominally leading one loop term. Because it is large and negative, it has a big effect on the EW fits. It does not invalidate perturbation theory since it only first appears at two loop order and is large because it does not vanish for equal quark doublet masses, unlike the one loop term. We estimate that perturbation theory is useful for mQ?600GeV but begins to become marginal for mQ?900GeV. The results apply directly to BSM4 models that retain the SM Higgs sector but must be reevaluated for non-SM Higgs sectors.

  15. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH{close_quote}s fourth-generation concentrator systems

    SciTech Connect

    ONeill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes recent improvements in manufacturing technology for fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator systems. The fourth-generation systems are firmly based on prior generations of a field-proven, high-efficiency, stable photovoltaic technology. The fourth-generation manufacturing process has been streamlined and validated through pilot runs and field deployments. Future plans include a 1.5 MW installation in 1998, as part of the Solar Enterprise Zone (SEZ) program in Nevada. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Numerical solution of fourth order boundary value problem using sixth degree spline functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyani, P.; Madhusudhan Rao, A. S.; Rao, P. S. Rama Chandra

    2015-12-01

    In this communication, we developed sixth degree spline functions by using Bickley's method for obtaining the numerical solution of linear fourth order differential equations of the form y(4)(x)+f(x)y(x) = r(x) with the given boundary conditions where f(x) and r(x) are given functions. Numerical illustrations are tabulated to demonstrate the practical usefulness of method.

  17. Solution of the linear shallow water equations by the fourth-order leapfrog scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalik, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical schemes of the first and second order of approximation introduce numerical distortion when the wave propagation over a long distance is investigated. To alleviate this problem, the fourth-order leapfrog scheme is constructed. The standard leapfrog method is based on the truncated Taylor series expansion which depicts an error proportional to the second-order terms. In the proposed method the numerical solution is corrected for these terms. The space and time corrections work well in diminishing numerical dispersion and dissipation.

  18. Engineering Task Plan for Fourth Generation Hanford Corrosion Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-06-20

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the activities associated with the installation of cabinets containing corrosion monitoring equipment on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. The new cabinets (one per tank) will be installed adjacent to existing corrosion probes already installed in riser WST-RISER-016 on both tanks. The corrosion monitoring equipment to be installed utilizes the technique of electrochemical noise (EN) for monitoring waste tank corrosion. Typically, EN consists of low frequency (4 Hz) and small amplitude signals that are spontaneously generated by electrochemical reactions occurring at corroding or other surfaces. EN analysis is well suited for monitoring and identifying the onset of localized corrosion, and for measuring uniform corrosion rates. A typical EN based corrosion-monitoring system measures instantaneous fluctuations in corrosion current and potential between three nominally identical electrodes of the material of interest immersed in the environment of interest. Time-dependent fluctuations in corrosion current are described by electrochemical current noise, and time-dependent fluctuations of corrosion potential are described by electrochemical noise. The corrosion monitoring systems are designed to detect the onset of localized corrosion phenomena if tank conditions should change to allow these phenomena to occur. In addition to the EN technique, the systems also facilitate the use of the Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) technique to collect uniform corrosion rate information. LPR measures the linearity at the origin of the polarization curve for overvoltages up to a few millivolts away from the rest potential or natural corrosion potential. The slope of the current vs. voltage plot gives information on uniform corrosion rates.

  19. Performance of the fourth generation GOCE time-wise Earth gravity field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockmann, Jan Martin; Höck, Eduard; Krasbutter, Ina; Mayer-Guerr, Torsten; Pail, Roland; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter; Zehentner, Norbert

    2013-04-01

    After the launch of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Gravity field and Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite in 2009, the fourth generation of ESAs official Earth's gravity field models were computed within ESA funded High-level Processing Facility (HPF). From the time series of November 2009 to June 2012 effectively two years of 1HZ sampled gravity gradients and GPS tracking observations were used within the gravity field solutions. One of the three gravity field solutions is the so called time-wise solution, producing a standalone gravity field model from GOCE observations only. This gravity field is estimated from the kinematic orbit positions (long wavelengths) and from the gravity gradients (high wavelength) measured with the satellites core instrument the gradiometer. Within the processing of the time-wise solution a lot of effort is spend on the stochastic modeling of the observation errors. Within this presentation the new model and its performance is presented. Compared to the third release, three major components improved the quality of the new model EGM_TIM_RL4. Firstly, more accurate Level 1b input data from a reprocessing were used. Secondly, the short arc method was used to estimate the long-wavelength part of the gravity field from the kinematic satellite orbits and thus replaced the energy balance method used before. Thirdly, the new solution is based on a longer time series (data volume approximately doubled w.r.t. last release). In addition to the spherical harmonic coefficients, one part of the product is the consistently modeled full covariance matrix of the spherical harmonic coefficients providing a rigorous error description. Within the presentation an overview of the main characteristics of the model is given. The performance of model and the corresponding error information is validated via the comparison to existing complementary models. In addition partial solutions (sub solutions from parts of the time series) were computed and compared to the overall solution (i.e. more accurate) to demonstrate the quality of the error description.

  20. SCALS: a fourth-generation study of assisted living technologies in their organisational, social, political and policy context

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Shaw, Sara; Wherton, Joe; Hughes, Gemma; Lynch, Jenni; A'Court, Christine; Hinder, Sue; Fahy, Nick; Byrne, Emma; Finlayson, Alexander; Sorell, Tom; Procter, Rob; Stones, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research to date into assisted living technologies broadly consists of 3 generations: technical design, experimental trials and qualitative studies of the patient experience. We describe a fourth-generation paradigm: studies of assisted living technologies in their organisational, social, political and policy context. Fourth-generation studies are necessarily organic and emergent; they view technology as part of a dynamic, networked and potentially unstable system. They use co-design methods to generate and stabilise local solutions, taking account of context. Methods and analysis SCALS (Studies in Co-creating Assisted Living Solutions) consists (currently) of 5 organisational case studies, each an English health or social care organisation striving to introduce technology-supported services to support independent living in people with health and/or social care needs. Treating these cases as complex systems, we seek to explore interdependencies, emergence and conflict. We employ a co-design approach informed by the principles of action research to help participating organisations establish, refine and evaluate their service. To that end, we are conducting in-depth ethnographic studies of people's experience of assisted living technologies (micro level), embedded in evolving organisational case studies that use interviews, ethnography and document analysis (meso level), and exploring the wider national and international context for assisted living technologies and policy (macro level). Data will be analysed using a sociotechnical framework developed from structuration theory. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval for the first 4 case studies has been granted. An important outcome will be lessons learned from individual co-design case studies. We will document the studies’ credibility and rigour, and assess the transferability of findings to other settings while also recognising unique aspects of the contexts in which they were generated. Academic outputs will include a cross-case analysis and progress in theory and method of fourth-generation assisted living technology research. We will produce practical guidance for organisations, policymakers, designers and service users. PMID:26880671

  1. Thinking beyond Measurement, Description and Judgment: Fourth Generation Evaluation in Family-Centered Pediatric Healthcare Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Katherine Ann; Clarkin, Chantalle Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although pediatric healthcare organizations have widely implemented the philosophy of family-centered care (FCC), evaluators and health professionals have not explored how to preserve the philosophy of FCC in evaluation processes. Purpose: To illustrate how fourth generation evaluation, in theory, could facilitate collaboration between

  2. Thinking beyond Measurement, Description and Judgment: Fourth Generation Evaluation in Family-Centered Pediatric Healthcare Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Katherine Ann; Clarkin, Chantalle Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although pediatric healthcare organizations have widely implemented the philosophy of family-centered care (FCC), evaluators and health professionals have not explored how to preserve the philosophy of FCC in evaluation processes. Purpose: To illustrate how fourth generation evaluation, in theory, could facilitate collaboration between…

  3. Applying Fourth Generation Management to Access Services: Reinventing Customer Service and Process Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasty, Douglas F.

    2004-01-01

    Are librarians doing all they can to ensure that customer services are delivered with the customer in mind? Librarians are great at helping, but we sometimes need help with identifying customers, defining their needs, developing services, and reviewing the processes behind the services. Fourth Generation Management provides new insight for

  4. Similar solutions for viscous hypersonic flow over a slender three-fourths-power body of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin-Shun

    1987-01-01

    For hypersonic flow with a shock wave, there is a similar solution consistent throughout the viscous and inviscid layers along a very slender three-fourths-power body of revolution The strong pressure interaction problem can then be treated by the method of similarity. Numerical calculations are performed in the viscous region with the edge pressure distribution known from the inviscid similar solutions. The compressible laminar boundary-layer equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations. The resulting two-point boundary value problem is then solved by the Runge-Kutta method with a modified Newton's method for the corresponding boundary conditions. The effects of wall temperature, mass bleeding, and body transverse curvature are investigated. The induced pressure, displacement thickness, skin friction, and heat transfer due to the previously mentioned parameters are estimated and analyzed.

  5. Possibility of searching for fourth generation neutrino at future ep colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senol, A.; Alan, A. T.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the production of fourth generation neutrino in the context of a new eν4 W magnetic dipole moment type interaction in ep collisions at future lepton-hadron colliders. We have obtained the mass limits of 700 GeV for THERA (√{ S} = 1 TeV) and 2.8 TeV for LC ⊗LHC (√{ S} = 3.74 TeV).

  6. Spectrum of false positivity for the fourth generation human immunodeficiency virus diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peter; Jackson, Patrick; Shaw, Nathan; Heysell, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Novel fourth generation screening and confirmatory human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) assays are now commercially available and incorporated into new diagnostic algorithms. We report two cases involving a total of three patients which highlight the spectrum of false positivity for both the Abbott Architect p24 antigen/antibody assay and the confirmatory Multispot antibody differentiation test. We then discuss the mechanisms for false positivity and the associated clinical conditions or laboratory scenarios that may predispose to inaccurate interpretation. PMID:26734067

  7. Solutions of fourth-order parabolic equation modeling thin film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandjo, A. N.; Moutari, S.; Gningue, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we study the well-posedness for a fourth-order parabolic equation modeling epitaxial thin film growth. Using Kato's Method [1-3] we establish existence, uniqueness and regularity of the solution to the model, in suitable spaces, namely C0 ([ 0, T ] ;Lp (?)) where p = n?/2-? with 1 < ? < 2, n ? N and n ? 2. We also show the global existence solution to the nonlinear parabolic equations for small initial data. Our main tools are Lp-Lq-estimates, regularization property of the linear part of e-t?2 and successive approximations. Furthermore, we illustrate the qualitative behavior of the approximate solution through some numerical simulations. The approximate solutions exhibit some favorable absorption properties of the model, which highlight the stabilizing effect of our specific formulation of the source term associated with the upward hopping of atoms. Consequently, the solutions describe well some experimentally observed phenomena, which characterize the growth of thin film such as grain coarsening, island formation and thickness growth.

  8. Statistical Analysis of CFD Solutions from the Fourth AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    A graphical framework is used for statistical analysis of the results from an extensive N-version test of a collection of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics codes. The solutions were obtained by code developers and users from the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Russia using a variety of grid systems and turbulence models for the June 2009 4th Drag Prediction Workshop sponsored by the AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Technical Committee. The aerodynamic configuration for this workshop was a new subsonic transport model, the Common Research Model, designed using a modern approach for the wing and included a horizontal tail. The fourth workshop focused on the prediction of both absolute and incremental drag levels for wing-body and wing-body-horizontal tail configurations. This work continues the statistical analysis begun in the earlier workshops and compares the results from the grid convergence study of the most recent workshop with earlier workshops using the statistical framework.

  9. A Vector-Like Fourth Generation with A Discrete Symmetry From Split-UED

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Park, Seong Chan; Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Split-UED allows for the possibility that the lowest lying KK excitations of the Standard Model fermions can be much lighter than the corresponding gauge or Higgs KK states. This can happen provided the fermion bulk masses are chosen to be large, in units of the inverse compactification radius, 1/R, and negative. In this setup, all of the other KK states would be effectively decoupled from low energy physics. Such a scenario would then lead to an apparent vector-like fourth generation with an associated discrete symmetry that allows us to accommodate a dark matter candidate. In this paper the rather unique phenomenology presented by this picture will be examined.

  10. Fourth Generation Phosphorus-Containing Dendrimers: Prospective Drug and Gene Delivery Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Shcharbin, D.; Dzmitruk, V.; Shakhbazau, A.; Goncharova, N.; Seviaryn, I.; Kosmacheva, S.; Potapnev, M.; Pedziwiatr-Werbicka, E.; Bryszewska, M.; Talabaev, M.; Chernov, A.; Kulchitsky, V.; Caminade, A.-M.; Majoral, J.-P.

    2011-01-01

    Research concerning new targeting delivery systems for pharmacologically active molecules and genetic material is of great importance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of fourth generation (P4) cationic phosphorus-containing dendrimers to bind fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS), anti-neoplastic drug cisplatin, anti-HIV siRNA siP24 and its capability to deliver green fluorescent protein gene (pGFP) into cells. The interaction between P4 and ANS (as the model drug) was investigated. The binding constant and the number of binding centers per one molecule of P4 were determined. In addition, the dendriplex between P4 and anti-HIV siRNA siP24 was characterized using circular dichroism, fluorescence polarization and zeta-potential methods; the average hydrodynamic diameter of the dendriplex was calculated using zeta-size measurements. The efficiency of transfection of pGFP using P4 was determined in HEK293 cells and human mesenchymal stem cells, and the cytotoxicity of the P4-pGFP dendriplex was studied. Furthermore, enhancement of the toxic action of the anti-neoplastic drug cisplatin by P4 dendrimers was estimated. Based on the results, the fourth generation cationic phosphorus-containing dendrimers seem to be a good drug and gene delivery carrier candidate. PMID:24310590

  11. Direct mass limits for chiral fourth-generation quarks in all mixing scenarios.

    PubMed

    Flacco, Christian J; Whiteson, Daniel; Tait, Tim M P; Bar-Shalom, Shaouly

    2010-09-10

    Present limits on chiral fourth-generation quark masses mb' and mt' are broadly generalized and strengthened by combining both t' and b' decays and considering a full range of t' and b' flavor-mixing scenarios with the lighter generations (to 1-‖V44‖2≈10(-13)). Various characteristic mass-splitting choices are considered. With mt'>mb' we find that CDF Collaboration limits on the b' mass vary by no more than 10%-20% with any choice of flavor mixing, while for the t' mass, we typically find stronger bounds, in some cases up to mt'>430  GeV. For mb'>mt', we find mb'>380-430  GeV, depending on the flavor mixing and the size of the mt'-mb' mass splitting. PMID:20867565

  12. Continuous-wave ultraviolet emission through fourth-harmonic generation in a whispering-gallery resonator.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeremy; Tomes, Matthew; Carmon, Tal; Jarrahi, Mona

    2011-11-21

    We experimentally demonstrate continuous-wave ultraviolet emission through forth-harmonic generation in a millimeter-scale lithium niobate whispering-gallery resonator pumped with a telecommunication-compatible infrared source. The whispering-gallery resonator provides four spectral lines at ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and infrared, which are equally spaced in frequency via the cascaded-harmonic process and span a 2-octave frequency band. Our technique relies on a variable crystal poling and high transverse order of the modes for phase-matching and a resonator quality factor of over 10(7) to allow cascaded-harmonic generation up to the fourth-harmonic at input pump powers as low as 200 mW. The compact size of the whispering gallery resonator pumped at telecommunication-compatible infrared wavelengths and the low pump power requirement make our device a promising ultraviolet light source for information storage, microscopy, and chemical analysis. PMID:22109440

  13. [Dihydropyridines from the first to the fourth generation: better effects and safety].

    PubMed

    Aouam, Karim; Berdeaux, Alain

    2003-01-01

    Dihydropyridines are among the most widely used drugs for the management of cardiovascular disease. Introduced in the 1960s, dihydropyridines have undergone several changes to optimise their efficacy and safety. Four generations of dihydropyridines are now available. The first-generation (nicardipine) agents have proven efficacy against hypertension. However, because of their short duration and rapid onset of vasodilator action, these drugs were more likely to be associated with adverse effects. The pharmaceutical industry responded to this problem by designing slow-release preparations of the short-acting drugs. These new preparations (second generation) allowed better control of the therapeutic effect and a reduction in some adverse effects. Pharmacodynamic innovation with regard to the dihydropyridines began with the third-generation agents (amlodipine, nitrendipine). These drugs exhibit more stable pharmacokinetics, are less cardioselective and, consequently, well tolerated in patients with heart failure. Highly lipophilic dihydropyridines are now available (lercanidipine, lacidipine). These fourth-generation agents provide a real degree of therapeutic comfort in terms of stable activity, a reduction in adverse effects and a broad therapeutic spectrum, especially in myocardial ischaemia and potentially in congestive heart failure. PMID:14679672

  14. Search for a Fourth Generation Charge -1/3 Quark via Flavor Changing Neutral Current Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G. A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Astur, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Drinkard, J.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M. K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J., II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gmez, B.; Gomez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; Gonzlez Sols, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Grim, G.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Grnendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutnikov, Y. E.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernndez-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. I.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovski, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Lan, H.; Lander, R.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Q.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lks, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaa-Mendoza, L.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Markosky, L.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; de Miranda, J. M.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Nes?i?, D.; Nicola, M.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Pus?elji?, D.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rapidis, P. A.; Rasmussen, L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Snchez-Hernndez, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Singh, P.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sood, P. M.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stoianova, D. A.; Stoker, D.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.

    1997-05-01

    We report on a search for pair production of a fourth generation charge -1/3 quark ( b') in pp collisions at s = 1.8 TeV by the D experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron using an integrated luminosity of 93 pb-1. Both b' quarks are assumed to decay via flavor changing neutral currents (FCNC). The search uses the signatures ?+3 jets +?-tag and 2?+2 jets. We see no significant excess of events over the expected background. We place an upper limit on the production cross section times branching fraction that is well below theoretical expectations for a b' decaying exclusively via FCNC for b' masses up to mZ+mb.

  15. Solid state 13C NMR characterisation study on fourth generation Ziegler-Natta catalysts.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Harri; Liitiä, Tiina; Virkkunen, Ville; Leinonen, Timo; Helaja, Tuulamari; Denifl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this study, solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy was utilised to characterize and identify the metal-ester coordination in active fourth generation (phthalate) Ziegler-Natta catalysts. It is known that different donors affect the active species in ZN catalysts. However, there is still limited data available of detailed molecular information how the donors and the active species are interplaying. One of the main goals of this work was to get better insight into the interactions of donor and active species. Based on the anisotropy tensor values (δ(11), δ(22), δ(33)) from low magic-angle spinning (MAS) (13)C NMR spectra in combination with chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) calculations (δ(aniso) and η), both the coordinative metal (Mg/Ti) and the symmetry of this interaction between metal and the internal donor in the active catalyst (MgCl(2)/TiCl(4)/electron donor) system could be identified. PMID:22425229

  16. Few-femtosecond timing at fourth-generation X-ray light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavella, F.; Stojanovic, N.; Geloni, G.; Gensch, M.

    2011-03-01

    Fourth-generation X-ray light sources are being developed to deliver laser-like X-ray pulses at intensities and/or repetition rates that are beyond the reach of table-top devices. An important class of experiments at these new facilities comprises pump-probe experiments, which are designed to investigate chemical reactions and processes occurring on the molecular or even atomic level, and on the timescale of a few femtoseconds. Good progress has been made towards the generation of ultrashort X-ray pulses (for example, at FLASH or LCLS), but experiments suffer from the intrinsic timing jitter between the X-ray pulses and external laser sources. In this Letter, we present a new approach that provides few-femtosecond temporal resolution. Our method uses coherent terahertz radiation generated at the end of the X-ray undulator by the same electron bunch that emits the X-ray pulse. It can therefore be applied at any advanced light source working with ultrashort electron bunches and undulators.

  17. A review of football injuries on third and fourth generation artificial turfs compared with natural turf.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sean; Hume, Patria A; Kara, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    Football codes (rugby union, soccer, American football) train and play matches on natural and artificial turfs. A review of injuries on different turfs was needed to inform practitioners and sporting bodies on turf-related injury mechanisms and risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this review was to compare the incidence, nature and mechanisms of injuries sustained on newer generation artificial turfs and natural turfs. Electronic databases were searched using the keywords 'artificial turf', 'natural turf', 'grass' and 'inj*'. Delimitation of 120 articles sourced to those addressing injuries in football codes and those using third and fourth generation artificial turfs or natural turfs resulted in 11 experimental papers. These 11 papers provided 20 cohorts that could be assessed using magnitude-based inferences for injury incidence rate ratio calculations pertaining to differences between surfaces. Analysis showed that 16 of the 20 cohorts showed trivial effects for overall incidence rate ratios between surfaces. There was increased risk of ankle injury playing on artificial turf in eight cohorts, with incidence rate ratios from 0.7 to 5.2. Evidence concerning risk of knee injuries on the two surfaces was inconsistent, with incidence rate ratios from 0.4 to 2.8. Two cohorts showed beneficial inferences over the 90% likelihood value for effects of artificial surface on muscle injuries for soccer players; however, there were also two harmful, four unclear and five trivial inferences across the three football codes. Inferences relating to injury severity were inconsistent, with the exception that artificial turf was very likely to have harmful effects for minor injuries in rugby union training and severe injuries in young female soccer players. No clear differences between surfaces were evident in relation to training versus match injuries. Potential mechanisms for differing injury patterns on artificial turf compared with natural turf include increased peak torque and rotational stiffness properties of shoe-surface interfaces, decreased impact attenuation properties of surfaces, differing foot loading patterns and detrimental physiological responses. Changing between surfaces may be a precursor for injury in soccer. In conclusion, studies have provided strong evidence for comparable rates of injury between new generation artificial turfs and natural turfs. An exception is the likely increased risk of ankle injury on third and fourth generation artificial turfs. Therefore, ankle injury prevention strategies must be a priority for athletes who play on artificial turf regularly. Clarification of effects of artificial surfaces on muscle and knee injuries are required given inconsistencies in incidence rate ratios depending on the football code, athlete, gender or match versus training. PMID:21985213

  18. A Little Solution to the Little Hierarchy Problem: A Vector-like Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Peter W.; Ismail, Ahmed; Rajendran, Surjeet; Saraswat, Prashant; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2012-04-06

    We present a simple solution to the little hierarchy problem in the minimal supersymmetric standard model: a vectorlike fourth generation. With O(1) Yukawa couplings for the new quarks, the Higgs mass can naturally be above 114 GeV. Unlike a chiral fourth generation, a vectorlike generation can solve the little hierarchy problem while remaining consistent with precision electroweak and direct production constraints, and maintaining the success of the grand unified framework. The new quarks are predicted to lie between 300-600 GeV and will thus be discovered or ruled out at the LHC. This scenario suggests exploration of several novel collider signatures.

  19. A fourth generation of neuroanatomical tracing techniques: exploiting the offspring of genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Wouterlood, Floris G; Bloem, Bernard; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Luchicchi, Antonio; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-09-30

    The first three generations of neuroanatomical tract-tracing methods include, respectively, techniques exploiting degeneration, retrograde cellular transport and anterograde cellular transport. This paper reviews the most recent development in third-generation tracing, i.e., neurochemical fingerprinting based on BDA tracing, and continues with an emerging tracing technique called here 'selective fluorescent protein expression' that in our view belongs to an entirely new 'fourth-generation' class. Tracing techniques in this class lean on gene expression technology designed to 'label' projections exclusively originating from neurons expressing a very specific molecular phenotype. Genetically engineered mice that express cre-recombinase in a neurochemically specific neuronal population receive into a brain locus of interest an injection of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying a double-floxed promoter-eYFP DNA sequence. After transfection this sequence is expressed only in neurons metabolizing recombinase protein. These particular neurons promptly start manufacturing the fluorescent protein which then accumulates and labels to full detail all the neuronal processes, including fibers and terminal arborizations. All other neurons remain optically 'dark'. The AAV is not replicated by the neurons, prohibiting intracerebral spread of 'infection'. The essence is that the fiber projections of discrete subpopulations of neurochemically specific neurons can be traced in full detail. One condition is that the transgenic mouse strain is recombinase-perfect. We illustrate selective fluorescent protein expression in parvalbumin-cre (PV-cre) mice and choline acetyltransferase-cre (ChAT-cre) mice. In addition we compare this novel tracing technique with observations in brains of native PV mice and ChAT-GFP mice. We include a note on tracing techniques using viruses. PMID:25107853

  20. Algorithms for density and composition-discrimination imaging for fourth-generation CT systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busono, Pratondo; Hussein, Esam M. A.

    1999-06-01

    This paper shows that if the off-beam idle detectors in the detection ring of a fourth-generation x-ray computed tomography (CT) system are used to measure the scattered radiation, it is numerically feasible to reconstruct electron-density images to supplement the conventional attenuation-coefficient images of transmitted radiation. It is also shown that by combining these two images, composition changes can be detected with the aid of an effective-atomic-number indicator. The required image-reconstruction algorithms are developed and tested against Monte Carlo simulated measurements, for a variety of phantom configurations. In spite of the relatively poor statistical quality of scattering measurements, it is demonstrated that electron-density images of reasonable quality can be obtained. In addition, it is shown that composition discrimination is possible for materials of effective atomic number greater than five, in the photon energy range of a typical medical x-ray CT system operating at 102 kVp. The obtained supplementary electron-density and composition images can be useful in radiotherapy planning and for studying tumour histology, as well as in industrial and security applications where identification of materials based on density and composition is important.

  1. Fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition facility for hybrid surface modification layer fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Langping; Huang Lei; Xie Zhiwen; Wang Xiaofeng; Tang Baoyin

    2008-02-15

    The fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) facility for hybrid and batch treatment was built in our laboratory recently. Comparing with our previous PIIID facilities, several novel designs are utilized. Two multicathode pulsed cathodic arc plasma sources are fixed on the chamber wall symmetrically, which can increase the steady working time from 6 h (the single cathode source in our previous facilities) to about 18 h. Meanwhile, the inner diameter of the pulsed cathodic arc plasma source is increased from the previous 80 to 209 mm, thus, large area metal plasma can be obtained by the source. Instead of the simple sample holder in our previous facility, a complex revolution-rotation sample holder composed of 24 shafts, which can rotate around its axis and adjust its position through revolving around the center axis of the vacuum chamber, is fixed in the center of the vacuum chamber. In addition, one magnetron sputtering source is set on the chamber wall instead of the top cover in the previous facility. Because of the above characteristic, the PIIID hybrid process involving ion implantation, vacuum arc, and magnetron sputtering deposition can be acquired without breaking vacuum. In addition, the PIIID batch treatment of cylinderlike components can be finished by installing these components on the rotating shafts on the sample holder.

  2. Metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial drug gatifloxacin: Synthesis, structure and biological evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

    2010-08-01

    Three metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial agent gatifloxacin (GFLX) with Y(???), Zr(?V) and U(V?) have been prepared and characterized with physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. In these complexes, gatifloxacin acts as a bidentate deprotonated ligand bound to the metal through the ketone oxygen and a carboxylato oxygen. The complexes are six-coordinated with distorted octahedral geometry. The kinetic parameters for gatifloxacin and the three prepared complexes have been evaluated from TGA curves by using Coats-Redfern (CR) and Horowitz-Metzeger (HM) methods. The calculated bond length and force constant, F(U dbnd O), for the UO 2 bond in uranyl complex are 1.7522 and 639.46 N m -1. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes has been tested against microorganisms, three bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) and two fungi species, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.), showing that they exhibit higher activity than free ligand.

  3. Systems Prototyping with Fourth Generation Tools: One Answer to the Productivity Puzzle? AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sholtys, Phyllis A.

    The development of information systems using an engineering approach employing both traditional programming techniques and nonprocedural languages is described. A fourth generation application tool is used to develop a prototype system that is revised and expanded as the user clarifies individual requirements. When fully defined, a combination of

  4. Scientific Opportunities at - and Fourth-Generation X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Andreas K.

    2001-09-01

    The advent of very bright X-ray sources based on synchrotron radiation has given access to new scientific research worldwide in the fields of condensed matter physics, chemistry, biology, medicine and others. Third-generation sources are electron storage rings equipped with several meter long insertion devices such as undulators and wigglers generating very well collimated, pulsed X-ray beams with a spectral brightness or brilliance of up to 1022 photons/s/mrad2/mm2/0.1% bandwidth. Examples for high-energy sources are the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (6 GeV) in Grenoble, France, the Advanced Photon Source (7 GeV) in Argonne, USA and the SPring-8 facility (8 GeV) in Himeji, Japan. In the experimental hall around the ESRF's storage ring of 1 km circumference and even outside, about 40 beamlines are presently installed providing X-rays between 10 eV and a few hundred keV to thousands of users per year. Among the techniques are X-ray elastic and inelastic scattering, absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence, microscopy, coherent and incoherent imaging with resolutions of about 100 nanometers in space, 10 nanoradians in angle, sub-milli-eV in energy and a few tens of picoseconds in time. A selection of the presently existing instrumentation and some scientific results will be given. While third-generation sources have come into operation only a few years ago, a different type of machine, the free electron laser (FEL) in the X-ray range (8 keV) is presently being considered as the fourth-generation source. Two major projects are proposed at DESY (Hamburg) and SLAC (Stanford). These sources would produce laterally fully coherent radiation collimated to within 1 micro-radian with several orders of magnitude higher brightness than that of third generation machines. Moreover, overcoming the 50 picosecond limit of electron bunches in storage rings, these LINAC based machines should permit to deliver a few femtoseconds long X-ray pulses that will open up new experimental possibilities in ultrafast science. It is obvious that optics and sample survival will become major issues in these very intense beams. As to optics, diamond is the material with the highest performance for both storage ring and LINAC based beamlines and its importance will be highlighted, last but not least because it is very closely related to the origin of this conference.

  5. Higgs Properties in the Fourth Generation MSSM: Boosted Signals Over the 3G Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cotta, R.C.; Hewett, J.L.; Ismail, A.; Le, M.-P.; Rizzo, T.G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-15

    The generalization of the MSSM to the case of four chiral fermion generations (4GMSSM) can lead to significant changes in the phenomenology of the otherwise familiar Higgs sector. In most of the 3GMSSM parameter space, the lighter CP-even h is {approx} 115-125 GeV and mostly Standard Model-like while H,A,H{sup {+-}} are all relatively heavy. Furthermore, the ratio of Higgs vevs, tan {beta}, is relatively unconstrained. In contrast to this, in the 4GMSSM, heavy fourth generation fermion loops drive the masses of h,H,H{sup {+-}} to large values while the CP-odd boson, A, can remain relatively light and tan {beta} is restricted to the range 1/2 {approx}< tan {beta} {approx}< 2 due to perturbativity requirements on Yukawa couplings. We explore this scenario in some detail, concentrating on the collider signatures of the light CP-odd Higgs at both the Tevatron and LHC. We find that while gg {yields} A may lead to a potential signal in the {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} channel at the LHC, A may first be observed in the {gamma}{gamma} channel due to a highly loop-enhanced cross section that can be more than an order of magnitude greater than that of a SM Higgs for A masses of {approx} 115-120 and tan {beta} < 1. We find that the CP-even states h,H are highly mixed and can have atypical branching fractions. Precision electroweak constraints, particularly for the light A parameter space region, are examined in detail.

  6. Investigating the quality of video consultations performed using fourth generation (4G) mobile telecommunications.

    PubMed

    Caffery, Liam J; Smith, Anthony C

    2015-09-01

    The use of fourth-generation (4G) mobile telecommunications to provide real-time video consultations were investigated in this study with the aims of determining if 4G is a suitable telecommunications technology; and secondly, to identify if variation in perceived audio and video quality were due to underlying network performance. Three patient end-points that used 4G Internet connections were evaluated. Consulting clinicians recorded their perception of audio and video quality using the International Telecommunications Union scales during clinics with these patient end-points. These scores were used to calculate a mean opinion score (MOS). The network performance metrics were obtained for each session and the relationships between these metrics and the session's quality scores were tested. Clinicians scored the quality of 50 hours of video consultations, involving 36 clinic sessions. The MOS for audio was 4.1??0.62 and the MOS for video was 4.4??0.22. Image impairment and effort to listen were also rated favourably. There was no correlation between audio or video quality and the network metrics of packet loss or jitter. These findings suggest that 4G networks are an appropriate telecommunication technology to deliver real-time video consultations. Variations in quality scores observed during this study were not explained by the packet loss and jitter in the underlying network. Before establishing a telemedicine service, the performance of the 4G network should be assessed at the location of the proposed service. This is due to known variability in performance of 4G networks. PMID:25766856

  7. Performance evaluation of a new fourth-generation HIV combination antigen-antibody assay.

    PubMed

    Mhlbacher, A; Schennach, H; van Helden, J; Hebell, T; Pantaleo, G; Brgisser, P; Cellerai, C; Permpikul, P; Rodriguez, M I; Eiras, A; Alborino, F; Cunningham, P; Axelsson, M; Andersson, S; Wetlitzky, O; Kaiser, C; Mller, P; de Sousa, G

    2013-02-01

    Education and diagnostic tests capable of early detection represent our most effective means of preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The importance of early detection is underlined by studies demonstrating increased life expectancy following early initiation of antiviral treatment. The Elecsys() HIV combi PT assay is a fourth-generation antigen-antibody combination assay developed to allow earlier detection of seroconversion, and to have increased sensitivity and improved specificity. We aimed to determine how early the assay could detect infection compared with existing assays; whether all HIV variants could be detected; and the assay's specificity using samples from blood donors, routine specimens, and patients with potential cross-reacting factors. Samples were identified as positive by the Elecsys() assay 4.9days after a positive polymerase chain reaction result (as determined by the panel supplier), which was earlier than the 5.3-7.1days observed with comparators. The analytical sensitivity of the Elecsys() HIV combi PT assay for the HIV-1 p24 antigen was 1.05IU/mL, which compares favorably with the comparator assays. In addition, the Elecsys() assay identified all screened HIV subtypes and displayed greater sensitivity to HIV-2 homologous antigen and antibodies to HIV-1 E and O and HIV-2 than the other assays. Overall, the specificity of the Elecsys() assay was 99.88% using samples from blood donors and 99.81% when analyzing unselected samples. Potential cross-reacting factors did not interfere with assay performance. The Elecsys() HIV combi PT assay is a sensitive and specific assay that has been granted the CE mark according to Directive 2009/886/EC. PMID:22706797

  8. Interactive solution-adaptive grid generation procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Todd L.; Choo, Yung K.; Lee, Ki D.

    1992-01-01

    TURBO-AD is an interactive solution adaptive grid generation program under development. The program combines an interactive algebraic grid generation technique and a solution adaptive grid generation technique into a single interactive package. The control point form uses a sparse collection of control points to algebraically generate a field grid. This technique provides local grid control capability and is well suited to interactive work due to its speed and efficiency. A mapping from the physical domain to a parametric domain was used to improve difficulties encountered near outwardly concave boundaries in the control point technique. Therefore, all grid modifications are performed on the unit square in the parametric domain, and the new adapted grid is then mapped back to the physical domain. The grid adaption is achieved by adapting the control points to a numerical solution in the parametric domain using control sources obtained from the flow properties. Then a new modified grid is generated from the adapted control net. This process is efficient because the number of control points is much less than the number of grid points and the generation of the grid is an efficient algebraic process. TURBO-AD provides the user with both local and global controls.

  9. A New Fourth-Order Memristive Chaotic System and Its Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuxia; Huang, Xia; Song, Yiwen; Lin, Jinuan

    In this paper, a new fourth-order memristive chaotic system is constructed on the basis of Chua's circuit. Chaotic behaviors are verified through a series of dynamical analyses, including Lyapunov exponent analysis, bifurcation analysis, and phase diagram analysis. In addition, chaos attractors in the newly-proposed system are implemented by hardware circuits.

  10. Fourth-order split monopole perturbation solutions to the Blandford-Znajek mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhen; Yu, Cong

    2015-03-01

    The Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism describes a physical process for the energy extraction from a spinning black hole (BH), which is believed to power a great variety of astrophysical sources, such as active galactic nuclei and gamma ray bursts. The only known analytic solution to the BZ mechanism is a split monopole perturbation solution up to O (a2), where a is the spin parameter of a Kerr black hole. In this paper, we extend the monopole solution to higher order O (a4). We carefully investigate the structure of the BH magnetosphere, including the angular velocity of magnetic field lines ? , the toroidal magnetic field B?, as well as the poloidal electric current I . In addition, the relevant energy extraction rate E ? and the stability of this high-order monopole perturbation solution are also examined.

  11. Efficient collinear fourth-harmonic generation by two-channel multistep cascading in a single two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    de Sterke, M; Saltiel, S M; Kivshar, Y S

    2001-04-15

    We investigate efficient fourth-harmonic generation in a single two-dimensional (2D) quadratically nonlinear photonic crystal. We propose a novel parametric process that starts with phase-matched generation of a pair of symmetric second-harmonic waves, which then interact to produce a fourth-harmonic wave that is collinear to the fundamental. We show that this process is more efficient than conventional fourth-harmonic-generation schemes by a factor that reaches 4 at low intensities and discuss how to design and optimize the nonlinear 2D photonic crystals that are implemented in LiNbO(3) and LiTaO(3) . PMID:18040378

  12. Discriminating between fourth generation and Kaluza-Klein charged lepton decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Ian; Perrin, Jeremy; Raico, Pasquale; Tennyson, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Heavy charged leptons appear in many models. Sequential 4th generation leptons and Kaluza-Klein tau particles may have similar masses and can both decay to massive, rarely interacting particles. We explore the parameter space to determine under which circumstances they are indistinguishable.

  13. Fourth Generation CP Violation Effects on B?K?, ?K, and ?K in Next-to-Leading-Order Perturbative QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Wei-Shu; Li, Hsiang-Nan; Mishima, Satoshi; Nagashima, Makiko

    2007-03-01

    We study the effect from a sequential fourth generation quark on penguin-dominated two-body nonleptonic B meson decays in the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD formalism. With an enhancement of the color-suppressed tree amplitude and possibility of a new CP phase in the electroweak penguin amplitude, we can account better for ACP(B0?K+?-)-ACP(B+?K+?0). Taking |Vt'sVt'b|0.02 with a phase just below 90, which is consistent with the b?s?+?- rate and the Bs mixing parameter ?mBs, we find a downward shift in the mixing-induced CP asymmetries of B0?KS?0 and ?KS. The predicted behavior for B0??0KS is opposite.

  14. Towards a "fourth generation" of approaches to HIV/AIDS management: creating contexts for effective community mobilisation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora

    2010-01-01

    Many biomedical and behavioural HIV/AIDS programmes aimed at prevention, care and treatment have disappointing outcomes because of a lack of effective community mobilisation. But community mobilisation is notoriously difficult to bring about. We present a conceptual framework that maps out those dimensions of social context that are likely to support or undermine community mobilisation efforts, proposing that attention should be given to three dimensions of social context: the material, symbolic and relational. This paper has four parts. We begin by outlining why community mobilisation is regarded as a core dimension of effective HIV/AIDS management: it increases the "reach" and sustainability of programmes; it is a vital component of the wider "task shifting" agenda given the scarcity of health professionals in many HIV/AIDS-vulnerable contexts. Most importantly it facilitates those social psychological processes that we argue are vital preconditions for effective prevention, care and treatment. Secondly we map out three generations of approaches to behaviour change within the HIV/AIDS field: HIV-awareness, peer education and community mobilisation. We critically evaluate each approach's underlying assumptions about the drivers of behaviour change, to frame our understandings of the pathways between mobilisation and health, drawing on the concepts of social capital, dialogue and empowerment. Thirdly we refer to two well-documented case studies of community mobilisation in India and South Africa to illustrate our claim that community mobilisation is unlikely to succeed in the absence of supportive material, symbolic and relational contexts. Fourthly we provide a brief overview of how the papers in this special issue help us flesh out our conceptualisation of the "health enabling social environment". We conclude by arguing for the urgent need for a 'fourth generation' of approaches in the theory and practice of HIV/AIDS management, one which pays far greater attention to the wider contextual influences on programme success. PMID:21161761

  15. Measuring the fourth-generation b{yields}s quadrangle at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Wei-Shu; Kohda, Masaya; Xu Fanrong

    2011-11-01

    We show that simultaneous precision measurements of the CP-violating phase in time-dependent B{sub s}{yields}J/{psi}{phi} study and the B{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} rate, together with measuring m{sub t'} by direct search at the LHC, would determine V{sub t's}*V{sub t'b} and therefore the b{yields}s quadrangle in the four-generation standard model. The forward-backward asymmetry in B{yields}K*l{sup +}l{sup -} provides further discrimination.

  16. Two Higgs doublets with fourth-generation fermions: Models for TeV-scale compositeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Shalom, Shaouly; Nandi, Soumitra; Soni, Amarjit

    2011-09-01

    We construct a class of two Higgs doublets models with a 4th sequential generation of fermions that may effectively accommodate the low-energy characteristics and phenomenology of a dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scenario which is triggered by the condensates of the 4th family fermions. In particular, we single out the heavy quarks by coupling the heavier Higgs doublet (?h) which possesses a much larger VEV only to them while the lighter doublet (??) couples only to the light fermions. We study the constraints on these models from precision electroweak data as well as from flavor data. We also discuss some distinct new features that have direct consequences on the production and decays of the 4th family quarks and leptons in high-energy colliders;, in particular, the conventional search strategies for t' and b' may need to be significantly revised.

  17. Biomechanical comparison of the human cadaveric pelvis with a fourth generation composite model.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Brandon L; Attia, Tarik; Backstein, David; Safir, Oleg; Willett, Thomas L; Kuzyk, Paul R T

    2016-02-29

    The use of cadavers for orthopaedic biomechanics research is well established, but presents difficulties to researchers in terms of cost, biosafety, availability, and ease of use. High fidelity composite models of human bone have been developed for use in biomechanical studies. While several studies have utilized composite models of the human pelvis for testing orthopaedic reconstruction techniques, few biomechanical comparisons of the properties of cadaveric and composite pelves exist. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of cadaveric pelves to those of the 4th generation composite model. An Instron ElectroPuls E10000 mechanical testing machine was used to load specimens with orientation, boundary conditions and degrees of freedom that approximated those occurring during the single legged phase of walking, including hip abductor force. Each specimen was instrumented with strain gauge rosettes. Overall specimen stiffness and principal strains were calculated from the test data. Composite specimens showed significantly higher overall stiffness and slightly less overall variability between specimens (composite K=1448±54N/m, cadaver K=832±62N/m; p<0.0001). Strains measured at specific sites in the composite models and cadavers were similar (but did differ) only when the applied load was scaled to overall construct stiffness. This finding regarding strain distribution and the difference in overall stiffness must be accounted for when using these composite models for biomechanics research. Altering the cortical wall thickness or tuning the elastic moduli of the composite material may improve future generations of the composite model. PMID:26839060

  18. Fourth-generation endovascular stent-graft: the concept of laminar flow.

    PubMed

    Bortone, Alessandro Santo; De Cillis, Emanuela; Raguso, Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    The stent graft is a noncompliant system inserted in a semi-compliant structure. This generates a mismatch. The media also shows a composite movement and is oriented 45° resulting in an arterial spiral movement that contributes to maintaining the clockwise orientation of laminar flow with an 80° deflection. Our multilayer stent is constituted by a single Nitinol thread, worked on 3 surfaces in order to realize a proper exoskeleton that reproduces the architecture of the tunica media, in particular its flexo-torsional forces, thus restoring the energy transmission and the match between the wall and the blood flow. A first in vivo implantation was performed by using an experimental pig model in our veterinary department. The pig underwent general anesthesia and the right femoral artery was surgically exposed in order to accommodate a 12F long introducer sheath. Under fluoroscopy three multilayer stents were consecutively implanted from the aortic isthmus to the iliac bifurcation in an overlap fashion. All the intercostal artery and visceral branches were covered by the overlapped stents. The final control angiography revealed an optimal sealing of the implanted stent with an evident flexotorsional oscillatory movement, which follows the conical architecture of the thoracic aorta and the complete patency of all the branches that arise from the aorta. After two months, the multilayer showed a normal endothelialization process with an optimal adhesion to the aortic wall both proximally and distally without provoking any inflammatory response or thickness wall alterations. The perfect and homogenous endothelialization preserved the patency of all the collateral branches arising from the treated aorta, in particular all the intercostal arteries, celiac trunk, and renal arteries. The disease of the aorta essentially concerns the tunica media as it causes disruption of the media components. This exoskeleton works like a neo-tunica media, is perfectly endothelialized, and seems to optimally transmit the flexotorsional forces, restoring the match between wall and flow that represents the primary condition for laminar flow and branch perfusion. PMID:24081853

  19. Exterior metric approach to a charged axially symmetric celestial body: the fourth-order approximate solutions of Einstein--Maxwell equations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Qi-huang

    1988-12-01

    Starting with the general expression of a static state axisymmetric metric and using the principle of equivalence and the Maccullagh formula, the Einstein--Maxwell equations of a charged axisymmetric celestial body are obtained. Next, using the method of undetermined coefficients these equations are solved up to fourth-order approximate. These sets of solutions are generally appropriate for all kinds of charged axisymmetric celestial bodies.

  20. The 3D Euler solutions using automated Cartesian grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, John E.; Enomoto, Francis Y.; Berger, Marsha J.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on 3-dimensional Euler solutions using automated Cartesian grid generation are presented. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the design cycle; Cartesian grid strategy; structured body fit; grid generation; prolate spheroid; and ONERA M6 wing.

  1. Analysis of daily, monthly, and annual burned area using the fourth-generation global fire emissions database (GFED4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.; Werf, Guido R.

    2013-03-01

    Abstract We describe the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4) burned area data set, which provides global monthly burned area at 0.25 spatial resolution from mid-1995 through the present and daily burned area for the time series extending back to August 2000. We produced the full data set by combining 500 m MODIS burned area maps with active fire data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) family of sensors. We found that the global annual area burned for the years 1997 through 2011 varied from 301 to 377Mha, with an average of 348Mha. We assessed the interannual variability and trends in burned area on the basis of a region-specific definition of fire years. With respect to trends, we found a gradual decrease of 1.7Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.4%yr - 1) in Northern Hemisphere Africa since 2000, a gradual increase of 2.3Mhayr - 1 (+1.8%yr - 1) in Southern Hemisphere Africa also since 2000, a slight increase of 0.2Mhayr - 1 (+2.5%yr - 1) in Southeast Asia since 1997, and a rapid decrease of approximately 5.5Mhayr - 1 ( - 10.7%yr - 1) from 2001 through 2011 in Australia, followed by a major upsurge in 2011 that exceeded the annual area burned in at least the previous 14 years. The net trend in global burned area from 2000 to 2012 was a modest decrease of 4.3Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.2%yr - 1). We also performed a spectral analysis of the daily burned area time series and found no vestiges of the 16 day MODIS repeat cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140002752','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140002752"><span id="translatedtitle">An Overview of a Trajectory-Based <span class="hlt">Solution</span> for En Route and Terminal Area Self-Spacing: <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Revision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Abbott, Terence S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents an overview of the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> major revision to an algorithm specifically designed to support NASA's Airborne Precision Spacing concept. This airborne self-spacing concept is trajectory-based, allowing for spacing operations prior to the aircraft being on a common path. Because this algorithm is trajectory-based, it also has the inherent ability to support required-time-of-arrival (RTA) operations. This algorithm was also designed specifically to support a standalone, non-integrated implementation in the spacing aircraft. Revisions to this algorithm were based on a change to the expected operational environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhLB..727..536F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhLB..727..536F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> quantization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faizal, Mir</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In this Letter we will analyze the creation of the multiverse. We will first calculate the wave function for the multiverse using third quantization. Then we will <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-quantize this theory. We will show that there is no single vacuum state for this theory. Thus, we can end up with a multiverse, even after starting from a vacuum state. This will be used as a possible explanation for the creation of the multiverse. We also analyze the effect of interactions in this <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-quantized theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=51380&keyword=soda&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55730022&CFTOKEN=16032217','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=51380&keyword=soda&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55730022&CFTOKEN=16032217"><span id="translatedtitle">SATURATOR SYSTEM FOR <span class="hlt">GENERATING</span> TOXIC WATER <span class="hlt">SOLUTIONS</span> FOR AQUATIC BIOASSAYS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An improved saturation apparatus for continuously <span class="hlt">generating</span> large volumes of water <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of hydrophobic compounds for conducting aquatic bioassays is described. Closed 19 L stainless steel soda carbonation vessels replace the open glass vessels commonly used. The apparatus h...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1044063.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1044063.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Emergent Understandings: Multilingual <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grade Students <span class="hlt">Generating</span> Close Readings and Multimodal Responses to Global and Informational Texts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hasty, Michelle Medlin; Fain, Jeanne Gilliam</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, the authors present findings from a yearlong ethnographic research study that examines the development of critical literacy within two urban <span class="hlt">fourth</span> grade classrooms in Tennessee. This study examines how young second language learners in English-dominant classrooms learn to read critically, write, and construct multimodal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...118b3303S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...118b3303S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of <span class="hlt">solution</span> plasma over a large electrode surface area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saito, Genki; Nakasugi, Yuki; Akiyama, Tomohiro</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Solution</span> plasma has been used in a variety of fields such as nanomaterials synthesis, the degradation of harmful substances, and <span class="hlt">solution</span> analysis. However, as existing methods are ineffective in <span class="hlt">generating</span> plasma over a large surface area, this study investigated the contact glow discharge electrolysis, in which the plasma was <span class="hlt">generated</span> on the electrode surface. To clarify the condition of plasma <span class="hlt">generation</span>, the effect of electrolyte concentration and temperature on plasma formation was studied. The electrical energy needed for plasma <span class="hlt">generation</span> is higher than that needed to sustain a plasma, and when the electrolyte temperature was increased from 32 to 90 °C at 0.01 M NaOH <span class="hlt">solution</span>, the electric power density for vapor formation decreased from 2005 to 774 W/cm2. From these results, we determined that pre-warming of the electrolyte is quite effective in <span class="hlt">generating</span> plasma at lower power density. In addition, lower electrolyte concentrations required higher power density for vapor formation owing to lower <span class="hlt">solution</span> conductivity. On the basis these results, a method for large-area and flat-plate plasma <span class="hlt">generation</span> is proposed in which an initial small area of plasma <span class="hlt">generation</span> is extended. When used with a plate electrode, a concentration of current to the edge of the plate meant that plasma could be formed by covering the edge of the electrode plate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24978960','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24978960"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep-UV 236.5??nm laser by <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-harmonic <span class="hlt">generation</span> of a single-crystal fiber Nd:YAG oscillator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deyra, Loc; Martial, Igor; Didierjean, Julien; Balembois, Franois; Georges, Patrick</p> <p>2014-04-15</p> <p>We demonstrate a deep-UV laser at 236.5nm based on extracavity <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-harmonic <span class="hlt">generation</span> of a Q-switched Nd:YAG single-crystal fiber laser at 946nm. We first compare two nonlinear crystals available for second-harmonic <span class="hlt">generation</span>: LBO and BiBO. The best results at 473nm are obtained with a BiBO crystal, with an average output power of 3.4W at 20kHz, corresponding to a second-harmonic <span class="hlt">generation</span> efficiency of 38%. This blue laser is frequency-converted to 236.5nm in a BBO crystal with an overall <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-harmonic <span class="hlt">generation</span> yield of 6.5%, corresponding to an average output power of 600mW at 20kHz. This represents an order of magnitude increase in average power and energy compared to previously reported pulsed lasers at 236.5nm. This work opens the possibility of LIDAR detection of dangerous compounds for military or civilian applications. PMID:24978960</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4071228','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4071228"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the Cost-Effectiveness and Clinical Outcomes of a <span class="hlt">Fourth-Generation</span> Synchronous Telehealth Program for the Management of Chronic Cardiovascular Disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ho, Yi-Lwun; Yu, Jiun-Yu; Lin, Yen-Hung; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Huang, Ching-Chang; Hsu, Tse-Pin; Chuang, Pao-Yu; Chen, Ming-Fong</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Telehealth programs are a growing field in the care of patients. The evolution of information technology has resulted in telehealth becoming a <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> synchronous program. However, long-term outcomes and cost-effectiveness analysis of <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> telehealth programs have not been reported in patients with chronic cardiovascular diseases. Objective We conducted this study to assess the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> synchronous telehealth program for patients with chronic cardiovascular diseases. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 575 patients who had joined a telehealth program and compared them with 1178 patients matched for sex, age, and Charlson comorbidity index. The program included: (1) instant transmission of biometric data, (2) daily telephone interview, and (3) continuous decision-making support. Data on hospitalization, emergency department (ED) visits, and medical costs were collected from the hospitals database and were adjusted to the follow-up months. Results The mean age was 64.5 years (SD 16.0). The mean number of monthly ED visits (mean 0.06 SD 0.13 vs mean 0.09 SD 0.23, P<.001), hospitalizations (mean 0.05 SD 0.12 vs mean 0.11 SD 0.21, P<.001), length of hospitalization (mean 0.77 days SD 2.78 vs mean 1.4 SD 3.6, P<.001), and intensive care unit admissions (mean 0.01 SD 0.07 vs mean 0.036 SD 0.14, P<.001) were lower in the telehealth group. The monthly mean costs of ED visits (mean US$20.90 SD 66.60 vs mean US$37.30 SD 126.20, P<.001), hospitalizations (mean US$386.30 SD 1424.30 vs mean US$878.20 SD 2697.20, P<.001), and all medical costs (mean US$587.60 SD 1497.80 vs mean US$1163.60 SD 3036.60, P<.001) were lower in the telehealth group. The intervention costs per patient were US$224.80 per month. Multivariate analyses revealed that age, telehealth care, and Charlson index were the independent factors for ED visits, hospitalizations, and length of hospitalization. A bootstrap method revealed the dominant cost-effectiveness of telehealth care over usual care. Conclusions Better cost-effectiveness and clinical outcomes were noted with the use of a <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> synchronous telehealth program in patients with chronic cardiovascular diseases. The intervention costs of this new <span class="hlt">generation</span> of telehealth program do not increase the total costs for patient care. PMID:24915187</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/204133','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/204133"><span id="translatedtitle">The origin of hydrogen <span class="hlt">generated</span> from formaldehyde in basic <span class="hlt">solutions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kapoor, S.; Barnabas, F.; Jonah, C.D.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Meisel, D.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>The isotopic composition of dihydrogen <span class="hlt">generated</span> from formaldehyde in highly basic <span class="hlt">solutions</span> has been investigated. It is shown that two pathways contribute to the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of dihydrogen. In the first pathway, one hydrogen atom originates from water and the other from formaldehyde. In the second pathway both hydrogen atoms originate from the methylene moiety of the formaldehyde. For production of dihydrogen from glyoxylate only the first pathway is observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005QuEle..35..688L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005QuEle..35..688L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> SEMINAR TO THE MEMORY OF D.N. KLYSHKO: Algebraic <span class="hlt">solution</span> of the synthesis problem for coded sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leukhin, Anatolii N.</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>The algebraic <span class="hlt">solution</span> of a 'complex' problem of synthesis of phase-coded (PC) sequences with the zero level of side lobes of the cyclic autocorrelation function (ACF) is proposed. It is shown that the <span class="hlt">solution</span> of the synthesis problem is connected with the existence of difference sets for a given code dimension. The problem of estimating the number of possible code combinations for a given code dimension is solved. It is pointed out that the problem of synthesis of PC sequences is related to the fundamental problems of discrete mathematics and, first of all, to a number of combinatorial problems, which can be solved, as the number factorisation problem, by algebraic methods by using the theory of Galois fields and groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080005015','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080005015"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">generation</span> by electrolysis of aqueous organic <span class="hlt">solutions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A device for electrolysis of an aqueous <span class="hlt">solution</span> of an organic fuel. The electrolyte is a solid-state polymer membrane with anode and cathode catalysts on both surfaces for electro-oxidization and electro-reduction. A low-cost and portable hydrogen <span class="hlt">generator</span> can be made based on the device with organic fuels such as methanol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080008820','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080008820"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">generation</span> by electrolysis of aqueous organic <span class="hlt">solutions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A device for electrolysis of an aqueous <span class="hlt">solution</span> of an organic fuel. The electrolyte is a solid-state polymer membrane with anode and cathode catalysts on both surfaces for electro-oxidization and electro-reduction. A low-cost and portable hydrogen <span class="hlt">generator</span> can be made based on the device with organic fuels such as methanol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ZaMP...62..575W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ZaMP...62..575W"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">solutions</span> in higher dimensions to a <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order parabolic equation modeling epitaxial thin-film growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winkler, Michael</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The initial-value problem for u_t=-?^2 u - ?? u - ? ? |nabla u|^2 + f(x)qquad qquad (star) is studied under the conditions {{partial/partial?} u={partial/partial?} ? u=0} on the boundary of a bounded convex domain {? subset {{R}}^n} with smooth boundary. This problem arises in the modeling of the evolution of a thin surface when exposed to molecular beam epitaxy. Correspondingly the physically most relevant spatial setting is obtained when n = 2, but previous mathematical results appear to concentrate on the case n = 1. In this work, it is proved that when n ? 3, ? ? 0, ? > 0 and {f in L^infty(?)} satisfies {{int_?} f ge 0}, for each prescribed initial distribution {u_0 in L^infty(?)} fulfilling {{int_?} u_0 ge 0}, there exists at least one global weak <span class="hlt">solution</span> {u in L^2_{loc}([0,infty); W^{1,2}(?))} satisfying {{int_?} u(\\cdot,t) ge 0} for a.e. t > 0, and moreover, it is shown that this <span class="hlt">solution</span> can be obtained through a Rothe-type approximation scheme. Furthermore, under an additional smallness condition on ? and {\\|f\\|_{L^infty(?)}}, it is shown that there exists a bounded set {Ssubset L^1(?)} which is absorbing for {(star)} in the sense that for any such <span class="hlt">solution</span>, we can pick T > 0 such that {e^{2? u(\\cdot,t)}in S} for all t > T, provided that ? is a ball and u 0 and f are radially symmetric with respect to x = 0. This partially extends similar absorption results known in the spatially one-dimensional case. The techniques applied to derive appropriate compactness properties via a priori estimates include straightforward testing procedures which lead to integral inequalities involving, for instance, the functional {{int_?} e^{2? u}dx}, but also the use of a maximum principle for second-order elliptic equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19876348','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19876348"><span id="translatedtitle">High-power <span class="hlt">fourth</span>- and fifth-harmonic <span class="hlt">generation</span> of a Nd:YAG laser by means of a CsLiB(6)O(10).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yap, Y K; Inagaki, M; Nakajima, S; Mori, Y; Sasaki, T</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>High pulse energies of nanosecond-level <span class="hlt">fourth</span>- and fifth-harmonic (4omega and 5omega) <span class="hlt">generation</span> of a Nd:YAG laser have been obtained with a CsLiB(6)O(10) (CLBO) nonlinear crystal. 500 mJ of 4omega output with a conversion efficiency of 50% from the second-harmonic input was <span class="hlt">generated</span>. 5omega output at 213 nm of as high as 230 mJ was obtained by sum-frequency <span class="hlt">generation</span> of the 266- and 1064-nm beams, corresponding to a 10.4% conversion efficiency of the initial fundamental input energy. The characteristics of the CLBO crystal that permit this effective frequency conversion are discussed. PMID:19876348</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=130745','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=130745"><span id="translatedtitle">Multicenter Evaluation of a New Automated <span class="hlt">Fourth-Generation</span> Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening Assay with a Sensitive Antigen Detection Module and High Specificity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Weber, Bernard; Grtler, Lutz; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Michl, Ulrike; Mhlbacher, Annelies; Brgisser, Philippe; Villaescusa, Roberto; Eiras, Adolfo; Gabriel, Christian; Stekel, Herbert; Tanprasert, Srivilai; Oota, Sinenaart; Silvestre, Maria-Jose; Marques, Cristina; Ladeira, Maria; Rabenau, Holger; Berger, Annemarie; Schmitt, Urban; Melchior, Walter</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Fourth-generation</span> assays for the simultaneous detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen and antibody that were available on the international market until now have antigen detection modules with relatively poor sensitivity and produce a higher rate of false-positive results than third-<span class="hlt">generation</span> enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). The new Cobas Core HIV Combi EIA with an improved sensitivity for HIV p24 antigen was compared to alternative <span class="hlt">fourth</span>- and third-<span class="hlt">generation</span> assays, the p24 antigen test, and HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). A total of 94 seroconversion panels (n = 709 sera), samples from the acute phase of infection after seroconversion (n = 32), anti-HIV-1-positive specimens (n = 730) from patients in different stages of the disease, 462 subtyped samples from different geographical locations, anti-HIV-2-positive sera (n = 302), dilutions of cell culture supernatants (n = 62) from cells infected with different HIV-1 subtypes, selected performance panels from Boston Biomedica Inc., 7,579 unselected samples from blood donors, 303 unselected daily routine samples, 997 specimens from hospitalized patients, and potentially interfering samples (n = 1,222) were tested with Cobas Core HIV Combi EIA. The new assay showed a sensitivity comparable to that of the Abbott HIV-1 AG Monoclonal A for early detection of HIV infection in seroconversion panels. The mean time delay of Cobas Core HIV Combi EIA (last negative sample plus 1 day) in comparison to that for HIV-1 RT-PCR for 87 panels tested with both methods was 2.75 days. The diagnostic window was reduced with Cobas Core HIV Combi EIA by between 3.6 and 5.7 days from that for third-<span class="hlt">generation</span> assays. The specificities of Cobas Core HIV Combi EIA in blood donors were 99.84 and 99.85% (after repeated testing). Overall, 30 repeatedly reactive false-positive results out of 10,031 HIV-negative samples were obtained with Cobas Core HIV Combi EIA. Our results show that a <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> assay with improved specificity such as Cobas Core HIV Combi EIA is suitable for blood donor screening because of its low number of false positives and because it detects HIV p24 antigen with a sensitivity comparable to that of single-antigen assays. PMID:12037046</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EPJC...50..507A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EPJC...50..507A"><span id="translatedtitle">Search for a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> b'-quark at LEP-II at sqrt{s}= 196 209 GeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J. E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G. J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Johansson, P. D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kerzel, U.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Nulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oliveira, O.; Oliveira, S. M.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Santos, R.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A. C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimin, N. I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>A search for the pair production of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> b’-quarks was performed using data taken by the DELPHI detector at LEP-II. The analysed data were collected at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 196 to 209 GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 420 pb-1. No evidence for a signal was found. Upper limits on BR(b’→bZ) and BR(b’→cW) were obtained for b’ masses ranging from 96 to 103 GeV/c 2. These limits, together with the theoretical branching ratios predicted by a sequential four <span class="hlt">generations</span> model, were used to constrain the value of R_{text{CKM}}=|V_{cb‧/V_{text{tb‧V_{tb}}|, where Vcb‧, Vtb‧ and Vtb are elements of the extended CKM matrix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015KARJ...27..137Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015KARJ...27..137Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of inkjet droplet of suspension in polymer <span class="hlt">solution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoo, Hansol; Kim, Chongyoup</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>In the present study the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of inkjet drops of suspensions of spherical particles in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) <span class="hlt">solution</span> in 1-heptanol is investigated experimentally. The particle size was 2 µm and the particle volume fraction was in the range of 0-0.18. The molecular weight of PVP was 1,300 kg/mol and the concentration was 0-4,000 ppm. The diffusive wave spectroscopy measurement shows that the PVP <span class="hlt">solution</span> has a weak elasticity. The extensional viscosity measurement reveals that both the polymer <span class="hlt">solution</span> and the suspension show strain hardening behavior. The jetting experiments show that the drop velocity of the suspension is larger than that of the polymer <span class="hlt">solution</span> without particles. The difference in drop velocity is ascribed to the combined effect of the extensional viscosity and shear viscosity. The drop size of the suspension is larger than the drop size of the polymer <span class="hlt">solution</span> without particles at the same driving voltage even though the viscosity of the suspension is larger. This difference is ascribed to the change in the free surface shape near the nozzle exit due to the viscosity difference and the increased inertial term due to the density increase by the addition of particles. Because the surface tensions of the fluids tested here are the same, the effect of surface tension force cannot be examined even though the force analysis shows that the surface tension force is larger than the other forces such as extensional and convective forces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7012667','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7012667"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerosols <span class="hlt">generated</span> by spills of viscous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> and slurries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ballinger, M Y; Hodgson, W H</p> <p>1986-12-01</p> <p>Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases caused by accidents. Aerosols <span class="hlt">generated</span> by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop methods for estimating source terms from these accidents. Experiments were run by spilling viscous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> and slurries to determine the mass and particle-size distribution of the material made airborne. In all cases, 1 L of <span class="hlt">solution</span> was spilled from a height of 3 m. Aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of sucrose (0 to 56%) gave a range of viscosities from 1.3 to 46 cp. The percent of spill mass made airborne from the spills of these <span class="hlt">solutions</span> ranged from 0.001 to 0.0001. The mass of particles made airborne decreased as <span class="hlt">solution</span> viscosity increased. Slurry loading ranged from 25 to 51% total solids. The maximum source airborne (0.0046 wt %) occurred with the slurry that had the lightest loading of soluble solids. The viscosity of the carrying <span class="hlt">solution</span> also had an impact on the source term from spilling slurries. The effect of surface tension on the source term was examined in two experiments. Surface tension was halved in these spills by adding a surfactant. The maximum weight percent airborne from these spills was 0.0045, compared to 0.003 for spills with twice the surface tension. The aerodynamic mass medium diameters for the aerosols produced by spills of the viscous <span class="hlt">solutions</span>, slurries, and low surface tension liquids ranged from 0.6 to 8.4 ..mu..m, and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.8 to 28.0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900060133&hterms=differential+equations&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddifferential%2Bequations','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900060133&hterms=differential+equations&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddifferential%2Bequations"><span id="translatedtitle">Grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> for the <span class="hlt">solution</span> of partial differential equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Eiseman, Peter R.; Erlebacher, Gordon</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A general survey of grid <span class="hlt">generators</span> is presented with a concern for understanding why grids are necessary, how they are applied, and how they are <span class="hlt">generated</span>. After an examination of the need for meshes, the overall applications setting is established with a categorization of the various connectivity patterns. This is split between structured grids and unstructured meshes. Altogether, the categorization establishes the foundation upon which grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> techniques are developed. The two primary categories are algebraic techniques and partial differential equation techniques. These are each split into basic parts, and accordingly are individually examined in some detail. In the process, the interrelations between the various parts are accented. From the established background in the primary techniques, consideration is shifted to the topic of interactive grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> and then to adaptive meshes. The setting for adaptivity is established with a suitable means to monitor severe <span class="hlt">solution</span> behavior. Adaptive grids are considered first and are followed by adaptive triangular meshes. Then the consideration shifts to the temporal coupling between grid <span class="hlt">generators</span> and PDE-solvers. To conclude, a reflection upon the discussion, herein, is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870020643','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870020643"><span id="translatedtitle">Grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> for the <span class="hlt">solution</span> of partial differential equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Eiseman, Peter R.; Erlebacher, Gordon</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A general survey of grid <span class="hlt">generators</span> is presented with a concern for understanding why grids are necessary, how they are applied, and how they are <span class="hlt">generated</span>. After an examination of the need for meshes, the overall applications setting is established with a categorization of the various connectivity patterns. This is split between structured grids and unstructured meshes. Altogether, the categorization establishes the foundation upon which grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> techniques are developed. The two primary categories are algebraic techniques and partial differential equation techniques. These are each split into basic parts, and accordingly are individually examined in some detail. In the process, the interrelations between the various parts are accented. From the established background in the primary techniques, consideration is shifted to the topic of interactive grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> and then to adaptive meshes. The setting for adaptivity is established with a suitable means to monitor severe <span class="hlt">solution</span> behavior. Adaptive grids are considered first and are followed by adaptive triangular meshes. Then the consideration shifts to the temporal coupling between grid <span class="hlt">generators</span> and PDE-solvers. To conclude, a reflection upon the discussion, herein, is given.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2778416','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2778416"><span id="translatedtitle">Drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol 3 mg/20 ?g (24/4 day regimen): hormonal contraceptive choices use of a <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> progestin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bachmann, Gloria; Kopacz, Sharon</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The combined oral contraceptive pill (COC) consisting of drospirenone 3 mg/ethinyl estradiol 20 ?g (3 mg DRSP/20 ?g EE-24/4) supplies 24 days of pills with hormones followed by 4 days of hormone-free pills. This regimen is called the 24/4 regimen. The progesterone component of this oral contraceptive pill (OCP), drospirenone (DRSP), is a <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> progestin that has potent progestogenic, antimineralocorticoid, and antiandrogenic activity, which are unique characteristics compared with the other progestogens contained in most of the other OCPs currently marketed. This formulation, in addition to being an effective long-term OCP, has the additional medical benefit of providing a good parallel treatment for premenstrual dysphoric disorder and moderate acne. The effectiveness of 3 mg DRSP/20 ?g EE-24/4, its tolerability and safety, and its additional non-contraceptive benefits are discussed. PMID:19936169</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21929161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21929161"><span id="translatedtitle">Search for a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> t' Quark in p ̄p collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Aoki, M; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guo, F; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jamin, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Jung, A W; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kulikov, S; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miconi, F; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otero y Garzón, G J; Padilla, M; Pal, A; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Salcido, P; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Soustruznik, K; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsai, Y-T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L</p> <p>2011-08-19</p> <p>We present a search for pair production of a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> t' quark and its antiparticle, followed by their decays to a W boson and a jet, based on an integrated luminosity of 5.3 fb(-1) of proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.96  TeV collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We set upper limits on the t' ̄t' production cross section that exclude at the 95% C.L. a t' quark that decays exclusively to W+jet with a mass below 285 GeV. We observe a small excess in the μ+jets channel which reduces the mass range excluded compared to the expected limit of 320 GeV in the absence of a signal. PMID:21929161</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17501186','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17501186"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> CP violation effects on B-->Kpi, phiK, and rhoK in next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hou, Wei-Shu; Li, Hsiang-nan; Mishima, Satoshi; Nagashima, Makiko</p> <p>2007-03-30</p> <p>We study the effect from a sequential <span class="hlt">fourth</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> quark on penguin-dominated two-body nonleptonic B meson decays in the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD formalism. With an enhancement of the color-suppressed tree amplitude and possibility of a new CP phase in the electroweak penguin amplitude, we can account better for A(CP)(B(0)-->K+ pi-)-A(CP)(B+-->K+ pi0). Taking |V(t's)V(t'b)| approximately 0.02 with a phase just below 90 degrees, which is consistent with the b-->sl+ l- rate and the B(s) mixing parameter Deltam(B)(s), we find a downward shift in the mixing-induced CP asymmetries of B(0)-->K(S)(pi 0) and phi(K)(S). The predicted behavior for B(0)-->rho(0)(K)(S) is opposite. PMID:17501186</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPhD...41o5205Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPhD...41o5205Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">generation</span> by glow discharge plasma electrolysis of ethanol <span class="hlt">solutions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yan, Zongcheng; Chen, Li; Wang, Honglin</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>Glow discharge plasma electrolysis (GDPE) of ethanol <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for hydrogen <span class="hlt">generation</span> was investigated in terms of discharged voltage, discharged polarity and ethanol concentration. H2 and acetaldehyde are the dominant products of ethanol decomposition during GDPE. Discharged polarity, discharged voltage and ethanol concentration have important influences on the energy consumption, concentration and output of hydrogen and acetaldehyde. The hydrogen yield (G(H2)) by cathodic GDPE is higher than that of anodic GDPE. The energy consumption (Wr) was 5.12 kJ L-1 when the applied voltage of cathodic GDPE was 1000 V. The hydrogen concentration of cathodic GDPE in gases keeps above 80%. The experiments indicate that GDPE of ethanol <span class="hlt">solutions</span> is an effective technology producing hydrogen and acetaldehyde simultaneously with low CO2 emission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.513d2012D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.513d2012D"><span id="translatedtitle">Next <span class="hlt">generation</span> database relational <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for ATLAS distributed computing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dimitrov, G.; Maeno, T.; Garonne, V.; Atlas Collaboration</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) project delivers production tools and services for ATLAS offline activities such as data placement and data processing on the Grid. The system has been capable of sustaining with high efficiency the needed computing activities during the first run of LHC data taking, and has demonstrated flexibility in reacting promptly to new challenges. Databases are a vital part of the whole ADC system. The Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) has been addressing a majority of the ADC database requirements for many years. Much expertise was gained through the years and without a doubt will be used as a good foundation for the next <span class="hlt">generation</span> PanDA (Production ANd Distributed Analysis) and DDM (Distributed Data Management) systems. In this paper we present the current production ADC database <span class="hlt">solutions</span> and notably the planned changes on the PanDA system, and the next <span class="hlt">generation</span> ATLAS DDM system called Rucio. Significant work was performed on studying different <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to arrive at the best relational and physical database model for performance and scalability in order to be ready for deployment and operation in 2014.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..GECPR1072H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..GECPR1072H"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasma-<span class="hlt">Generated</span> Reactive Species in physiological <span class="hlt">Solutions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hammer, Malte U.; Tresp, Helena; Schmidt-Bleker, Ansgar; Winter, Jrn; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Reuter, Stephan</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Plasma-<span class="hlt">generated</span> reactive species, like ROS and RNS, in liquids are essential for plasma medicine caused by their role in mammalian systems. Especially free radicals and nitric monoxide are important. Here the focus is set on plasma-<span class="hlt">generated</span> reactive species in physiological <span class="hlt">solutions</span> such as cell culture medium, sodium chloride <span class="hlt">solution</span>, and phosphate buffered saline. The detection of free radicals was performed via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Additionally electro chemical detection for pH value and concentration of H2O2 was realized in parallel to each experiment. Because nitric oxide is rapidly oxidized to nitrate and/or nitrite by oxygen, the measurement of nitrate and nitrite concentration as the end products of NO hold as an index for the integrated nitric oxide production. Nitrite and nitrate play a key role in plasma-treated liquids. For this work a colorimetric assay was used for nitrate and nitrite concentrations measurements. The control of species, which can diffuse into the effluent of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet, is necessary. A gas curtain was build and its effect on reactive species production in liquids was investigated. The gas curtain was used with varying ratios of nitrogen and oxygen as shielding gas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1568618','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1568618"><span id="translatedtitle">Free radical <span class="hlt">generation</span> by ultrasound in aqueous and nonaqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Riesz, P; Berdahl, D; Christman, C L</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The physical principles underlying the oscillatory behavior of minute gas bubbles in liquids exposed to ultrasound are reviewed. Results from mathematical analyses suggest that these oscillations sometimes become unstable leading to transient cavitation in which a bubble violently collapses during a single acoustic half-cycle producing high temperatures and pressures. The role that micronuclei, resonant bubble size, and rectified diffusion play in the initiation of transient cavitation is explained. Evidence to support these theoretical predictions is presented with particular emphasis on sonoluminescence which provides some non-chemical evidence for the formation of free radicals. Acoustic methods for conducting sonochemical investigations are discussed. In aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> transient cavitation initially <span class="hlt">generates</span> hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals which may recombine to form hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide or may react with <span class="hlt">solutes</span> in the gas phase, at the gas-liquid boundary or in the bulk of the <span class="hlt">solution</span>. The analogies and differences between sonochemistry and ionizing radiation chemistry are explored. The use of spin trapping and electron spin resonance to identify hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals conclusively and to detect transient cavitation produced by continuous wave and by pulsed ultrasound is described in detail. The study of the chemical effects of cavitation in organic liquids is a relatively unexplored area which has recently become the subject of renewed interest. Examples of the decomposition of solvent and <span class="hlt">solute</span>, of ultrasonically initiated free-radical polymerization and polymer degradation are presented. Spin trapping has been used to identify radicals in organic liquids, in polymer degradation and in the decomposition of organometallic compounds. PMID:3007091</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26594871','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26594871"><span id="translatedtitle">Singlet-Oxygen <span class="hlt">Generation</span> in Alkaline Periodate <span class="hlt">Solution</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bokare, Alok D; Choi, Wonyong</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>A nonphotochemical <span class="hlt">generation</span> of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) using potassium periodate (KIO4) in alkaline condition (pH > 8) was investigated for selective oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. The <span class="hlt">generation</span> of (1)O2 was initiated by the spontaneous reaction between IO4(-) and hydroxyl ions, along with a stoichiometric conversion of IO4(-) to iodate (IO3(-)). The reactivity of in-situ-<span class="hlt">generated</span> (1)O2 was monitored by using furfuryl alcohol (FFA) as a model substrate. The formation of (1)O2 in the KIO4/KOH system was experimentally confirmed using electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements in corroboration with quenching studies using azide as a selective (1)O2 scavenger. The reaction in the KIO4/KOH <span class="hlt">solution</span> in both oxic and anoxic conditions initiated the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of superoxide ion as a precursor of the singlet oxygen (confirmed by using superoxide scavengers), and the presence of molecular oxygen was not required as a precursor of (1)O2. Although hydrogen peroxide had no direct influence on the FFA oxidation process, the presence of natural organic matter, such as humic and fulvic acids, enhanced the oxidation efficiency. Using the oxidation of simple organic diols as model compounds, the enhanced (1)O2 formation is attributed to periodate-mediated oxidation of vicinal hydroxyl groups present in humic and fulvic constituent moieties. The efficient and simple <span class="hlt">generation</span> of (1)O2 using the KIO4/KOH system without any light irradiation can be employed for the selective oxidation of aqueous organic compounds under neutral and near-alkaline conditions. PMID:26594871</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070018160','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070018160"><span id="translatedtitle">Anisotropic <span class="hlt">Solution</span> Adaptive Unstructured Grid <span class="hlt">Generation</span> Using AFLR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Marcum, David L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>An existing volume grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> procedure, AFLR3, was successfully modified to <span class="hlt">generate</span> anisotropic tetrahedral elements using a directional metric transformation defined at source nodes. The procedure can be coupled with a solver and an error estimator as part of an overall anisotropic <span class="hlt">solution</span> adaptation methodology. It is suitable for use with an error estimator based on an adjoint, optimization, sensitivity derivative, or related approach. This offers many advantages, including more efficient point placement along with robust and efficient error estimation. It also serves as a framework for true grid optimization wherein error estimation and computational resources can be used as cost functions to determine the optimal point distribution. Within AFLR3 the metric transformation is implemented using a set of transformation vectors and associated aspect ratios. The modified overall procedure is presented along with details of the anisotropic transformation implementation. Multiple two-and three-dimensional examples are also presented that demonstrate the capability of the modified AFLR procedure to <span class="hlt">generate</span> anisotropic elements using a set of source nodes with anisotropic transformation metrics. The example cases presented use moderate levels of anisotropy and result in usable element quality. Future testing with various flow solvers and methods for obtaining transformation metric information is needed to determine practical limits and evaluate the efficacy of the overall approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGeod..88..319R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGeod..88..319R"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the third- and <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> GOCE Earth gravity field models with Australian terrestrial gravity data in spherical harmonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rexer, Moritz; Hirt, Christian; Pail, Roland; Claessens, Sten</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>In March 2013, the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> of European Space Agency's (ESA) global gravity field models, DIR4 (Bruinsma et al. in Proceedings of the ESA living planet symposium, 28 June-2 July, Bergen, ESA, Publication SP-686, 2010b) and TIM4 (Migliaccio et al. in Proceedings of the ESA living planet symposium, 28 June-2 July, Bergen, ESA, Publication SP-686, 2010), <span class="hlt">generated</span> from the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) gravity observation satellite was released. We evaluate the models using an independent ground truth data set of gravity anomalies over Australia. Combined with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity, a new gravity model is obtained that is used to perform comparisons with GOCE models in spherical harmonics. Over Australia, the new gravity model proves to have significantly higher accuracy in the degrees below 120 as compared to EGM2008 and seems to be at least comparable to the accuracy of this model between degree 150 and degree 260. Comparisons in terms of residual quasi-geoid heights, gravity disturbances, and radial gravity gradients evaluated on the ellipsoid and at approximate GOCE mean satellite altitude ( km) show both <span class="hlt">fourth</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> models to improve significantly w.r.t. their predecessors. Relatively, we find a root-mean-square improvement of 39 % for the DIR4 and 23 % for TIM4 over the respective third release models at a spatial scale of 100 km (degree 200). In terms of absolute errors, TIM4 is found to perform slightly better in the bands from degree 120 up to degree 160 and DIR4 is found to perform slightly better than TIM4 from degree 170 up to degree 250. Our analyses cannot confirm the DIR4 formal error of 1 cm geoid height (0.35 mGal in terms of gravity) at degree 200. The formal errors of TIM4, with 3.2 cm geoid height (0.9 mGal in terms of gravity) at degree 200, seem to be realistic. Due to combination with GRACE and SLR data, the DIR models, at satellite altitude, clearly show lower RMS values compared to TIM models in the long wavelength part of the spectrum (below degree and order 120). Our study shows different spectral sensitivity of different functionals at ground level and at GOCE satellite altitude and establishes the link among these findings and the Meissl scheme (Rummel and van Gelderen in Manusrcipta Geodaetica 20:379-385, 1995).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25584696','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25584696"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> <span class="hlt">Generation</span> ABC Inhibitors from Natural Products: A Novel Approach to Overcome Cancer Multidrug Resistance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karthikeyan, Subburayan; Hoti, Sugeerappa Laxmanappa</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer caused due to overexpression of ABC drug transporters is a major problem in modern chemotherapy. Molecular investigations on MDR have revealed that the resistance is due to various transport proteins of the ABC superfamily which include Phosphoglycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1/ ABCB1), multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1), and the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). They have been characterized functionally and are considered as major players in the development of MDR in cancer cells. These ATP-dependent transporter proteins cause MDR either by decreased uptake of the drug or increased efflux of the drug from the target organelles. Several MDR-reversing agents are being developed and are in various stages of clinical trials. The first three <span class="hlt">generations</span> of ABC modulators such as quinine, verapamil, cyclosporine-A, tariquitor, PSC 833, LY335979, and GF120918 required to be administered in high doses to reverse MDR and were associated with adverse effects. Additionally, these modulators non-selectively inhibit ABC and adversely accumulate chemotherapeutic drugs in brain and kidney. Currently, research has stepped up towards reversing MDR by using natural products which exhibitted potential as chemosensitizers. Globally, there is a rich biodiversity of natural products which can be sourced for developing drugs. These products may provide more lead compounds with superior activity, foremost to the development of more effective therapies for MDR cancer cells. Here, we briefly review the status of natural products for reversing MDR modulators, and discuss the long term goal of MDR strategies in current clinical settings. PMID:25584696</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8923E..1KV','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8923E..1KV"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Solution</span> processing of next-<span class="hlt">generation</span> nanocrystal solar cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Embden, J.; Chesman, A. S. R.; Duffy, N. W.; Della Gaspera, E.; Jasieniak, J. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Next-<span class="hlt">generation</span> solar cells will be fabricated from low-cost and earth abundant elements, using processes that are amenable to printing on a variety of light-weight substrates. The utilization of compositionally and structurally controlled colloidal nanocrystals as building blocks for such devices fulfills these criteria. Our recent efforts in developing kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals, one of the most promising materials to emerge in this area, enable the deposition of CZTS thin-films directly from a variety of <span class="hlt">solution</span>-processed methods. Nanocrystalline thin films possess poor electronic properties, which precludes their use in solar cell devices. In order to overcome this, thermal treatment steps under an atmosphere of vaporous selenium are applied to induce large scale crystallite growth and the production of selenized CZTSSe films. This process results in a highly photoactive p-type layer. The n-type cadmium sulfide layer is also deposited from <span class="hlt">solution</span> using chemical bath deposition. We will discuss each of these accomplishments in detail, highlighting the significant challenges that need to be overcome in order to fabricate working CZTSSe thin film solar cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/418088','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/418088"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaporation and wet oxidation of steam <span class="hlt">generator</span> cleaning <span class="hlt">solutions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baldwin, P.N. Jr.</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) is used in metal-cleaning formulations. Usually the form of the EDTA used is the tetra ammonium salt. When these powerful cleaning <span class="hlt">solutions</span> are used in steam <span class="hlt">generators</span>, they attract the key metals of interest--iron and copper. A reduction in the volume of these cleaners and EDTA destruction is required to meet waste management and disposal standards. One method of volume reduction is described: concentration by evaporation. Once volume is reduced, the liquid waste can then be further volume reduced and treated for EDTA content through the use of wet oxidation. The effect of this process on the total organic carbon (TOC) in the form of EDTA contained in the copper as well as the iron spent cleaning <span class="hlt">solutions</span> is reviewed, including regression analysis of selected benchmark and production data. A regressive analysis is made of the relationship between the EDTA and the TOC analyzed in the wet-oxidation batch residuals as well as the summary effects of hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid, and reaction time on the percentage of TOC destroyed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21371613','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21371613"><span id="translatedtitle">Search for <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> <span class="hlt">Generation</span> Quarks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, S.-W.</p> <p>2010-02-10</p> <p>It is still a mystery why the Standard Model as we know it has only three families. At new high energy colliders it is worthwhile to search for a new additional family which obviously would have a heavy neutrino to avoid the LEP bounds. This paper discusses new studies made with the CMS detector for the search of new heavy b-like quarks in several different decay modes and for different possible mass regions. These studies are based on detailed detector simulation, including all Standard Model backgrounds. Particular emphasis is given to possible early discoveries, i.e. with 100 pb{sup -1} or less. Projected 95% CL exclusion limits as a function of luminosity are presented as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4719082','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4719082"><span id="translatedtitle">Acute Infections, Cost per Infection and Turnaround Time in Three United States Hospital Laboratories Using <span class="hlt">Fourth-Generation</span> Antigen-Antibody Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunoassays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wesolowski, Laura G.; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Coombs, Robert W.; Rosenberg, Eric; Ethridge, Steven F.; Hutchinson, Angela B.; Dragavon, Joan; Rychert, Jennifer; Nolte, Frederick S.; Madory, James E.; Werner, Barbara G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background. To improve clinical and public health outcomes through early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) detection, <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> antigen/antibody immunoassay (4IA) and supplemental testing results must be returned rapidly. Methods. We examined HIV testing data at Harborview Medical Center (HMC), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), which used 4IA and supplemental antibody and nucleic acid tests (NATs). At MGH and MUSC, HIV-1 Western blot (WB) and HIV-2 testing were conducted at a reference laboratory. We compared time from specimen collection to laboratory result for established (positive WB) and acute infections (reactive 4IA, negative/indeterminate WB, detectable NAT), and we calculated testing cost per positive-test result. Results. From 3731 (MUSC) to 19 774 (MGH) tests were conducted; 0.01% (MGH) to 0.05% (HMC) were acute infections. Each laboratory had reactive 4IA, WB-negative, or indeterminate specimens without NAT (ie, potential acute infections). Time to result was 1.5 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for acute and 1.0 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for established infections. Costs were $1054 (MGH) to $1521 (MUSC). Conclusions. Conducting supplemental testing in-house lowered turnaround times, which may be further reduced with rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation tests. Hospitals may benefit from quantitative NATs not requiring physician orders, so all potential acute infections receive NAT. PMID:26798766</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26798766','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26798766"><span id="translatedtitle">Acute Infections, Cost per Infection and Turnaround Time in Three United States Hospital Laboratories Using <span class="hlt">Fourth-Generation</span> Antigen-Antibody Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunoassays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wesolowski, Laura G; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Coombs, Robert W; Rosenberg, Eric; Ethridge, Steven F; Hutchinson, Angela B; Dragavon, Joan; Rychert, Jennifer; Nolte, Frederick S; Madory, James E; Werner, Barbara G</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background.  To improve clinical and public health outcomes through early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) detection, <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> antigen/antibody immunoassay (4IA) and supplemental testing results must be returned rapidly. Methods.  We examined HIV testing data at Harborview Medical Center (HMC), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), which used 4IA and supplemental antibody and nucleic acid tests (NATs). At MGH and MUSC, HIV-1 Western blot (WB) and HIV-2 testing were conducted at a reference laboratory. We compared time from specimen collection to laboratory result for established (positive WB) and acute infections (reactive 4IA, negative/indeterminate WB, detectable NAT), and we calculated testing cost per positive-test result. Results.  From 3731 (MUSC) to 19 774 (MGH) tests were conducted; 0.01% (MGH) to 0.05% (HMC) were acute infections. Each laboratory had reactive 4IA, WB-negative, or indeterminate specimens without NAT (ie, potential acute infections). Time to result was 1.5 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for acute and 1.0 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for established infections. Costs were $1054 (MGH) to $1521 (MUSC). Conclusions.  Conducting supplemental testing in-house lowered turnaround times, which may be further reduced with rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation tests. Hospitals may benefit from quantitative NATs not requiring physician orders, so all potential acute infections receive NAT. PMID:26798766</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/981484','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/981484"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined Tevatron upper limit on gg -> H -> W^+W^- and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> fermion models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Adelman, J.; Aguilo, E.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the process gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at {radical}s = 1.o6 TeV. With 4.8 fb{sup -1} of itnegrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 5.4 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% Confidence Level upper limit on {sigma}(gg {yields} H) x {Beta}(H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -}) is 1.75 pb at m{sub H} = 120 GeV, 0.38 pb at m{sub H} = 165 GeV, and 0.83 pb at m{sub H} = 200 GeV. Assuming the presence of a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> sequential <span class="hlt">generation</span> of fermions with large masses, they exclude at the 95% Confidence Level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 131 and 204 Gev.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhLB..718..307C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhLB..718..307C"><span id="translatedtitle">Search for pair produced <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> up-type quarks in pp collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV with a lepton in the final state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Papacz, P.; Pieta, H.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Bontenackels, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Sauerland, P.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Castro, E.; Costanza, F.; Dammann, D.; Diez Pardos, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Knutsson, A.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Marienfeld, M.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Olzem, J.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Rosin, M.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sen, N.; Spiridonov, A.; Stein, M.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Draeger, J.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Gebbert, U.; Görner, M.; Hermanns, T.; Höing, R. S.; Kaschube, K.; Kaussen, G.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Lange, J.; Mura, B.; Nowak, F.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, M.; Schum, T.; Seidel, M.; Sibille, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Thomsen, J.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hackstein, C.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Heinrich, M.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Martschei, D.; Mueller, S.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Oehler, A.; Ott, J.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Ratnikova, N.; Röcker, S.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Troendle, D.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Manolakos, I.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Mavrommatis, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Patras, V.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Aziz, T.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Hashemi, M.; Hesari, H.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; De Guio, F.; Di Matteo, L.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Massironi, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Sala, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Cavallo, N.; De Cosa, A.; Dogangun, O.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellan, P.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Nespolo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Taroni, S.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Fanelli, C.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Sigamani, M.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Chang, S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kong, D. J.; Park, H.; Ro, S. R.; Son, D. C.; Son, T.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Bilinskas, M. J.; Grigelionis, I.; Janulis, M.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Asghar, M. I.; Butt, J.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Gokieli, R.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Almeida, N.; Bargassa, P.; David, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Belotelov, I.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Smirnov, V.; Volodko, A.; Zarubin, A.; Evstyukhin, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Matveev, V.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Erofeeva, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Kossov, M.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Markina, A.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Petrushanko, S.; Popov, A.; Sarycheva, L.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Arce, P.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; Codispoti, G.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Felcini, M.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Graziano, A.; Jorda, C.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Coarasa Perez, J. A.; D'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; De Roeck, A.; Di Guida, S.; Dobson, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Frisch, B.; Funk, W.; Georgiou, G.; Giffels, M.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Giunta, M.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R.; Govoni, P.; Gowdy, S.; Guida, R.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hartl, C.; Harvey, J.; Hegner, B.; Hinzmann, A.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kaadze, K.; Karavakis, E.; Kousouris, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lee, Y.-J.; Lenzi, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Mäki, T.; Malberti, M.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moser, R.; Mozer, M. U.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orimoto, T.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Wehrli, L.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; De Visscher, S.; Favaro, C.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Millan Mejias, B.; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Singh, A. P.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R.-S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wan, X.; Wang, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Srimanobhas, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Karaman, T.; Karapinar, G.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, L. N.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Yildirim, E.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Cankocak, K.; Levchuk, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Basso, L.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Jackson, J.; Kennedy, B. W.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Ball, G.; Beuselinck, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Guneratne Bryer, A.; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M. J.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Stoye, M.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; St. John, J.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Mall, O.; Miceli, T.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Vasquez Sierra, R.; Yohay, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Traczyk, P.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G. Y.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Golf, F.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; D'Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Gataullin, M.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Vaughan, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kilminster, B.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Gartner, J.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Park, M.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Sellers, P.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; O'Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny, R. P., Iii; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Zhukova, V.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Twedt, E.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hahn, K. A.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Cooper, S. I.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Sarkar, R.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Roh, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Leonard, J.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.; CMS Collaboration</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The results of a search for the pair production of a <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> up-type quark (t‧) in proton-proton collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV are presented, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 5.0 fb-1 collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the LHC. The t‧ quark is assumed to decay exclusively to a W boson and a b quark. Events with a single isolated electron or muon, missing transverse momentum, and at least four hadronic jets, of which at least one must be identified as a b jet, are selected. No significant excess of events over standard model expectations is observed. Upper limits for the t‧tbar‧ production cross section at 95% confidence level are set as a function of t‧ mass, and t‧-quark production for masses below 570 GeV is excluded. The search is equally sensitive to nonchiral heavy quarks decaying to Wb. In this case, the results can be interpreted as upper limits on the production cross section times the branching fraction to Wb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20951178','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20951178"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> <span class="hlt">Generation</span> CP Violation Effects on B{yields}K{pi}, {phi}K, and {rho}K in Next-to-Leading-Order Perturbative QCD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hou Weishu; Li Hsiangnan; Mishima, Satoshi; Nagashima, Makiko</p> <p>2007-03-30</p> <p>We study the effect from a sequential <span class="hlt">fourth</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> quark on penguin-dominated two-body nonleptonic B meson decays in the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD formalism. With an enhancement of the color-suppressed tree amplitude and possibility of a new CP phase in the electroweak penguin amplitude, we can account better for A{sub CP}(B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})-A{sub CP}(B{sup +}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}). Taking |V{sub t{sup '}}{sub s}V{sub t{sup '}}{sub b}|{approx}0.02 with a phase just below 90 deg., which is consistent with the b{yields}sl{sup +}l{sup -} rate and the B{sub s} mixing parameter {delta}m{sub B{sub s}}, we find a downward shift in the mixing-induced CP asymmetries of B{sup 0}{yields}K{sub S}{pi}{sup 0} and {phi}K{sub S}. The predicted behavior for B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}K{sub S} is opposite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20782643','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20782643"><span id="translatedtitle">Vacuum <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of five dimensional Einstein equations <span class="hlt">generated</span> by inverse scattering method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tomizawa, Shinya; Morisawa, Yoshiyuki; Yasui, Yukinori</p> <p>2006-03-15</p> <p>We study stationary and axially symmetric two solitonic <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of five dimensional vacuum Einstein equations by using the inverse scattering method developed by Belinski and Zakharov. In this <span class="hlt">generation</span> of the <span class="hlt">solutions</span>, we use five dimensional Minkowski spacetime as a seed. It is shown that if we restrict ourselves to the case of one angular momentum component, the <span class="hlt">generated</span> <span class="hlt">solution</span> coincides with a black ring <span class="hlt">solution</span> with a rotating two sphere which was found by Mishima and Iguchi recently.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4305295','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4305295"><span id="translatedtitle">Usefulness of a <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> <span class="hlt">Generation</span> ELISA Assay for the Reliable Identification of HCV Infection in HIV-Positive Adults from Gabon (Central Africa)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rouet, Franois; Sica, Jeanne; Mouinga-Ondm, Augustin; Ligeois, Florian; Goudeau, Alain; Dubois, Frdric; Gaudy-Graffin, Catherine</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background/Objectives Guidelines for optimized HCV screening are urgently required in Africa, especially for patients infected with HIV, who sometimes show false positive or false negative reactivity in anti-HCV antibody assays. Here, we assessed the usefulness of a <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> HCV Ag-Ab ELISA for the identification of active HCV infection in HIV-positive patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between 03/2010 and 01/2013 and included 762 Gabonese HIV-positive adult patients. The results of ELISA (Monolisa HCV Ag-Ab ULTRA, Bio-Rad) were compared with those obtained by RT-PCR (gold standard). The optimal ELISA signal-to-cutoff (S/CO) ratio to identify patients with active hepatitis C (positive HCV RNA) was determined. Specimens were further tested by the INNO-LIA HCV Score assay (Innogenetics) and the Architect HCV Ag kit (Abbott) to define the best diagnostic strategy. Results Sixty-seven patients tested positive for HCV (S/CO ratio ? 1) by ELISA. Of these, 47 (70.1%) tested positive for HCV RNA. The optimal S/CO associated with active HCV infection was 1.7. At this threshold, the sensitivity of ELISA was 97.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 90.099.9%), its specificity was 91.3% (95% CI 85.095.5%), and HCV seroprevalence rate was 7.3% (56/762) (95% CI 5.69.4%). Among 57 HCV-seropositive patients with available INNO-LIA results, false reactivity was identified in 14 (24.6%), resolved HCV infection in two (3.5%), possible acute HCV infections in nine (15.8%) and likely chronic HCV infections in 32 (56.1%) patients. HCV core Ag was undetectable in 14/15 (93.3%) specimens that tested negative for HCV RNA whereas it was quantified in 34 (out of 39, 87.2%) samples that tested positive for HCV RNA. Conclusions Our study provides comprehensive guidance for HCV testing in Gabon, and will help greatly clinicians to improve case definitions for both the notification and surveillance of HCV in patients co-infected with HIV. PMID:25617896</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=numerical+AND+solutions&pg=5&id=EJ764960','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=numerical+AND+solutions&pg=5&id=EJ764960"><span id="translatedtitle">Metaphor and Numerical Diagrams in the Arithmetical Activity of a <span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-Grade Class</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Saenz-Ludlow, Adalira</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-grade students who participated in a yearlong, whole-class teaching experiment not only reconceptualized natural numbers but also <span class="hlt">generated</span> flexible <span class="hlt">solution</span> strategies to perform numerical computations mentally and in writing. Students' reconceptualization of number was mediated by their perceived resemblance between the physical action of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..74..108S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..74..108S"><span id="translatedtitle">Different <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> for the <span class="hlt">Generator</span>-accelerator Module</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savin, E. A.; Matsievskiy, S. V.; Sobenin, N. P.; Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.</p> <p></p> <p>The most important part of the particle accelerators [1] - is the power <span class="hlt">generator</span> together with the whole feeding system [2]. All types of <span class="hlt">generators</span>, such as klystrons, magnetrons, solid state <span class="hlt">generators</span> cover their own field of power and pulse length values. For the last couple of year the Inductive Output Tubes (IOT) becomes very popular because of their comparative construction simplicity: it represents the klystron output cavity with the grid modulated electron beam injected in it. Now such IOTs are used with the superconductive particle accelerators at 700 MHz operating frequency with around 1MW output power. Higher frequencies problem - is the inability to apply high frequency modulated voltage to the grid. Thus we need to figure out some kind of RF gun. But this article is about the first steps of the geometry and beam dynamics simulation in the six beam S-band IOT, which will be used with the compact biperiodic accelerating structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011570','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011570"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of unstructured grids and Euler <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for complex geometries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Loehner, Rainald; Parikh, Paresh; Salas, Manuel D.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Algorithms are described for the <span class="hlt">generation</span> and adaptation of unstructured grids in two and three dimensions, as well as Euler solvers for unstructured grids. The main purpose is to demonstrate how unstructured grids may be employed advantageously for the economic simulation of both geometrically as well as physically complex flow fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989QuEle..19..149I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989QuEle..19..149I"><span id="translatedtitle">PHYSICAL EFFECTS OCCURRING DURING <span class="hlt">GENERATION</span> AND AMPLIFICATION OF LASER RADIATION: Efficient <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for low-temperature singlet-oxygen <span class="hlt">generators</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Igoshin, Valerii I.; Karyshev, V. D.; Katulin, V. A.; Kirilin, A. V.; Kisletsov, A. V.; Konnov, S. A.; Kupriyanov, N. L.; Medvedev, A. M.; Nadezhina, T. N.</p> <p>1989-02-01</p> <p>Experimental investigations were made of the physicochemical characteristics of the active <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for a chemical <span class="hlt">generator</span> in an oxygen-iodine laser. A strong temperature dependence of the viscosity of the <span class="hlt">solution</span> was observed. The influence of this factor on the operation of the singlet-oxygen <span class="hlt">generator</span> and the laser is discussed. The cyclic operation of a laser with efficient neutralization of the reagents and the addition of an alkali is simulated. It is shown that hydrogen peroxide may be 50% utilized when the temperature of the <span class="hlt">solution</span> is no higher than - 30 C. A method of preparing a <span class="hlt">solution</span> for an iodine laser with a low freezing point (between - 30 C and - 40 C) is developed. It is shown that an aqueous <span class="hlt">solution</span> of hydrogen peroxide with a concentration of 25-40% is suitable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21163689','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21163689"><span id="translatedtitle">A simple and direct method for <span class="hlt">generating</span> travelling wave <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for nonlinear equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bazeia, D. Das, Ashok; Silva, A.</p> <p>2008-05-15</p> <p>We propose a simple and direct method for <span class="hlt">generating</span> travelling wave <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for nonlinear integrable equations. We illustrate how nontrivial <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for the KdV, the mKdV and the Boussinesq equations can be obtained from simple <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of linear equations. We describe how using this method, a soliton <span class="hlt">solution</span> of the KdV equation can yield soliton <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for the mKdV as well as the Boussinesq equations. Similarly, starting with cnoidal <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of the KdV equation, we can obtain the corresponding <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for the mKdV as well as the Boussinesq equations. Simple <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of linear equations can also lead to cnoidal <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of nonlinear systems. Finally, we propose and solve some new families of KdV equations and show how soliton <span class="hlt">solutions</span> are also obtained for the higher order equations of the KdV hierarchy using this method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16191180','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16191180"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical waste <span class="hlt">generation</span> from renal units: implications and <span class="hlt">solutions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoenich, Nicholas A; Levin, Robert; Pearce, Catherine</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) makes extensive use of presterilized disposable items which, after use, are contaminated by blood. The preferred route of disposal of such items is by incineration. Disposal costs have risen and this increase in costs has not been matched by waste management programs in renal units. Many of the waste items <span class="hlt">generated</span> also contain polyvinyl chloride (PVC) whose incineration is environmentally sensitive. Furthermore blood tubing sets contain plasticizers such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is known to pose health risks to specific groups of patients. The <span class="hlt">generation</span> of clinical waste in a dialysis unit is analyzed, issues associated with disposal are discussed, and approaches toward a cost-effective, environmentally sustainable clinical waste management program are reviewed. PMID:16191180</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=humor+AND+health&pg=5&id=EJ483999','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=humor+AND+health&pg=5&id=EJ483999"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grader.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Howe, Frederick C.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Profiles typical characteristics and behaviors of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> graders. Highlights physical development, including energy and growth, motor development, physical activities, and health; mental development, including Piagetian stages, academic development, mental limitations, and effective classroom rewards; and psychosocial development, including</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10190484','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10190484"><span id="translatedtitle">Preventing atmospheric ammonia emissions: A <span class="hlt">generator</span>/regulator <span class="hlt">solution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Breed, C.E.; Holt, M.T.</p> <p>1994-10-01</p> <p>During most of the 60 years that TVA has been in existence, the research center at Muscle Shoals, Alabama, NERC, was charged with supporting the regional and national agribusiness industry. One aspect of this support was strong emphasis on fertilizer process and product development. One such product developed at the center was a liquid fertilizer with a grade of 10-34-0 (N-P{sub 2}0{sub 5}-K{sub 2}0). The process was profitable and easy to operate, the product was well accepted by both farmers and dealers, and 10-34-0 became the premium phosphate fertilizer used in the United States. Approximately 120 to 130 of these type units have been constructed and operated in the United States in the last 20 years. During that time, the process design has remained essentially unchanged. The direct contact between the hot fertilizer product and the air results in some free ammonia being stripped from the product and emitted from the top of the cooling tower. At the time most of the plants were constructed, there was little concern over these losses because (1) there were very few regulations dealing with ammonia and (2) most of the plants were originally built and operated in rural areas away from population centers and emissions that occurred went essentially unnoticed. However, as a result of this study, process changes that can reduce ammonia, as well as fluoride and particulate emissions have been identified and mad available to <span class="hlt">generators</span>. In addition a potential process for the total elimination of emissions has been developed and made available on a trial basis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7077340','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7077340"><span id="translatedtitle">The dependence of radiolytic H2 <span class="hlt">generation</span> of the nitrate concentration in high-level <span class="hlt">solutions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walker, D.D.; Bibler, N.E.</p> <p>1991-11-19</p> <p>The rate at which hydrogen is produced from the radiolysis of high-activity waste <span class="hlt">solutions</span> depends on the radiation dose rate to the <span class="hlt">solution</span> and the concentration of nitrate ion in <span class="hlt">solution</span>. At a constant dose rate, the hydrogen <span class="hlt">generation</span> rate decreases as the nitrate ion concentration increases. Using previously measured rates of hydrogen production, an equation has been derived which calculates the hydrogen <span class="hlt">generation</span> rate when the nitrate ion concentration is known. The hydrogen <span class="hlt">generation</span> rate from this equation can be used to more accurately predict hydrogen production in waste tanks than is currently obtained assuming a fixed <span class="hlt">generation</span> rate. The current fixed rate underestimates the hydrogen produced in dilute waste <span class="hlt">solutions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26593495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26593495"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of reactive oxidative species from thermal treatment of sugar <span class="hlt">solutions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Qingyang; Durand, Erwann; Elias, Ryan J; Tikekar, Rohan V</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Sugars, prominently fructose, have been shown to accelerate the degradation of food components during thermal treatment. Yet, the mechanism by which this occurs is not well understood. Fructose and glucose have been reported to undergo autoxidation to <span class="hlt">generate</span> reactive oxidative species (ROS) under physiological conditions; however, information on ROS <span class="hlt">generation</span> during thermal treatment is limited. We observed that hydrogen peroxide was <span class="hlt">generated</span> during thermal treatment (up to 70 °C) of aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of fructose and glucose (up to 10% w/v), with significantly higher concentrations observed in fructose <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. The rate of <span class="hlt">generation</span> of hydrogen peroxide increased with temperature, pH, oxygen concentration and the presence of phosphate buffer. Singlet oxygen was also detected in fructose and glucose <span class="hlt">solutions</span> prepared in phosphate buffer. Results of this study indicated that fructose and glucose undergo oxidation during thermal treatment resulting in <span class="hlt">generation</span> of ROS that may have deleterious effects on food components. PMID:26593495</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20774917','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20774917"><span id="translatedtitle">Vacuum <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of five dimensional Einstein equations <span class="hlt">generated</span> by inverse scattering method. II. Production of the black ring <span class="hlt">solution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tomizawa, Shinya; Nozawa, Masato</p> <p>2006-06-15</p> <p>We study vacuum <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of five-dimensional Einstein equations <span class="hlt">generated</span> by the inverse scattering method. We reproduce the black ring <span class="hlt">solution</span> which was found by Emparan and Reall by taking the Euclidean Levi-Civita metric plus one-dimensional flat space as a seed. This transformation consists of two successive processes; the first step is to perform the three-solitonic transformation of the Euclidean Levi-Civita metric with one-dimensional flat space as a seed. The resulting metric is the Euclidean C-metric with extra one-dimensional flat space. The second is to perform the two-solitonic transformation by taking it as a new seed. Our result may serve as a stepping stone to find new exact <span class="hlt">solutions</span> in higher dimensions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/863563','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/863563"><span id="translatedtitle">Photochemical method for <span class="hlt">generating</span> superoxide radicals (O.sub.2.sup.-) in aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Holroyd, Richard A. (Stony Brook, NY); Bielski, Benon H. J. (Wading River, NY)</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A photochemical method and apparatus for <span class="hlt">generating</span> superoxide radicals (ub.2.sup.-) in an aqueous <span class="hlt">solution</span> by means of a vacuum-ultraviolet lamp of simple design. The lamp is a microwave powered rare gas device that emits far-ultraviolet light. The lamp includes an inner loop of high purity quartz tubing through which flows an oxygen-saturated sodium formate <span class="hlt">solution</span>. The inner loop is designed so that the <span class="hlt">solution</span> is subjected to an intense flux of far-ultraviolet light. This causes the <span class="hlt">solution</span> to photodecompose and form the product radical (O.sub.2.sup.-).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22404227','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22404227"><span id="translatedtitle">Crossing the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> hurdle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rawlins, Michael D</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">fourth</span> hurdle, the requirement that pharmaceutical manufacturers can demonstrate that their new products represent good value for money as well as being of good quality, effective and safe, is increasingly being required by healthcare systems. In crossing this '<span class="hlt">fourth</span>' hurdle, companies will usually need to demonstrate that their products are more effective than relevant comparators and that the increased cost is offset by the enhanced benefits. Decision makers, however, must draw their conclusions not only on the basis of the underpinning science but also on the social values of the people they serve. PMID:22404227</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005813','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005813"><span id="translatedtitle">Technical report series on global modeling and data assimilation. Volume 2: Direct <span class="hlt">solution</span> of the implicit formulation of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order horizontal diffusion for gridpoint models on the sphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yong; Moorthi, S.; Bates, J. Ray; Suarez, Max J.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>High order horizontal diffusion of the form K Delta(exp 2m) is widely used in spectral models as a means of preventing energy accumulation at the shortest resolved scales. In the spectral context, an implicit formation of such diffusion is trivial to implement. The present note describes an efficient method of implementing implicit high order diffusion in global finite difference models. The method expresses the high order diffusion equation as a sequence of equations involving Delta(exp 2). The <span class="hlt">solution</span> is obtained by combining fast Fourier transforms in longitude with a finite difference solver for the second order ordinary differential equation in latitude. The implicit diffusion routine is suitable for use in any finite difference global model that uses a regular latitude/longitude grid. The absence of a restriction on the timestep makes it particularly suitable for use in semi-Lagrangian models. The scale selectivity of the high order diffusion gives it an advantage over the uncentering method that has been used to control computational noise in two-time-level semi-Lagrangian models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED500917.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED500917.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Graders Solving Equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brizuela, Barbara M.; Schliemann, Analucia D.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We explore how <span class="hlt">fourth</span> grade (9 to 10 year olds) students can come to understand and use the syntactic rules of algebra on the basis of their understanding about how quantities are interrelated. Our classroom data comes from a longitudinal study with students who participated in weekly Early Algebra activities from grades 2 through 4. We describe</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950031602&hterms=surfaces+delaunay&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dsurfaces%2Bdelaunay','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950031602&hterms=surfaces+delaunay&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dsurfaces%2Bdelaunay"><span id="translatedtitle">A grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> and flow <span class="hlt">solution</span> method for the Euler equations on unstructured grids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, W. Kyle</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> and flow <span class="hlt">solution</span> algorithm for the Euler equations on unstructured grids is presented. The grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> scheme utilizes Delaunay triangulation and self-<span class="hlt">generates</span> the field points for the mesh based on cell aspect ratios and allows for clustering near solid surfaces. The flow <span class="hlt">solution</span> method is an implicit algorithm in which the linear set of equations arising at each time step is solved using a Gauss Seidel procedure which is completely vectorizable. In addition, a study is conducted to examine the number of subiterations required for good convergence of the overall algorithm. Grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> results are shown in two dimensions for a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil as well as a two-element configuration. Flow <span class="hlt">solution</span> results are shown for two-dimensional flow over the NACA 0012 airfoil and for a two-element configuration in which the <span class="hlt">solution</span> has been obtained through an adaptation procedure and compared to an exact <span class="hlt">solution</span>. Preliminary three-dimensional results are also shown in which subsonic flow over a business jet is computed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920014290','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920014290"><span id="translatedtitle">Grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> and flow <span class="hlt">solution</span> method for Euler equations on unstructured grids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, W. Kyle</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> and flow <span class="hlt">solution</span> algorithm for the Euler equations on unstructured grids is presented. The grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> scheme, which uses Delaunay triangulation, <span class="hlt">generates</span> the field points for the mesh based on cell aspect ratios and allows clustering of grid points near solid surfaces. The flow <span class="hlt">solution</span> method is an implicit algorithm in which the linear set of equations arising at each time step is solved using a Gauss-Seidel procedure that is completely vectorizable. Also, a study is conducted to examine the number of subiterations required for good convergence of the overall algorithm. Grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> results are shown in two dimensions for an NACA 0012 airfoil as well as a two element configuration. Flow <span class="hlt">solution</span> results are shown for a two dimensional flow over the NACA 0012 airfoil and for a two element configuration in which the <span class="hlt">solution</span> was obtained through an adaptation procedure and compared with an exact <span class="hlt">solution</span>. Preliminary three dimensional results also are shown in which the subsonic flow over a business jet is computed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CEJPh..12..256B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CEJPh..12..256B"><span id="translatedtitle">Exact <span class="hlt">solution</span> of D-dimensional Schrdinger equation <span class="hlt">generated</span> from certain central power-law potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhagawati, Nabaratna</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>By applying Extended Transformation method we have <span class="hlt">generated</span> exact <span class="hlt">solution</span> of D-dimensional radial Schrdinger equation for a set of power-law multi-term potentials taking singular potentials , , V( r) = ar + br -1 + cr 2 and V( r) = ar 2+ br -2+ cr -4+ dr -6 as input reference. The restriction on the parameters of the given potentials and angular momentum quantum number ? are obtained. The multiplet structure of the <span class="hlt">generated</span> exactly solvable potentials are also shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6172586','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6172586"><span id="translatedtitle">Neurosurgery. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Simon, L.; Thomas, D.G.T.; Clark, W.K.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition of this volume in the Operative Surgery Series has been considerably revised to accommodate the many changes which have changed the practice of neurosurgery in the past eight years. There have been advances in technology, such as the wider application of CT scanning, in surgical technique, and in the design of new implantable materials. All these developments have substantially affected both the practice of neurosurgery and the prognosis for the patient and are fully reflected in the new edition.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyB..481..148Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyB..481..148Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Bilinear forms and soliton <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for a <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an inhomogeneous Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain or an alpha helical protein</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Jin-Wei; Gao, Yi-Tian; Wang, Qi-Min; Su, Chuan-Qi; Feng, Yu-Jie; Yu, Xin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, a <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation is studied, which might describe a one-dimensional continuum anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with the octuple-dipole interaction or an alpha helical protein with higher-order excitations and interactions under continuum approximation. With the aid of auxiliary function, we derive the bilinear forms and corresponding constraints on the variable coefficients. Via the symbolic computation, we obtain the Lax pair, infinitely many conservation laws, one-, two- and three-soliton <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. We discuss the influence of the variable coefficients on the solitons. With different choices of the variable coefficients, we obtain the parabolic, cubic, and periodic solitons, respectively. We analyse the head-on and overtaking interactions between/among the two and three solitons. Interactions between a bound state and a single soliton are displayed with different choices of variable coefficients. We also derive the quasi-periodic formulae for the three cases of the bound states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934384','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934384"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Annual Progress Report on the Electrofluid Dynamic Wind <span class="hlt">Generator</span>: Final Report for the Period 1 April 1979 - 31 August 1980</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Minardi, J. E.; Lawson, M. O.; Wattendorf, F. L.</p> <p>1981-08-01</p> <p>Conventional wind energy systems are limited in wind turbine diameter by allowable rotor stresses at power levels of several megawatts. In contrast, the Electrofluid Dynamic (EFD) wind driven <span class="hlt">generator</span> has no fundamental limits on cross sectional area. It is a direct energy conversion device which employs unipolar charged particles transported by the wind against a retarding voltage gradient to a high potential. As no moving parts are exposed to the wind, extremely large power units may be feasible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1029791','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1029791"><span id="translatedtitle">Discretization error estimation and exact <span class="hlt">solution</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> using the method of nearby problems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sinclair, Andrew J.; Raju, Anil; Kurzen, Matthew J.; Roy, Christopher John; Phillips, Tyrone S.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The Method of Nearby Problems (MNP), a form of defect correction, is examined as a method for <span class="hlt">generating</span> exact <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to partial differential equations and as a discretization error estimator. For <span class="hlt">generating</span> exact <span class="hlt">solutions</span>, four-dimensional spline fitting procedures were developed and implemented into a MATLAB code for <span class="hlt">generating</span> spline fits on structured domains with arbitrary levels of continuity between spline zones. For discretization error estimation, MNP/defect correction only requires a single additional numerical <span class="hlt">solution</span> on the same grid (as compared to Richardson extrapolation which requires additional numerical <span class="hlt">solutions</span> on systematically-refined grids). When used for error estimation, it was found that continuity between spline zones was not required. A number of cases were examined including 1D and 2D Burgers equation, the 2D compressible Euler equations, and the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The discretization error estimation results compared favorably to Richardson extrapolation and had the advantage of only requiring a single grid to be <span class="hlt">generated</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040182258','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040182258"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshop on Benchmark Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This publication contains the proceedings of the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshop on Benchmark Problems. In this workshop, as in previous workshops, the problems were devised to gauge the technological advancement of computational techniques to calculate all aspects of sound <span class="hlt">generation</span> and propagation in air directly from the fundamental governing equations. A variety of benchmark problems have been previously solved ranging from simple geometries with idealized acoustic conditions to test the accuracy and effectiveness of computational algorithms and numerical boundary conditions; to sound radiation from a duct; to gust interaction with a cascade of airfoils; to the sound <span class="hlt">generated</span> by a separating, turbulent viscous flow. By solving these and similar problems, workshop participants have shown the technical progress from the basic challenges to accurate CAA calculations to the <span class="hlt">solution</span> of CAA problems of increasing complexity and difficulty. The <span class="hlt">fourth</span> CAA workshop emphasized the application of CAA methods to the <span class="hlt">solution</span> of realistic problems. The workshop was held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio, on October 20 to 22, 2003. At that time, workshop participants presented their <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to problems in one or more of five categories. Their <span class="hlt">solutions</span> are presented in this proceedings along with the comparisons of their <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to the benchmark <span class="hlt">solutions</span> or experimental data. The five categories for the benchmark problems were as follows: Category 1:Basic Methods. The numerical computation of sound is affected by, among other issues, the choice of grid used and by the boundary conditions. Category 2:Complex Geometry. The ability to compute the sound in the presence of complex geometric surfaces is important in practical applications of CAA. Category 3:Sound <span class="hlt">Generation</span> by Interacting With a Gust. The practical application of CAA for computing noise <span class="hlt">generated</span> by turbomachinery involves the modeling of the noise source mechanism as a vortical gust interacting with an airfoil. Category 4:Sound Transmission and Radiation. Category 5:Sound <span class="hlt">Generation</span> in Viscous Problems. Sound is <span class="hlt">generated</span> under certain conditions by a viscous flow as the flow passes an object or a cavity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17344095','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17344095"><span id="translatedtitle">Online integrated <span class="hlt">solution</span> to collect data, <span class="hlt">generate</span> information and manage events in the human biomonitoring field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reis, M Ftima; Tedim, Joo; Aguiar, Pedro; Miguel, J Pereira; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Van Tongelen, Birgit</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>In the ambit of Work Package 1 of the ESBIO Project, an online integrated <span class="hlt">solution</span> to collect data, to <span class="hlt">generate</span> information, and to manage mainly information-sharing events related with human biomonitoring within Europe has been designed and is being implemented. The present paper summarises the methodological approaches used by the authors as proposers, general promoters and disseminators of this strategic concept, as well as the first outcomes and future actions to be taken, in the short and longer term, to face present and future challenges to make this innovative <span class="hlt">solution</span> happen. PMID:17344095</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5917..117C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5917..117C"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculated performance of broadband secondary x-ray imaging (SXI) based on <span class="hlt">fourth</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> sources and optics and its potential application to human angiography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Csonka, Paul L.</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>A calculation was carried out to evaluate the capabilities of Secondary X-ray Imaging (SXI), applied to human angiography. A primary photon pencil beam is rastered through the human heart, in two directions perpendicular to the primary photon beam. The signal is <span class="hlt">generated</span> by fluorescent photons from a contrast agent, registered by a wide angle detector. One result is clearer images and a reduction of shadowing by obstructions inside the body. Sharp imaging is compatible with locally quantitative measurements, and also with pixel by pixel elemental analysis. The detector need not be position sensitive. Most of the primary beam will be scattered before they reach the target, but unscattered primary beam remains well focused. To discriminate against scattered background, the photons have to pass through a position/momentum selector, a W - Hf absorber shield, and a time window. The calcualation gives the approximate energy spectrum for the scattered photons, for the photons passing through the position/momentum selector, and for those at thefar side of the absorber shield. The last two are evaluated for time windows between 1000 and 167 ps. The surviving background causes relative image intensity fluctuations of the order of a percent. The primary beam intensity required for SXI is comparable or less than the intensity needed for Iodine K-edge subtraction (KES) imaging, but for SXI the primary photon energy spread may be one or two orders higher than what is needed for KES. Therefore, the requirements on the primary photon source an be relaxed. With an undulator as source, monochromatization may not be needed. That would further reduce the cost of the photon source, which may be a small low energy electron ring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThEng..61..327R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThEng..61..327R"><span id="translatedtitle">From the first nuclear power plant to <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity <span class="hlt">generating</span> channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact nuclear reactors and radiation protection, thermal physics, physical chemistry and technology of liquid metal coolants, and physics of radiation-induced defects, and radiation materials science. The activity of the institute is aimed at solving matters concerned with technological development of large-scale nuclear power engineering on the basis of a closed nuclear fuel cycle with the use of fast-neutron reactors (referred to henceforth as fast reactors), development of innovative nuclear and conventional technologies, and extension of their application fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OPhy...12..256B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OPhy...12..256B"><span id="translatedtitle">Exact <span class="hlt">solution</span> of D-dimensional Schrdinger equation <span class="hlt">generated</span> from certain central power-law potentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhagawati, Nabaratna</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>By applying Extended Transformation method we have <span class="hlt">generated</span> exact <span class="hlt">solution</span> of D-dimensional radial Schrdinger equation for a set of power-law multi-term potentials taking singular potentials V(r) = ar^{ - tfrac{1} {2}} + br^{ - tfrac{3} {2}}, V(r) = ar^{tfrac{2} {3}} + br^{ - tfrac{2} {3}} + cr^{ - tfrac{4} {3}}, V(r) = ar + br -1 + cr 2 and V(r) = ar 2+br -2+cr -4+dr -6 as input reference. The restriction on the parameters of the given potentials and angular momentum quantum number ? are obtained. The multiplet structure of the <span class="hlt">generated</span> exactly solvable potentials are also shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900051668&hterms=1588&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231588','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900051668&hterms=1588&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231588"><span id="translatedtitle">Euler <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for self-<span class="hlt">generated</span> rotor blade-vortex interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hassan, A. A.; Tung, C.; Sankar, L. N.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A finite-difference procedure was developed, on the basis of the conservation form of the unsteady three-dimensional Euler equations, for the prediction of rotor blade-vortex interactions (BVIs). Numerical <span class="hlt">solution</span> procedures were obtained for the analysis of the model parallel BVIs and the more realistic helicopter self-<span class="hlt">generated</span>-rotor BVIs. It was found that, for self-<span class="hlt">generated</span> subcritical interactions, the accuracy of the predicted leading edge pressures relied heavily on the user-specified vortex core radius and on the CAMRAD-code-predicted geometry of the interaction vortex elements and their relative orientation with respect to the blade. It was also found that the free-wake model used in CAMRAD to predict the tip vortex trajectory for use in the Euler <span class="hlt">solution</span> yields lower streamwise and higher axial wake convective velocities than those inferred from the experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CNSNS..14.2689B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CNSNS..14.2689B"><span id="translatedtitle">On the analytical <span class="hlt">solution</span> for MHD natural convection flow and heat <span class="hlt">generation</span> fluid in porous medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bararnia, H.; Ghotbi, Abdoul R.; Domairry, G.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Homotopy analysis method (HAM) is employed to investigate the momentum, heat and mass transfer characteristics of MHD natural convection flow and heat <span class="hlt">generation</span> fluid driven by a continuously moving permeable surface immersed in a fluid saturated porous medium. The <span class="hlt">solution</span> is found to be dependent on several governing parameters, including the magnetic field strength parameter, Prandtl number, Darcy number, the dimensionless inertia coefficient, the dimensionless heat <span class="hlt">generation</span>/absorption coefficient and the dimensionless suction/blowing coefficient. A parametric study of all governing parameters is carried out and representative results are illustrated to reveal a typical tendency of the <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. Representative results are presented for velocity and temperature distributions as well as the local friction coefficient and local Nusselt number. Finally, a proper discussion is derived on the obtained results and some remarkable conclusions are mentioned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.728E..31T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.728E..31T"><span id="translatedtitle">Updated Hungarian Gravity Field <span class="hlt">Solution</span> Based on Fifth <span class="hlt">Generation</span> GOCE Gravity Field Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toth, Gyula; Foldvary, Lorant</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>With the completion of the ESA's GOCE satellite's mission fifth <span class="hlt">generation</span> gravity field models are available from the ESA's GOCE High Processing Facility. Our contribution is an updated gravity field <span class="hlt">solution</span> for Hungary using the latest DIR R05 GOCE gravity field model. The <span class="hlt">solution</span> methodology is least squares gravity field parameter estimation using Spherical Radial Base Functions (SRBF). Regional datasets include deflections of the vertical (DOV), gravity anomalies and quasigeoid heights by GPS/levelling. The GOCE DIR R05 model has been combined with the EGM20008 model and has been evaluated in comparison with the EGM2008 and EIGEN-6C3stat models to assess the performance of our regional gravity field <span class="hlt">solution</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26190400','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26190400"><span id="translatedtitle">A theoretical study of sum-frequency <span class="hlt">generation</span> for chiral <span class="hlt">solutions</span> near electronic resonance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zheng, Ren-hui; Wei, Wen-mei; Shi, Qiang</p> <p>2015-08-21</p> <p>We present a method of calculating sum-frequency <span class="hlt">generation</span> (SFG) for chiral <span class="hlt">solutions</span> near electronic resonance including the vibronic contributions, which give reasonable SFG intensities and show the Franck-Condon progressions for SFG. When studying R-1,1'-bi-2-naphthol (R-BN), we found that the calculated spectrum is in good agreement with the experimental one (Phys. Rev. Lett., 2001, 87, 113001). Then we apply this method to investigate SFG for chiral arabinose <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. Theoretical results show that it may be difficult to observe the corresponding SFG even when the sum-frequency is exactly in resonance with the low-lying excited electronic states. Furthermore, we discuss the reason why SFG of chiral arabinose <span class="hlt">solutions</span> is small. PMID:26190400</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2757','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2757"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Solution</span> Synthesis and Processing of PZT Materials for Neutron <span class="hlt">Generator</span> Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Anderson, M.A.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Montoya, T.V.; Moore, R.H.; Sipola, D.L.; Tuttle, B.A.; Voigt, J.A.</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">solution</span> synthesis route has been developed for the preparation of lead-based ferroelectric materials (patent filed). The process produces controlled stoichiometry precursor powders by non-aqueous precipitation. For a given ferroelectric material to be prepared, a metal acetate/alkoxide <span class="hlt">solution</span> containing constituent metal species in the appropriate ratio is mixed with an oxalic acid/n-propanol precipitant <span class="hlt">solution</span>. An oxalate coprecipitate is instantly fonned upon mixing that quantitatively removes the metals from <span class="hlt">solution</span>. Most of the process development was focused on the synthesis and processing of niobium-substituted lead zirconate titanate with a Zr-to-Ti ratio of 95:5 (PNZT 95/5) that has an application in neutron <span class="hlt">generator</span> power supplies. The process was scaled to produce 1.6 kg of the PNZT 95/5 powder using either a sen-ii-batch or a continuous precipitation scheme. Several of the PNZT 95/5 powder lots were processed into ceramic slug form. The slugs in turn were processed into components and characterized. The physical properties and electrical performance (including explosive functional testing of the components met the requirements set for the neutron <span class="hlt">generator</span> application. Also, it has been demonstrated that the process is highly reproducible with respect to the properties of the powders it produces and the properties of the ceramics prepared from its powders. The work described in this report was funded by Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ap%26SS.358...27C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ap%26SS.358...27C"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravitational waves in <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Capozziello, S.; Stabile, A.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In the post-Minkowskian limit approximation, we study gravitational wave <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for general <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order theories of gravity. Specifically, we consider a Lagrangian with a generic function of curvature invariants . It is well known that when dealing with General Relativity such an approach provides massless spin-two waves as propagating degree of freedom of the gravitational field while this theory implies other additional propagating modes in the gravity spectra. We show that, in general, <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order gravity, besides the standard massless graviton is characterized by two further massive modes with a finite-distance interaction. We find out the most general gravitational wave <span class="hlt">solutions</span> in terms of Green functions in vacuum and in presence of matter sources. If an electromagnetic source is chosen, only the modes induced by are present, otherwise, for any gravity model, we have the complete analogy with tensor modes of General Relativity. Polarizations and helicity states are classified in the hypothesis of plane wave.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017128','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017128"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> order difference methods for hyperbolic IBVP's</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gustafsson, Bertil; Olsson, Pelle</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> order difference approximations of initial-boundary value problems for hyperbolic partial differential equations are considered. We use the method of lines approach with both explicit and compact implicit difference operators in space. The explicit operator satisfies an energy estimate leading to strict stability. For the implicit operator we develop boundary conditions and give a complete proof of strong stability using the Laplace transform technique. We also present numerical experiments for the linear advection equation and Burgers' equation with discontinuities in the <span class="hlt">solution</span> or in its derivative. The first equation is used for modeling contact discontinuities in fluid dynamics, the second one for modeling shocks and rarefaction waves. The time discretization is done with a third order Runge-Kutta TVD method. For <span class="hlt">solutions</span> with discontinuities in the <span class="hlt">solution</span> itself we add a filter based on second order viscosity. In case of the non-linear Burger's equation we use a flux splitting technique that results in an energy estimate for certain different approximations, in which case also an entropy condition is fulfilled. In particular we shall demonstrate that the unsplit conservative form produces a non-physical shock instead of the physically correct rarefaction wave. In the numerical experiments we compare our <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order methods with a standard second order one and with a third order TVD-method. The results show that the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order methods are the only ones that give good results for all the considered test problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=TERRORISM+AND+PROBLEM&pg=3&id=EJ853556','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=TERRORISM+AND+PROBLEM&pg=3&id=EJ853556"><span id="translatedtitle">The Academy and <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> <span class="hlt">Generation</span> Warfare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>de Russy, Candace</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Candace de Russy wonders whether the climate of ideas in higher education offers any defense at all against the anti-Western terrorism abroad in the world today. "No," she concludes. Divisive ideologies can only weaken our unity, our resolve, and our moral confidence, just when we need them at their strongest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1024918','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1024918"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined CDF and D0 upper limits on $gg\\to H\\to W^+W^-$ and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> fermion models with up to 8.2 fb$^{-1}$ of data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Benjamin, Doug; /Tufts U.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the processes gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} and gg {yields} H {yields} ZZ in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. With 8.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 8.1 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% C.L. upper limit on {sigma}(gg {yields} H) x {Beta}(H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -}) is 1.01 pb at m{sub H} = 120 GeV, 0.40 pb at m{sub H} = 165 GeV, and 0.47 pb at m{sub H} = 200 GeV. Assuming the presence of a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> sequential <span class="hlt">generation</span> of fermions with large masses, we exclude at the 95% Confidence Level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 124 and 286 GeV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20215354','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20215354"><span id="translatedtitle">Search for a <span class="hlt">Fourth-Generation</span> Quark More Massive than the Z{sup 0} Boson in pp Collisions at {radical}(s) =1.8 TeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Affolder, T.; Akimoto, H.; Akopian, A.; Albrow, M. G.; Amaral, P.; Amendolia, S. R.; Amidei, D.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Arisawa, T.</p> <p>2000-01-31</p> <p>We present the results of a search for pair production of a <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> charge -(1/3) quark (b{sup '}) in {radical}(s)=1.8 TeV pp collisions using 88 pb{sup -1} of data obtained with the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We assume that both quarks decay via the flavor-changing neutral current process b{sup '}{yields}bZ{sup 0} and that the b{sup '} mass is greater than m{sub Z}+m{sub b} . We studied the decay mode b{sup '}b{sup '}{yields}Z{sup 0}Z{sup 0}bb where one Z{sup 0} decays into e{sup +}e{sup -} or {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and the other decays hadronically, giving a signature of two leptons plus jets. An upper limit on the {sigma}{sub pp{yields}}{sub b{sup '}}{sub b{sup '}}x[B(b{sup '} {yields}bZ{sup 0})]{sup 2} is established as a function of the b{sup '} mass. We exclude at 95% confidence level a b{sup '} quark with mass between 100 and 199 GeV/c{sup 2} for B(b{sup '}{yields}bZ{sup 0})=100% . (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACP....11..753S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACP....11..753S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of hydrogen peroxide from San Joaquin Valley particles in a cell-free <span class="hlt">solution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, H.; Barakat, A. I.; Anastasio, C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects. One proposed mechanism of PM-mediated health effects is the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - e.g., superoxide (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), and hydroxyl radical (OH) - followed by oxidative stress. There are very few quantitative, specific measures of individual ROS <span class="hlt">generated</span> from PM, but this information would help to more quantitatively address the link between ROS and the health effects of PM. To address this gap, we quantified the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of HOOH by PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California during summer and winter from 2006 to 2009. HOOH was quantified by HPLC after extracting the PM in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) <span class="hlt">solution</span> with or without 50 ?M ascorbate (Asc). Our results show that the urban PM generally <span class="hlt">generates</span> much more HOOH than the rural PM but that there is no apparent seasonal difference in HOOH <span class="hlt">generation</span>. In nearly all of the samples the addition of a physiologically relevant concentration of Asc greatly enhances HOOH formation, but a few of the coarse PM samples were able to <span class="hlt">generate</span> a considerable amount of HOOH in the absence of added Asc, indicating the presence of unknown reductants. Normalized by air volume, the fine PM (PM2.5) generally makes more HOOH than the corresponding coarse PM (PMcf, i.e., 2.5 to 10 ?m), primarily because the mass concentration of PM2.5 is much higher than that of PMcf. However, normalized by PM mass, the coarse PM typically <span class="hlt">generates</span> more HOOH than the fine PM. The amount of HOOH produced by SJV PM is reduced on average by (78 15)% when the transition metal chelator desferoxamine (DSF) is added to the extraction <span class="hlt">solution</span>, indicating that transition metals play a dominant role in HOOH <span class="hlt">generation</span>. By measuring calibration curves of HOOH <span class="hlt">generation</span> from copper, and quantifying copper concentrations in our particle extracts, we find that PBS-soluble copper is primarily responsible for HOOH production by the Fresno PM. Extrapolating our results to expected concentrations of PM-derived HOOH in human lung lining fluid suggests that typical daily PM exposures in the San Joaquin Valley are unlikely to cause HOOH-mediated acute health effects, but that very high PM events might lead to cytotoxic levels of pulmonary HOOH.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...1021323S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...1021323S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of hydrogen peroxide from San Joaquin Valley particles in a cell-free <span class="hlt">solution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, H.; Barakat, A. I.; Anastasio, C.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects. One proposed mechanism of PM-mediated health effects is the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - e.g., superoxide (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), and hydroxyl radical (OH) - followed by oxidative stress. There are very few quantitative, specific measures of individual ROS <span class="hlt">generated</span> from PM, but this information would help to more quantitatively address the link between ROS and the health effects of PM. To address this gap, we quantified the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of HOOH by PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California during summer and winter from 2006 to 2009. HOOH was quantified by HPLC after extracting the PM in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) <span class="hlt">solution</span> with or without 50 ?M ascorbate (Asc). Our results show that the urban PM generally <span class="hlt">generates</span> much more HOOH than the rural PM but that there is no apparent seasonal difference in HOOH <span class="hlt">generation</span>. In nearly all of the samples the addition of a physiologically relevant concentration of Asc greatly enhances HOOH formation, but a few of the coarse PM samples were able to <span class="hlt">generate</span> a considerable amount of HOOH in the absence of added Asc, indicating the presence of unknown reductants. Normalized by air volume, the fine PM (PM2.5) generally makes more HOOH than the corresponding coarse PM (PMcf, i.e., 2.5 to 10 ?m), primarily because the mass concentration of PM2.5 is much higher than that of PMcf. However, normalized by PM mass, the coarse PM typically <span class="hlt">generates</span> more HOOH than the fine PM. The amount of HOOH produced by SJV PM is reduced on average by (7815)% when the transition metal chelator desferoxamine (DSF) is added to the extraction <span class="hlt">solution</span>, indicating that transition metals play a dominant role in HOOH <span class="hlt">generation</span>. By measuring calibration curves of HOOH <span class="hlt">generation</span> from copper, and quantifying copper concentrations in our particle extracts, we find that PBS-soluble copper is primarily responsible for HOOH production by the Fresno PM. Extrapolating our results to expected concentrations of PM-derived HOOH in human lungs suggests that typical daily PM exposures in the San Joaquin Valley are unlikely to cause HOOH-mediated acute health effects, but that very high PM events might lead to cytotoxic levels of pulmonary HOOH.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7758E..0XN','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7758E..0XN"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of micro- and nano-droplets containing immiscible <span class="hlt">solutions</span> in view of optical studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nastasa, V.; Karapantsios, T.; Samaras, K.; Dafnopatidou, E.; Pradines, V.; Miller, R.; Pascu, M. L.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>The multiple resistances to treatment, developed by bacteria and malignant tumors require finding alternatives to the existing medicines and treatment procedures. One of them is strengthening the effects of cytostatics by improving the delivery method. Such a method is represented by the use of medicines as micro/nano-droplets. This method can reduce the substance consumption by <span class="hlt">generating</span> drug micro-droplets incorporated in substances that can favour a faster localization, than the classical mode of medicine administration, to the tumor tissues. This paper contains the results concerning the <span class="hlt">generation</span> and study of micro/nano-droplets and the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of micro-droplets with an inner core (medicine) and a thin layer covering it. We have measured the surface tension at water/air interface and water/oil interface for a medicine (Vancomycin) and we have <span class="hlt">generated</span> and measured droplets of medicine containing a layer of Vitamin A by using a double capillary system. The micro/nano-droplets may be produced by mixing of two immiscible <span class="hlt">solutions</span> in particular conditions (high rotating speed and/or high pressure difference). For this we have studied the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of emulsions of vitamin A diluted in sunflower oil and a <span class="hlt">solution</span> of a surfactant Tween 80 in distilled water. The concentration of surfactant in water was typically 4*10-5M. We have studied in a batch stirred tank system the dependence of the droplet dimensions in emulsion, function of the mixing rotation speed, agitation time and components ratio. The droplet diameters were measured using a Malvern light scattering instrument type Mastersizer Hydro 2000M. We have obtained droplets with diameters smaller than 100 nm; the diameters distribution exhibited a peak at 65 nm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26093440','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26093440"><span id="translatedtitle">Elastic parabolic equation <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for oceanic T-wave <span class="hlt">generation</span> and propagation from deep seismic sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frank, Scott D; Collis, Jon M; Odom, Robert I</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Oceanic T-waves are earthquake signals that originate when elastic waves interact with the fluid-elastic interface at the ocean bottom and are converted to acoustic waves in the ocean. These waves propagate long distances in the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) channel and tend to be the largest observed arrivals from seismic events. Thus, an understanding of their <span class="hlt">generation</span> is important for event detection, localization, and source-type discrimination. Recently benchmarked seismic self-starting fields are used to <span class="hlt">generate</span> elastic parabolic equation <span class="hlt">solutions</span> that demonstrate <span class="hlt">generation</span> and propagation of oceanic T-waves in range-dependent underwater acoustic environments. Both downward sloping and abyssal ocean range-dependent environments are considered, and results demonstrate conversion of elastic waves into water-borne oceanic T-waves. Examples demonstrating long-range broadband T-wave propagation in range-dependent environments are shown. These results confirm that elastic parabolic equation <span class="hlt">solutions</span> are valuable for characterization of the relationships between T-wave propagation and variations in range-dependent bathymetry or elastic material parameters, as well as for modeling T-wave receptions at hydrophone arrays or coastal receiving stations. PMID:26093440</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107f1901Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107f1901Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous <span class="hlt">solution</span>-based <span class="hlt">generation</span> and characterization of crystalline bismuth thin film by femtosecond laser spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Liangdong; Saha, Sumit; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Yanli; Keszler, Douglas A.; Fang, Chong</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We demonstrate <span class="hlt">generation</span> and characterization of crystalline bismuth thin film from triphenyl bismuth in methanol. Upon ultraviolet (267 nm) femtosecond laser irradiation of the <span class="hlt">solution</span>, a thin film of elemental bismuth forms on the inner side of the sample cuvette, confirmed by detection of the coherent A1g optical phonon mode of crystalline bismuth at ˜90 cm-1. Probe pulses at 267 and 400 nm are used to elucidate the excited state potential energy surface and photochemical reaction coordinate of triphenyl bismuth in <span class="hlt">solution</span> with femtosecond resolution. The observed phonon mode blueshifts with increasing irradiation time, likely due to the gradual thickening of nascent bismuth thin film to ˜80 nm in 90 min. From transient absorption with the 400 nm probe, we observe a dominant ˜4 ps decay time constant of the excited-state absorption signal, which is attributed to a characteristic metal-ligand bond-weakening/breaking intermediate enroute to crystalline metallic thin film from the <span class="hlt">solution</span> precursor molecules. Our versatile optical setup thus opens an appealing avenue to characterize the laser-induced crystallization process in situ and prepare high-quality thin films and nanopatterns directly from <span class="hlt">solution</span> phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015mgm..conf.1327T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015mgm..conf.1327T"><span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">Solution-Generation</span> Using SL(2, - and General Black Holes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tomizawa, Shinya; Mizoguchi, Shun'ya</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The dimensional reduction of (the bosonic sector of) five-dimensional minimal supergravity to four dimensions leads to a theory with a massless axion and a dilaton coupled to gravity and two U(1) gauge fields (one of which has Chern-Simons coupling), whose field equations have SL(2, R) invariance. Utilizing this SL(2, R)-duality in the dimensionally reduced spacetime, we provide a new formalism for <span class="hlt">solution</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span>. Using the SL(2, R)-duality, we construct general Kaluza-Klein black hole <span class="hlt">solutions</span> which carry six independent charges, its mass, angular momentum along four dimensions, electric and magnetic charges of the Maxwell fields in addition to Kaluza-Klein electric and magnetic monopole charges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25768227','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25768227"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous pollutant removal and electricity <span class="hlt">generation</span> in denitrifying microbial fuel cell with boric acid-borate buffer <span class="hlt">solution</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Gang; Zhang, Shaohui; Li, Meng; Wei, Yan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A double-chamber denitrifying microbial fuel cell (MFC), using boric acid-borate buffer <span class="hlt">solution</span> as an alternative to phosphate buffer <span class="hlt">solution</span>, was set up to investigate the influence of buffer <span class="hlt">solution</span> concentration, temperature and external resistance on electricity <span class="hlt">generation</span> and pollutant removal efficiency. The result revealed that the denitrifying MFC with boric acid-borate buffer <span class="hlt">solution</span> was successfully started up in 51 days, with a stable cell voltage of 205.1 1.96 mV at an external resistance of 50 ?. Higher concentration of buffer <span class="hlt">solution</span> favored nitrogen removal and electricity <span class="hlt">generation</span>. The maximum power density of 8.27 W/m(3) net cathodic chamber was obtained at a buffer <span class="hlt">solution</span> concentration of 100 mmol/L. An increase in temperature benefitted electricity <span class="hlt">generation</span> and nitrogen removal. A suitable temperature for this denitrifying MFC was suggested to be 25 C. Decreasing the external resistance favored nitrogen removal and organic matter consumption by exoelectrogens. PMID:25768227</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21780615','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21780615"><span id="translatedtitle">[Influence of buffer <span class="hlt">solutions</span> on the performance of microbial fuel cell electricity <span class="hlt">generation</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qiang, Lin; Yuan, Lin-jiang; Ding, Qing</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a potential green technology due to its application in wastewater treatment and renewable energy <span class="hlt">generation</span>. Phosphate buffer <span class="hlt">solution</span> (PBS) has been commonly used in MFC studies to maintain a suitable pH for electricity <span class="hlt">generating</span> bacteria and/or to increase the <span class="hlt">solution</span> conductivity. However, it has some drawbacks using PBS in MFC: One is that the addition of a high concentration of phosphate buffer in MFCs is expensive, especially for the application in wastewater treatment; the other is that phosphates can contribute to the eutrophication conditions of water bodies if the effluents are discharged without the removal of phosphates. By adding PBS buffer as the comparison, the study investigated the effect of borax buffer and in the absence of buffer on the performance of electrical power, coulomb efficiency and effluent pH. 200 mmol/L PBS was the best, conductivity was 1.973 mS/cm,the maximum power density was 36.4 mW/m2 and the maximum coulomb efficiency was 2.92%, effluent pH was almost at (7.00 +/- 0.05). 100 mmol/L borax buffer <span class="hlt">solution</span>, conductivity was 1.553 mS/cm; the maximum power density was 26.2 mW/m2 coulomb efficiency of 6.26%, which was 2.14 times to PBS and greatly increased the electron recovery efficiency with the effluent pH was (7.35 +/- 0.05). While free buffer <span class="hlt">solution</span> conductivity was 0.314 mS/cm, maximum power density was 27.64 mW/m2; coulomb efficiency was 2.82% and the effluent pH of approximately 7.43. The electrolyte which in absence of buffer <span class="hlt">solution</span> conductivity was 1/6 of adding PBS buffer, 1/5 of borax buffer, while its power density lower 8.76 mW/mr2 than adding PBS and higher 1.24 mW/m2 than borax buffer. The results showed that adding the suitable concentration of borax buffer may improve the electron recovery efficiency and under batch conditions, MFC run successfully without adding buffer <span class="hlt">solution</span> to MFC. PMID:21780615</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1011614','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1011614"><span id="translatedtitle">Computing confidence intervals on <span class="hlt">solution</span> costs for stochastic grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> expansion problems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Woodruff, David L..; Watson, Jean-Paul</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A range of core operations and planning problems for the national electrical grid are naturally formulated and solved as stochastic programming problems, which minimize expected costs subject to a range of uncertain outcomes relating to, for example, uncertain demands or <span class="hlt">generator</span> output. A critical decision issue relating to such stochastic programs is: How many scenarios are required to ensure a specific error bound on the <span class="hlt">solution</span> cost? Scenarios are the key mechanism used to sample from the uncertainty space, and the number of scenarios drives computational difficultly. We explore this question in the context of a long-term grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> expansion problem, using a bounding procedure introduced by Mak, Morton, and Wood. We discuss experimental results using problem formulations independently minimizing expected cost and down-side risk. Our results indicate that we can use a surprisingly small number of scenarios to yield tight error bounds in the case of expected cost minimization, which has key practical implications. In contrast, error bounds in the case of risk minimization are significantly larger, suggesting more research is required in this area in order to achieve rigorous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for decision makers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SbMat.206.1731K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SbMat.206.1731K"><span id="translatedtitle">Disconjugacy of <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order equations on graphs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kulaev, R. Ch</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This paper develops the theory of disconjugacy of <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order equations on geometric graphs which arises in modelling rod structures. The disconjugacy of an equation is defined in terms of a special fundamental system of <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of the homogeneous equation. The disconjugacy property is shown to be related to the positivity property of the Green's functions for certain classes of boundary value problems for a <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order equation on a graph. A maximum principle for a <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order equation on a graph is formulated, and some properties of differential inequalities are proved. Bibliography: 25 titles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/329560','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/329560"><span id="translatedtitle">The corrosion effect of ozonated seawater <span class="hlt">solution</span> on titanium in polymer <span class="hlt">generated</span> crevice environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Leveillee, S.Y.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Two different tests were designed to evaluate the reaction of various polymers and grade-2 titanium in ozonated seawater in conjunction with a comparative analysis in an aerated seawater <span class="hlt">solution</span>. The first was a weight loss test measuring the weight change of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Polyethylene and Teflon{trademark} in both ozonated and aerated artificial seawater baths. The second test was designed to induce crevice corrosion on the titanium test samples using various crevice <span class="hlt">generating</span> materials in both ozonated and aerated <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. The materials used to create the crevices were grade-2 titanium washers, PVC, Polyethylene, Saran and Teflon{trademark}. The weight loss test showed that all three polymers lost weight in the ozonated bath. The results of the titanium washer crevice test provided no indication of corrosion or surface discoloration in either the ozonated or aerated <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis found no fluorine, chlorine or other corrosion product. The PVC samples in the aerated bath also showed no signs of corrosion, but the PVC samples in the ozonated tank had light brown rings of surface discoloration. One of the ozonated PVC samples did show evidence of chlorine in the corrosion product. The outer circumference of the ozonated PVC washers exhibited the same type bleaching effect as in the weight loss samples, but the whitening of these samples were more pronounced. The polyethylene samples under aeration showed no discoloration or presence of fluorine or chlorine. The polyethylene crevice samples in the ozonated <span class="hlt">solution</span> all exhibited the distinct brilliant blue color of titanium oxide. Fluorine was found in the corrosion product on only one of the samples. Chlorine was found on the surface of one of the other corrosion coupons. The results of the Teflon{trademark} crevice samples substantiated the previous Rensselaer study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25832776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25832776"><span id="translatedtitle">Charge <span class="hlt">generation</span> layers for <span class="hlt">solution</span> processed tandem organic light emitting diodes with regular device architecture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hfle, Stefan; Bernhard, Christoph; Bruns, Michael; Kbel, Christian; Scherer, Torsten; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander</p> <p>2015-04-22</p> <p>Tandem organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) utilizing fluorescent polymers in both sub-OLEDs and a regular device architecture were fabricated from <span class="hlt">solution</span>, and their structure and performance characterized. The charge carrier <span class="hlt">generation</span> layer comprised a zinc oxide layer, modified by a polyethylenimine interface dipole, for electron injection and either MoO3, WO3, or VOx for hole injection into the adjacent sub-OLEDs. ToF-SIMS investigations and STEM-EDX mapping verified the distinct functional layers throughout the layer stack. At a given device current density, the current efficiencies of both sub-OLEDs add up to a maximum of 25 cd/A, indicating a properly working tandem OLED. PMID:25832776</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000eso..pres...18.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000eso..pres...18."><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Light at Paranal!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p>VLT YEPUN Joins ANTU, KUEYEN and MELIPAL It was a historical moment last night (September 3 - 4, 2000) in the VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory , after nearly 15 years of hard work. Finally, four teams of astronomers and engineers were sitting at the terminals - and each team with access to an 8.2-m telescope! From now on, the powerful "Paranal Quartet" will be observing night after night, with a combined mirror surface of more than 210 m 2. And beginning next year, some of them will be linked to form part of the unique VLT Interferometer with unparalleled sensitivity and image sharpness. YEPUN "First Light" Early in the evening, the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN , was pointed to the sky for the first time and successfully achieved "First Light". Following a few technical exposures, a series of "first light" photos was made of several astronomical objects with the VLT Test Camera. This instrument was also used for the three previous "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). These images served to evaluate provisionally the performance of the new telescope, mainly in terms of mechanical and optical quality. The ESO staff were very pleased with the results and pronounced YEPUN fit for the subsequent commissioning phase. When the name YEPUN was first given to the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> VLT Unit Telescope, it was supposed to mean "Sirius" in the Mapuche language. However, doubts have since arisen about this translation and a detailed investigation now indicates that the correct meaning is "Venus" (as the Evening Star). For a detailed explanation, please consult the essay On the Meaning of "YEPUN" , now available at the ESO website. The first images At 21:39 hrs local time (01:39 UT), YEPUN was turned to point in the direction of a dense Milky Way field, near the border between the constellations Sagitta (The Arrow) and Aquila (The Eagle). A guide star was acquired and the active optics system quickly optimized the mirror system. At 21:44 hrs (01:44 UT), the Test Camera at the Cassegrain focus within the M1 mirror cell was opened for 30 seconds, with the planetary nebula Hen 2-428 in the field. The resulting "First Light" image was immediately read out and appeared on the computer screen at 21:45:53 hrs (01:45:53 UT). "Not bad! - "Very nice!" were the first, "business-as-usual"-like comments in the room. The zenith distance during this observation was 44° and the image quality was measured as 0.9 arcsec, exactly the same as that registered by the Seeing Monitoring Telescope outside the telescope building. There was some wind. ESO PR Photo 22a/00 ESO PR Photo 22a/00 [Preview - JPEG: 374 x 400 pix - 128k] [Normal - JPEG: 978 x 1046 pix - 728k] Caption : ESO PR Photo 22a/00 shows a colour composite of some of the first astronomical exposures obtained by YEPUN . The object is the planetary nebula Hen 2-428 that is located at a distance of 6,000-8,000 light-years and seen in a dense sky field, only 2° from the main plane of the Milky Way. As other planetary nebulae, it is caused by a dying star (the bluish object at the centre) that shreds its outer layers. The image is based on exposures through three optical filtres: B(lue) (10 min exposure, seeing 0.9 arcsec; here rendered as blue), V(isual) (5 min; 0.9 arcsec; green) and R(ed) (3 min; 0.9 arcsec; red). The field measures 88 x 78 arcsec 2 (1 pixel = 0.09 arcsec). North is to the lower right and East is to the lower left. The 5-day old Moon was about 90° away in the sky that was accordingly bright. The zenith angle was 44°. The ESO staff then proceeded to take a series of three photos with longer exposures through three different optical filtres. They have been combined to produce the image shown in ESO PR Photo 22a/00 . More astronomical images were obtained in sequence, first of the dwarf galaxy NGC 6822 in the Local Group (see PR Photo 22f/00 below) and then of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 . All 8.2-m telescopes now in operation at Paranal The ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , who was present on Paranal during this event, congratulated the ESO staff to the great achievement, herewith bringing a major phase of the VLT project to a successful end. She was particularly impressed by the excellent optical quality that was achieved at this early moment of the commissioning tests. A measurement showed that already now, 80% of the light is concentrated within 0.22 arcsec. The manager of the VLT project, Massimo Tarenghi , was very happy to reach this crucial project milestone, after nearly fifteen years of hard work. He also remarked that with the M2 mirror already now "in the active optics loop", the telescope was correctly compensating for the somewhat mediocre atmospheric conditions on this night. The next major step will be the "first light" for the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) , when the light from two Unit Telescopes is combined. This event is expected in the middle of next year. Impressions from the YEPUN "First Light" event First Light for YEPUN - ESO PR VC 06/00 ESO PR Video Clip 06/00 "First Light for YEPUN" (5650 frames/3:46 min) [MPEG Video+Audio; 160x120 pix; 7.7Mb] [MPEG Video+Audio; 320x240 pix; 25.7 Mb] [RealMedia; streaming; 34kps] [RealMedia; streaming; 200kps] ESO Video Clip 06/00 shows sequences from the Control Room at the Paranal Observatory, recorded with a fixed TV-camera in the evening of September 3 at about 23:00 hrs local time (03:00 UT), i.e., soon after the moment of "First Light" for YEPUN . The video sequences were transmitted via ESO's dedicated satellite communication link to the Headquarters in Garching for production of the clip. It begins at the moment a guide star is acquired to perform an automatic "active optics" correction of the mirrors; the associated explanation is given by Massimo Tarenghi (VLT Project Manager). The first astronomical observation is performed and the first image of the planetary nebula Hen 2-428 is discussed by the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky . The next image, of the nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 6822 , arrives and is shown and commented on by the ESO Director General. Finally, Massimo Tarenghi talks about the next major step of the VLT Project. The combination of the lightbeams from two 8.2-m Unit Telescopes, planned for the summer of 2001, will mark the beginning of the VLT Interferometer. ESO Press Photo 22b/00 ESO Press Photo 22b/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 300; 88k] [Full size; JPEG: 1600 x 1200; 408k] The enclosure for the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN , photographed at sunset on September 3, 2000, immediately before "First Light" was successfully achieved. The upper part of the mostly subterranean Interferometric Laboratory for the VLTI is seen in front. (Digital Photo). ESO Press Photo 22c/00 ESO Press Photo 22c/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 300; 112k] [Full size; JPEG: 1280 x 960; 184k] The initial tuning of the YEPUN optical system took place in the early evening of September 3, 2000, from the "observing hut" on the floor of the telescope enclosure. From left to right: Krister Wirenstrand who is responsible for the VLT Control Software, Jason Spyromilio - Head of the Commissioning Team, and Massimo Tarenghi , VLT Manager. (Digital Photo). ESO Press Photo 22d/00 ESO Press Photo 22d/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 300; 112k] [Full size; JPEG: 1280 x 960; 184k] "Mission Accomplished" - The ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , and the Paranal Director, Roberto Gilmozzi , face the VLT Manager, Massimo Tarenghi at the YEPUN Control Station, right after successful "First Light" for this telescope. (Digital Photo). An aerial image of YEPUN in its enclosure is available as ESO PR Photo 43a/99. The mechanical structure of YEPUN was first pre-assembled at the Ansaldo factory in Milan (Italy) where it served for tests while the other telescopes were erected at Paranal. An early photo ( ESO PR Photo 37/95 ) is available that was obtained during the visit of the ESO Council to Milan in December 1995, cf. ESO PR 18/95. Paranal at sunset ESO Press Photo 22e/00 ESO Press Photo 22e/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 200; 14kb] [Normal; JPEG: 800 x 400; 84kb] [High-Res; JPEG: 4000 x 2000; 4.0Mb] Wide-angle view of the Paranal Observatory at sunset. The last rays of the sun illuminate the telescope enclosures at the top of the mountain and some of the buildings at the Base Camp. The new "residencia" that will provide living space for the Paranal staff and visitors from next year is being constructed to the left. The "First Light" observations with YEPUN began soon after sunset. This photo was obtained in March 2000. Additional photos (September 6, 2000) ESO PR Photo 22f/00 ESO PR Photo 22f/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 487 pix - 224k] [Normal - JPEG: 992 x 1208 pix - 1.3Mb] Caption : ESO PR Photo 22f/00 shows a colour composite of three exposures of a field in the dwarf galaxy NGC 6822 , a member of the Local Group of Galaxies at a distance of about 2 million light-years. They were obtained by YEPUN and the VLT Test Camera at about 23:00 hrs local time on September 3 (03:00 UT on September 4), 2000. The image is based on exposures through three optical filtres: B(lue) (10 min exposure; here rendered as blue), V(isual) (5 min; green) and R(ed) (5 min; red); the seeing was 0.9 - 1.0 arcsec. Individual stars of many different colours (temperatures) are seen. The field measures about 1.5 x 1.5 arcmin 2. Another image of this galaxy was obtained earlier with ANTU and FORS1 , cf. PR Photo 10b/99. ESO Press Photo 22g/00 ESO Press Photo 22g/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 300; 136k] [Full size; JPEG: 1280 x 960; 224k] Most of the crew that put together YEPUN is here photographed after the installation of the M1 mirror cell at the bottom of the mechanical structure (on July 30, 2000). Back row (left to right): Erich Bugueno (Mechanical Supervisor), Erito Flores (Maintenance Technician); front row (left to right) Peter Gray (Mechanical Engineer), German Ehrenfeld (Mechanical Engineer), Mario Tapia (Mechanical Engineer), Christian Juica (kneeling - Mechanical Technician), Nelson Montano (Maintenance Engineer), Hansel Sepulveda (Mechanical Technican) and Roberto Tamai (Mechanical Engineer). (Digital Photo). ESO PR Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory. The ESO PR Video Clips service to visitors to the ESO website provides "animated" illustrations of the ongoing work and events at the European Southern Observatory. The most recent clip was: ESO PR Video Clip 05/00 ("Portugal to Accede to ESO (27 June 2000). Information is also available on the web about other ESO videos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22293357','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22293357"><span id="translatedtitle">Treatment of Uranium and Plutonium <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> <span class="hlt">Generated</span> in the Atalante Facility, France - 12004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lagrave, Herve</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The Atalante complex operated by the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) at the Rhone Valley Research Center consolidates research programs on actinide chemistry, especially separation chemistry, processing for recycling spent fuel, and fabrication of actinide targets for innovative concepts in future nuclear systems. The design of future systems (<span class="hlt">Generation</span> IV reactors, material recycling) will increase the uranium and plutonium flows in the facility, making it important to anticipate the stepped-up activity and provide Atalante with equipment dedicated to processing these <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to obtain a mixed uranium-plutonium oxide that will be stored pending reuse. Ongoing studies for integral recycling of the actinides have highlighted the need for reserving equipment to produce actinides mixed oxide powder and also minor actinides bearing oxide for R and D purpose. To meet this double objective a new shielded line should be built in the facility and should be operational 6 years after go decision. The main functions of the new unit would be to receive, concentrate and store <span class="hlt">solutions</span>, purify them, ensure group conversion of actinides and conversion of excess uranium. This new unit will be constructed in a completely refurbished building devoted to subcritical and safe geometry of the process equipments. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6784E.103Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6784E.103Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A flexible <span class="hlt">solution</span> for the next <span class="hlt">generation</span> EPON with hybrid bidirectional 1Gbps and 10Gbps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Weixun; Qiao, Yaojun; Li, Hui; Ji, Yuefeng</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>Ethernet PON (EPON) has been proved to be a successful technology among all the standardized PON systems [1, 2], in terms of its cost-effective and large bandwidth virtue. And EPON has become a network of a choice for subscriber oriented digital service delivery, taking over the market previously dominated by DSL. However, with the development of advanced video services, the bandwidth capacity of current EPON seems to be not well suited for the future large deployment of triple-play services. Many researches are now taken about the Next <span class="hlt">Generation</span> EPON; and the recent 10G EPON system standardization effort in the IEEE [3] results a lot of interest in the evolution of current PON systems towards high data rate system capable of providing a future-proof platform for delivery of personalized triple-play services. In this paper, a novel architecture of TDM-based 10GE-PON system is proposed. It combines the GE-PON and 10GE-PON systems, and provides symmetric 1Gbps/10Gbps or asymmetric access simultaneously. According to the results of the simulation on the system throughput and latency performance, the system is verified to be one <span class="hlt">solution</span> and an important step from 1Gbit/s to 10Gbit/s for the Next <span class="hlt">Generation</span> EPON.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJMPD..2445008B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJMPD..2445008B"><span id="translatedtitle">Dark Coulomb binding of heavy neutrinos of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> family</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belotsky, K. M.; Esipova, E. A.; Khlopov, M. Yu.; Laletin, M. N.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Direct dark matter searches put severe constraints on the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). These constraints cause serious troubles for the model of stable neutrino of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> with mass around 50GeV. Though the calculations of primordial abundance of these particles make them in the charge symmetric case a sparse subdominant component of the modern dark matter, their presence in the universe would exceed the current upper limits by several orders of the magnitude. However, if quarks and leptons of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> possess their own Coulomb-like y-interaction, recombination of pairs of heavy neutrinos and antineutrinos and their annihilation in the neutrinium atoms can play important role in their cosmological evolution, reducing their modern abundance far below the experimental upper limits. The model of stable <span class="hlt">fourth</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> assumes that the dominant part of dark matter is explained by excessive ? antiquarks, forming (???)?? charged clusters, bound with primordial helium in nuclear-interacting O-helium (OHe) dark atoms. The y charge conservation implies <span class="hlt">generation</span> of the same excess of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> neutrinos, potentially dangerous WIMP component of this scenario. We show that due to y-interaction recombination of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> neutrinos with OHe hides these WIMPs from direct WIMP searches, leaving the negligible fraction of free neutrinos, what makes their existence compatible with the experimental constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930064252&hterms=sponge&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsponge','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930064252&hterms=sponge&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsponge"><span id="translatedtitle">High order accurate <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of viscous problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hayder, M. E.; Turkel, Eli</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>We consider a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order extension to MacCormack's scheme. The original extension was <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order only for the inviscid terms but was second order for the viscous terms. We show how to modify the viscous terms so that the scheme is uniformly <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order in the spatial derivatives. Applications are given to some boundary layer flows. In addition, for applications to shear flows the effect of the outflow boundary conditions are very important. We compare the accuracy of several of these different boundary conditions for both boundary layer and shear flows. Stretching at the outflow usually increases the oscillations in the numerical <span class="hlt">solution</span> but the addition of a filtered sponge layer (with or without stretching) reduces such oscillations. The oscillations are <span class="hlt">generated</span> by insufficient resolution of the shear layer. When the shear layer is sufficiently resolved then oscillations are not <span class="hlt">generated</span> and there is less of a need for a nonreflecting boundary condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22463373','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22463373"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">generation</span> in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells using a heat-regenerated salt <span class="hlt">solution</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nam, Joo-Youn; Cusick, Roland D; Kim, Younggy; Logan, Bruce E</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Hydrogen gas can be electrochemically produced in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells (MRECs) using current derived from organic matter and salinity-gradient energy such as river water and seawater <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. Here, it is shown that ammonium bicarbonate salts, which can be regenerated using low-temperature waste heat, can also produce sufficient voltage for hydrogen gas <span class="hlt">generation</span> in an MREC. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 1.6 m(3) H(2)/m(3)d, with a hydrogen yield of 3.4 mol H(2)/mol acetate at a salinity ratio of infinite. Energy recovery was 10% based on total energy applied with an energy efficiency of 22% based on the consumed energy in the reactor. The cathode overpotential was dependent on the catholyte (sodium bicarbonate) concentration, but not the salinity ratio, indicating high catholyte conductivity was essential for maximizing hydrogen production rates. The direction of the HC and LC flows (co- or counter-current) did not affect performance in terms of hydrogen gas volume, production rates, or stack voltages. These results show that the MREC can be successfully operated using ammonium bicarbonate salts that can be regenerated using conventional distillation technologies and waste heat making the MREC a useful method for hydrogen gas production from wastes. PMID:22463373</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448384','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448384"><span id="translatedtitle">Third-harmonic <span class="hlt">generation</span> of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser in colloidal <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of platinum and copper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ganeev, R A; Usmanov, T; Ryasnyansky, A I</p> <p>2001-02-28</p> <p>Third-harmonic <span class="hlt">generation</span> of laser radiation is studied in colloidal <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of platinum and copper. The values of {chi}{sup (3)} in these <span class="hlt">solutions</span> at a wavelength of 1064 nm were measured to be 2 x 10{sup -14} and 10{sup -14} CGSE units, and the efficiency of the Nd : YAG laser radiation conversion to the third harmonic was 7 x 10{sup -7} and 3 x 10{sup -7} , respectively. (nonlinear optical phenomena)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/350658','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/350658"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding radioactive waste. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Murray, R.L.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>Understanding Radioactive Waste has proven to be an informative and valuable textbook for high school and college students as well as an excellent reference for concerned citizens. Now in its <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition, it explains what radioactivity is and goes on to explore the merits of various methods of disposal and the use of licensing and regulation as forms of protection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ethical+AND+standards+AND+code+AND+conduct&pg=5&id=ED323466','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ethical+AND+standards+AND+code+AND+conduct&pg=5&id=ED323466"><span id="translatedtitle">Ethical Standards Casebook. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Herlihy, Barbara; Golden, Larry B.</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition of the Ethical Standards Casebook was developed for use in a class in ethics in counseling or in other settings where ethical issues are considered. Section 1 presents the revised American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) "Ethical Standards" adopted by the Governing Council in March 1988. Section 2 presents</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900019993','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900019993"><span id="translatedtitle">A package for 3-D unstructured grid <span class="hlt">generation</span>, finite-element flow <span class="hlt">solution</span> and flow field visualization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parikh, Paresh; Pirzadeh, Shahyar; Loehner, Rainald</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A set of computer programs for 3-D unstructured grid <span class="hlt">generation</span>, fluid flow calculations, and flow field visualization was developed. The grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> program, called VGRID3D, <span class="hlt">generates</span> grids over complex configurations using the advancing front method. In this method, the point and element <span class="hlt">generation</span> is accomplished simultaneously, VPLOT3D is an interactive, menudriven pre- and post-processor graphics program for interpolation and display of unstructured grid data. The flow solver, VFLOW3D, is an Euler equation solver based on an explicit, two-step, Taylor-Galerkin algorithm which uses the Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) concept for a wriggle-free <span class="hlt">solution</span>. Using these programs, increasingly complex 3-D configurations of interest to aerospace community were gridded including a complete Space Transportation System comprised of the space-shuttle orbitor, the solid-rocket boosters, and the external tank. Flow <span class="hlt">solutions</span> were obtained on various configurations in subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flow regimes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JHyd..476..384G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JHyd..476..384G"><span id="translatedtitle">Balance errors <span class="hlt">generated</span> by numerical diffusion in the <span class="hlt">solution</span> of non-linear open channel flow equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>G?siorowski, D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>SummaryThe paper concerns the untypical aspect of application of the dissipative numerical methods to solve non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations used in open channel hydraulics. It is shown that in some cases the numerical diffusion <span class="hlt">generated</span> by the applied method of <span class="hlt">solution</span> produces not only inaccurate <span class="hlt">solution</span> but as well as a balance error. This error may occur even for an equation written in the conservative form not only in the <span class="hlt">solution</span> containing a shock wave but also for the smooth <span class="hlt">solution</span> with strong gradients. In order to explain this problem 1-D kinematic wave equation and 1-D system of shallow water equations, both solved by the finite-difference implicit box scheme, are considered. Accuracy analysis carried out using the modified equation approach revealed why the numerical <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of these equations written in the conservative forms contain the balance errors. It was shown that the balance error is directly connected with the additional source term <span class="hlt">generated</span> by the numerical diffusion during the <span class="hlt">solution</span> of equation written in an inadequate conservative form. Consequently the balance error depends on the values of time step, spatial interval and the weighting parameters involved in the applied method of <span class="hlt">solution</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JEMat..43.1865H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JEMat..43.1865H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Solutions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hong, Qin-Gang; Chang, Li-Shin; Hsieh, Huey-Lin</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Type-VIII Ba8Ga16Sn30 polycrystalline clathrates were grown vertically downwards from Ba8Ga16Sn50 <span class="hlt">solution</span> at furnace temperatures between 500C and 800C with an ampoule velocity of 0.36 cm/h. The microstructure, composition, crystal structure, and thermoelectric properties of crystals were investigated. Polycrystalline samples in which Ba8Ga16Sn30 grains were wetted by an Sn-rich phase were prepared. In general, grain size increases along the direction of growth. It was found that the sample grown at 650C had the largest grains. Smaller grains were observed for samples grown at lower temperatures, as a result of higher rate of nucleation, because of higher undercooling at the solid-liquid interface caused by the lower thermal gradient in the liquid. However, at furnace temperatures higher than 650C enhanced convection in the <span class="hlt">solution</span> at higher temperature gradients and wetting phenomena may cause instability of the solid-liquid interface and solid nuclei may flow into the liquid to become new nucleation sites. This explains the decrease of grain size at higher furnace temperatures. The optimum ZT and power factor of the undoped Ba8Ga16Sn30 clathrate prepared by the vertical Bridgman method in this study were, respectively, 0.8 and 11.4 ?W/cmK2 at 200C; the Seebeck coefficient was -260 ?V/K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Knowledge+AND+economy&pg=7&id=EJ954521','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Knowledge+AND+economy&pg=7&id=EJ954521"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Way in Action: Teacher Education in Singapore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tan, Oon Seng</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Policy makers are often looking for <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to develop their educational systems in today's highly competitive knowledge-based economy. Hargreaves and Shirley's <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Way provides a useful approach in analysing policy trends, successes and pitfalls, based on an observation of practices and research evidences in the west, particularly, the USA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/886965','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/886965"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order accurate adaptive mesh refinement method forpoisson's equation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barad, Michael; Colella, Phillip</p> <p>2004-08-20</p> <p>We present a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method for computing <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to Poisson's equation in two and three dimensions. It is based on a conservative, finite-volume formulation of the classical Mehrstellen methods. This is combined with finite volume AMR discretizations to obtain a method that is <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order accurate in <span class="hlt">solution</span> error, and with easily verifiable solvability conditions for Neumann and periodic boundary conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=35294&keyword=titration&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=58828997&CFTOKEN=62535331','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=35294&keyword=titration&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=58828997&CFTOKEN=62535331"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">GENERATION</span> OF SOIL <span class="hlt">SOLUTION</span> ACID NEUTRALIZING CAPACITY BY ADDITION OF DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A Spodosol B horizon(base saturation of 5.4%) collected at the Watershed Manipulation Project site at Lead Mountain, ME, was used to examine soil <span class="hlt">solution</span> chemistry in response to increasing <span class="hlt">solution</span> levels of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). cid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), det...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920023704','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920023704"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stephens, David G. (Compiler)</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">fourth</span> in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970020547','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970020547"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> International Microgravity Combustion Workshop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sacksteder, Kurt R. (Compiler)</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>This Conference Publication contains 84 papers presented at the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio, from May 19 to 21, 1997. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JaJAP..51j8005A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JaJAP..51j8005A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of Radio Frequency Plasma in High-Conductivity NaCl <span class="hlt">Solution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amano, Tatsuya; Mukasa, Shinobu; Honjoya, Naoki; Okumura, Hidehiko; Maehara, Tsunehiro</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Experimental investigations were carried out on RF plasma within a ceramic tube placed on an insulating plate in dense NaCl <span class="hlt">solution</span> (1.7-24.5 S m-1). RF power was applied between two electrodes, and the insulating plate was placed between them. Upon performing spectroscopic measurements, we observed H and OH lines as well as strong Na lines in the emission spectra of RF plasma. Colored <span class="hlt">solution</span> containing methylene blue was exposed to the plasma. The absorbance spectra of the colored <span class="hlt">solution</span> before and after exposure to RF plasma clearly show that obvious degradation of methylene blue was realized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20774704','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20774704"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravitational lensing in <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Capozziello, S.; Troisi, A.; Cardone, V.F.</p> <p>2006-05-15</p> <p>Gravitational lensing is investigated in the weak field limit of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order gravity in which the Lagrangian of the gravitational field is modified by replacing the Ricci scalar curvature R with an analytical expression f(R). Considering the case of a pointlike lens, we study the behavior of the deflection angle in the case of power-law Lagrangians, i.e. with f(R){proportional_to}R{sup n}. In order to investigate possible detectable signatures, the position of the Einstein ring and the <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of the lens equation are evaluated considering the change with respect to the standard case. Effects on the amplification of the images and the Paczynski curve in microlensing experiments are also estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21578198','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21578198"><span id="translatedtitle">Search for the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> standard model family</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sahin, M.; Sultansoy, S.; Turkoz, S.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Existence of the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> family follows from the basics of the standard model (SM) and the actual mass spectrum of the third family fermions. We discuss possible manifestations of the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> SM family at existing and future colliders. The LHC and Tevatron potentials to discover the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> SM family have been compared. The scenario with dominance of the anomalous decay modes of the <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-family quarks has been considered in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcSpe.105...77S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcSpe.105...77S"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatable on-line <span class="hlt">generation</span> of calibration curves and standard additions in <span class="hlt">solution</span>-cathode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwartz, Andrew J.; Ray, Steven J.; Hieftje, Gary M.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Two methods are described that enable on-line <span class="hlt">generation</span> of calibration standards and standard additions in <span class="hlt">solution</span>-cathode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (SCGD-OES). The first method employs a gradient high-performance liquid chromatography pump to perform on-line mixing and delivery of a stock standard, sample <span class="hlt">solution</span>, and diluent to achieve a desired <span class="hlt">solution</span> composition. The second method makes use of a simpler system of three peristaltic pumps to perform the same function of on-line <span class="hlt">solution</span> mixing. Both methods can be computer-controlled and automated, and thereby enable both simple and standard-addition calibrations to be rapidly performed on-line. Performance of the on-line approaches is shown to be comparable to that of traditional methods of sample preparation, in terms of calibration curves, signal stability, accuracy, and limits of detection. Potential drawbacks to the on-line procedures include signal lag between changes in <span class="hlt">solution</span> composition and pump-induced multiplicative noise. Though the new on-line methods were applied here to SCGD-OES to improve sample throughput, they are not limited in application to only SCGD-OES-any instrument that samples from flowing <span class="hlt">solution</span> streams (flame atomic absorption spectrometry, ICP-OES, ICP-mass spectrometry, etc.) could benefit from them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyS...87b5401J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhyS...87b5401J"><span id="translatedtitle">Lie group analysis and numerical <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for non-Newtonian nanofluid flow in a porous medium with internal heat <span class="hlt">generation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jashim Uddin, Md; Yusoff, N. H. Md; Bg, O. Anwar; Izani Ismail, Ahamd</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>A mathematical model is presented and analysed for steady two-dimensional non-isothermal boundary layer flow from a heated horizontal surface which is embedded in a porous medium saturated with a non-Newtonian power-law nanofluid. It is assumed that the wall temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction vary nonlinearly with the axial distance. By applying appropriate group transformations, the governing transport equations are reduced to a system of coupled, nonlinear ordinary differential equations with associated boundary conditions. The reduced equations are then solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-fifth-order numerical method with Maple 13 software. The effects of several thermophysical parameters including rheological power-law index, non-isothermal index, Lewis number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, buoyancy ratio and internal heat <span class="hlt">generation</span>/absorption parameter on the non-dimensional velocity, temperature, nanoparticle volume fraction (concentration) and also on the friction factor, heat and mass transfer rates are investigated. A comparison of the present results with the existing published results shows excellent agreement, verifying the accuracy of the present numerical code. The study finds applications in nano biopolymeric manufacturing processes and also thermal enhancement of energy systems employing rheological working fluids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=random+AND+generator&pg=3&id=EJ577801','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=random+AND+generator&pg=3&id=EJ577801"><span id="translatedtitle">CD-ROM Based Multimedia Homework <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> and Self Test <span class="hlt">Generator</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rhodes, Jeffrey M.; Bell, Christopher C.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Discusses a prototype multimedia application that was designed to help college students solve problems and <span class="hlt">generate</span> practice tests for an economics textbook. Highlights include step-by-step problem solving; a friendly interface; student tracking; inexpensive development costs; examples of screen displays; and <span class="hlt">generating</span> random, scored tests on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010045531&hterms=jj&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Djj','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010045531&hterms=jj&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Djj"><span id="translatedtitle">Hyperbolic Prismatic Grid <span class="hlt">Generation</span> and <span class="hlt">Solution</span> of Euler Equations on Prismatic Grids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pandya, S. A.; Chattot, JJ; Hafez, M. M.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A hyperbolic grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> method is used to <span class="hlt">generate</span> prismatic grids and an approach using prismatic grids to solve the Euler equations is presented. The theory of the stability and feasibility of the hyperbolic grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> method is presented. The hyperbolic grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> method of Steger et al for structured grids is applied to a three dimensional triangularized surface definition to <span class="hlt">generate</span> a grid that is unstructured on each successive layer. The grid, however, retains structure in the body-normal direction and has a computational cell shaped like a triangular prism. In order to take advantage of the structure in the normal direction, a finite-volume scheme that treats the unknowns along the normal direction implicitly is introduced and the flow over a sphere is simulated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7119291','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7119291"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of soil <span class="hlt">solution</span> acid-neutralizing capacity by addition of dissolved inorganic carbon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>David, M.B.; Vance, G.F.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A Spodosol B horizon (base saturation of 5.4%) collected at the Watershed Manipulation Project site at Lead Mountain, ME, was used to examine soil <span class="hlt">solution</span> chemistry in response to increasing <span class="hlt">solution</span> levels of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), determined by Gran titration, increased from -5 to 163 mw equiv/L in response to increasing DIC, with a corresponding increase in base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+). For the negative ANC <span class="hlt">solutions</span>, degassing increased <span class="hlt">solution</span> pH (in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2) slightly from 4.94 to 5.14, whereas <span class="hlt">solutions</span> with positive ANC showed large pH shifts (e.g., ANC of 69, pH shift from 4.73 to 6.81). Under equilibrium assumptions and log K(sub A1) determined from 2.66pH-pAl, measured values from ANC, sum of cations, pH, and degassed pH were found to be in agreement with predictions from a chemical equilibrium model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmEn..46..665S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmEn..46..665S"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide <span class="hlt">generation</span> in ambient particle extracts and laboratory metal <span class="hlt">solutions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Huiyun; Anastasio, Cort</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - including superoxide ( rad O 2-), hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), and hydroxyl radical ( rad OH) - has been suggested as one mechanism underlying the adverse health effects caused by ambient particulate matter (PM). In this study we compare HOOH and rad OH production from fine and coarse PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California, as well as from laboratory <span class="hlt">solutions</span> containing dissolved copper or iron. Samples were extracted in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) <span class="hlt">solution</span> containing 50 ?M ascorbate (Asc). In our laboratory <span class="hlt">solutions</span> we find that Cu is a potent source of both HOOH and rad OH, with approximately 90% of the electrons that can be donated from Asc ending up in HOOH and rad OH after 4 h. In contrast, in Fe <span class="hlt">solutions</span> there is no measurable HOOH and only a modest production of rad OH. Soluble Cu in the SJV PM samples is also a dominant source of HOOH and rad OH. In both laboratory copper <span class="hlt">solutions</span> and extracts of ambient particles we find much more production of HOOH compared to rad OH: e.g., HOOH <span class="hlt">generation</span> is approximately 30-60 times faster than rad OH <span class="hlt">generation</span>. The formation of HOOH and rad OH are positively correlated, with roughly 3% and 8% of HOOH converted to rad OH after 4 and 24 h of extraction, respectively. Although the SJV PM produce much more HOOH than rad OH, since rad OH is a much stronger oxidant it is unclear which species might be more important for oxidant-mediated toxicity from PM inhalation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20735108','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20735108"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of nanoparticles of controlled size using ultrasonic piezoelectric oscillators in <span class="hlt">solution</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wright, Ian K; Higginbotham, Andrew; Baker, Shenda M; Donnelly, T D</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>We demonstrate the operation of a device that can produce chitosan nanoparticles in a tunable size range from 50-300 nm with small size dispersion. A piezoelectric oscillator operated at megahertz frequencies is used to aerosolize a <span class="hlt">solution</span> containing dissolved chitosan. The solvent is then evaporated from the aerosolized droplets in a heat pipe, leaving monodisperse nanoparticles to be collected. The nanoparticle size is controlled both by the concentration of the dissolved polymer and by the size of the aerosol droplets that are created. Our device can be used with any polymer or polymer/therapeutic combination that can be prepared in a homogeneous <span class="hlt">solution</span> and vaporized. PMID:20735108</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9566E..0IH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9566E..0IH"><span id="translatedtitle">Charge <span class="hlt">generation</span> layers for all-<span class="hlt">solution</span> processed organic tandem light emitting diodes with regular device architecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Höfle, Stefan; Bernhard, Christoph; Bruns, Michael; Kübel, Christian; Scherer, Torsten; Colsmann, Alexander</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We present multi-photon OLEDs where enhanced light emission was achieved by stacking two OLEDs utilizing a regular device architecture (top cathode) and an intermediate charge carrier <span class="hlt">generation</span> layer (CGL) for monolithic device interconnection. With respect to future printing processes for organic optoelectronic devices, all functional layers were deposited from <span class="hlt">solution</span>. The CGL comprises a low-work function zinc oxide layer that was applied from <span class="hlt">solution</span> under ambient conditions and at moderate processing temperatures and a high-work function interlayer that was realized from various <span class="hlt">solution</span> processable precursor-based metal oxides, like molybdenum-, vanadium- and tungsten-oxide. Since every injected electron-hole pair <span class="hlt">generates</span> two photons, the luminance and the current efficiency of the tandem OLED at a given device current are doubled while the power efficiency remains constant. At a given luminance, the lower operating current in the tandem device reduces electrical stress and improves the device life-time. ToF-SIMS, TEM/FIB and EDX analyses provided evidence of a distinct layer sequence without intermixing upon <span class="hlt">solution</span> deposition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17924691','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17924691"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of microdevices to determine the diffusion coefficient of electrochemically <span class="hlt">generated</span> species: application to binary solvent mixtures and micellar <span class="hlt">solutions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferreira, Tiago L; Paixo, Thiago R L C; Richter, Eduardo M; El Seoud, Omar A; Bertotti, Mauro</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>A new approach for the determination of diffusion coefficient, D, of redox species is presented. It is based on the use of a home-constructed twin electrode within a thin-layered cell (TETLC) filled with a <span class="hlt">solution</span> of electroactive species. Values of D are readily calculated, provided that the time required for the electrochemically <span class="hlt">generated</span> species (produced at the <span class="hlt">generator</span> electrode) to reach the collector electrode and the distance between both electrodes are known. Other parameters typically required to calculate D, e.g., concentration of the redox species, area of the electrode, and number of electrons transferred, are not needed. Diffusion coefficients of Fe(CN)(6)(3-), Ru(NH3)(6)(2+), and quinone were determined in water and, for Fe(CN)(6)(4-), in binary mixtures with glycerol. The results obtained were in good agreement with literature values. Aqueous glycerol <span class="hlt">solutions</span> are microheterogeneous, as shown by the dependence on medium composition of the empirical solvent polarity scale, ET(30), determined by the solvatochromic probe RB. The responses of RB and the electrochemically <span class="hlt">generated</span> species (Fe(CN)(6)(4-)) to the composition of aqueous glycerol mixtures were found to be remarkably similar. Measurements of D of ferrocene in micellar <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of the cationic surfactant CTABr were also performed. Values of D for ferrocene and the ferrocenium cation are very different, in agreement with the chemical affinity of both species for the cationic micelle. PMID:17924691</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JCoPh.165..660V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JCoPh.165..660V"><span id="translatedtitle">Second-<span class="hlt">Generation</span> Wavelet Collocation Method for the <span class="hlt">Solution</span> of Partial Differential Equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vasilyev, Oleg V.; Bowman, Christopher</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>An adaptive numerical method for solving partial differential equations is developed. The method is based on the whole new class of second-<span class="hlt">generation</span> wavelets. Wavelet decomposition is used for grid adaptation and interpolation, while a new O(N) hierarchical finite difference scheme, which takes advantage of wavelet multilevel decomposition, is used for derivative calculations. The treatment of nonlinear terms and general boundary conditions is a straightforward task due to the collocation nature of the algorithm. In this paper we demonstrate the algorithm for one particular choice of second-<span class="hlt">generation</span> wavelets, namely lifted interpolating wavelets on an interval with uniform (regular) sampling. The main advantage of using second-<span class="hlt">generation</span> wavelets is that wavelets can be custom designed for complex domains and irregular sampling. Thus, the strength of the new method is that it can be easily extended to the whole class of second-<span class="hlt">generation</span> wavelets, leaving the freedom and flexibility to choose the wavelet basis depending on the application.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26378950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26378950"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Microbubbles on Free Radical <span class="hlt">Generation</span> by Ultrasound in Aqueous <span class="hlt">Solution</span>: Dependence of Ultrasound Frequency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Masuda, Nanae; Maruyama, Aya; Eguchi, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Murakami, Yoshinori</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The influence of microbubbles on sonochemical efficiencies has been investigated under 28, 45, and 100 kHz ultrasound irradiation. For the 28 and 100 kHz ultrasound frequencies, microbubbles suppressed the I3(-) formation from KI <span class="hlt">solution</span> as well as the 7-hydroxycoumarin formation from coumarin <span class="hlt">solution</span> caused by the ultrasonic irradiation. On the other hand, for the 45 kHz ultrasound frequency, microbubbles enhanced the I3(-) formation from KI <span class="hlt">solution</span> as well as 7-hydroxycoumarin formation from coumarin <span class="hlt">solution</span> caused by the ultrasonic irradiation. Detection of H2O2 after the irradiation of ultrasound in the presence or absence of microbubbles was also performed, and it was found that H2O2 formation was enhanced only when microbubbles were introduced under the 45 kHz ultrasonic irradiation, which was in good agreement with the results of KI oxidation dosimetry measurements and of coumarin fluorescent probe measurements. Based on these present results, plausible mechanisms that explain the dependence of the ultrasound frequency on the enhancement and suppression of free radical formation in the presence of MBs were proposed. PMID:26378950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830057558&hterms=solving+nonlinear+differential+equation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dsolving%2Bnonlinear%2Bdifferential%2Bequation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830057558&hterms=solving+nonlinear+differential+equation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dsolving%2Bnonlinear%2Bdifferential%2Bequation"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical grid <span class="hlt">generation</span>; Proceedings of the Symposium on Numerical <span class="hlt">Generation</span> of Curvilinear Coordinate Systems and Their Use in the Numerical <span class="hlt">Solution</span> of Partial Differential Equations, Nashville, TN, April 13-16, 1982</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, J. F. (Editor)</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>General curvilinear coordinate systems are considered along with the error induced by coordinate systems, basic differential models for coordinate <span class="hlt">generation</span>, elliptic grid <span class="hlt">generation</span>, conformal grid <span class="hlt">generation</span>, algebraic grid <span class="hlt">generation</span>, orthogonal grid <span class="hlt">generation</span>, patched coordinate systems, and solid mechanics applications of boundary fitted coordinate systems. Attention is given to coordinate system control and adaptive meshes, the application of body conforming curvilinear grids for finite difference <span class="hlt">solution</span> of external flow, the use of <span class="hlt">solution</span> adaptive grids in solving partial differential equations, adaptive gridding for finite difference <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to heat and mass transfer problems, and the application of curvilinear coordinate <span class="hlt">generation</span> techniques to the computation of internal flows. Other topics explored are related to the <span class="hlt">solution</span> of nonlinear water wave problems using boundary-fitted coordinate systems, the numerical modeling of estuarine hydrodynamics on a boundary-fitted coordinate system, and conformal grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> for multielement airfoils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21323130','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21323130"><span id="translatedtitle">The New <span class="hlt">Generation</span> of Uranium In Situ Recovery Facilities: Design Improvements Should Reduce Radiological Impacts Relative to First <span class="hlt">Generation</span> Uranium <span class="hlt">Solution</span> Mining Plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brown, S.H.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in the demand for Uranium as historical inventories have been consumed and new reactor orders are being placed. Numerous mineralized properties around the world are being evaluated for Uranium recovery and new mining / milling projects are being evaluated and developed. Ore bodies which are considered uneconomical to mine by conventional methods such as tunneling or open pits, can be candidates for non-conventional recovery techniques, involving considerably less capital expenditure. Technologies such as Uranium In Situ Leaching / In Situ Recovery (ISL / ISR - also referred to as '<span class="hlt">solution</span> mining'), have enabled commercial scale mining and milling of relatively small ore pockets of lower grade, and are expected to make a significant contribution to overall world wide uranium supplies over the next ten years. Commercial size <span class="hlt">solution</span> mining production facilities have operated in the US since the mid 1970's. However, current designs are expected to result in less radiological wastes and emissions relative to these 'first' <span class="hlt">generation</span> plants (which were designed, constructed and operated through the 1980's). These early designs typically used alkaline leach chemistries in situ including use of ammonium carbonate which resulted in groundwater restoration challenges, open to air recovery vessels and high temperature calcining systems for final product drying vs the 'zero emissions' vacuum dryers as typically used today. Improved containment, automation and instrumentation control and use of vacuum dryers in the design of current <span class="hlt">generation</span> plants are expected to reduce production of secondary waste byproduct material, reduce Radon emissions and reduce potential for employee exposure to uranium concentrate aerosols at the back end of the milling process. In Situ Recovery in the U.S. typically involves the circulation of groundwater, fortified with oxidizing (gaseous oxygen e.g) and complexing agents (carbon dioxide, e.g) into an ore body, solubilizing the uranium in situ, and then pumping the <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to the surface where they are fed to a processing plant ( mill). Processing involves ion exchange and may also include precipitation, drying or calcining and packaging operations depending on facility specifics. This paper presents an overview of the ISR process and the health physics monitoring programs developed at a number of commercial scale ISL / ISR Uranium recovery and production facilities as a result of the radiological character of these processes. Although many radiological aspects of the process are similar to that of conventional mills, conventional-type tailings as such are not <span class="hlt">generated</span>. However, liquid and solid byproduct materials may be <span class="hlt">generated</span> and impounded. The quantity and radiological character of these by products are related to facility specifics. Some special monitoring considerations are presented which are required due to the manner in which radon gas is evolved in the process and the unique aspects of controlling <span class="hlt">solution</span> flow patterns underground. The radiological character of these processes are described using empirical data collected from many operating facilities. Additionally, the major aspects of the health physics and radiation protection programs that were developed at these first <span class="hlt">generation</span> facilities are discussed and contrasted to circumstances of the current <span class="hlt">generation</span> and state of the art of uranium ISR technologies and facilities. In summary: This paper has presented an overview of in situ Uranium recovery processes and associated major radiological aspects and monitoring considerations. Admittedly, the purpose was to present an overview of those special health physics considerations dictated by the in situ Uranium recovery technology, to point out similarities and differences to conventional mill programs and to contrast these alkaline leach facilities to modern day ISR designs. As evidenced by the large number of ISR projects currently under development in the U.S. and worldwide, non conventional Uranium recovery techniques, such as ISL / ISR (<span class="hlt">solution</span> mining), can play a significant role in complimenting Uranium supplies during the next decade. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1149365','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1149365"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of Free Oxygen Atoms O(3P) in <span class="hlt">Solution</span> by Photolysis of 4-Benzoylpyridine N-Oxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carraher, Jack M.; Bakac, Andreja</p> <p>2014-08-04</p> <p>Laser flash photolysis of 4-benzoylpyridine N-oxide (BPyO) at 308 nm in aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> <span class="hlt">generates</span> a triplet excited state 3BPyO* that absorbs strongly in the visible, ?max 490 and 380 nm. 3BPyO* decays with the rate law kdecay/s?1 = (3.3 0.9) 104 + (1.5 0.2) 109 [BPyO] to <span class="hlt">generate</span> a mixture of isomeric hydroxylated benzoylpyridines, BPy(OH), in addition to small amounts of oxygen atoms, O(3P). Molecular oxygen quenches 3BPyO*, kQ = 1.4 109 M?1 s?1, but the yields of O(3P) increase in O2-saturated <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to 36%. Other triplet quenchers have a similar effect, which rules out the observed 3BPyO* as a source of O(3P). It is concluded that O(3P) is produced from either 1BPyO* or a short-lived, unobserved, higher energy triplet <span class="hlt">generated</span> directly from 1BPyO*. 3BPyO* is reduced by Fe2+ and by ABTS2? to the radical anion BPyO?? which exhibits a maximum at 510 nm, ? = 2200 M?1 cm?1. The anion engages in back electron transfer with ABTS?? with k = 1.7 109 M?1 s?1. The same species can be <span class="hlt">generated</span> by reducing ground state BPyO with ?C(CH3)2OH. The photochemistry of BPyO in acetonitrile is similar to that in aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004RuMaS..59..195.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004RuMaS..59..195."><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> European Congress of Mathematics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> European Mathematical Congress will take place in Stockholm from 27 June through 2 July 2004. Further information can be found at the site http://www.math.kth.se/4ecm/. The chairman of the Scientific Committee is Lennart Carleson, and the chairman of the Organizing Committee is Ari Laptev. The motto of the congress is: "Mathematics in Science and Technology". Several Nobel prize winners have agreed to address the congress on the role of mathematics in their fields of research. Some satellite conferences are planned to be held around the time of the congress. At the congress ten awards will be given to the best young mathematicians. Nina Ural'tseva (St. Petersburg) is chairperson of the Prize Committee. The Felix Klein Award will be presented; the formation of the Prize Committee is now complete.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5519065','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5519065"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dickson, H.W.</p> <p>1980-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">fourth</span> Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during March 15-23, 1978. The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) used unshielded, with a 12-cm-thick Lucite shield, a 20-cm-thick concrete shield, or a 5-cm-thick steel and 15-cm-thick concrete shield, and provided four neutron and gamma-ray spectra. Then the dose was calculated based on the HPRR neutron spectra and dose conversion factors which had been determined previously for the four spectra. The results of these personnel dosimetry intercomparison studies reveal that estimates of dose equivalent vary over a wide range. The standard deviation of the mean of participants data for gamma measurements was in the range of 29 to 43%; for neutrons it was 57 to 188%. (PCS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......261R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......261R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of multicomponent polymer blend microparticles using droplet evaporation technique and modeling evaporation of binary droplet containing nonvolatile <span class="hlt">solute</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rajagopalan, Venkat Narayan</p> <p></p> <p>Recently, considerable attention has been focused on the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of nano- and micrometer scale multicomponent polymer particles with specifically tailored mechanical, electrical and optical properties. As only a few polymer-polymer pairs are miscible, the set of multicomponent polymer systems achievable by conventional methods, such as melt blending, is severely limited in property ranges. Therefore, researchers have been evaluating synthesis methods that can arbitrarily blend immiscible solvent pairs, thus expanding the range of properties that are practical. The <span class="hlt">generation</span> of blended microparticles by evaporating a co-solvent from aerosol droplets containing two dissolved immiscible polymers in <span class="hlt">solution</span> seems likely to exhibit a high degree of phase uniformity. A second important advantage of this technique is the formation of nano- and microscale particulates with very low impurities, which are not attainable through conventional <span class="hlt">solution</span> techniques. When the timescale of solvent evaporation is lower than that of polymer diffusion and self-organization, phase separation is inhibited within the atto- to femto-liter volume of the droplet, and homogeneous blends of immiscible polymers can be produced. We have studied multicomponent polymer particles <span class="hlt">generated</span> from highly monodisperse micrordroplets that were produced using a Vibrating Orifice Aerosol <span class="hlt">Generator</span> (VOAG). The particles are characterized for both external and internal morphology along with homogeneity of the blends. Ultra-thin slices of polymer particles were characterized by a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and the degree of uniformity was examined using an Electron Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX). To further establish the homogeneity of the polymer blend microparticles, differential scanning calorimeter was used to measure the glass transition temperature of the microparticles obtained. These results have its significance in the field of particulate encapsulation. Also, better control of the phase morphologies can be obtained by simply changing the solvent/solvents in the dilute <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. Evaporation and drying of a binary droplet containing a <span class="hlt">solute</span> and a solvent is a complicated phenomenon. Most of the present models do not consider convection in the droplet phase. In this dissertation work, a model is developed that incorporates convection inside the droplet. The results obtained are compared to the size obtained from experimental results. The same model when used with an aqueous <span class="hlt">solution</span> droplet predicted concentration profiles that are comparable to results obtained when convection was not taken into account. These results have significance for more rigorous modeling of binary and multicomponent droplet drying.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012mss..confETE02J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012mss..confETE02J"><span id="translatedtitle">Bisulfate (HSO4-) Dehydration at the Vapor/<span class="hlt">solution</span> Interface Probed by Vibrational Sum Frequency <span class="hlt">Generation</span> Spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jubb, Aaron M.; Allen, Heather C.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>With perspective towards atmospheric chemistry, ion behavior at vapor/<span class="hlt">solution</span> interfaces has important implications for understanding aqueous aerosols as reactions at this interface control the growth and uptake of the aerosol. Sulfate species are a major ionic component of aqueous acidic tropospheric aerosols with bisulfate (HSO4-) being the major sulfate species at pH values lower than 2. The application of inherently interface specific spectroscopic methods such as vibrational sum frequency <span class="hlt">generation</span> (VSFG) allows for resolution of interfacial chemical species versus the bulk species facilitating a clearer understanding of chemical phenomena taking place at vapor/<span class="hlt">solution</span> interfaces. Here we present VSFG results on the effects that cation identity have toward the molecular environment experienced by bisulfate anions residing within the vapor/<span class="hlt">solution</span> interface for aqueous H2SO4, Na2SO4, and MgSO4 <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. By probing the ?{SS}-SO3 vibrational mode of interfacial bisulfate anions directly we are able to elucidate the influence that Na+ and Mg2+ ions have toward bisulfate hydration within the interface. Our results indicate that Na+ and Mg2+ perturb the hydration of interfacial bisulfate anions but do not form ion-pair complexes. Mg2+ is found to exhibit a larger net influence on bisulfate hydration relative to Na+.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26730851','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26730851"><span id="translatedtitle">Electroluminescence from Spontaneously <span class="hlt">Generated</span> Single-Vesicle Aggregates Using <span class="hlt">Solution</span>-Processed Small Organic Molecules.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsai, Yu-Tang; Tseng, Kuo-Pi; Chen, Yan-Fang; Wu, Chung-Chih; Fan, Gang-Lun; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Wantz, Guillaume; Hirsch, Lionel; Raffy, Guillaume; Del Guerzo, Andre; Bassani, Dario M</p> <p>2016-01-26</p> <p>Self-assembled aggregates offer great potential for tuning the morphology of organic semiconductors, thereby controlling their size and shape. This is particularly interesting for applications in electroluminescent (EL) devices, but there has been, to date, no reports of a functional EL device in which the size and color of the emissive domains could be controlled using self-assembly. We now report a series of molecules that spontaneously self-organize into small EL domains of sub-micrometer dimensions. By tailoring the emissive chromophores in <span class="hlt">solution</span>, spherical aggregates that have an average size of 300 nm in diameter and emit any one color, including CIE D65 white, are spontaneously formed in <span class="hlt">solution</span>. We show that the individual aggregates can be used in EL devices built either using small patterned electrodes or using a sandwich architecture to produce devices emitting in the blue, green, red, and white. Furthermore, sequential deposition of the three primary colors yields an RGB device in which single aggregates of each color are present in close proximity. PMID:26730851</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2649737','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2649737"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of Hydroxyl Radicals from Ambient Fine Particles in a Surrogate Lung Fluid <span class="hlt">Solution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vidrio, Edgar; Phuah, Chin; Dillner, Ann M.; Anastasio, Cort</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>While it has been hypothesized that the adverse health effects associated with ambient particulate matter (PM) are due to production of hydroxyl radical (OH), few studies have quantified OH production from PM. Here we report the amounts of OH produced from ambient fine particles (PM2.5) collected in northern California and extracted in a cell-free surrogate lung fluid (SLF). On average, the extracted particles produced 470 nmol OH mg?1-PM2.5 during our 15-month collection period. There was a clear seasonal pattern in the efficiency with which particles <span class="hlt">generated</span> OH, with highest production during spring and summer and lowest during winter. In addition, nighttime PM was typically more efficient than daytime PM at <span class="hlt">generating</span> OH. Transition metals played the dominant role in OH production: on average ( ?), the addition of desferoxamine (a chelator that prevents metals from forming OH) to the SLF removed (90 5) % of OH <span class="hlt">generation</span>. Furthermore, based on the concentrations of Fe in the PM2.5 SLF extracts, and the measured yield of OH as a function of Fe concentration, dissolved iron can account for the majority of OH produced in most of our PM2.5 extracts. PMID:19245037</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........45W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........45W"><span id="translatedtitle">Enabling Design-Oriented Fluid Simulations: Verification with Discontinuous Manufactured <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> and Automatic Grid <span class="hlt">Generation</span> with Moving Coordinates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woods, C. Nathan</p> <p></p> <p>Computer simulations of complex mathematical models are a powerful tool for design, but they introduce uncertainties which can lead to poor design choices when simulation data is all that is available. Additionally, computational grid <span class="hlt">generation</span> can dramatically increases the costs associated with initializing numerical simulations. Proper verification can help quantify the uncertainty in numerical simulations, and a new form of code verification is presented. This is based on the method of manufactured <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for integral equations, which allows MMS to be used to verify shock-capturing codes. A procedure is presented for numerically evaluating the required integrals, and it is found to completely eliminate numerical error resulting from discontinuous integrand functions. Integral MMS is demonstrated, and it is found to yield convergence rates that differ by less than 5% from those obtained using differential MMS, and which match precisely with the theoretical rates for discontinuous <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. This indicates that integral MMS can be used for code verification in place of differential MMS, which cannot be used with discontinuous <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. Moving grids can be used to allow computed fluid motion to <span class="hlt">generate</span> the computational grid automatically. The unique challenges associated with grid motion are explored, and multiple implementations are discussed. A software library for fluid-mechanical simulation in unsteady coordinates is also introduced. Preliminary verification of both the method and the library is discussed. The use of unsteady coordinates affects accuracy and grid convergence rates in complex ways. This work lays the foundation for future work on the use of moving grids in order to reduce the grid-<span class="hlt">generation</span> burden for design-oriented computational fluid dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ntfm.book..413W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ntfm.book..413W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Solution</span> of Two-Dimensional Free Surface Problems Based on Finite Element Program <span class="hlt">Generator</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, B. X.; Wan, S.; Chen, N. N.</p> <p></p> <p>Computation of flow problems with moving boundaries and interfaces is one of the challenges in computational fluid mechanics. This class of problems includes flows with free surfaces, two-fluid interfaces, fluid-object and fluid-structure interactions, and moving mechanical components. Depending on the nature of the problem and the specific application requirement, different <span class="hlt">solution</span> techniques, including interface tracking and interface capturing techniques, can be adopted. In this paper, free surface problem is solved by pseudo-concentration method. A pseudo-concentration function is defined in the entire domain to serves as a marker of the free surface. The advection equation describing the interface evolution is solved together with incompressible Navier-Stokes equation by stabilized finite element methods or fractional step methods [1].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/821859','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/821859"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of Compositionally Graded Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Sb Seed by <span class="hlt">Solute</span> Diffusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>P.S. Dutta; G. Rajagopalan; R.J. Gutmann; G. Nichols</p> <p>2002-08-29</p> <p>Compositionally graded single crystalline <100> seed of Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Sb has been grown in a single experiment using a <span class="hlt">solute</span> diffusion method. The present technique is simple and less time consuming compared to the conventional boot-strapping approach previously used for <span class="hlt">generating</span> ternary seeds. Starting from an InSb <100> single crystalline seed, a seed of Ga{sub 0.6}In{sub 0.4}Sb has been grown. The effect of temperature gradient on the crystalline quality of seeds grown using this method has been discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApNan...6..131N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApNan...6..131N"><span id="translatedtitle">Dual <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of radiative MHD nanofluid flow over an exponentially stretching sheet with heat <span class="hlt">generation</span>/absorption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Naramgari, Sandeep; Sulochana, C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we analyzed the heat and mass transfer in thermophoretic radiative hydromagnetic nanofluid flow over an exponentially stretching porous sheet embedded in porous medium with internal heat <span class="hlt">generation</span>/absorption, viscous dissipation and suction/injection effects. The governing partial differential equations of the flow are converted into nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation. Runge-Kutta-based shooting technique is employed to yield the numerical <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for the model. The effect of non-dimensional parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed and presented through graphs. The physical quantities of interest local skin friction coefficient, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are calculated and presented through tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/948445','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/948445"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical mechanics of sum frequency <span class="hlt">generation</span> spectroscopy for the liquid-vapor interface of dilute aqueous salt <span class="hlt">solutions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Noah-Vanhoucke, Joyce; Smith, Jared D.; Geissler, Phillip L.</p> <p>2009-01-02</p> <p>We demonstrate a theoretical description of vibrational sum frequency <span class="hlt">generation</span> (SFG) at the boundary of aqueous electrolyte <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. This approach identifies and exploits a simple relationship between SFG lineshapes and the statistics of molecular orientation and electric field. Our computer simulations indicate that orientational averages governing SFG susceptibility do not manifest ion-specific shifts in local electric field, but instead, ion-induced polarization of subsurface layers. Counterbalancing effects are obtained for monovalent anions and cations at the same depth. Ions held at different depths induce an imbalanced polarization, suggesting that ion-specific effects can arise from weak, long ranged influence on solvent organization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2626252','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2626252"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of Hydroxyl Radicals from Dissolved Transition Metals in Surrogate Lung Fluid <span class="hlt">Solutions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vidrio, Edgar; Jung, Heejung; Anastasio, Cort</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Epidemiological research has linked exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) to several adverse health effects, including cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Despite these links, the mechanisms by which PM causes adverse health effects are poorly understood. The <span class="hlt">generation</span> of hydroxyl radical (·OH) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) through transition metal-mediated pathways is one of the main hypotheses for PM toxicity. In order to better understand the ability of particulate transition metals to produce ROS, we have quantified the amounts of ·OH produced from dissolved iron and copper in a cell-free, surrogate lung fluid (SLF). We also examined how two important biological molecules, citrate and ascorbate, affect the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of ·OH by these metals. We have found that Fe(II) and Fe(III) produce little ·OH in the absence of ascorbate and citrate, but that they efficiently make ·OH in the presence of ascorbate and this is further enhanced when citrate is also added. In the presence of ascorbate, with or without citrate, the oxidation state of iron makes little difference on the amount of ·OH formed after 24 hours. In the case of Cu(II), the production of ·OH is greatly enhanced in the presence of ascorbate, but is inhibited by the addition of citrate. The mechanism for this effect is unclear, but appears to involve formation of a citrate-copper complex that is apparently less reactive than free, aquated copper in either the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of HOOH or in the Fenton-like reaction of copper with HOOH to make ·OH. By quantifying the amount of ·OH that Fe and Cu can produce in surrogate lung fluid, we have provided a first step into being able to predict the amounts of ·OH that can be produced in the human lung from exposure to PM containing known amounts of transition metals. PMID:19148304</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22210505','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22210505"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of light <span class="hlt">generation</span> in cholesteric liquid crystals using kinetic equations: Time-independent <span class="hlt">solution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shtykov, N. M. Palto, S. P.; Umanskii, B. A.</p> <p>2013-08-15</p> <p>We report on the results of calculating the conditions for light <span class="hlt">generation</span> in cholesteric liquid crystals doped with fluorescent dyes using kinetic equations. Specific features of spectral properties of the chiral cholesteric medium as a photonic structure and spatially distributed type of the feedback in the active medium are taken into account. The expression is derived for the threshold pump radiation intensity as a function of the dye concentration and sample thickness. The importance of taking into account the distributed loss level in the active medium for calculating the optimal parameters of the medium and for matching the calculated values with the results of experiments is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24139308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24139308"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Solution</span> to automatic <span class="hlt">generation</span> control problem using firefly algorithm optimized I(?)D() controller.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Debbarma, Sanjoy; Saikia, Lalit Chandra; Sinha, Nidul</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Present work focused on automatic <span class="hlt">generation</span> control (AGC) of a three unequal area thermal systems considering reheat turbines and appropriate <span class="hlt">generation</span> rate constraints (GRC). A fractional order (FO) controller named as I(?)D() controller based on crone approximation is proposed for the first time as an appropriate technique to solve the multi-area AGC problem in power systems. A recently developed metaheuristic algorithm known as firefly algorithm (FA) is used for the simultaneous optimization of the gains and other parameters such as order of integrator (?) and differentiator (?) of I(?)D() controller and governor speed regulation parameters (R). The dynamic responses corresponding to optimized I(?)D() controller gains, ?, ?, and R are compared with that of classical integer order (IO) controllers such as I, PI and PID controllers. Simulation results show that the proposed I(?)D() controller provides more improved dynamic responses and outperforms the IO based classical controllers. Further, sensitivity analysis confirms the robustness of the so optimized I(?)D() controller to wide changes in system loading conditions and size and position of SLP. Proposed controller is also found to have performed well as compared to IO based controllers when SLP takes place simultaneously in any two areas or all the areas. Robustness of the proposed I(?)D() controller is also tested against system parameter variations. PMID:24139308</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4467381','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4467381"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural variation discovery in the cancer genome using next <span class="hlt">generation</span> sequencing: Computational <span class="hlt">solutions</span> and perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Biao; Conroy, Jeffrey M.; Morrison, Carl D.; Odunsi, Adekunle O.; Qin, Maochun; Wei, Lei; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.; Liu, Song; Wang, Jianmin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Somatic Structural Variations (SVs) are a complex collection of chromosomal mutations that could directly contribute to carcinogenesis. Next <span class="hlt">Generation</span> Sequencing (NGS) technology has emerged as the primary means of interrogating the SVs of the cancer genome in recent investigations. Sophisticated computational methods are required to accurately identify the SV events and delineate their breakpoints from the massive amounts of reads <span class="hlt">generated</span> by a NGS experiment. In this review, we provide an overview of current analytic tools used for SV detection in NGS-based cancer studies. We summarize the features of common SV groups and the primary types of NGS signatures that can be used in SV detection methods. We discuss the principles and key similarities and differences of existing computational programs and comment on unresolved issues related to this research field. The aim of this article is to provide a practical guide of relevant concepts, computational methods, software tools and important factors for analyzing and interpreting NGS data for the detection of SVs in the cancer genome. PMID:25849937</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3027440','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3027440"><span id="translatedtitle">Potentially Low Cost <span class="hlt">Solution</span> to Extend Use of Early <span class="hlt">Generation</span> Computed Tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tonna, Joseph E.; Balanoff, Amy M.; Lewin, Matthew R.; Saandari, Namjilmaa; Wintermark, Max</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In preparing a case report on Brown-Séquard syndrome for publication, we made the incidental finding that the inexpensive, commercially available three-dimensional (3D) rendering software we were using could produce high quality 3D spinal cord reconstructions from any series of two-dimensional (2D) computed tomography (CT) images. This finding raises the possibility that spinal cord imaging capabilities can be expanded where bundled 2D multi-planar reformats and 3D reconstruction software for CT are not available and in situations where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is either not available or appropriate (e.g. metallic implants). Given the worldwide burden of trauma and considering the limited availability of MRI and advanced <span class="hlt">generation</span> CT scanners, we propose an alternative, potentially useful approach to imaging spinal cord that might be useful in areas where technical capabilities and support are limited. PMID:21293767</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.670a2031L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.670a2031L"><span id="translatedtitle">The classical Darboux III oscillator: factorization, Spectrum <span class="hlt">Generating</span> Algebra and <span class="hlt">solution</span> to the equations of motion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Latini, D.; Ragnisco, O.; Ballesteros, A.; Enciso, A.; Herranz, F. J.; Riglioni, D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In a recent paper the so-called Spectrum <span class="hlt">Generating</span> Algebra (SGA) technique has been applied to the N-dimensional Taub-NUT system, a maximally superintegrable Hamiltonian system which can be interpreted as a one-parameter deformation of the Kepler-Coulomb system. Such a Hamiltonian is associated to a specific Bertrand space of non-constant curvature. The SGA procedure unveils the symmetry algebra underlying the Hamiltonian system and, moreover, enables one to solve the equations of motion. Here we will follow the same path to tackle the Darboux III system, another maximally superintegrable system, which can indeed be viewed as a natural deformation of the isotropic harmonic oscillator where the flat Euclidean space is again replaced by another space of non-constant curvature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21055409','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21055409"><span id="translatedtitle">Effective Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Generation</span> from the Hydrogen Sulfide <span class="hlt">Solution</span> by using Stratified Type Photocatalyst</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Takahashi, H.; Yokoyama, S.; Baba, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Tohji, K.</p> <p>2008-02-25</p> <p>Stratified type photocatalyst with the extremely higher photocatalytic activities can be synthesized by using the chemical reaction between the Na{sub 2}S <span class="hlt">solution</span> and Cd(OH){sub 2} precursors. This type of photocatalyst has the specific morphology which constructed by the nano-sized and capsule like formed structure, and the metal concentration was gradually changed in its wall. The 'charge gradient' was formed at the metal sulfide and oxide/hydroxide junction in the wall, which favored for the separation of the photo excited electron-hole pair. Consequently, stratified type photocatalyst shows the high catalytic activity than the usual nano CdS particles. By the addition of sulfur compound into the bio reactor contained the sulfur reducing bacteria, the H{sub 2}S gas concentration can increased to about 1000 times enlarge than the usual condition. Therefore, we can conclude that the enhancement of the H{sub 2}S gas evolved from the bio reactor was successfully achievement, and we don't need to afraid the shortage risk of H{sub 2}S supply. These H{sub 2}S gas concentration can enlarged to 80% by using A type zeorite. Especially, Ca-A type zeorite is considered as the suitable material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21607906','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21607906"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> order spatial derivative gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.</p> <p>2011-10-15</p> <p>In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order spatial derivatives as a model for the Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton's potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1496275','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1496275"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> goal of perinatal medicine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ounsted, C; Roberts, J C; Gordon, M; Milligan, B</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Reduction in maternal mortality, infant mortality, and infant morbidity have been successively the goals of perinatal medicine. The <span class="hlt">fourth</span> is to reduce bonding failure. In July 1978 a preventive service was started in the John Radcliffe Maternity Hospital. A twice-weekly round is made. Midwives refer families who cause them concern. In the first year the referral rate ws 20.5 per 1000 liveborn babies. The referred sample differed from the hospital population in terms of maternal psychiatric history, marital state and babies' admission to special care. The main reasons for referral were: doubt about parenting ability (27%), psychiatric history (15%), disturbed behaviour in hospital (14%), and diffuse social and medical problems (17%). Long-term care was needed for only 14% of families. At their first birthdays, six babies were placed away from their natural parents; the sample had had a slightly higher than expected admission rate to hospital; the distribution of weights did not differ from the expected; doctors and health visitors were still concerned about one-quarter of the families. Seven cases of screening failure were found among those not referred to our service, but only one was seriously abused. No child referred in the first year has been seriously neglected or abused. PMID:6802338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2234386','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2234386"><span id="translatedtitle">Peritoneal Protein Losses and Cytokine <span class="hlt">Generation</span> in Automated Peritoneal Dialysis with Combined Amino Acids and Glucose <span class="hlt">Solutions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tjiong, H. L.; Zijlstra, F. J.; Rietveld, T.; Wattimena, J. L.; Huijmans, J. G. M.; Swart, G. R.; Fieren, M. W. J. A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. Protein-energy malnutrition as a consequence of deficient protein intake frequently occurs in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Previously, we showed that peritoneal dialysate containing a mixture of amino acids (AA) and glucose has anabolic effects. However AA-dialysate has been reported to increase intraperitoneal protein and AA losses and the release of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukine-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?)). We investigated the effect of AA plus glucose (AAG) <span class="hlt">solutions</span> on peritoneal protein losses and cytokine <span class="hlt">generation</span>. Methods. In 6 patients on standard automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) 12 APD sessions of 6 cycles each were performed during the night using dialysate containing 1.1% AA plus glucose or glucose alone as control. Protein losses and TNF? and IL-6 concentrations were measured in dialysates separately collected from nightly cycling and daytime dwell. Results. The 24?hour-protein losses with AAG (median 6.7?g, range 4.79.4?g) were similar to control dialysate (median 6.0?g, range 4.29.2?g). Daytime dialysate IL-6 levels were higher after nightly AAG dialysis than after control dialysis (142?pg/ml and 82?pg/ml, respectively, P<.05). TNF? concentrations were very low. Conclusion. Nightly APD with amino acids containing dialysate was associated with an increase in peritoneal IL-6 <span class="hlt">generation</span> during the day. The addition of AA to standard glucose dialysis <span class="hlt">solutions</span> did not induce a significant increase of peritoneal protein losses. PMID:18274646</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25897520','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25897520"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Solution</span>-processed solar cells based on inorganic bulk heterojunctions with evident hole contribution to photocurrent <span class="hlt">generation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qiu, Zeliang; Liu, Changwen; Pan, Guoxing; Meng, Weili; Yue, Wenjin; Chen, Junwei; Zhou, Xun; Zhang, Fapei; Wang, Mingtai</p> <p>2015-05-14</p> <p>To develop <span class="hlt">solution</span>-processed and novel device structures is of great importance for achieving advanced and low-cost solar cells. In this paper, we report the <span class="hlt">solution</span>-processed solar cells based on inorganic bulk heterojunctions (BHJs) featuring a bulk crystalline Sb2S3 absorbing layer interdigitated with a TiO2 nanoarray as an electron transporter. A <span class="hlt">solution</span>-processed amorphous-to-crystalline transformation strategy is used for the preparation of Sb2S3/TiO2-BHJs. Steady-state and dynamic results demonstrate that the crystalline structure in the Sb2S3 absorbing layer is crucial for efficient devices, and a better Sb2S3 crystallization favors a higher device performance by increasing the charge collection efficiency for a higher short-circuit current, due to reduced interfacial and bulk charge recombinations, and enhancing the open-circuit voltage and fill factor with the reduced defect states in the Sb2S3 layer as well. Moreover, an evident contribution to photocurrent <span class="hlt">generation</span> from the photogenerated holes in the Sb2S3 layer is revealed by experimental and simulated dynamic data. These results imply a kind of potential non-excitonic BHJ for energy conversion. PMID:25897520</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=event+AND+schema&pg=5&id=ED247571','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=event+AND+schema&pg=5&id=ED247571"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Graders' Understanding of Personal Narrative Discourse.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pollard, Rita</p> <p></p> <p>A study investigated what <span class="hlt">fourth</span> grade students understand about composing personal narrative discourse. Specifically, the study explored what the subjects understood about structuring personal narrative texts and about evaluating a narrated experience for an audience. Subjects were 13 <span class="hlt">fourth</span> grade students, and the methodology consisted of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=49493&keyword=boiler+AND+coating&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=49955092&CFTOKEN=69174952','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=49493&keyword=boiler+AND+coating&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=49955092&CFTOKEN=69174952"><span id="translatedtitle">FABRIC FILTER SYSTEM STUDY; <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> ANNUAL REPORT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The report gives results of the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> year of operation (ending October 1, 1981) of a fabric filter installed by Southwestern Public Service Co. on its Harrington Station Unit 2 coal-fired boiler in Amarillo, Texas. Project work during the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> year concentrated on fabric stud...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED469086.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED469086.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.</p> <p></p> <p>This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for <span class="hlt">fourth</span> grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, <span class="hlt">fourth</span> grade benchmarks, assessments, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=2+AND+step&id=ED516436','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=2+AND+step&id=ED516436"><span id="translatedtitle">Academic Skills Problems. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition Workbook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shapiro, Edward S.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>An ideal companion to "Academic Skills Problems, <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition", this indispensable workbook provides practice exercises and reproducible forms for use in direct assessment and intervention. Updated to reflect the changes in the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition of the text, the workbook includes teacher and student interview forms, a complete guide to using the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3750615','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3750615"><span id="translatedtitle">Generalist <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to complex problems: <span class="hlt">generating</span> practice-based evidence - the example of managing multi-morbidity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background A growing proportion of people are living with long term conditions. The majority have more than one. Dealing with multi-morbidity is a complex problem for health systems: for those designing and implementing healthcare as well as for those providing the evidence informing practice. Yet the concept of multi-morbidity (the presence of >2 diseases) is a product of the design of health care systems which define health care need on the basis of disease status. So does the <span class="hlt">solution</span> lie in an alternative model of healthcare? Discussion Strengthening generalist practice has been proposed as part of the <span class="hlt">solution</span> to tackling multi-morbidity. Generalism is a professional philosophy of practice, deeply known to many practitioners, and described as expertise in whole person medicine. But generalism lacks the evidence base needed by policy makers and planners to support service redesign. The challenge is to fill this practice-research gap in order to critically explore if and when generalist care offers a robust alternative to management of this complex problem. We need practice-based evidence to fill this gap. By recognising generalist practice as a complex intervention (intervening in a complex system), we outline an approach to evaluate impact using action-research principles. We highlight the implications for those who both commission and undertake research in order to tackle this problem. Summary Answers to the complex problem of multi-morbidity wont come from doing more of the same. We need to change systems of care, and so the systems for <span class="hlt">generating</span> evidence to support that care. This paper contributes to that work through outlining a process for <span class="hlt">generating</span> practice-based evidence of generalist <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to the complex problem of person-centred care for people with multi-morbidity. PMID:23919296</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2937339','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2937339"><span id="translatedtitle">Next-<span class="hlt">Generation</span> Sequencing Techniques for Eukaryotic Microorganisms: Sequencing-Based <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> to Biological Problems?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nowrousian, Minou</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Over the past 5 years, large-scale sequencing has been revolutionized by the development of several so-called next-<span class="hlt">generation</span> sequencing (NGS) technologies. These have drastically increased the number of bases obtained per sequencing run while at the same time decreasing the costs per base. Compared to Sanger sequencing, NGS technologies yield shorter read lengths; however, despite this drawback, they have greatly facilitated genome sequencing, first for prokaryotic genomes and within the last year also for eukaryotic ones. This advance was possible due to a concomitant development of software that allows the de novo assembly of draft genomes from large numbers of short reads. In addition, NGS can be used for metagenomics studies as well as for the detection of sequence variations within individual genomes, e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions/deletions (indels), or structural variants. Furthermore, NGS technologies have quickly been adopted for other high-throughput studies that were previously performed mostly by hybridization-based methods like microarrays. This includes the use of NGS for transcriptomics (RNA-seq) or the genome-wide analysis of DNA/protein interactions (ChIP-seq). This review provides an overview of NGS technologies that are currently available and the bioinformatics analyses that are necessary to obtain information from the flood of sequencing data as well as applications of NGS to address biological questions in eukaryotic microorganisms. PMID:20601439</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/201363','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/201363"><span id="translatedtitle">Fuel cells provide a revenue-<span class="hlt">generating</span> <span class="hlt">solution</span> to power quality problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>King, J.M. Jr.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Electric power quality and reliability are becoming increasingly important as computers and microprocessors assume a larger role in commercial, health care and industrial buildings and processes. At the same time, constraints on transmission and distribution of power from central stations are making local areas vulnerable to low voltage, load addition limitations, power quality and power reliability problems. Many customers currently utilize some form of premium power in the form of standby <span class="hlt">generators</span> and/or UPS systems. These include customers where continuous power is required because of health and safety or security reasons (hospitals, nursing homes, places of public assembly, air traffic control, military installations, telecommunications, etc.) These also include customers with industrial or commercial processes which can`t tolerance an interruption of power because of product loss or equipment damage. The paper discusses the use of the PC25 fuel cell power plant for backup and parallel power supplies for critical industrial applications. Several PC25 installations are described: the use of propane in a PC25; the use by rural cooperatives; and a demonstration of PC25 technology using landfill gas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ESASP.550E..18E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ESASP.550E..18E"><span id="translatedtitle">Problems and <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> for InSAR Digital Elevation Model <span class="hlt">Generation</span> of Mountainous Terrain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eineder, M.</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>During the last decade, the techniques to <span class="hlt">generate</span> digital elevation models (DEM) from SAR interferometry have been demonstrated and refined to a quasi-operational status using data from the ERS tandem mission. With this experience and an improved single-pass system concept, data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) acquired in 2000 have been used to produce a global DEM with unprecedented quality. However, under the extreme viewing conditions in mountainous terrain both ERS and SRTM suffer from or even fail due to the radar specific layover and shadow effect that leaves significant areas uncovered and poses severe problems to phase unwrapping. The paper quantifies the areas leading to layover and shadow, and shows innovative ways to overcome shadow and improve phase unwrapping in general. The paper is organized in three major sections. Firstly, the problem to map slopes is addressed in a simplified statistical way. Strategies to optimize the incidence angle for single and multiple observations are proposed. Secondly, a new algorithm is presented that makes the best from shadow by actively using it to help phase unwrapping. Thirdly, an outlook on the use of deltak interferometry for phase unwrapping is given. The paper aims to improve the understanding of the mapping geometry of radar systems and the data currently available and to improve the concepts of future systems and missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/541857','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/541857"><span id="translatedtitle">Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter 1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-10-14</p> <p>The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter of 1997 through the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter of 1998. Values for the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and <span class="hlt">generation</span> are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1027860','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1027860"><span id="translatedtitle">ULTRACOATINGS: Enabling Energy and Power <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> in High Contact Stress Environments through Next-<span class="hlt">Generation</span> Nanocoatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Blau, P.; Qu, J.; Higdon, C. III</p> <p>2011-09-30</p> <p>This industry-driven project was the result of a successful response by Eaton Corporation to a DOE/ITP Program, Grand Challenge, industry call. It consisted of a one-year effort in which ORNL participated in the area of friction and wear testing. In addition to Eaton Corporation and ORNL (CRADA), the project team included: Ames Laboratory, who developed the underlying concept for titanium- zirconium-boron (TZB) based nanocomposite coatings; Borg-Warner Morse TEC, an automotive engine timing chain manufacturer in Ithaca, New York, with its own proprietary hard coating; and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc., a dry-solids pump manufacturer in San Fernando Valley, California. This report focuses only on the portion of work that was conducted by ORNL, in a CRADA with Eaton Corporation. A comprehensive final report for the entire effort, which ended in September 2010, has been prepared for DOE by the team. The term 'ultracoatings' derives from the ambitious technical target for the new <span class="hlt">generation</span> of nanocoatings. As applications, Eaton was specifically considering a fuel pump and a gear application in which the product of the contact pressure and slip velocity during operation of mating surfaces, commonly called the 'PV value', was equal to or greater than 70,000 MPa-m/s. This ambitious target challenges the developers of coatings to produce material capable of strong bonding to the substrate, as well as high wear resistance and the ability to maintain sliding friction at low, energy-saving levels. The partners in this effort were responsible for the selection and preparation of such candidate ultracoatings, and ORNL used established tribology testing capabilities to help screen these candidates for performance. This final report summarizes ORNL's portion of the nanocomposite coatings development effort and presents both <span class="hlt">generated</span> data and the analyses that were used in the course of this effort. Initial contact stress and speed calculations showed that laboratory tests with available geometries, applied forces, and speeds at ORNL could not reach 70,000 MPa-m/s for the project target, so test conditions were modified to enable screening of the new coating compositions under conditions used in a prior nano-coatings development project with Eaton Corporation and Ames Laboratory. Eaton Innovation Center was able to conduct screening tests at higher loads and speeds, thus providing complementary information on coating durability and friction reduction. Those results are presented in the full team's final report which is in preparation at this writing. Tests of two types were performed at ORNL during the course of this work: (1) simulations of timing chain wear and friction under reciprocating conditions, and (2) pin-on-disk screening tests for bearings undergoing unidirectional sliding. The four materials supplied for evaluation in a timing chain link simulation were hardened type 440B stainless steel, nitrided type 440B stainless steel, vanadium carbide (VC)-coated type 52100 bearing steel, and (ZrTi)B-coated type 52100 bearing steel. Reciprocating wear tests revealed that the VC coating was by far the most wear resistant. In friction, the nitrided stainless steel did slightly better than the other materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EPJAP..43..173B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EPJAP..43..173B"><span id="translatedtitle">Wind turbines using self-excited three-phase induction <span class="hlt">generators</span>: an innovative <span class="hlt">solution</span> for voltage-frequency control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brudny, J. F.; Pusca, R.; Roisse, H.</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>A considerable number of communities throughout the world, most of them isolated, need hybrid energy <span class="hlt">solutions</span> either for rural electrification or for the reduction of diesel use. Despite several research projects and demonstrations which have been conducted in recent years, wind-diesel technology remains complex and much too costly. Induction <span class="hlt">generators</span> are the most robust and common for wind energy systems but this option is a serious challenge for electrical regulation. When a wind turbine is used in an off-grid configuration, either continuously or intermittently, precise and robust regulation is difficult to attain. The voltage parameter regulation option, as was experienced at several remote sites (on islands and in the arctic for example), is a safe, reliable and relatively simple technology, but does not optimize the wave quality and creates instabilities. These difficulties are due to the fact that no theory is available to describe the system, due to the inverse nature of the problem. In order to address and solve the problem of the unstable operation of this wind turbine <span class="hlt">generator</span>, an innovative approach is described, based on a different induction <span class="hlt">generator</span> single phase equivalent circuit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ThApC.102..429B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ThApC.102..429B"><span id="translatedtitle">An integrated evaluation of thirteen modelling <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of hourly values of air relative humidity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bregaglio, Simone; Donatelli, Marcello; Confalonieri, Roberto; Acutis, Marco; Orlandini, Simone</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>The availability of hourly air relative humidity (HARH) data is a key requirement for the estimation of epidemic dynamics of plant fungal pathogens, in particular for the simulation of both the germination of the spores and the infection process. Most of the existing epidemic forecasting models require these data as input directly or indirectly, in the latter case for the estimation of leaf wetness duration. In many cases, HARH must be <span class="hlt">generated</span> because it is not available in historical series and when there is the need to simulate epidemics either on a wide scale or with different climate scenarios. Thirteen modelling <span class="hlt">solutions</span> (MS) for the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of this variable were evaluated, with different input requirements and alternative approaches, on a large dataset including several sites and years. A composite indicator was developed using fuzzy logic to compare and to evaluate the performances of the models. The indicator consists of four modules: Accuracy, Correlation, Pattern and Robustness. Results showed that when available, daily maximum and minimum air relative humidity data substantially improved the estimation of HARH. When such data are not available, the choice of the MS is crucial, given the difference in predicting skills obtained during the analysis, which allowed a clear detection of the best performing MS. This study represents the first step of the creation of a robust modelling chain coupling the MS for the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of HARH and disease forecasting models, including the systematic validation of each step of the simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18670510','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18670510"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuous-wave all-solid-state 244 nm deep-ultraviolet laser source by <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-harmonic <span class="hlt">generation</span> of an optically pumped semiconductor laser using CsLiB6O10 in an external resonator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaneda, Yushi; Yarborough, J M; Li, Li; Peyghambarian, N; Fan, Li; Hessenius, Chris; Fallahi, Mahmoud; Hader, Jörg; Moloney, Jerome V; Honda, Yoshiyuki; Nishioka, Masato; Shimizu, Youhei; Miyazono, Kenshi; Shimatani, Hiroya; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke; Kitaoka, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takatomo</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>We report an all-solid-state laser system that <span class="hlt">generates</span> over 200 mW cw at 244 nm. An optically pumped semiconductor laser is internally frequency doubled to 488 nm. The 488 nm output is coupled to an external resonator, where it is converted to 244 nm using a CsLiB(6)O(10) (CLBO) crystal. The output power is limited by the available power at 488 nm, and no noticeable degradation in output power was observed over a period of several hours. PMID:18670510</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770009041','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770009041"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order box method for solving the boundary layer equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wornom, S. F.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order box method for calculating high accuracy numerical <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to parabolic, partial differential equations in two variables or ordinary differential equations is presented. The method is the natural extension of the second order Keller Box scheme to <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order and is demonstrated with application to the incompressible, laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations. Numerical results for high accuracy test cases show the method to be significantly faster than other higher order and second order methods.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/573227','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/573227"><span id="translatedtitle">Quarterly environmental data summary for <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter 1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA <span class="hlt">generated</span> data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) <span class="hlt">generated</span> data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6662314','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6662314"><span id="translatedtitle">(Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter 1980</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>At the beginning of the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter of 1980, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station remained shutdown for the normally planned semiannual maintenance and testing program, initiated September 12, 1980. Operational testing began on November 7. Maximum power was achieved November 28 and was maintained throughout the remainder of the quarter except as noted. The LWBR Core has <span class="hlt">generated</span> 19,046.07 EFPH from start-up through the end of the quarter. During this quarter, approximately 0.000025 curies of Xe 133 activity were released from the station. During the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter of 1980, 1081 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste was shipped out of state for burial. These shipments contained 0.037 curies of radioactivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/308002','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/308002"><span id="translatedtitle">Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter 1998</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA <span class="hlt">generated</span> data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4581858','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4581858"><span id="translatedtitle">On Comparison of Series and Numerical <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> for Flow of Eyring-Powell Fluid with Newtonian Heating And Internal Heat <span class="hlt">Generation</span>/Absorption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hayat, Tasawar; Ali, Shafqat; Farooq, Muhammad Asif; Alsaedi, Ahmad</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we have investigated the combined effects of Newtonian heating and internal heat <span class="hlt">generation</span>/absorption in the two-dimensional flow of Eyring-Powell fluid over a stretching surface. The governing non-linear analysis of partial differential equations is reduced into the ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The resulting problems are computed for both series and numerical <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. Series <span class="hlt">solution</span> is constructed using homotopy analysis method (HAM) whereas numerical <span class="hlt">solution</span> is presented by two different techniques namely shooting method and bvp4c. A comparison of homotopy <span class="hlt">solution</span> with numerical <span class="hlt">solution</span> is also tabulated. Both <span class="hlt">solutions</span> are found in an excellent agreement. Dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are plotted and discussed for various emerging physical parameters. PMID:26402366</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGP33A0730S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGP33A0730S"><span id="translatedtitle">EM fields <span class="hlt">generated</span> by finite-length wire sources in 1D media: comparison with point dipole <span class="hlt">solutions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Streich, R.; Becken, M.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>In present-day land and marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) surveys, EM fields are commonly <span class="hlt">generated</span> using wires that can be hundreds of meters long. Nevertheless, when simulating CSEM data, e.g., for the purpose of feasibility studies or within inversion algorithms, these sources are often approximated as point dipoles. Such an approximation is justified if the source-receiver distance is sufficiently large and the frequency sufficiently low. However, real surveys often include frequencies and distances at which the dipole approximation is inaccurate. We consider horizontally layered media, for which EM fields can be computed using well-known quasi-analytical <span class="hlt">solutions</span> that involve numerical evaluation of Bessel function integrals. Using these 1D <span class="hlt">solutions</span>, EM fields due to finite-length wire sources can be synthesized by representing the wire as a line of infinitesimal dipoles and integrating over the dipole fields. However, this procedure is computationally expensive, since it requires a large number of numerical integrations. We employ a more efficient formulation that contains explicit contributions from the end points of the wire and involves fewer integrals over the wire itself than a corresponding integration over point dipole fields. With our formulation, we can efficiently simulate complicated wire geometries by segmenting the wire and computing responses for each segment separately. This is particularly important for real field conditions on land, where kilometre-long current cables can usually not be laid out in an exactly straight line. Furthermore, our formulation permits to place both the wire and the receivers at any depth within the layered medium, an important aspect for marine applications as well as for borehole geometries. We will show examples of EM fields due to finite-length wires in various settings over the frequency and distance ranges of typical CSEM surveys and discuss differences to the fields due to infinitesimal dipoles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26856774','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26856774"><span id="translatedtitle">Facile Preparation of Highly Conductive Metal Oxides by Self-Combustion for <span class="hlt">Solution</span>-Processed Thermoelectric <span class="hlt">Generators</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, Young Hun; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Lee, Changjin; Cho, Song Yun</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Highly conductive indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were successfully fabricated via a self-combustion reaction for application in <span class="hlt">solution</span>-processed thermoelectric devices. Self-combustion efficiently facilitates the conversion of soluble precursors into metal oxides by lowering the required annealing temperature of oxide films, which leads to considerable enhancement of the electrical conductivity of IZO thin films. Such enhanced electrical conductivity induced by exothermic heat from a combustion reaction consequently yields high performance IZO thermoelectric films. In addition, the effect of the composition ratio of In to Zn precursors on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of the IZO thin films was investigated. IZO thin films with a composition ratio of In:Zn = 6:2 at the low annealing temperature of 350 °C showed an enhanced electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and power factor of 327 S cm(-1), 50.6 μV K(-1), and 83.8 μW m(-1) K(-2), respectively. Moreover, the IZO thin film prepared at an even lower temperature of 300 °C retained a large power factor of 78.7 μW m(-1) K(-2) with an electrical conductivity of 168 S cm(-1). Using the combustive IZO precursor, a thermoelectric <span class="hlt">generator</span> consisting of 15 legs was fabricated by a printing process. The thermoelectric array <span class="hlt">generated</span> a thermoelectric voltage of 4.95 mV at a low temperature difference (5 °C). We suggest that the highly conductive IZO thin films by self-combustion may be utilized for fabricating n-type flexible printed thermoelectric devices. PMID:26856774</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/14997','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/14997"><span id="translatedtitle">Fuel Cell Handbook, <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-<span class="hlt">generation</span> concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-<span class="hlt">generation</span> fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/166806','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/166806"><span id="translatedtitle">Tritium <span class="hlt">generation</span> and large excess heat evolution by electrolysis in light and heavy water-potassium carbonate <span class="hlt">solutions</span> with nickel electrodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Notoya, Reiko; Noya, Yohichi; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">generation</span> of tritium was quantitatively measured in an electrolytic cell with a nickel cathode and a platinum anode in potassium carbonate-light and heavy water <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. Simultaneously, the evolution of a large amount of excess heat (70 to 170{degrees} for the input power) was observed during electrolysis of these <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. The tritium <span class="hlt">generation</span> by electrolysis provides some of the most conclusive evidence for so-called cold fusion, along with the calcium <span class="hlt">generation</span> described in a previous paper. On the basis of the current experiments and the knowledge of the knetics of a hydrogen evolution reaction in an alkaline <span class="hlt">solution</span>, the nuclear reactions taking place are worth mentioning. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9426E..1AK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9426E..1AK"><span id="translatedtitle">Green <span class="hlt">solution</span>: 120W ArF immersion light source supporting the next-<span class="hlt">generation</span> multiple-pattering lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kumazaki, Takahito; Ohta, Takeshi; Ishida, Keisuke; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Kurosu, Akihiko; Kakizaki, Kouji; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The difficulty of EUV lithography system development has prolonged the industry's dependence on ArF excimer lasers to realize further advancements in lithography process technologies. Smaller CD with reduced cost requires tighter specifications, and the potential extension to 450mm wafers introduces extremely difficult performance challenges on lasers. One of the most important features of the next <span class="hlt">generation</span> lasers will be the ability to support green operations while further improving cost of ownership and performance. For example, electricity consumption costs and the dependence on rare gases, such as neon and helium, will become critical considerations for HVM process going forward. As a laser vendor, Gigaphoton continues to innovate and develop <span class="hlt">solutions</span> that address these important issues. The latest model GT64A with its field-proven, twin-chamber platform has reduced environmental impact while upgrading performance and power. A variety of green technologies are employed on the GT64A. The first is the reduction of gas usage. Parameters, such as input power and gas pressure are closely monitored during operations and fed back to the injection/exhaust gas controller system. By applying a special algorithm, the laser gas consumption can be reduced by up to 50%. More than 96% of the gas used by the lasers is neon. Another rare gas that requires attention is Helium. Recently the unstable supply of helium became a serious worldwide issue. To cope with this situation, Gigaphoton is developing lasers that support completely helium-free operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26115101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26115101"><span id="translatedtitle">Heat <span class="hlt">Generation</span>/Absorption Effects in a Boundary Layer Stretched Flow of Maxwell Nanofluid: Analytic and Numeric <span class="hlt">Solutions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Awais, Muhammad; Hayat, Tasawar; Irum, Sania; Alsaedi, Ahmed</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Analysis has been done to investigate the heat <span class="hlt">generation</span>/absorption effects in a steady flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid over a surface which is stretching linearly in its own plane. An upper convected Maxwell model (UCM) has been utilized as the non-Newtonian fluid model in view of the fact that it can predict relaxation time phenomenon which the Newtonian model cannot. Behavior of the relaxations phenomenon has been presented in terms of Deborah number. Transport phenomenon with convective cooling process has been analyzed. Brownian motion "Db" and thermophoresis effects "Dt" occur in the transport equations. The momentum, energy and nanoparticle concentration profiles are examined with respect to the involved rheological parameters namely the Deborah number, source/sink parameter, the Brownian motion parameters, thermophoresis parameter and Biot number. Both numerical and analytic <span class="hlt">solutions</span> are presented and found in nice agreement. Comparison with the published data is also made to ensure the validity. Stream lines for Maxwell and Newtonian fluid models are presented in the analysis. PMID:26115101</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4482663','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4482663"><span id="translatedtitle">Heat <span class="hlt">Generation</span>/Absorption Effects in a Boundary Layer Stretched Flow of Maxwell Nanofluid: Analytic and Numeric <span class="hlt">Solutions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Awais, Muhammad; Hayat, Tasawar; Irum, Sania; Alsaedi, Ahmed</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Analysis has been done to investigate the heat <span class="hlt">generation</span>/absorption effects in a steady flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid over a surface which is stretching linearly in its own plane. An upper convected Maxwell model (UCM) has been utilized as the non-Newtonian fluid model in view of the fact that it can predict relaxation time phenomenon which the Newtonian model cannot. Behavior of the relaxations phenomenon has been presented in terms of Deborah number. Transport phenomenon with convective cooling process has been analyzed. Brownian motion Db and thermophoresis effects Dt occur in the transport equations. The momentum, energy and nanoparticle concentration profiles are examined with respect to the involved rheological parameters namely the Deborah number, source/sink parameter, the Brownian motion parameters, thermophoresis parameter and Biot number. Both numerical and analytic <span class="hlt">solutions</span> are presented and found in nice agreement. Comparison with the published data is also made to ensure the validity. Stream lines for Maxwell and Newtonian fluid models are presented in the analysis. PMID:26115101</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3800314','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3800314"><span id="translatedtitle">Indigenous technology development and standardization of the process for obtaining ready to use sterile sodium pertechnetate-Tc-99m <span class="hlt">solution</span> from Geltech <span class="hlt">generator</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sarkar, Sishir Kumar; Kothalkar, Chetan; Naskar, Prabhakar; Joshi, Sangeeta; Saraswathy, Padmanabhan; Dey, Arun Chandra; Vispute, Gunvant Leeladhar; Murhekar, Vishwas Vinayak; Pilkhwal, Neelam</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose of the Study: The indigenous design and technology development for processing large scale zirconium molybdate-Mo-99 (ZrMo-99) Geltech <span class="hlt">generator</span> was successfully commissioned in Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), India, in 2006. The <span class="hlt">generator</span> production facility comprises of four shielded plant facilities equipped with tongs and special process gadgets amenable for remote operations for radiochemical processing of ZrMo-99 gel. Results: Over 2800 Geltech <span class="hlt">generators</span> have been processed and supplied to user hospitals during the period 2006-2013. Geltech <span class="hlt">generator</span> supplied by BRIT was initially not sterile. Simple elution of Tc-99m is performed by a sterile evacuated vial with sterile and pyrogen free 0.9% NaCl <span class="hlt">solution</span> to obtain sodium (Tc-99m) pertechnetate <span class="hlt">solution</span>. A special type online 0.22 ?m membrane filter has been identified and adapted in Geltech <span class="hlt">generator</span>. Conclusions: The online filtration of Tc-99m from Geltech <span class="hlt">generator</span>; thus, provided sterile Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate <span class="hlt">solution</span>. <span class="hlt">Generators</span> assembled with modified filter assembly were supplied to local hospital in Mumbai Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) and S.G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital) and excellent performances were reported by users. PMID:24163509</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3905258','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3905258"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">fourth-generation</span> Calcium channel blocker: Cilnidipine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chandra, K. Sarat; Ramesh, G.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Several classes of antihypertensive agents have been in clinical use, including diuretics, ?-blockers, ?-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARB), and organic calcium channel blockers (CCBs). All these drugs are being currently used in the treatment of Hypertension & various disease conditions of the heart either alone or in combination. Cilnidipine is a new antihypertensive drug distinguished from other L-type Ca2+ channel blockers or even other antihypertensives, which will be useful for selection of antihypertensive drugs according to the pathophysiological condition of a patient. PMID:24407539</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED435784.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED435784.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Youth Violence: Developing Local and State <span class="hlt">Solutions</span>. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Congress, Second Session on Focusing on Youth Violence and Developing Local and State <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> (Memphis and Nashville, TN, February 15 and 16, 1996).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.</p> <p></p> <p>This hearing focused on youth violence and the importance of developing local and state <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. Senator Fred Thompson made an introductory statement. This was followed by four panels on each of 2 days of testimony. Day one's first panel included involved students and business people from Memphis, TN. The second panel included two Tennessee…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20336545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20336545"><span id="translatedtitle">Aging without agency: theorizing the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> age.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gilleard, Chris; Higgs, P</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>This article looks at the "<span class="hlt">fourth</span> age" as a manifestation of the fragmentation of "old age". We argue that the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> age emerges from the institutionalization of the infirmities of old age set against the appearance of a third-age culture that negates past representations of old age. We outline the historical marginalization of old age from early modern society to the contemporary concentration of infirmity within long-term care which makes of old age an undesirable "social imaginary". As "old age" fades from the social world, we liken this to the impact of a "black hole" distorting the gravitational field surrounding it, unobservable except for its traces. Within this perspective, the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> age can be understood by examining not the experience itself but its impact on the discourses that surround and orientate themselves to it. PMID:20336545</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/650214','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/650214"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of a new tandem cation/anion exchange system with clinical-scale <span class="hlt">generators</span> provides high specific volume <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of technetium-99m and rhenium-188</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Knapp, F.R. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Guhlke, S. |</p> <p>1998-03-01</p> <p>In this paper the authors describe the first application of a simple and inexpensive post elution tandem cation-anion exchange column system which is based on <span class="hlt">generator</span> elution with salts of weak acids such as ammonium acetate instead of saline <span class="hlt">solution</span> to provide very high specific volume <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of technetium-99m and rhenium-188 from clinical scale molybdenum-99/technetium-99m <span class="hlt">generator</span> prepared from low specific activity (n,y) molybdenum-99, and tungsten-188/rhenium-188 <span class="hlt">generators</span>, respectively. Initial passage of the bolus through a strong cation exchange cartridge converts the ammonium acetate to acetic acid which is essentially not ionized at the acidic pH, allowing specific subsequent amine type (QMA SepPak{trademark}) anion exchange cartridge column trapping of the microscopic levels of the pertechnetate or perrhenate. Subsequent elution of the anion cartridge with a small volume (< 1 mL) of saline then provides high specific volume <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of technetium-99m by concentration of the high eluant volumes obtained by elution of clinical-scale (1 Ci) <span class="hlt">generators</span>. This new approach also works very effectively to obtain high specific volume <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of rhenium-188 (> 500 mCi/mL) from the alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 <span class="hlt">generator</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70007383','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70007383"><span id="translatedtitle">Transplantation of storm-<span class="hlt">generated</span> coral fragments to enhance Caribbean coral reefs: A successful method but not a <span class="hlt">solution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Garrison, V.H.; Ward, G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In response to dramatic losses of reef-building corals and ongoing lack of recovery, a small-scale coral transplant project was initiated in the Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands) in 1999 and was followed for 12 years. The primary objectives were to (1) identify a source of coral colonies for transplantation that would not result in damage to reefs, (2) test the feasibility of transplanting storm-<span class="hlt">generated</span> coral fragments, and (3) develop a simple, inexpensive method for transplanting fragments that could be conducted by the local community. The ultimate goal was to enhance abundance of threatened reef-building species on local reefs. Storm-produced coral fragments of two threatened reef-building species [Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis (Acroporidae)] and another fast-growing species [Porites porites (Poritidae)] were collected from environments hostile to coral fragment survival and transplanted to degraded reefs. Inert nylon cable ties were used to attach transplanted coral fragments to dead coral substrate. Survival of 75 reference colonies and 60 transplants was assessed over 12 years. Only 9% of colonies were alive after 12 years: no A. cervicornis; 3% of A. palmata transplants and 18% of reference colonies; and 13% of P. porites transplants and 7% of reference colonies. Mortality rates for all species were high and were similar for transplant and reference colonies. Physical dislodgement resulted in the loss of 56% of colonies, whereas 35% died in place. Only A. palmata showed a difference between transplant and reference colony survival and that was in the first year only. Location was a factor in survival only for A. palmata reference colonies and after year 10. Even though the tested methods and concepts were proven effective in the field over the 12-year study, they do not present a <span class="hlt">solution</span>. No coral conservation strategy will be effective until underlying intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors driving high mortality rates are understood and mitigated or eliminated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED043621.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED043621.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">"Researching" with Third- and <span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-Graders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liston, Barbara</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>In order to instill in children the skills which will be basic to their school experience, words implying a process (such as "hemp,""parasite," and "vanilla") may be "researched" by third and <span class="hlt">fourth</span> graders through the use of a dictionary, an encyclopedia, a supplementary book on the subject, and an interview with an adult. The child makes a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Nature+AND+nurture&pg=7&id=ED533212','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Nature+AND+nurture&pg=7&id=ED533212"><span id="translatedtitle">Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Halpern, Diane F.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=oak&pg=3&id=EJ954526','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=oak&pg=3&id=EJ954526"><span id="translatedtitle">Singapore: The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Way in Action?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hargreaves, Andy</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This article has two main objectives. It first outlines the first three waves of change termed by Hargreaves and Shirley (The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Way: The inspiring future for educational change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, "2009") as the First, Second and Third Way that defined global educational policy and practice since the 1960s. It then introduces</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=brain+AND+dates&pg=4&id=ED512184','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=brain+AND+dates&pg=4&id=ED512184"><span id="translatedtitle">Children, Play, and Development. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hughes, Fergus P.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Children, Play, and Development, <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition, discusses the relationship of play to the physical, social, intellectual, and emotional growth of the child. Author Fergus P. Hughes focuses on the historical, sociocultural, and ethological context of play; the role of development in play; and the wide range of theories that provide a framework for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=censorship+AND+essay&pg=5&id=ED406694','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=censorship+AND+essay&pg=5&id=ED406694"><span id="translatedtitle">Literature for Today's Young Adults. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.</p> <p></p> <p>Designed to help teachers open young minds to literature, this book presents criteria for evaluating books in all genres and their suggested classroom uses, an examination of hotly debated topics, and an overview of the significance of young adult literature. The <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition of the book features 30 boxed inserts containing essays by some of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=benefits+AND+animal+AND+research&pg=2&id=ED512184','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=benefits+AND+animal+AND+research&pg=2&id=ED512184"><span id="translatedtitle">Children, Play, and Development. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hughes, Fergus P.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Children, Play, and Development, <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition, discusses the relationship of play to the physical, social, intellectual, and emotional growth of the child. Author Fergus P. Hughes focuses on the historical, sociocultural, and ethological context of play; the role of development in play; and the wide range of theories that provide a framework for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=NEXT+AND+BIG+AND+SCIENCE&pg=2&id=ED533212','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=NEXT+AND+BIG+AND+SCIENCE&pg=2&id=ED533212"><span id="translatedtitle">Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Halpern, Diane F.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED537361.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED537361.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Vocabulary Strategies for a <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grade Classroom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Howell, Gina</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>For this project I worked with twelve of my <span class="hlt">fourth</span> grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Search+AND+placement&pg=3&id=EJ430994','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Search+AND+placement&pg=3&id=EJ430994"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Alternative: Leisure Search and Planning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liptak, John J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Identifies three traditional methods of assisting unemployed in job search process (placement or job development, job banks, and teaching people how to find jobs) and suggests leisure search and planning as <span class="hlt">fourth</span> job search alternative. Sees leisure interests as relatively untapped resources that unemployed might use to find employment or develop</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Retention+AND+cash&pg=2&id=ED330074','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Retention+AND+cash&pg=2&id=ED330074"><span id="translatedtitle">Business Management for Independent Schools. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition of a guide for independent school business managers has been produced in looseleaf format so that changes may be made promptly as decisions of regulatory bodies require modifications in current practice. Fourteen chapters are organized under three broad topic headings. Chapters in part 1, Accounting and Financial Reporting,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10162439','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10162439"><span id="translatedtitle">Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ particle <span class="hlt">generation</span> by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. Final technical report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>The research conducted by Textron Defense Systems (TDS) represents a potential new and innovative concept for dispersed coal liquefaction. The technical approach is <span class="hlt">generation</span> of ultra-fine catalyst particles from supercritical <span class="hlt">solutions</span> by rapid expansion of either catalyst only, or mixtures of catalyst and coal material in supersaturated solvents. The process of rapid expansion of supercritical fluid <span class="hlt">solutions</span> was developed at Battelle`s Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the intended purpose of providing a new analytical technique for characterizing supercritical fluids. The concept forming the basis of this research is that ultra-fine particles can be <span class="hlt">generated</span> from supercritical <span class="hlt">solutions</span> by rapid expansion of either catalyst or catalyst/coal-material mixtures in supersaturated solvents, such as carbon dioxide or water. The focal point of this technique is the rapid transfer of low vapor pressure <span class="hlt">solute</span> (i.e., catalyst), dissolved in the supercritical fluid solvent, to the gas phase as the <span class="hlt">solution</span> is expanded through an orifice. The expansion process is characterized by highly nonequilibrium conditions which cause the <span class="hlt">solute</span> to undergo extremely rapid supersaturation with respect to the solvent, leading to nucleation and particle growth resulting in nanometer size catalyst particles. A supercritical expansion system was designed and built by TDS at their Haverhill facility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001InMat.145...19C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001InMat.145...19C"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">solution</span> to a conjecture of Tits on the subgroup <span class="hlt">generated</span> by the squares of the <span class="hlt">generators</span> of an Artin group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crisp, John; Paris, Luis</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>It was conjectured by Tits that the only relations amongst the squares of the standard <span class="hlt">generators</span> of an Artin group are the obvious ones, namely that a^2 and b^2 commute if ab=ba appears as one of the Artin relations. In this paper we prove Tits' conjecture for all Artin groups. More generally, we show that, given a number m(s)>1 for each Artin <span class="hlt">generator</span> s, the only relations amongst the powers s^m(s) of the <span class="hlt">generators</span> are that a^m(a) and b^m(b) commute if ab=ba appears amongst the Artin relations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=carbone&pg=4&id=EJ745771','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=carbone&pg=4&id=EJ745771"><span id="translatedtitle">Factor Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--<span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition among Referred Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watkins, Marley W.; Wilson, Sharise M.; Kotz, Kasey M.; Carbone, Maria C.; Babula, Teresa</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Factor analysis was applied to the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--<span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition (WISC-IV) scores of 432 Pennsylvania students referred for evaluation for special education services to determine the factor structure of the WISC-IV with this population. A first-order, four-factor oblique <span class="hlt">solution</span> that mirrored that found in the WISC-IV</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........31O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........31O"><span id="translatedtitle">Topics in the standard model of particle physics extension and <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ochoa, Joseph R.</p> <p></p> <p>In this thesis I present two possible signatures of quantum gravitational phenomenology. The first part of this thesis relates to a Lorentz symmetry violating extension of the standard model of particle physics. Here I show that a Chern-Simons type extension of the quantum electrodynamic (QED) sector of the standard model (SM) leads to the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of circular polarization for photons. The polarization of scattered photons are analyzed using quantum field theoretic techniques and through the application of a generalized Boltzmann transport equation. In addition to the previously studied optical activity or birefringence effects induced by the particular interaction studied here, the Lorentz invariance violating interaction in question also leads to the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of circular polarization. The possibility for observation of the effects in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is discussed, although the circular polarization effects are shown to be at a level which is always sub-dominate to the birefringence effects. The second part of this thesis relates to a <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order modification to the general theory of relativity (GR) which has appeared as quantum corrections in the effective spectral action of noncommutative geometry (NCG). A term which is proportional to the square of the Weyl curvature is added to the Einstein-Hilbert action of GR and the the gravitational wave <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of this modified theory are derived. The implications for the possibility of constraining the parameters of NCG through the analysis of data on the rate of orbit decay of binary pulsars is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhRvD..57..954B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhRvD..57..954B"><span id="translatedtitle">Stellar model in a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order theory of gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barraco, Daniel E.; Hamity, Victor H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Within a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order theory of gravity, we obtain the approximation equations in first order of the coupling constant ? of the quadratic term in the curvature and apply these equations to discuss a spherically symmetric perfect fluid stellar model in a weak field limit up to second order in the mass density ?. We find, unlike general relativity (GR), that the continuity of the metric does not allow for a discontinuous mass density; i.e., for any bounded distribution of matter the pressure and the mass density have to be zero at the boundary. We show that the active mass of the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order theory is different than the active mass in GR. Furthermore, for a hard core star model, we find the explicit <span class="hlt">solution</span> for the pressure and investigate the upper bound on the active mass of the star by assuming that matter couples minimally in the Jordan conformal frame and by applying the dominant energy condition to the perfect fluid at the center of the star. We show that there exist values of ? and of the radius R for which this mass of the system does not have an upper bound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940029754','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940029754"><span id="translatedtitle">Pseudospectral collocation methods for <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order differential equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Malek, Alaeddin; Phillips, Timothy N.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Collocation schemes are presented for solving linear <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order differential equations in one and two dimensions. The variational formulation of the model <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order problem is discretized by approximating the integrals by a Gaussian quadrature rule generalized to include the values of the derivative of the integrand at the boundary points. Collocation schemes are derived which are equivalent to this discrete variational problem. An efficient preconditioner based on a low-order finite difference approximation to the same differential operator is presented. The corresponding multidomain problem is also considered and interface conditions are derived. Pseudospectral approximations which are C1 continuous at the interfaces are used in each subdomain to approximate the <span class="hlt">solution</span>. The approximations are also shown to be C3 continuous at the interfaces asymptotically. A complete analysis of the collocation scheme for the multidomain problem is provided. The extension of the method to the biharmonic equation in two dimensions is discussed and results are presented for a problem defined in a nonrectangular domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25869351','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25869351"><span id="translatedtitle">Singlet oxygen <span class="hlt">generation</span> from Li⁺@C⁺₆₀ nano-aggregates dispersed by laser irradiation in aqueous <span class="hlt">solution</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ohkubo, Kei; Kohno, Naoki; Yamada, Yusuke; Fukuzumi, Shunichi</p> <p>2015-05-11</p> <p>Laser pulse irradiation of a deaerated aqueous <span class="hlt">solution</span> containing the solid state lithium ion-encapsulated fullerene resulted in the formation of highly dispersed nano-aggregates (Li(+)@C60)n. Photoirradiation of an O2-saturated D2O <span class="hlt">solution</span> containing (Li(+)@C60)n gave singlet oxygen with 55% quantum yield, leading to efficient double-stranded DNA cleavage. PMID:25869351</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPA.780..131P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPA.780..131P"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of plutonium in nitric acid <span class="hlt">solutions</span> using energy dispersive L X-ray fluorescence with a low power X-ray <span class="hlt">generator</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Py, J.; Groetz, J.-E.; Hubinois, J.-C.; Cardona, D.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This work presents the development of an in-line energy dispersive L X-ray fluorescence spectrometer set-up, with a low power X-ray <span class="hlt">generator</span> and a secondary target, for the determination of plutonium concentration in nitric acid <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. The intensity of the L X-rays from the internal conversion and gamma rays emitted by the daughter nuclei from plutonium is minimized and corrected, in order to eliminate the interferences with the L X-ray fluorescence spectrum. The matrix effects are then corrected by the Compton peak method. A calibration plot for plutonium <span class="hlt">solutions</span> within the range 0.1-20 g L-1 is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950007825','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950007825"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> High Alpha Conference, volume 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The goal of the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> High Alpha Conference, held at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center on July 12-14, 1994, was to focus on the flight validation of high angle of attack technologies and provide an in-depth review of the latest high angle of attack activities. Areas that were covered include high angle of attack aerodynamics, propulsion and inlet dynamics, thrust vectoring, control laws and handling qualities, and tactical utility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2996270','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2996270"><span id="translatedtitle">SEIZURE PREDICTION: THE <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zaveri, Hitten P.; Frei, Mark G.; Arthurs, Susan; Osorio, Ivan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The recently convened <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> International Workshop on Seizure Prediction (IWSP4) brought together a diverse international group of investigators, from academia and industry, including epileptologists, neurosurgeons, neuroscientists, computer scientists, engineers, physicists, and mathematicians who are conducting interdisciplinary research on the prediction and control of seizures. IWSP4 allowed the presentation and discussion of results, an exchange of ideas, an assessment of the status of seizure prediction, control and related fields and the fostering of collaborative projects. PMID:20674508</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970029195','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970029195"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Compiler)</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>This publication consists of papers presented at NASA Langley Research Center's <span class="hlt">fourth</span> workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. Topic considered include: Proving properties of accident; modeling and validating SAFER in VDM-SL; requirement analysis of real-time control systems using PVS; a tabular language for system design; automated deductive verification of parallel systems. Also included is a fundamental hardware design in PVS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950007815','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950007815"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> High Alpha Conference, volume 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The goal of the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> High Alpha Conference was to focus on the flight validation of high angle-of-attack technologies and provide an in-depth review of the latest high angle-of-attack activities. Areas that were covered include: high angle-of-attack aerodynamics, propulsion and inlet dynamics, thrust vectoring, control laws and handling qualities, tactical utility, and forebody controls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/953775','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/953775"><span id="translatedtitle">Bounding CKM Mixing with a <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Family</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chanowitz, Michael S.</p> <p>2009-04-22</p> <p>CKM mixing between third family quarks and a possible <span class="hlt">fourth</span> family is constrained by global fits to the precision electroweak data. The dominant constraint is from nondecoupling oblique corrections rather than the vertex correction to Z {yields} {bar b}b used in previous analyses. The possibility of large mixing suggested by some recent analyses of FCNC processes is excluded, but 3-4 mixing of the same order as the Cabbibo mixing of the first two families is allowed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800009376','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800009376"><span id="translatedtitle">Documentation of the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Order Band Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kalnay-Rivas, E.; Hoitsma, D.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A general circulation model is presented which uses quadratically conservative, <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order horizontal space differences on an unstaggered grid and second order vertical space differences with a forward-backward or a smooth leap frog time scheme to solve the primitive equations of motion. The dynamic equations for motion, finite difference equations, a discussion of the structure and flow chart of the program code, a program listing, and three relevent papers are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860004751','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860004751"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order scheme for the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bayliss, A.; Parikh, P.; Maestrello, L.; Turkel, E.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A computational scheme is described which is second-order accurate in time and <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order accurate in space (2-4). This method is applied to study the stability of compressible boundary layers. The laminar compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a time harmonic inflow superimposed on the steady state <span class="hlt">solution</span>. This results in spatially unstable modes. It is shown that the second-order methods are inefficient for calculating the growth rates and phases of the unstable modes. In contrast the <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order method yields accurate results on relatively course meshes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca2905.photos.193929p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca2905.photos.193929p/"><span id="translatedtitle">7. DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> STREET VIADUCT SHOWING ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>7. DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> STREET VIADUCT SHOWING ORNAMENTAL LIGHTING AND STAIRS AT MISSION STREET OVERCROSSING. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017688','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017688"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> NASA Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This report contains copies of all those technical papers received in time for publication just prior to the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Goddard Conference on Mass Storage and Technologies, held March 28-30, 1995, at the University of Maryland, University College Conference Center, in College Park, Maryland. This series of conferences continues to serve as a unique medium for the exchange of information on topics relating to the ingestion and management of substantial amounts of data and the attendant problems involved. This year's discussion topics include new storage technology, stability of recorded media, performance studies, storage system <span class="hlt">solutions</span>, the National Information infrastructure (Infobahn), the future for storage technology, and lessons learned from various projects. There also will be an update on the IEEE Mass Storage System Reference Model Version 5, on which the final vote was taken in July 1994.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AnPhy.362..298B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AnPhy.362..298B"><span id="translatedtitle">Deformation quantization of the Pais-Uhlenbeck <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order oscillator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berra-Montiel, Jasel; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efraín</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We analyze the quantization of the Pais-Uhlenbeck <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order oscillator within the framework of deformation quantization. Our approach exploits the Noether symmetries of the system by proposing integrals of motion as the variables to obtain a <span class="hlt">solution</span> to the ⋆-genvalue equation, namely the Wigner function. We also obtain, by means of a quantum canonical transformation the wave function associated to the Schrödinger equation of the system. We show that unitary evolution of the system is guaranteed by means of the quantum canonical transformation and via the properties of the constructed Wigner function, even in the so called equal frequency limit of the model, in agreement with recent results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10104475','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10104475"><span id="translatedtitle">Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> quarter 1993</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-11-05</p> <p>The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter of 1993 through the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and <span class="hlt">generation</span> are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23461001','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23461001"><span id="translatedtitle">DNA profiles, computer searches, and the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Amendment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kimel, Catherine W</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Pursuant to federal statutes and to laws in all fifty states, the United States government has assembled a database containing the DNA profiles of over eleven million citizens. Without judicial authorization, the government searches each of these profiles one-hundred thousand times every day, seeking to link database subjects to crimes they are not suspected of committing. Yet, courts and scholars that have addressed DNA databasing have focused their attention almost exclusively on the constitutionality of the government's seizure of the biological samples from which the profiles are <span class="hlt">generated</span>. This Note fills a gap in the scholarship by examining the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Amendment problems that arise when the government searches its vast DNA database. This Note argues that each attempt to match two DNA profiles constitutes a <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Amendment search because each attempted match infringes upon database subjects' expectations of privacy in their biological relationships and physical movements. The Note further argues that database searches are unreasonable as they are currently conducted, and it suggests an adaptation of computer-search procedures to remedy the constitutional deficiency. PMID:23461001</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22095425','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22095425"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order phase-space moments in collective modes of trapped Fermi gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chiacchiera, Silvia; Lepers, Thomas; Davesne, Dany; Urban, Michael</p> <p>2011-10-15</p> <p>We study the transition from hydrodynamic to collisionless behavior in collective modes of ultracold trapped Fermi gases. To that end, we solve the Boltzmann equation for the trapped Fermi gas via the moments method. We showed previously that it is necessary to go beyond second-order moments if one wants to reproduce the results of a numerical <span class="hlt">solution</span> of the Boltzmann equation. Here, we will give the detailed description of the method including <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order moments. We apply this method to the case of realistic parameters, and compare the results for the radial quadrupole and scissors modes at unitarity to experimental data obtained by the Innsbruck group. It turns out that the inclusion of <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order moments clearly improves the agreement with the experimental data. In particular, the <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order moments reduce the effect of collisions and therefore partially compensate the effect of the enhanced in-medium cross section at low temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3247137','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3247137"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytical and numerical <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of the potential and electric field <span class="hlt">generated</span> by different electrode arrays in a tumor tissue under electrotherapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Electrotherapy is a relatively well established and efficient method of tumor treatment. In this paper we focus on analytical and numerical calculations of the potential and electric field distributions inside a tumor tissue in a two-dimensional model (2D-model) <span class="hlt">generated</span> by means of electrode arrays with shapes of different conic sections (ellipse, parabola and hyperbola). Methods Analytical calculations of the potential and electric field distributions based on 2D-models for different electrode arrays are performed by solving the Laplace equation, meanwhile the numerical <span class="hlt">solution</span> is solved by means of finite element method in two dimensions. Results Both analytical and numerical <span class="hlt">solutions</span> reveal significant differences between the electric field distributions <span class="hlt">generated</span> by electrode arrays with shapes of circle and different conic sections (elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic). Electrode arrays with circular, elliptical and hyperbolic shapes have the advantage of concentrating the electric field lines in the tumor. Conclusion The mathematical approach presented in this study provides a useful tool for the design of electrode arrays with different shapes of conic sections by means of the use of the unifying principle. At the same time, we verify the good correspondence between the analytical and numerical <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for the potential and electric field distributions <span class="hlt">generated</span> by the electrode array with different conic sections. PMID:21943385</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039987&hterms=plot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dplot','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039987&hterms=plot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dplot"><span id="translatedtitle">A note on the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of phase plane plots on a digital computer. [for <span class="hlt">solution</span> of nonlinear differential equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Simon, M. K.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A technique is presented for <span class="hlt">generating</span> phase plane plots on a digital computer which circumvents the difficulties associated with more traditional methods of numerical solving nonlinear differential equations. In particular, the nonlinear differential equation of operation is formulated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=power+AND+laws&id=ED554947','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=power+AND+laws&id=ED554947"><span id="translatedtitle">Community-Based Social Networks: <span class="hlt">Generation</span> of Power Law Degree Distribution and IP <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> to the KPP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wu, Wentao</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this thesis is two-fold: (1) to investigate the degree distribution property of community-based social networks (CSNs) and (2) to provide <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to a pertinent problem, the Key Player Problem. In the first part of this thesis, we consider a growing community-based network in which the ability of nodes competing for links to new</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=node&id=ED554947','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=node&id=ED554947"><span id="translatedtitle">Community-Based Social Networks: <span class="hlt">Generation</span> of Power Law Degree Distribution and IP <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> to the KPP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wu, Wentao</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this thesis is two-fold: (1) to investigate the degree distribution property of community-based social networks (CSNs) and (2) to provide <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to a pertinent problem, the Key Player Problem. In the first part of this thesis, we consider a growing community-based network in which the ability of nodes competing for links to new…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26819395','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26819395"><span id="translatedtitle">Ibuprofen removal from aqueous <span class="hlt">solution</span> by in situ electrochemically <span class="hlt">generated</span> ferrate(VI): proof-of-principle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nikolić-Bujanović, Ljiljana; Čekerevac, Milan; Tomić, Milena; Zdravković, Mladen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The possibility of removing pharmaceuticals from aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> was examined using ibuprofen (Ibu) oxidation as an example, using in situ electrochemically synthesized ferrate(VI), a strong oxidant and coagulant, with forming of non-harmful byproducts. A <span class="hlt">solution</span> of ibuprofen of 206 mg/L in 0.1 M phosphate buffer <span class="hlt">solution</span> was treated with different amounts of fresh, electrochemically synthesized ferrate(VI). The changes of ibuprofen concentration in samples were determined using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The extent of mineralization was estimated using the changes in chemical oxygen demand (COD) values and total organic carbon (TOC) values of test samples. The largest reduction of the concentration of Ibu (41.75%) was obtained by adding 69.2 mg/L ferrate(VI) as Fe (Ibu: Fe = 1: 0.34). An effective removal of ibuprofen from aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> was recorded up to 68% and it can be done by using ferrate(VI) in the ratio Ibu: Fe = 1:3 as Fe. The possibility of ibuprofen removal by ferrate(VI) was confirmed by COD and TOC results, which demonstrated reduction up to 65% and 63.6%, respectively. PMID:26819395</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MaCom..79..677M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MaCom..79..677M"><span id="translatedtitle">A posteriori error estimation for hp -adaptivity for <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, Peter K.; Rangelova, Marina</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>A posteriori error estimates developed to drive hp-adaptivity for second-order reaction-diffusion equations are extended to <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order equations. A C^1 hierarchical finite element basis is constructed from Hermite-Lobatto polynomials. A priori estimates of the error in several norms for both the interpolant and finite element <span class="hlt">solution</span> are derived. In the latter case this requires a generalization of the well-known Aubin-Nitsche technique to time-dependent <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order equations. We show that the finite element <span class="hlt">solution</span> and corresponding Hermite-Lobatto interpolant are asymptotically equivalent. A posteriori error estimators based on this equivalence for <span class="hlt">solutions</span> at two orders are presented. Both are shown to be asymptotically exact on grids of uniform order. These estimators can be used to control various adaptive strategies. Computational results for linear steady-state and time-dependent equations corroborate the theory and demonstrate the effectiveness of the estimators in adaptive settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980203598','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980203598"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension and to review recent developments in sensors, controls, superconducting magnet technology, and design/implementation practices, the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at The Nagaragawa Convention Center in Gifu, Japan, on October 30 - November 1, 1997. The symposium included 13 sessions in which a total of 35 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of maglev, controls, high critical temperature (T(sub c)) superconductivity, bearings, magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBS), levitation, modeling, and applications. A list of attendees is included in the document.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4573413','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4573413"><span id="translatedtitle">Primary solitary lymphoma of the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hsu, Huang-I; Lai, Ping-Hong; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hsu, Shu-Shong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Primary central nervous lymphoma(PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma confined to the central nervous system. Most of the lesions are supratentorial and periventricular, often involving deep structures such as corpus callosum and basal ganglion. Isolated intraventricular lymphoma is rare and only a few case reports. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the seventh case of isolated PCNSL in the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle in an immunocompetent patient. Presentation of case A 61-year-old male presenting with 3 months of headache and dizziness followed with unsteady gait for days. The MR imaging of brain revealed a homogeneously enhancing lesion occupying almost the whole 4th ventricle.The tumor was removed subtotally via suboccipital craniotomy. Histopathology revealed the lesion be a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Discussion PCNSL is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of intracranial mass lesion. The unusual location in surgically accessible <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle in posterior fossa, the isolation of the tumor may present a compelling indication for surgical resection. Conclusion We suggest that primary lymphoma should be considered with homogenous lesions of the 4th ventricle. Also aggressive surgical resection in this surgically accessible location, instead of biopsy only, is rational. PMID:26209757</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24997962','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24997962"><span id="translatedtitle">Photochemical <span class="hlt">generation</span> of photoactive compounds with fulvic-like and humic-like fluorescence in aqueous <span class="hlt">solution</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bianco, Angelica; Minella, Marco; De Laurentiis, Elisa; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio; Vione, Davide</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The irradiation of L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine and 4-phenoxyphenol in aqueous <span class="hlt">solution</span> produced compounds with similar fluorescence properties as humic substances, and with absorption spectra that were significantly extended into the UVA and visible regions compared to the starting compounds. The irradiated systems had photosensitizing properties, as proven by the photodegradation of 2,4,6-trimethylphenol and furfuryl alcohol (probes of excited triplet states and (1)O2, respectively). The described photochemical processes could constitute an additional pathway for the formation of humic substances in clear and shallow water bodies, which would be added to the complex network of reactions involving dissolved organic matter. PMID:24997962</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Geo....13..822W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Geo....13..822W"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of caves and other <span class="hlt">solution</span> openings in the unsaturated (vadose) zone of carbonate rocks: A model for CO2 <span class="hlt">generation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wood, Warren W.</p> <p>1985-11-01</p> <p>The enigma that caves and other <span class="hlt">solution</span> openings form in carbonate rocks at great depths below land surface rather than forming from the surface downward can be explained by the <span class="hlt">generation</span> of CO2 within the aquifer system. In the proposed model, CO2 is <span class="hlt">generated</span> by the oxidation of particulate and/or dissolved organic carbon that is transported from the land surface deep into the unsaturated zone by recharging ground water. The organic material is oxidized to CO2 by aerobic bacteria utilizing oxygen that diffuses in from the atmosphere. Because gas transport in the unsaturated zone is controlled largely by diffusion, steady-state <span class="hlt">generation</span> of even minute amounts of CO2 deep in the unsaturated zone results in the creation of large concentrations of CO2 at depth as it establishes a concentration gradient to the surface or other sink. Ground water descending into these areas of high CO2 concentration becomes thermodynamically subsaturated with respect to carbonate minerals and is able to dissolve them, thus forming the observed <span class="hlt">solution</span> opening at depth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvD..86f5020F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvD..86f5020F"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic monopole loops <span class="hlt">generated</span> from two-instanton <span class="hlt">solutions</span>: Jackiw-Nohl-Rebbi versus 't Hooft instanton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fukui, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shibata, Akihiro; Shinohara, Toru</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>In our previous paper [N. Fukui, K.-I. Kondo, A. Shibata, and T. Shinohara, Phys. Rev. D 82, 045015 (2010)], we have shown that the Jackiw-Nohl-Rebbi (JNR) two-instanton <span class="hlt">generates</span> a circular loop of magnetic monopole in the four-dimensional Euclidean SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. On the other hand, it is claimed in Brower et al. [Phys. Rev. D 55, 6313 (1997); Nucl. Phys. B, Proc. Suppl. 53, 488 (1997)] that the ’t Hooft two-instanton does not <span class="hlt">generate</span> magnetic monopole loop. It seems that the two results are inconsistent with each other, since the JNR two-instanton converges to the ’t Hooft two-instanton in a certain limit. In this paper, we clarify that the two results are compatible with each other by demonstrating how the magnetic monopole loop <span class="hlt">generated</span> from the JNR two-instanton deforms in the process of taking the ’t Hooft two-instanton limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.121..452L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.121..452L"><span id="translatedtitle">The oxygen isotope evolution of parent body aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> as recorded by multiple carbonate <span class="hlt">generations</span> in the Lonewolf Nunataks 94101 CM2 carbonaceous chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, M. R.; Sofe, M. R.; Lindgren, P.; Starkey, N. A.; Franchi, I. A.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The CM2 carbonaceous chondrite LON 94101 contains aragonite and two <span class="hlt">generations</span> of calcite that provide snapshots of the chemical and isotopic evolution of aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> during parent body alteration. Aragonite was the first carbonate to crystallize. It is rare, heterogeneously distributed within the meteorite matrix, and its mean oxygen isotope values are δ18O 39.9 ± 0.6‰, Δ17O -0.3 ± 1.0‰ (1σ). Calcite precipitated soon afterwards, and following a fall in <span class="hlt">solution</span> Mg/Ca ratios, to produce small equant grains with a mean oxygen isotope value of δ18O 37.5 ± 0.7‰, Δ17O 1.4 ± 1.1‰ (1σ). These grains were partially or completely replaced by serpentine and tochilinite prior to precipitation of the second <span class="hlt">generation</span> of calcite, which occluded an open fracture to form a millimetre-sized vein, and replaced anhydrous silicates within chondrules and the matrix. The vein calcite has a mean composition of δ18O 18.4 ± 0.3‰, Δ17O -0.5 ± 0.5‰ (1σ). Petrographic and isotopic results therefore reveal two discrete episodes of mineralisation that produced calcite <span class="hlt">generations</span> with contrasting δ18O, and mean Δ17O values. The aragonite and equant calcite crystallized over a relatively brief period early in the aqueous alteration history of the parent body, and from static fluids that were evolving chemically in response to mineral dissolution and precipitation. The second calcite <span class="hlt">generation</span> crystallized from <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of a lower Δ17O, and a lower δ18O and/or higher temperature. As two <span class="hlt">generations</span> of calcite whose petrographic characteristics and oxygen isotopic compositions are similar to those in LON 94101 occur in at least one other CM2, multiphase carbonate mineralisation could be the typical outcome of the sequence of chemical reactions during parent body aqueous alteration. It is equally possible however that the second <span class="hlt">generation</span> of calcite formed in response to an event such as impact fracturing and concomitant fluid mobilisation that affected a large region of the common parent body of several CM2 meteorites. These findings show that integrated petrographic, chemical and isotopic studies can provide new insights into the mechanisms of parent body alteration including the spatial and temporal dynamics of the aqueous system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986RaPC...27..389W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986RaPC...27..389W"><span id="translatedtitle">The interaction of radiation-<span class="hlt">generated</span> radicals with myoglobin in aqueous <span class="hlt">solution</span>V. The indirect action of 2-methyl-2-hydroxypropyl radicals on oxymyoglobin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Whitburn, Kevin D.; Hoffman, Morton Z.</p> <p></p> <p>The interaction of radiation-<span class="hlt">generated</span> 2-methyl-2-hydroxypropyl radicals (derived from t-butyl alcohol) with oxymyoglobin has been examined at pH 7.3. In N 2O-saturated <span class="hlt">solutions</span>, oxymyoglobin is converted to the ferri and ferryl derivatives of myoglobin; the production of ferrylmyoglobin is essentially eliminated when catalase is present in <span class="hlt">solution</span> during irradiation. In deaerated <span class="hlt">solutions</span> containing catalase, oxymyoglobin is converted to both ferro- and ferrimyoglobin during irradiation. When added O 2 is initially present, all compositional changes occur after irradiation; the presence of catalase diminishes, but does not eliminate, the extent of these postirradiation conversions of oxymyoglobin to the ferri and ferryl derivatives. These observations are interpreted in terms of the scavenging of the 2-methyl-2-hydroxypropyl radicals by O 2 to <span class="hlt">generate</span> their peroxy analogs, which causes a displacement of the equilibrium between oxy- and ferromyoglobin. The peroxy radicals decay to produce H 2O 2, an organic peroxide, and other products. These peroxides subsequently react with ferromyoglobin to produce the ferryl form; the rate of the reaction increases with decreasing [O 2] as [ferromyoglobin] increases. This reaction is sufficiently fast in deaerated <span class="hlt">solution</span> that substantial conversion of ferromyoglobin to ferrylmyoglobin occurs during the time of irradiation. The formation of the ferryl derivative in the presence of unconverted ferromyoglobin drives a concurrent synproportion reaction which produces ferrimyoglobin. Overall, no direct interaction of 2-methyl-2-hydroxypropyl radicals, nor their peroxy analogs, with myoglobin is indicated; all reactivity is accountable by the peroxide products of these radicals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100025833','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100025833"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary of the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vassberg, John C.; Tinoco, Edward N.; Mani, Mori; Rider, Ben; Zickuhr, Tom; Levy, David W.; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Eisfeld, Bernhard; Crippa, Simone; Wahls, Richard A.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Murayama, Mitcuhiro</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Results from the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-IV) are summarized. The workshop focused on the prediction of both absolute and differential drag levels for wing-body and wing-body-horizontal-tail configurations that are representative of transonic transport air- craft. Numerical calculations are performed using industry-relevant test cases that include lift- specific flight conditions, trimmed drag polars, downwash variations, dragrises and Reynolds- number effects. Drag, lift and pitching moment predictions from numerous Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics methods are presented. <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> are performed on structured, unstructured and hybrid grid systems. The structured-grid sets include point- matched multi-block meshes and over-set grid systems. The unstructured and hybrid grid sets are comprised of tetrahedral, pyramid, prismatic, and hexahedral elements. Effort is made to provide a high-quality and parametrically consistent family of grids for each grid type about each configuration under study. The wing-body-horizontal families are comprised of a coarse, medium and fine grid; an optional extra-fine grid augments several of the grid families. These mesh sequences are utilized to determine asymptotic grid-convergence characteristics of the <span class="hlt">solution</span> sets, and to estimate grid-converged absolute drag levels of the wing-body-horizontal configuration using Richardson extrapolation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552761','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552761"><span id="translatedtitle">EPR-Spin Trapping and Flow Cytometric Studies of Free Radicals <span class="hlt">Generated</span> Using Cold Atmospheric Argon Plasma and X-Ray Irradiation in Aqueous <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> and Intracellular Milieu</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Uchiyama, Hidefumi; Zhao, Qing-Li; Hassan, Mariame Ali; Andocs, Gabor; Nojima, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Kondo, Takashi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-spin trapping and flow cytometry were used to identify free radicals <span class="hlt">generated</span> using argon-cold atmospheric plasma (Ar-CAP) in aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> and intracellularly in comparison with those <span class="hlt">generated</span> by X-irradiation. Ar-CAP was <span class="hlt">generated</span> using a high-voltage power supply unit with low-frequency excitation. The characteristics of Ar-CAP were estimated by vacuum UV absorption and emission spectra measurements. Hydroxyl (·OH) radicals and hydrogen (H) atoms in aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> were identified with the spin traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), 3,3,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (M4PO), and phenyl N-t-butylnitrone (PBN). The occurrence of Ar-CAP-induced pyrolysis was evaluated using the spin trap 3,5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzene sulfonate (DBNBS) in aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of DNA constituents, sodium acetate, and L-alanine. Human lymphoma U937 cells were used to study intracellular oxidative stress using five fluorescent probes with different affinities to a number of reactive species. The analysis and quantification of EPR spectra revealed the formation of enormous amounts of ·OH radicals using Ar-CAP compared with that by X-irradiation. Very small amounts of H atoms were detected whereas nitric oxide was not found. The formation of ·OH radicals depended on the type of rare gas used and the yield correlated inversely with ionization energy in the order of krypton > argon = neon > helium. No pyrolysis radicals were detected in aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> exposed to Ar-CAP. Intracellularly, ·OH, H2O2, which is the recombination product of ·OH, and OCl- were the most likely formed reactive oxygen species after exposure to Ar-CAP. Intracellularly, there was no practical evidence for the formation of NO whereas very small amounts of superoxides were formed. Despite the superiority of Ar-CAP in forming ·OH radicals, the exposure to X-rays proved more lethal. The mechanism of free radical formation in aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> and an intracellular milieu is discussed. PMID:26318000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26318000','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26318000"><span id="translatedtitle">EPR-Spin Trapping and Flow Cytometric Studies of Free Radicals <span class="hlt">Generated</span> Using Cold Atmospheric Argon Plasma and X-Ray Irradiation in Aqueous <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> and Intracellular Milieu.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uchiyama, Hidefumi; Zhao, Qing-Li; Hassan, Mariame Ali; Andocs, Gabor; Nojima, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Kondo, Takashi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-spin trapping and flow cytometry were used to identify free radicals <span class="hlt">generated</span> using argon-cold atmospheric plasma (Ar-CAP) in aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> and intracellularly in comparison with those <span class="hlt">generated</span> by X-irradiation. Ar-CAP was <span class="hlt">generated</span> using a high-voltage power supply unit with low-frequency excitation. The characteristics of Ar-CAP were estimated by vacuum UV absorption and emission spectra measurements. Hydroxyl (·OH) radicals and hydrogen (H) atoms in aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> were identified with the spin traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), 3,3,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (M4PO), and phenyl N-t-butylnitrone (PBN). The occurrence of Ar-CAP-induced pyrolysis was evaluated using the spin trap 3,5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzene sulfonate (DBNBS) in aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of DNA constituents, sodium acetate, and L-alanine. Human lymphoma U937 cells were used to study intracellular oxidative stress using five fluorescent probes with different affinities to a number of reactive species. The analysis and quantification of EPR spectra revealed the formation of enormous amounts of ·OH radicals using Ar-CAP compared with that by X-irradiation. Very small amounts of H atoms were detected whereas nitric oxide was not found. The formation of ·OH radicals depended on the type of rare gas used and the yield correlated inversely with ionization energy in the order of krypton > argon = neon > helium. No pyrolysis radicals were detected in aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> exposed to Ar-CAP. Intracellularly, ·OH, H2O2, which is the recombination product of ·OH, and OCl- were the most likely formed reactive oxygen species after exposure to Ar-CAP. Intracellularly, there was no practical evidence for the formation of NO whereas very small amounts of superoxides were formed. Despite the superiority of Ar-CAP in forming ·OH radicals, the exposure to X-rays proved more lethal. The mechanism of free radical formation in aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> and an intracellular milieu is discussed. PMID:26318000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPA....6c5101M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPA....6c5101M"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical <span class="hlt">solution</span> of Williamson fluid flow past a stretching cylinder and heat transfer with variable thermal conductivity and heat <span class="hlt">generation</span>/absorption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Malik, M. Y.; Bibi, M.; Khan, Farzana; Salahuddin, T.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In this article, Williamson fluid flow and heat transfer over a stretching cylinder is discussed. The thermal conductivity is assumed to be vary linearly with temperature. Heat <span class="hlt">generation</span>/absorption effects are also taken into account. Modeled partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential form by using appropriate transformations. Shooting method in conjunction with Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method is used to find the <span class="hlt">solution</span> of the problem. Moreover, the effects of different flow parameters γ, λ, ɛ, β and Pr on velocity and temperature profiles are shown graphically. Local Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient are shown in tabular and graphical form.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790061253&hterms=interior+points+methods&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dinterior%2Bpoints%2Bmethods','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790061253&hterms=interior+points+methods&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dinterior%2Bpoints%2Bmethods"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct control of the grid point distribution in meshes <span class="hlt">generated</span> by elliptic equations. [for <span class="hlt">solution</span> of Navier-Stokes nozzle flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Middlecoff, J. F.; Thomas, P. D.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">generation</span> of computational grids suitable for obtaining accurate numerical <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is the subject of intensive research. For a wide class of nozzle configurations, a three-dimensional grid can be constructed by a sequence of two-dimensional grids in successive cross-sectional planes. The present paper is concerned with numerical <span class="hlt">generation</span> of two-dimensional grids. An effective method of interior grid control is presented based on a modified elliptic system containing free parameters. For a simply connected region, the free parameters are computed from the Dirichlet boundary values. The resulting interior grid point distribution is controlled entirely by a priori selection of the grid point distribution along the boundaries of the section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005CQGra..22.5073M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005CQGra..22.5073M"><span id="translatedtitle">4D Conformal metrics, the eikonal equation and <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order ODEs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marciano-Melchor, Magdalena; Newman, Ezra Ted; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>In this work we show that on the space of <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of a certain class of <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order ODEs, u'''' = ?(s, u, u', u'', u'''), a four-dimensional conformal metric, gab, can be constructed such that the four-dimensional eikonal equation, gabu,au,b = 0, holds. Furthermore, we remark that this structure is invariant under contact transformations. Our general results are applied to the Minkowski spacetime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25409265','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25409265"><span id="translatedtitle">Single drop <span class="hlt">solution</span> electrode glow discharge for plasma assisted-chemical vapor <span class="hlt">generation</span>: sensitive detection of zinc and cadmium in limited amounts of samples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Zhi-ang; Tan, Qing; Hou, Xiandeng; Xu, Kailai; Zheng, Chengbin</p> <p>2014-12-16</p> <p>A simple and sensitive approach is proposed and evaluated for determination of ultratrace Zn and Cd in limited amounts of samples or tens of cells based on a novel single drop (5-20 ?L) <span class="hlt">solution</span> electrode glow discharge assisted-chemical vapor <span class="hlt">generation</span> technique. Volatile species of Zn and Cd were immediately <span class="hlt">generated</span> and separated from the liquid phase for transporting to atomic fluorescence or atomic mass spectrometric detectors for their determination only using hydrogen when the glow discharge was ignited between the surface of a liquid drop and the tip of a tungsten electrode. Limits of detection are better than 0.01 ?g L(-1) (0.2 pg) for Cd and 0.1 ?g L(-1) (2 pg) for Zn, respectively, and comparable or better than the previously reported results due to only a 20 ?L sampling volume required, which makes the proposed technique convenient for the determination of Zn and Cd in limited amounts of samples or even only tens of cells. The proposed method not only retains the advantages of conventional chemical vapor <span class="hlt">generation</span> but also provides several unique advantages, including better sensitivity, lower sample and power consumption, higher chemical vapor <span class="hlt">generation</span> efficiencies and simpler setup, as well as greener analytical chemistry. The utility of this technique was demonstrated by the determination of ultratrace Cd and Zn in several single human hair samples, Certified Reference Materials GBW07601a (human hair powder) and paramecium cells. PMID:25409265</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CPL...624...87C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CPL...624...87C"><span id="translatedtitle">ESR study of singlet oxygen <span class="hlt">generation</span> and its behavior during the photo-oxidation of P3HT in <span class="hlt">solution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Liang; Yamane, Shogo; Mizukado, Junji; Suzuki, Yasumasa; Kutsuna, Shuzo; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Suda, Hiroyuki</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of 1O2 from poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) irradiated in the presence of O2 in chlorobenzene was investigated using ESR measurement, employing 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TEMP) as a spin trap. 1O2 was found to be formed with rad O2? being produced in parallel at a branching ratio of 99:1. Additionally, the reaction of P3HT with 1O2 was investigated using an endoperoxide as the 1O2 source in CCl4 by MALDI-TOF MS measurement. The upper limit of the rate constant for the reaction of P3HT with 1O2 was estimated using a kinetics simulation. These findings raise the understanding of the photo-oxidative degradation of P3HT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25370936','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25370936"><span id="translatedtitle">The first FDA marketing authorizations of next-<span class="hlt">generation</span> sequencing technology and tests: challenges, <span class="hlt">solutions</span> and impact for future assays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bijwaard, Karen; Dickey, Jennifer S; Kelm, Kellie; Težak, Živana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The rapid emergence and clinical translation of novel high-throughput sequencing technologies created a need to clarify the regulatory pathway for the evaluation and authorization of these unique technologies. Recently, the US FDA authorized for marketing four next <span class="hlt">generation</span> sequencing (NGS)-based diagnostic devices which consisted of two heritable disease-specific assays, library preparation reagents and a NGS platform that are intended for human germline targeted sequencing from whole blood. These first authorizations can serve as a case study in how different types of NGS-based technology are reviewed by the FDA. In this manuscript we describe challenges associated with the evaluation of these novel technologies and provide an overview of what was reviewed. Besides making validated NGS-based devices available for in vitro diagnostic use, these first authorizations create a regulatory path for similar future instruments and assays. PMID:25370936</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ERL.....6c4002S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ERL.....6c4002S"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">solutions</span> in rural Africa: mapping electrification costs of distributed solar and diesel <span class="hlt">generation</span> versus grid extension</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Szab, S.; Bdis, K.; Huld, T.; Moner-Girona, M.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Three rural electrification options are analysed showing the cost optimal conditions for a sustainable energy development applying renewable energy sources in Africa. A spatial electricity cost model has been designed to point out whether diesel <span class="hlt">generators</span>, photovoltaic systems or extension of the grid are the least-cost option in off-grid areas. The resulting mapping application offers support to decide in which regions the communities could be electrified either within the grid or in an isolated mini-grid. Donor programs and National Rural Electrification Agencies (or equivalent governmental departments) could use this type of delineation for their program boundaries and then could use the local optimization tools adapted to the prevailing parameters. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent European Commission and UNEP policy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26751609','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26751609"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of second harmonic <span class="hlt">generation</span> of gold nanospheres and nanorods in aqueous <span class="hlt">solution</span>: the dominant role of surface area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ngo, Hoang Minh; Nguyen, Phuong Phong; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle</p> <p>2016-01-20</p> <p>Size and shape of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have a strong influence on their second order nonlinear optical properties. In this work, we propose a systematic investigation of surface and shape effects in the case of small gold nanoparticles. Colloidal <span class="hlt">solutions</span> on AuNPs with different sizes and shapes have been synthesized, i.e. nanospheres (diameters 3.0; 11.6; 15.8; 17.4; 20.0 and 43 nm) and nanorods (aspect ratios 1.47; 1.63 and 2.30). The first hyperpolarizability ? values of these AuNPs have been measured by harmonic light scattering (HLS) at 1064 nm. For nanospheres and nanorods, we found that their ? values are governed by a purely local, dipolar contribution, as confirmed by their surface area dependence. As an important consequence of these surface effects, we have revisited the previously reported aspect ratio dependence of ? values for gold nanorods, and evidenced the predominant influence of nanoparticle area over aspect ratio considerations. PMID:26751609</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvD..82e1503S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvD..82e1503S"><span id="translatedtitle">Searching for the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> family quarks through anomalous decays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sahin, M.; Sultansoy, S.; Turkoz, S.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The flavor democracy hypothesis predicts the existence of the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> standard model family. Because of the high masses of the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> family quarks, their anomalous decays could be dominant if certain criteria are met. This will drastically change the search strategy at hadron colliders. We show that the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> standard model family down quarks with masses up to 400-450 GeV can be observed (or excluded) via anomalous decays by Tevatron.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa1316.photos.140506p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa1316.photos.140506p/"><span id="translatedtitle">4. RAMP FOR BENJAMIN FRANKLIN BRIDGE (<span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> ST.) BETWEEN VINE ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>4. RAMP FOR BENJAMIN FRANKLIN BRIDGE (<span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> ST.) BETWEEN VINE AND RACE STS., LOOKING NORTHWEST - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ia0285.photos.067197p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ia0285.photos.067197p/"><span id="translatedtitle">13. <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>13. <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/dc0231.photos.029612p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/dc0231.photos.029612p/"><span id="translatedtitle">95. ROOM 402 (LAW LIBRARY), EAST WING, <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, LOOKING ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>95. ROOM 402 (LAW LIBRARY), EAST WING, <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85k5101S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85k5101S"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of electrical conductivity response upon formation of ice and gas hydrates from salt <span class="hlt">solutions</span> by a second <span class="hlt">generation</span> high pressure electrical conductivity probe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sowa, Barbara; Zhang, Xue Hua; Kozielski, Karen A.; Dunstan, Dave E.; Hartley, Patrick G.; Maeda, Nobuo</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>We recently reported the development of a high pressure electrical conductivity probe (HP-ECP) for experimental studies of formation of gas hydrates from electrolytes. The onset of the formation of methane-propane mixed gas hydrate from salt <span class="hlt">solutions</span> was marked by a temporary upward spike in the electrical conductivity. To further understand hydrate formation a second <span class="hlt">generation</span> of window-less HP-ECP (MkII), which has a much smaller heat capacity than the earlier version and allows access to faster cooling rates, has been constructed. Using the HP-ECP (MkII) the electrical conductivity signal responses of NaCl <span class="hlt">solutions</span> upon the formation of ice, tetrahydrofuran hydrates, and methane-propane mixed gas hydrate has been measured. The concentration range of the NaCl <span class="hlt">solutions</span> was from 1 mM to 3M and the driving AC frequency range was from 25 Hz to 5 kHz. This data has been used to construct an "electrical conductivity response phase diagrams" that summarize the electrical conductivity response signal upon solid formation in these systems. The general trend is that gas hydrate formation is marked by an upward spike in the conductivity at high concentrations and by a drop at low concentrations. This work shows that HP-ECP can be applied in automated measurements of hydrate formation probability distributions of optically opaque samples using the conductivity response signals as a trigger.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430143"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of electrical conductivity response upon formation of ice and gas hydrates from salt <span class="hlt">solutions</span> by a second <span class="hlt">generation</span> high pressure electrical conductivity probe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sowa, Barbara; Zhang, Xue Hua; Kozielski, Karen A; Dunstan, Dave E; Hartley, Patrick G; Maeda, Nobuo</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>We recently reported the development of a high pressure electrical conductivity probe (HP-ECP) for experimental studies of formation of gas hydrates from electrolytes. The onset of the formation of methane-propane mixed gas hydrate from salt <span class="hlt">solutions</span> was marked by a temporary upward spike in the electrical conductivity. To further understand hydrate formation a second <span class="hlt">generation</span> of window-less HP-ECP (MkII), which has a much smaller heat capacity than the earlier version and allows access to faster cooling rates, has been constructed. Using the HP-ECP (MkII) the electrical conductivity signal responses of NaCl <span class="hlt">solutions</span> upon the formation of ice, tetrahydrofuran hydrates, and methane-propane mixed gas hydrate has been measured. The concentration range of the NaCl <span class="hlt">solutions</span> was from 1 mM to 3M and the driving AC frequency range was from 25 Hz to 5 kHz. This data has been used to construct an "electrical conductivity response phase diagrams" that summarize the electrical conductivity response signal upon solid formation in these systems. The general trend is that gas hydrate formation is marked by an upward spike in the conductivity at high concentrations and by a drop at low concentrations. This work shows that HP-ECP can be applied in automated measurements of hydrate formation probability distributions of optically opaque samples using the conductivity response signals as a trigger. PMID:25430143</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21997300','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21997300"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">fourth</span> age of quantum chemistry: molecules in motion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Csszr, Attila G; Fbri, Csaba; Szidarovszky, Tams; Mtyus, Edit; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Czak, Gbor</p> <p>2012-01-21</p> <p>Developments during the last two decades in nuclear motion theory made it possible to obtain variational <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to the time-independent, nuclear-motion Schrdinger equation of polyatomic systems as "exact" as the potential energy surface (PES) is. Nuclear motion theory thus reached a level whereby this branch of quantum chemistry started to catch up with the well developed and widely applied other branch, electronic structure theory. It seems to be fair to declare that we are now in the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> age of quantum chemistry, where the first three ages are principally defined by developments in electronic structure techniques (G. Richards, Nature, 1979, 278, 507). In the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> age we are able to incorporate into our quantum chemical treatment the motion of nuclei in an exact fashion and, for example, go beyond equilibrium molecular properties and compute accurate, temperature-dependent, effective properties, thus closing the gap between measurements and electronic structure computations. In this Perspective three fundamental algorithms for the variational <span class="hlt">solution</span> of the time-independent nuclear-motion Schrdinger equation employing exact kinetic energy operators are presented: one based on tailor-made Hamiltonians, one on the Eckart-Watson Hamiltonian, and one on a general internal-coordinate Hamiltonian. It is argued that the most useful and most widely applicable procedure is the third one, based on a Hamiltonian containing a kinetic energy operator written in terms of internal coordinates and an arbitrary embedding of the body-fixed frame of the molecule. This Hamiltonian makes it feasible to treat the nuclear motions of arbitrary quantum systems, irrespective of whether they exhibit a single well-defined minimum or not, and of arbitrary reduced-dimensional models. As a result, molecular spectroscopy, an important field for the application of nuclear motion theory, has almost black-box-type tools at its disposal. Variational nuclear motion computations, based on an exact kinetic energy operator and an arbitrary PES, can now be performed for about 9 active vibrational degrees of freedom relatively straightforwardly. Simulations of high-resolution spectra allow the understanding of complete rotational-vibrational spectra up to and beyond the first dissociation limits. Variational results obtained for H(2)O, H, NH(3), CH(4), and H(2)CCO are used to demonstrate the power of the variational techniques for the description of vibrational and rotational excitations. Some qualitative features of the results are also discussed. PMID:21997300</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..SHK.W1020P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..SHK.W1020P"><span id="translatedtitle">On a novel graded areal density <span class="hlt">solution</span> to facilitate ramp wave <span class="hlt">generation</span> in plate-impact studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Painter, Jonathan; Fitzmaurice, Brianna; Goff, Michael; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Wood, David; Pinto, Tom</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Building on a substantial body of work on functionally graded materials in the literature, it has been previously shown that the use of graded areal density impactors, in conjunction with buffer materials, allows <span class="hlt">generation</span> of ramp-wave loading profiles in impacted targets. Such off-principle-Hugoniot loading paths are of particular interest where control of one or more state variables (e.g. temperature) is desirable during the loading event. Previous attempts to produce suitable graded areal density impactors have focused on rapid protoyping techniques such as 3D printing. While suitable for small-scale production of impactors, such technologies are relatively immature. Instead, here a novel approach to creating graded areal density structures - TWI Ltd's novel surface modification process, SurfiSculpt, with a nominal surface spike distribution of 1.5 per mm2, has been employed to produce the required impactors. Initial experimental results are presented highlighting the potential of this experimental approach; further, these results - combined with basic hydrocode simulations - are used to postulated idealised structures which would allow useful loading paths such as the Adiabat to be readily accessed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26244813','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26244813"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient Sorption and Removal of Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) from Aqueous <span class="hlt">Solution</span> by Metal Hydroxides <span class="hlt">Generated</span> in Situ by Electrocoagulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Hui; Wang, Yujuan; Niu, Junfeng; Yue, Zhihan; Huang, Qingguo</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Removal of environmentally persistent perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), that is, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs, C4 ∼ C10) were investigated through sorption on four metal hydroxide flocs <span class="hlt">generated</span> in situ by electrocoagulation in deionized water with 10 mM NaCl as supporting electrolyte. The results indicated that the zinc hydroxide flocs yielded the highest removal efficiency with a wide range concentration of PFOA/PFOS (1.5 μM ∼ 0.5 mM) at the zinc dosage <150 mg L(-1) with the energy consumption <0.18 Wh L(-1). The sorption kinetics indicated that the zinc hydroxide flocs had an equilibrium adsorbed amount (qe) up to 5.74/7.69 mmol g(-1) (Zn) for PFOA/PFOS at the initial concentration of 0.5 mM with an initial sorption rate (v0) of 1.01 × 10(3)/1.81 × 10(3) mmol g(-1) h(-1). The sorption of PFOA/PFOS reached equilibrium within <10 min. The sorption mechanisms of PFAAs on the zinc hydroxide flocs were proposed based on the investigation of various driving forces. The results indicated that the hydrophobic interaction was primarily responsible for the PFAAs sorption. The electrocoagulation process with zinc anode may have a great potential for removing PFAAs from industrial wastewater as well as contaminated environmental waterbody. PMID:26244813</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21641599','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21641599"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Solution</span> cathode glow discharge induced vapor <span class="hlt">generation</span> of mercury and its application to mercury speciation by high performance liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>He, Qian; Zhu, Zhenli; Hu, Shenghong; Jin, Lanlan</p> <p>2011-07-15</p> <p>A novel <span class="hlt">solution</span> cathode glow discharge (SCGD) induced vapor <span class="hlt">generation</span> was developed as interface to on-line couple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) for the speciation of inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)), methyl-mercury (MeHg) and ethyl-mercury (EtHg). The decomposition of organic mercury species and the reduction of Hg(2+) could be completed in one step with this proposed SCGD induced vapor <span class="hlt">generation</span> system. The vapor <span class="hlt">generation</span> is extremely rapid and therefore is easy to couple with flow injection (FI) and HPLC. Compared with the conventional HPLC-CV-AFS hyphenated systems, the proposed HPLC-SCGD-AFS system is very simple in operation and eliminates auxiliary redox reagents. Parameters influencing mercury determination were optimized, such as concentration of formic acid, discharge current and argon flow rate. The method detection limits for HPLC-SCGD-AFS system were 0.67 ?g L(-1) for Hg(2+), 0.55 ?g L(-1) for MeHg and 1.19 ?g L(-1) for EtHg, respectively. The developed method was validated by determination of certified reference material (GBW 10029, tuna fish) and was further applied for the determination of mercury in biological samples. PMID:21641599</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12346286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12346286"><span id="translatedtitle">Toward <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> World Conference on Women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> World Conference on Women, scheduled to be held in Beijing in September 1995, will focus on the themes of equality, development, and peace as well as the subthemes of health, education, and employment. Attendance is expected to exceed 30,000 persons from more than 180 countries. The Chinese Organizing Committee for the Conference, established in August 1992, includes representatives from provincial and municipal governments, various ministries, and social and information-oriented organizations. In preparation for the conference, the Chinese Government has prepared a white paper on "The Situation of Chinese Women" and a country report on China's implementation of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies. Promotional activities have included television specials on women's issues, daily newspaper accounts of preparatory activities, a public contest to select the conference logo, a marathon, publication of the works of Chinese women writers, and a photo contest featuring Chinese women and children. The Chinese Nongovernmental Forum Committee has prepared draft recommendations for a program of action and has identified 42 topics for workshops. PMID:12346286</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1036950','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1036950"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultracoatings: Enabling Energy and Power <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> in High Contact Stress Environments through next-<span class="hlt">generation</span> Nanocoatings Final Technical Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clifton B. Higdon III</p> <p>2012-03-20</p> <p>A review of current commercially available, industrial-grade, low friction coatings will show that interfacial contact pressures nearing 1GPa ({approx}150ksi) inherently limit surface engineering <span class="hlt">solutions</span> like WC, TiN, TiAlN, and so forth. Extremely hard coatings, then, are often pursued as the principle path, although they too are not without significant limitations. A majority of these compounds are inherently brittle in nature or may not pair well with their mating substrate. In either case, their durability in high contact stress environments is compromised. In parallel to thin film coatings, many conventional surface treatments do not yield an interface hard enough to withstand extreme stresses under load. New research into advanced, nanocomposite materials like (Ti, Zr)B2 shows great promise. Bulk compacts of this compound have demonstrated an order of magnitude better wear resistance than current offerings, notably materials like tungsten carbide. At a laboratory level, the (Ti,Zr)B2 nanocomposite material exhibited abrasive and erosive wear resistance nearly ten times better than existing mixed-phase boride systems. In ASTM abrasion and erosion testing, these new compositions exhibit wear resistance superior to other known advanced materials such as RocTec 500 and 'Borazon' cubic boron nitride. Many significant challenges exist for mass production of (Ti, Zr)B2, one of which is the necessary processing technology that is capable of minimizing deleterious impurity phases. Secondly, this material's performance is derived from a synergistic effect of the two materials existing as a single phase structure. While the individual constituents of TiB2 and ZrB2 do yield improvements to wear resistance, their singular effects are not as significant. Lastly, deposition of this material on a commercial level requires thorough knowledge of nanocomposite boride solids; the benefits associated with these innovative new materials are just being realized. Advancing this technology, called Ultracoatings, through initial development, scale up, and commercialization to a variety of markets would represent a transformative leap to surface engineering. Several application spaces were considered for immediate implementation of the Ultracoatings technology, including, but not limited to, a drive shaft for an aerospace fuel pump, engine timing components, and dry solids pump hardware for an innovative coal gasifier. The primary focus of the program was to evaluate and screen the performance of the selected (Ti, Zr)B2 Ultracoatings composition for future development. This process included synthesis of the material for physical vapor deposition, sputtering trials and coating characterization, friction and wear testing on sample coupons, and functional hardware testing. The main project deliverables used to gage the project's adherence to its original objective were: Development of a coating/substrate pairing that exhibits wear rate of 0.1 mg/hour or lower at a 1GPa contact pressure, while achieving a maximum coating cost of $0.10/cm2. Demonstrate the aforementioned wear rate in both lubricated and starved lubrication conditions. Although the (Ti, Zr) B2 coating was not tailored for low friction performance, friction and wear evaluations of the material demonstrated a coefficient of sliding friction as low as 0.09. This suggests that varying the percentage of TiB2 present in the composite could enhance the materials performance in water-based lubricants. In the aerospace drive shaft application, functional hardware coated with (Ti, Zr)B2 survived a variety of abuse and long-range durability tests, with contact pressures exceeding 2 GPa. For engine timing components, further work is planned to evaluate the Ultracoatings technology in direct injection and diesel engine conditions. In the final identified application space the dry solids pump hardware, discussions continue on the application of the Ultracoatings technology for those specific components. Full implementation of the technology into the targeted markets equates to a U.S.-based energy savings potential of over 100 trillion BTU per year by 2030. This exceeds the original projection of 60 TBTU/year by 2030.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gerald+AND+Pollack&id=ED471421','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gerald+AND+Pollack&id=ED471421"><span id="translatedtitle">Reading To Learn: Lessons from Exemplary <span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-Grade Classrooms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Allington, Richard L.; Johnston, Peter H.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> graders around the country face new, high-stakes standardized tests, drawing increased attention to the need for effective literacy instruction in the upper elementary grades. This book goes beyond "political catch phrases" to examine what actually works in the <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-grade classroom. The book offers a view of the techniques and strategies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=animal+AND+agriculture&pg=6&id=ED330810','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=animal+AND+agriculture&pg=6&id=ED330810"><span id="translatedtitle">Ohio Ag in the Classroom. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grade Curriculum Guide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ohio State Dept. of Agriculture, Columbus.</p> <p></p> <p>Adapted from Idaho's <span class="hlt">fourth</span> grade agricultural education curriculum guide, this manual was created because there were insufficient resources available to Ohio students about the systems that provide human beings with food and fiber. Economically Ohio's largest industry, agriculture, serves as a basis for providing <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-grade teachers with…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=erosion&id=EJ1033011','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=erosion&id=EJ1033011"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Inquiry to Learn about Soil: A <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grade Experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Magee, Paula A.; Wingate, Elisha</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this article, we describe a <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-grade inquiry unit on soil. The unit was designed and taught by preservice elementary teachers as part of a university science methods course. Using a student-driven inquiry approach to designing curriculum, the unit engaged <span class="hlt">fourth</span> graders in learning about the physical properties soil, erosion, worms, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=soil&id=EJ1033011','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=soil&id=EJ1033011"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Inquiry to Learn about Soil: A <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grade Experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Magee, Paula A.; Wingate, Elisha</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this article, we describe a <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-grade inquiry unit on soil. The unit was designed and taught by preservice elementary teachers as part of a university science methods course. Using a student-driven inquiry approach to designing curriculum, the unit engaged <span class="hlt">fourth</span> graders in learning about the physical properties soil, erosion, worms, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED019235.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED019235.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM, 4B, <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> GRADE SUPPLEMENT.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Minneapolis Special School District 1, Minn.</p> <p></p> <p>THE SIXTH IN A SERIES OF 17 VOLUMES, THIS VOLUME PROVIDES THE <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> GRADE TEACHER WITH A GUIDE TO THE REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF THE MINNEAPOLIS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS ARE INTENDED TO BE AUGMENTED AND REVISED AS THE NEED ARISES. THIS <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> GRADE SUPPLEMENT IS IN TWO PARTS. PART 4A CONTAINS THE INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL, THE CONCEPTS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+resources&pg=3&id=ED507475','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+resources&pg=3&id=ED507475"><span id="translatedtitle">Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smith, Richard</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Enhanced and updated, this <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=planning+AND+human+AND+resources&id=ED507475','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=planning+AND+human+AND+resources&id=ED507475"><span id="translatedtitle">Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smith, Richard</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Enhanced and updated, this <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heinemann&pg=2&id=ED458818','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heinemann&pg=2&id=ED458818"><span id="translatedtitle">Endangered Languages and Literacy. Proceedings of the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> FEL Conference (Charlotte, North Carolina, September 21-24, 2000).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ostler, Nicholas, Ed.; Rudes, Blair, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>Papers for the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> Foundation for Endangered Languages (FEL) Conference include the following: "Endangered languages and Literacy" (Nicholas Ostler, Blair Rudes); "Keynote Address: On Native Language Literacy: a Personal Perspective" (Ofelia Zepeda); "A Community's <span class="hlt">Solution</span> to Some Literacy Problems: The Mayangna of Nicaragua" (Elena</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coeur&id=ED458818','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coeur&id=ED458818"><span id="translatedtitle">Endangered Languages and Literacy. Proceedings of the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> FEL Conference (Charlotte, North Carolina, September 21-24, 2000).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ostler, Nicholas, Ed.; Rudes, Blair, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>Papers for the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> Foundation for Endangered Languages (FEL) Conference include the following: "Endangered languages and Literacy" (Nicholas Ostler, Blair Rudes); "Keynote Address: On Native Language Literacy: a Personal Perspective" (Ofelia Zepeda); "A Community's <span class="hlt">Solution</span> to Some Literacy Problems: The Mayangna of Nicaragua" (Elena…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JHEP...07..107C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JHEP...07..107C"><span id="translatedtitle">Black rings with <span class="hlt">fourth</span> dipole cause less hair loss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chowdhury, Borun D.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>An example of entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual was recently studied in [1]. The enigmatic bulk configurations, considered within the STU model, can be mapped under spectral flow into black rings with three monopole and dipole charges. Even though the bulk and CFT configurations existed in the same region of parameter space, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the bulk configurations was found to be lower than the microscopic entropy from the CFT. While it is possible that the difference in entropy is due to the bulk and boundary configurations being at different points in the moduli space, it is also possible that the bulk configurations embeddable within the STU model are not the most entropic. New families of BPS black ring <span class="hlt">solutions</span> with four electric and four dipole magnetic charges have recently been explicitly constructed in [2]. These black rings are not embeddable within the STU model. In this paper we investigate if these black rings can be entropically dominant over the STU model black rings. We find that the new black rings are always entropically subdominant to the STU-model black rings. However, for small <span class="hlt">fourth</span> dipole charge these black rings continue to be dominant over the BMPV in a small region of parameters and are thus enigmatic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3981231','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3981231"><span id="translatedtitle">Syringomyelia Regression after Shunting of a Trapped <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Ventricle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Morina, Dukagjin; Petridis, Athanasios K.; Fritzsche, Friederike S.; Ntoulias, Georgios; Scholz, Martin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We describe a case of progressive syringomyelia following post-infectious trapped <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle (TFV), which resolved after shunting of the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle. A 28-year-old female who had previously undergone treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage and meningitis developed a hydrocephalus with TFV. After 3 years she developed disturbance of walking and coordination. Cranial-CT revealed an enlargement of the shunted <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle as a result of shunt dysfunction. Furthermore a cervical syringomyelia developed. The patient underwent a revision of a failed <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Postoperatively, syringomyelia resolved within 6 months and the associated neurological deficits improved significantly. An insufficiency of cerebrospinal fluid draining among patients with TFV can be associated with communicating syringomyelia. An early detection and treatment seems important on resolving syringomyelia and avoiding permanent neurological deficits. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt in trapped <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricles can resolve a secondary syringomyelia. PMID:24765489</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005162','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005162"><span id="translatedtitle">Task reports on developing techniques for scattering by 3D composite structures and to <span class="hlt">generate</span> new <span class="hlt">solutions</span> in diffraction theory using higher order boundary conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Volakis, John L.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>There are two tasks described in this report. First, an extension of a two dimensional formulation is presented for a three dimensional body of revolution. With the introduction of a Fourier expansion of the vector electric and magnetic fields, a coupled two dimensional system is <span class="hlt">generated</span> and solved via the finite element method. An exact boundary condition is employed to terminate the mesh and the fast fourier transformation is used to evaluate the boundary integrals for low O(n) memory demand when an iterative <span class="hlt">solution</span> algorithm is used. Second, the diffraction by a material discontinuity in a thick dielectric/ferrite layer is considered by modeling the layer as a distributed current sheet obeying generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTC's).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cls..conf.....K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cls..conf.....K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Meeting on CPT and Lorentz Symmetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kostelecký, V. Alan</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>Improved tests of Lorentz and CPT symmetry using noble-gas masers / A. Glenday, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth -- A modern Michelson-Morley experiment using actively rotated optical resonators / S. Herrmann et al. -- Rotating experiments to test Lorentz invariance in the photon sector / M. E. Tobar et al. -- Lorentz violation, electrodynamics, and the cosmic microwave background / M. Mewes -- High energy astrophysical tests of Lorentz invariance / B. Altschul -- Fundamental physics experiments in space (within ESA) / T. J. Sumner -- The experimental foundations of the Dirac equation / C. Lämmerzahl -- Perspectives on Lorentz and CPT violation / V. A. Kostelecký -- Search for Lorentz and CPT violation effects in muon spin precession / B. L. Roberts -- Lorentz violation in a diffeomorphism-invariant theory / R. Jackiw -- Studies of CPT symmetry with ASACUSA / R. S. Hayano -- Neutrino oscillations and Lorentz violation with MiniBooNE / R. Tayloe and T. Katori -- Testing Lorentz and CPT invariance with MINOS near detector neutrinos / B. J. Rebel and S. L. Mufson -- Einstein-ther gravity: theory and observational constraints / T. Jacobson -- Tests of Lorentz-invariance violation in neutrino oscillations / K. Whisnant -- Search for CPT violation in neutral kaons at KLOE: status and perspectives / A. Di Domenico et al. -- Search for CPT violation in B[symbol]-B¯[symbol] oscillations with BABAR / D. P. Stoker -- Theoretical topics in spacetime-symmetry violations / R. Lehnert -- A second-<span class="hlt">generation</span> co-magnetometer for testing fundamental symmetries / S. J. Smullin et al. -- Nambu-Goldstone and massive modes in gravitational theories with spontaneous Lorentz breaking / R. Bluhm -- The ALPHA antihydrogen experiment / N. Madsen et al. -- Atom interferometry tests the isotropy of post-Newtonian gravity / H. Müller et al. -- Probing Lorentz symmetry with gravitationally coupled matter / J. D. Tasson -- Torsion balance test of preferred-frame and weak coupling to polarized electrons / B. R. Heckel et al. -- Seeking a <span class="hlt">solution</span> of the pioneer anomaly / M. M. Nieto and J. D. Anderson -- Testing Lorentz symmetry with gravity / Q. C. Bailey -- Preferred frame effects in relativistic binary pulsars / M. Kramer and N. Wex -- APOLLO: next <span class="hlt">generation</span> lunar laser ranging / T. W. Murphy, Jr. et al. -- Constraints on Lorentz violation from gravity Probe B / J. M. Overduin -- Preliminary results from a test of CPT and Lorentz symmetry using a K-[symbol]He co-magnetometer / T. W. Kornack, G. Vasilakis, and M. V. Rornalis -- Constraining quantum gravity with GLAST / F. Kuehn, R. Hughes, and B. Winer -- Renormalization of Lorentz-violating theories / D. Anselmi -- Renormalization of gauge theories with Lorentz violation / D. Colladay and P. McDonald -- A POEM-based test of the WEP using a Sounding Rocket (SR-POEM) / R. D. Reasenberg and J. D. Phillips -- Testing alternative oscillation scenarios with atmospheric neutrinos using AMANDA-II data from 2000 to 2003 / J. Ahrens and J. L. Kelley -- Measurement of the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen / B. Juhász and E. Widmann -- Spontaneous Lorentz violation and baryogenesis / J. Shu -- Lorentz invariance tested with fast optical ion clocks in a storage ring / G. Gwinner et al. -- Bose-Einstein condensates and Lorentz violation / D. Colladay and P. McDonald -- Embedding geometry and decomposition of gravity / T. E. Clark et al. -- The first lunar laser ranging constraints on gravity sector SME parameters / J. B. R. Battat, J. F. Chandler, and C. W. Stubbs -- A theory of gravity from Lorentz violation / R. Potting -- Search for Lorentz violation in a high-frequency gravitational experiment below 50 microns / W. A. Jensen, S. M. Lewis, and J. C. Long -- Lorentz violation and torsion / N. Russell -- Probing Lorentz invariance using coherent optical phenomena / J. P. Cotter, M. P. Hill, and B. T. H. Varcoe -- Constraint analysis of bumblebee models / N. Gagne and A. Vrublevslcis -- Ives-Stilwell for the new millennium / M. A. Nohensee, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth -- Test for Lorentz violation in the MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation experiment / T. Katori and R. Tayloe -- Doppler-effect experiments and Lorentz violation / C. D. Lane -- Complementary Michelson-Morley experiments: coordinate and field redefinitions / H. Müller et al. -- A POEM progress report / R. D. Reasenberg and J. D. Phillips -- Data tables for Lorentz and CPT violation / V. A. Kostelecký and N. Russell.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22051800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22051800"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiplexed array-based and in-<span class="hlt">solution</span> genomic enrichment for flexible and cost-effective targeted next-<span class="hlt">generation</span> sequencing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harakalova, Magdalena; Mokry, Michal; Hrdlickova, Barbara; Renkens, Ivo; Duran, Karen; van Roekel, Henk; Lansu, Nico; van Roosmalen, Mark; de Bruijn, Ewart; Nijman, Isaac J; Kloosterman, Wigard P; Cuppen, Edwin</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The unprecedented increase in the throughput of DNA sequencing driven by next-<span class="hlt">generation</span> technologies now allows efficient analysis of the complete protein-coding regions of genomes (exomes) for multiple samples in a single sequencing run. However, sample preparation and targeted enrichment of multiple samples has become a rate-limiting and costly step in high-throughput genetic analysis. Here we present an efficient protocol for parallel library preparation and targeted enrichment of pooled multiplexed bar-coded samples. The procedure is compatible with microarray-based and <span class="hlt">solution</span>-based capture approaches. The high flexibility of this method allows multiplexing of 3-5 samples for whole-exome experiments, 20 samples for targeted footprints of 5 Mb and 96 samples for targeted footprints of 0.4 Mb. From library preparation to post-enrichment amplification, including hybridization time, the protocol takes 5-6 d for array-based enrichment and 3-4 d for <span class="hlt">solution</span>-based enrichment. Our method provides a cost-effective approach for a broad range of applications, including targeted resequencing of large sample collections (e.g., follow-up genome-wide association studies), and whole-exome or custom mini-genome sequencing projects. This protocol gives details for a single-tube procedure, but scaling to a manual or automated 96-well plate format is possible and discussed. PMID:22051800</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ici2.conf....1Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ici2.conf....1Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Unified Electronic Currency Based on the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Party Platform Integrated Payment Service</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yong, Xu; Qiqi, Hu</p> <p></p> <p>This paper presents a <span class="hlt">solution</span> of unified e-currency based on the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> party platform integrated payment service. The purpose of the paper is to solve the problem of distribution and resource-wasting caused by the lack of unified electronic currency, and to solve regulatory difficulties due to regulation size caused by a wide variety of e-currency. Methods: This article first analyzes the problems in the development of electronic money, and then proposes the concept of a unified electronic currency based on the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> party platform integrated payment service. Besides, it proposes a unified mechanism and transaction procedures for unified e-currency, and analyzes the liquidation process, security and regulatory requirements, which are involved in using unified electronic currency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6607422','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6607422"><span id="translatedtitle">[Disproportionately large communicating <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle--report of 2 cases].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsumoto, M; Kushida, Y; Shibata, I; Seiki, Y; Terao, H</p> <p>1983-11-01</p> <p>A term of 'disproportionately large, communicating <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle' (DLCFV) was first proposed by in Harwood-Nash in 1980. It is somewhat different from the well known clinical entity of 'isolated or trapped <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle', because of apparent patency of aqueductal canal. Two cases of typical DLCFV encountered in our clinic were described. First patient was a 24 year old man in whom this condition developed following operations for lumber disc and second patient was 22 year old woman in whom the disease developed after subarachnoid hemorrhage. In both cases, main symptoms were attributable to hydrocephalus but three posterior fossa symptoms, nystagmus, Parinaud' sign and truncal ataxia were also characteristic. On the CT scan, the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle was extraordinarily enlarged. Patency of the aqueductal canal was demonstrated by air study or Conray and Metrizamide ventriculography. On the other hand, occlusion was demonstrated or highly suspected in or near the foramina Magendie and Luschka. After a routine ventriculo-peritoneal shunt operation, the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle decreased in size and the symptoms were immediately relieved. Plausible explanation for mechanism involved in occurrence of DLCFV were (1) occlusion process in or near the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle outlets seems to be crucial in this pathologic condition. Collision of CSF pulse waves against the obstruction may yield a water hammer effect on the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle. (2) abnormal weakness of the brain stem parenchyma around the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle to CSF pressure may be another contributory factor. PMID:6607422</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991AnP...503..535G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991AnP...503..535G"><span id="translatedtitle">The Jump Problem in <span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-Order Gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Giering, K.</p> <p></p> <p>Using a shock wave ansatz, first, the <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order jump problem in gravitational theories containing <span class="hlt">fourth</span> derivatives of the metric is investigated and, second, the obtained results are generalized for arbitrary n-order jumps. For <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order jumps, in particular, the dynamic modes of the field are analysed.Translated AbstractDas Sprungproblem in Gravitationstheorien vierter OrdnungUnter Verwendung eines Stowellenansatzes wird zunchst in Gravitationstheorien mit vierten Ableitungen der Metrik das Sprungproblem vierter Ordnung untersucht und danach werden die dabei erzielten Ergebnisse fr Sprnge beliebiger Ordnung verallgemeinert. Im Falle metrischer Sprnge vierter Ordnung werden insbesondere die dynamischen Moden des Feldes analysiert.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED401352.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED401352.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Youth Violence: Examining the Role of the Federal Government and Nongovernment Organizations in Establishing <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> for Combatting Juvenile Crime. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children and Families of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. Senate, One Hundred <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Congress, Second Session.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Subcommittee on Children and Families.</p> <p></p> <p>A hearing was held before the Senate Subcommittee on Children and Families of the Committee on Labor and Human Relations to discuss possible <span class="hlt">solutions</span> to the problem of juvenile crime. An opening statement by parents whose young child was murdered by an adolescent set the scene for the panel discussion that followed. James Fox, a professor of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/891585','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/891585"><span id="translatedtitle">Power Technologies Energy Data Book - <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aabakken, J.</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>This report, prepared by NREL's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, includes up-to-date information on power technologies, including complete technology profiles. The data book also contains charts on electricity restructuring, power technology forecasts, electricity supply, electricity capability, electricity <span class="hlt">generation</span>, electricity demand, prices, economic indicators, environmental indicators, and conversion factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26402651','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26402651"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterojunction of Zinc Blende/Wurtzite in Zn1-xCdxS Solid <span class="hlt">Solution</span> for Efficient Solar Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Generation</span>: X-ray Absorption/Diffraction Approaches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsu, Ying-Ya; Suen, Nian-Tzu; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Hung, Sung-Fu; Chen, Chi-Liang; Chan, Ting-Shan; Dong, Chung-Li; Chan, Chih-Chieh; Chen, San-Yuan; Chen, Hao Ming</p> <p>2015-10-14</p> <p>In the past decade, inorganic semiconductors have been successfully demonstrated as light absorbers in efficient solar water splitting to <span class="hlt">generate</span> chemical fuels. Pseudobinary semiconductors Zn1-xCdxS (0≤x≤1) have exhibited a superior photocatalytic reactivity of H2 production from splitting of water by artificial solar irradiation without any metal catalysts. However, most studies had revealed that the extremely high efficiency with an optimal content of Zn1-xCdxS solid <span class="hlt">solution</span> was determined as a result of elevating the conduction band minimum (CBM) and the width of bandgap. In addition to corresponding band structure and bandgap, the local crystal structure should be taken into account as well to determine its photocatalytic performance. Herein, we demonstrated the correlations between the photocatalytic activity and structural properties that were first studied through synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The crystal structure transformed from zinc blende to coexisted phases of major zinc blende and minor wurtzite phases at a critical point. The heterojunction formed by coexistence of zinc blende and wurtzite phases in the Zn1-xCdxS solid <span class="hlt">solution</span> can significantly improve the separation and migration of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. Besides, X-ray absorption spectra and UV-vis spectra revealed that the bandgap of the Zn0.45Cd0.55S sample extended into the region of visible light because of the incorporation of Cd element in the sample. These results provided a significant progress toward the realization of the photoelectrochemical mechanism in heterojunction between zinc blende and wurtzite phases, which can effectively separate the charge-carriers and further suppress their recombination to enhance the photocatalytic reactivity. PMID:26402651</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1194.photos.226348p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1194.photos.226348p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Detail view of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> level platform winch used to lift ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Detail view of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> level platform winch used to lift platform segments away from the Shuttle assembly during testing. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa2026.photos.142241p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa2026.photos.142241p/"><span id="translatedtitle">39. <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR: DETAIL OF STEAM HEATING PIPES ON NORTHEAST ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>39. <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR: DETAIL OF STEAM HEATING PIPES ON NORTHEAST WALL OF DINING AND SOCIAL HALL ON NORTHWEST END OF BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST - Masonic Temple, 1111-1119 Eleventh Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ut0086.photos.158417p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ut0086.photos.158417p/"><span id="translatedtitle">11. August, 1971. GV IN <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> LEVEL AREA SHOWING TRAM ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>11. August, 1971. GV IN <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> LEVEL AREA SHOWING TRAM TERMINAL MACHINERY AND DETAIL OF ROOF TRUSS CONSTRUCTION. - Silver King Mining Company, Ore Loading Station, Park Avenue, Park City, Summit County, UT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/me0302.photos.319678p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/me0302.photos.319678p/"><span id="translatedtitle">25. VIEW <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, ELEVATOR PULLEY TRANSPORT SYSTEM, LOOKING AT ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>25. VIEW <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, ELEVATOR PULLEY TRANSPORT SYSTEM, LOOKING AT TOP MAIN WOOD AND STEEL BEAM SUPPORT SYSTEM, NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ok0055.photos.129534p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ok0055.photos.129534p/"><span id="translatedtitle">3. <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>3. <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT POSTS AND OIL PRESS IN THE CENTER) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Oil House, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/va1823.photos.369109p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/va1823.photos.369109p/"><span id="translatedtitle">30. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> floor attic, sterilizing room with autoclaves, view to ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>30. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> floor attic, sterilizing room with autoclaves, view to north - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa3680.photos.361747p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa3680.photos.361747p/"><span id="translatedtitle">106. SWITCH HOUSE <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, VIEW FROM SOUTH TO NORTH ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>106. SWITCH HOUSE <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, VIEW FROM SOUTH TO NORTH TO SHOW RING BUS CASE - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ia0285.photos.067196p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ia0285.photos.067196p/"><span id="translatedtitle">12. <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>12. <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/va1823.photos.369129p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/va1823.photos.369129p/"><span id="translatedtitle">50. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> floor attic, paneled door opening at entrance to ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>50. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> floor attic, paneled door opening at entrance to surgeon's washroom, view to east - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny1699.photos.350429p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny1699.photos.350429p/"><span id="translatedtitle">31. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> floor, looking south at former milkstorage tank room, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>31. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> floor, looking south at former milk-storage tank room, spiral stair in right hand corner - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny1699.photos.350419p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny1699.photos.350419p/"><span id="translatedtitle">21. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> floor, second level of milk room looking southeast ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>21. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> floor, second level of milk room looking southeast (original location of heaters) - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/md0068.photos.084255p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/md0068.photos.084255p/"><span id="translatedtitle">97. DETAIL OF <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> CATWALK LEVEL SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>97. DETAIL OF <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> CATWALK LEVEL SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING NORTH, INNER DOME ON RIGHT WITH KNEE BRACE FROM INNER COLUMN TO CROSS BEAM - Maryland State House, State Circle, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, MD</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0694.photos.222388p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0694.photos.222388p/"><span id="translatedtitle">INTERIOR <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>INTERIOR <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS AND CEILING HAS WOODEN NAILERS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, North Armory, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/il0718.photos.034823p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/il0718.photos.034823p/"><span id="translatedtitle">11. SANDSORTING BUILDING, <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR; ELEVATOR No. 2 AT LEFT ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>11. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR; ELEVATOR No. 2 AT LEFT CENTER, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1682.photos.347893p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1682.photos.347893p/"><span id="translatedtitle">7. <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO WEST: ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>7. <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO WEST: FERGUSON & HAAS AUTOMATIC WRAPPING MACHINE INSTALLED BY 1929 - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1682.photos.347891p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1682.photos.347891p/"><span id="translatedtitle">5. <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINES TO NORTHWEST: PRESS (LEFT ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>5. <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINES TO NORTHWEST: PRESS (LEFT CENTER), MANUAL CUTTERS (CENTER, RIGHT CENTER) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny1516.photos.119155p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny1516.photos.119155p/"><span id="translatedtitle">7. NEW YORK LAND VENTILATION BUILDING <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, DETAIL OF ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>7. NEW YORK LAND VENTILATION BUILDING <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, DETAIL OF TWO NORTH TUNNEL BLOWERS, ELEVATOR SHAFT ON LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH - Holland Tunnel, Beneath Hudson River between New York & Jersey City, New York, New York County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny1516.photos.119156p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ny1516.photos.119156p/"><span id="translatedtitle">8. NEW YORK LAND VENTILATION BUILDING, <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, DETAIL SHOWING ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>8. NEW YORK LAND VENTILATION BUILDING, <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, DETAIL SHOWING BLOWERS AND MAIN FEEDER STATION - Holland Tunnel, Beneath Hudson River between New York & Jersey City, New York, New York County, NY</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=solar+AND+fuels&pg=2&id=ED180805','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=solar+AND+fuels&pg=2&id=ED180805"><span id="translatedtitle">Man and Energy, Module C. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grade. Pilot Form.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pasco County Schools, Dade City, FL.</p> <p></p> <p>This booklet is one of a set of learning modules on energy for use by students and teachers in the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> grade. This module investigates solar energy, ecology, and fossil fuels. Included are laboratory activities and values exercises. (BT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0691.photos.222378p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0691.photos.222378p/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, NORTH HALF. VIEW NORTH SHOWING LINE OF PHOENIX ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, NORTH HALF. VIEW NORTH SHOWING LINE OF PHOENIX COLUMNS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, East Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1194.photos.226344p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1194.photos.226344p/"><span id="translatedtitle">View of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> level platform from north. Note the outline ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>View of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> level platform from north. Note the outline of the Shuttle cargo bay and wing formed by the edge of the platforms. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ma1586.photos.337346p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ma1586.photos.337346p/"><span id="translatedtitle">15. BUILDING 1: <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>15. BUILDING 1: <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF TUBS, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS. OPEN METAL BREWER'S STAIR VISIBLE ALONG WEST WALL - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1218395','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1218395"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Quarter 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program</p> <p>2009-12-31</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Quarter 2009 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=electric+AND+circuits&pg=7&id=EJ492000','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=electric+AND+circuits&pg=7&id=EJ492000"><span id="translatedtitle">The Nature of <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Graders' Understandings of Electric Circuits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shepardson, Daniel P.; Moje, Elizabeth B.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Two groups of four children each were involved in a qualitative study designed to interpret the nature of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> graders' understandings of electric circuits. Conclusions regarding knowledge restructuring are presented as well as implications for teaching, assessment, and research. (ZWH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/il0083.photos.060621p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/il0083.photos.060621p/"><span id="translatedtitle">30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, LOOKING ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, LOOKING WEST. ORIGINALLY HAD SUSPENDED ACOUSTICAL CEILINGS WITH FLOURESCENT LIGHTING AND ASPHALT MASTIC TILE FLOORS - Underwriters' Laboratories, 207-231 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750009327','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750009327"><span id="translatedtitle">Scout <span class="hlt">fourth</span> stage attitude and velocity control (AVC) system feasibility study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Byars, L. B.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The feasibility of incorporating a guidance system in the Scout <span class="hlt">fourth</span> stage to achieve a significant improvement in expected payload delivery accuracy is studied. The technical investigations included the determination of the AVC equipment performance requirements, establishment of qualification and acceptance test levels, <span class="hlt">generation</span> of layouts illustrating design approaches for the upper D and payload transition sections to incorporate the hardware, and the preparation of a vendor bid package. Correction concepts, utilizing inertial velocity and attitude, were identified and evaluated. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> stage attitude adjustments as determined from inertial velocity variation through the first three stages and a final velocity correction based upon the measured in-plane component errors at injection were employed. Results show radical reductions in apogee-perigee deviations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CMT...tmp....6G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CMT...tmp....6G"><span id="translatedtitle">Travelling waves of density for a <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-gradient model of fluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gouin, Henri; Saccomandi, Giuseppe</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In mean-field theory, the non-local state of fluid molecules can be taken into account using a statistical method. The molecular model combined with a density expansion in Taylor series of the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order yields an internal energy value relevant to the <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-gradient model, and the equation of isothermal motions takes then density's spatial derivatives into account for waves travelling in both liquid and vapour phases. At equilibrium, the equation of the density profile across interfaces is more precise than the Cahn and Hilliard equation, and near the fluid's critical point, the density profile verifies an Extended Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, allowing kinks, which converges towards the Cahn-Hillard equation when approaching the critical point. Nonetheless, we also get pulse waves oscillating and <span class="hlt">generating</span> critical opalescence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25746398','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25746398"><span id="translatedtitle">Metastable alloy nanoparticles, metal-oxide nanocrescents and nanoshells <span class="hlt">generated</span> by laser ablation in liquid <span class="hlt">solution</span>: influence of the chemical environment on structure and composition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scaramuzza, Stefano; Agnoli, Stefano; Amendola, Vincenzo</p> <p>2015-11-14</p> <p>Alloy nanoparticles are characterized by the combination of multiple interesting properties, which are attractive for technological and scientific purposes. A frontier topic of this field is nanoalloys with compositions not thermodynamically allowed at ordinary temperature and pressure (i.e. metastable), because they require out-of-equilibrium synthetic approaches. Recently, laser ablation synthesis in <span class="hlt">solution</span> (LASiS) was successfully applied for the realization of metastable nanoalloys because of the fast kinetics of nanoparticle formation. However, the role played by the chemical environment on the final composition and structure of laser <span class="hlt">generated</span> nanoalloys still has to be fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the influence of different synthetic conditions on the LASiS of metastable nanoalloys composed of Au and Fe, such as the use of water instead of ethanol, the bubbling of inert gases and the addition of a few vol% of H2O2 and H2O. The two elements showed different reactivity when LASiS was performed in water instead of ethanol, while minor effects were observed from bubbling pure gases such as N2, Ar and CO2 in the liquid <span class="hlt">solution</span>. Moreover, the plasmonic response and the structure of the nanoalloys were sensibly modified by adding H2O2 to water. We also found that nanoparticle production is dramatically influenced just by adding 0.2% of H2O in ethanol. These results suggest that the formation of a cavitation bubble with long lifetime and large size during LASiS is useful for the preservation of the metastable alloy composition, whereas an oxidative environment hampers the formation of metastable alloy nanoparticles. Overall, by acting on the type of solvent and <span class="hlt">solutes</span>, we were able to switch from a traditional synthetic approach for the composition of Au-Fe nanoalloys to one using a reactive environment, which gives unconventional structures such as metal@iron-oxide nanoshells and nanocrescents of oxide supported on metal nanospheres. These results expand the knowledge about the mechanism of the formation of nanoalloys using LASiS and show how to obtain multielement nanoparticles of enormous interest for nanomedicine, plasmonics, magneto-plasmonics and catalysis. PMID:25746398</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5180216','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5180216"><span id="translatedtitle">SHELL SHOCK structural code (<span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grant, J.E.; Gabrielson, V.K.</p> <p>1984-03-01</p> <p>SHELL SHOCK is a computer code that performs a frequency analysis and determines the static and dynamic response of a structure represented by mass, damping, and stiffness matrices. SHELL SHOCK is primarily intended for analyzing three-dimensional axisymmetric structures modeled using structural elements <span class="hlt">generated</span> by the code in which the spatial coordinates are uncoupled by Fourier harmonics. A three-dimensional axisymmetric structure is then reduced to a series of two-dimensional problems, which significantly reduce the computations required. Three types of structural elements (that are uncoupled by a Fourier series) are <span class="hlt">generated</span> internally by the code: linear beams, shells, and solids of revolution. Nonlinear beam elements are also uncoupled and included in the dynamic response computations. 6 references, 15 figures, 4 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTA..tmp..523P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MMTA..tmp..523P"><span id="translatedtitle">Detailed Analysis of the <span class="hlt">Solution</span> Heat Treatment of a Third-<span class="hlt">Generation</span> Single-Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloy CMSX-10K</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pang, Hon Tong; D'Souza, Neil; Dong, Hongbiao; Stone, Howard J.; Rae, Catherine M. F.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A detailed analysis of the response of as-cast third-<span class="hlt">generation</span> single-crystal nickel-based superalloy CMSX-10K to <span class="hlt">solution</span> heat treatment (SHT) has been carried out, alongside an SHT optimization exercise. The analysis was conducted through microstructural characterization, differential scanning calorimetry, and compositional homogeneity measurements, quantifying (i) the dissolution and microstructural evolution of the inter-dendritic constituents, (ii) the shift in thermo-physical characteristics of the material, and (iii) the change in compositional homogeneity across the microstructure, in order to gain further understanding of these phenomena during the progression of the SHT. During the early stages of SHT, the coarse cellular ?'/narrow ? channel inter-dendritic constituents which were the last areas to solidify during casting, progressively dissolve; homogenization between these inter-dendritic areas and adjacent dendritic areas leads to a rapid increase in the incipient melting temperature T IM. The fine ?/?' morphology which were the first inter-dendritic constituents to solidify after primary ? dendrite solidification were found to progressively coarsen; however, subsequent dissolution of these coarsened ?/?' inter-dendritic areas did not result in significant increases in the T IM until the near-complete dissolution of these inter-dendritic areas. After the final SHT step, residual compositional micro-segregation could still be detected across the microstructure despite the near-complete dissolution of these remnant inter-dendritic areas; even so the T IM of the material approached the solidus temperature of the alloy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22280006','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22280006"><span id="translatedtitle">Lagrangian perturbations and the matter bispectrum I: <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order model for non-linear clustering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rampf, Cornelius; Buchert, Thomas E-mail: buchert@obs.univ-lyon1.fr</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>We investigate the Lagrangian perturbation theory of a homogeneous and isotropic universe in the non-relativistic limit, and derive the <span class="hlt">solutions</span> up to the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order. These <span class="hlt">solutions</span> are needed for example for the next-to-leading order correction of the (resummed) Lagrangian matter bispectrum, which we study in an accompanying paper. We focus on flat cosmologies with a vanishing cosmological constant, and provide an in-depth description of two complementary approaches used in the current literature. Both approaches are solved with two different sets of initial conditions both appropriate for modelling the large-scale structure. Afterwards we consider only the fastest growing mode <span class="hlt">solution</span>, which is not affected by either of these choices of initial conditions. Under the reasonable approximation that the linear density contrast is evaluated at the initial Lagrangian position of the fluid particle, we obtain the nth-order displacement field in the so-called initial position limit: the nth order displacement field consists of 3(n-1) integrals over n linear density contrasts, and obeys self-similarity. Then, we find exact relations between the series in Lagrangian and Eulerian perturbation theory, leading to identical predictions for the density contrast and the peculiar-velocity divergence up to the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981AnP...493..239B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981AnP...493..239B"><span id="translatedtitle">On Singularities of General Relativity and Gravitational Equations of <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Order</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borzeszkowski, H.-H. V.</p> <p></p> <p>Comparing Einstein's gravitational equations and equations containing <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order derivative corrections we discuss some aspects of singularities of spherically symmetric static vacuum <span class="hlt">solutions</span> from the point of view, first, of the coupling to non-gravitational matter and, second, of the Einsteinian classical particle programme.Translated AbstractZu den Singularitten der Allgemeinen Relativittstheorie und der Gravitationsgleichungen vierter OrdnungEs werden einige Aspekte der Singularitten kugelsymmetrischer statischer Vakuumlsungen der Allgemeinen Relativittstheorie und der Gravitationsfeldgleichungen vierter Ordnung unter dem Gesichtspunkt der Kopplung von Gravitationsfeld und nicht-gravitativer Materie und des Einsteinschen klassischen Teilchenprogramms diskutiert.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5924894','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5924894"><span id="translatedtitle">Absorption spectrum of the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> overtone of the OH stretch in gaseous methanol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brink, G.O.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Eighty absorption features corresponding to the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> overtone of the OH stretch have been observed in the visible portion of the spectrum in gaseous methanol using the technique of dye laser intracavity absorption. The measured wavelengths are listed, and the oscillator strengths of the two strongest features are measured. These strong features appear diffuse, resembling in appearance some of the narrower diffuse interstellar absorption bands. These features are, however, too weak to be observed astronomically. The band center of the gaseous spectrum is shifted toward the blue relative to the band center observed in dilute <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of methanol. 6 references, 2 figures, 1 table.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/825393','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/825393"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental Biosciences Program <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Quarter Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.</p> <p>2004-06-30</p> <p>In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the <span class="hlt">solution</span> of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), asbestos and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/810457','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/810457"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental Biosciences Program <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Quarter Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lawrence C. Mohr, M.d.</p> <p>2003-04-30</p> <p>In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risk issues. These initiatives are consistent with the Medical University's role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and the nation's need for new and better approaches to the <span class="hlt">solution</span> of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable the Medical University to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBP's success in convening worldwide scientific expertise is due in part to the inherent credibility the Medical University brings to the process of addressing these complex issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/841165','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/841165"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental Biosciences Program <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Quarter Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.</p> <p>2005-06-30</p> <p>In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation s need for new and better approaches to the <span class="hlt">solution</span> of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems. Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs), and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making. Questions, comments or requests for further information concerning the activities under this cooperative agreement can be forwarded to Dr. Lawrence C. Mohr in the EBP office of the Medical University of South Carolina at (843) 792-1532.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTA...47..889P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MMTA...47..889P"><span id="translatedtitle">Detailed Analysis of the <span class="hlt">Solution</span> Heat Treatment of a Third-<span class="hlt">Generation</span> Single-Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloy CMSX-10K®</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pang, Hon Tong; D'Souza, Neil; Dong, Hongbiao; Stone, Howard J.; Rae, Catherine M. F.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A detailed analysis of the response of as-cast third-<span class="hlt">generation</span> single-crystal nickel-based superalloy CMSX-10K® to <span class="hlt">solution</span> heat treatment (SHT) has been carried out, alongside an SHT optimization exercise. The analysis was conducted through microstructural characterization, differential scanning calorimetry, and compositional homogeneity measurements, quantifying (i) the dissolution and microstructural evolution of the inter-dendritic constituents, (ii) the shift in thermo-physical characteristics of the material, and (iii) the change in compositional homogeneity across the microstructure, in order to gain further understanding of these phenomena during the progression of the SHT. During the early stages of SHT, the coarse cellular γ'/narrow γ channel inter-dendritic constituents which were the last areas to solidify during casting, progressively dissolve; homogenization between these inter-dendritic areas and adjacent dendritic areas leads to a rapid increase in the incipient melting temperature T IM. The fine γ/γ' morphology which were the first inter-dendritic constituents to solidify after primary γ dendrite solidification were found to progressively coarsen; however, subsequent dissolution of these coarsened γ/γ' inter-dendritic areas did not result in significant increases in the T IM until the near-complete dissolution of these inter-dendritic areas. After the final SHT step, residual compositional micro-segregation could still be detected across the microstructure despite the near-complete dissolution of these remnant inter-dendritic areas; even so the T IM of the material approached the solidus temperature of the alloy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=memory+AND+reliable&pg=6&id=EJ991450','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=memory+AND+reliable&pg=6&id=EJ991450"><span id="translatedtitle">Test Review: Advanced Clinical <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The authors review the "Advanced Clinical <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-<span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-<span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a clinical tool for extending the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990019382','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990019382"><span id="translatedtitle">Construction of Three Dimensional <span class="hlt">Solutions</span> for the Maxwell Equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yefet, A.; Turkel, E.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We consider numerical <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for the three dimensional time dependent Maxwell equations. We construct a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order accurate compact implicit scheme and compare it to the Yee scheme for free space in a box.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1167004','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1167004"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> International Conference on High Energy Density Physics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Beg, Farhat</p> <p>2015-01-06</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2013) was held in Saint Malo, France, at the Palais du Grand Large on 25-28 June 2013 (http://web.luli.polytechnique.fr/ICHED2013/). This meeting was the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> in a series which was first held in 2008. This conference covered all the important aspects of High Energy Density Physics including fundamental topics from strong-field physics to creating new states of matter (including radiation-dominated, high-pressure quantum and relativistic plasmas) and ultra-fast lattice dynamics on the timescale of atomic transitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6178700','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6178700"><span id="translatedtitle">Project DEEP STEAM: <span class="hlt">fourth</span> meeting of the technical advisory panel, Albuquerque, NM, November 1980</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fox, R.L.; Donaldson, A.B.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Hart, C.M.; Johnson, D.R.; Mulac, A.J.; Wayland, J.R.; Weirick, L.J.</p> <p>1981-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Project DEEP STEAM Technical Advisory Panel Meeting was held on 5 and 6 November 1980 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to review the status of project DEEP STEAM. This Proceedings, following the order of the meeting, is divided into five main sections: the injection string modification program, the downhole steam <span class="hlt">generator</span> program, supporting activities, field testing, and the Advisory Panel recommendations and discussion. Each of the 17 presentations is summarized, and a final Discussion section has been added, when needed, for inclusion of comments and replies related to specific presentations. Finally, the Advisory Panel recommendations and the ensuing discussion are summarized in the closing section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22evolution+of+literature%22&id=EJ276113','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22evolution+of+literature%22&id=EJ276113"><span id="translatedtitle">Language Arts: The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Decade: 1954-1963</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Language Arts, 1983</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Contains representative selections from issues of "Elementary English," a precursor to "Language Arts," from its <span class="hlt">fourth</span> decade of publication. Includes articles, editorials, and ads reflecting contemporary concerns of English education still relevant today, such as censorship, criticism of reading instruction, and the evolution of literature…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lent&pg=7&id=ED537448','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lent&pg=7&id=ED537448"><span id="translatedtitle">Standards of Good Practice for Education Abroad. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Forum on Education Abroad, 2011</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition of the Forum on Education Abroad's "Standards of Good Practice for Education Abroad" augments previous editions of the "Standards." Since the last edition was published in 2008, Forum member institutions and organizations have implemented the Standards in program development and assessment, using the Standards in the Forum's</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED019232.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED019232.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM, 4A, <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> GRADE SUPPLEMENT.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Minneapolis Special School District 1, Minn.</p> <p></p> <p>THE FIFTH IN A SERIES OF 17 VOLUMES, THIS VOLUME PROVIDES THE <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> GRADE TEACHER WITH A GUIDE TO THE REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF THE MINNEAPOLIS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS ARE INTENDED TO BE AUGMENTED AND REVISED AS THE NEED ARISES. THERE IS A DETAILED OUTLINE OF THE CONTENT FOR GRADE 4 FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING MAJOR AREAS AROUND WHICH…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/az0467.photos.193678p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/az0467.photos.193678p/"><span id="translatedtitle">16. Parker Dam, only top <span class="hlt">fourth</span> of dam visible, at ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>16. Parker Dam, only top <span class="hlt">fourth</span> of dam visible, at 320' high, Parker Dam is one of the highest in the world. Much of this height is because dam penetrates well below river bottom to fasten to bedrock. - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ORCHARD&id=EJ904377','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ORCHARD&id=EJ904377"><span id="translatedtitle">Reflections on Doing Geography: Learning Observations from the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Delahunty, Tina</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Nature Conservancy's (TNC) Orchard Bog site in Shady Valley, Tennessee, is a unique Appalachian mountain bog that provides many opportunities for student exploration. A biogeographer, a field technician, two biologists, and a historian combined their expertise to teach 100 <span class="hlt">fourth</span> graders how historians and scientists learn about past</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=steroids&pg=6&id=EJ698151','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=steroids&pg=6&id=EJ698151"><span id="translatedtitle">Second-to-<span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Digit Length, Testosterone and Spatial Ability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kempel, P.; Gohlke, B.; Klempau, J.; Zinsberger, P.; Reuter, M.; Hennig, J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Based on stimulating findings suggesting that prenatal levels of steroids may influence cognitive functions, a study with N=40 healthy volunteers of both sexes was conducted. Prenatal levels of testosterone (T) were estimated by use of the second-to-<span class="hlt">fourth</span> digit ratio (2D:4D) which is supposed to be controlled by the same genes involved in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1389.1606C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1389.1606C"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive Wavelet Method for <span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-Order Elliptic Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>?ern, Dana; Finek, Vclav</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>We improve the computational efficiency of the adaptive wavelet method for the <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order elliptic problems with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. It will be done by the improvement of the condition number of wavelet bases and by modifications of the algorithm. We compare the quantitative behavior of the method for several boundary-adapted wavelet bases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=behavioral+AND+neuroscience&pg=3&id=EJ1050912','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=behavioral+AND+neuroscience&pg=3&id=EJ1050912"><span id="translatedtitle">The N400 and the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grade Shift</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Coch, Donna</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>While behavioral and educational data characterize a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> grade shift in reading development, neuroscience evidence is relatively lacking. We used the N400 component of the event-related potential waveform to investigate the development of single word processing across the upper elementary years, in comparison to adult readers. We presented</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ex+AND+post+AND+facto&id=EJ1000503','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ex+AND+post+AND+facto&id=EJ1000503"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-Year Experience: Impediments to Degree Completion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Donhardt, G. L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Undergraduates who persevere to the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> year of their academic careers have invested a great deal of time, effort, and financial resources in their education. In spite of the effort, many do not succeed in graduating. Students from an entering class of first-time, full time freshmen from a large urban university were tracked through their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=did&pg=5&id=EJ1003788','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=did&pg=5&id=EJ1003788"><span id="translatedtitle">Did that Dog Sniff Violate the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Amendment?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hawke, Catherine; Middleton, Tiffany</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Is sniffing at the front door of a private home by a trained narcotics detection dog a <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Amendment search requiring probable cause? Is a "drug dog" somehow like a manmade technology, such as a thermal imaging device? These were a couple of the questions recently presented to the U.S. Supreme Court during arguments in "Florida v. Jardines."…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/fl0701.photos.577547p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/fl0701.photos.577547p/"><span id="translatedtitle">VIEW OF THE EAST CHECKOUT CELL, <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> LEVEL OF THE ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>VIEW OF THE EAST CHECK-OUT CELL, <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/fl0701.photos.577548p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/fl0701.photos.577548p/"><span id="translatedtitle">VIEW OF THE WEST CHECKOUT CELL, <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> LEVEL OF THE ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>VIEW OF THE WEST CHECK-OUT CELL, <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=International+AND+Tax+AND+Law&pg=2&id=ED392094','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=International+AND+Tax+AND+Law&pg=2&id=ED392094"><span id="translatedtitle">The Copyright Book: A Practical Guide. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Strong, William S.</p> <p></p> <p>In response to important changes in copyright law as the United States accommodates itself to the Berne Convention and develops means to take account of new technologies, this guide puts these changes in a form and context that will make sense to persons who are concerned about their rights under the law. New material in the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition of this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=student+AND+affairs&pg=5&id=ED516422','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=student+AND+affairs&pg=5&id=ED516422"><span id="translatedtitle">Rentz's Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zhang, Naijian</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The mission of this new <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition is to provide the reader with a solid foundation in the historical and philosophical perspectives of college student affairs development; assist the reader in understanding the major concepts and purpose of student affairs' practice, methods, and program models; enable the reader to conceptualize the theme,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=expectancy+AND+theory+AND+motivation&pg=7&id=EJ695972','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=expectancy+AND+theory+AND+motivation&pg=7&id=EJ695972"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Graders' Motivation in an Elementary Physical Education Running Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Bruene, April</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In this study we examined students' motivation in an elementary physical education running program using achievement goal theory and an expectancy-value model of achievement choice as theoretical frameworks. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> graders (N = 119) completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, expectancy-related beliefs, subjective task values, and</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nd0046.photos.199346p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nd0046.photos.199346p/"><span id="translatedtitle">13. Missile site control building, third and <span class="hlt">fourth</span> floor interior, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>13. Missile site control building, third and <span class="hlt">fourth</span> floor interior, showing east corner and former electrical equipment area, room #306. This building was salvaged and sealed in the 1970's; the lower floors also suffered flooding - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dogs&pg=5&id=EJ1003788','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dogs&pg=5&id=EJ1003788"><span id="translatedtitle">Did that Dog Sniff Violate the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Amendment?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hawke, Catherine; Middleton, Tiffany</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Is sniffing at the front door of a private home by a trained narcotics detection dog a <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Amendment search requiring probable cause? Is a "drug dog" somehow like a manmade technology, such as a thermal imaging device? These were a couple of the questions recently presented to the U.S. Supreme Court during arguments in "Florida v. Jardines."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5655264','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5655264"><span id="translatedtitle">Transactions of the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> symposium on space nuclear power systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>This paper contains the presented papers at the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=oral+AND+hygiene&pg=7&id=ED427825','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=oral+AND+hygiene&pg=7&id=ED427825"><span id="translatedtitle">Dental Hygiene Program Clinic Manual, Fall 1997. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Errico, Mary; Cama, Christine; Pastoriza-Maldonado, Alida</p> <p></p> <p>This is the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition of the Clinic Manual for the Dental Hygiene Program at Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community College in the Bronx (New York). It contains general information, grading procedures, performance guides, and clinical forms related to the program. Section 1 provides an introduction to clinic philosophy, policies, goals and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=GLOBAL+AND+EDITION+AND+PHYSICS&id=ED251390','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=GLOBAL+AND+EDITION+AND+PHYSICS&id=ED251390"><span id="translatedtitle">Peace and World Order Studies: A Curriculum Guide. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wien, Barbara J., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition of this curriculum guide will help college, university, and secondary school educators design and update courses, familiarize themselves with new literature and resources, and plan and justify new academic programs in the study of global problems. While syllabus categories remain the same as in previous editions, several new</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heller&pg=2&id=ED491780','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heller&pg=2&id=ED491780"><span id="translatedtitle">Educating Children with Multiple Disabilities: A Collaborative Approach. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Orelove, Fred P., Ed.; Sobsey, Dick, Ed.; Silberman, Rosanne K., Ed.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Now in its <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition, this highly respected, bestselling textbook gives undergraduate and graduate students up-to-the-minute research and strategies for educating children with severe and multiple disabilities. This popular core text--for 15 years, a staple of teacher training programs in special education and related fields--thoroughly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=helps+AND+point+AND+form&pg=2&id=EJ1004750','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=helps+AND+point+AND+form&pg=2&id=EJ1004750"><span id="translatedtitle">An Examination of <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Graders' Aesthetic Engagement with Literary Characters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Parsons, Linda T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Reader response, simulation, and assimilation theories offer insights to our emotional connections with characters. Findings from a study conducted with avid <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-grade readers show that when the children feel they are next to the character, they acentrally imagine the narrative and experience sympathy. The children also participate and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=facto&id=EJ1000503','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=facto&id=EJ1000503"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-Year Experience: Impediments to Degree Completion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Donhardt, G. L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Undergraduates who persevere to the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> year of their academic careers have invested a great deal of time, effort, and financial resources in their education. In spite of the effort, many do not succeed in graduating. Students from an entering class of first-time, full time freshmen from a large urban university were tracked through their…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/in0349.photos.379750p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/in0349.photos.379750p/"><span id="translatedtitle">13. Interior view on the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> floor. A view looking ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>13. Interior view on the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> floor. A view looking northwest showing a typical arrangement of lease space offices, with glass door, lavatory and clothes closets. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=solar+AND+energy+AND+fossil+AND+fuels&pg=3&id=ED180804','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=solar+AND+energy+AND+fossil+AND+fuels&pg=3&id=ED180804"><span id="translatedtitle">Nature's Energy, Module B. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grade. Pilot Form.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pasco County Schools, Dade City, FL.</p> <p></p> <p>This booklet is one of a set of learning modules on energy for use by students and teachers in the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> grade. This module examines man's use of fossil fuels, electricity production, and other energy sources. Included are laboratory activities and values exercises. (BT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/116675','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/116675"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> annual report to Congress, Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-07-01</p> <p>This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/fl0701.photos.577546p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/fl0701.photos.577546p/"><span id="translatedtitle">GENERAL VIEW OF THE <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>GENERAL VIEW OF THE <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ri0412.photos.363333p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ri0412.photos.363333p/"><span id="translatedtitle">43. 'Firing Pier, Third and <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Floors and Roof Plan,' ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>43. 'Firing Pier, Third and <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Floors and Roof Plan,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3869-46, Y&D Drawing 190843. Scale 1/4' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850021145&hterms=GLA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGLA','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850021145&hterms=GLA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGLA"><span id="translatedtitle">Model Development Highlight for 1984: The GLA <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Order GCM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pfaendtner, J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A number of improvements have been made to the GLA <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Order General Circulation Model and its associated run procedures during the past year. Major development efforts have been carried out in the following areas: (1) model resolution; (2) boundary fields and topography; (3) post-processing of model results on CYBER computer; and (4) model source code.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=environmental+AND+maps&pg=6&id=EJ783964','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=environmental+AND+maps&pg=6&id=EJ783964"><span id="translatedtitle">Delmarva Coastal Bays Map Contest for <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Graders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cooper, Catherine W.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This map contest is an exercise in geographic education for <span class="hlt">fourth</span> grade students. It is sponsored by a grassroots, nonprofit environmental organization to raise the awareness and appreciation of students to the special features of their home region. The maps illustrate some aspect of the living resources or history of the region. As a case study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED541658.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED541658.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Value of the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Year of Mathematics. Math Works</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Achieve, Inc., 2013</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Too many students and educators view the senior year and graduation from high school as an end point, rather than one vital step along the education pipeline. Students who engage in a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> year of math tap into and build upon their advanced analytic skills and are more likely to have better success in postsecondary course work, as they have…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1682.photos.347892p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nj1682.photos.347892p/"><span id="translatedtitle">6. <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO NORTH: ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>6. <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO NORTH: AMERICAN CAR & FOUNDRY COMPANY MANUAL SOAP CUTTER INSTALLED 1932 (FOREGROUND); CONVEYORS; AND R.A. JONES & COMPANY HORIZONTAL PRESS INSTALLED 1931 (BACKGROUND) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=introduction+AND+marketing&pg=3&id=ED537448','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=introduction+AND+marketing&pg=3&id=ED537448"><span id="translatedtitle">Standards of Good Practice for Education Abroad. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Forum on Education Abroad, 2011</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition of the Forum on Education Abroad's "Standards of Good Practice for Education Abroad" augments previous editions of the "Standards." Since the last edition was published in 2008, Forum member institutions and organizations have implemented the Standards in program development and assessment, using the Standards in the Forum's…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED068367.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED068367.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grade: Late Fall and Early Spring Curriculum Guide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jacobs, Joel Robert, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>Activity plans for <span class="hlt">fourth</span> grade outdoor education experiences comprise the bulk of this curriculum guide. Many of the outlines have been developed through practical application and experimentation by staff members of the Outdoor and Environmental Education Center (OEEC) of the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, City Schools. Activities and studies for the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hopeless&pg=4&id=EJ751581','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hopeless&pg=4&id=EJ751581"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Characters: A Year in the Life of <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Hour</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Meiklejohn, Julie</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the author relates how she was able to facilitate a turn around with a seemingly hopeless regular English class. Her <span class="hlt">fourth</span> class, which consisted of the thugs and slugs, was her first regular class as she had always been assigned the honors classes. Many of these students were repeating the class, having failed the previous year.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25385344','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25385344"><span id="translatedtitle">MRI characteristics of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle arachnoid diverticula in five dogs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bazelle, Julien; Caine, Abby; Palus, Viktor; Summers, Brian A; Cherubini, Giunio B</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Intracranial arachnoid diverticula (cysts) are rare accumulations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the arachnoid membrane. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle arachnoid diverticula in a group of dogs. The hospital's medical records were searched for dogs with MRI studies of the brain and a diagnosis of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle arachnoid diverticulum. Clinical characteristics were recorded from medical records and MRI studies were reinterpreted by a board-certified veterinary radiologist. Five pediatric dogs fulfilled inclusion criteria. Clinical signs included cervical hyperaesthesia, obtundation, tetraparesis, and/or central vestibular syndrome. In all five dogs, MRI findings were consistent with obstructive hydrocephalus, based on dilation of all ventricles and compression of the cerebellum and brainstem. All five dogs also had cervical syringohydromyelia, with T2-weighted hyperintensity of the gray matter of the cord adjacent to the syringohydromyelia. A signal void, interpreted as flow disturbance, was observed at the mesencephalic aqueduct in all dogs. Four dogs underwent surgical treatment with occipitalectomy and durotomy. A cystic lesion emerging from the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle was detected in all four dogs during surgery and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of arachnoid diverticula. Three dogs made excellent recovery but deteriorated shortly after surgery and were euthanized. Repeat MRI in two dogs revealed improved hydrocephalus but worsening of the syringohydromyelia. Findings from the current study supported theories that <span class="hlt">fourth</span> ventricle arachnoid diverticula are secondary to partial obstruction of the central canal or lateral apertures and that arachnoid diverticula are developmental lesions in dogs. PMID:25385344</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=evolution+AND+article&pg=6&id=EJ954522','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=evolution+AND+article&pg=6&id=EJ954522"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Way in Action? The Evolution of Singapore's Education System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gopinathan, Saravanan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Hargreaves and Shirley's "The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Way" offers a valuable framework for considering the challenges and dilemmas that confront education change practitioners. In this article, I consider how well their framework fits the evolution and more recent changes in Singapore education. History, context culture and aspirations are seen as providing for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=family+AND+mealtime&pg=5&id=ED491780','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=family+AND+mealtime&pg=5&id=ED491780"><span id="translatedtitle">Educating Children with Multiple Disabilities: A Collaborative Approach. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Orelove, Fred P., Ed.; Sobsey, Dick, Ed.; Silberman, Rosanne K., Ed.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Now in its <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition, this highly respected, bestselling textbook gives undergraduate and graduate students up-to-the-minute research and strategies for educating children with severe and multiple disabilities. This popular core text--for 15 years, a staple of teacher training programs in special education and related fields--thoroughly…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=basic+AND+computer+AND+skills+AND+elementary+AND+students&pg=5&id=ED461975','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=basic+AND+computer+AND+skills+AND+elementary+AND+students&pg=5&id=ED461975"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching Mathematics to Students with Learning Disabilities. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bley, Nancy S.; Thornton, Carol A.</p> <p></p> <p>This text explores teaching techniques and adaptations that have proven effective in teaching mathematics concepts and skills to students with learning disabilities. This <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition, consistent with the standards developed by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000, continues to emphasize problem solving, number sense, student</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=appearance+AND+satisfaction&pg=3&id=EJ487626','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=appearance+AND+satisfaction&pg=3&id=EJ487626"><span id="translatedtitle">Eating Attitudes in <span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-, Sixth-, and Eighth-Grade Girls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rhyne-Winkler, Martha C.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Examined eating attitudes of <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-, sixth-, and eighth-grade girls (n=379) and relationship between those attitudes and achievement scores, school ability, absenteeism, family income, grade level, family size, age, height/weight ratio, diet history, weight satisfaction, appearance satisfaction, and school anxiety. Found that eating-disordered…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=literary+AND+theory&pg=6&id=EJ1004750','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=literary+AND+theory&pg=6&id=EJ1004750"><span id="translatedtitle">An Examination of <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Graders' Aesthetic Engagement with Literary Characters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Parsons, Linda T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Reader response, simulation, and assimilation theories offer insights to our emotional connections with characters. Findings from a study conducted with avid <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-grade readers show that when the children feel they are next to the character, they acentrally imagine the narrative and experience sympathy. The children also participate and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bogs&id=EJ904377','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bogs&id=EJ904377"><span id="translatedtitle">Reflections on Doing Geography: Learning Observations from the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Delahunty, Tina</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Nature Conservancy's (TNC) Orchard Bog site in Shady Valley, Tennessee, is a unique Appalachian mountain bog that provides many opportunities for student exploration. A biogeographer, a field technician, two biologists, and a historian combined their expertise to teach 100 <span class="hlt">fourth</span> graders how historians and scientists learn about past…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=testosterone&pg=4&id=EJ698151','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=testosterone&pg=4&id=EJ698151"><span id="translatedtitle">Second-to-<span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Digit Length, Testosterone and Spatial Ability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kempel, P.; Gohlke, B.; Klempau, J.; Zinsberger, P.; Reuter, M.; Hennig, J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Based on stimulating findings suggesting that prenatal levels of steroids may influence cognitive functions, a study with N=40 healthy volunteers of both sexes was conducted. Prenatal levels of testosterone (T) were estimated by use of the second-to-<span class="hlt">fourth</span> digit ratio (2D:4D) which is supposed to be controlled by the same genes involved in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0614.photos.383746p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ct0614.photos.383746p/"><span id="translatedtitle">19. <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR BLDG. 28, DETAIL BLOCKS, PULLEYS, AND ELECTRIC ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>19. <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> FLOOR BLDG. 28, DETAIL BLOCKS, PULLEYS, AND ELECTRIC MOTOR LOOKING EAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca2820.photos.382169p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca2820.photos.382169p/"><span id="translatedtitle">7. STANDPIPE DETAIL SHOWING ACCESS LADDER ATTACHED TO <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> STANDPIPE ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>7. STANDPIPE DETAIL SHOWING ACCESS LADDER ATTACHED TO <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> STANDPIPE AT RIGHT PHOTO CENTER AND FOUR INCH PIPE FOR VENTING PENSTOCK ABOVE STANDPIPE ATTACHED TO OUTSIDE OF STANDPIPE AT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO WEST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=B12&pg=3&id=ED516422','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=B12&pg=3&id=ED516422"><span id="translatedtitle">Rentz's Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zhang, Naijian</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The mission of this new <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition is to provide the reader with a solid foundation in the historical and philosophical perspectives of college student affairs development; assist the reader in understanding the major concepts and purpose of student affairs' practice, methods, and program models; enable the reader to conceptualize the theme,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Great+AND+writing&id=EJ822221','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Great+AND+writing&id=EJ822221"><span id="translatedtitle">North Carolina Tales Fly with <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grade Tellers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Westman, Gretchen Daub</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">fourth</span> grade, North Carolina students are required to write their own personal narratives. The teachers felt that telling a story would be a great stepping stone toward writing one. Rather than focusing on grammar and the mechanics of writing, students could focus on story development and creativity. In this article, the author describes how</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ777783.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ777783.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A "Perfect" Case Study: Perfectionism in Academically Talented <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Graders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adelson, Jill L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The topic of perfectionism is bound to surface when discussing the social and emotional development of gifted children and adolescents. The author has observed gifted and talented <span class="hlt">fourth</span> graders who have exhibited perfectionism in a myriad of unhealthy ways. She was able to document and categorize the manifestations of perfectionism. In this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=low-fat+AND+diet&id=EJ592357','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=low-fat+AND+diet&id=EJ592357"><span id="translatedtitle">Dietary Behaviors among <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Graders: A Social Cognitive Theory Approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Corwin, Sara J.; Sargent, Roger G.; Rheaume, Carol E.; Saunders, Ruth P.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Examined the impact of behavioral, personal, and environmental factors on <span class="hlt">fourth</span> graders' dietary practices, using a social cognitive theory framework. Survey results highlighted social cognitive variables that significantly influenced dietary behaviors: gender, race, socioeconomic status, fruit and vegetable availability at home, nutrition</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marketing+AND+management+AND+support+AND+system&pg=4&id=ED449800','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marketing+AND+management+AND+support+AND+system&pg=4&id=ED449800"><span id="translatedtitle">Administration of the Small Public Library. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weingand, Darlene E.</p> <p></p> <p>Since the publication of its first edition in 1965, this book has been a standard resource for setting up and managing cutting-edge small public library facilities. Completely revised and updated, this <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition continues that tradition with many more figures (28 in this edition), case studies and sample policies, and new content on grant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al0682.photos.320921p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al0682.photos.320921p/"><span id="translatedtitle">46. VIEW ON THE ROOF, LOOKING AT THE TOP (<span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>46. VIEW ON THE ROOF, LOOKING AT THE TOP (<span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> STORY) OF THE TOWER FROM THE NORTHEAST TO THE SOUTHWEST (NOTE: GROUPS OF THREE WINDOWS IN EACH SIDE OF TOWER, ORNAMENTED WITH BROWNSTONE ARCHES AND BROWNSTONE SILLS WITHOUT BRACKETS) - Kenworthy Hall, State Highway 14 (Greensboro Road), Marion, Perry County, AL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=identity+AND+management&pg=4&id=EJ673307','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=identity+AND+management&pg=4&id=EJ673307"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Annual EDUCAUSE Survey Identifies Current IT Issues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crawford, Grant; Rudy, Julia A</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Conducted the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> consecutive survey of pressing information technology (IT) challenges on campuses. Responses of 542 EDUCAUSE member representatives show that funding has become the number one IT challenge, with security and identity management the next most notable problem area. Identifies other priority IT issues for higher education. (SLD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa2730.photos.134416p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa2730.photos.134416p/"><span id="translatedtitle">12. INTERIOR VIEW <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> OR ATTIC LEVEL SHOWING 'THE SILVER ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>12. INTERIOR VIEW <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> OR ATTIC LEVEL SHOWING 'THE SILVER CREEK FLOUR BOLT' 3307 No. 2, pat. Feb 6, 1883. Nancy Shedd, historical consultant, in mid-ground. - Huntingdon Furnace, Grist Mill, 2 miles northwest of Colerain Mansion, Franklinville, Huntingdon County, PA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=phase+AND+contrast+AND+microscopy&id=ED427825','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=phase+AND+contrast+AND+microscopy&id=ED427825"><span id="translatedtitle">Dental Hygiene Program Clinic Manual, Fall 1997. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Errico, Mary; Cama, Christine; Pastoriza-Maldonado, Alida</p> <p></p> <p>This is the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition of the Clinic Manual for the Dental Hygiene Program at Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community College in the Bronx (New York). It contains general information, grading procedures, performance guides, and clinical forms related to the program. Section 1 provides an introduction to clinic philosophy, policies, goals and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Marx+AND+Karl&pg=5&id=ED379704','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Marx+AND+Karl&pg=5&id=ED379704"><span id="translatedtitle">The Informed Argument: A Multidisciplinary Reader and Guide. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Miller, Robert K.</p> <p></p> <p>Reflecting the belief that learning is best fostered by encouraging students to read, reflect, and write about serious issues, this book is designed to help students argue on behalf of their beliefs so that other people will take them seriously. The 85 readings gathered in the book (60 of which are new to the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition) give students adequate</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED437696.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED437696.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Online Classroom: Teaching with the Internet. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cotton, Eileen Giuffre</p> <p></p> <p>Presenting a wide array of Internet addresses and sample lessons, this <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition shows how teachers can integrate the Internet into their K-12 curriculum to actively involve students. The first section of the book (chapters 1-6) deals with the programs needed to use the Internet, as well as 100 great web sites for teachers, how to manage the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gun+AND+control&pg=7&id=ED379704','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gun+AND+control&pg=7&id=ED379704"><span id="translatedtitle">The Informed Argument: A Multidisciplinary Reader and Guide. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Edition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Miller, Robert K.</p> <p></p> <p>Reflecting the belief that learning is best fostered by encouraging students to read, reflect, and write about serious issues, this book is designed to help students argue on behalf of their beliefs so that other people will take them seriously. The 85 readings gathered in the book (60 of which are new to the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> edition) give students adequate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12502090','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12502090"><span id="translatedtitle">Chromium(III) determination with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide based on the oxidative effect of chlorine radicals <span class="hlt">generated</span> from CCl4 sonolysis in aqueous <span class="hlt">solution</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borges, Sivanildo da Silva; Korn, Mauro; Lima, Jos Luis Fontes da Costa</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Oxidation of Cr(III) during sonication in carbonated aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> saturated with CCl4 leads to the quantitative formation of Cr(VI) and provides a simple and rapid method for spectrophotometric chromium determination with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide. The key to this method is the production of chlorine radicals when aqueous <span class="hlt">solution</span> saturated with CCl4 is exposed to ultrasonic waves of 40 kHz. The effects of sonication period, CCl4 <span class="hlt">solution</span> volume, acidity, and interferences were discussed. The time required for a single determination is lower than 2 min. The relative standard deviation obtained for aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> with 1 microg of Cr was < 2% (N = 10) and the calculated detection limit (3sigma) was 5 ng of Cr. PMID:12502090</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26079426','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26079426"><span id="translatedtitle">Stability of cefozopran hydrochloride in aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zalewski, Przemysław; Skibiński, Robert; Paczkowska, Magdalena; Garbacki, Piotr; Talaczyńska, Alicja; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Jelińska, Anna</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The influence of pH on the stability of cefozopran hydrochloride (CZH) was investigated in the pH range of 0.44-13.00. Six degradation products were identified with a hybrid ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometer. The degradation of CZH as a result of hydrolysis was a pseudo-first-order reaction. As general acid-base hydrolysis of CZH was not occurred in the <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, acetate, borate and phosphate buffers, kobs = kpH because specific acid-base catalysis was observed. Specific acid-base catalysis of CZH consisted of the following reactions: hydrolysis of CZH catalyzed by hydrogen ions (kH+), hydrolysis of dications (k1H2O), monocations (k2H2O) and zwitter ions (k3H2O) and hydrolysis of zwitter ions (k1OH-) and monoanions (k2OH-) of CZH catalyzed by hydroxide ions. The total rate of the reaction was equal to the sum of partial reactions: [Formula: see text]. CZH similarly like other <span class="hlt">fourth</span> <span class="hlt">generation</span> cephalosporin was most stable at slightly acidic and neutral pH and less stable in alkaline pH. The cleavage of the β-lactam ring resulting from a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon in the β-lactam moiety is the preferred degradation pathway of β-lactam antibiotics in aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span>. PMID:26079426</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........49J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........49J"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparison of Gender and Socioeconomic Bracket in <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grade Students when Measuring Volume</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jennings, Kelly A.</p> <p></p> <p>The goal of this study was to assess students' abilities when measuring volume as well as providing a hands-on method for designing a water-filtration process. I studied the trends among gender, time, and ability to measure water in two different groups of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> grade students. <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> grade students from both higher income and lower income school districts visited a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Studio in order to participate in hands-on, problem-based learning. The students in this study attempted to solve the "Dirty Water Problem" by measuring 281ml of dirty water <span class="hlt">solution</span>, and using household tools to filter and clean the dirty water. This study showed that 68% of students from a high-income socioeconomic bracket were able to measure a determined volume of water independently. Meanwhile, only 18% of students from a low-income socioeconomic bracket were able to complete the same task independently. In the low-income bracket, 78% of students required assistance measuring a volume of water, indicating that the majority of these students performed below grade level. Where time spent at the station was concerned, the difference between high-income and low-income socioeconomic brackets was insignificant. Key Words: STEM, measurement, volume, design, Dirty Water Problem, socioeconomic bracket.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26080182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26080182"><span id="translatedtitle">'Pheran' Induced <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Degree Friction Burn of the Brain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rasool, Altaf; Bashir, Sheikh Adil; Zaroo, Mohamad Inam; Bijli, Akram Hussain; Wani, Iqbal Rasool</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Friction burns result from the rubbing between the skin and any other rough surface. We present a case of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> degree friction burn of the brain, which was predisposed due to the wearing of traditional long loose clothing known as 'Pheran'. The patient was pillion riding a motor bike on a highway and was wearing a Pheran. The loose arm sleeves of the pheran were hanging by the side. The bike met with a side-on collision with a load-carrier lorry. The patient fell down and the left loose arm sleeve of the pheran was trapped in the axle of the lorry. He was dragged on the road for about half a km before the fast moving lorry stopped, the driver being oblivious of the accident. The patient developed friction injury to various parts of the body in addition to a severe <span class="hlt">fourth</span> degree friction burn to brain and a fracture shaft of left femur. PMID:26080182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6660779','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6660779"><span id="translatedtitle">The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> quarter 1991</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rogers, C.D. )</p> <p>1992-06-02</p> <p>The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter 1991 are listed in this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2597976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2597976"><span id="translatedtitle">Lateral internal sphincterotomy in the treatment of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> degree haemorrhoids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Roover, D M; Hoofwijk, A G; van Vroonhoven, T J</p> <p>1989-11-01</p> <p>Between January 1984 and May 1988, 25 patients with <span class="hlt">fourth</span> degree haemorrhoids were treated in the acute phase by lateral internal sphincterotomy under narcosis. Pain relief was immediate. The median hospital stay was 3 days. The median follow-up period was 26 months. For 20 patients a single lateral internal sphincterotomy alone was adequate treatment. If further therapy was required, simple band ligation was enough. There was one recurrence, which was treated with a further lateral internal sphincterotomy. In the long term, 18 patients had no complaints and seven had only minor complaints. Twenty-three patients were very satisfied and two were moderately satisfied. Nobody was dissatisfied. Lateral internal sphincterotomy is an attractive alternative in the treatment of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> degree haemorrhoids, its major benefits being simplicity, efficiency and low morbidity. PMID:2597976</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhCS.314a2096L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhCS.314a2096L"><span id="translatedtitle">Algebraic Rainich conditions for the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> rank tensor V</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loi So, Lau</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Algebraic conditions on the Ricci tensor in the Rainich-Misner-Wheeler unified field theory are known as the Rainich conditions. Penrose and more recently Bergqvist and Lankinen made an analogy from the Ricci tensor to the Bel-Robinson tensor B????, a certain <span class="hlt">fourth</span> rank tensor quadratic in the Weyl curvature, which also satisfies algebraic Rainich-like conditions. However, we found that not only does the tensor B???? fulfill these conditions, but so also does our recently proposed tensor V????, which has many of the desirable properties of B????. For the quasilocal small sphere limit restriction, we found that there are only two <span class="hlt">fourth</span> rank tensors, B???? and V????, which form a basis for good energy expressions. Both of them have the completely trace free and causal properties, these two form necessary and sufficient conditions. Surprisingly either completely traceless or causal is enough to fulfill the algebraic Rainich conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130010244','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130010244"><span id="translatedtitle">Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Quarter FY-04</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (A MU) activities for the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (July -Sept 2004). Tasks covered are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension and (5) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nv0125.photos.348472p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nv0125.photos.348472p/"><span id="translatedtitle">10. VIEW OF THE PROPOSED LOCATION FOR THE <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> TURNOUT ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>10. VIEW OF THE PROPOSED LOCATION FOR THE <span class="hlt">FOURTH</span> TURNOUT AND WHERE AN EXISTING WATERBAR WILL BE REMOVED DURING LOG HAULING AND REPLACED AFTER USE. IN ADDITION TO THIS CONSTRUCTION, TWO TREES (LOCATED ON THE RIGHT OF THE ROAD IN THIS PICTURE) WILL BE REMOVED IN ORDER TO WIDEN THE ROADBED. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 1.15, FACING NORTH 13 WEST (3470). - Genoa Peak Road, Glenbrook, Douglas County, NV</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/145245','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/145245"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> year report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Crowley, T.J.; North, G.R.; Smith, N.R.</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>The scope of the report is to present the results of the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> year`s work on the atmospheric modeling part of the global climate studies task. The development testing of computer models and initial results are discussed. The appendices contain studies that provide supporting information and guidance to the modeling work and further details on computer model development. Complete documentation of the models, including user information, will be prepared under separate reports and manuals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001APS..MAR.C9008C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001APS..MAR.C9008C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Order Algorithms for Solving Diverse Many-Body Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chin, Siu A.; Forbert, Harald A.; Chen, Chia-Rong; Kidwell, Donald W.; Ciftja, Orion</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p>We show that the method of factorizing an evolution operator of the form e^ɛ(A+B) to <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order with purely positive coefficient yields new classes of symplectic algorithms for solving classical dynamical problems, unitary algorithms for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, norm preserving algorithms for solving the Langevin equation and large time step convergent Diffusion Monte Carlo algorithms. Results for each class of problems will be presented and disucss</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ZPhyA.322..535M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ZPhyA.322..535M"><span id="translatedtitle">A case of analytical <span class="hlt">solution</span> of the Griffin-Hill-Wheeler equation: The ground state of the hydrogen atom with a Gaussian <span class="hlt">Generator</span> function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohallem, J. R.; Trsic, M.</p> <p>1985-12-01</p> <p>It is shown that the Griffin-Hill-Wheeler equation for the ground state of the hydrogen atom can be solved analytically for a Gaussian trial function. Both the exact eigenfunction and eigenvalue can be <span class="hlt">generated</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030102166','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030102166"><span id="translatedtitle">Algorithm Updates for the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hooker, Stanford, B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Patt, Frederick S.; Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Franz, Bryan A.; Robinson, Wayne D.; Feldman, Gene Carl; Bailey, Sean W.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The efforts to improve the data quality for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) data products have continued, following the third reprocessing of the global data set in May 2000. Analyses have been ongoing to address all aspects of the processing algorithms, particularly the calibration methodologies, atmospheric correction, and data flagging and masking. All proposed changes were subjected to rigorous testing, evaluation and validation. The results of these activities culminated in the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> reprocessing, which was completed in July 2002. The algorithm changes, which were implemented for this reprocessing, are described in the chapters of this volume. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the activities leading up to the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> reprocessing, and summarizes the effects of the changes. Chapter 2 describes the modifications to the on-orbit calibration, specifically the focal plane temperature correction and the temporal dependence. Chapter 3 describes the changes to the vicarious calibration, including the stray light correction to the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) data and improved data screening procedures. Chapter 4 describes improvements to the near-infrared (NIR) band correction algorithm. Chapter 5 describes changes to the atmospheric correction and the oceanic property retrieval algorithms, including out-of-band corrections, NIR noise reduction, and handling of unusual conditions. Chapter 6 describes various changes to the flags and masks, to increase the number of valid retrievals, improve the detection of the flag conditions, and add new flags. Chapter 7 describes modifications to the level-la and level-3 algorithms, to improve the navigation accuracy, correct certain types of spacecraft time anomalies, and correct a binning logic error. Chapter 8 describes the algorithm used to <span class="hlt">generate</span> the SeaWiFS photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) product. Chapter 9 describes a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, which is used in one of the changes described in Chapter 4. Finally, Chapter 10 describes a comparison of results from the third and <span class="hlt">fourth</span> reprocessings along the US. Northeast coast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100002216','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100002216"><span id="translatedtitle">Boundary Closures for <span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-order Energy Stable Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Finite Difference Schemes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Yamaleev, Nail K.; Frankel, Steven H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A general strategy exists for constructing Energy Stable Weighted Essentially Non Oscillatory (ESWENO) finite difference schemes up to eighth-order on periodic domains. These ESWENO schemes satisfy an energy norm stability proof for both continuous and discontinuous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of systems of linear hyperbolic equations. Herein, boundary closures are developed for the <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order ESWENO scheme that maintain wherever possible the WENO stencil biasing properties, while satisfying the summation-by-parts (SBP) operator convention, thereby ensuring stability in an L2 norm. Second-order, and third-order boundary closures are developed that achieve stability in diagonal and block norms, respectively. The global accuracy for the second-order closures is three, and for the third-order closures is four. A novel set of non-uniform flux interpolation points is necessary near the boundaries to simultaneously achieve 1) accuracy, 2) the SBP convention, and 3) WENO stencil biasing mechanics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944312','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944312"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-Order Method for Numerical Integration of Age- and Size-Structured Population Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Iannelli, M; Kostova, T; Milner, F A</p> <p>2008-01-08</p> <p>In many applications of age- and size-structured population models, there is an interest in obtaining good approximations of total population numbers rather than of their densities. Therefore, it is reasonable in such cases to solve numerically not the PDE model equations themselves, but rather their integral equivalents. For this purpose quadrature formulae are used in place of the integrals. Because quadratures can be designed with any order of accuracy, one can obtain numerical approximations of the <span class="hlt">solutions</span> with very fast convergence. In this article, we present a general framework and a specific example of a <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order method based on composite Newton-Cotes quadratures for a size-structured population model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EJMS...55..256R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EJMS...55..256R"><span id="translatedtitle">Localization analysis of an energy-based <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order gradient plasticity model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roko, Ond?ej; Zeman, Jan; Jirsek, Milan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to provide analytical and numerical <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of the formation and evolution of the localized plastic zone in a uniaxially loaded bar with variable cross-sectional area. An energy-based variational approach is employed and the governing equations with appropriate physical boundary conditions, jump conditions, and regularity conditions at evolving elasto-plastic interface are derived for a <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order explicit gradient plasticity model with linear isotropic softening. Four examples that differ by regularity of the yield stress and stress distributions are presented. Results for the load level, size of the plastic zone, distribution of plastic strain and its spatial derivatives, plastic elongation, and energy balance are constructed and compared to another, previously discussed non-variational gradient formulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910009992','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910009992"><span id="translatedtitle">Task reports on developing techniques for scattering by 3D composite structures and to <span class="hlt">generate</span> new <span class="hlt">solutions</span> in diffraction theory using higher order boundary conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Volakis, John L.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>There are two tasks described in this report. First, an extension of a two dimensional formulation is presented for a three dimensional body of revolution. A Fourier series expansion of the vector electric and magnetic fields is employed to reduce the dimensionality of the system, and an exact boundary condition is employed to terminate the mesh. The mesh termination boundary is chosen such that it leads to convolutional boundary operators for low O(n) memory demand. Second, rigorous uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) diffraction coefficients are presented for a coated convex cylinder simulated with generalized impedance boundary conditions. Ray <span class="hlt">solutions</span> are obtained which remain valid in the transition region and reduce uniformly those in the deep lit and shadow regions. A uniform asymptotic <span class="hlt">solution</span> is also presented for observations in the close vicinity of the cylinder.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rank+AND+correlation+AND+coefficients&pg=5&id=EJ786047','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rank+AND+correlation+AND+coefficients&pg=5&id=EJ786047"><span id="translatedtitle">Reproducibility of the School-Based Nutrition Monitoring Questionnaire among <span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-Grade Students in Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Penkilo, Monica; George, Goldy Chacko; Hoelscher, Deanna M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To assess reproducibility of a School-Based Nutrition Monitoring (SBNM) questionnaire for <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-grade students. Design: Test-retest. Setting: <span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-grade elementary school classrooms. Participants: Multiethnic <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-grade students from 2 area school districts (N = 322). Main Outcome Measures: Reproducibility coefficients with time</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Nutrition+AND+Knowledge+AND+Food+AND+Choices+AND+Elementary+AND+School+AND+Children.&id=EJ786047','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Nutrition+AND+Knowledge+AND+Food+AND+Choices+AND+Elementary+AND+School+AND+Children.&id=EJ786047"><span id="translatedtitle">Reproducibility of the School-Based Nutrition Monitoring Questionnaire among <span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-Grade Students in Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Penkilo, Monica; George, Goldy Chacko; Hoelscher, Deanna M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To assess reproducibility of a School-Based Nutrition Monitoring (SBNM) questionnaire for <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-grade students. Design: Test-retest. Setting: <span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-grade elementary school classrooms. Participants: Multiethnic <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-grade students from 2 area school districts (N = 322). Main Outcome Measures: Reproducibility coefficients with time…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=environmental+AND+science+AND+introduction&pg=4&id=ED498539','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=environmental+AND+science+AND+introduction&pg=4&id=ED498539"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grade Success: Everything You Need to Know to Help Your Child Learn. Knowledge Essentials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>James, Amy</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Part of the new Knowledge Essentials series, "<span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Grade Success" shows parents how to enrich their children's classroom learning and take an active role in their <span class="hlt">fourth</span> graders' education by exploring: (1) What <span class="hlt">fourth</span> graders are learning at school and the educational standards to expect in math, language arts, science, and social studies; (2)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-24/pdf/2011-15793.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-24/pdf/2011-15793.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 37007 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-24</p> <p>... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> of July... Stockton Ports Baseball Club will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> of July Fireworks Display... read as follows: Sec. 165.T11-422 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> of July...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMP....54f2502S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMP....54f2502S"><span id="translatedtitle">Isotropic universe with almost scale-invariant <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Hans-Jrgen; Singleton, Douglas</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>We study a class of isotropic cosmologies in the <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order gravity with Lagrangians of the form L = f(R) + k(G) where R and G are the Ricci and Gauss-Bonnet scalars, respectively. A general discussion is given on the conditions under which this gravitational Lagrangian is scale-invariant or almost scale-invariant. We then apply this general background to the specific case L = ?R2 + ? Gln G with constants ?, ?. We find closed form cosmological <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for this case. One interesting feature of this choice of f(R) and k(G) is that for very small negative value of the parameter ?, the Lagrangian L = R2/3 + ?Gln G leads to the replacement of the exact de Sitter <span class="hlt">solution</span> coming from L = R2 (which is a local attractor) to an exact, power-law inflation <span class="hlt">solution</span> a(t) = tp = t-3/? which is also a local attractor. This shows how one can modify the dynamics from de Sitter to power-law inflation by the addition of a Gln G-term.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19792293','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19792293"><span id="translatedtitle">Ghost-free, finite, <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order D = 3 gravity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deser, S</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Canonical analysis of a recently proposed linear + quadratic curvature gravity model in D = 3 establishes its pure, irreducibly <span class="hlt">fourth</span> derivative, quadratic curvature limit as both ghost-free and power-counting UV finite, thereby maximally violating standard folklore. This limit is representative of a generic class whose kinetic terms are conformally invariant in any dimension, but it is unique in simultaneously avoiding the transverse-traceless graviton ghosts plaguing D > 3 quadratic actions as well as double pole propagators in its other variables. While the two-term model is also unitary, its additional mode's second-derivative nature forfeits finiteness. PMID:19792293</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370671','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370671"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on Majorana dark matter from a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> lepton family</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hapola, Tuomas; Jrvinen, Matti; Kouvaris, Chris; Panci, Paolo; Virkajrvi, Jussi E-mail: mjarvine@physics.uoc.gr E-mail: panci@cp3-origins.net</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>We study the possibility of dark matter in the form of heavy neutrinos from a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> lepton family with helicity suppressed couplings such that dark matter is produced thermally via annihilations in the early Universe. We present all possible constraints for this scenario coming from LHC and collider physics, underground direct detectors, neutrino telescopes, and indirect astrophysical searches. Although we embed the WIMP candidate within a model of composite dynamics, the majority of our results are model independent and applicable to all models where heavy neutrinos with suppressed couplings account for the dark matter abundance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008505','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008505"><span id="translatedtitle">Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Quarter FY-09</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24034899','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24034899"><span id="translatedtitle">Proceedings of the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ritaccio, Anthony; Brunner, Peter; Crone, Nathan E; Gunduz, Aysegul; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Kanwisher, Nancy; Litt, Brian; Miller, Kai; Moran, Daniel; Parvizi, Josef; Ramsey, Nick; Richner, Thomas J; Tandon, Niton; Williams, Justin; Schalk, Gerwin</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography (ECoG) convened in New Orleans, LA, on October 11-12, 2012. The proceedings of the workshop serves as an accurate record of the most contemporary clinical and experimental work on brain surface recording and represents the insights of a unique multidisciplinary ensemble of expert clinicians and scientists. Presentations covered a broad range of topics, including innovations in passive functional mapping, increased understanding of pathologic high-frequency oscillations, evolving sensor technologies, a human trial of ECoG-driven brain-machine interface, as well as fresh insights into brain electrical stimulation. PMID:24034899</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3896917','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3896917"><span id="translatedtitle">Proceedings of the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ritaccio, Anthony; Brunner, Peter; Crone, Nathan E.; Gunduz, Aysegul; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Kanwisher, Nancy; Litt, Brian; Miller, Kai; Moran, Daniel; Parvizi, Josef; Ramsey, Nick; Richner, Thomas J.; Tandon, Niton; Williams, Justin; Schalk, Gerwin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography (ECoG) convened in New Orleans, LA, on October 11-12, 2012. The proceedings of the workshop serves as an accurate record of the most contemporary clinical and experimental work on brain surface recording and represents the insights of a unique multidisciplinary ensemble of expert clinicians and scientists. Presentations covered a broad range of topics, including innovations in passive functional mapping, increased understanding of pathologic high-frequency oscillations, evolving sensor technologies, a human trial of ECoG-driven brain-machine interface, as well as fresh insights into brain electrical stimulation. PMID:24034899</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006178','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006178"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Odell, Stephen L. (Compiler); Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Proceedings of a conference held in Huntsville, Alabama, on November 15-16, 1988. The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications brings together diverse technical and scientific work in order to help those who employ AI methods in space applications to identify common goals and to address issues of general interest in the AI community. Topics include the following: space applications of expert systems in fault diagnostics, in telemetry monitoring and data collection, in design and systems integration; and in planning and scheduling; knowledge representation, capture, verification, and management; robotics and vision; adaptive learning; and automatic programming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930004197','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930004197"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop was held from August 17-21, 1992, at NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop consisted of classes, vendor demonstrations, and paper sessions. The classes and vendor demonstrations provided participants with the information on widely used tools for thermal and fluids analysis. The paper sessions provided a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among thermal and fluids analysts. Paper topics included advances and uses of established thermal and fluids computer codes (such as SINDA and TRASYS) as well as unique modeling techniques and applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000027567','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000027567"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> United States Microgravity Payload: One Year Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ethridge, E. C. (Compiler); Curreri, P. A. (Compiler); McCauley, D. E. (Compiler)</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This document reports the one year science results for the <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4). The USMP-4 major experiments were on a support structure in the Space Shuttle's payload bay and operated almost completely by the Principal Investigators through telescience. The mission included a Glovebox where the crew performed additional experiments for the investigators. Together about eight major scientific experiments were performed, advancing the state of knowledge in fields such as low temperature physics, solidification, and combustion. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity and provide a look forward to a highly productive Space Station era.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21546702','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21546702"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> moments reveal the negativity of the Wigner function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bednorz, Adam; Belzig, Wolfgang</p> <p>2011-05-15</p> <p>The presence of unique quantum correlations is the core of quantum-information processing and general quantum theory. We address the fundamental question of how quantum correlations of a generic quantum system can be probed using correlation functions defined for quasiprobability distributions. In particular, we discuss the possibility of probing the negativity of a quasiprobability by comparing moments of the Wigner function. We show that one must take at least the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> moments to find the negativity in general and the eighth moments for states with a rotationally invariant Wigner function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARW20003B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARW20003B"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlling <span class="hlt">Solution</span> Self-assembly and Non-Solvent Induced Microphase Separation of Triblock Terpolymers to <span class="hlt">Generate</span> Nanofiltration Membranes with Chemically-Tailored Pore Walls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boudouris, Bryan; Mulvenna, Ryan; Weidman, Jacob; Phillip, William</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Block polymer-based templates have been utilized in a number of membrane applications; however, there has yet to be a demonstration of a nanoporous block polymer thin film that can achieve high flux and high selectivity simultaneously while also allowing for the facile tuning of the pore wall chemistry. Here, we demonstrate that by synthesizing and controlling the <span class="hlt">solution</span> self-assembly of a triblock terpolymer, polyisoprene- b-polystyrene- b-poly(N, N-dimethylacrylamide) (PI-PS-PDMA), and precisely inducing non-solvent induced phase separation during the self-assembly process allows for the creation of an asymmetric nanoporous membrane with PDMA-lined pore walls. This PDMA functionality is then converted to any number of side chain functionalities through simple chemistry in the solid state. In this way, we are able to show a highly selectivity membrane that can separate analytes of interest based both on size and chemical composition at a high <span class="hlt">solution</span> flux. In fact, this high fidelity structure has a very narrow distribution of pore sizes (<10% variation in diameter) over large areas (>500 cm2) . This has allowed for the separation of particles with hydrodynamic radii as low as 0.8 nm, which is the smallest separation achieved using a block polymer-based membrane to date.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1168...77C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1168...77C"><span id="translatedtitle">Cubic Spline Wavelets Satisfying Homogeneous Boundary Conditions for <span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-Order Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>?ern, Dana; Fin?k, Vclav</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The paper is concerned with a construction of cubic spline wavelet bases on the interval which are adapted to homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions for <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order problems. The resulting bases <span class="hlt">generate</span> multiresolution analyses on the unit interval with the desired number of vanishing wavelet moments. Inner wavelets are translated and dilated versions of well-known wavelets designed by Cohen, Daubechies, and Feauveau. The construction of boundary scaling functions and wavelets is a delicate task, because they may significantly worsen conditions of resulting bases as well as condition numbers of corresponding stiffness matrices. We present quantitative properties of the constructed bases and we show superiority of our construction in comparison to some other known spline wavelet bases in an adaptive wavelet method for the partial differential equation with the biharmonic operator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7029849','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7029849"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for the existence of a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> dominantly inherited spinocerebellar ataxia locus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lopes-Cendes, I. Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, Quebec McGill Univ., Quebec ); Andermann, E. McGill Univ., Quebec ); Rouleau, G.A. Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, Quebec )</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>The autosomal dominantly inherited spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders. To date, three loci have been identified: The SCA1 locus (on chr 6p), the SCA2 locus (on chr 12q), and more recently a Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) locus (on chr 14q). The authors have studied one large French-Canadian kindred with four <span class="hlt">generations</span> of living affected individuals segregating an autosomal dominant form of SCA. Linkage analysis using anonymous DNA markers that flank the three previously described loci significantly exclude the French-Canadian kindred from the SCA1, SCA2, and MJD loci. Therefore, a <span class="hlt">fourth</span>, still unmapped SCA locus remains to be identified. In addition, the unique clinical phenotype present in all affected individuals of the French-Canadian kindred might be characteristic of this still unmapped SCA locus. 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880050750&hterms=GLA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGLA','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880050750&hterms=GLA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGLA"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of increased horizontal resolution on GLA <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Order model forecasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Helfand, H. M.; Pfaendtner, J.; Atlas, R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A benchmark series of ten-day weather forecasts has been run with the GLA <span class="hlt">Fourth</span> Order GCM with both a 4 deg latitude by 5 deg longitude resolution and a 2 deg latitude by 2.5 deg longitude resolution. Ensemble statistics of forecast skill and maps of systematic error fields have been <span class="hlt">generated</span> for both resolutions. The enhanced resolution added 24 hours of useful predictive skill to the sea level pressure forecasts and 6 hours to the 500 mb height forecasts, but 5 to 6 days into the forecasts the advantage of the finer resolution was lost. The systematic error fields showed that by 8 days the 'climate drift' of the 2 x 2.5 deg forecasts had become pronounced and had caused the loss of predictive skill relative to the 4 x 5 deg forecasts. Additional results indicate that a gravity wave drag parameterization scheme might alleviate the climate drift problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14995231','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14995231"><span id="translatedtitle">Azimuthal anisotropy at the relativistic heavy ion collider: the first and <span class="hlt">fourth</span> harmonics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adams, J; Adler, C; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bhardwaj, S; Bhaskar, P; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gonzalez, J E; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Gronstal, S; Grosnick, D; Guedon, M; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Gushin, E; Gutierrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Jiang, H; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R Kh; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednický, R; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mangotra, L K; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mishra, D; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, D A; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potrebenikova, E; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Singaraju, R N; Simon, F; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trivedi, M D; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vasiliev, A N; Vasiliev, M; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zołnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, J; Zubarev, A N</p> <p>2004-02-13</p> <p>We report the first observations of the first harmonic (directed flow, v(1)) and the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> harmonic (v(4)), in the azimuthal distribution of particles with respect to the reaction plane in Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Both measurements were done taking advantage of the large elliptic flow (v(2)) <span class="hlt">generated</span> at RHIC. From the correlation of v(2) with v(1) it is determined that v(2) is positive, or in-plane. The integrated v(4) is about a factor of 10 smaller than v(2). For the sixth (v(6)) and eighth (v(8)) harmonics upper limits on the magnitudes are reported. PMID:14995231</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/28573','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/28573"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of acids from mine waste: Oxidative leaching of pyrrhotite in dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} <span class="hlt">solutions</span> at pH 3.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pratt, A.R.; Nesbitt, H.W.; Muir, I.J.</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>Pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 7}S{sub 8}) grains 3 x 3 x 6 mm were reacted in <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH 3.0) for eight hours and analyzed using secondary electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SEM images of reacted surfaces display an array of reaction textures, which are interpreted to represent a five-stage paragenetic alteration sequence. Leached pyrrhotite surfaces are initially featureless. Surfaces leached more extensively develop a mottled felty texture. Subsequent drying of reacted surfaces causes dehydration, producing cracked, tiled surfaces. Prolonged drying intensifies the effects of desiccation, producing rubbly textures. The rubble is readily spalled, exposing smooth underlayers. AES and XPS data collected from textured surfaces indicate primarily Fe-oxyhydroxide reaction products. AES depth profiles show that S varies antipathetically with oxygen. AES analysis of T5 textured surfaces (underlayer exposed by spalling) detect only Fe and S, with S significantly enriched over Fe. XPS and modelled AES data show T5 textured regions are mainly ferric iron bonded to disulphide and/or polysulphide species. The accumulation of S in the underlayer is accomplished by preferential migration of Fe to the overlying oxyhydroxide layer to the pyrrhotite surface, thus, promoting spallation. Spalling of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides is promoted in waste rock dumps and tailings situated above the water table by periodic wetting, drying, and desiccation of the oxyhydroxide layer. These circumstances may, in turn, lead to high concentrations of suspended Fe-oxyhydroxide in tailings ponds during flooding and in ponds where there are dramatic seasonal overturns of lake or pond water. Exposure by spalling of S-rich sublayers to aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> is an effective means for producing sulphuric acid-rich mine waste runoff, and of producing periodic flushes of sulphuric acid-rich drainage waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994GeCoA..58.5147P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994GeCoA..58.5147P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Generation</span> of acids from mine waste: Oxidative leaching of pyrrhotite in dilute H 2SO 4 <span class="hlt">solutions</span> at pH 3.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pratt, A. R.; Nesbitt, H. W.; muir, I. J.</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>Pyrrhotite (Fe 7S 8) grains 3 3 6 mm were reacted in <span class="hlt">solutions</span> of H 2SO 4 (pH 3.0) for eight hours and analyzed using secondary electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SEM images of reacted surfaces display an array of reaction textures, which are interpreted to represent a five-stage (T1-T5) paragenetic alteration sequence. Leached pyrrhotite surfaces are initially featureless (T1 texture). Surfaces leached more extensively develop a mottled felty texture (T2). Subsequent drying of reacted surfaces causes dehydration, producing cracked, tiled surfaces (T3 textures). Prolonged drying intensifies the effects of desiccation, producing rubbly (T4) textures. The rubble is readily spalled, exposing smooth underlayers (T5 textures). AES and XPS data collected from T1 through T4 textured surfaces indicate primarily Fe-oxyhydroxide reaction products. AES depth profiles show that S varies antipathetically with oxygen. AES analysis of T5 textured surfaces (underlayer exposed by spalling) detect only Fe and S, with S significantly enriched over Fe. XPS and modelled AES data show T5 textured regions are mainly ferric iron bonded to disulphide and/or polysulphide species. The accumulation of S in the underlayer is accomplished by preferential migration of Fe to the overlying oxyhydroxide layer to the pyrrhotite surface, thus, promoting spallation. Spalling of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides is promoted in waste rock dumps and tailings situated above the water table by periodic wetting, drying and desiccation of the oxyhydroxide layer. These circumstances may, in turn, lead to high concentrations of suspended Fe-oxyhydroxide in tailings ponds during flooding and in ponds where there are dramatic seasonal overturns of lake or pond water. Exposure by spalling of S-rich sublayers to aqueous <span class="hlt">solutions</span> is an effective means for producing sulphuric acid-rich mine waste runoff and of producing periodic flushes of sulphuric acid-rich drainage waters.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26042093','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26042093"><span id="translatedtitle">Welcome to pandoraviruses at the '<span class="hlt">Fourth</span> TRUC' club.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharma, Vikas; Colson, Philippe; Chabrol, Olivier; Scheid, Patrick; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, or representatives of the proposed order Megavirales, belong to families of giant viruses that infect a broad range of eukaryotic hosts. Megaviruses have been previously described to comprise a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> monophylogenetic TRUC (things resisting uncompleted classification) together with cellular domains in the universal tree of life. Recently described pandoraviruses have large (1.9-2.5 MB) and highly divergent genomes. In the present study, we updated the classification of pandoraviruses and other reported giant viruses. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on six informational genes. Hierarchical clustering was performed based on a set of informational genes from Megavirales members and cellular organisms. Homologous sequences were selected from cellular organisms using TimeTree software, comprising comprehensive, and representative sets of members from Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Phylogenetic analyses based on three conserved core genes clustered pandoraviruses with phycodnaviruses, exhibiting their close relatedness. Additionally, hierarchical clustering analyses based on informational genes grouped pandoraviruses with Megavirales members as a super group distinct from cellular organisms. Thus, the analyses based on core conserved genes revealed that pandoraviruses are new genuine members of the '<span class="hlt">Fourth</span> TRUC' club, encompassing distinct life forms compared with cellular organisms. PMID:26042093</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017854','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017854"><span id="translatedtitle">The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft: A <span class="hlt">fourth</span> program report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stolarski, Richard S. (Editor); Wesoky, Howard L. (Editor); Wofsy, Steven C.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Grose, William L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This document presents the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> report from the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of NASA's High-Speed Research Program (HSRP). Market and technology considerations continue to provide an impetus for high-speed civil transport research. A recent AESA interim assessment report and a review of that report have shown that considerable uncertainty still exists about the possible impact of aircraft on the atmosphere. The AESA has been designed to develop the body of scientific knowledge necessary for the evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on the atmosphere. The first Program report presented the basic objectives and plans for AESA. This <span class="hlt">fourth</span> report comes after the interim assessment and sets forth directions for the 1995 assessment at the end of AESA Phase 1. It also sets forth the goals and directions for AESA Phase 2, as reported at the 1994 Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) annual meeting held in June. The focus of the Phase 2 effort is to obtain the best possible closure on the outstanding problems identified in the interim assessment and NASA/NRC review. Topics discussed in this report include how high-speed civil transports (HSCT) might affect stratospheric ozone, emissions scenarios and databases to assess potential atmospheric effects from HSCT's, calculated results from 2-D zonal mean models using emissions data, engine trace constituent measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5380053','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5380053"><span id="translatedtitle">The Savannah River Plant's Groundwater Monitoring Program, <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter 1987</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The Savannah River Plant's Groundwater Monitoring Program is administered by the Environmental Monitoring Group of the Health Protection Department. During the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter of 1987 (October--December), routine monitoring was performed on monitoring wells and drinking water locations. This quarterly report includes the radioactive monitoring data from drinking water. These data were collected from SRP drinking water systems supplied by wells. Two sets of flagging criteria were established in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels but are intended to aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The first-level flagging criteria are based on detection limits or background levels in SRP groundwater. The second-level flagging criteria are based on various water standards or levels significantly above background. During the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> quarter of 1987, Priority Pollutant analyses were conducted on LFW wells and Appendix IX analyses were conducted on FSB point-of-compliance wells. Also during this quarter, one drinking water sample exceeded the first-level flagging criteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1484786','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1484786"><span id="translatedtitle">Preparing <span class="hlt">Fourth</span>-Year Medical Students to Teach During Internship</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haber, Richard J; Bardach, Naomi S; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Gillum, Leslie A; Haber, Lawrence A; Dhaliwal, Gurpreet S</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Interns are expected to teach medical students, yet there is little formal training in medical school to prepare them for this role. To enhance the teaching skills of our graduating students we initiated a 4-hour teaching to teach course as part of the end of the <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-year curriculum. Course evaluations demonstrate that students strongly support this program (overall ratings 2000 to 2005: mean = 4.4 [scale 1 to 5], n = 224). When 2004 course participants were surveyed during the last month of their internship, 84%agree or strongly agree with the statement: The teaching to teach course helped prepare me for my role as a teacher during internship (2005: mean 4.2 [scale 1 to 5], n = 45, response rate 60%). A course preparing <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-year students to teach during internship is both feasible and reproducible, with a minimal commitment of faculty and resident time. Participants identify it as an important addition to their education and as useful during internship. PMID:16704402</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvD..92h4026B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvD..92h4026B"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmic acceleration in a model of <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Shreya; Jayswal, Nilesh; Singh, Tejinder P.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We investigate a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order model of gravity, having a free length parameter, and no cosmological constant or dark energy. We consider cosmological evolution of a flat Friedmann universe in this model for the case that the length parameter is of the order of the present Hubble radius. By making a suitable choice for the present value of the Hubble parameter, and the value of the third derivative of the scale factor (the jerk), we find that the model can explain cosmic acceleration to the same degree of accuracy as the standard concordance model. If the free length parameter is assumed to be time dependent, and of the order of the Hubble parameter of the corresponding epoch, the model can still explain cosmic acceleration, and provides a possible resolution of the cosmic coincidence problem. We work out the effective equation of state, and its time evolution, in our model. The <span class="hlt">fourth</span> order correction terms are proportional to the metric, and hence mimic the cosmological constant. We also compare redshift drift in our model, with that in the standard model. The equation of state and the redshift drift serve to discriminate our model from the standard model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960024989','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960024989"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth</span> International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Han, D. (Editor); Peng, Kunchi (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Manko, V. I. (Editor)</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">fourth</span> International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China, on June 5 - 9, 1995. This conference was jointly organized by Shanxi University, the University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Lebedev Physical Institute (Russia). The first meeting of this series was called the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, and was held in 1991 at College Park, Maryland. The second and third meetings in this series were hosted in 1992 by the Lebedev Institute in Moscow, and in 1993 by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, respectively. The scientific purpose of this series was initially to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years, the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics, including, of course, quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic transformation. This transition took place at the <span class="hlt">fourth</span> meeting of this series held at Shanxi University in 1995. The fifth meeting in this series will be held in Budapest (Hungary) in 1997, and the principal organizer will be Jozsef Janszky of the Laboratory of Crystal Physics, P.O. Box 132, H-1052. Budapest, Hungary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4435241','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4435241"><span id="translatedtitle">Welcome to pandoraviruses at the ‘<span class="hlt">Fourth</span> TRUC’ club</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sharma, Vikas; Colson, Philippe; Chabrol, Olivier; Scheid, Patrick; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, or representatives of the proposed order Megavirales, belong to families of giant viruses that infect a broad range of eukaryotic hosts. Megaviruses have been previously described to comprise a <span class="hlt">fourth</span> monophylogenetic TRUC (things resisting uncompleted classification) together with cellular domains in the universal tree of life. Recently described pandoraviruses have large (1.9–2.5 MB) and highly divergent genomes. In the present study, we updated the classification of pandoraviruses and other reported giant viruses. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on six informational genes. Hierarchical clustering was performed based on a set of informational genes from Megavirales members and cellular organisms. Homologous sequences were selected from cellular organisms using TimeTree software, comprising comprehensive, and representative sets of members from Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Phylogenetic analyses based on three conserved core genes clustered pandoraviruses with phycodnaviruses, exhibiting their close relatedness. Additionally, hierarchical clustering analyses based on informational genes grouped pandoraviruses with Megavirales members as a super group distinct from cellular organisms. Thus, the analyses based on core conserved genes revealed that pandoraviruses are new genuine members of the ‘<span class="hlt">Fourth</span> TRUC’ club, encompassing distinct life forms compared with cellular organisms. PMID:26042093</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JChPh.132n4108S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JChPh.132n4108S"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient ab initio path integral hybrid Monte Carlo based on the <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order Trotter expansion: Application to fluoride ion-water cluster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Kimichi; Tachikawa, Masanori; Shiga, Motoyuki</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>We propose an efficient path integral hybrid Monte Carlo (PIHMC) method based on <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order Trotter expansion. Here, the second-order effective force is employed to <span class="hlt">generate</span> short trial trajectories to avoid computationally expensive Hessian matrix, while the final acceptance is judged based on <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order effective potential. The computational performance of our PIHMC scheme is compared with that of conventional PIHMC and PIMD methods based on second- and <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order Trotter expansions. Our method is applied to on-the-fly ab initio PIHMC calculation of fluoride ion-water complexes, F-(H2O) and F-(D2O), at ambient temperature, particularly focusing on the geometrical isotope effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20405986','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20405986"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient ab initio path integral hybrid Monte Carlo based on the <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order Trotter expansion: Application to fluoride ion-water cluster.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Kimichi; Tachikawa, Masanori; Shiga, Motoyuki</p> <p>2010-04-14</p> <p>We propose an efficient path integral hybrid Monte Carlo (PIHMC) method based on <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order Trotter expansion. Here, the second-order effective force is employed to <span class="hlt">generate</span> short trial trajectories to avoid computationally expensive Hessian matrix, while the final acceptance is judged based on <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order effective potential. The computational performance of our PIHMC scheme is compared with that of conventional PIHMC and PIMD methods based on second- and <span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order Trotter expansions. Our method is applied to on-the-fly ab initio PIHMC calculation of fluoride ion-water complexes, F(-)(H(2)O) and F(-)(D(2)O), at ambient temperature, particularly focusing on the geometrical isotope effect. PMID:20405986</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..93a2206A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..93a2206A"><span id="translatedtitle">Infinite hierarchy of nonlinear Schrdinger equations and their <span class="hlt">solutions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ankiewicz, A.; Kedziora, D. J.; Chowdury, A.; Bandelow, U.; Akhmediev, N.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We study the infinite integrable nonlinear Schrdinger equation hierarchy beyond the Lakshmanan-Porsezian-Daniel equation which is a particular (<span class="hlt">fourth</span>-order) case of the hierarchy. In particular, we present the generalized Lax pair and generalized soliton <span class="hlt">solutions</span>, plane wave <span class="hlt">solutions</span>, Akhmediev breathers, Kuznetsov-Ma breathers, periodic <span class="hlt">solutions</span>, and rogue wave <span class="hlt">solutions</span> for this infinite-order hierarchy. We find that "even- order" equations in the set affect phase and "stretching factors" in the <span class="hlt">solutions</span>, while "odd-order" equations affect the velocities. Hence odd-order equation <span class="hlt">solutions</span> can be real functions, while even-order equation <span class="hlt">solutions</span> are always complex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6154725','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6154725"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth-generation</span> inverters add artificial intelligence to the control of GMA welding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nacey, T.J. . Panasonic Factory Automation Co.)</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A new level of control has been achieved over the welding arc by using some of the latest techniques in artificial machine-intelligence computer control and by direct control of the short-circuit waveform. By controlling the short-circuit waveform in real time, these artificially intelligent power supplies control the instantaneous welding conditions and improve the GMAW process in terms of welding performance. These artificial-intelligent power supplies can yield many benefits. Among them are lower spatter levels, both in argon-based shielding gases and 100% CO[sub 2] shielding gases. Another benefit is faster arc speeds. In many cases the arc speeds can be 25% faster. Better productivity, through the better arc-striking capability and reduction of downtime associated with spatter on peripheral equipment, is another important factor. These power supplies are synergic and therefore provide for easier operator control. In addition, they have higher electrical efficiency; thus they yield lower operating cost.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=regional+AND+innovation&pg=6&id=EJ857287','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=regional+AND+innovation&pg=6&id=EJ857287"><span id="translatedtitle">The "<span class="hlt">Fourth</span> <span class="hlt">Generation</span> University" as a Creator of the Local and Regional Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pawlowski, Krzysztof</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Beginning with a view of the role of tertiary-level educational institutions in the globalizing world and the condition of the Polish higher education system in 2007, the author presents the factors affecting the regional development as well as those that exert the strongest influence on long-term regional development. While examining current</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11404909','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11404909"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fourth-generation</span> intraradicular posts for the aesthetic restoration of anterior teeth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martelli, R</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>Endodontically treated teeth have been traditionally restored with cost-metal posts prior to receiving aesthetic care. Due to the difficulties associated with early posts, resources have been invested to develop biocompatible endodontic posts capable of satisfying functional and aesthetic criteria. These initiatives have resulted in the introduction of carbon-based and glass-fiber posts with translucencies and moduli of elasticity closely approximating that of the dentin for use in adhesive dental procedures. This article demonstrates the rationale and application of translucent glass-fiber posts for the restoration of pulpless teeth. PMID:11404909</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Online+AND+transaction+AND+processing&id=EJ314015','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Online+AND+transaction+AND+processing&id=EJ314015"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Fourth-Generation</span> Approach to Decision Support in a Private University.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Glover, Robert H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Contrasts are made between application development strategies employed for online transaction processing and for decision support at the University of Hartford. Applications designed and implemented are described and current developments in the plan are discussed. (Author/MLW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1088722.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1088722.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Innovations in Nigerian Universities: Perspectives of an Insider from a "<span class="hlt">Fourth</span> <span class="hlt">Generation</span>" University</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Etuk, Grace Koko</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper elaborates on innovations which have been effected in universities in Nigeria, using a somewhat young university as a paradigm. The innovations discussed include private ownership of universities, innovative funding strategies and innovative quality assurance practices. These include innovative planning (strategic planning); innovative…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4390863','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4390863"><span id="translatedtitle">Does DNA Exert an Active Role in <span class="hlt">Generating</span> Cell-Sized Spheres in an Aqueous <span class="hlt">Solution</span> with a Crowding Binary Polymer?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tsumoto, Kanta; Arai, Masafumi; Nakatani, Naoki; Watanabe, Shun N.; Yoshikawa, Kenichi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We report the spontaneous <span class="hlt">generation</span> of a cell-like morphology in an environment crowded with the polymers dextran and polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the presence of DNA. DNA molecules were selectively located in the interior of dextran-rich micro-droplets, when the composition of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was near the critical condition of phase-segregation. The resulting micro-droplets could be controlled by the use of optical tweezers. As an example of laser manipulation, the dynamic fusion of two droplets is reported, which resembles the process of cell division in time-reverse. A hypothetical scenario for the emergence of a primitive cell with DNA is briefly discussed. PMID:25809964</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26125026','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26125026"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in IT Innovation to Build a Next <span class="hlt">Generation</span> Bioinformatics <span class="hlt">Solution</span> to Manage and Analyse Biological Big Data Produced by NGS Technologies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Brevern, Alexandre G; Meyniel, Jean-Philippe; Fairhead, Ccile; Neuvglise, Ccile; Malpertuy, Alain</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Sequencing the human genome began in 1994, and 10 years of work were necessary in order to provide a nearly complete sequence. Nowadays, NGS technologies allow sequencing of a whole human genome in a few days. This deluge of data challenges scientists in many ways, as they are faced with data management issues and analysis and visualization drawbacks due to the limitations of current bioinformatics tools. In this paper, we describe how the NGS Big Data revolution changes the way of managing and analysing data. We present how biologists are confronted with abundance of methods, tools, and data formats. To overcome these problems, focus on Big Data Information Technology innovations from web and business intelligence. We underline the interest of NoSQL databases, which are much more efficient than relational databases. Since Big Data leads to the loss of interactivity with data during analysis due to high processing time, we describe <span class="hlt">solutions</span> from the Business Intelligence that allow one to regain interactivity whatever the volume of data is. We illustrate this point with a focus on the Amadea platform. Finally, we discuss visualization challenges posed by Big Data and present the latest innovations with JavaScript graphic libraries. PMID:26125026</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993ApPhB..57..203S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993ApPhB..57..203S"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase-matched third-harmonic <span class="hlt">generation</span> of Nd: Glass-laser picosecond pulses in a new cyanine-dye <span class="hlt">solution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwan, C.; Penzkofer, A.; Marx, N. J.; Drexhage, K. H.</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>The phase-matched direct tripling of picosecond light pulses of a mode-locked Nd: glass laser in a new cyanine dye PMC is studied. The solvents trifluoroethanol (TFE) and hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) are applied. The S 0 S 1 absorption peak of the dye is around ?=480 nm and the absorption cross section at the third-harmonic wavelength of ?3=351.3 nm is only ?3?110-19 cm2. Phase-matching occurred at concentrations of CPM=0.0874 mol/dm3 in HFIP and 0.1088 mol/dm3 in TFE. A third-harmonic energy conversion efficiency of ?E?0.01 was achieved at a pump-laser peak intensity of I 0L?2.51011 W/cm2 in a 5 mm long sample of PMC in TFE. The conversion efficiency is limited by destruction of phase-matching due to the intensity-dependent nonlinear refractive index of the dye <span class="hlt">solutions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24087854','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24087854"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of ethanol on the formation and physico-chemical properties of particles <span class="hlt">generated</span> from budesonide <span class="hlt">solution</span>-based pressurized metered-dose inhalers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Bing; Traini, Daniela; Chan, Hak-Kim; Young, Paul M</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The aerosol performance of budesonide <span class="hlt">solution</span>-based pressurized metered-dose inhalers (HFA 134a), with various amounts of ethanol (5-30%, w/w) as co-solvents, was evaluated using impaction and laser diffraction techniques. With the increase of ethanol concentration in a formulation, the mass median aerodynamic diameter was increased and the fine particle fraction showed a significant decline. Although data obtained from laser diffraction oversized that of the impaction measurements, good correlations were established between the two sets of data. Particles emitted from all the five formulations in this study were amorphous, with two different types of morphology - the majority had a smooth surface with a solid core and the others were internally porous with coral-like surface morphology. The addition of ethanol in the formulation decreased the percentage of such irregular-shape particles from 52% to 2.5% approximately, when the ethanol concentration was increased from 5% to 30%, respectively. A hypothesis regarding the possible particle formation mechanisms was also established. Due to the difference of droplet composition from the designed formulation during the atomization process, the two types of particle may have gone through distinct drying processes: both droplets will have a very short period of co-evaporation, droplets with less ethanol may be dried during such period; while the droplets containing more ethanol will undergo an extra condensation stage before the final particle formation. PMID:24087854</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4466500','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4466500"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in IT Innovation to Build a Next <span class="hlt">Generation</span> Bioinformatics <span class="hlt">Solution</span> to Manage and Analyse Biological Big Data Produced by NGS Technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>de Brevern, Alexandre G.; Meyniel, Jean-Philippe; Fairhead, Cécile; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Malpertuy, Alain</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Sequencing the human genome began in 1994, and 10 years of work were necessary in order to provide a nearly complete sequence. Nowadays, NGS technologies allow sequencing of a whole human genome in a few days. This deluge of data challenges scientists in many ways, as they are faced with data management issues and analysis and visualization drawbacks due to the limitations of current bioinformatics tools. In this paper, we describe how the NGS Big Data revolution changes the way of managing and analysing data. We present how biologists are confronted with abundance of methods, tools, and data formats. To overcome these problems, focus on Big Data Information Technology innovations from web and business intelligence. We underline the interest of NoSQL databases, which are much more efficient than relational databases. Since Big Data leads to the loss of interactivity with data during analysis due to high processing time, we describe <span class="hlt">solutions</span> from the Business Intelligence that allow one to regain interactivity whatever the volume of data is. We illustrate this point with a focus on the Amadea platform. Finally, we discuss visualization challenges posed by Big Data and present the latest innovations with JavaScript graphic libraries. PMID:26125026</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.osti.gov/nle"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/NLElogo31.png" alt="National Library of Energy" height="31" width="79"></a> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> </body> </html>