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Sample records for fourth generation solution

  1. The Fourth Generation of University Administrative Data Processing: The Brandeis Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Charlotte

    1984-01-01

    The way in which Brandeis University moved its administrative data processing capability to an interactive online database environment is described. Brandeis installed a sophisticated program generator that provides a complete tool for system development and lifecycle management. (Author/MLW)

  2. Fourth Generation Parity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hye-Sung; Soni, Amarjit

    2013-01-01

    We present a very simple 4th-generation (4G) model with an Abelian gauge interaction under which only the 4G fermions have nonzero charge. The U(1) gauge symmetry can have a Z_2 residual discrete symmetry (4G-parity), which can stabilize the lightest 4G particle (L4P). When the 4G neutrino is the L4P, it would be a neutral and stable particle and the other 4G fermions would decay into the L4P leaving the trace of missing energy plus the standard model fermions. Because of the new symmetry, the 4G particle creation and decay modes are different from those of the sequential 4G model, and the 4G particles can be appreciably lighter than typical experimental bounds.

  3. Fourth generation light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Winick, H.

    1997-05-01

    Concepts and designs are now being developed at laboratories around the world for light sources with performance levels that exceed present sources, including the very powerful and successful third generation synchrotron radiation sources that have come on line in the past few years. Workshops, have been held to review directions for future sources. A main thrust is to increase the brightness and coherence of the radiation using storage rings with lower electron-beam emittance or free-electron lasers (FELs). In the infra-red part of the spectrum very high brightness and coherence is already provided by FEL user facilities driven by linacs and storage rings. It now appears possible to extend FEL operation to the VUV, soft X-ray and even hard X-ray spectral range, to wavelengths down to the angstrom range, using high energy linacs equipped with high-brightness rf photoinjectors and bunch-length compressors. R&D to develop such sources is in progress at BNL, DESY, KEK, SLAC and other laboratories. In the absence of mirrors to form optical cavities, short wavelengths are reached in FEL systems in which a high peak current, low-emittance electron beam becomes bunch-density modulated at the optical wavelength in a single pass through a long undulator by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE); i.e.; startup from noise. A proposal to use the last kilometer of the 3 kilometer SLAC linac (the first 2 kilometers will be used for injection to the PEP II B-Factory) to provide 15 GeV electron beams to reach 1.5 {angstrom} by SASE in a 100 m long undulator is in preparation.

  4. Fourth-generation storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Galayda, J. N.

    1999-11-16

    It seems clear that a linac-driven free-electron laser is the accepted prototype of a fourth-generation facility. This raises two questions: can a storage ring-based light source join the fourth generation? Has the storage ring evolved to its highest level of performance as a synchrotrons light source? The answer to the second question is clearly no. The author thinks the answer to the first question is unimportant. While the concept of generations has been useful in motivating thought and effort towards new light source concepts, the variety of light sources and their performance characteristics can no longer be usefully summed up by assignment of a ''generation'' number.

  5. Searches for Fourth Generation Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    We present the results from searches for fourth generation fermions performed using data samples collected by the CDF II and D0 Detectors at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider. Many of these results represent the most stringent 95% C. L. limits on masses of new fermions to-date. A fourth chiral generation of massive fermions with the same quantum numbers as the known fermions is one of the simplest extensions of the SM with three generations. The fourth generation is predicted in a number of theories, and although historically have been considered disfavored, stands in agreement with electroweak precision data. To avoid Z {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}} constraint from LEP I a fourth generation neutrino {nu}{sub 4} must be heavy: m({nu}{sub 4}) > m{sub Z}/2, where m{sub Z} is the mass of Z boson, and to avoid LEP II bounds a fourth generation charged lepton {ell}{sub 4} must have m({ell}{sub 4}) > 101 GeV/c{sup 2}. At the same time due to sizeable radiative corrections masses of fourth generation fermions cannot be much higher the current lower bounds and masses of new heavy quarks t' and b' should be in the range of a few hundred GeV/c{sup 2}. In the four-generation model the present bounds on the Higgs are relaxed: the Higgs mass could be as large as 1 TeV/c{sup 2}. Furthermore, the CP violation is significantly enhanced to the magnitude that might account for the baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Additional chiral fermion families can also be accommodated in supersymmetric two-Higgs-doublet extensions of the SM with equivalent effect on the precision fit to the Higgs mass. Another possibility is heavy exotic quarks with vector couplings to the W boson Contributions to radiative corrections from such quarks with mass M decouple as 1/M{sup 2} and easily evade all experimental constraints. At the Tevatron p{bar p} collider 4-th generation chiral or vector-like quarks can be either produced strongly in pairs or singly via electroweak production, where the latter can be

  6. Systems Prototyping with Fourth Generation Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sholtys, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    The development of information systems using an engineering approach that uses both traditional programing techniques and fourth generation software tools is described. Fourth generation applications tools are used to quickly develop a prototype system that is revised as the user clarifies requirements. (MLW)

  7. Time Studies of Fourth Graders Generating Alternative Solutions in a Decision-Making Task Using Models and Computer Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, John C

    1993-01-01

    Fourth graders were presented decision-making tasks that required hands-on manipulation of objects or manipulation of images using a microcomputer. Computer manipulations used (1) keyboard input; (2) keyboard input and the presentation of reference objects; or (3) light pen input. Subjects required more time to respond to the task when using…

  8. Strongly coupled fourth generation at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Burdman, G.; Da Rold, L.; Eboli, O. J. P.; Matheus, R. D.

    2009-04-01

    We study extensions of the standard model with a strongly coupled fourth generation. This occurs in models where electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered by the condensation of at least some of the fourth-generation fermions. With focus on the phenomenology at the LHC, we study the pair production of fourth-generation down quarks, D{sub 4}. We consider the typical masses that could be associated with a strongly coupled fermion sector, in the range (300-600) GeV. We show that the production and successive decay of these heavy quarks into final states with same-sign dileptons, trileptons, and four leptons can be easily seen above background with relatively low luminosity. On the other hand, in order to confirm the presence of a new strong interaction responsible for fourth-generation condensation, we study its contribution to D{sub 4} pair production, and the potential to separate it from standard QCD-induced heavy quark production. We show that this separation might require large amounts of data. This is true even if it is assumed that the new interaction is mediated by a massive colored vector boson, since its strong coupling to the fourth generation renders its width of the order of its mass. We conclude that, although this class of models can be falsified at early stages of the LHC running, its confirmation would require high integrated luminosities.

  9. A fourth generation reliability predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1988-01-01

    A reliability/availability predictor computer program has been developed and is currently being beta-tested by over 30 US companies. The computer program is called the Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP). HARP was developed to fill an important gap in reliability assessment capabilities. This gap was manifested through the use of its third-generation cousin, the Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation (CARE III) program, over a six-year development period and an additional three-year period during which CARE III has been in the public domain. The accumulated experience of the over 30 establishments now using CARE III was used in the development of the HARP program.

  10. Fourth-Generation Computer Languages: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, John

    1988-01-01

    Points out that mainframe computer users today can make their requirements known to the computer in simple English. Provides a listing of fourth generation computer language advantages over third generation languages. Summarizes a program to streamline faculty records on a mainframe computer. (MVL)

  11. Teaching Fourth Generation Evaluation through Monologue Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Eric; Sparks, Cheryl

    1992-01-01

    This article illustrates the use of monologue interpretation, in which an interpreter illuminates issues in a speaker's monologue to translate theoretical pedagogical material into usable classroom applications. The example shows how the tenets of Guba and Lincoln's (1989) Responsive Constructivist Fourth Generation Model were presented via…

  12. Mars vehicle design: The fourth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1993-09-01

    Powerful new computational tools and small, expert teams have produced unprecedented levels of design detail in the latest cycle of engineering planning for human expeditions to Mars. This article reports on a study contract for NASA-MSFC which evolved mature fourth-generation Mars mission vehicle concepts, a set based on nuclear electric, solar electric, and nuclear thermal propulsion methods. The concept described in this article covers propulsion vehicle and lander design, transfer vehicle design, engines and propulsion components, crew habitats, and the earth-to-orbit (ETO) flight plan. The vehicle design integration has taken full advantage of modern numerical capabilities, including the following: supercomputer flight dynamics calculations; automated radiation dose analysis; and computer-aided design, drafting, performance modeling, and image representation. Fourth-generation methodology has established a challenging benchmark against which future concepts will be judged.

  13. Fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator system development

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1995-10-01

    In 1991, under a contract with Sandia for the Concentrator Initiative, the ENTECH team initiated the design and development of a fourth-generation concentrator module. In 1992, Sandia also contracted with ENTECH to develop a new control and drive system for the ENTECH array. This report documents the design and development work performed under both contracts. Manufacturing processes for the new module were developed at the same time under a complementary PVMaT contract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Two 100-kW power plants were deployed in 1995 in Texas using the newly developed fourth-generation concentrator technology, one at the CSW Solar Park near Ft. Davis and one at TUE Energy Park in Dallas. Technology developed under the Sandia contracts has made a successful transition from the laboratory to the production line to the field.

  14. CP violation in fourth generation quark decays

    SciTech Connect

    Arhrib, Abdesslam; Hou Weishu

    2009-10-01

    We show that, if a fourth generation is discovered at the Tevatron or LHC, one could study CP violation (CPV) in b{sup '}{yields}s decays. Asymmetries could reach 30% for b{sup '}{yields}sZ for m{sub b{sup '}} < or approx. 350 GeV, while it could be greater than 50% for b{sup '}{yields}s{gamma} and extend to higher m{sub b{sup '}}. Branching ratios are 10{sup -3}-10{sup -5}, and CPV measurement requires tagging. Once measured, however, the CPV phase can be extracted with little theoretical uncertainty.

  15. Fourth-generation Mars vehicle concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1994-09-01

    Conceptual designs for fourth-generation crew-carrying Mars transfer and excursion vehicles, fully integrated to state-of-the-art standards, are presented. The resulting vehicle concepts are sized for six crew members, and can support all opposition and conjunction opportunities in or after 2014. The modular, reusable transfer ship is launched to Earth orbit on six 185-ton-class boosters and assembled there robotically. Its dual nuclear-thermal rocket engines use liquid hydrogen propollant. The payload consists of a microgravity habitation system and an expendable lift-to-drag = 1.6 lander capable of aeromaneuvering to sites within +/- 20 deg of the equator. This lander can deliver either an expendable, storable-bipropellant crew-carrying ascent vehicle, or 40 tons of cargo, and it is capable of limited surface mobility to support base buildup. Multiple cargo landers sent ahead on robotic transfer vehicles deliver the supplies and equipment required for long-duration surface missions.

  16. Fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Lyneis, Claude M; Leitner, D; Todd, D S; Sabbi, G; Prestemon, S; Caspi, S; Ferracin, P

    2008-02-01

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source with a rf frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice B(ECR) will be explored in this article. Based on the semiempirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current third generation ECR ion sources, which operate at rf frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the third generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials, such as Nb(3)Sn, to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with rf frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass, and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continues to make this a promising avenue for development. PMID:18315111

  17. Static solutions for fourth order gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, William

    2010-11-15

    The Lichnerowicz and Israel theorems are extended to higher order theories of gravity. In particular it is shown that Schwarzschild is the unique spherically symmetric, static, asymptotically flat, black-hole solution, provided the spatial curvature is less than the quantum gravity scale outside the horizon. It is then shown that in the presence of matter (satisfying certain positivity requirements), the only static and asymptotically flat solutions of general relativity that are also solutions of higher order gravity are the vacuum solutions.

  18. Field-Based Concerns about Fourth-Generation Evaluation Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Morris K.

    Some aspects of fourth generation evaluation procedures that have been advocated by E. G. Guba and Y. S. Lincoln were examined empirically, with emphasis on areas where there have been discrepancies between theory and field-based experience. In fourth generation evaluation, the product of an evaluation is not a set of conclusions, recommendations,…

  19. Combined search for the quarks of a sequential fourth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Kreuzer, P.; Magass, C.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Papacz, P.; Pieta, H.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Weber, M.; Bontenackels, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Nowack, A.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Sauerland, P.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Castro, E.; Costanza, F.; Dammann, D.; Diez Pardos, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Knutsson, A.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Marienfeld, M.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Olzem, J.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Rosin, M.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sen, N.; Spiridonov, A.; Stein, M.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Autermann, C.; Blobel, V.; Draeger, J.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Gebbert, U.; Görner, M.; Hermanns, T.; Höing, R. S.; Kaschube, K.; Kaussen, G.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Lange, J.; Mura, B.; Nowak, F.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, M.; Schum, T.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Thomsen, J.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hackstein, C.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Heinrich, M.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Honc, S.; Katkov, I.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Martschei, D.; Mueller, S.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Oehler, A.; Ott, J.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Ratnikova, N.; Röcker, S.; Scheurer, A.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Troendle, D.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Manolakos, I.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Mavrommatis, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Patras, V.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Choudhury, R. K.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mehta, P.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Aziz, T.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Hashemi, M.; Hesari, H.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Lusito, L.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; De Guio, F.; Di Matteo, L.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Massironi, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Sala, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Cavallo, N.; De Cosa, A.; Dogangun, O.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Lucaroni, A.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Taroni, S.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Fanelli, C.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Sigamani, M.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; De Remigis, P.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Heo, S. G.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Chang, S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kong, D. J.; Park, H.; Ro, S. R.; Son, D. C.; Son, T.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Cho, Y.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Bilinskas, M. J.; Grigelionis, I.; Janulis, M.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Ansari, M. H.; Asghar, M. I.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Gokieli, R.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Almeida, N.; Bargassa, P.; David, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. 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V.; Vinogradov, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Konstantinov, D.; Korablev, A.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Arce, P.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; Codispoti, G.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. 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U.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orimoto, T.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Sibille, J.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. 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D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; St. John, J.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Ferapontov, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Tsang, K. V.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. 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V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; Malek, M.; O'Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Griffiths, S.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Rappoccio, S.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Grachov, O.; Kenny, R. P., Iii; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Zhukova, V.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Boutemeur, M.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Peterman, A.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Twedt, E.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hahn, K. A.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Li, W.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Cooper, S. I.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Butt, J.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malbouisson, H.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Baur, U.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Shipkowski, S. P.; Smith, K.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Adam, N.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Gerbaudo, D.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Safdi, B.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Acosta, J. G.; Brownson, E.; Huang, X. T.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Oliveros, S.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Roh, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Johnston, C.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Yohay, R.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Leonard, J.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Results are presented from a search for a fourth generation of quarks produced singly or in pairs in a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5fb-1 recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2011. A novel strategy has been developed for a combined search for quarks of the up and down type in decay channels with at least one isolated muon or electron. Limits on the mass of the fourth-generation quarks and the relevant Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements are derived in the context of a simple extension of the standard model with a sequential fourth generation of fermions. The existence of mass-degenerate fourth-generation quarks with masses below 685 GeV is excluded at 95% confidence level for minimal off-diagonal mixing between the third- and the fourth-generation quarks. With a mass difference of 25 GeV between the quark masses, the obtained limit on the masses of the fourth-generation quarks shifts by about ±20GeV. These results significantly reduce the allowed parameter space for a fourth generation of fermions.

  20. Using Fourth Generation Language to Develop and Monitor the Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Walter R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the implementation of a FOCUS, a fourth-generation language (4GL) database management system for the St. Louis (Missouri) Public Schools, that allows for the analysis of individual department or school files and the districtwide file. (MLF)

  1. Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

  2. The Fourth Generation of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, James Alan

    2000-11-01

    The outlook for nuclear power in the U.S. is currently very bright. The economics, operations and safety performance of U.S. nuclear power plants is excellent. In addition, both the safety and economic regulation of nuclear power are being changed to produce better economic parameters for future nuclear plant operations and the licenses for plant operations are being extended to 60 years. There is further a growing awareness of the value of clean, emissions-free nuclear power. These parameters combine to form a firm foundation for continued successful U.S. nuclear plant operations, and even the potential In order to realize a bright future for nuclear power, we must respond successfully to five challenges: • Nuclear power must remain economically competitive, • The public must remain confident in the safety of the plants and the fuel cycle. • Nuclear wastes and spent fuel must be managed and the ultimate disposition pathways for nuclear wastes must be politically settled. • The proliferation potential of the commercial nuclear fuel cycle must continue to be minimized, and • We must assure a sustained manpower supply for the future and preserve the critical nuclear technology infrastructure. The Generation IV program is conceived to focus the efforts of the international nuclear community on responding to these challenges.

  3. Implementation Frailties of Guba and Lincoln's "Fourth Generation" Evaluation Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Tom

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation of a science education project for teachers in Durban (South Africa) illustrates some problems inherent in the application of the fourth-generation evaluation approach of Guba and Lincoln. One of the strongest concerns is that full participation by stakeholders may be an unrealistic assumption. (SLD)

  4. Installing an Integrated System and a Fourth-Generation Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, David; Ferguson, Linda

    1987-01-01

    In the spring of 1986 Indiana State University converted to the Series Z software of Information Associates, an IBM mainframe, and Information Builders' FOCUS fourth-generation language. The beginning of the planning stage to product selection, training, and implementation is described. (Author/MLW)

  5. Integrating Fourth-Generation Tools Into the Applications Development Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litaker, R. G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Much of the power of the "information center" comes from its ability to effectively use fourth-generation productivity tools to provide information processing services. A case study of the use of these tools at Western Michigan University is presented. (Author/MLW)

  6. Fourth Generation Instructional Design Model: An Elaboration on Authoring Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Dean L.

    This paper presents the updated (fourth generation) version of the instructional design (ID) model, noting its emphasis on a scientific, iterative approach based upon research and theory in learning and instruction and upon applied development experience. Another important trend toward a scientific approach to instructional design is the increased…

  7. Reviving bino dark matter with vectorlike fourth generation particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohammad; Feng, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    We supplement the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) with vectorlike copies of standard model particles. Such fourth generation particles can raise the Higgs boson mass to the observed value without requiring very heavy superpartners, improving naturalness and the prospects for discovering supersymmetry at the LHC. Here we show that these new particles are also motivated cosmologically: in the MSSM, pure bino dark matter typically overcloses the Universe, but fourth generation particles open up new annihilation channels, allowing binos to have the correct thermal relic density without resonances or coannihilation. We show that this can be done in a sizable region of parameter space while preserving gauge coupling unification and satisfying constraints from collider, Higgs, precision electroweak, and flavor physics.

  8. Final Report for CORBA for Fourth Generation Language

    SciTech Connect

    Svetlana Shasharina

    2005-06-28

    The standard for object based networking is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). However, CORBA is not available for Fourth Generation Languages (4GL's) such as Visual Numerics? PV-WAVE or Research Systems? Interactive Data Language (RSI-IDL), which are widely used by scientists and engineers for data visualization and analysis. The proposed work would provide a set of tools to allow 4GL's to interoperate with CORBA.

  9. Masses of a Fourth Generation with Two Higgs Doublets

    SciTech Connect

    Bellantoni, Leo; Erler, Jens; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Ramirez-Homs, Enrique; /Texas U., El Paso

    2012-05-01

    We use sampling techniques to find robust constraints on the masses of a possible fourth sequential fermion generation from electroweak oblique variables. We find that in the case of a light (115 GeV) Higgs from a single electroweak symmetry breaking doublet, inverted mass hierarchies are possible for both quarks and leptons, but a mass splitting more than MW in the quark sector is unlikely. We also find constraints in the case of a heavy (600 GeV) Higgs in a single doublet model. As recent data from the Large Hadron Collider hints at the existence of a resonance at 124.5 GeV and a single Higgs doublet at that mass is inconsistent with a fourth fermion generation, we examine a Type II two Higgs doublet model. In this model, there are ranges of parameter space where the Higgs sector can potentially counteract the effects of the fourth generation. Even so, we find that such scenarios produce qualitatively similar fermion mass distributions.

  10. Development of a fourth generation predictive capability maturity model.

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, Richard Guy; Witkowski, Walter R.; Urbina, Angel; Rider, William J.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2013-09-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is an expert elicitation tool designed to characterize and communicate completeness of the approaches used for computational model definition, verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification associated for an intended application. The primary application of this tool at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been for physics-based computational simulations in support of nuclear weapons applications. The two main goals of a PCMM evaluation are 1) the communication of computational simulation capability, accurately and transparently, and 2) the development of input for effective planning. As a result of the increasing importance of computational simulation to SNL's mission, the PCMM has evolved through multiple generations with the goal to provide more clarity, rigor, and completeness in its application. This report describes the approach used to develop the fourth generation of the PCMM.

  11. Fourth generation effect on {Lambda}{sub b} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanta, R.; Giri, A. K.

    2010-11-01

    The rare decays of the {Lambda}{sub b} baryon governed by the quark level transitions b{yields}s are investigated in the fourth quark generation model popularly known as SM4. Recently it has been shown that SM4, which is a very simple extension of the standard model, can successfully explain several anomalies observed in the CP violation parameters of B and B{sub s} mesons. We find that in this model due to the additional contributions coming from the heavy t{sup '} quark in the loop, the branching ratios and other observables in rare {Lambda}{sub b} decays deviate significantly from their standard model values. Some of these modes are within the reach of the LHCb experiment and search for such channels is strongly argued.

  12. Nanopore-based Fourth-generation DNA Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yanxiao; Zhang, Yuechuan; Ying, Cuifeng; Wang, Deqiang; Du, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore-based sequencers, as the fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology, have the potential to quickly and reliably sequence the entire human genome for less than $1000, and possibly for even less than $100. The single-molecule techniques used by this technology allow us to further study the interaction between DNA and protein, as well as between protein and protein. Nanopore analysis opens a new door to molecular biology investigation at the single-molecule scale. In this article, we have reviewed academic achievements in nanopore technology from the past as well as the latest advances, including both biological and solid-state nanopores, and discussed their recent and potential applications. PMID:25743089

  13. PRIST: a fourth-generation tool for medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Cristiani, P; Larizza, C

    1990-04-01

    PRIST is a fourth-generation software package purposely oriented to development and management of medical applications, running under MS/DOS IBM compatible personal computers. The tool has been developed on the top of DBIII Plus language utilizing the Clipper Compiler networking features for the integration in a LAN environment. Several routines written in C and BASIC Microsoft languages integrated this DBMS-kernel system providing I/O, graphics, statistics, retrieval utilities. To increase the interactivity of the system both menu-driven and windowing interfaces have been implemented. PRIST has been utilized to develop a wide variety of small medical applications ranging from research laboratories to intensive care units. The great majority of reactions from the use of these applications were positive, confirming that PRIST is able to assist in practice management and patient care as well as research purposes. PMID:2345045

  14. Nanopore-based fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanxiao; Zhang, Yuechuan; Ying, Cuifeng; Wang, Deqiang; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    Nanopore-based sequencers, as the fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology, have the potential to quickly and reliably sequence the entire human genome for less than $1000, and possibly for even less than $100. The single-molecule techniques used by this technology allow us to further study the interaction between DNA and protein, as well as between protein and protein. Nanopore analysis opens a new door to molecular biology investigation at the single-molecule scale. In this article, we have reviewed academic achievements in nanopore technology from the past as well as the latest advances, including both biological and solid-state nanopores, and discussed their recent and potential applications. PMID:25743089

  15. Toward a fourth-generation x-ray source.

    SciTech Connect

    Monction, D. E.

    1999-05-19

    The field of synchrotron radiation research has grown rapidly over the last 25 years due to both the push of the accelerator and magnet technology that produces the x-ray beams and the pull of the extraordinary scientific research that is possible with them. Three successive generations of synchrotrons radiation facilities have resulted in beam brilliances 11 to 12 orders of magnitude greater than the standard laboratory x-ray tube. However, greater advances can be easily imagined given the fact that x-ray beams from present-day facilities do not exhibit the coherence or time structure so familiar with the optical laser. Theoretical work over the last ten years or so has pointed to the possibility of generating hard x-ray beams with laser-like characteristics. The concept is based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) in flee-electron lasers. A major facility of this type based upon a superconducting linac could produce a cost-effective facility that spans wave-lengths from the ultraviolet to the hard x-ray regime, simultaneously servicing large numbers experimenters from a wide range of disciplines. As with each past generation of synchrotrons facilities, immense new scientific opportunities would result from fourth-generation sources.

  16. Organometallic rotaxane dendrimers with fourth-generation mechanically interlocked branches

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Li-Jun; Wang, Xu-Qing; Sun, Bin; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Shi, Jiameng; Yu, Yihua; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua; Yang, Hai-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Mechanically interlocked molecules, such as catenanes, rotaxanes, and knots, have applications in information storage, switching devices, and chemical catalysis. Rotaxanes are dumbbell-shaped molecules that are threaded through a large ring, and the relative motion of the two components along each other can respond to external stimuli. Multiple rotaxane units can amplify responsiveness, and repetitively branched molecules—dendrimers—can serve as vehicles for assembly of many rotaxanes on single, monodisperse compounds. Here, we report the synthesis of higher-generation rotaxane dendrimers by a divergent approach. Linkages were introduced as spacer elements to reduce crowding and to facilitate rotaxane motion, even at the congested periphery of the compounds up to the fourth generation. The structures were characterized by 1D multinuclear (1H, 13C, and 31P) and 2D NMR spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF-MS, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and microscopy-based methods including atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AFM and TEM studies of rotaxane dendrimers vs. model dendrimers show that the rotaxane units enhance the rigidity and reduce the tendency of these assemblies to collapse by self-folding. Surface functionalization of the dendrimers with ferrocenes as termini produced electrochemically active assemblies. The preparation of dendrimers with a well-defined topological structure, enhanced rigidity, and diverse functional groups opens previously unidentified avenues for the application of these materials in molecular electronics and materials science. PMID:25902491

  17. Organometallic rotaxane dendrimers with fourth-generation mechanically interlocked branches.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Li-Jun; Wang, Xu-Qing; Sun, Bin; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Shi, Jiameng; Yu, Yihua; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua; Yang, Hai-Bo

    2015-05-01

    Mechanically interlocked molecules, such as catenanes, rotaxanes, and knots, have applications in information storage, switching devices, and chemical catalysis. Rotaxanes are dumbbell-shaped molecules that are threaded through a large ring, and the relative motion of the two components along each other can respond to external stimuli. Multiple rotaxane units can amplify responsiveness, and repetitively branched molecules--dendrimers--can serve as vehicles for assembly of many rotaxanes on single, monodisperse compounds. Here, we report the synthesis of higher-generation rotaxane dendrimers by a divergent approach. Linkages were introduced as spacer elements to reduce crowding and to facilitate rotaxane motion, even at the congested periphery of the compounds up to the fourth generation. The structures were characterized by 1D multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, and (31)P) and 2D NMR spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF-MS, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and microscopy-based methods including atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AFM and TEM studies of rotaxane dendrimers vs. model dendrimers show that the rotaxane units enhance the rigidity and reduce the tendency of these assemblies to collapse by self-folding. Surface functionalization of the dendrimers with ferrocenes as termini produced electrochemically active assemblies. The preparation of dendrimers with a well-defined topological structure, enhanced rigidity, and diverse functional groups opens previously unidentified avenues for the application of these materials in molecular electronics and materials science. PMID:25902491

  18. Joint Development of a Fourth Generation Single Crystal Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walston, S.; Cetel, A.; MacKay, R.; OHara, K.; Duhl, D.; Dreshfield, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new, fourth generation, single crystal superalloy has been jointly developed by GE Aircraft Engines, Pratt & Whitney, and NASA. The focus of the effort was to develop a turbine airfoil alloy with long-term durability for use in the High Speed Civil Transport. In order to achieve adequate long-time strength improvements at moderate temperatures and retain good microstructural stability, it was necessary to make significant composition changes from 2nd and 3rd generation single crystal superalloys. These included lower chromium levels, higher cobalt and rhenium levels and the inclusion of a new alloying element, ruthenium. It was found that higher Co levels were beneficial to reducing both TCP precipitation and SRZ formation. Ruthenium caused the refractory elements to partition more strongly to the ' phase, which resulted in better overall alloy stability. The final alloy, EPM 102, had significant creep rupture and fatigue improvements over the baseline production alloys and had acceptable microstructural stability. The alloy is currently being engine tested and evaluated for advanced engine applications.

  19. Higgs phenomenology in warped extra dimensions with a fourth generation

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Mariana; Korutlu, Beste; Toharia, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    We study a warped extra-dimension scenario where the standard model fields lie in the bulk, with the addition of a fourth family of fermions. We concentrate on the flavor structure of the Higgs couplings with fermions in the flavor anarchy ansatz. Even without a fourth family, these couplings will be generically misaligned with respect to the standard model fermion mass matrices. The presence of the fourth family typically enhances the misalignment effects and we show that one should expect them to be highly nonsymmetrical in the (34) intergenerational mixing. The radiative corrections from the new fermions and their flavor-violating couplings to the Higgs affect negligibly known experimental precision measurements such as the oblique parameters and Z{yields}bb or Z{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. On the other hand, {Delta}F=1, 2 processes, mediated by tree-level Higgs exchange, as well as radiative corrections to b{yields}s{gamma} and {mu}{yields}e{gamma} put some generic pressure on the allowed size of the flavor-violating couplings. But more importantly, these couplings will alter the Higgs decay patterns as well as those of the new fermions, and produce very interesting new signals associated to Higgs phenomenology in high energy colliders. These signals might become very important indirect signals for these type of models as they would be present even when the KK mass scale is high and no heavy KK particle is discovered.

  20. Higgs phenomenology in warped extra dimensions with a fourth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Mariana; Korutlu, Beste; Toharia, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    We study a warped extra-dimension scenario where the standard model fields lie in the bulk, with the addition of a fourth family of fermions. We concentrate on the flavor structure of the Higgs couplings with fermions in the flavor anarchy ansatz. Even without a fourth family, these couplings will be generically misaligned with respect to the standard model fermion mass matrices. The presence of the fourth family typically enhances the misalignment effects and we show that one should expect them to be highly nonsymmetrical in the (34) intergenerational mixing. The radiative corrections from the new fermions and their flavor-violating couplings to the Higgs affect negligibly known experimental precision measurements such as the oblique parameters and Z→bb¯ or Z→μ+μ-. On the other hand, ΔF=1, 2 processes, mediated by tree-level Higgs exchange, as well as radiative corrections to b→sγ and μ→eγ put some generic pressure on the allowed size of the flavor-violating couplings. But more importantly, these couplings will alter the Higgs decay patterns as well as those of the new fermions, and produce very interesting new signals associated to Higgs phenomenology in high energy colliders. These signals might become very important indirect signals for these type of models as they would be present even when the KK mass scale is high and no heavy KK particle is discovered.

  1. Distance Language Learning: Interactivity and Fourth-Generation Internet-Based Videoconferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuping

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a report on NetMeeting as an appropriate fourth-generation tool for interactive language learning in distance mode. It follows on earlier research by Wang and Sun (2000, 2001) on the most urgent problem facing distance language education--lack of provision of oral-visual interaction and the emergence of a fourth-generation…

  2. Semileptonic B to scalar meson decays in the standard model with fourth generation

    SciTech Connect

    Jamil Aslam, M.

    2011-02-01

    We study the effects of the fourth generation of quarks on the total branching ratio and the lepton polarizations in B{sub 0}{yields}K{sub 0}*(1430)l{sup +}l{sup -} (l={mu}, {tau}) decay. Taking the fourth generation quark mass m{sub t'} of about 400 to 600 GeV with the mixing angle |V{sub t}{sup '}{sub b}*V{sub t}{sup '}{sub s}| in the range (0.05-1.4)x10{sup -2} and using the phase to be 80 deg., it is found that the branching ratio and lepton polarizations are quite sensitive to these fourth generation parameters. In the future, the experimental study of this decay will give us an opportunity to study new physics effects, precisely, to search for the fourth generation of quarks (t{sup '},b{sup '}) in an indirect way.

  3. Fourth and fifth generation programming languages. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Chorafas, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    This volume discusses the latest trends in OS, DBMS, and 4GL at both IBM and AT and T, and how the computing industry will be affected by these changes. It details advantages and short comings in its discussions on productivity in computer programming, leading software solutions, and main-frames converted to high productivity tools.

  4. Foundations for the Fourth Generation of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, James Alan

    2000-11-01

    Plentiful, affordable electrical energy is a critically important commodity to nations wishing to grow their economy. Energy, and more specifically electricity, is the fuel of economic growth. More than one-third of the world’s population (more than 2 billion people), however, live today without access to any electricity. Further, another 2 billion people in the world exist on less than 100 watts of electricity per capita. By comparison, the large economies of Japan and France use more than 800 watts of electricity per capita, and the United States uses nearly 1500 watts of electricity per capita. As the governments of developing nations strive to improve their economies, and hence the standard of living of their people, electricity use is increasing. Several forecasts of electrical generation growth have concluded that world electricity demand will roughly double in the next 20–25 years, and possibly triple by 2050. This electrical generation growth will occur primarily in the rapidly developing and growing economies in Asia and Latin America. This net growth is in addition to the need for replacement generating capacity in the United States and Europe as aging power plants (primarily fossil-fueled) are replaced. This very substantial worldwide electricity demand growth places the issue of where this new electricity generation capacity is to come from squarely in front of the developed countries. They have a fundamental desire (if not a moral obligation) to help these developing countries sustain their economic growth and improve their standard of living, while at the same time protecting the energy (and economic) security of their own countries. There are currently 435 power reactors generating about 16 percent of the world’s electricity. We know full well that nuclear power shows great promise as an economical, safe, and emissions-free source of electrical energy, but it also carries at least the perception of great problems, from public safety to dealing

  5. Optics, Diagnostics and Applications for Fourth-Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, A; Barbee, T; Bionta, R; Chapman, H; Ditmire, T; Dyer, G; Kuba, J; Jankowski, A; London, R; Ryutov, R; Shepherd, R; Shlyaptsev, V; Toor, A

    2003-02-05

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a 1.5 to 15 {angstrom}-wavelength free-electron laser (FEL), proposed for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre (SLAC). The photon output consists of high brightness, transversely coherent pulses with duration < 300 fs, together with a broad spontaneous spectrum with total power comparable to the coherent output. The output fluence, and pulse duration, pose special challenges for optical component and diagnostic designs. We first discuss the specific requirements for the initial scientific experiments, and our proposed solutions. We then describe the supporting research and development program that includes: (1) radiation field modeling, (2) experimental and theoretical material damage studies, (3) high resolution, high fluence-tolerant optical design, fabrication, and testing, (including material manufacturing), and (4) diagnostic design and testing.

  6. Fourth order solutions of singularly perturbed boundary value problems by quarter-sweep iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, J.; Hasan, M. K.; Othman, M.; Abdul Karim, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    In previous studies, the effectiveness of the second-order quarter-sweep finite difference approximation equations has been shown in solving singularly perturbed boundary value problems. In this paper, however, we investigate the application of the fourth-order quarter-sweep finite difference approximation equation based on the fourth-order standard central difference scheme. To solve the problems numerically, discretization of the singularly perturbed problems via second-order and fourth-order finite difference schemes is proposed to form the corresponding system of linear algebraic equations. For comparison purpose, we also discuss on how to derive the basic formulation and implementation for the family of Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) iterative methods such as FSSOR, HSSOR and QSSOR in solving the corresponding linear systems generated from the fourth-order discretization schemes based on full, half- and quarter-sweep cases. Some numerical tests were conducted to show that the accuracy of fourth-order finite difference schemes via the corresponding GS methods is more accurate than second-order schemes.

  7. Internet-based Real Time Language Education: Towards a Fourth Generation Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuping; Sun, Chengzheng

    2001-01-01

    Through examination of the development of distance education for foreign languages, puts forth a theory on the emergence of a fourth generation of distance language education, challenging the generally accepted three-generation theory. Argues that with the use of Internet-based real time technology, distance language learning becomes synchronous…

  8. Acceptance Test Plan for Fourth-Generation Corrosion Monitoring Cabinet

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-10-23

    This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) will document the satisfactory operation of the third-generation corrosion monitoring cabinet (Hiline Engineering Part No.0004-CHM-072-C01). This ATP will be performed by the manufacturer of the cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinet. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation.

  9. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH{close_quote}s fourth-generation concentrator systems

    SciTech Connect

    ONeill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes recent improvements in manufacturing technology for fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator systems. The fourth-generation systems are firmly based on prior generations of a field-proven, high-efficiency, stable photovoltaic technology. The fourth-generation manufacturing process has been streamlined and validated through pilot runs and field deployments. Future plans include a 1.5 MW installation in 1998, as part of the Solar Enterprise Zone (SEZ) program in Nevada. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Solution of the linear shallow water equations by the fourth-order leapfrog scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalik, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical schemes of the first and second order of approximation introduce numerical distortion when the wave propagation over a long distance is investigated. To alleviate this problem, the fourth-order leapfrog scheme is constructed. The standard leapfrog method is based on the truncated Taylor series expansion which depicts an error proportional to the second-order terms. In the proposed method the numerical solution is corrected for these terms. The space and time corrections work well in diminishing numerical dispersion and dissipation.

  11. Engineering Task Plan for Fourth Generation Hanford Corrosion Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-06-20

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the activities associated with the installation of cabinets containing corrosion monitoring equipment on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. The new cabinets (one per tank) will be installed adjacent to existing corrosion probes already installed in riser WST-RISER-016 on both tanks. The corrosion monitoring equipment to be installed utilizes the technique of electrochemical noise (EN) for monitoring waste tank corrosion. Typically, EN consists of low frequency (4 Hz) and small amplitude signals that are spontaneously generated by electrochemical reactions occurring at corroding or other surfaces. EN analysis is well suited for monitoring and identifying the onset of localized corrosion, and for measuring uniform corrosion rates. A typical EN based corrosion-monitoring system measures instantaneous fluctuations in corrosion current and potential between three nominally identical electrodes of the material of interest immersed in the environment of interest. Time-dependent fluctuations in corrosion current are described by electrochemical current noise, and time-dependent fluctuations of corrosion potential are described by electrochemical noise. The corrosion monitoring systems are designed to detect the onset of localized corrosion phenomena if tank conditions should change to allow these phenomena to occur. In addition to the EN technique, the systems also facilitate the use of the Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) technique to collect uniform corrosion rate information. LPR measures the linearity at the origin of the polarization curve for overvoltages up to a few millivolts away from the rest potential or natural corrosion potential. The slope of the current vs. voltage plot gives information on uniform corrosion rates.

  12. SCALS: a fourth-generation study of assisted living technologies in their organisational, social, political and policy context

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Shaw, Sara; Wherton, Joe; Hughes, Gemma; Lynch, Jenni; A'Court, Christine; Hinder, Sue; Fahy, Nick; Byrne, Emma; Finlayson, Alexander; Sorell, Tom; Procter, Rob; Stones, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research to date into assisted living technologies broadly consists of 3 generations: technical design, experimental trials and qualitative studies of the patient experience. We describe a fourth-generation paradigm: studies of assisted living technologies in their organisational, social, political and policy context. Fourth-generation studies are necessarily organic and emergent; they view technology as part of a dynamic, networked and potentially unstable system. They use co-design methods to generate and stabilise local solutions, taking account of context. Methods and analysis SCALS (Studies in Co-creating Assisted Living Solutions) consists (currently) of 5 organisational case studies, each an English health or social care organisation striving to introduce technology-supported services to support independent living in people with health and/or social care needs. Treating these cases as complex systems, we seek to explore interdependencies, emergence and conflict. We employ a co-design approach informed by the principles of action research to help participating organisations establish, refine and evaluate their service. To that end, we are conducting in-depth ethnographic studies of people's experience of assisted living technologies (micro level), embedded in evolving organisational case studies that use interviews, ethnography and document analysis (meso level), and exploring the wider national and international context for assisted living technologies and policy (macro level). Data will be analysed using a sociotechnical framework developed from structuration theory. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval for the first 4 case studies has been granted. An important outcome will be lessons learned from individual co-design case studies. We will document the studies’ credibility and rigour, and assess the transferability of findings to other settings while also recognising unique aspects of the contexts in which they were generated

  13. Quintic nonpolynomial spline solutions for fourth order two-point boundary value problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, M. A.; Lashien, I. F.; Zahra, W. K.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we develop quintic nonpolynomial spline methods for the numerical solution of fourth order two-point boundary value problems. Using this spline function a few consistency relations are derived for computing approximations to the solution of the problem. The present approach gives better approximations and generalizes all the existing polynomial spline methods up to order four. This approach has less computational cost. Convergence analysis of these methods is discussed. Two numerical examples are included to illustrate the practical usefulness of our methods.

  14. Thinking beyond Measurement, Description and Judgment: Fourth Generation Evaluation in Family-Centered Pediatric Healthcare Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Katherine Ann; Clarkin, Chantalle Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although pediatric healthcare organizations have widely implemented the philosophy of family-centered care (FCC), evaluators and health professionals have not explored how to preserve the philosophy of FCC in evaluation processes. Purpose: To illustrate how fourth generation evaluation, in theory, could facilitate collaboration between…

  15. Applying Fourth Generation Management to Access Services: Reinventing Customer Service and Process Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasty, Douglas F.

    2004-01-01

    Are librarians doing all they can to ensure that customer services are delivered with the customer in mind? Librarians are great at helping, but we sometimes need help with identifying customers, defining their needs, developing services, and reviewing the processes behind the services. Fourth Generation Management provides new insight for…

  16. Fourth Generation Educational Evaluation: The Impact of a Post-Modern Paradigm on School Based Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Neil; Willinsky, John

    1997-01-01

    Postmodern approaches to school-level evaluation by building on the fourth-generation evaluation model developed by E. Guba and Y. Lincoln are suggested. It is argued that this conceptualization of evaluation has particular relevance for development of alternative evaluation practices among stakeholders that can improve the use of evaluation…

  17. Distributed Use of a Fourth-Generation Language at Arizona State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jana; O'Connell, John

    1989-01-01

    The acquisition and implementation at Arizona State University of a fourth-generation language product to facilitate end-user access to institutional data are described. Some problems encountered are included, as are discussions of training and security considerations. (Author/MLW)

  18. New symmetric relations among lepton masses and prediction of lepton masses of the fourth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong-Chang; Iqbal, Syeda Tehreem; Wang, Wen-Yu

    2016-06-01

    The presence of more than three generation of particles, predicted by various models beyond Standard Model (SM), can be the answer to several unanswered questions. In this paper, we discover a mass space by generalizing the Koide’s relation over the leptons section of SM and deduce some new symmetric relations. By using the magnitude dilation and angular rotation ratio between these relations, we predict the masses of the fourth generation particles. Also, this model constraints the existence of fifth generation leptons which up to now no theory can do.

  19. Updating the neutron electric dipole moment in a fourth generation standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Hisano, Junji; Hou, Wei-Shu; Xu Fanrong

    2011-11-01

    A fourth generation of quarks, if it exists, may provide sufficient CP violation for the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. We estimate the neutron electric dipole moment in the presence of a fourth generation and find it would be dominated by the strange quark chromoelectric dipole moment, assuming it does not get wiped out by a Peccei-Quinn symmetry. Both the three electroweak loop and the two-loop electroweak/one-loop gluonic contributions are considered. With m{sub b'}, m{sub t'} at 500 GeV or so that can be covered at the LHC, and with a Jarlskog CP violation factor that is consistent with hints of New Physics in b{yields}s transitions, the neutron electric dipole moment is found around 10{sup -31}e cm, still far below the 10{sup -28}e cm reach of the new experiments being planned or under construction.

  20. Quark-lepton flavor democracy and the nonexistence of the fourth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, G.; Kim, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    In the standard model with two Higgs doublets (type II), which has a consistent trend to a flavor gauge theory and its related flavor democracy in the quark and the leptonic sectors (unlike the minimal standard model) when the energy of the probes increases, we impose the mixed quark-lepton flavor democracy at high ``transition'' energy and assume the usual seesaw mechanism, and consequently find out that the existence of the fourth generation of fermions in this framework is practically ruled out.

  1. Quark-lepton flavor democracy and the nonexistence of the fourth generation

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetic, G. ); Kim, C.S. )

    1995-01-01

    In the standard model with two Higgs doublets (type II), which has a consistent trend to a flavor gauge theory and its related flavor democracy in the quark and the leptonic sectors (unlike the minimal standard model) when the energy of the probes increases, we impose the mixed quark-lepton flavor democracy at high transition'' energy and assume the usual seesaw mechanism, and consequently find out that the existence of the fourth generation of fermions in this framework is practically ruled out.

  2. Spectrum of false positivity for the fourth generation human immunodeficiency virus diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peter; Jackson, Patrick; Shaw, Nathan; Heysell, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Novel fourth generation screening and confirmatory human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) assays are now commercially available and incorporated into new diagnostic algorithms. We report two cases involving a total of three patients which highlight the spectrum of false positivity for both the Abbott Architect p24 antigen/antibody assay and the confirmatory Multispot antibody differentiation test. We then discuss the mechanisms for false positivity and the associated clinical conditions or laboratory scenarios that may predispose to inaccurate interpretation. PMID:26734067

  3. Statistical Analysis of CFD Solutions from the Fourth AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    A graphical framework is used for statistical analysis of the results from an extensive N-version test of a collection of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics codes. The solutions were obtained by code developers and users from the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Russia using a variety of grid systems and turbulence models for the June 2009 4th Drag Prediction Workshop sponsored by the AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Technical Committee. The aerodynamic configuration for this workshop was a new subsonic transport model, the Common Research Model, designed using a modern approach for the wing and included a horizontal tail. The fourth workshop focused on the prediction of both absolute and incremental drag levels for wing-body and wing-body-horizontal tail configurations. This work continues the statistical analysis begun in the earlier workshops and compares the results from the grid convergence study of the most recent workshop with earlier workshops using the statistical framework.

  4. The formation of shocks and fundamental solution of a fourth-order quasilinear Boussinesq-type equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaktionov, Victor A.

    2009-02-01

    As a basic higher-order model, the fourth-order Boussinesq-type quasilinear wave equation (the QWE-4) \\[ \\begin{equation*}\\fl u_{tt} = -(|u|^n u)_{xxxx} \\tqs in\\ \\mathbb{R} \\times \\mathbb{R}_+, \\quad with\\ exponent\\ n > 0,\\end{equation*} \\] is considered. Self-similar blow-up solutions \\[ \\begin{eqnarray*}\\tqs\\tqs u_-(x,t)=g(z), \\quad\\, z=\\frac x{\\sqrt{T-t}},\\\\ where\\ g\\ solved\\ the\\ ODE\\ \\frac 14 g'' z^2 + \\frac 34 g'z = -(|g|^n g)^{(4)},\\end{eqnarray*} \\] are shown to exist that generate as t → T- discontinuous shock waves. The QWE-4 is also shown to admit a smooth (for t > 0) global 'fundamental solution' \\[ \\begin{eqnarray*}\\fl b_n(x,t)= t^{\\frac{2}{n+4}} F_n(y),\\ y = x/t^{\\frac{n+2}{n+4}},\\ such\\ that\\ b_{n}(x,0)= 0,\\ b_{nt}(x,0)= {\\delta}(x),\\end{eqnarray*} \\] i.e. having a measure as initial data. A 'homotopic' limit n → 0 is used to get b_0(x,t)= \\sqrt t \\, F_0(x/\\sqrt t) being the classic fundamental solution of the 1D linear beam equation \\[ \\begin{equation*}u_{tt} = -u_{xxxx} \\tqs in\\ \\mathbb{R} \\times \\mathbb{R}_+.\\end{equation*} \\

  5. Intramedullary nailing: evolutions of femoral intramedullary nailing: first to fourth generations.

    PubMed

    Russell, Thomas A

    2011-12-01

    Intramedullary femoral nailing is the gold standard for femoral shaft fixation but only in the past 27 years. This rapid replacement of closed traction and cast techniques in North America was a controversial and contentious evolution in surgery. As we enter the fourth generation of implant design, capabilities, and surgical technique, it is important to understand the driving forces for this technology. These forces included changes in radiographic imaging capabilities, biomaterial design and computer-assisted manufacturing, and the recognition of the importance of mobilization of the trauma patient to avoid systemic complications and optimize functional recovery. PMID:22089849

  6. A novel family VIII carboxylesterase hydrolysing third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jeong Ho; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Jung Hun; Koo, Bon-Sung; Lee, Chang-Muk; Lee, Sang Hee; Kang, Sung Gyun; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A metagenomic library was constructed from a soil sample of spindle tree-rhizosphere. From this library, one clone with esterase activity was selected. The sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (EstSTR1) encoded protein of 390 amino acids. EstSTR1 is a family VIII carboxylesterase and retains the S-X-X-K motif conserved in both family VIII carboxylesterases and class C β-lactamases. The estSTR1 gene was overexpressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein was purified by purified by metal chelating affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. EstSTR1 hydrolysed p-nitrophenyl esters, exhibited the highest activity toward p-nitrophenyl butyrate. Furthermore, EstSTR1 could hydrolyse third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime and cefepime) as well as first-generation cephalosporin (cephalothin). Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that a catalytic residue, Ser71, of EstSTR1 plays an essential role in hydrolysing both antibiotics and p-nitrophenyl esters. We demonstrate that a metagenome-derived carboxylesterase displays β-lactam-hydrolysing activities toward third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. PMID:27186489

  7. Neonatal anthropometry: thin-fat phenotype in fourth to fifth generation South Asian neonates in Surinam.

    PubMed

    van Steijn, L; Karamali, N S; Kanhai, H H H; Ariëns, G A M; Fall, C H D; Yajnik, C S; Middelkoop, B J C; Tamsma, J T

    2009-11-01

    We assessed whether the earlier described 'thin-fat phenotype' is present in Surinam South Asian babies of the fourth to fifth generation after migration from India. In this observational study we collected data from 39 South Asian term neonates and their mothers in Paramaribo, Surinam. We compared the following data with data from an earlier study in Southampton, UK (338 neonates) and in Pune, India (631 neonates): maternal body mass index, neonatal weight, length, head, mid-upper arm and abdominal circumferences and subscapular skinfold thickness. The mothers in Paramaribo were older than the Southampton mothers; their body mass index was comparable. Mean birth weight was 3159 g (Southampton: 3494 g; Pune: 2666 g). Compared with Southampton babies, the Paramaribo babies were smaller in nearly all body measurements, the smallest being abdominal circumference at the umbilicus level (s.d. score: -1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): -2.07 to -1.16) and mid-upper arm circumference (s.d. score: -1.08; 95% CI: -1.46 to -0.69). In contrast, subscapular skinfold thickness was similar (s.d. score: +0.08; 95% CI: -0.24 to +0.55). Except for subscapular skinfold thickness and length, all neonatal measurements were intermediate between those from Southampton and Pune. The thin-fat phenotype is preserved in Surinam South Asian neonates of the fourth to fifth generation after migration from India. PMID:19636321

  8. Continuous-wave ultraviolet emission through fourth-harmonic generation in a whispering-gallery resonator.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeremy; Tomes, Matthew; Carmon, Tal; Jarrahi, Mona

    2011-11-21

    We experimentally demonstrate continuous-wave ultraviolet emission through forth-harmonic generation in a millimeter-scale lithium niobate whispering-gallery resonator pumped with a telecommunication-compatible infrared source. The whispering-gallery resonator provides four spectral lines at ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and infrared, which are equally spaced in frequency via the cascaded-harmonic process and span a 2-octave frequency band. Our technique relies on a variable crystal poling and high transverse order of the modes for phase-matching and a resonator quality factor of over 10(7) to allow cascaded-harmonic generation up to the fourth-harmonic at input pump powers as low as 200 mW. The compact size of the whispering gallery resonator pumped at telecommunication-compatible infrared wavelengths and the low pump power requirement make our device a promising ultraviolet light source for information storage, microscopy, and chemical analysis. PMID:22109440

  9. Path Loss Prediction Formula in Urban Area for the Fourth-Generation Mobile Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitao, Koshiro; Ichitsubo, Shinichi

    A site-general type prediction formula is created based on the measurement results in an urban area in Japan assuming that the prediction frequency range required for Fourth-Generation (4G) Mobile Communication Systems is from 3 to 6GHz, the distance range is 0.1 to 3km, and the base station (BS) height range is from 10 to 100m. Based on the measurement results, the path loss (dB) is found to be proportional to the logarithm of the distance (m), the logarithm of the BS height (m), and the logarithm of the frequency (GHz). Furthermore, we examine the extension of existing formulae such as the Okumura-Hata, Walfisch-Ikegami, and Sakagami formulae for 4G systems and propose a prediction formula based on the Extended Sakagami formula.

  10. Solid state 13C NMR characterisation study on fourth generation Ziegler-Natta catalysts.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Harri; Liitiä, Tiina; Virkkunen, Ville; Leinonen, Timo; Helaja, Tuulamari; Denifl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this study, solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy was utilised to characterize and identify the metal-ester coordination in active fourth generation (phthalate) Ziegler-Natta catalysts. It is known that different donors affect the active species in ZN catalysts. However, there is still limited data available of detailed molecular information how the donors and the active species are interplaying. One of the main goals of this work was to get better insight into the interactions of donor and active species. Based on the anisotropy tensor values (δ(11), δ(22), δ(33)) from low magic-angle spinning (MAS) (13)C NMR spectra in combination with chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) calculations (δ(aniso) and η), both the coordinative metal (Mg/Ti) and the symmetry of this interaction between metal and the internal donor in the active catalyst (MgCl(2)/TiCl(4)/electron donor) system could be identified. PMID:22425229

  11. A free-electron laser fourth-generation x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Moncton, D. E.

    1999-10-21

    The field of synchrotrons radiation research has grown rapidly over the last 25 years due to both the push of the accelerator and magnet technology that produces the x-ray beams and the pull of the extraordinary scientific research those beams make possible. Three successive generations of synchrotrons radiation facilities have resulted in beam brilliances 11 to 12 orders of magnitude greater than the standard laboratory x-ray tube. However, greater advances can be easily imagined given the fact that x-ray beams from present-day facilities do not exhibit the coherence or time structure so familiar with the.optical laser. Theoretical work over the last ten years or so has pointed to the possibility of generating hard x-ray beams with laser-like characteristics. The concept is based on self-amplified spontaneous emission in free electron lasers. The use of a superconducting linac could produce a major, cost-effective facility that spans wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the hard x-ray regime, simultaneously servicing large numbers experimenters from a wide range of disciplines. As with each past generation of synchrotron facilities, immense new scientific opportunities from fourth-generation sources.

  12. Non-critical phase-matching fourth harmonic generation of a 1053-nm laser in an ADP crystal

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shaohua; Wang, Fang; Zhu, Lili; Xu, Xinguang; Wang, Zhengping; Sun, Xun

    2013-01-01

    In current inertial confinement fusion (ICF) facilities, KDP and DKDP crystals are the second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) materials for the Nd:glass laser (1053 nm). Based on the trend for the development of short wavelengths for ICF driving lasers, technical solutions for fourth harmonic generation (FHG) will undoubtedly attract more and more attention. In this paper, the rapid growth of an ADP crystal and non-critical phase-matching (NCPM) FHG of a 1053-nm laser using an ADP crystal are reported. The NCPM temperature is 33.7°C. The conversion efficiency from 526 to 263 nm is 70%, and the angular acceptance range is 55.4 mrad; these results are superior to those for the DKDP crystals. This research has shown that ADP crystals will be a competitive candidate in future ICF facilities when the utilisation of high-energy, high-efficiency UV lasers at wavelengths shorter than the present 351 nm is of interest. PMID:23549389

  13. Non-critical phase-matching fourth harmonic generation of a 1053-nm laser in an ADP crystal.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shaohua; Wang, Fang; Zhu, Lili; Xu, Xinguang; Wang, Zhengping; Sun, Xun

    2013-01-01

    In current inertial confinement fusion (ICF) facilities, KDP and DKDP crystals are the second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) materials for the Nd:glass laser (1053 nm). Based on the trend for the development of short wavelengths for ICF driving lasers, technical solutions for fourth harmonic generation (FHG) will undoubtedly attract more and more attention. In this paper, the rapid growth of an ADP crystal and non-critical phase-matching (NCPM) FHG of a 1053-nm laser using an ADP crystal are reported. The NCPM temperature is 33.7°C. The conversion efficiency from 526 to 263 nm is 70%, and the angular acceptance range is 55.4 mrad; these results are superior to those for the DKDP crystals. This research has shown that ADP crystals will be a competitive candidate in future ICF facilities when the utilisation of high-energy, high-efficiency UV lasers at wavelengths shorter than the present 351 nm is of interest. PMID:23549389

  14. High efficiency fourth-harmonic generation from nanosecond fiber master oscillator power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Xiaodong; Steinvurzel, Paul; Rose, Todd S.; Lotshaw, William T.; Beck, Steven M.; Clemmons, James H.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate high power, deep ultraviolet (DUV) conversion to 266 nm through frequency quadrupling of a nanosecond pulse width 1064 nm fiber master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA). The MOPA system uses an Yb-doped double-clad polarization-maintaining large mode area tapered fiber as the final gain stage to generate 0.5-mJ, 10 W, 1.7- ns single mode pulses at a repetition rate of 20 kHz with measured spectral bandwidth of 10.6 GHz (40 pm), and beam qualities of Mx 2=1.07 and My 2=1.03, respectively. Using LBO and BBO crystals for the second-harmonic generation (SHG) and fourth-harmonic generation (FHG), we have achieved 375 μJ (7.5 W) and 92.5 μJ (1.85 W) at wavelengths of 532 nm and 266 nm, respectively. To the best of our knowledge these are the highest narrowband infrared, green and UV pulse energies obtained to date from a fully spliced fiber amplifier. We also demonstrate high efficiency SHG and FHG with walk-off compensated (WOC) crystal pairs and tightly focused pump beam. An SHG efficiency of 75%, FHG efficiency of 47%, and an overall efficiency of 35% from 1064 nm to 266 nm are obtained.

  15. A review of football injuries on third and fourth generation artificial turfs compared with natural turf.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sean; Hume, Patria A; Kara, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    Football codes (rugby union, soccer, American football) train and play matches on natural and artificial turfs. A review of injuries on different turfs was needed to inform practitioners and sporting bodies on turf-related injury mechanisms and risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this review was to compare the incidence, nature and mechanisms of injuries sustained on newer generation artificial turfs and natural turfs. Electronic databases were searched using the keywords 'artificial turf', 'natural turf', 'grass' and 'inj*'. Delimitation of 120 articles sourced to those addressing injuries in football codes and those using third and fourth generation artificial turfs or natural turfs resulted in 11 experimental papers. These 11 papers provided 20 cohorts that could be assessed using magnitude-based inferences for injury incidence rate ratio calculations pertaining to differences between surfaces. Analysis showed that 16 of the 20 cohorts showed trivial effects for overall incidence rate ratios between surfaces. There was increased risk of ankle injury playing on artificial turf in eight cohorts, with incidence rate ratios from 0.7 to 5.2. Evidence concerning risk of knee injuries on the two surfaces was inconsistent, with incidence rate ratios from 0.4 to 2.8. Two cohorts showed beneficial inferences over the 90% likelihood value for effects of artificial surface on muscle injuries for soccer players; however, there were also two harmful, four unclear and five trivial inferences across the three football codes. Inferences relating to injury severity were inconsistent, with the exception that artificial turf was very likely to have harmful effects for minor injuries in rugby union training and severe injuries in young female soccer players. No clear differences between surfaces were evident in relation to training versus match injuries. Potential mechanisms for differing injury patterns on artificial turf compared with natural turf include increased peak torque and

  16. A Little Solution to the Little Hierarchy Problem: A Vector-like Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Peter W.; Ismail, Ahmed; Rajendran, Surjeet; Saraswat, Prashant; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2012-04-06

    We present a simple solution to the little hierarchy problem in the minimal supersymmetric standard model: a vectorlike fourth generation. With O(1) Yukawa couplings for the new quarks, the Higgs mass can naturally be above 114 GeV. Unlike a chiral fourth generation, a vectorlike generation can solve the little hierarchy problem while remaining consistent with precision electroweak and direct production constraints, and maintaining the success of the grand unified framework. The new quarks are predicted to lie between 300-600 GeV and will thus be discovered or ruled out at the LHC. This scenario suggests exploration of several novel collider signatures.

  17. Evaluation of a fourth-generation focal plane camera for use in plasma-source mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, Jeremy A.; Schilling, G. D.; Ray, Steven J.; Sperline, Roger P.; Denton, M. Bonner; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2010-10-18

    A fourth-generation focal plane camera containing 1696 Faraday-strip detectors was fitted to a Mattauch-Herzog mass spectrograph and characterized for its performance with inductively coupled plasma ionization. The camera provides limits of detection in the single to tens of ng L-1 range for most elements and has a linear dynamic range of at least nine orders of magnitude. Isotope-ratio precision better than 0.02% has also been achieved with this device, and this fourth-generation system features the broadest simultaneous mass range obtainable to date with this family of focal plane camera detectors.

  18. Search for a fourth generation charge {minus}1/3 quark via flavor changing neutral currents

    SciTech Connect

    The D0 Collaboration

    1996-07-01

    There is some likelihood that a light (< m{sub t}) fourth generation charge -1/3 quark (b{prime}) would decay predominantly via loop induced flavor changing neutral currents. The charged current decay of b{prime} to charm would be highly Cabibbo suppressed due to the fact that it changes the generation number by two. The D0 experiment has searched for b{prime} pair production where one or both b{prime} quarks decays via b{prime} {r_arrow} b+{gamma}, giving signatures photon + three jets and two photons + two jets. WE don not see a significant excess of such events over background. In both modes, we set an upper limit on the cross section times branching ratio that is sufficient to rule out a standard sequential b{prime} decaying predominantly via FCNC in the mass range m{sub Z}/2 < m{sub b{prime}} < m{sub Z} + m{sub b}. For b{prime} masses larger than this, the dominant FCNC decay mode is expected to be b{prime} {r_arrow} b + Z. 14 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Interactive solution-adaptive grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choo, Yung K.; Henderson, Todd L.

    1992-01-01

    TURBO-AD is an interactive solution-adaptive grid generation program under development. The program combines an interactive algebraic grid generation technique and a solution-adaptive grid generation technique into a single interactive solution-adaptive grid generation package. The control point form uses a sparse collection of control points to algebraically generate a field grid. This technique provides local grid control capability and is well suited to interactive work due to its speed and efficiency. A mapping from the physical domain to a parametric domain was used to improve difficulties that had been encountered near outwardly concave boundaries in the control point technique. Therefore, all grid modifications are performed on a unit square in the parametric domain, and the new adapted grid in the parametric domain is then mapped back to the physical domain. The grid adaptation is achieved by first adapting the control points to a numerical solution in the parametric domain using control sources obtained from flow properties. Then a new modified grid is generated from the adapted control net. This solution-adaptive grid generation process is efficient because the number of control points is much less than the number of grid points and the generation of a new grid from the adapted control net is an efficient algebraic process. TURBO-AD provides the user with both local and global grid controls.

  20. Three-colour entanglement produced by the single-pass quasi-phase-matching fourth harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Youbin; Wang, HuaiJun; Zhao, Junwei; Ji, Fengmin; Wang, Yajuan

    2016-08-01

    Three-colour continuous-variable entanglement produced by single-pass cascaded quasi-phase-matching fourth harmonic generation is investigated. The fourth harmonic can be generated through cascaded double-frequency processes in a quasiperiodic optical superlattice by using quasi-phase-matching technology. The conversion dynamics of the cascaded double-frequency processes is studied using quantum stochastic methods. The nature of the entanglement is discussed by applying a necessary and sufficient criterion for continuous-variable entanglement. Strong three-colour entanglement among the fundamental, second-, and fourth-harmonic beams with a double frequency interval can be produced without an optical oscillator cavity. This is experimentally feasible and has potential applications in quantum communication and computation networks.

  1. A fourth generation of neuroanatomical tracing techniques: exploiting the offspring of genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Wouterlood, Floris G; Bloem, Bernard; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Luchicchi, Antonio; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-09-30

    The first three generations of neuroanatomical tract-tracing methods include, respectively, techniques exploiting degeneration, retrograde cellular transport and anterograde cellular transport. This paper reviews the most recent development in third-generation tracing, i.e., neurochemical fingerprinting based on BDA tracing, and continues with an emerging tracing technique called here 'selective fluorescent protein expression' that in our view belongs to an entirely new 'fourth-generation' class. Tracing techniques in this class lean on gene expression technology designed to 'label' projections exclusively originating from neurons expressing a very specific molecular phenotype. Genetically engineered mice that express cre-recombinase in a neurochemically specific neuronal population receive into a brain locus of interest an injection of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying a double-floxed promoter-eYFP DNA sequence. After transfection this sequence is expressed only in neurons metabolizing recombinase protein. These particular neurons promptly start manufacturing the fluorescent protein which then accumulates and labels to full detail all the neuronal processes, including fibers and terminal arborizations. All other neurons remain optically 'dark'. The AAV is not replicated by the neurons, prohibiting intracerebral spread of 'infection'. The essence is that the fiber projections of discrete subpopulations of neurochemically specific neurons can be traced in full detail. One condition is that the transgenic mouse strain is recombinase-perfect. We illustrate selective fluorescent protein expression in parvalbumin-cre (PV-cre) mice and choline acetyltransferase-cre (ChAT-cre) mice. In addition we compare this novel tracing technique with observations in brains of native PV mice and ChAT-GFP mice. We include a note on tracing techniques using viruses. PMID:25107853

  2. Third and fourth generation fluoroquinolone antibacterials: a systematic review of safety and toxicity profiles.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Joana; Alves, Gilberto; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amilcar

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, several third and fourth generation fluoroquinolones (FQs) have been approved for clinical use. These new agents exhibit a more potent and broader-spectrum antibacterial activity and improved pharmacokinetic properties in comparison to the earlier FQs. Although new FQs are generally safe and well tolerated, moderate-to-severe toxicity events have been reported for some of them, leading to their restriction, suspension or even withdrawal from the market. The most common FQ-related adverse effects (AEs) are usually mild and involve the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. nausea and diarrhea) and the central nervous system (e.g. headache and dizziness). Uncommon, but severe AEs (e.g. arthropathy, QTc interval prolongation, dysglycaemia and phototoxicity) and idiosyncratic reactions (e.g. hepatitis and hemolytic anemia) have also been reported and will be discussed throughout this paper. The evidence currently available suggests that AEs can be inherent to the FQ class or can be associated with a particular chemical moiety of the molecular structure of each FQ, thus varying in frequency, severity and nature. The main goal of this review is to provide a systematic evaluation of safety and tolerability data of the newer FQs with emphasis on those currently marketed. PMID:24410307

  3. Fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition facility for hybrid surface modification layer fabrication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Langping; Huang, Lei; Xie, Zhiwen; Wang, Xiaofeng; Tang, Baoyin

    2008-02-01

    The fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) facility for hybrid and batch treatment was built in our laboratory recently. Comparing with our previous PIIID facilities, several novel designs are utilized. Two multicathode pulsed cathodic arc plasma sources are fixed on the chamber wall symmetrically, which can increase the steady working time from 6 h (the single cathode source in our previous facilities) to about 18 h. Meanwhile, the inner diameter of the pulsed cathodic arc plasma source is increased from the previous 80 to 209 mm, thus, large area metal plasma can be obtained by the source. Instead of the simple sample holder in our previous facility, a complex revolution-rotation sample holder composed of 24 shafts, which can rotate around its axis and adjust its position through revolving around the center axis of the vacuum chamber, is fixed in the center of the vacuum chamber. In addition, one magnetron sputtering source is set on the chamber wall instead of the top cover in the previous facility. Because of the above characteristic, the PIIID hybrid process involving ion implantation, vacuum arc, and magnetron sputtering deposition can be acquired without breaking vacuum. In addition, the PIIID batch treatment of cylinderlike components can be finished by installing these components on the rotating shafts on the sample holder. PMID:18315292

  4. [Study of the fourth generation of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge by XRF].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan-Ying; Guo, Xi-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Zhou; Guan, Ying

    2010-04-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF) analytic method was used to analyze and compare the contents and varieties of mineral elements in the ground group Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge, and the fourth generation Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge with space flight mutagenesis breeding in order to provide important basic data for selecting high quality breed and further research. The result indicates that the varieties of the main mineral elements in the two samples are the same basically, but Cu/Zn ratio is enhanced to 1.0, the contents of microelements Cr, Mn and Fe increase by 0.6, 0.5, and 0.3 times respectively compared with the ground group. To conclude, in the space group the contents and proportions of the mineral elements are improved and optimized. Xray fluorescence spectrum analytic method has many advantages, such as quickness, simplicity, high sensitivity, wide measure range, etc. The method can be used for quantitative element analysis and study of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:20545179

  5. Fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition facility for hybrid surface modification layer fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Langping; Huang Lei; Xie Zhiwen; Wang Xiaofeng; Tang Baoyin

    2008-02-15

    The fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) facility for hybrid and batch treatment was built in our laboratory recently. Comparing with our previous PIIID facilities, several novel designs are utilized. Two multicathode pulsed cathodic arc plasma sources are fixed on the chamber wall symmetrically, which can increase the steady working time from 6 h (the single cathode source in our previous facilities) to about 18 h. Meanwhile, the inner diameter of the pulsed cathodic arc plasma source is increased from the previous 80 to 209 mm, thus, large area metal plasma can be obtained by the source. Instead of the simple sample holder in our previous facility, a complex revolution-rotation sample holder composed of 24 shafts, which can rotate around its axis and adjust its position through revolving around the center axis of the vacuum chamber, is fixed in the center of the vacuum chamber. In addition, one magnetron sputtering source is set on the chamber wall instead of the top cover in the previous facility. Because of the above characteristic, the PIIID hybrid process involving ion implantation, vacuum arc, and magnetron sputtering deposition can be acquired without breaking vacuum. In addition, the PIIID batch treatment of cylinderlike components can be finished by installing these components on the rotating shafts on the sample holder.

  6. Metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial drug gatifloxacin: Synthesis, structure and biological evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

    2010-08-01

    Three metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial agent gatifloxacin (GFLX) with Y(ΙΙΙ), Zr(ΙV) and U(VΙ) have been prepared and characterized with physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. In these complexes, gatifloxacin acts as a bidentate deprotonated ligand bound to the metal through the ketone oxygen and a carboxylato oxygen. The complexes are six-coordinated with distorted octahedral geometry. The kinetic parameters for gatifloxacin and the three prepared complexes have been evaluated from TGA curves by using Coats-Redfern (CR) and Horowitz-Metzeger (HM) methods. The calculated bond length and force constant, F(U dbnd O), for the UO 2 bond in uranyl complex are 1.7522 Å and 639.46 N m -1. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes has been tested against microorganisms, three bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) and two fungi species, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.), showing that they exhibit higher activity than free ligand.

  7. Systems Prototyping with Fourth Generation Tools: One Answer to the Productivity Puzzle? AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sholtys, Phyllis A.

    The development of information systems using an engineering approach employing both traditional programming techniques and nonprocedural languages is described. A fourth generation application tool is used to develop a prototype system that is revised and expanded as the user clarifies individual requirements. When fully defined, a combination of…

  8. Higgs Properties in the Fourth Generation MSSM: Boosted Signals Over the 3G Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cotta, R.C.; Hewett, J.L.; Ismail, A.; Le, M.-P.; Rizzo, T.G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-15

    The generalization of the MSSM to the case of four chiral fermion generations (4GMSSM) can lead to significant changes in the phenomenology of the otherwise familiar Higgs sector. In most of the 3GMSSM parameter space, the lighter CP-even h is {approx} 115-125 GeV and mostly Standard Model-like while H,A,H{sup {+-}} are all relatively heavy. Furthermore, the ratio of Higgs vevs, tan {beta}, is relatively unconstrained. In contrast to this, in the 4GMSSM, heavy fourth generation fermion loops drive the masses of h,H,H{sup {+-}} to large values while the CP-odd boson, A, can remain relatively light and tan {beta} is restricted to the range 1/2 {approx}< tan {beta} {approx}< 2 due to perturbativity requirements on Yukawa couplings. We explore this scenario in some detail, concentrating on the collider signatures of the light CP-odd Higgs at both the Tevatron and LHC. We find that while gg {yields} A may lead to a potential signal in the {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} channel at the LHC, A may first be observed in the {gamma}{gamma} channel due to a highly loop-enhanced cross section that can be more than an order of magnitude greater than that of a SM Higgs for A masses of {approx} 115-120 and tan {beta} < 1. We find that the CP-even states h,H are highly mixed and can have atypical branching fractions. Precision electroweak constraints, particularly for the light A parameter space region, are examined in detail.

  9. Investigating the quality of video consultations performed using fourth generation (4G) mobile telecommunications.

    PubMed

    Caffery, Liam J; Smith, Anthony C

    2015-09-01

    The use of fourth-generation (4G) mobile telecommunications to provide real-time video consultations were investigated in this study with the aims of determining if 4G is a suitable telecommunications technology; and secondly, to identify if variation in perceived audio and video quality were due to underlying network performance. Three patient end-points that used 4G Internet connections were evaluated. Consulting clinicians recorded their perception of audio and video quality using the International Telecommunications Union scales during clinics with these patient end-points. These scores were used to calculate a mean opinion score (MOS). The network performance metrics were obtained for each session and the relationships between these metrics and the session's quality scores were tested. Clinicians scored the quality of 50 hours of video consultations, involving 36 clinic sessions. The MOS for audio was 4.1 ± 0.62 and the MOS for video was 4.4 ± 0.22. Image impairment and effort to listen were also rated favourably. There was no correlation between audio or video quality and the network metrics of packet loss or jitter. These findings suggest that 4G networks are an appropriate telecommunication technology to deliver real-time video consultations. Variations in quality scores observed during this study were not explained by the packet loss and jitter in the underlying network. Before establishing a telemedicine service, the performance of the 4G network should be assessed at the location of the proposed service. This is due to known variability in performance of 4G networks. PMID:25766856

  10. Interactive solution-adaptive grid generation procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Todd L.; Choo, Yung K.; Lee, Ki D.

    1992-01-01

    TURBO-AD is an interactive solution adaptive grid generation program under development. The program combines an interactive algebraic grid generation technique and a solution adaptive grid generation technique into a single interactive package. The control point form uses a sparse collection of control points to algebraically generate a field grid. This technique provides local grid control capability and is well suited to interactive work due to its speed and efficiency. A mapping from the physical domain to a parametric domain was used to improve difficulties encountered near outwardly concave boundaries in the control point technique. Therefore, all grid modifications are performed on the unit square in the parametric domain, and the new adapted grid is then mapped back to the physical domain. The grid adaption is achieved by adapting the control points to a numerical solution in the parametric domain using control sources obtained from the flow properties. Then a new modified grid is generated from the adapted control net. This process is efficient because the number of control points is much less than the number of grid points and the generation of the grid is an efficient algebraic process. TURBO-AD provides the user with both local and global controls.

  11. Mortality Benefit of a Fourth-Generation Synchronous Telehealth Program for the Management of Chronic Cardiovascular Disease: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chi-Sheng; Yu, Jiun-Yu; Lin, Yen-Hung; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Huang, Ching-Chang; Lee, Jen-Kuang; Chuang, Pao-Yu; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Background We have shown that a fourth-generation telehealth program that analyzes and responds synchronously to data transferred from patients is associated with fewer hospitalizations and lower medical costs. Whether a fourth-generation telehealth program can reduce all-cause mortality has not yet been reported for patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. Objective We conducted a clinical epidemiology study retrospectively to determine whether a fourth-generation telehealth program can reduce all-cause mortality for patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. Methods We enrolled 576 patients who had joined a telehealth program and compared them with 1178 control patients. A Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to analyze the impact of risk predictors on all-cause mortality. The model adjusted for age, sex, and chronic comorbidities. Results There were 53 (9.3%) deaths in the telehealth group and 136 (11.54%) deaths in the control group. We found that the telehealth program violated the proportional hazards assumption by the Schoenfeld residual test. Thus, we fitted a Cox regression model with time-varying covariates. The results showed an estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.866 (95% CI 0.837-0.896, P<.001; number needed to treat at 1 year=55.6, 95% CI 43.2-75.7 based on HR of telehealth program) for the telehealth program on all-cause mortality after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. The time-varying interaction term in this analysis showed that the beneficial effect of telehealth would increase over time. Conclusions The results suggest that our fourth-generation telehealth program is associated with less all-cause mortality compared with usual care after adjusting for chronic comorbidities. PMID:27177497

  12. [A fourth-generation doctor - Hans Selye and his origins from Felvidék (today Slovakia)].

    PubMed

    Kiss, László

    2016-08-01

    Hans Selye regarded himself as the fourth generation of medical dynasty, but in his books he did not name his ancestors. Based on facts from archives and contemporary literature the author demonstrated that the grandfather of Hans Selye was called Schlesinger and he worked in Pruszka (county Trencsén; (today: Pruské, county Trenčín, Slovakia) as a district physician. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(33), 1331-1333. PMID:27523317

  13. Turbo product codes and their application in the fourth-generation mobile communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yejun; Zhu, Guangxi; Liu, Ying Zhuang; Liu, Jian

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, we firstly present turbo product codes (TPCs) for forward error correction (FEC) coding, including TPCs encoding process and decoding principle, and then compare TPCs with turbo convolutional codes (TCCs) error coding solution. The performance of TPCs is shown to be closer to the Shannon limit than TCCs. Secondly, we introduce TPCs" application in the 4th generation (4G) mobile communication system which is being developed in our country at present. The concept of TPC-OFDM system which promises higher code rate than conventional OFDM is first modified. Finally, simulation results show that the simplified 4G uplink systems offer Bit Error Rate of nearly 0 over IMT-2000 channel at Eb/N0 > 15dB.

  14. In vitro activity, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety and pharmacoeconomics of ceftriaxone compared with third and fourth generation cephalosporins: review.

    PubMed

    Bijie, H; Kulpradist, S; Manalaysay, M; Soebandrio, A

    2005-02-01

    Due to their wide spectrum of activity, good pharmacokinetics, established clinical efficacy and high tolerability, cephalosporins are among the most widely used antibiotics worldwide. The third and fourth generation cephalosporins are predominantly parenteral agents, administered two or three times daily, used in the treatment of a wide range of moderate to severe infections. Ceftriaxone, a third generation cephalosporin, is unique in exhibiting an unusually long elimination half-life that allows for once-daily administration. Among third generation cephalosporins, ceftazidime and cefoperazone are unusual among cephalosporins in possessing activity, albeit moderate, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, both of these agents also exhibit marked loss of activity against Gram-negative organisms producing high levels of Class A or C beta-lactamases. Sulperazone, a 1:1 combination of cefoperazone and the beta-lactamase inhibitor sulbactam, is more resistant to attack by Class A beta-lactamases but remains vulnerable to isolates producing Class C beta-lactamases. Ceftriaxone exhibits the widest antibacterial spectrum of third generation cephalosporins and this is reflected in clinical responses. Cefoperazone and sulperazone exhibit the poorest clinical responses. Although the fourth generation cephalosporins cefpirome and cefepime exhibit enhanced stability to bacterial beta-lactamases and marginally enhanced in vitro antibacterial activity over ceftriaxone, there is no clinical advantage in terms of clinical or bacteriological success. The cephalosporins are well tolerated, with few and generally transient adverse effects; the major exception being haematological abnormalities including blood coagulation disorders associated with cefoperazone. Several pharmacoeconomic studies indicate that the once-daily dosing regimen required for ceftriaxone is the major factor responsible for its cost-effectiveness over third and fourth generation cephalosporins. PMID:15828439

  15. Fourth-order solutions of nonlinear two-point boundary value problems by Newton-HSSOR iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Jumat; Hasan, Mohd. Khatim; Othman, Mohamed; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the Half-Sweep Successive Over-Relaxation (HSSOR) iterative method together with Newton scheme namely Newton-HSSOR is investigated in solving the nonlinear systems generated from the fourth-order half-sweep finite difference approximation equation for nonlinear two-point boundary value problems. The Newton scheme is proposed to linearize the nonlinear system into the form of linear system. On top of that, we also present the basic formulation and implementation of Newton-HSSOR iterative method. For comparison purpose, combinations between the Full-Sweep Gauss-Seidel (FSGS) and Full-Sweep Successive Over-Relaxation (FSSOR) iterative methods with Newton scheme, which are indicated as Newton-FSGS and Newton-FSSOR methods respectively have been implemented numerically. Numerical experiments of two problems are given to illustrate that the Newton-HSSOR method is more superior compared with the tested methods.

  16. Automatic Generation of Analytic Equations for Vibrational and Rovibrational Constants from Fourth-Order Vibrational Perturbation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Devin A.; Gong, Justin Z.; Stanton, John F.

    2014-06-01

    The derivation of analytic expressions for vibrational and rovibrational constants, for example the anharmonicity constants χij and the vibration-rotation interaction constants α^B_r, from second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) can be accomplished with pen and paper and some practice. However, the corresponding quantities from fourth-order perturbation theory (VPT4) are considerably more complex, with the only known derivations by hand extensively using many layers of complicated intermediates and for rotational quantities requiring specialization to orthorhombic cases or the form of Watson's reduced Hamiltonian. We present an automatic computer program for generating these expressions with full generality based on the adaptation of an existing numerical program based on the sum-over-states representation of the energy to a computer algebra context. The measures taken to produce well-simplified and factored expressions in an efficient manner are discussed, as well as the framework for automatically checking the correctness of the generated equations.

  17. Generating Problems from Problems and Solutions from Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcavi, Abraham; Resnick, Zippora

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a geometrical solution to a problem that is usually solved geometrically as an example of how alternative solutions may enrich the teaching and learning of mathematics. (Contains 11 figures.)

  18. Towards a "fourth generation" of approaches to HIV/AIDS management: creating contexts for effective community mobilisation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora

    2010-01-01

    Many biomedical and behavioural HIV/AIDS programmes aimed at prevention, care and treatment have disappointing outcomes because of a lack of effective community mobilisation. But community mobilisation is notoriously difficult to bring about. We present a conceptual framework that maps out those dimensions of social context that are likely to support or undermine community mobilisation efforts, proposing that attention should be given to three dimensions of social context: the material, symbolic and relational. This paper has four parts. We begin by outlining why community mobilisation is regarded as a core dimension of effective HIV/AIDS management: it increases the "reach" and sustainability of programmes; it is a vital component of the wider "task shifting" agenda given the scarcity of health professionals in many HIV/AIDS-vulnerable contexts. Most importantly it facilitates those social psychological processes that we argue are vital preconditions for effective prevention, care and treatment. Secondly we map out three generations of approaches to behaviour change within the HIV/AIDS field: HIV-awareness, peer education and community mobilisation. We critically evaluate each approach's underlying assumptions about the drivers of behaviour change, to frame our understandings of the pathways between mobilisation and health, drawing on the concepts of social capital, dialogue and empowerment. Thirdly we refer to two well-documented case studies of community mobilisation in India and South Africa to illustrate our claim that community mobilisation is unlikely to succeed in the absence of supportive material, symbolic and relational contexts. Fourthly we provide a brief overview of how the papers in this special issue help us flesh out our conceptualisation of the "health enabling social environment". We conclude by arguing for the urgent need for a 'fourth generation' of approaches in the theory and practice of HIV/AIDS management, one which pays far greater

  19. A Two Colorable Fourth Order Compact Difference Scheme and Parallel Iterative Solution of the 3D Convection Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jun; Ge, Lixin; Kouatchou, Jules

    2000-01-01

    A new fourth order compact difference scheme for the three dimensional convection diffusion equation with variable coefficients is presented. The novelty of this new difference scheme is that it Only requires 15 grid points and that it can be decoupled with two colors. The entire computational grid can be updated in two parallel subsweeps with the Gauss-Seidel type iterative method. This is compared with the known 19 point fourth order compact differenCe scheme which requires four colors to decouple the computational grid. Numerical results, with multigrid methods implemented on a shared memory parallel computer, are presented to compare the 15 point and the 19 point fourth order compact schemes.

  20. Measuring the fourth-generation b{yields}s quadrangle at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Wei-Shu; Kohda, Masaya; Xu Fanrong

    2011-11-01

    We show that simultaneous precision measurements of the CP-violating phase in time-dependent B{sub s}{yields}J/{psi}{phi} study and the B{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} rate, together with measuring m{sub t'} by direct search at the LHC, would determine V{sub t's}*V{sub t'b} and therefore the b{yields}s quadrangle in the four-generation standard model. The forward-backward asymmetry in B{yields}K*l{sup +}l{sup -} provides further discrimination.

  1. UV by the fourth harmonic generation of compact side-pumped Yb:YAG laser emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Brian; McIntosh, Chris; Hays, Alan; Dilazaro, Tom; Goldberg, Lew

    2016-03-01

    We present a compact, side pumped passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser that was operated in a burst mode with pump durations of 2-4 ms at low duty cycles. Intra-pump pulse Q-switched pulse repetition frequencies varied from 5-20 kHz depending on the transmission of the Cr:YAG saturable absorber, which was varied from 70% to 94%. Pump duration, pulse repetition frequency and output coupler reflectivity were optimized to yield maximum Yb:YAG laser average power and laser efficiency, while providing sufficient peak intensity, typically 0.3-1 MW, to enable efficient forth harmonic generation (FHG). Pulse energies and durations were in ranges of 0.3-1.8 mJ and 1.5-7ns, respectively, dependent on the unbleached transmission of the Cr:YAG saturable absorber. We achieved an optical efficiency of greater than 15% for the Yb:YAG laser. Extra-cavity 515 nm second harmonic generation (SHG) was achieved using a 5mm long KTP crystal. The 515 nm light was then frequency doubled by focusing it into a 7mm long BBO crystal, resulting in a 15% conversion efficiency from 1030nm to 257.5 nm, with an average UV power greater than 100 mW.

  2. Two Higgs doublets with fourth-generation fermions: Models for TeV-scale compositeness

    SciTech Connect

    Soni A.; Bar-Shalom, S.; Nandi, S.

    2011-09-21

    We construct a class of two Higgs doublets models with a 4th sequential generation of fermions that may effectively accommodate the low-energy characteristics and phenomenology of a dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scenario which is triggered by the condensates of the 4th family fermions. In particular, we single out the heavy quarks by coupling the heavier Higgs doublet ({Phi}{sub h}) which possesses a much larger VEV only to them while the lighter doublet ({Phi}{sub {ell}) couples only to the light fermions. We study the constraints on these models from precision electroweak data as well as from flavor data. We also discuss some distinct new features that have direct consequences on the production and decays of the 4th family quarks and leptons in high-energy colliders; in particular, the conventional search strategies for t{prime} and b{prime} may need to be significantly revised.

  3. Acceptance Test Report for Fourth-Generation Hanford Corrosion Monitoring Cabinet

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-10-23

    This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) will document the satisfactory operation of the third-generation corrosion monitoring cabinet (Hiline Engineering Part No.0004-CHM-072-C01). This ATP will be performed by the manufacturer of the cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinet. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation.

  4. Biomechanical comparison of the human cadaveric pelvis with a fourth generation composite model.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Brandon L; Attia, Tarik; Backstein, David; Safir, Oleg; Willett, Thomas L; Kuzyk, Paul R T

    2016-02-29

    The use of cadavers for orthopaedic biomechanics research is well established, but presents difficulties to researchers in terms of cost, biosafety, availability, and ease of use. High fidelity composite models of human bone have been developed for use in biomechanical studies. While several studies have utilized composite models of the human pelvis for testing orthopaedic reconstruction techniques, few biomechanical comparisons of the properties of cadaveric and composite pelves exist. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of cadaveric pelves to those of the 4th generation composite model. An Instron ElectroPuls E10000 mechanical testing machine was used to load specimens with orientation, boundary conditions and degrees of freedom that approximated those occurring during the single legged phase of walking, including hip abductor force. Each specimen was instrumented with strain gauge rosettes. Overall specimen stiffness and principal strains were calculated from the test data. Composite specimens showed significantly higher overall stiffness and slightly less overall variability between specimens (composite K=1448±54N/m, cadaver K=832±62N/m; p<0.0001). Strains measured at specific sites in the composite models and cadavers were similar (but did differ) only when the applied load was scaled to overall construct stiffness. This finding regarding strain distribution and the difference in overall stiffness must be accounted for when using these composite models for biomechanics research. Altering the cortical wall thickness or tuning the elastic moduli of the composite material may improve future generations of the composite model. PMID:26839060

  5. Exterior metric approach to a charged axially symmetric celestial body: the fourth-order approximate solutions of Einstein--Maxwell equations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Qi-huang

    1988-12-01

    Starting with the general expression of a static state axisymmetric metric and using the principle of equivalence and the Maccullagh formula, the Einstein--Maxwell equations of a charged axisymmetric celestial body are obtained. Next, using the method of undetermined coefficients these equations are solved up to fourth-order approximate. These sets of solutions are generally appropriate for all kinds of charged axisymmetric celestial bodies.

  6. The 3D Euler solutions using automated Cartesian grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, John E.; Enomoto, Francis Y.; Berger, Marsha J.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on 3-dimensional Euler solutions using automated Cartesian grid generation are presented. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the design cycle; Cartesian grid strategy; structured body fit; grid generation; prolate spheroid; and ONERA M6 wing.

  7. EDITORIAL: The Fourth International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shuji; Toriyama, Toshiyuki

    2005-09-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering features papers selected from the Fourth International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004). The workshop was held in Kyoto, Japan, on 28-30 November 2004, by The Ritsumeikan Research Institute of Micro System Technology in cooperation with The Global Emerging Technology Institute, The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, The Sensors and Micromachines Society, The Micromachine Center and The Kyoto Nanotech Cluster. Power MEMS is one of the newest categories of MEMS, which encompasses microdevices and microsystems for power generation, energy conversion and propulsion. The first concept of power MEMS was proposed in the late 1990s by Epstein's group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where they continue to study MEMS-based gas turbine generators. Since then, the research and development of power MEMS have been promoted by the need for compact power sources with high energy and power density. Since its inception, power MEMS has expanded to include not only various MEMS-based power generators but also small energy machines and microdevices for macro power generators. At the last workshop, various devices and systems, such as portable fuel cells and their peripherals, micro and small turbo machinery, energy harvesting microdevices, and microthrusters, were presented. Their power levels vary from ten nanowatts to hundreds of watts, spanning ten orders of magnitude. The first PowerMEMS workshop was held in 2000 in Sendai, Japan, and consisted of only seven invited presentations. The workshop has grown since then, and in 2004 there were 5 invited, 20 oral and 29 poster presentations. From the 54 papers in the proceedings, 12 papers have been selected for this special issue. I would like to express my appreciation to the members of the Organizing Committee and Technical Program Committee. This special issue was

  8. Using a fourth-generation cavity enhanced spectrometer to isotopically investigate nitrous oxide emissions from biochar amended soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabenhofer, Jutta; Dercon, Gerd; Heiling, Maria; Mayr, Leo; Resch, Christian; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Research into the impacts of biochar on key processes in the nitrogen cycle is important to understand biochar's potential role in sustainable agriculture. There is conflicting evidence that biochar can reduce globally significant greenhouse gas emissions, especially N2O, one of the most important greenhouse gases in agriculture. However to date there is little information on the mechanisms involved. The source of N2O is dependent on the physical, chemical and biological status of the soil at a microbial scale and we need to understand how biochar influences it. Using the 15N2O gas flux method combined with gross rate measurements of nitrification and modelling, it should be possible to determine the parameters which drive N2O emissions and to evaluate the specific impact of biochar on these important N loss processes. To date the scope of isotopic studies on nitrous oxide emissions have been limited, due in part to technical and infrastructural access to complex and expensive mass spectrometry. With the advent of laser based systems these logistical and analytical constraints could be overcome and allow for a deeper and geographically more representative, understanding and assessment of the role of biochar in reducing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. In this study we have developed a simple method for investigated nitrous oxide emissions from soils amended with biochar, employing state of the art stable isotope techniques, using a fourth-generation cavity enhanced absorption technique a variant of conventional Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) for measurement of isotopes of nitrous oxide. We will present methodologies used and results from these experiments, techniques that should path the way for a greater global understand nitrous oxide emissions from soils.

  9. An Overview of a Trajectory-Based Solution for En Route and Terminal Area Self-Spacing: Fourth Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the fourth major revision to an algorithm specifically designed to support NASA's Airborne Precision Spacing concept. This airborne self-spacing concept is trajectory-based, allowing for spacing operations prior to the aircraft being on a common path. Because this algorithm is trajectory-based, it also has the inherent ability to support required-time-of-arrival (RTA) operations. This algorithm was also designed specifically to support a standalone, non-integrated implementation in the spacing aircraft. Revisions to this algorithm were based on a change to the expected operational environment.

  10. ABCs and fourth-order spline collocation for the solution of two-point boundary value problems over an infinite domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, S.; Ibdah, H.; Sayfy, A.

    2013-10-01

    A mixed approach, based on cubic B-spline collocation and asymptotic boundary conditions (ABCs), is presented for the numerical solution of an extended class of two-point linear boundary value problems (BVPs) over an infinite interval as well as a system of BVPs. The condition at infinity is reduced to an asymptotic boundary condition that approaches the required value at infinity over a large finite interval. The resulting problem is handled using an adaptive spline collocation approach constructed over uniform meshes. The rate of convergence is verified numerically to be of fourth-order. The efficiency and applicability of the method are demonstrated by applying the strategy to a number of examples. The numerical solutions are compared with existing analytical solutions.

  11. Fourth quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Mir

    2013-12-01

    In this Letter we will analyze the creation of the multiverse. We will first calculate the wave function for the multiverse using third quantization. Then we will fourth-quantize this theory. We will show that there is no single vacuum state for this theory. Thus, we can end up with a multiverse, even after starting from a vacuum state. This will be used as a possible explanation for the creation of the multiverse. We also analyze the effect of interactions in this fourth-quantized theory.

  12. Emergent Understandings: Multilingual Fourth Grade Students Generating Close Readings and Multimodal Responses to Global and Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasty, Michelle Medlin; Fain, Jeanne Gilliam

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present findings from a yearlong ethnographic research study that examines the development of critical literacy within two urban fourth grade classrooms in Tennessee. This study examines how young second language learners in English-dominant classrooms learn to read critically, write, and construct multimodal…

  13. HIV Screening via Fourth-Generation Immunoassay or Nucleic Acid Amplification Test in the United States: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Long, Elisa F.

    2011-01-01

    Background At least 10% of the 56,000 annual new HIV infections in the United States are caused by individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI). It unknown whether the health benefits and costs of routine nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) are justified, given the availability of newer fourth-generation immunoassay tests. Methods Using a dynamic HIV transmission model instantiated with U.S. epidemiologic, demographic, and behavioral data, I estimated the number of acute infections identified, HIV infections prevented, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, and the cost-effectiveness of alternative screening strategies. I varied the target population (everyone aged 15-64, injection drug users [IDUs] and men who have sex with men [MSM], or MSM only), screening frequency (annually, or every six months), and test(s) utilized (fourth-generation immunoassay only, or immunoassay followed by pooled NAAT). Results Annual immunoassay testing of MSM reduces incidence by 9.5% and costs <$10,000 per QALY gained. Adding pooled NAAT identifies 410 AHI per year, prevents 9.6% of new cases, costs $92,000 per QALY gained, and remains <$100,000 per QALY gained in settings where undiagnosed HIV prevalence exceeds 4%. Screening IDUs and MSM annually with fourth-generation immunoassay reduces incidence by 13% with cost-effectiveness <$10,000 per QALY gained. Increasing the screening frequency to every six months reduces incidence by 11% (MSM only) or 16% (MSM and IDUs) and costs <$20,000 per QALY gained. Conclusions Pooled NAAT testing every 12 months of MSM and IDUs in the United States prevents a modest number of infections, but may be cost-effective given sufficiently high HIV prevalence levels. However, testing via fourth-generation immunoassay every six months prevents a greater number of infections, is more economically efficient, and may obviate the benefits of acute HIV screening via NAAT. PMID:22110698

  14. Double-lepton polarization asymmetries in B{yields}K{sub 0}*(1430)l{sup +}l{sup -} decay in the fourth-generation standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Falahati, F.; Khosravi, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, by deriving the expressions for double-lepton polarization asymmetries for B to a scalar meson transition in SM and SM4 and considering the corresponding uncertainties in SM we investigate the indirect effects of the fourth generation of quarks on such asymmetries in the B{yields}K{sub 0}*(1430)l{sup +}l{sup -} decay. We also compare these asymmetries with those of B{yields}Kl{sup +}l{sup -} decay and find out that most of these asymmetries behave similarly to the corresponding asymmetries for B{yields}Kl{sup +}l{sup -} decay. We finally show that in the {mu} channel all asymmetries, except , and in {tau} channel only can manifest the influence of the fourth generation at the minimum value of m{sub t}{sup '} around 200 GeV. In addition, it is shown that for the {tau} channel the asymmetries such as , , and can indicate the effect of such new physics at m{sub t}{sup '}{>=}300 GeV. Hence, the B{yields}K{sub 0}{sup *}(1430)l{sup +}l{sup -} decay is a valuable tool for probing new physics beyond SM, especially in the indirect searches of the fourth generation of quarks (t{sup '},b{sup '}) via its manifestations in loop diagrams.

  15. Data-Driven Hint Generation from Peer Debugging Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zhongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Data-driven methods have been a successful approach to generating hints for programming problems. However, the majority of previous studies are focused on procedural hints that aim at moving students to the next closest state to the solution. In this paper, I propose a data-driven method to generate remedy hints for BOTS, a game that teaches…

  16. Generation of solution plasma over a large electrode surface area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Genki; Nakasugi, Yuki; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2015-07-01

    Solution plasma has been used in a variety of fields such as nanomaterials synthesis, the degradation of harmful substances, and solution analysis. However, as existing methods are ineffective in generating plasma over a large surface area, this study investigated the contact glow discharge electrolysis, in which the plasma was generated on the electrode surface. To clarify the condition of plasma generation, the effect of electrolyte concentration and temperature on plasma formation was studied. The electrical energy needed for plasma generation is higher than that needed to sustain a plasma, and when the electrolyte temperature was increased from 32 to 90 °C at 0.01 M NaOH solution, the electric power density for vapor formation decreased from 2005 to 774 W/cm2. From these results, we determined that pre-warming of the electrolyte is quite effective in generating plasma at lower power density. In addition, lower electrolyte concentrations required higher power density for vapor formation owing to lower solution conductivity. On the basis these results, a method for large-area and flat-plate plasma generation is proposed in which an initial small area of plasma generation is extended. When used with a plate electrode, a concentration of current to the edge of the plate meant that plasma could be formed by covering the edge of the electrode plate.

  17. Deep-UV 236.5  nm laser by fourth-harmonic generation of a single-crystal fiber Nd:YAG oscillator.

    PubMed

    Deyra, Loïc; Martial, Igor; Didierjean, Julien; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick

    2014-04-15

    We demonstrate a deep-UV laser at 236.5 nm based on extracavity fourth-harmonic generation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG single-crystal fiber laser at 946 nm. We first compare two nonlinear crystals available for second-harmonic generation: LBO and BiBO. The best results at 473 nm are obtained with a BiBO crystal, with an average output power of 3.4 W at 20 kHz, corresponding to a second-harmonic generation efficiency of 38%. This blue laser is frequency-converted to 236.5 nm in a BBO crystal with an overall fourth-harmonic generation yield of 6.5%, corresponding to an average output power of 600 mW at 20 kHz. This represents an order of magnitude increase in average power and energy compared to previously reported pulsed lasers at 236.5 nm. This work opens the possibility of LIDAR detection of dangerous compounds for military or civilian applications. PMID:24978960

  18. The existence of a real pole-free solution of the fourth order analogue of the Painlevé I equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeys, T.; Vanlessen, M.

    2007-05-01

    We establish the existence of a real solution y(x, T) with no poles on the real line of the following fourth order analogue of the Painlevé I equation: \\[ \\begin{equation*}x=Ty-\\left(\\case 1 6 y^3+\\case{1}{24} (y_x^2+2yy_{xx}) +\\case {1}{240} y_{xxxx}\\right).\\end{equation*} \\] This proves the existence part of a conjecture posed by Dubrovin. We obtain our result by proving the solvability of an associated Riemann-Hilbert problem through the approach of a vanishing lemma. In addition, by applying the Deift/Zhou steepest-descent method to this Riemann-Hilbert problem, we obtain the asymptotics for y(x, T) as x → ±∞.

  19. FOURTH SEMINAR TO THE MEMORY OF D.N. KLYSHKO: Algebraic solution of the synthesis problem for coded sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leukhin, Anatolii N.

    2005-08-01

    The algebraic solution of a 'complex' problem of synthesis of phase-coded (PC) sequences with the zero level of side lobes of the cyclic autocorrelation function (ACF) is proposed. It is shown that the solution of the synthesis problem is connected with the existence of difference sets for a given code dimension. The problem of estimating the number of possible code combinations for a given code dimension is solved. It is pointed out that the problem of synthesis of PC sequences is related to the fundamental problems of discrete mathematics and, first of all, to a number of combinatorial problems, which can be solved, as the number factorisation problem, by algebraic methods by using the theory of Galois fields and groups.

  20. Hydrogen generation by electrolysis of aqueous organic solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A device for electrolysis of an aqueous solution of an organic fuel. The electrolyte is a solid-state polymer membrane with anode and cathode catalysts on both surfaces for electro-oxidization and electro-reduction. A low-cost and portable hydrogen generator can be made based on the device with organic fuels such as methanol.

  1. Hydrogen generation by electrolysis of aqueous organic solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A device for electrolysis of an aqueous solution of an organic fuel. The electrolyte is a solid-state polymer membrane with anode and cathode catalysts on both surfaces for electro-oxidization and electro-reduction. A low-cost and portable hydrogen generator can be made based on the device with organic fuels such as methanol.

  2. An in-vitro investigation into the sealing ability of two fourth generation dentine bonding agents and two resin modified glass polyalkenoate restoratives.

    PubMed

    Quinn, F

    1995-03-01

    To determine the in-vitro sealing ability of two resin modified glass polyalkenoate cements and two fourth generation dentine bonding systems, fifty mixed class V cavities were filled with each material and evaluated for leakage. At enamel margins, no significant differences in leakage extent was noted; however, at cemental margins the two resin modified glass polyalkenoates performed significantly better than the resin based systems. Crazing was frequently noted on enamel margins with both glass polyalkenoate materials. Surface application of unfilled glaze did not affect the leakage at either enamel or cemental margins for one of the polyalkenoate restorative materials. PMID:8603154

  3. A low-cost municipal sewage treatment system with a combination of UASB and the "fourth-generation" downflow hanging sponge reactors.

    PubMed

    Tandukar, M; Uemura, S; Machdar, I; Ohashi, A; Harada, H

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the process performance of a pilot-scale "fourth generation" downflow hanging sponge (DHS) post-treatment system combined with a UASB pretreatment unit treating municipal wastewater. After the successful operation of the second- and third-generation DHS reactors, the fourth-generation DHS reactor was developed to overcome a few shortcomings of its predecessors. This reactor was designed to further enhance the treatment efficiency and simplify the construction process in real scale, especially for the application in developing countries. Configuration of the reactor was modified to enhance the dissolution of air into the wastewater and to avert the possible clogging of the reactor especially during sudden washout from the UASB reactor. The whole system was operated at a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h (UASB: 6 h and DHS: 2 h) for a period of over 600 days. The combined system was able to remove 96% of unfiltered BOD with only 9 mg/L remaining in the final effluent. Likewise, F. coli were removed by 3.45 log with the final count of 10(3) to 10(4) MPN/100 ml. Nutrient removal by the system was also satisfactory. PMID:16180445

  4. Generation of inkjet droplet of suspension in polymer solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hansol; Kim, Chongyoup

    2015-05-01

    In the present study the generation of inkjet drops of suspensions of spherical particles in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution in 1-heptanol is investigated experimentally. The particle size was 2 µm and the particle volume fraction was in the range of 0-0.18. The molecular weight of PVP was 1,300 kg/mol and the concentration was 0-4,000 ppm. The diffusive wave spectroscopy measurement shows that the PVP solution has a weak elasticity. The extensional viscosity measurement reveals that both the polymer solution and the suspension show strain hardening behavior. The jetting experiments show that the drop velocity of the suspension is larger than that of the polymer solution without particles. The difference in drop velocity is ascribed to the combined effect of the extensional viscosity and shear viscosity. The drop size of the suspension is larger than the drop size of the polymer solution without particles at the same driving voltage even though the viscosity of the suspension is larger. This difference is ascribed to the change in the free surface shape near the nozzle exit due to the viscosity difference and the increased inertial term due to the density increase by the addition of particles. Because the surface tensions of the fluids tested here are the same, the effect of surface tension force cannot be examined even though the force analysis shows that the surface tension force is larger than the other forces such as extensional and convective forces.

  5. Aerosols generated by spills of viscous solutions and slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M Y; Hodgson, W H

    1986-12-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases caused by accidents. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop methods for estimating source terms from these accidents. Experiments were run by spilling viscous solutions and slurries to determine the mass and particle-size distribution of the material made airborne. In all cases, 1 L of solution was spilled from a height of 3 m. Aqueous solutions of sucrose (0 to 56%) gave a range of viscosities from 1.3 to 46 cp. The percent of spill mass made airborne from the spills of these solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.0001. The mass of particles made airborne decreased as solution viscosity increased. Slurry loading ranged from 25 to 51% total solids. The maximum source airborne (0.0046 wt %) occurred with the slurry that had the lightest loading of soluble solids. The viscosity of the carrying solution also had an impact on the source term from spilling slurries. The effect of surface tension on the source term was examined in two experiments. Surface tension was halved in these spills by adding a surfactant. The maximum weight percent airborne from these spills was 0.0045, compared to 0.003 for spills with twice the surface tension. The aerodynamic mass medium diameters for the aerosols produced by spills of the viscous solutions, slurries, and low surface tension liquids ranged from 0.6 to 8.4 ..mu..m, and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.8 to 28.0.

  6. Grid generation for the solution of partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    A general survey of grid generators is presented with a concern for understanding why grids are necessary, how they are applied, and how they are generated. After an examination of the need for meshes, the overall applications setting is established with a categorization of the various connectivity patterns. This is split between structured grids and unstructured meshes. Altogether, the categorization establishes the foundation upon which grid generation techniques are developed. The two primary categories are algebraic techniques and partial differential equation techniques. These are each split into basic parts, and accordingly are individually examined in some detail. In the process, the interrelations between the various parts are accented. From the established background in the primary techniques, consideration is shifted to the topic of interactive grid generation and then to adaptive meshes. The setting for adaptivity is established with a suitable means to monitor severe solution behavior. Adaptive grids are considered first and are followed by adaptive triangular meshes. Then the consideration shifts to the temporal coupling between grid generators and PDE-solvers. To conclude, a reflection upon the discussion, herein, is given.

  7. Grid generation for the solution of partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    A general survey of grid generators is presented with a concern for understanding why grids are necessary, how they are applied, and how they are generated. After an examination of the need for meshes, the overall applications setting is established with a categorization of the various connectivity patterns. This is split between structured grids and unstructured meshes. Altogether, the categorization establishes the foundation upon which grid generation techniques are developed. The two primary categories are algebraic techniques and partial differential equation techniques. These are each split into basic parts, and accordingly are individually examined in some detail. In the process, the interrelations between the various parts are accented. From the established background in the primary techniques, consideration is shifted to the topic of interactive grid generation and then to adaptive meshes. The setting for adaptivity is established with a suitable means to monitor severe solution behavior. Adaptive grids are considered first and are followed by adaptive triangular meshes. Then the consideration shifts to the temporal coupling between grid generators and PDE-solvers. To conclude, a reflection upon the discussion, herein, is given.

  8. Characteristics of Solution Plasma Generated with Coaxial DBD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Kentaro; Tanaka, Kenji; Shirafuji, Tatsuru; Imai, Shin-Ichi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, solution plasma processing, or plasma processing in or in contact with an aqueous solution, has attracted much attention because of its various possible applications. Although different types of plasma generation methods have been proposed, most of them do not cover a wide range of electrical conductivity of the water to be treated. Since the water subjected to the plasma treatment can have any values of electrical conductivity depending on the purposes of treatments, we must develop methods that cover a wide range of electrical conductivity of water. The conventional solution plasma has shown a strong dependence on the electrical conductivity of water, in which stable discharge is available only in the water with an electrical conductivity of 100 +/- 50 μS/cm. The coaxial-type DBD in contrast has shown intense discharge within the conductivity range of 0.5-160 μS/cm. This result indicates that the coaxial type DBD has more ``robust'' dependence on the electrical conductivity of water. Furthermore, the coaxial type DBD has shown 3-fold higher energy efficiency in indigo carmine degradation than the conventional solution plasma.

  9. Search for a fourth generation t' Quark in p ̄p collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Aoki, M; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guo, F; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jamin, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Jung, A W; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kulikov, S; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miconi, F; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otero y Garzón, G J; Padilla, M; Pal, A; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Salcido, P; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Soustruznik, K; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsai, Y-T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S

    2011-08-19

    We present a search for pair production of a fourth generation t' quark and its antiparticle, followed by their decays to a W boson and a jet, based on an integrated luminosity of 5.3 fb(-1) of proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.96  TeV collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We set upper limits on the t' ̄t' production cross section that exclude at the 95% C.L. a t' quark that decays exclusively to W+jet with a mass below 285 GeV. We observe a small excess in the μ+jets channel which reduces the mass range excluded compared to the expected limit of 320 GeV in the absence of a signal. PMID:21929161

  10. Performance of the fourth-generation Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab enzyme immunoassay for diagnosis of HIV infection in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Fogel, Jessica M.; Richardson, Paul; Wolf, Shauna; Clarke, William; Marzinke, Mark A.; Fiamma, Agnès; Donnell, Deborah; Kulich, Michal; Mbwambo, Jessie K.K.; Richter, Linda; Gray, Glenda; Sweat, Michael; Coates, Thomas J.; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Fourth-generation HIV assays detect both antigen and antibody, facilitating detection of acute/early HIV infection. The Bio-Rad GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab assay (Bio-Rad Combo) is an enzyme immunoassay that simultaneously detects HIV p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in serum or plasma. Objective To evaluate the performance of the Bio-Rad Combo assay for detection of HIV infection in adults from Southern Africa. Study design Samples were obtained from adults in Soweto and Vulindlela, South Africa and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (300 HIV-positive samples; 300 HIV-negative samples; 12 samples from individuals previously classified as having acute/early HIV infection). The samples were tested with the Bio-Rad Combo assay. Additional testing was performed to characterize the 12 acute/early samples. Results All 300 HIV-positive samples were reactive using the Bio-Rad Combo assay; false positive test results were obtained for 10 (3.3%) of the HIV-negative samples (sensitivity: 100%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 98.8–100%); specificity: 96.7%, 95% CI: 94.0–98.4%). The assay detected 10 of the 12 infections classified as acute/early. The two infections that were not detected had viral loads < 400 copies/mL; one of those samples contained antiretroviral drugs consistent with antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions The Bio-Rad Combo assay correctly classified the majority of study specimens. The specificity reported here may be higher than that seen in other settings, since HIV-negative samples were pre-screened using a different fourth-generation test. The assay also had high sensitivity for detection of acute/early infection. False-negative test results may be obtained in individuals who are virally suppressed. PMID:25542477

  11. Generation III reactors safety requirements and the design solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felten, P.

    2009-03-01

    Nuclear energy's public acceptance, and hence its development, depends on its safety. As a reactor designer, we will first briefly remind the basic safety principles of nuclear reactors' design. We will then show how the industry, and in particular Areva with its EPR, made design evolution in the wake of the Three Miles Island accident in 1979. In particular, for this new generation of reactors, severe accidents are taken into account beyond the standard design basis accidents. Today, Areva's EPR meets all so-called "generation III" safety requirements and was licensed by several nuclear safety authorities in the world. Many innovative solutions are integrated in the EPR, some of which will be introduced here.

  12. Generation III reactors safety requirements and the design solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Felten, P.

    2009-03-31

    Nuclear energy's public acceptance, and hence its development, depends on its safety. As a reactor designer, we will first briefly remind the basic safety principles of nuclear reactors' design. We will then show how the industry, and in particular Areva with its EPR, made design evolution in the wake of the Three Miles Island accident in 1979. In particular, for this new generation of reactors, severe accidents are taken into account beyond the standard design basis accidents. Today, Areva's EPR meets all so-called 'generation III' safety requirements and was licensed by several nuclear safety authorities in the world. Many innovative solutions are integrated in the EPR, some of which will be introduced here.

  13. Next generation database relational solutions for ATLAS distributed computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, G.; Maeno, T.; Garonne, V.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) project delivers production tools and services for ATLAS offline activities such as data placement and data processing on the Grid. The system has been capable of sustaining with high efficiency the needed computing activities during the first run of LHC data taking, and has demonstrated flexibility in reacting promptly to new challenges. Databases are a vital part of the whole ADC system. The Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) has been addressing a majority of the ADC database requirements for many years. Much expertise was gained through the years and without a doubt will be used as a good foundation for the next generation PanDA (Production ANd Distributed Analysis) and DDM (Distributed Data Management) systems. In this paper we present the current production ADC database solutions and notably the planned changes on the PanDA system, and the next generation ATLAS DDM system called Rucio. Significant work was performed on studying different solutions to arrive at the best relational and physical database model for performance and scalability in order to be ready for deployment and operation in 2014.

  14. Singlet-Oxygen Generation in Alkaline Periodate Solution.

    PubMed

    Bokare, Alok D; Choi, Wonyong

    2015-12-15

    A nonphotochemical generation of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) using potassium periodate (KIO4) in alkaline condition (pH > 8) was investigated for selective oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. The generation of (1)O2 was initiated by the spontaneous reaction between IO4(-) and hydroxyl ions, along with a stoichiometric conversion of IO4(-) to iodate (IO3(-)). The reactivity of in-situ-generated (1)O2 was monitored by using furfuryl alcohol (FFA) as a model substrate. The formation of (1)O2 in the KIO4/KOH system was experimentally confirmed using electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements in corroboration with quenching studies using azide as a selective (1)O2 scavenger. The reaction in the KIO4/KOH solution in both oxic and anoxic conditions initiated the generation of superoxide ion as a precursor of the singlet oxygen (confirmed by using superoxide scavengers), and the presence of molecular oxygen was not required as a precursor of (1)O2. Although hydrogen peroxide had no direct influence on the FFA oxidation process, the presence of natural organic matter, such as humic and fulvic acids, enhanced the oxidation efficiency. Using the oxidation of simple organic diols as model compounds, the enhanced (1)O2 formation is attributed to periodate-mediated oxidation of vicinal hydroxyl groups present in humic and fulvic constituent moieties. The efficient and simple generation of (1)O2 using the KIO4/KOH system without any light irradiation can be employed for the selective oxidation of aqueous organic compounds under neutral and near-alkaline conditions. PMID:26594871

  15. Free radical generation by ultrasound in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Riesz, P; Berdahl, D; Christman, C L

    1985-01-01

    The physical principles underlying the oscillatory behavior of minute gas bubbles in liquids exposed to ultrasound are reviewed. Results from mathematical analyses suggest that these oscillations sometimes become unstable leading to transient cavitation in which a bubble violently collapses during a single acoustic half-cycle producing high temperatures and pressures. The role that micronuclei, resonant bubble size, and rectified diffusion play in the initiation of transient cavitation is explained. Evidence to support these theoretical predictions is presented with particular emphasis on sonoluminescence which provides some non-chemical evidence for the formation of free radicals. Acoustic methods for conducting sonochemical investigations are discussed. In aqueous solutions transient cavitation initially generates hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals which may recombine to form hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide or may react with solutes in the gas phase, at the gas-liquid boundary or in the bulk of the solution. The analogies and differences between sonochemistry and ionizing radiation chemistry are explored. The use of spin trapping and electron spin resonance to identify hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals conclusively and to detect transient cavitation produced by continuous wave and by pulsed ultrasound is described in detail. The study of the chemical effects of cavitation in organic liquids is a relatively unexplored area which has recently become the subject of renewed interest. Examples of the decomposition of solvent and solute, of ultrasonically initiated free-radical polymerization and polymer degradation are presented. Spin trapping has been used to identify radicals in organic liquids, in polymer degradation and in the decomposition of organometallic compounds. PMID:3007091

  16. Anisotropic Solution Adaptive Unstructured Grid Generation Using AFLR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcum, David L.

    2007-01-01

    An existing volume grid generation procedure, AFLR3, was successfully modified to generate anisotropic tetrahedral elements using a directional metric transformation defined at source nodes. The procedure can be coupled with a solver and an error estimator as part of an overall anisotropic solution adaptation methodology. It is suitable for use with an error estimator based on an adjoint, optimization, sensitivity derivative, or related approach. This offers many advantages, including more efficient point placement along with robust and efficient error estimation. It also serves as a framework for true grid optimization wherein error estimation and computational resources can be used as cost functions to determine the optimal point distribution. Within AFLR3 the metric transformation is implemented using a set of transformation vectors and associated aspect ratios. The modified overall procedure is presented along with details of the anisotropic transformation implementation. Multiple two-and three-dimensional examples are also presented that demonstrate the capability of the modified AFLR procedure to generate anisotropic elements using a set of source nodes with anisotropic transformation metrics. The example cases presented use moderate levels of anisotropy and result in usable element quality. Future testing with various flow solvers and methods for obtaining transformation metric information is needed to determine practical limits and evaluate the efficacy of the overall approach.

  17. Development of Fourth Generation ABC Inhibitors from Natural Products: A Novel Approach to Overcome Cancer Multidrug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Subburayan; Hoti, Sugeerappa Laxmanappa

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer caused due to overexpression of ABC drug transporters is a major problem in modern chemotherapy. Molecular investigations on MDR have revealed that the resistance is due to various transport proteins of the ABC superfamily which include Phosphoglycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1/ ABCB1), multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1), and the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). They have been characterized functionally and are considered as major players in the development of MDR in cancer cells. These ATP-dependent transporter proteins cause MDR either by decreased uptake of the drug or increased efflux of the drug from the target organelles. Several MDR-reversing agents are being developed and are in various stages of clinical trials. The first three generations of ABC modulators such as quinine, verapamil, cyclosporine-A, tariquitor, PSC 833, LY335979, and GF120918 required to be administered in high doses to reverse MDR and were associated with adverse effects. Additionally, these modulators non-selectively inhibit ABC and adversely accumulate chemotherapeutic drugs in brain and kidney. Currently, research has stepped up towards reversing MDR by using natural products which exhibitted potential as chemosensitizers. Globally, there is a rich biodiversity of natural products which can be sourced for developing drugs. These products may provide more lead compounds with superior activity, foremost to the development of more effective therapies for MDR cancer cells. Here, we briefly review the status of natural products for reversing MDR modulators, and discuss the long term goal of MDR strategies in current clinical settings. PMID:25584696

  18. Fourth-harmonic generation of the CO2 laser wavelength at 10.5910 μm in BaGa4S7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kiyoshi; Okamoto, Takayuki; Mikami, Takuya; Petrov, Valentin; Badikov, Valeriy; Badikov, Dmitrii; Panyutin, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports the 90° phase-matched fourth-harmonic generation of the CO2 laser wavelength at 10.5910 μm in BaGa4S7. The 1.4 cm long BaGa4S7 crystal used in the present experiment was cut at θ=9.2° in the xz(=bc) plane. The pump source was the second harmonic of the wave-guide CO2 laser (10.5910 μm) operating with an average output power of 18.3 W at 130 kHz. By focusing the 7.6 W, 5.2955 μm pulses (peak power is 6kW with 10 ns pulse duration) generated from the 2 cm long AgGa0.65In0.35Se2 crystal into the BaGa4S7 crystal (θPM=9.9°) with the 6 cm focal length ZnSe lens, the maximum average output power of 0.3 W was obtained at 2.6478 μm without any damage to the crystal. In addition, the new Sellmeier equations of BaGa4S7 are presented.

  19. Solution processing of next-generation nanocrystal solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Embden, J.; Chesman, A. S. R.; Duffy, N. W.; Della Gaspera, E.; Jasieniak, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Next-generation solar cells will be fabricated from low-cost and earth abundant elements, using processes that are amenable to printing on a variety of light-weight substrates. The utilization of compositionally and structurally controlled colloidal nanocrystals as building blocks for such devices fulfills these criteria. Our recent efforts in developing kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals, one of the most promising materials to emerge in this area, enable the deposition of CZTS thin-films directly from a variety of solution-processed methods. Nanocrystalline thin films possess poor electronic properties, which precludes their use in solar cell devices. In order to overcome this, thermal treatment steps under an atmosphere of vaporous selenium are applied to induce large scale crystallite growth and the production of selenized CZTSSe films. This process results in a highly photoactive p-type layer. The n-type cadmium sulfide layer is also deposited from solution using chemical bath deposition. We will discuss each of these accomplishments in detail, highlighting the significant challenges that need to be overcome in order to fabricate working CZTSSe thin film solar cells.

  20. High-power ultraviolet 278 nm laser from fourth-harmonic generation of a Nd:YAG laser in CsB3O5.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhichao; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Guochun; Bo, Yong; Liu, Shanshan; Xie, Shiyong; Xu, Yiting; Zong, Nan; Li, Fangqin; Liu, Biaolong; Xu, Jialin; Peng, Qinjun; Zhang, Jingyuan; Cui, Dafu; Wu, Yicheng; Xu, Zuyan

    2012-06-15

    We demonstrate a high-power UV 278 nm laser by fourth-harmonic generation (FHG) of a 1112 nm Nd:YAG laser in a nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal CsB3O5 (CBO) for the first time, to our best knowledge. A 30 W level diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1112 nm with beam quality factor M2=1.2 was used as the fundamental light source at a pulse width of 500 ns. With an LiB3O5 crystal, the 1112 nm laser was first frequency-doubled to 556 nm with an average output power of 13.5 W. It was then frequency doubled again in a CBO crystal to obtain the FHG output at 278 nm. The maximum average output power of the 278 nm laser is up to 1.5 W. The results demonstrated that CBO crystal is a promising NLO material for UV high-power lasers below 300 nm. PMID:22739922

  1. Combined Tevatron upper limit on gg -> H -> W^+W^- and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in fourth-generation fermion models

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Adelman, J.; Aguilo, E.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys. /Dubna, JINR /Oklahoma U. /Michigan State U. /Tata Inst. /Illinois U., Chicago /Florida State U. /Chicago U., EFI /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /St. Petersburg, INP /Illinois U., Urbana /Sao Paulo, IFT /Munich U. /University Coll. London /Oxford U. /St. Petersburg, INP /Duke U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Chonnam Natl. U. /Florida U. /Osaka City U.

    2010-05-01

    We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the process gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at {radical}s = 1.o6 TeV. With 4.8 fb{sup -1} of itnegrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 5.4 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% Confidence Level upper limit on {sigma}(gg {yields} H) x {Beta}(H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -}) is 1.75 pb at m{sub H} = 120 GeV, 0.38 pb at m{sub H} = 165 GeV, and 0.83 pb at m{sub H} = 200 GeV. Assuming the presence of a fourth sequential generation of fermions with large masses, they exclude at the 95% Confidence Level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 131 and 204 Gev.

  2. Fourth Generation CP Violation Effects on B{yields}K{pi}, {phi}K, and {rho}K in Next-to-Leading-Order Perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Weishu; Li Hsiangnan; Mishima, Satoshi; Nagashima, Makiko

    2007-03-30

    We study the effect from a sequential fourth generation quark on penguin-dominated two-body nonleptonic B meson decays in the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD formalism. With an enhancement of the color-suppressed tree amplitude and possibility of a new CP phase in the electroweak penguin amplitude, we can account better for A{sub CP}(B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})-A{sub CP}(B{sup +}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}). Taking |V{sub t{sup '}}{sub s}V{sub t{sup '}}{sub b}|{approx}0.02 with a phase just below 90 deg., which is consistent with the b{yields}sl{sup +}l{sup -} rate and the B{sub s} mixing parameter {delta}m{sub B{sub s}}, we find a downward shift in the mixing-induced CP asymmetries of B{sup 0}{yields}K{sub S}{pi}{sup 0} and {phi}K{sub S}. The predicted behavior for B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}K{sub S} is opposite.

  3. Performance evaluation of a new fourth-generation HIV Ag/Ab combination electrochemiluminescence immunoassay - evaluation of a new HIV assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Li, Dongdong; Yan, Kening; Yuan, Yu; Yang, Tingfu; Du, Xiaoqing; Yan, Xuedan; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2014-03-01

    A new fourth-generation HIV Ag/Ab electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for screening of HIV infection, the Elecsys HIV Combi PT (Roche Diagnostics, Penzberg, Germany) assay, is going to be commercially available in clinical laboratories in China. This assay was evaluated and compared with two commonly used assays: Elecsys HIV Combi assay and the Livzon anti-HIV-1/2 ELISA. Commercially available panels and 30 established HIV infection samples were tested to evaluate the sensitivity. In addition, a total of 675 routine clinical samples were collected and tested in West China Hospital to compare the specificity. Any reactive result from a screening test was retested and all reactive retested samples were confirmed with Western blot assay, Elecsys HIV Ag test, Elecsys HIV Ag confirmatory test or HIV-1 RNA NAT testing. According to the results of the HIV seroconversion panels, the Elecsys HIV Combi PT could detect seroconversion at the same bleed or at least one bleed earlier compared to the other two assays. Among the 675 clinical samples, most results were consistent except for one specimen with a false-negative result using Elecsys HIV Combi assay. In conclusion, the Elecsys HIV Combi PT has shown satisfactory sensitivity and specificity to be a screening test for HIV infection. PMID:23970655

  4. Acute Infections, Cost per Infection and Turnaround Time in Three United States Hospital Laboratories Using Fourth-Generation Antigen-Antibody Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Coombs, Robert W; Rosenberg, Eric; Ethridge, Steven F; Hutchinson, Angela B; Dragavon, Joan; Rychert, Jennifer; Nolte, Frederick S; Madory, James E; Werner, Barbara G

    2016-01-01

    Background.  To improve clinical and public health outcomes through early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) detection, fourth-generation antigen/antibody immunoassay (4IA) and supplemental testing results must be returned rapidly. Methods.  We examined HIV testing data at Harborview Medical Center (HMC), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), which used 4IA and supplemental antibody and nucleic acid tests (NATs). At MGH and MUSC, HIV-1 Western blot (WB) and HIV-2 testing were conducted at a reference laboratory. We compared time from specimen collection to laboratory result for established (positive WB) and acute infections (reactive 4IA, negative/indeterminate WB, detectable NAT), and we calculated testing cost per positive-test result. Results.  From 3731 (MUSC) to 19 774 (MGH) tests were conducted; 0.01% (MGH) to 0.05% (HMC) were acute infections. Each laboratory had reactive 4IA, WB-negative, or indeterminate specimens without NAT (ie, potential acute infections). Time to result was 1.5 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for acute and 1.0 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for established infections. Costs were $1054 (MGH) to $1521 (MUSC). Conclusions.  Conducting supplemental testing in-house lowered turnaround times, which may be further reduced with rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation tests. Hospitals may benefit from quantitative NATs not requiring physician orders, so all potential acute infections receive NAT. PMID:26798766

  5. Search for pair produced fourth-generation up-type quarks in pp collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV with a lepton in the final state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. 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V.; Vinogradov, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Arce, P.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; Codispoti, G.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Felcini, M.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Graziano, A.; Jorda, C.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Coarasa Perez, J. A.; D'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; De Roeck, A.; Di Guida, S.; Dobson, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Frisch, B.; Funk, W.; Georgiou, G.; Giffels, M.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Giunta, M.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R.; Govoni, P.; Gowdy, S.; Guida, R.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hartl, C.; Harvey, J.; Hegner, B.; Hinzmann, A.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kaadze, K.; Karavakis, E.; Kousouris, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lee, Y.-J.; Lenzi, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Mäki, T.; Malberti, M.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moser, R.; Mozer, M. U.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orimoto, T.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Wehrli, L.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; De Visscher, S.; Favaro, C.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Millan Mejias, B.; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Singh, A. P.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R.-S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wan, X.; Wang, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Srimanobhas, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Karaman, T.; Karapinar, G.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, L. N.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Yildirim, E.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Cankocak, K.; Levchuk, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Basso, L.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Jackson, J.; Kennedy, B. W.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Ball, G.; Beuselinck, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Guneratne Bryer, A.; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M. J.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Stoye, M.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; St. John, J.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Mall, O.; Miceli, T.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Vasquez Sierra, R.; Yohay, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Traczyk, P.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G. Y.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Golf, F.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; D'Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Gataullin, M.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Vaughan, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kilminster, B.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Gartner, J.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Park, M.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Sellers, P.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; O'Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny, R. P., Iii; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Zhukova, V.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Twedt, E.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hahn, K. A.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Cooper, S. I.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Sarkar, R.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Roh, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Leonard, J.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.; CMS Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The results of a search for the pair production of a fourth-generation up-type quark (t‧) in proton-proton collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV are presented, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 5.0 fb-1 collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the LHC. The t‧ quark is assumed to decay exclusively to a W boson and a b quark. Events with a single isolated electron or muon, missing transverse momentum, and at least four hadronic jets, of which at least one must be identified as a b jet, are selected. No significant excess of events over standard model expectations is observed. Upper limits for the t‧tbar‧ production cross section at 95% confidence level are set as a function of t‧ mass, and t‧-quark production for masses below 570 GeV is excluded. The search is equally sensitive to nonchiral heavy quarks decaying to Wb. In this case, the results can be interpreted as upper limits on the production cross section times the branching fraction to Wb.

  6. How much nuclear fuel is present in the lavalike fuel-containing mass in the fourth power-generating unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant?

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, A.N.

    1995-10-01

    At the time of the accident in the reactor of the fourth power-generating unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986, the core contained 1659 fuel assemblies. Each assembly contained 114.7 kg of uranium, and therefore the reactor contained a total of 114.7 x 1659 = 190,287.3 kg of uranium. If the amount of fuel is calculated according to the uranium dioxide, i.e. in the form in which the fuel was loaded into the fuel elements, then its mass in each fuel element was 3.6 kg. A fuel assembly consists of 36 fuel elements, and therefore the reactor contained 3.6 x 36 x 1659 = 215,006.4 kg of uranium dioxide. The investigations performed in the destroyed buildings showed that the nuclear fuel after the accident is found in three main modifications: in the form of uranium dioxide tablets, in the form in which it was loaded into the reactor; in a dispersed form as dust and aerosol; and in a remelted state, in the form of a lavalike fuel-containing mass. This paper discusses the amount of nuclear fuel in the lavalike mass at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.

  7. Acute Infections, Cost per Infection and Turnaround Time in Three United States Hospital Laboratories Using Fourth-Generation Antigen-Antibody Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Laura G.; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Coombs, Robert W.; Rosenberg, Eric; Ethridge, Steven F.; Hutchinson, Angela B.; Dragavon, Joan; Rychert, Jennifer; Nolte, Frederick S.; Madory, James E.; Werner, Barbara G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. To improve clinical and public health outcomes through early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) detection, fourth-generation antigen/antibody immunoassay (4IA) and supplemental testing results must be returned rapidly. Methods. We examined HIV testing data at Harborview Medical Center (HMC), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), which used 4IA and supplemental antibody and nucleic acid tests (NATs). At MGH and MUSC, HIV-1 Western blot (WB) and HIV-2 testing were conducted at a reference laboratory. We compared time from specimen collection to laboratory result for established (positive WB) and acute infections (reactive 4IA, negative/indeterminate WB, detectable NAT), and we calculated testing cost per positive-test result. Results. From 3731 (MUSC) to 19 774 (MGH) tests were conducted; 0.01% (MGH) to 0.05% (HMC) were acute infections. Each laboratory had reactive 4IA, WB-negative, or indeterminate specimens without NAT (ie, potential acute infections). Time to result was 1.5 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for acute and 1.0 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for established infections. Costs were $1054 (MGH) to $1521 (MUSC). Conclusions. Conducting supplemental testing in-house lowered turnaround times, which may be further reduced with rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation tests. Hospitals may benefit from quantitative NATs not requiring physician orders, so all potential acute infections receive NAT. PMID:26798766

  8. In vitro evaluation of broad-spectrum beta-lactams in the philippines medical centers: role of fourth-generation cephalosporins. The Philippines Antimicrobial Resistance Study Group.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D M; Biedenbach, D J; Jones, R N

    1999-12-01

    Cefepime is a potent broad-spectrum "fourth-generation" cephalosporin. The in vitro activity of cefepime was compared to that of cefpirome, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and piperacillin/tazobactam in a multilaboratory (nine medical centers) Philippine surveillance project from March through October 1998. A total of 626 Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms (10 species groups) were tested by the Etest method (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) with results validated by current quality control strain analysis. The overall rank order of usable spectrum of activity was imipenem (4.2% resistance), cefepime (4.5%), cefpirome (5.0%), piperacillin/tazobactam (5.8%) > ceftriaxone (11.2%) > ceftazidime (15.3%), and results did not differ significantly between medical centers. Ceftazidime-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. occurred at rates of 13.3% and 31.1%, respectively, indicating extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) activity. Imipenem (100% susceptible), cefepime, and cefpirome (both > or = 97.8% susceptible) were active in vitro against these ESBL phenotypes. Organisms with ceftazidime and/or ceftriaxone-resistant profiles consistent for hyper-production of Amp C cephalosporinases were detected at high rates among the Citrobacter spp. (29.2%) and Enterobacter spp. (45.8%); however, imipenem (100.0% susceptible) and cefepime (98.9%) remained active. Cefepime and imipenem (both 87.5% susceptible) were the most active agents tested against Acinetobacter spp. whereas piperacillin/tazobactam was most effective against P. aeruginosa (80.0% susceptible). Most tested beta-lactams (except ceftazidime) were active versus oxacillin-susceptible staphylococci. These data should be used as a guide for treatment selection with beta-lactam compounds in the Philippines and to serve as a resistance benchmark in comparisons with future studies in this nation. PMID:10668588

  9. Growth and ultraviolet application of Li2B4O7 crystals: Generation of the fourth and fifth harmonics of Nd:Y3Al5O12 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, R.; Sugawara, T.; Sassa, K.; Sarukura, N.; Liu, Z.; Izumida, S.; Segawa, Y.; Uda, S.; Fukuda, T.; Yamanouchi, K.

    1997-06-01

    A 2 in. diam single crystal of lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7) was successfully grown by the Czochralski method. The crystal was free from macrodefects and had a dislocation density as low as 100/cm2. It had an excellent homogeneity of the refractive index and a wide transparency down to 170 nm. The optical damage threshold was 40 GW/cm2. Second-harmonic generation and sum frequency generation were investigated in association with the generation of the fourth and fifth harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The conversion efficiency of the second-harmonic generation from the green (532 nm) light was 20%.

  10. Generating generalized G{sub D-2} solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Breton, N.; Lopez, L. A.; Feinstein, A.

    2008-06-15

    We show how one can systematically construct vacuum solutions to Einstein field equations with D-2 commuting Killing vectors in D>4 dimensions. The construction uses Einstein-scalar field seed solutions in four dimensions and is performed both for the case when all the Killing directions are spacelike, as well as when one of the Killing vectors is timelike. The later case corresponds to generalizations of stationary axially symmetric solutions to higher dimensions. Some examples representing generalizations of known higher dimensional stationary solutions are discussed in terms of their rod structure and horizon locations and deformations.

  11. Metaphor and Numerical Diagrams in the Arithmetical Activity of a Fourth-Grade Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saenz-Ludlow, Adalira

    2004-01-01

    Fourth-grade students who participated in a yearlong, whole-class teaching experiment not only reconceptualized natural numbers but also generated flexible solution strategies to perform numerical computations mentally and in writing. Students' reconceptualization of number was mediated by their perceived resemblance between the physical action of…

  12. Different Solutions for the Generator-accelerator Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, E. A.; Matsievskiy, S. V.; Sobenin, N. P.; Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.

    The most important part of the particle accelerators [1] - is the power generator together with the whole feeding system [2]. All types of generators, such as klystrons, magnetrons, solid state generators cover their own field of power and pulse length values. For the last couple of year the Inductive Output Tubes (IOT) becomes very popular because of their comparative construction simplicity: it represents the klystron output cavity with the grid modulated electron beam injected in it. Now such IOTs are used with the superconductive particle accelerators at 700 MHz operating frequency with around 1MW output power. Higher frequencies problem - is the inability to apply high frequency modulated voltage to the grid. Thus we need to figure out some kind of RF gun. But this article is about the first steps of the geometry and beam dynamics simulation in the six beam S-band IOT, which will be used with the compact biperiodic accelerating structure.

  13. PHYSICAL EFFECTS OCCURRING DURING GENERATION AND AMPLIFICATION OF LASER RADIATION: Efficient solutions for low-temperature singlet-oxygen generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igoshin, Valerii I.; Karyshev, V. D.; Katulin, V. A.; Kirilin, A. V.; Kisletsov, A. V.; Konnov, S. A.; Kupriyanov, N. L.; Medvedev, A. M.; Nadezhina, T. N.

    1989-02-01

    Experimental investigations were made of the physicochemical characteristics of the active solutions for a chemical generator in an oxygen-iodine laser. A strong temperature dependence of the viscosity of the solution was observed. The influence of this factor on the operation of the singlet-oxygen generator and the laser is discussed. The cyclic operation of a laser with efficient neutralization of the reagents and the addition of an alkali is simulated. It is shown that hydrogen peroxide may be 50% utilized when the temperature of the solution is no higher than - 30 °C. A method of preparing a solution for an iodine laser with a low freezing point (between - 30 °C and - 40 °C) is developed. It is shown that an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide with a concentration of 25-40% is suitable.

  14. A simple and direct method for generating travelling wave solutions for nonlinear equations

    SciTech Connect

    Bazeia, D. Das, Ashok; Silva, A.

    2008-05-15

    We propose a simple and direct method for generating travelling wave solutions for nonlinear integrable equations. We illustrate how nontrivial solutions for the KdV, the mKdV and the Boussinesq equations can be obtained from simple solutions of linear equations. We describe how using this method, a soliton solution of the KdV equation can yield soliton solutions for the mKdV as well as the Boussinesq equations. Similarly, starting with cnoidal solutions of the KdV equation, we can obtain the corresponding solutions for the mKdV as well as the Boussinesq equations. Simple solutions of linear equations can also lead to cnoidal solutions of nonlinear systems. Finally, we propose and solve some new families of KdV equations and show how soliton solutions are also obtained for the higher order equations of the KdV hierarchy using this method.

  15. Preventing atmospheric ammonia emissions: A generator/regulator solution

    SciTech Connect

    Breed, C.E.; Holt, M.T.

    1994-10-01

    During most of the 60 years that TVA has been in existence, the research center at Muscle Shoals, Alabama, NERC, was charged with supporting the regional and national agribusiness industry. One aspect of this support was strong emphasis on fertilizer process and product development. One such product developed at the center was a liquid fertilizer with a grade of 10-34-0 (N-P{sub 2}0{sub 5}-K{sub 2}0). The process was profitable and easy to operate, the product was well accepted by both farmers and dealers, and 10-34-0 became the premium phosphate fertilizer used in the United States. Approximately 120 to 130 of these type units have been constructed and operated in the United States in the last 20 years. During that time, the process design has remained essentially unchanged. The direct contact between the hot fertilizer product and the air results in some free ammonia being stripped from the product and emitted from the top of the cooling tower. At the time most of the plants were constructed, there was little concern over these losses because (1) there were very few regulations dealing with ammonia and (2) most of the plants were originally built and operated in rural areas away from population centers and emissions that occurred went essentially unnoticed. However, as a result of this study, process changes that can reduce ammonia, as well as fluoride and particulate emissions have been identified and mad available to generators. In addition a potential process for the total elimination of emissions has been developed and made available on a trial basis.

  16. The dependence of radiolytic H2 generation of the nitrate concentration in high-level solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.; Bibler, N.E.

    1991-11-19

    The rate at which hydrogen is produced from the radiolysis of high-activity waste solutions depends on the radiation dose rate to the solution and the concentration of nitrate ion in solution. At a constant dose rate, the hydrogen generation rate decreases as the nitrate ion concentration increases. Using previously measured rates of hydrogen production, an equation has been derived which calculates the hydrogen generation rate when the nitrate ion concentration is known. The hydrogen generation rate from this equation can be used to more accurately predict hydrogen production in waste tanks than is currently obtained assuming a fixed generation rate. The current fixed rate underestimates the hydrogen produced in dilute waste solutions.

  17. Generation of reactive oxidative species from thermal treatment of sugar solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingyang; Durand, Erwann; Elias, Ryan J; Tikekar, Rohan V

    2016-04-01

    Sugars, prominently fructose, have been shown to accelerate the degradation of food components during thermal treatment. Yet, the mechanism by which this occurs is not well understood. Fructose and glucose have been reported to undergo autoxidation to generate reactive oxidative species (ROS) under physiological conditions; however, information on ROS generation during thermal treatment is limited. We observed that hydrogen peroxide was generated during thermal treatment (up to 70 °C) of aqueous solutions of fructose and glucose (up to 10% w/v), with significantly higher concentrations observed in fructose solutions. The rate of generation of hydrogen peroxide increased with temperature, pH, oxygen concentration and the presence of phosphate buffer. Singlet oxygen was also detected in fructose and glucose solutions prepared in phosphate buffer. Results of this study indicated that fructose and glucose undergo oxidation during thermal treatment resulting in generation of ROS that may have deleterious effects on food components. PMID:26593495

  18. Photochemical method for generating superoxide radicals (O.sub.2.sup.-) in aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Holroyd, Richard A.; Bielski, Benon H. J.

    1980-01-01

    A photochemical method and apparatus for generating superoxide radicals (ub.2.sup.-) in an aqueous solution by means of a vacuum-ultraviolet lamp of simple design. The lamp is a microwave powered rare gas device that emits far-ultraviolet light. The lamp includes an inner loop of high purity quartz tubing through which flows an oxygen-saturated sodium formate solution. The inner loop is designed so that the solution is subjected to an intense flux of far-ultraviolet light. This causes the solution to photodecompose and form the product radical (O.sub.2.sup.-).

  19. Technical report series on global modeling and data assimilation. Volume 2: Direct solution of the implicit formulation of fourth order horizontal diffusion for gridpoint models on the sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Yong; Moorthi, S.; Bates, J. Ray; Suarez, Max J.

    1994-01-01

    High order horizontal diffusion of the form K Delta(exp 2m) is widely used in spectral models as a means of preventing energy accumulation at the shortest resolved scales. In the spectral context, an implicit formation of such diffusion is trivial to implement. The present note describes an efficient method of implementing implicit high order diffusion in global finite difference models. The method expresses the high order diffusion equation as a sequence of equations involving Delta(exp 2). The solution is obtained by combining fast Fourier transforms in longitude with a finite difference solver for the second order ordinary differential equation in latitude. The implicit diffusion routine is suitable for use in any finite difference global model that uses a regular latitude/longitude grid. The absence of a restriction on the timestep makes it particularly suitable for use in semi-Lagrangian models. The scale selectivity of the high order diffusion gives it an advantage over the uncentering method that has been used to control computational noise in two-time-level semi-Lagrangian models.

  20. Analytical solution for the diffusion of a capacitor discharge generated magnetic field pulse in a conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grants, Ilmārs; Bojarevičs, Andris; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2016-06-01

    Powerful forces arise when a pulse of a magnetic field in the order of a few tesla diffuses into a conductor. Such pulses are used in electromagnetic forming, impact welding of dissimilar materials and grain refinement of solidifying alloys. Strong magnetic field pulses are generated by the discharge current of a capacitor bank. We consider analytically the penetration of such pulse into a conducting half-space. Besides the exact solution we obtain two simple self-similar approximate solutions for two sequential stages of the initial transient. Furthermore, a general solution is provided for the external field given as a power series of time. Each term of this solution represents a self-similar function for which we obtain an explicit expression. The validity range of various approximate analytical solutions is evaluated by comparison to the exact solution.

  1. Far-out thinking: generating solutions to distant analogies promotes relational thinking.

    PubMed

    Vendetti, Michael S; Wu, Aaron; Holyoak, Keith J

    2014-04-01

    Is it possible to induce a mind-set that will affect relational thinking in a subsequent reasoning task involving unrelated materials? We investigated whether evaluating the validity of verbal analogies (Experiment 1a) or generating solutions for them (Experiment 1b) could induce a relational mind-set that would transfer to an unrelated picture-mapping task. The verbal analogies were based on either near or far semantic relations. We found that generating (but not evaluating) solutions for semantically distant analogies increased the proportion of relational mappings on the transfer task, even after we controlled for fluid intelligence and response time. Solving near analogies did not produce transfer. Generation of solutions to far analogies appears to provide a potent method for triggering a mind-set that can enhance relational thinking in a different task. PMID:24463552

  2. Grid generation and flow solution method for Euler equations on unstructured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. Kyle

    1992-01-01

    A grid generation and flow solution algorithm for the Euler equations on unstructured grids is presented. The grid generation scheme, which uses Delaunay triangulation, generates the field points for the mesh based on cell aspect ratios and allows clustering of grid points near solid surfaces. The flow solution method is an implicit algorithm in which the linear set of equations arising at each time step is solved using a Gauss-Seidel procedure that is completely vectorizable. Also, a study is conducted to examine the number of subiterations required for good convergence of the overall algorithm. Grid generation results are shown in two dimensions for an NACA 0012 airfoil as well as a two element configuration. Flow solution results are shown for a two dimensional flow over the NACA 0012 airfoil and for a two element configuration in which the solution was obtained through an adaptation procedure and compared with an exact solution. Preliminary three dimensional results also are shown in which the subsonic flow over a business jet is computed.

  3. A grid generation and flow solution method for the Euler equations on unstructured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. Kyle

    1994-01-01

    A grid generation and flow solution algorithm for the Euler equations on unstructured grids is presented. The grid generation scheme utilizes Delaunay triangulation and self-generates the field points for the mesh based on cell aspect ratios and allows for clustering near solid surfaces. The flow solution method is an implicit algorithm in which the linear set of equations arising at each time step is solved using a Gauss Seidel procedure which is completely vectorizable. In addition, a study is conducted to examine the number of subiterations required for good convergence of the overall algorithm. Grid generation results are shown in two dimensions for a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil as well as a two-element configuration. Flow solution results are shown for two-dimensional flow over the NACA 0012 airfoil and for a two-element configuration in which the solution has been obtained through an adaptation procedure and compared to an exact solution. Preliminary three-dimensional results are also shown in which subsonic flow over a business jet is computed.

  4. Device to generate high purity hydroxide solution in-line for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Masunaga, Hiroto; Higo, Yuji; Ishii, Mizuo; Maruyama, Noboru; Yamazaki, Shigeo

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we report a new device that generates a high-purity hydroxide solution in line. The device's container has three compartments that are isolated from each other by two cation exchange (CE) membranes. In each end of the container, an electrode is installed. The three compartments are filled with ion exchange resins. A bipolar boundary is a composite boundary comprising anion- and cation-exchangers. This device has two bipolar boundaries, which are used to separate the location of hydroxide solution generation from the location where water is electrolyzed. Therefore, it can produce high-purity hydroxide solutions that are free from gases and anionic impurities. The hydroxide solution is generated on the basis of an electrokinetic phenomenon at the surfaces of ion-exchange resins and membranes in an electric field; NaOH concentration can be controlled at rates from 0.01 to 100mM per 1mL/min by adjusting the electrical current (0-200mA) applied to the device. As the generated solution is used as an eluent for a suppressed anion chromatography, the electrical conductivity of the effluent from the suppressor is as low as that of ultra-pure water. Thus, the noise of the base-line electrical conductivity is improved, and so the detection limit of anions on the sub-ng/mL order can be achieved. PMID:27063368

  5. A grid generation and flow solution method for the Euler equations on unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.K. )

    1994-01-01

    A grid generation and flow solution algorithm for the Euler equations on unstructured grids is presented. The grid generation scheme utilizes Delaunay triangulation and self-generates the field points for the mesh based on cell aspect ratios and allows for clustering near solid surfaces. The flow solution method is an implicit algorithm in which the linear set or equations arising at each time step is solved using a Gauss Seidel procedure which is completely vectorizable. In addition, a study is conducted to examine the number of subiterations required for good convergence of the overall algorithm. Grid generation results are shown in two dimensions for a NACA 0012 airfoil as well as two-element configuration. Flow solution results are shown for two-dimensional flow over the NACA 0012 airfoil and for a two-element configuration in which the solution has been obtained through an adaptation procedure and compared to an exact solution. Preliminary three-dimensional results are also shown in which subsonic flow over a business jet is computed. 31 refs. 30 figs.

  6. Lateral transport of solutes in microfluidic channels using electrochemically generated gradients in redox-active surfactants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2011-04-15

    We report principles for a continuous flow process that can separate solutes based on a driving force for selective transport that is generated by a lateral concentration gradient of a redox-active surfactant across a microfluidic channel. Microfluidic channels fabricated with gold electrodes lining each vertical wall were used to electrochemically generate concentration gradients of the redox-active surfactant 11-ferrocenylundecyl-trimethylammonium bromide (FTMA) in a direction perpendicular to the flow. The interactions of three solutes (a hydrophobic dye, 1-phenylazo-2-naphthylamine (yellow AB), an amphiphilic molecule, 2-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (BODIPY C(5)-HPC), and an organic salt, 1-methylpyridinium-3-sulfonate (MPS)) with the lateral gradients in surfactant/micelle concentration were shown to drive the formation of solute-specific concentration gradients. Two distinct physical mechanisms were identified to lead to the solute concentration gradients: solubilization of solutes by micelles and differential adsorption of the solutes onto the walls of the microchannels in the presence of the surfactant concentration gradient. These two mechanisms were used to demonstrate delipidation of a mixture of BODIPY C(5)-HPC (lipid) and MPS and purification of BODIPY C(5)-HPC from a mixture of BODIPY C(5)-HPC and yellow AB. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that lateral concentration gradients of redox-active surfactants formed within microfluidic channels can be used to transport solutes across the microfluidic channels in a solute-dependent manner. The approach employs electrical potentials (<1 V) that are sufficiently small to avoid electrolysis of water, can be performed in solutions having high ionic strength (>0.1M), and offers the basis of continuous processes for the purification or separation of solutes in microscale systems. PMID:21446653

  7. Generation of singlet oxygen in fullerene-containing media: 2. Fullerene-containing solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bagrov, I V; Belousova, I M; Grenishin, A S; Danilov, O B; Ermakov, A V; Kiselev, V M; Kislyakov, I M; Murav'eva, T D; Sosnov, E N

    2008-03-31

    The generation of singlet oxygen in fullerene solutions is studied by luminescence methods upon excitation by pulsed, repetitively pulsed, and continuous radiation sources. The concentration of singlet oxygen in solutions is measured in stationary and pulsed irradiation regimes. The rate constants of quenching of O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}{sub g}) by fullerenes C{sub 70} and C{sub 60} in the CCl{sub 4} solution are measured to be (7.2{+-}0.1)x10{sup 7} L mol{sup -1} s{sup -1} and less than 6x10{sup 4} L mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. The temperature and photolytic variations in the generation properties of the fullerene solution exposed to intense continuous radiation are studied by the methods of optical and EPR spectroscopy. Pulsed irradiation resulted in the production of singlet oxygen in suspensions of fullerene-like structures, in particular, astralenes. A liquid pulsed singlet-oxygen generator based on the fullerene solution in CCl{sub 4} is developed and studied, in which the yield of O{sub 2} ({sup 1}{delta}{sub g}) to the gas phase at concentrations up to 5x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} is obtained. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  8. Bilinear forms and soliton solutions for a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an inhomogeneous Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain or an alpha helical protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Wei; Gao, Yi-Tian; Wang, Qi-Min; Su, Chuan-Qi; Feng, Yu-Jie; Yu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation is studied, which might describe a one-dimensional continuum anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with the octuple-dipole interaction or an alpha helical protein with higher-order excitations and interactions under continuum approximation. With the aid of auxiliary function, we derive the bilinear forms and corresponding constraints on the variable coefficients. Via the symbolic computation, we obtain the Lax pair, infinitely many conservation laws, one-, two- and three-soliton solutions. We discuss the influence of the variable coefficients on the solitons. With different choices of the variable coefficients, we obtain the parabolic, cubic, and periodic solitons, respectively. We analyse the head-on and overtaking interactions between/among the two and three solitons. Interactions between a bound state and a single soliton are displayed with different choices of variable coefficients. We also derive the quasi-periodic formulae for the three cases of the bound states.

  9. Discretization error estimation and exact solution generation using the method of nearby problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Andrew J.; Raju, Anil; Kurzen, Matthew J.; Roy, Christopher John; Phillips, Tyrone S.

    2011-10-01

    The Method of Nearby Problems (MNP), a form of defect correction, is examined as a method for generating exact solutions to partial differential equations and as a discretization error estimator. For generating exact solutions, four-dimensional spline fitting procedures were developed and implemented into a MATLAB code for generating spline fits on structured domains with arbitrary levels of continuity between spline zones. For discretization error estimation, MNP/defect correction only requires a single additional numerical solution on the same grid (as compared to Richardson extrapolation which requires additional numerical solutions on systematically-refined grids). When used for error estimation, it was found that continuity between spline zones was not required. A number of cases were examined including 1D and 2D Burgers equation, the 2D compressible Euler equations, and the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The discretization error estimation results compared favorably to Richardson extrapolation and had the advantage of only requiring a single grid to be generated.

  10. Fourth Annual Progress Report on the Electrofluid Dynamic Wind Generator: Final Report for the Period 1 April 1979 - 31 August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Minardi, J. E.; Lawson, M. O.; Wattendorf, F. L.

    1981-08-01

    Conventional wind energy systems are limited in wind turbine diameter by allowable rotor stresses at power levels of several megawatts. In contrast, the Electrofluid Dynamic (EFD) wind driven generator has no fundamental limits on cross sectional area. It is a direct energy conversion device which employs unipolar charged particles transported by the wind against a retarding voltage gradient to a high potential. As no moving parts are exposed to the wind, extremely large power units may be feasible.

  11. Hydrogen generation by tin corrosion in lactic acid solution promoted by sodium perchlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyab, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    A method to produce high purity hydrogen using the corrosion of tin metal in lactic acid solutions is studied. The addition of sodium perchlorate has been also investigated for promoting the tin-lactic acid reaction. The data reveal that the rate of hydrogen production increases with increasing lactic acid concentration. The presence of perchlorate ions in lactic acid solution enhances the active dissolution of tin metal and tends to breakdown the passive film and promoting the hydrogen generation rate. Polarization measurements show that the breakdown potential (Epit) decreases with increase in sodium perchlorate concentration. An increase in temperature accelerates the rate of solubility of passive layer on the tin surface. Moreover, a synergistic effect of sodium perchlorate in combination with increasing the solution temperature is key in promoting the hydrogen generation rate. Results obtained from hydrogen and polarization measurements are in good agreement. These measurements are complemented with SEM, EDX and XRD examinations of the electrode surface.

  12. Fourth Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshop on Benchmark Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Fourth Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshop on Benchmark Problems. In this workshop, as in previous workshops, the problems were devised to gauge the technological advancement of computational techniques to calculate all aspects of sound generation and propagation in air directly from the fundamental governing equations. A variety of benchmark problems have been previously solved ranging from simple geometries with idealized acoustic conditions to test the accuracy and effectiveness of computational algorithms and numerical boundary conditions; to sound radiation from a duct; to gust interaction with a cascade of airfoils; to the sound generated by a separating, turbulent viscous flow. By solving these and similar problems, workshop participants have shown the technical progress from the basic challenges to accurate CAA calculations to the solution of CAA problems of increasing complexity and difficulty. The fourth CAA workshop emphasized the application of CAA methods to the solution of realistic problems. The workshop was held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio, on October 20 to 22, 2003. At that time, workshop participants presented their solutions to problems in one or more of five categories. Their solutions are presented in this proceedings along with the comparisons of their solutions to the benchmark solutions or experimental data. The five categories for the benchmark problems were as follows: Category 1:Basic Methods. The numerical computation of sound is affected by, among other issues, the choice of grid used and by the boundary conditions. Category 2:Complex Geometry. The ability to compute the sound in the presence of complex geometric surfaces is important in practical applications of CAA. Category 3:Sound Generation by Interacting With a Gust. The practical application of CAA for computing noise generated by turbomachinery involves the modeling of the noise source mechanism as a

  13. Online integrated solution to collect data, generate information and manage events in the human biomonitoring field.

    PubMed

    Reis, M Fátima; Tedim, João; Aguiar, Pedro; Miguel, J Pereira; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Van Tongelen, Birgit

    2007-05-01

    In the ambit of Work Package 1 of the ESBIO Project, an online integrated solution to collect data, to generate information, and to manage mainly information-sharing events related with human biomonitoring within Europe has been designed and is being implemented. The present paper summarises the methodological approaches used by the authors as proposers, general promoters and disseminators of this strategic concept, as well as the first outcomes and future actions to be taken, in the short and longer term, to face present and future challenges to make this innovative solution happen. PMID:17344095

  14. Pitting of steam-generator tubing alloys in solutions containing thiosulfate and sulfate or chloride.

    PubMed

    Zhang, William; Carcea, Anatolie G; Newman, Roger C

    2015-01-01

    The pitting of nuclear steam generator tubing alloys 600, 690 and 800 was studied at 60 °C using dilute thiosulfate solutions containing excess sulfate or (for Alloy 600) chloride. A potentiostatic scratch method was used. In sulfate solutions, all alloys pitted at low potentials, reflecting their lack of protective Mo. The alloys demonstrated the most severe pitting at a sulfate : thiosulfate concentration ratio of ∼40. Alloy 600 pitted worst at a chloride : thiosulfate ratio of ∼2000. The results are interpreted through the mutual electromigration of differently charged anions into a pit nucleus, and differences in the major alloy component. PMID:25898311

  15. Calculated performance of broadband secondary x-ray imaging (SXI) based on fourth generation sources and optics and its potential application to human angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csonka, Paul L.

    2005-08-01

    A calculation was carried out to evaluate the capabilities of Secondary X-ray Imaging (SXI), applied to human angiography. A primary photon pencil beam is rastered through the human heart, in two directions perpendicular to the primary photon beam. The signal is generated by fluorescent photons from a contrast agent, registered by a wide angle detector. One result is clearer images and a reduction of shadowing by obstructions inside the body. Sharp imaging is compatible with locally quantitative measurements, and also with pixel by pixel elemental analysis. The detector need not be position sensitive. Most of the primary beam will be scattered before they reach the target, but unscattered primary beam remains well focused. To discriminate against scattered background, the photons have to pass through a position/momentum selector, a W - Hf absorber shield, and a time window. The calcualation gives the approximate energy spectrum for the scattered photons, for the photons passing through the position/momentum selector, and for those at thefar side of the absorber shield. The last two are evaluated for time windows between 1000 and 167 ps. The surviving background causes relative image intensity fluctuations of the order of a percent. The primary beam intensity required for SXI is comparable or less than the intensity needed for Iodine K-edge subtraction (KES) imaging, but for SXI the primary photon energy spread may be one or two orders higher than what is needed for KES. Therefore, the requirements on the primary photon source an be relaxed. With an undulator as source, monochromatization may not be needed. That would further reduce the cost of the photon source, which may be a small low energy electron ring.

  16. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  17. Fourth-Generation Epac-Based FRET Sensors for cAMP Feature Exceptional Brightness, Photostability and Dynamic Range: Characterization of Dedicated Sensors for FLIM, for Ratiometry and with High Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Klarenbeek, Jeffrey; Goedhart, Joachim; van Batenburg, Aernoud; Groenewald, Daniella; Jalink, Kees

    2015-01-01

    Epac-based FRET sensors have been widely used for the detection of cAMP concentrations in living cells. Originally developed by us as well as others, we have since then reported several important optimizations that make these sensors favourite among many cell biologists. We here report cloning and characterization of our fourth generation of cAMP sensors, which feature outstanding photostability, dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratio. The design is based on mTurquoise2, currently the brightest and most bleaching-resistant donor, and a new acceptor cassette that consists of a tandem of two cp173Venus fluorophores. We also report variants with a single point mutation, Q270E, in the Epac moiety, which decreases the dissociation constant of cAMP from 9.5 to 4 μM, and thus increases the affinity ~ 2.5-fold. Finally, we also prepared and characterized dedicated variants with non-emitting (dark) acceptors for single-wavelength FLIM acquisition that display an exceptional near-doubling of fluorescence lifetime upon saturation of cAMP levels. We believe this generation of cAMP outperforms all other sensors and therefore recommend these sensors for all future studies. PMID:25875503

  18. Euler solutions for self-generated rotor blade-vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, A. A.; Tung, C.; Sankar, L. N.

    1990-01-01

    A finite-difference procedure was developed, on the basis of the conservation form of the unsteady three-dimensional Euler equations, for the prediction of rotor blade-vortex interactions (BVIs). Numerical solution procedures were obtained for the analysis of the model parallel BVIs and the more realistic helicopter self-generated-rotor BVIs. It was found that, for self-generated subcritical interactions, the accuracy of the predicted leading edge pressures relied heavily on the user-specified vortex core radius and on the CAMRAD-code-predicted geometry of the interaction vortex elements and their relative orientation with respect to the blade. It was also found that the free-wake model used in CAMRAD to predict the tip vortex trajectory for use in the Euler solution yields lower streamwise and higher axial wake convective velocities than those inferred from the experimental data.

  19. Solution Synthesis and Processing of PZT Materials for Neutron Generator Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.A.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Montoya, T.V.; Moore, R.H.; Sipola, D.L.; Tuttle, B.A.; Voigt, J.A.

    1998-12-01

    A new solution synthesis route has been developed for the preparation of lead-based ferroelectric materials (patent filed). The process produces controlled stoichiometry precursor powders by non-aqueous precipitation. For a given ferroelectric material to be prepared, a metal acetate/alkoxide solution containing constituent metal species in the appropriate ratio is mixed with an oxalic acid/n-propanol precipitant solution. An oxalate coprecipitate is instantly fonned upon mixing that quantitatively removes the metals from solution. Most of the process development was focused on the synthesis and processing of niobium-substituted lead zirconate titanate with a Zr-to-Ti ratio of 95:5 (PNZT 95/5) that has an application in neutron generator power supplies. The process was scaled to produce 1.6 kg of the PNZT 95/5 powder using either a sen-ii-batch or a continuous precipitation scheme. Several of the PNZT 95/5 powder lots were processed into ceramic slug form. The slugs in turn were processed into components and characterized. The physical properties and electrical performance (including explosive functional testing of the components met the requirements set for the neutron generator application. Also, it has been demonstrated that the process is highly reproducible with respect to the properties of the powders it produces and the properties of the ceramics prepared from its powders. The work described in this report was funded by Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  20. Exploring the Loading Capacity of Generation Six to Eight Dendronized Polymers in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Yu, Hao; Messmer, Daniel; Zhang, Baozhong; Schlüter, A Dieter; Hinderberger, Dariush

    2016-09-01

    Aspects of size, structural (im)perfection, inner density, and guest molecule loading capacity of dendronized polymers (DPs) of high generation (6≤g≤8) in aqueous solution are studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy on amphiphilic, spin-labeled guest molecules. The results show that the interior of the charged DPs is strongly polar, especially in comparison to their lower generation (1-4) analogues. This is a direct sign that large amounts of water penetrate the DP surface, reflecting the structural (im)perfections of these high-generation DPs and much lower segmental densities than theoretically achievable. Images obtained with atomic force microscopy reveal that the high-generation DPs do not aggregate and give further insights into the structural imperfections. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic data further show that despite their structural imperfections, these DPs can bind and release large numbers of amphiphilic molecules. It is concluded that attention should be paid to their synthesis, for which a protocol needs to be developed that avoids the relatively large amount of defects generated in the direct conversion of a generation g=4 DP to a generation g=6 DP, which had to be used here. PMID:27273228

  1. Gravitational waves in fourth order gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozziello, S.; Stabile, A.

    2015-08-01

    In the post-Minkowskian limit approximation, we study gravitational wave solutions for general fourth-order theories of gravity. Specifically, we consider a Lagrangian with a generic function of curvature invariants . It is well known that when dealing with General Relativity such an approach provides massless spin-two waves as propagating degree of freedom of the gravitational field while this theory implies other additional propagating modes in the gravity spectra. We show that, in general, fourth order gravity, besides the standard massless graviton is characterized by two further massive modes with a finite-distance interaction. We find out the most general gravitational wave solutions in terms of Green functions in vacuum and in presence of matter sources. If an electromagnetic source is chosen, only the modes induced by are present, otherwise, for any gravity model, we have the complete analogy with tensor modes of General Relativity. Polarizations and helicity states are classified in the hypothesis of plane wave.

  2. Fourth order difference methods for hyperbolic IBVP's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafsson, Bertil; Olsson, Pelle

    1994-01-01

    Fourth order difference approximations of initial-boundary value problems for hyperbolic partial differential equations are considered. We use the method of lines approach with both explicit and compact implicit difference operators in space. The explicit operator satisfies an energy estimate leading to strict stability. For the implicit operator we develop boundary conditions and give a complete proof of strong stability using the Laplace transform technique. We also present numerical experiments for the linear advection equation and Burgers' equation with discontinuities in the solution or in its derivative. The first equation is used for modeling contact discontinuities in fluid dynamics, the second one for modeling shocks and rarefaction waves. The time discretization is done with a third order Runge-Kutta TVD method. For solutions with discontinuities in the solution itself we add a filter based on second order viscosity. In case of the non-linear Burger's equation we use a flux splitting technique that results in an energy estimate for certain different approximations, in which case also an entropy condition is fulfilled. In particular we shall demonstrate that the unsplit conservative form produces a non-physical shock instead of the physically correct rarefaction wave. In the numerical experiments we compare our fourth order methods with a standard second order one and with a third order TVD-method. The results show that the fourth order methods are the only ones that give good results for all the considered test problems.

  3. Generation of hydrogen peroxide from San Joaquin Valley particles in a cell-free solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H.; Barakat, A. I.; Anastasio, C.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects. One proposed mechanism of PM-mediated health effects is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - e.g., superoxide (•O2-), hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), and hydroxyl radical (•OH) - followed by oxidative stress. There are very few quantitative, specific measures of individual ROS generated from PM, but this information would help to more quantitatively address the link between ROS and the health effects of PM. To address this gap, we quantified the generation of HOOH by PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California during summer and winter from 2006 to 2009. HOOH was quantified by HPLC after extracting the PM in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution with or without 50 μM ascorbate (Asc). Our results show that the urban PM generally generates much more HOOH than the rural PM but that there is no apparent seasonal difference in HOOH generation. In nearly all of the samples the addition of a physiologically relevant concentration of Asc greatly enhances HOOH formation, but a few of the coarse PM samples were able to generate a considerable amount of HOOH in the absence of added Asc, indicating the presence of unknown reductants. Normalized by air volume, the fine PM (PM2.5) generally makes more HOOH than the corresponding coarse PM (PMcf, i.e., 2.5 to 10 μm), primarily because the mass concentration of PM2.5 is much higher than that of PMcf. However, normalized by PM mass, the coarse PM typically generates more HOOH than the fine PM. The amount of HOOH produced by SJV PM is reduced on average by (78 ± 15)% when the transition metal chelator desferoxamine (DSF) is added to the extraction solution, indicating that transition metals play a dominant role in HOOH generation. By measuring calibration curves of HOOH generation from copper, and quantifying copper

  4. Generation of hydrogen peroxide from San Joaquin Valley particles in a cell-free solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H.; Barakat, A. I.; Anastasio, C.

    2010-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects. One proposed mechanism of PM-mediated health effects is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - e.g., superoxide (•O2-), hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), and hydroxyl radical (•OH) - followed by oxidative stress. There are very few quantitative, specific measures of individual ROS generated from PM, but this information would help to more quantitatively address the link between ROS and the health effects of PM. To address this gap, we quantified the generation of HOOH by PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California during summer and winter from 2006 to 2009. HOOH was quantified by HPLC after extracting the PM in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution with or without 50 μM ascorbate (Asc). Our results show that the urban PM generally generates much more HOOH than the rural PM but that there is no apparent seasonal difference in HOOH generation. In nearly all of the samples the addition of a physiologically relevant concentration of Asc greatly enhances HOOH formation, but a few of the coarse PM samples were able to generate a considerable amount of HOOH in the absence of added Asc, indicating the presence of unknown reductants. Normalized by air volume, the fine PM (PM2.5) generally makes more HOOH than the corresponding coarse PM (PMcf, i.e., 2.5 to 10 μm), primarily because the mass concentration of PM2.5 is much higher than that of PMcf. However, normalized by PM mass, the coarse PM typically generates more HOOH than the fine PM. The amount of HOOH produced by SJV PM is reduced on average by (78±15)% when the transition metal chelator desferoxamine (DSF) is added to the extraction solution, indicating that transition metals play a dominant role in HOOH generation. By measuring calibration curves of HOOH generation from copper, and quantifying copper

  5. Combined CDF and D0 upper limits on $gg\\to H\\to W^+W^-$ and constraints on the Higgs boson mass in fourth-generation fermion models with up to 8.2 fb$^{-1}$ of data

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Doug; /Tufts U.

    2011-08-01

    We combine results from searches by the CDF and D0 Collaborations for a standard model Higgs boson (H) in the processes gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} and gg {yields} H {yields} ZZ in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. With 8.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity analyzed at CDF and 8.1 fb{sup -1} at D0, the 95% C.L. upper limit on {sigma}(gg {yields} H) x {Beta}(H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -}) is 1.01 pb at m{sub H} = 120 GeV, 0.40 pb at m{sub H} = 165 GeV, and 0.47 pb at m{sub H} = 200 GeV. Assuming the presence of a fourth sequential generation of fermions with large masses, we exclude at the 95% Confidence Level a standard-model-like Higgs boson with a mass between 124 and 286 GeV.

  6. Generation of micro- and nano-droplets containing immiscible solutions in view of optical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastasa, V.; Karapantsios, T.; Samaras, K.; Dafnopatidou, E.; Pradines, V.; Miller, R.; Pascu, M. L.

    2010-08-01

    The multiple resistances to treatment, developed by bacteria and malignant tumors require finding alternatives to the existing medicines and treatment procedures. One of them is strengthening the effects of cytostatics by improving the delivery method. Such a method is represented by the use of medicines as micro/nano-droplets. This method can reduce the substance consumption by generating drug micro-droplets incorporated in substances that can favour a faster localization, than the classical mode of medicine administration, to the tumor tissues. This paper contains the results concerning the generation and study of micro/nano-droplets and the generation of micro-droplets with an inner core (medicine) and a thin layer covering it. We have measured the surface tension at water/air interface and water/oil interface for a medicine (Vancomycin) and we have generated and measured droplets of medicine containing a layer of Vitamin A by using a double capillary system. The micro/nano-droplets may be produced by mixing of two immiscible solutions in particular conditions (high rotating speed and/or high pressure difference). For this we have studied the generation of emulsions of vitamin A diluted in sunflower oil and a solution of a surfactant Tween 80 in distilled water. The concentration of surfactant in water was typically 4*10-5M. We have studied in a batch stirred tank system the dependence of the droplet dimensions in emulsion, function of the mixing rotation speed, agitation time and components ratio. The droplet diameters were measured using a Malvern light scattering instrument type Mastersizer Hydro 2000M. We have obtained droplets with diameters smaller than 100 nm; the diameters distribution exhibited a peak at 65 nm.

  7. Elastic parabolic equation solutions for oceanic T-wave generation and propagation from deep seismic sources.

    PubMed

    Frank, Scott D; Collis, Jon M; Odom, Robert I

    2015-06-01

    Oceanic T-waves are earthquake signals that originate when elastic waves interact with the fluid-elastic interface at the ocean bottom and are converted to acoustic waves in the ocean. These waves propagate long distances in the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) channel and tend to be the largest observed arrivals from seismic events. Thus, an understanding of their generation is important for event detection, localization, and source-type discrimination. Recently benchmarked seismic self-starting fields are used to generate elastic parabolic equation solutions that demonstrate generation and propagation of oceanic T-waves in range-dependent underwater acoustic environments. Both downward sloping and abyssal ocean range-dependent environments are considered, and results demonstrate conversion of elastic waves into water-borne oceanic T-waves. Examples demonstrating long-range broadband T-wave propagation in range-dependent environments are shown. These results confirm that elastic parabolic equation solutions are valuable for characterization of the relationships between T-wave propagation and variations in range-dependent bathymetry or elastic material parameters, as well as for modeling T-wave receptions at hydrophone arrays or coastal receiving stations. PMID:26093440

  8. Simultaneous solution-based generation and characterization of crystalline bismuth thin film by femtosecond laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liangdong; Saha, Sumit; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Yanli; Keszler, Douglas A.; Fang, Chong

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate generation and characterization of crystalline bismuth thin film from triphenyl bismuth in methanol. Upon ultraviolet (267 nm) femtosecond laser irradiation of the solution, a thin film of elemental bismuth forms on the inner side of the sample cuvette, confirmed by detection of the coherent A1g optical phonon mode of crystalline bismuth at ˜90 cm-1. Probe pulses at 267 and 400 nm are used to elucidate the excited state potential energy surface and photochemical reaction coordinate of triphenyl bismuth in solution with femtosecond resolution. The observed phonon mode blueshifts with increasing irradiation time, likely due to the gradual thickening of nascent bismuth thin film to ˜80 nm in 90 min. From transient absorption with the 400 nm probe, we observe a dominant ˜4 ps decay time constant of the excited-state absorption signal, which is attributed to a characteristic metal-ligand bond-weakening/breaking intermediate enroute to crystalline metallic thin film from the solution precursor molecules. Our versatile optical setup thus opens an appealing avenue to characterize the laser-induced crystallization process in situ and prepare high-quality thin films and nanopatterns directly from solution phase.

  9. Simultaneous solution-based generation and characterization of crystalline bismuth thin film by femtosecond laser spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Liangdong; Keszler, Douglas A.; Fang, Chong; Saha, Sumit; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Yanli

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate generation and characterization of crystalline bismuth thin film from triphenyl bismuth in methanol. Upon ultraviolet (267 nm) femtosecond laser irradiation of the solution, a thin film of elemental bismuth forms on the inner side of the sample cuvette, confirmed by detection of the coherent A{sub 1g} optical phonon mode of crystalline bismuth at ∼90 cm{sup −1}. Probe pulses at 267 and 400 nm are used to elucidate the excited state potential energy surface and photochemical reaction coordinate of triphenyl bismuth in solution with femtosecond resolution. The observed phonon mode blueshifts with increasing irradiation time, likely due to the gradual thickening of nascent bismuth thin film to ∼80 nm in 90 min. From transient absorption with the 400 nm probe, we observe a dominant ∼4 ps decay time constant of the excited-state absorption signal, which is attributed to a characteristic metal-ligand bond-weakening/breaking intermediate enroute to crystalline metallic thin film from the solution precursor molecules. Our versatile optical setup thus opens an appealing avenue to characterize the laser-induced crystallization process in situ and prepare high-quality thin films and nanopatterns directly from solution phase.

  10. Poor performance of the determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab combo fourth-generation rapid test for detection of acute infections in a National Household Survey in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Duong, Yen T; Mavengere, Yvonne; Patel, Hetal; Moore, Carole; Manjengwa, Julius; Sibandze, Dumile; Rasberry, Christopher; Mlambo, Charmaine; Li, Zhi; Emel, Lynda; Bock, Naomi; Moore, Jan; Nkambule, Rejoice; Justman, Jessica; Reed, Jason; Bicego, George; Ellenberger, Dennis L; Nkengasong, John N; Parekh, Bharat S

    2014-10-01

    Fourth-generation HIV rapid tests (RTs) claim to detect both p24 antigen (Ag) and HIV antibodies (Ab) for early identification of acute infections, important for targeting prevention and reducing HIV transmission. In a nationally representative household survey in Swaziland, 18,172 adults, age 18 to 49 years, received home-based HIV rapid testing in 2010 and 2011. Of the 18,172 individuals, 5,822 (32.0%) were Ab positive (Ab(+)) by the Determine HIV-1/2 Ab/Ab combo test, and 5,789 (99.4%) of those were confirmed to be reactive in the Uni-Gold test. Determine combo identified 12 individuals as having acute infections (Ag(+)/Ab negative [Ab(-)]); however, none had detectable HIV-1 RNA and 8 of 12 remained HIV negative at their 6-week follow-up visit (4 were lost to follow-up). All RT-nonreactive samples were pooled and tested by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) to identify acute infections. NAAT identified 13 (0.1%) of the 12,338 HIV antibody-negative specimens as HIV RNA positive, with RNA levels ranging from 300 to >10,000,000 copies/ml. However, none of them were Ag(+) by Determine combo. Follow-up testing of 12 of the 13 NAAT-positive individuals at 6 months demonstrated 12 seroconversions (1 individual was lost to follow-up). Therefore, the Determine combo test had a sensitivity of 0% (95% confidence interval, 0 to 28) and positive predictive value of 0% for the detection of acute infections. The ability of the 4th-generation Determine combo to detect antigen was very poor in Swaziland. Thus, the Determine combo test does not add any value to the current testing algorithm; rather, it adds additional costs and complexity to HIV diagnosis. The detection of acute HIV infections may need to rely on other testing strategies. PMID:25122853

  11. Transport of conservative solutes in simulated fracture networks: 1. Synthetic data generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Donald M.; Benson, David A.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2008-05-01

    This paper investigates whether particle ensembles in a fractured rock domain may be adequately modeled as an operator-stable plume. If this statistical model applies to transport in fractured media, then an ensemble plume in a fractured rock domain may be modeled using the novel Fokker-Planck evolution equation of the operator-stable plume. These plumes (which include the classical multi-Gaussian as a subset) are typically characterized by power law leading-edge concentration profiles and super-Fickian growth rates. To investigate the possible correspondence of ensemble plumes to operator-stable densities, we use numerical simulations of fluid flow and solute transport through large-scale (2.5 km by 2.5 km), randomly generated fracture networks. These two-dimensional networks are generated according to fracture statistics obtained from field studies that describe fracture length, transmissivity, density, and orientation. A fracture continuum approach using MODFLOW is developed for the solution of fluid flow within the fracture network and low-permeability rock matrix, while a particle-tracking code, random walk particle method for simulating transport in heterogeneous permeable media (RWHet), is used to simulate the advective motion of conservative solutes through the model domain. By deterministically mapping individual fractures onto a highly discretized finite difference grid (1 m × 1 m × 1 m here), the MODFLOW "continuum" simulations can faithfully preserve details of the generated network and can approximate fluid flow in a discrete fracture network model. An advantage of the MODFLOW approach is that matrix permeability can be made nonzero to account for any degree of matrix flow and/or transport.

  12. The corrosion effect of ozonated seawater solution on titanium in polymer generated crevice environments

    SciTech Connect

    Leveillee, S.Y.

    1998-01-01

    Two different tests were designed to evaluate the reaction of various polymers and grade-2 titanium in ozonated seawater in conjunction with a comparative analysis in an aerated seawater solution. The first was a weight loss test measuring the weight change of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Polyethylene and Teflon{trademark} in both ozonated and aerated artificial seawater baths. The second test was designed to induce crevice corrosion on the titanium test samples using various crevice generating materials in both ozonated and aerated solutions. The materials used to create the crevices were grade-2 titanium washers, PVC, Polyethylene, Saran and Teflon{trademark}. The weight loss test showed that all three polymers lost weight in the ozonated bath. The results of the titanium washer crevice test provided no indication of corrosion or surface discoloration in either the ozonated or aerated solutions. Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis found no fluorine, chlorine or other corrosion product. The PVC samples in the aerated bath also showed no signs of corrosion, but the PVC samples in the ozonated tank had light brown rings of surface discoloration. One of the ozonated PVC samples did show evidence of chlorine in the corrosion product. The outer circumference of the ozonated PVC washers exhibited the same type bleaching effect as in the weight loss samples, but the whitening of these samples were more pronounced. The polyethylene samples under aeration showed no discoloration or presence of fluorine or chlorine. The polyethylene crevice samples in the ozonated solution all exhibited the distinct brilliant blue color of titanium oxide. Fluorine was found in the corrosion product on only one of the samples. Chlorine was found on the surface of one of the other corrosion coupons. The results of the Teflon{trademark} crevice samples substantiated the previous Rensselaer study.

  13. Use of Mathematical Models to Generate Alternative Solutions to Water Resources Planning Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shoou-Yuh; Brill, E. Downey, Jr.; Hopkins, Lewis D.

    1982-02-01

    An optimization model is generally not a perfect representation of a complex real world planning problem. Optimization models, however, can be used to generate alternatives that are good and different so that analysts and decision makers can examine a wide range of alternatives to gain insight and understanding. Modeling to generate alternatives (MGA) techniques have been designed to serve this purpose. This paper provides a preliminary assessment of the capabilities of the Hop, Skip, Jump (HSJ) method, a random method, and a branch and bound/screening (BBS) method for generating good and different alternative solutions. These three methods are illustrated using an example water resources planning problem represented by a mixed integer programing model. Each method yields sets of alternatives that are different from each other, but for each method the alternatives are different in different ways. Given that all three methods are efficient, it may be most fruitful to use more than one method and thereby to consider alternatives that are not only different, but different in different ways.

  14. Fourth Light at Paranal!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    VLT YEPUN Joins ANTU, KUEYEN and MELIPAL It was a historical moment last night (September 3 - 4, 2000) in the VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory , after nearly 15 years of hard work. Finally, four teams of astronomers and engineers were sitting at the terminals - and each team with access to an 8.2-m telescope! From now on, the powerful "Paranal Quartet" will be observing night after night, with a combined mirror surface of more than 210 m 2. And beginning next year, some of them will be linked to form part of the unique VLT Interferometer with unparalleled sensitivity and image sharpness. YEPUN "First Light" Early in the evening, the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN , was pointed to the sky for the first time and successfully achieved "First Light". Following a few technical exposures, a series of "first light" photos was made of several astronomical objects with the VLT Test Camera. This instrument was also used for the three previous "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). These images served to evaluate provisionally the performance of the new telescope, mainly in terms of mechanical and optical quality. The ESO staff were very pleased with the results and pronounced YEPUN fit for the subsequent commissioning phase. When the name YEPUN was first given to the fourth VLT Unit Telescope, it was supposed to mean "Sirius" in the Mapuche language. However, doubts have since arisen about this translation and a detailed investigation now indicates that the correct meaning is "Venus" (as the Evening Star). For a detailed explanation, please consult the essay On the Meaning of "YEPUN" , now available at the ESO website. The first images At 21:39 hrs local time (01:39 UT), YEPUN was turned to point in the direction of a dense Milky Way field, near the border between the constellations Sagitta (The Arrow) and Aquila (The Eagle). A guide star was acquired and the active optics system quickly optimized the

  15. Charge generation layers for solution processed tandem organic light emitting diodes with regular device architecture.

    PubMed

    Höfle, Stefan; Bernhard, Christoph; Bruns, Michael; Kübel, Christian; Scherer, Torsten; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2015-04-22

    Tandem organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) utilizing fluorescent polymers in both sub-OLEDs and a regular device architecture were fabricated from solution, and their structure and performance characterized. The charge carrier generation layer comprised a zinc oxide layer, modified by a polyethylenimine interface dipole, for electron injection and either MoO3, WO3, or VOx for hole injection into the adjacent sub-OLEDs. ToF-SIMS investigations and STEM-EDX mapping verified the distinct functional layers throughout the layer stack. At a given device current density, the current efficiencies of both sub-OLEDs add up to a maximum of 25 cd/A, indicating a properly working tandem OLED. PMID:25832776

  16. Generation and characterization of alkyl-substituted m-xylylenes in fluid solution at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Gajewski, J.J.; Paul, G.C.; Chang, M.J.; Gortva, A.M. )

    1994-06-15

    Fluoride ion induced generation of isobutylidene from isopropyl trimethylsilyl ketone enol triflate in the presence of 6,6-dimethylfulvene gives the [2.2]-m-cyclophane dimer of [alpha],[alpha],[alpha][prime],[alpha][prime]-tetramethyl-m-xylylene. When isobutylidene is added to 6,6-bis(trideuteriomethyl)fulvene, the [sup 13]C NMR spectrum of the dimer reveals three quaternary carbons in a 1:1:1 ratio, progressively shifted upfield to suggest that two dimers are formed. Saturation of the reactant solutions with dioxygen resulted in no dimer formation despite undimished loss of reactants. A control experiment indicated that dioxygen does not affect the formation of the methylenecyclopropane from cyclohexene and isobutylidene. Reaction of 6-cyclopropyl-6-methylfulvene with isobutylidene gave dimers with intact cyclopropane rings. Addition of isbutylidene 6-tert-butyl-6-methylfulvene resulted in a non-cyclophane dimer. 26 refs.

  17. Electrical response from nanocomposite PDMS-Ag NPs generated by in situ laser ablation in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyva, Maria; Kumar, Susmit; Brescia, Rosaria; Petroni, Simona; La Tegola, Carola; Bertoni, Giovanni; De Vittorio, Massimo; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-01-01

    Laser ablation technique is employed in order to generate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/Ag NPs in situ, starting from a silver target in a solution of PDMS prepolymer and toluene. The produced surfactant-free nanoparticles are characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning TEM-high angle annular dark field (STEM-HAADF) imaging modes, showing the majority of them to be of the order of 4 nm in diameter with a small percentage of larger Ag-AgCl multidomain NPs, embedded into a PDMS matrix. Low concentrations of carbon onion-like nanoparticles or larger fibers are also formed in the toluene-PDMS prepolymer solution. In accordance with this, UV-vis spectra shows no peak from silver NPs; their small size and their coverage by the PDMS matrix suppresses the signal of surface plasmon absorption. Inductively coupled plasma measurements reveal that the concentration of silver in the polymer is characteristically low, ˜0.001% by weight. The electrical properties of the PDMS nanocomposite films are modified, with current versus voltage (I-V) measurements showing a low current of up to a few tenths of a pA at 5 V. The surface resistivity of the films is found to be up to ˜1010 Ω/sq. Under pressure (e.g. stress) applied by a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), the I-V measurements demonstrate the current decreasing during the elastic deformation, and increasing during the plastic deformation.

  18. Treatment of Uranium and Plutonium Solutions Generated in the Atalante Facility, France - 12004

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrave, Herve

    2012-07-01

    The Atalante complex operated by the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) at the Rhone Valley Research Center consolidates research programs on actinide chemistry, especially separation chemistry, processing for recycling spent fuel, and fabrication of actinide targets for innovative concepts in future nuclear systems. The design of future systems (Generation IV reactors, material recycling) will increase the uranium and plutonium flows in the facility, making it important to anticipate the stepped-up activity and provide Atalante with equipment dedicated to processing these solutions to obtain a mixed uranium-plutonium oxide that will be stored pending reuse. Ongoing studies for integral recycling of the actinides have highlighted the need for reserving equipment to produce actinides mixed oxide powder and also minor actinides bearing oxide for R and D purpose. To meet this double objective a new shielded line should be built in the facility and should be operational 6 years after go decision. The main functions of the new unit would be to receive, concentrate and store solutions, purify them, ensure group conversion of actinides and conversion of excess uranium. This new unit will be constructed in a completely refurbished building devoted to subcritical and safe geometry of the process equipments. (author)

  19. Fourth Light at Paranal!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-09-01

    VLT YEPUN Joins ANTU, KUEYEN and MELIPAL It was a historical moment last night (September 3 - 4, 2000) in the VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory , after nearly 15 years of hard work. Finally, four teams of astronomers and engineers were sitting at the terminals - and each team with access to an 8.2-m telescope! From now on, the powerful "Paranal Quartet" will be observing night after night, with a combined mirror surface of more than 210 m 2. And beginning next year, some of them will be linked to form part of the unique VLT Interferometer with unparalleled sensitivity and image sharpness. YEPUN "First Light" Early in the evening, the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN , was pointed to the sky for the first time and successfully achieved "First Light". Following a few technical exposures, a series of "first light" photos was made of several astronomical objects with the VLT Test Camera. This instrument was also used for the three previous "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). These images served to evaluate provisionally the performance of the new telescope, mainly in terms of mechanical and optical quality. The ESO staff were very pleased with the results and pronounced YEPUN fit for the subsequent commissioning phase. When the name YEPUN was first given to the fourth VLT Unit Telescope, it was supposed to mean "Sirius" in the Mapuche language. However, doubts have since arisen about this translation and a detailed investigation now indicates that the correct meaning is "Venus" (as the Evening Star). For a detailed explanation, please consult the essay On the Meaning of "YEPUN" , now available at the ESO website. The first images At 21:39 hrs local time (01:39 UT), YEPUN was turned to point in the direction of a dense Milky Way field, near the border between the constellations Sagitta (The Arrow) and Aquila (The Eagle). A guide star was acquired and the active optics system quickly optimized the

  20. Use of numerically generated body-fitted coordinate systems for solution of the Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. F.; Mastin, C. W.; Thames, F. C.; Shanks, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for numerical solution of the time-dependent, two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that can treat the unsteady laminar flow about bodies of arbitrary shape, such as two-dimensional airfoils, multiple airfoils, and submerged hydrofoils, as naturally as it can deal with the flow about simple bodies. The solution is based on a method of automatic numerical generation of a general curvilinear coordinate system with coordinate lines coincident with all boundaries of a general multiconnected region containing any number of arbitrarily shaped bodies. The curvilinear coordinates are generated as the solution of two elliptical partial differential equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions, one coordinate being specified to be constant on each of the boundaries, and a distribution of the other being specified along the boundaries. The solution compares excellently with the Blasius boundary layer solution for the flow past a semiinfinite flat plate.

  1. Nuclear power: Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes the basics of nuclear power generation, explaining both the benefits and the real and imagined risks of nuclear power. It includes a discussion of the Three Mile Island accident and its effects. Nuclear Power has been used in the public information programs of more than 100 utilities. The contents discussed are: Nuclear Power and People; Why Nuclear Power. Electricity produced by coal; Electricity produced by nuclear fuel; Nuclear plant sites in the United States; Short History of Commercial Nuclear Power; U.S. nuclear submarines, Regulation of Nuclear Power Plants; Licensing process, Nuclear Power Plant Operator Training; Nuclear power plant simulator, Are Nuclear Plants Safe.; Containment structure, Nuclear Power Plant Insurance; Is Radiation Dangerous.; Man-made radiation, What is Nuclear Fuel.; Fuel cycle for commercial nuclear power plants; Warm Water Discharge; Cooling tower; Protection of Radioactive Materials; Plutonium and Proliferation; Disposal of Radioactive Wastes; Are Alternate Energy Sources Available.; Nuclear Opposition; and Nuclear Power in the Future.

  2. Dark Coulomb binding of heavy neutrinos of fourth family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotsky, K. M.; Esipova, E. A.; Khlopov, M. Yu.; Laletin, M. N.

    2015-11-01

    Direct dark matter searches put severe constraints on the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). These constraints cause serious troubles for the model of stable neutrino of fourth generation with mass around 50GeV. Though the calculations of primordial abundance of these particles make them in the charge symmetric case a sparse subdominant component of the modern dark matter, their presence in the universe would exceed the current upper limits by several orders of the magnitude. However, if quarks and leptons of fourth generation possess their own Coulomb-like y-interaction, recombination of pairs of heavy neutrinos and antineutrinos and their annihilation in the “neutrinium” atoms can play important role in their cosmological evolution, reducing their modern abundance far below the experimental upper limits. The model of stable fourth generation assumes that the dominant part of dark matter is explained by excessive Ū antiquarks, forming (ŪŪŪ)-- charged clusters, bound with primordial helium in nuclear-interacting O-helium (OHe) dark atoms. The y charge conservation implies generation of the same excess of fourth generation neutrinos, potentially dangerous WIMP component of this scenario. We show that due to y-interaction recombination of fourth neutrinos with OHe hides these WIMPs from direct WIMP searches, leaving the negligible fraction of free neutrinos, what makes their existence compatible with the experimental constraints.

  3. Optimal fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for 3D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Han, B.; Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate an optimal fourth-order staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for 3D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modeling. An anti-lumped mass strategy is incorporated to minimize the numerical dispersion. The optimal finite-difference coefficients and the mass weighting coefficients are obtained by minimizing the misfit between the normalized phase velocities and the unity. An iterative damped least-squares method, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, is utilized for the optimization. Dispersion analysis shows that the optimal fourth-order scheme presents less grid dispersion and anisotropy than the conventional fourth-order scheme with respect to different Poisson's ratios. Moreover, only 3.7 grid-points per minimum shear wavelength are required to keep the error of the group velocities below 1%. The memory cost is then greatly reduced due to a coarser sampling. A parallel iterative method named CARP-CG is used to solve the large ill-conditioned linear system for the frequency-domain modeling. Validations are conducted with respect to both the analytic viscoacoustic and viscoelastic solutions. Compared with the conventional fourth-order scheme, the optimal scheme generates wavefields having smaller error under the same discretization setups. Profiles of the wavefields are presented to confirm better agreement between the optimal results and the analytic solutions.

  4. On line vapor generation of osmium based on solution cathode glow discharge for the determination by ICP-OES.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenli; Huang, Chunying; He, Qian; Xiao, Qing; Liu, Zhifu; Zhang, Suicheng; Hu, Shenghong

    2013-03-15

    A novel plasma induced vapor generation method is proposed to determine osmium in solutions. Without any chemical oxidizing agents, osmium ion can be readily converted to volatile osmium tetraoxide vapor in the solution cathode glow discharge (SCGD) system. The generated osmium vapor is then transported to inductively coupled plasma for determination by optical emission spectrometry. The influences of background electrolyte, carrier gas flow rate, sample flow rate, ICP power and discharge current were investigated. The analytical performances of this proposed technique were evaluated under optimized conditions. The detection limit of Os was calculated to be 0.51 ng mL(-1). The reproducibility, expressed as the relative standard deviation (n=11) of a 2.0 μg mL(-1) standard solution, was 1.9%. This SCGD induced vapor generation is sensitive and simple, oxidation reagents free, providing an alternative analytical method for measuring Os in geological or environmental water samples. PMID:23598105

  5. Hydrogen generation in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells using a heat-regenerated salt solution.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Cusick, Roland D; Kim, Younggy; Logan, Bruce E

    2012-05-01

    Hydrogen gas can be electrochemically produced in microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cells (MRECs) using current derived from organic matter and salinity-gradient energy such as river water and seawater solutions. Here, it is shown that ammonium bicarbonate salts, which can be regenerated using low-temperature waste heat, can also produce sufficient voltage for hydrogen gas generation in an MREC. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 1.6 m(3) H(2)/m(3)·d, with a hydrogen yield of 3.4 mol H(2)/mol acetate at a salinity ratio of infinite. Energy recovery was 10% based on total energy applied with an energy efficiency of 22% based on the consumed energy in the reactor. The cathode overpotential was dependent on the catholyte (sodium bicarbonate) concentration, but not the salinity ratio, indicating high catholyte conductivity was essential for maximizing hydrogen production rates. The direction of the HC and LC flows (co- or counter-current) did not affect performance in terms of hydrogen gas volume, production rates, or stack voltages. These results show that the MREC can be successfully operated using ammonium bicarbonate salts that can be regenerated using conventional distillation technologies and waste heat making the MREC a useful method for hydrogen gas production from wastes. PMID:22463373

  6. New data for aerosols generated by releases of pressurized powders and solutions in static air

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Sutter, S.L.; Hodgson, W.H.

    1987-05-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop radioactive source-term estimation methods. Experiments measuring the mass airborne and particle size distribution of aerosols produced by pressurized releases were run. Carbon dioxide was used to pressurize uranine solutions to 50, 250, and 500 psig before release. The mass airborne from these experiments was higher than for comparable air-pressurized systems, but not as great as expected based on the amount of gas dissolved in the liquid and the volume of liquid ejected from the release equipment. Flashing sprays of uranine at 60, 125, and 240 psig produced a much larger source term than all other pressurized releases performed under this program. Low-pressure releases of depleted uranium dioxide at 9, 17.5, and 24.5 psig provided data in the energy region between 3-m spills and 50-psig pressurized releases.

  7. Picosecond Spectroscopy of Reactive Intermediates: Generation and Dynamics of Arylmethyl Ions and Radicals in Solution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jeffrey Allan

    A detailed experimental description is presented of a practical and relatively inexpensive approach for two simultaneous and independent types of picosecond spectroscopic measurements. Two data collection subsystems, (1) a picosecond pump-probe transient absorption/emission spectrometer and (2) a streak camera system for time-dependent measurements of absorption and emission, were developed as independent subsystems within an integrated system based on a single mode-locked Nd:YAG laser which concurrently supplies each subsystem with picosecond pulses. Considerations concerning electrical and optical interfacing between the two subsystems are discussed. With these two subsystems, picosecond-pulsed photolyses of diphenylmethyl chloride, diphenylmethyl bromide, triphenylmethyl chloride, triphenylmethyl bromide, and triphenylacetyl chloride in acetonitrile, methylene chloride, and cyclohexane were studied. The dependence of the yields of radicals and ions are discussed with respect to the nature of the starting compound and the solvent. Ion-pair dynamics were monitored with subsystems 1 and 2. Microscopic rate constants for the collapse of the contact ion pair (CIP), separation of the CIP, and reformation of the CIP from the separated ions were calculated. The photophysics and photochemistry of the triphenylmethyl radical generated from triphenylmethyl chloride, and triphenylacetyl chloride, and tert-butyl triphenylperacetate in solution were studied by means of a unique three-pulse picosecond transient absorption technique. The emission lifetime of the excited triphenylmethyl radical was measured as a function of solvent polarity with subsystem 2. These data were collectively used to gain an understanding of the electronically excited triphenylmethyl radical.

  8. High order accurate solutions of viscous problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayder, M. E.; Turkel, Eli

    1993-01-01

    We consider a fourth order extension to MacCormack's scheme. The original extension was fourth order only for the inviscid terms but was second order for the viscous terms. We show how to modify the viscous terms so that the scheme is uniformly fourth order in the spatial derivatives. Applications are given to some boundary layer flows. In addition, for applications to shear flows the effect of the outflow boundary conditions are very important. We compare the accuracy of several of these different boundary conditions for both boundary layer and shear flows. Stretching at the outflow usually increases the oscillations in the numerical solution but the addition of a filtered sponge layer (with or without stretching) reduces such oscillations. The oscillations are generated by insufficient resolution of the shear layer. When the shear layer is sufficiently resolved then oscillations are not generated and there is less of a need for a nonreflecting boundary condition.

  9. A package for 3-D unstructured grid generation, finite-element flow solution and flow field visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, Paresh; Pirzadeh, Shahyar; Loehner, Rainald

    1990-01-01

    A set of computer programs for 3-D unstructured grid generation, fluid flow calculations, and flow field visualization was developed. The grid generation program, called VGRID3D, generates grids over complex configurations using the advancing front method. In this method, the point and element generation is accomplished simultaneously, VPLOT3D is an interactive, menudriven pre- and post-processor graphics program for interpolation and display of unstructured grid data. The flow solver, VFLOW3D, is an Euler equation solver based on an explicit, two-step, Taylor-Galerkin algorithm which uses the Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) concept for a wriggle-free solution. Using these programs, increasingly complex 3-D configurations of interest to aerospace community were gridded including a complete Space Transportation System comprised of the space-shuttle orbitor, the solid-rocket boosters, and the external tank. Flow solutions were obtained on various configurations in subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flow regimes.

  10. Teaching Literacy in Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Fourth grade is an important year for literacy learning. Having left the primary grades behind, students must grapple with more demanding texts and content material. Effective, motivating instruction can help them succeed. This book helps teachers create an energized and organized learning environment in which all students can improve their…

  11. Comparison of solution-based exome capture methods for next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Techniques enabling targeted re-sequencing of the protein coding sequences of the human genome on next generation sequencing instruments are of great interest. We conducted a systematic comparison of the solution-based exome capture kits provided by Agilent and Roche NimbleGen. A control DNA sample was captured with all four capture methods and prepared for Illumina GAII sequencing. Sequence data from additional samples prepared with the same protocols were also used in the comparison. Results We developed a bioinformatics pipeline for quality control, short read alignment, variant identification and annotation of the sequence data. In our analysis, a larger percentage of the high quality reads from the NimbleGen captures than from the Agilent captures aligned to the capture target regions. High GC content of the target sequence was associated with poor capture success in all exome enrichment methods. Comparison of mean allele balances for heterozygous variants indicated a tendency to have more reference bases than variant bases in the heterozygous variant positions within the target regions in all methods. There was virtually no difference in the genotype concordance compared to genotypes derived from SNP arrays. A minimum of 11× coverage was required to make a heterozygote genotype call with 99% accuracy when compared to common SNPs on genome-wide association arrays. Conclusions Libraries captured with NimbleGen kits aligned more accurately to the target regions. The updated NimbleGen kit most efficiently covered the exome with a minimum coverage of 20×, yet none of the kits captured all the Consensus Coding Sequence annotated exons. PMID:21955854

  12. Mechanism of photocatalytic hydrogen generation by a polypyridyl-based cobalt catalyst in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Rodenberg, Alexander; Orazietti, Margherita; Probst, Benjamin; Bachmann, Cyril; Alberto, Roger; Baldridge, Kim K; Hamm, Peter

    2015-01-20

    The mechanism of photocatalytic hydrogen production was studied with a three-component system consisting of fac-[Re(py)(CO)3bipy](+) (py = pyridine, bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) as photosensitizer, [Co(TPY-OH)(OH2)](2+) (TPY-OH = 2-bis(2-pyridyl)(hydroxy)methyl-6-pyridylpyridine), a polypyridyl-based cobalt complex, as water reduction catalyst (WRC), and triethanolamine (TEOA) as sacrificial electron donor in aqueous solution. A detailed mechanistic picture is provided, which covers all processes from excited state quenching on the time scale of a few nanoseconds to hydrogen release taking place between seconds and minutes at moderately basic reaction conditions. Altogether these processes span 9 orders of magnitude in time. The following reaction sequence was found to be the dominant pathway for hydrogen generation: After reductive quenching by TEOA, the reduced photosensitizer (PS) transfers an electron to the Co(II)-WRC. Protonation of Co(I) yields Co(III)H which is reduced in the presence of excess Co(I). Co(II)H releases hydrogen after a second protonation step, which is detected time-resolved by a clark-type hydrogen electrode. Aside from these productive steps, the role of side and back reactions involving TEOA-derived species is assessed, which is particularly relevant in laser flash photolysis measurements with significantly larger transient concentrations of reactive species as compared to continuous photolysis experiments. Most notable is an equilibrium reaction involving Co(I), which is explained by a nucleophilic addition of Co(I) to the oxidation product of TEOA, an electrophilic iminium ion. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that the reaction is energetically feasible. The calculated spectra of the adduct are consistent with the spectroscopic observations. PMID:25539163

  13. Fourth Way in Action: Teacher Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Oon Seng

    2012-01-01

    Policy makers are often looking for solutions to develop their educational systems in today's highly competitive knowledge-based economy. Hargreaves and Shirley's Fourth Way provides a useful approach in analysing policy trends, successes and pitfalls, based on an observation of practices and research evidences in the west, particularly, the USA…

  14. White-light emission from solid carbon in aqueous solution during hydrogen generation induced by nanosecond laser pulse irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Ikuko; Yamamoto, Shota; Maeda, Kosuke

    2016-07-01

    We previously discovered a novel method of hydrogen generation from high-grade charcoal in an aqueous solution using nanosecond laser pulse irradiation. In this paper, white-light emission during this reaction is reported: A broad spectrum over the visible range is observed above a threshold excitation energy density. The white-light emission is a simultaneous product of the hydrogen generation reaction and is attributed to blackbody radiation in accordance with Planck's Law at a temperature above 3800 K. Consequently, we propose that hydrogen generation induced by laser irradiation proceeds similarly to classical coal gasification, which features reactions at high pressure and high temperature.

  15. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  16. Fourth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains 84 papers presented at the Fourth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio, from May 19 to 21, 1997. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  17. Handle Fireworks with Care on The Fourth

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159649.html Handle Fireworks With Care on the Fourth Take steps to ... THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Americans love fireworks, especially on the Fourth of July, but experts ...

  18. Science and fourth grade students: An analysis of California's fourth National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Cecelia Francisco

    The purpose of this study was to examine science assessment data as generated by the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), and through the analysis of four research variables: teaching practices, teacher background characteristics, school conditions, and student characteristics, determine their relationship to science achievement of fourth grade students (Cavanagh, 2006) in the state of California. All children are born ready and willing to learn but as they progress to and through the primary grades, many lose their natural curiosity and enthusiasm for learning (Carnegie Corporation of New York, 1994). By the fourth grade, the performance of most children in the United States (U.S. Department of Education, 2004b) is below what it should be for the nation and is below the achievement levels of children in competing countries (Carnegie Corporation of New York). We must trust children to learn if given the chance (Bush, 2008). The analysis of these research variables found that there are relationships between teaching practices, teacher background characteristics, school conditions, student characteristics and science achievement of fourth grade students in the state of California. Revelation of these relationships provide a deeper understanding of the science achievement gap between privileged and underprivileged school children. The utilization of these findings in the classroom will lead to increasing science achievement in all student groups and notably help to decrease the achievement gap between privileged and underprivileged students. Policy changes are suggested at the district, regional, and national levels to close the international achievement gap.

  19. Automatable on-line generation of calibration curves and standard additions in solution-cathode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Andrew J.; Ray, Steven J.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-03-01

    Two methods are described that enable on-line generation of calibration standards and standard additions in solution-cathode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (SCGD-OES). The first method employs a gradient high-performance liquid chromatography pump to perform on-line mixing and delivery of a stock standard, sample solution, and diluent to achieve a desired solution composition. The second method makes use of a simpler system of three peristaltic pumps to perform the same function of on-line solution mixing. Both methods can be computer-controlled and automated, and thereby enable both simple and standard-addition calibrations to be rapidly performed on-line. Performance of the on-line approaches is shown to be comparable to that of traditional methods of sample preparation, in terms of calibration curves, signal stability, accuracy, and limits of detection. Potential drawbacks to the on-line procedures include signal lag between changes in solution composition and pump-induced multiplicative noise. Though the new on-line methods were applied here to SCGD-OES to improve sample throughput, they are not limited in application to only SCGD-OES-any instrument that samples from flowing solution streams (flame atomic absorption spectrometry, ICP-OES, ICP-mass spectrometry, etc.) could benefit from them.

  20. CD-ROM Based Multimedia Homework Solutions and Self Test Generator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Jeffrey M.; Bell, Christopher C.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a prototype multimedia application that was designed to help college students solve problems and generate practice tests for an economics textbook. Highlights include step-by-step problem solving; a friendly interface; student tracking; inexpensive development costs; examples of screen displays; and generating random, scored tests on…

  1. Hyperbolic Prismatic Grid Generation and Solution of Euler Equations on Prismatic Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, S. A.; Chattot, JJ; Hafez, M. M.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A hyperbolic grid generation method is used to generate prismatic grids and an approach using prismatic grids to solve the Euler equations is presented. The theory of the stability and feasibility of the hyperbolic grid generation method is presented. The hyperbolic grid generation method of Steger et al for structured grids is applied to a three dimensional triangularized surface definition to generate a grid that is unstructured on each successive layer. The grid, however, retains structure in the body-normal direction and has a computational cell shaped like a triangular prism. In order to take advantage of the structure in the normal direction, a finite-volume scheme that treats the unknowns along the normal direction implicitly is introduced and the flow over a sphere is simulated.

  2. Application of a numerically generated orthogonal coordinate system to the solution of inviscid axisymmetric supersonic flow over blunt bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. H., II; Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A numerically generated orthogonal coordinate system (with the body surface and shock wave as opposite boundaries) was applied with a time asymptotic method to obtain steady flow solutions for axisymmetric inviscid flow over several blunt bodies including spheres, paraboloids, ellipsoids, hyperboloids, hemisphere cylinders, spherically blunted cones, and a body with a concavity in the stagnation region. Comparisons with experimental data and with the results of other computational methods are discussed. The numerically generated orthogonal coordinate system is described and applications of the method to complex body shapes, particularly those with concave regions, are discussed.

  3. Importance of the inherent and the relative surface energies in generating patterned layer in a solution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do-Kyung; Kwon, Hyeok Bin; Park, Hongsik; Choe, Eunji; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Park, Jaehoon; Song, Seong-Ho

    2016-03-01

    We report the importance of the inherent and the relative surface energies in generating a patterned organic semiconductor layer through a solution process. The inherent and the relative surface energies of the substrate can be effectively controlled using polydimethylsiloxane in combination with an UV/ozone treatment. The controlled inherent surface energy in each region, as well as the high-order difference of relative surface energy, plays a significant role in generating the patterned layer. In addition, the patterned metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure shows a lower lateral current than the non-patterned MSM structure because the current path is limited.

  4. Solution of Poisson equations for 3-dimensional grid generations. [computations of a flow field over a thin delta wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujii, K.

    1983-01-01

    A method for generating three dimensional, finite difference grids about complicated geometries by using Poisson equations is developed. The inhomogenous terms are automatically chosen such that orthogonality and spacing restrictions at the body surface are satisfied. Spherical variables are used to avoid the axis singularity, and an alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) solution scheme is used to accelerate the computations. Computed results are presented that show the capability of the method. Since most of the results presented have been used as grids for flow-field computations, this is indicative that the method is a useful tool for generating three-dimensional grids about complicated geometries.

  5. A new algorithm for generating highly accurate benchmark solutions to transport test problems

    SciTech Connect

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1997-06-01

    We present a new algorithm for solving the neutron transport equation in its discrete-variable form. The new algorithm is based on computing the full matrix relating the scalar flux spatial moments in all cells to the fixed neutron source spatial moments, foregoing the need to compute the angular flux spatial moments, and thereby eliminating the need for sweeping the spatial mesh in each discrete-angular direction. The matrix equation is solved exactly in test cases, producing a solution vector that is free from iteration convergence error, and subject only to truncation and roundoff errors. Our algorithm is designed to provide method developers with a quick and simple solution scheme to test their new methods on difficult test problems without the need to develop sophisticated solution techniques, e.g. acceleration, before establishing the worthiness of their innovation. We demonstrate the utility of the new algorithm by applying it to the Arbitrarily High Order Transport Nodal (AHOT-N) method, and using it to solve two of Burre`s Suite of Test Problems (BSTP). Our results provide highly accurate benchmark solutions, that can be distributed electronically and used to verify the pointwise accuracy of other solution methods and algorithms.

  6. A molecular copper catalyst for electrochemical water reduction with a large hydrogen-generation rate constant in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peili; Wang, Mei; Yang, Yong; Yao, Tianyi; Sun, Licheng

    2014-12-01

    The copper complex [(bztpen)Cu](BF4)2 (bztpen=N-benzyl-N,N',N'-tris(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)ethylenediamine) displays high catalytic activity for electrochemical proton reduction in acidic aqueous solutions, with a calculated hydrogen-generation rate constant (k(obs)) of over 10000 s(-1). A turnover frequency (TOF) of 7000 h(-1) cm(-2) and a Faradaic efficiency of 96% were obtained from a controlled potential electrolysis (CPE) experiment with [(bztpen)Cu](2+) in pH 2.5 buffer solution at -0.90 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) over two hours using a glassy carbon electrode. A mechanism involving two proton-coupled reduction steps was proposed for the dihydrogen generation reaction catalyzed by [(bztpen)Cu](2+). PMID:25314646

  7. A comparison of hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide generation in ambient particle extracts and laboratory metal solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Huiyun; Anastasio, Cort

    2012-01-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - including superoxide ( rad O 2-), hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), and hydroxyl radical ( rad OH) - has been suggested as one mechanism underlying the adverse health effects caused by ambient particulate matter (PM). In this study we compare HOOH and rad OH production from fine and coarse PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California, as well as from laboratory solutions containing dissolved copper or iron. Samples were extracted in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution containing 50 μM ascorbate (Asc). In our laboratory solutions we find that Cu is a potent source of both HOOH and rad OH, with approximately 90% of the electrons that can be donated from Asc ending up in HOOH and rad OH after 4 h. In contrast, in Fe solutions there is no measurable HOOH and only a modest production of rad OH. Soluble Cu in the SJV PM samples is also a dominant source of HOOH and rad OH. In both laboratory copper solutions and extracts of ambient particles we find much more production of HOOH compared to rad OH: e.g., HOOH generation is approximately 30-60 times faster than rad OH generation. The formation of HOOH and rad OH are positively correlated, with roughly 3% and 8% of HOOH converted to rad OH after 4 and 24 h of extraction, respectively. Although the SJV PM produce much more HOOH than rad OH, since rad OH is a much stronger oxidant it is unclear which species might be more important for oxidant-mediated toxicity from PM inhalation.

  8. A Comparison of Hydroxyl Radical and Hydrogen Peroxide Generation in Ambient Particle Extracts and Laboratory Metal Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Huiyun; Anastasio, Cort

    2011-01-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) – including superoxide (•O2−), hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), and hydroxyl radical (•OH) – has been suggested as one mechanism underlying the adverse health effects caused by ambient particulate matter (PM). In this study we compare HOOH and •OH production from fine and coarse PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California, as well as from laboratory solutions containing dissolved copper or iron. Samples were extracted in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution containing 50 μM ascorbate (Asc). In our laboratory solutions we find that Cu is a potent source of both HOOH and •OH, with approximately 90% of the electrons that can be donated from Asc ending up in HOOH and •OH after 4 h. In contrast, in Fe solutions there is no measurable HOOH and only a modest production of •OH. Soluble Cu in the SJV PM samples is also a dominant source of HOOH and •OH. In both laboratory copper solutions and extracts of ambient particles we find much more production of HOOH compared to •OH: e.g., HOOH generation is approximately 30 – 60 times faster than •OH generation. The formation of HOOH and •OH are positively correlated, with roughly 3 % and 8 % of HOOH converted to •OH after 4 and 24 hr of extraction, respectively. Although the SJV PM produce much more HOOH than •OH, since •OH is a much stronger oxidant it is unclear which species might be more important for oxidant-mediated toxicity from PM inhalation. PMID:22267949

  9. A Comparison of Hydroxyl Radical and Hydrogen Peroxide Generation in Ambient Particle Extracts and Laboratory Metal Solutions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huiyun; Anastasio, Cort

    2012-01-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - including superoxide ((•)O(2) (-)), hydrogen peroxide (HOOH), and hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) - has been suggested as one mechanism underlying the adverse health effects caused by ambient particulate matter (PM). In this study we compare HOOH and (•)OH production from fine and coarse PM collected at an urban (Fresno) and rural (Westside) site in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California, as well as from laboratory solutions containing dissolved copper or iron. Samples were extracted in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution containing 50 μM ascorbate (Asc). In our laboratory solutions we find that Cu is a potent source of both HOOH and (•)OH, with approximately 90% of the electrons that can be donated from Asc ending up in HOOH and (•)OH after 4 h. In contrast, in Fe solutions there is no measurable HOOH and only a modest production of (•)OH. Soluble Cu in the SJV PM samples is also a dominant source of HOOH and (•)OH. In both laboratory copper solutions and extracts of ambient particles we find much more production of HOOH compared to (•)OH: e.g., HOOH generation is approximately 30 - 60 times faster than (•)OH generation. The formation of HOOH and (•)OH are positively correlated, with roughly 3 % and 8 % of HOOH converted to (•)OH after 4 and 24 hr of extraction, respectively. Although the SJV PM produce much more HOOH than (•)OH, since (•)OH is a much stronger oxidant it is unclear which species might be more important for oxidant-mediated toxicity from PM inhalation. PMID:22267949

  10. Fourth order deformed general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttell, Peter D.; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2014-11-01

    Whenever the condition of anomaly freedom is imposed within the framework of effective approaches to loop quantum cosmology, one seems to conclude that a deformation of general covariance is required. Here, starting from a general deformation we regain an effective gravitational Lagrangian including terms up to fourth order in extrinsic curvature. We subsequently constrain the form of the corrections for the homogeneous case, and then investigate the conditions for the occurrence of a big bounce and the realization of an inflationary era, in the presence of a perfect fluid or scalar field.

  11. Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator: An Imperative Solution for the Future of NASA Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, F. J.

    A new generation of radioisotope thermoelectrical generator is proposed for very long space exploration missions. The Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (ASA-RTG) amplify the power from natural decay of pu-238 by a small subcritical multiplication produced from the small neutron background generated from (α, n) reactions between the α particles from Pu-238 and beryllium, lithium or other low-Z isotope, extracting the maximum advantage and performance from the precious α disintegration, and then of the very scarce pu-238. The process is self controlled by the natural decay of Pu-238 with the progressive reduction of the power output (RTG) and additionally and simultaneously compensate by the natural decay of a neutronic poisson which increase simultaneously the subcritical multiplication resulting in a contrary effect, i.e., causing an increase in the power. ASA-RTG is not in conflict with previous RTG, and could fit within the type of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator developed for NASA space missions as the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG).

  12. Charge generation layers for all-solution processed organic tandem light emitting diodes with regular device architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfle, Stefan; Bernhard, Christoph; Bruns, Michael; Kübel, Christian; Scherer, Torsten; Colsmann, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    We present multi-photon OLEDs where enhanced light emission was achieved by stacking two OLEDs utilizing a regular device architecture (top cathode) and an intermediate charge carrier generation layer (CGL) for monolithic device interconnection. With respect to future printing processes for organic optoelectronic devices, all functional layers were deposited from solution. The CGL comprises a low-work function zinc oxide layer that was applied from solution under ambient conditions and at moderate processing temperatures and a high-work function interlayer that was realized from various solution processable precursor-based metal oxides, like molybdenum-, vanadium- and tungsten-oxide. Since every injected electron-hole pair generates two photons, the luminance and the current efficiency of the tandem OLED at a given device current are doubled while the power efficiency remains constant. At a given luminance, the lower operating current in the tandem device reduces electrical stress and improves the device life-time. ToF-SIMS, TEM/FIB and EDX analyses provided evidence of a distinct layer sequence without intermixing upon solution deposition.

  13. The New Generation of Uranium In Situ Recovery Facilities: Design Improvements Should Reduce Radiological Impacts Relative to First Generation Uranium Solution Mining Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.H.

    2008-07-01

    In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in the demand for Uranium as historical inventories have been consumed and new reactor orders are being placed. Numerous mineralized properties around the world are being evaluated for Uranium recovery and new mining / milling projects are being evaluated and developed. Ore bodies which are considered uneconomical to mine by conventional methods such as tunneling or open pits, can be candidates for non-conventional recovery techniques, involving considerably less capital expenditure. Technologies such as Uranium In Situ Leaching / In Situ Recovery (ISL / ISR - also referred to as 'solution mining'), have enabled commercial scale mining and milling of relatively small ore pockets of lower grade, and are expected to make a significant contribution to overall world wide uranium supplies over the next ten years. Commercial size solution mining production facilities have operated in the US since the mid 1970's. However, current designs are expected to result in less radiological wastes and emissions relative to these 'first' generation plants (which were designed, constructed and operated through the 1980's). These early designs typically used alkaline leach chemistries in situ including use of ammonium carbonate which resulted in groundwater restoration challenges, open to air recovery vessels and high temperature calcining systems for final product drying vs the 'zero emissions' vacuum dryers as typically used today. Improved containment, automation and instrumentation control and use of vacuum dryers in the design of current generation plants are expected to reduce production of secondary waste byproduct material, reduce Radon emissions and reduce potential for employee exposure to uranium concentrate aerosols at the back end of the milling process. In Situ Recovery in the U.S. typically involves the circulation of groundwater, fortified with oxidizing (gaseous oxygen e.g) and complexing agents (carbon

  14. Kinetics of phosphodiester cleavage by differently generated cerium(IV) hydroxo species in neutral solutions.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Ana L; Yatsimirsky, Anatoly K

    2005-08-01

    Neutral aqueous solutions of cerium ammonium nitrate obtained by dilution of their acetonitrile stock solution with imidazole buffer show high catalytic activity in the hydrolysis of bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP) and better reproducibility than other similar systems, but suffer from low stability. The kinetics of catalytic hydrolysis is second-order in Ce(IV), independent of pH in the range 5-8 and tentatively involves the Ce2(OH)7+ species as the active form. Attempts to stabilize the active species by different types of added ligands failed, but the use of Ce(IV) complexes pre-synthesized in an organic solvent with potentially stabilizing ligands as precursors of active hydroxo species appeared to be more successful. Three new Ce(IV) complexes, [Ce(Phen)2O(NO3)2], [Ce(tris)O(NO3)(OH)] and [Ce(BTP)2(NO3)4].2H2O (BTP = bis-tris propane, 1,3-bis[tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamino]propane), were prepared by reacting cerium ammonium nitrate with the respective ligands in acetonitrile and were characterized by analytical and spectroscopic techniques. Aqueous solutions of these complexes undergo rapid hydrolysis producing nearly neutral polynuclear Ce(IV) oxo/hydroxo species with high catalytic activity in BNPP hydrolysis. Potentiometric titrations of the solutions obtained from the complex with BTP revealed the formation of Ce4(OH)15+ species at pH > 7, which are protonated affording Ce4(OH)14(2+) and then Ce4(OH)13(3+) on a decrease in pH from 7 to 5. The catalytic activity increases strongly on going to species with a higher positive charge. The reaction mechanism involves first- and second-order in catalyst paths as well as intermediate complex formation with the substrate for higher charged species. PMID:16032364

  15. The next generation in optical transport semiconductors: IC solutions at the system level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomatam, Badri N.

    2005-02-01

    In this tutorial overview, we survey some of the challenging problems facing Optical Transport and their solutions using new semiconductor-based technologies. Advances in 0.13um CMOS, SiGe/HBT and InP/HBT IC process technologies and mixed-signal design strategies are the fundamental breakthroughs that have made these solutions possible. In combination with innovative packaging and transponder/transceiver architectures IC approaches have clearly demonstrated enhanced optical link budgets with simultaneously lower (perhaps the lowest to date) cost and manufacturability tradeoffs. This paper will describe: *Electronic Dispersion Compensation broadly viewed as the overcoming of dispersion based limits to OC-192 links and extending link budgets, *Error Control/Coding also known as Forward Error Correction (FEC), *Adaptive Receivers for signal quality monitoring for real-time estimation of Q/OSNR, eye-pattern, signal BER and related temporal statistics (such as jitter). We will discuss the theoretical underpinnings of these receiver and transmitter architectures, provide examples of system performance and conclude with general market trends. These Physical layer IC solutions represent a fundamental new toolbox of options for equipment designers in addressing systems level problems. With unmatched cost and yield/performance tradeoffs, it is expected that IC approaches will provide significant flexibility in turn, for carriers and service providers who must ultimately manage the network and assure acceptable quality of service under stringent cost constraints.

  16. Fourth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, H.W.

    1980-02-01

    The fourth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during March 15-23, 1978. The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) used unshielded, with a 12-cm-thick Lucite shield, a 20-cm-thick concrete shield, or a 5-cm-thick steel and 15-cm-thick concrete shield, and provided four neutron and gamma-ray spectra. Then the dose was calculated based on the HPRR neutron spectra and dose conversion factors which had been determined previously for the four spectra. The results of these personnel dosimetry intercomparison studies reveal that estimates of dose equivalent vary over a wide range. The standard deviation of the mean of participants data for gamma measurements was in the range of 29 to 43%; for neutrons it was 57 to 188%. (PCS)

  17. Effects of draw solutions and membrane conditions on electricity generation and water flux in osmotic microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zheng; He, Zhen

    2012-04-01

    This study provided an early effort to investigate the draw solutions as catholytes, FO membrane conditions, and backwash for membrane cleaning in an osmotic microbial fuel cell (OsMFC). The results demonstrated that sodium chloride was a suitable candidate as a catholyte solute with good performance in both electricity generation and water flux, although its pH required buffering via acid addition. Adding a small amount of hydrochloric acid decreased the catholyte pH from 9.0 to 2.5 and increased the current generation by 50%, but did not affect water flux. It was also found that the fouled FO membrane improved electricity generation but lost the function of water flux. The damaged FO membrane resulted in a water flux of 0.39 LMH, much lower than 2-3 LMH with a new FO membrane. Backwash with adding NaCl (0.2-0.5M) into the anolyte was examined but did not obviously alleviate membrane fouling. PMID:22305538

  18. Complete real solution of the five-orientation motion generation problem for a spherical four-bar linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yufeng; Zhang, Ying; Duan, Xuechao

    2015-03-01

    For a spherical four-bar linkage, the maximum number of the spherical RR dyad (R: revolute joint) of five-orientation motion generation can be at most 6. However, complete real solution of this problem has seldom been studied. In order to obtain six real RR dyads, based on Strum's theorem, the relationships between the design parameters are derived from a 6th-degree univariate polynomial equation that is deduced from the constraint equations of the spherical RR dyad by using Dixon resultant method. Moreover, the Grashof condition and the circuit defect condition are taken into account. Given the relationships between the design parameters and the aforementioned two conditions, two objective functions are constructed and optimized by the adaptive genetic algorithm(AGA). Two examples with six real spherical RR dyads are obtained by optimization, and the results verify the feasibility of the proposed method. The paper provides a method to synthesize the complete real solution of the five-orientation motion generation, which is also applicable to the problem that deduces to a univariate polynomial equation and requires the generation of as many as real roots.

  19. Electroluminescence from Spontaneously Generated Single-Vesicle Aggregates Using Solution-Processed Small Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Tang; Tseng, Kuo-Pi; Chen, Yan-Fang; Wu, Chung-Chih; Fan, Gang-Lun; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Wantz, Guillaume; Hirsch, Lionel; Raffy, Guillaume; Del Guerzo, Andre; Bassani, Dario M

    2016-01-26

    Self-assembled aggregates offer great potential for tuning the morphology of organic semiconductors, thereby controlling their size and shape. This is particularly interesting for applications in electroluminescent (EL) devices, but there has been, to date, no reports of a functional EL device in which the size and color of the emissive domains could be controlled using self-assembly. We now report a series of molecules that spontaneously self-organize into small EL domains of sub-micrometer dimensions. By tailoring the emissive chromophores in solution, spherical aggregates that have an average size of 300 nm in diameter and emit any one color, including CIE D65 white, are spontaneously formed in solution. We show that the individual aggregates can be used in EL devices built either using small patterned electrodes or using a sandwich architecture to produce devices emitting in the blue, green, red, and white. Furthermore, sequential deposition of the three primary colors yields an RGB device in which single aggregates of each color are present in close proximity. PMID:26730851

  20. Chondrocyte Generation of Cartilage-Like Tissue Following Photoencapsulation in Methacrylated Polysaccharide Solution Blends.

    PubMed

    Hayami, James W S; Waldman, Stephen D; Amsden, Brian G

    2016-07-01

    Chondrocyte-seeded, photo-cross-linked hydrogels prepared from solutions containing 50% mass fractions of methacrylated glycol chitosan or methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MHA) with methacrylated chondroitin sulfate (MCS) are cultured in vitro under static conditions over 35 d to assess their suitability for load-bearing soft tissue repair. The photo-cross-linked hydrogels have initial equilibrium moduli between 100 and 300 kPa, but only the MHAMCS hydrogels retain an approximately constant modulus (264 ± 5 kPa) throughout the culture period. Visually, the seeded chondrocytes in the MHAMCS hydrogels are well distributed with an apparent constant viability in culture. Multicellular aggregates are surrounded by cartilaginous matrix, which contain aggrecan and collagen II. Thus, co-cross-linked MCS and MHA hydrogels may be suited for use in an articular cartilage or nucleus pulposus repair applications. PMID:27061241

  1. Third-Harmonic Generation of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Thin Films Prepared Using Two Solution Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethuraman, Kunjithapatham; Ochiai, Shizuyasu; Yamada, Yuu; Mototani, Suguru; Kojima, Kenzo; Ohashi, Asao; Mizutani, Teruyoshi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin films prepared using solution methods. The third-order optical susceptibilities χ(3)(-3ωω,ω,ω) of P3HT thin films spin-coated and drop-cast on quartz glass substrates were estimated from optical third harmonics measured using the Maker-fringe method. The orientation, alignment, and crystallinity of the P3HT thin films obtained were evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and UV-visible absorption spectra. The maximum nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3) (NLOS), as estimated from the drop-cast film, was 1.55×10-8 esu, which was higher than that of a spin-coated film by one order. The enhancement of χ(3) is associated with the orientation and crystallinity of the P3HT molecule on the substrate.

  2. Generation of Compositionally Graded Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Sb Seed by Solute Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    P.S. Dutta; G. Rajagopalan; R.J. Gutmann; G. Nichols

    2002-08-29

    Compositionally graded single crystalline <100> seed of Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Sb has been grown in a single experiment using a solute diffusion method. The present technique is simple and less time consuming compared to the conventional boot-strapping approach previously used for generating ternary seeds. Starting from an InSb <100> single crystalline seed, a seed of Ga{sub 0.6}In{sub 0.4}Sb has been grown. The effect of temperature gradient on the crystalline quality of seeds grown using this method has been discussed.

  3. Statistical mechanics of sum frequency generation spectroscopy for the liquid-vapor interface of dilute aqueous salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Noah-Vanhoucke, Joyce; Smith, Jared D.; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2009-01-02

    We demonstrate a theoretical description of vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) at the boundary of aqueous electrolyte solutions. This approach identifies and exploits a simple relationship between SFG lineshapes and the statistics of molecular orientation and electric field. Our computer simulations indicate that orientational averages governing SFG susceptibility do not manifest ion-specific shifts in local electric field, but instead, ion-induced polarization of subsurface layers. Counterbalancing effects are obtained for monovalent anions and cations at the same depth. Ions held at different depths induce an imbalanced polarization, suggesting that ion-specific effects can arise from weak, long ranged influence on solvent organization.

  4. Dual solutions of radiative MHD nanofluid flow over an exponentially stretching sheet with heat generation/absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naramgari, Sandeep; Sulochana, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the heat and mass transfer in thermophoretic radiative hydromagnetic nanofluid flow over an exponentially stretching porous sheet embedded in porous medium with internal heat generation/absorption, viscous dissipation and suction/injection effects. The governing partial differential equations of the flow are converted into nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation. Runge-Kutta-based shooting technique is employed to yield the numerical solutions for the model. The effect of non-dimensional parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed and presented through graphs. The physical quantities of interest local skin friction coefficient, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are calculated and presented through tables.

  5. Scale-invariant scalar spectrum from the nonminimal derivative coupling with fourth-order term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, an exactly scale-invariant spectrum of scalar perturbation generated during de Sitter spacetime is found from the gravity model of the nonminimal derivative coupling with fourth-order term. The nonminimal derivative coupling term generates a healthy (ghost-free) fourth-order derivative term, while the fourth-order term provides an unhealthy (ghost) fourth-order derivative term. The Harrison-Zel’dovich spectrum obtained from Fourier transforming the fourth-order propagator in de Sitter space is recovered by computing the power spectrum in its momentum space directly. It shows that this model provides a truly scale-invariant spectrum, in addition to the Lee-Wick scalar theory.

  6. Simulation of light generation in cholesteric liquid crystals using kinetic equations: Time-independent solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shtykov, N. M. Palto, S. P.; Umanskii, B. A.

    2013-08-15

    We report on the results of calculating the conditions for light generation in cholesteric liquid crystals doped with fluorescent dyes using kinetic equations. Specific features of spectral properties of the chiral cholesteric medium as a photonic structure and spatially distributed type of the feedback in the active medium are taken into account. The expression is derived for the threshold pump radiation intensity as a function of the dye concentration and sample thickness. The importance of taking into account the distributed loss level in the active medium for calculating the optimal parameters of the medium and for matching the calculated values with the results of experiments is demonstrated.

  7. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The program objective is to generate ultra-fine catalyst particles (20 to 400 {Angstrom} in size) and quantify their potential for improving coal dissolution in the solubilization stage of two-stage catalytic-catalytic liquefaction systems. In the first quarterly report for this program the concept behind our approach was detailed, the structure of the program was presented, key technical issues were identified, preliminary designs were outlined, and technical progress was discussed. All progress made during the second quarter of this program related to experiment design of the proposed supercritical expansion technique for generating ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles. This second quarterly report, therefore, presents descriptions of the final designs for most system components; diagnostic approaches and designs for determining particles size and size distributions, and the composition of the pre-expansion supercritical solution; and the overall technique progress made during this reporting period. 6 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  8. PtRu-LiCoO 2—an efficient catalyst for hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Palanichamy; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Won-Yong; Kim, Chang-Soo

    Hydrogen generation by the hydrolysis of aqueous sodium borohydride (NaBH 4) solutions is studied using IRA-400 anion resin dispersed Pt, Ru catalysts and lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2) supported Pt, Ru and PtRu catalysts. The performance of the LiCoO 2 supported catalysts is better than that of ion-exchange resin dispersed catalysts. There is a marked concentration dependence on the performance of the LiCoO 2 supported catalysts and the hydrogen generation rate decreases if the borohydride concentration is increased beyond 10 wt.%. The efficiency of PtRu-LiCoO 2 is almost double that of either Ru-LiCoO 2 or Pt-LiCoO 2 for NaBH 4 concentrations up to 10 wt.%.

  9. Solution to automatic generation control problem using firefly algorithm optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller.

    PubMed

    Debbarma, Sanjoy; Saikia, Lalit Chandra; Sinha, Nidul

    2014-03-01

    Present work focused on automatic generation control (AGC) of a three unequal area thermal systems considering reheat turbines and appropriate generation rate constraints (GRC). A fractional order (FO) controller named as I(λ)D(µ) controller based on crone approximation is proposed for the first time as an appropriate technique to solve the multi-area AGC problem in power systems. A recently developed metaheuristic algorithm known as firefly algorithm (FA) is used for the simultaneous optimization of the gains and other parameters such as order of integrator (λ) and differentiator (μ) of I(λ)D(µ) controller and governor speed regulation parameters (R). The dynamic responses corresponding to optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller gains, λ, μ, and R are compared with that of classical integer order (IO) controllers such as I, PI and PID controllers. Simulation results show that the proposed I(λ)D(µ) controller provides more improved dynamic responses and outperforms the IO based classical controllers. Further, sensitivity analysis confirms the robustness of the so optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller to wide changes in system loading conditions and size and position of SLP. Proposed controller is also found to have performed well as compared to IO based controllers when SLP takes place simultaneously in any two areas or all the areas. Robustness of the proposed I(λ)D(µ) controller is also tested against system parameter variations. PMID:24139308

  10. Structural variation discovery in the cancer genome using next generation sequencing: computational solutions and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Biao; Conroy, Jeffrey M; Morrison, Carl D; Odunsi, Adekunle O; Qin, Maochun; Wei, Lei; Trump, Donald L; Johnson, Candace S; Liu, Song; Wang, Jianmin

    2015-03-20

    Somatic Structural Variations (SVs) are a complex collection of chromosomal mutations that could directly contribute to carcinogenesis. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology has emerged as the primary means of interrogating the SVs of the cancer genome in recent investigations. Sophisticated computational methods are required to accurately identify the SV events and delineate their breakpoints from the massive amounts of reads generated by a NGS experiment. In this review, we provide an overview of current analytic tools used for SV detection in NGS-based cancer studies. We summarize the features of common SV groups and the primary types of NGS signatures that can be used in SV detection methods. We discuss the principles and key similarities and differences of existing computational programs and comment on unresolved issues related to this research field. The aim of this article is to provide a practical guide of relevant concepts, computational methods, software tools and important factors for analyzing and interpreting NGS data for the detection of SVs in the cancer genome. PMID:25849937

  11. Structural variation discovery in the cancer genome using next generation sequencing: Computational solutions and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Biao; Conroy, Jeffrey M.; Morrison, Carl D.; Odunsi, Adekunle O.; Qin, Maochun; Wei, Lei; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.; Liu, Song; Wang, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Somatic Structural Variations (SVs) are a complex collection of chromosomal mutations that could directly contribute to carcinogenesis. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology has emerged as the primary means of interrogating the SVs of the cancer genome in recent investigations. Sophisticated computational methods are required to accurately identify the SV events and delineate their breakpoints from the massive amounts of reads generated by a NGS experiment. In this review, we provide an overview of current analytic tools used for SV detection in NGS-based cancer studies. We summarize the features of common SV groups and the primary types of NGS signatures that can be used in SV detection methods. We discuss the principles and key similarities and differences of existing computational programs and comment on unresolved issues related to this research field. The aim of this article is to provide a practical guide of relevant concepts, computational methods, software tools and important factors for analyzing and interpreting NGS data for the detection of SVs in the cancer genome. PMID:25849937

  12. Resolution of the mixed waste issue for EDTA-based steam generator chemical cleaning waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.D.; Schneidmiller, D.

    1996-12-31

    The valence state of chromium in an EDTA-based iron oxide removal solvent waste was determined under various storage conditions. The solvent is used to remove deposits from the secondary sides of nuclear power plant steam generators and was developed under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute and the Steam Generator Owners Group. Chromium is typically present in such waste at a level greater than 5 ppm, thus creating the possibility that the waste could be subject to regulatory control as a hazardous waste under RCRA. Additionally, the waste typically contains trace levels of radioactivity, and could potentially be classified as mixed waste. In the past, interim processing has been used to reduce the chromium concentration in the waste to allow storage for greater than 90 days without the waste being subject to regulatory control. Extended storage prior to final processing and disposal is routinely required. However, the results reported clearly show that any chromium in the waste is exclusively trivalent and will remain so indefinitely under any credible storage scenario. Thus, the waste qualifies for the trivalent chromium exclusion provided under RCRA. Further, the results show that the valence state of chromium in the waste cannot be changed without extraordinary effort.

  13. Coarse-grained simulations of an active filament propelled by a self-generated solute gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Debarati; Thakur, Snigdha

    2016-03-01

    A self-propelling semiflexible filament exhibits a variety of dynamical states depending on the flexibility and activity of the filament. Here we investigate the dynamics of such an active filament using a bead-spring model with the explicit hydrodynamic interactions. The activity in the filament is incorporated by inserting chemically active dimers at regular intervals along the chain. The chemical reactions at the catalytic bead of the dimer produces a self-generated concentration gradient and gives sufficient fuel to exhibit self-propulsion for the filament. Depending upon the rigidity and the configuration, the polymeric filament exhibits three distinct types of spontaneous motion, namely, rotational, snaking, and translational motion. The self-propulsion velocity of the filament for various rigidity and sizes has been calculated, and the factors affecting the propulsion are identified.

  14. Potentially Low Cost Solution to Extend Use of Early Generation Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tonna, Joseph E.; Balanoff, Amy M.; Lewin, Matthew R.; Saandari, Namjilmaa; Wintermark, Max

    2010-01-01

    In preparing a case report on Brown-Séquard syndrome for publication, we made the incidental finding that the inexpensive, commercially available three-dimensional (3D) rendering software we were using could produce high quality 3D spinal cord reconstructions from any series of two-dimensional (2D) computed tomography (CT) images. This finding raises the possibility that spinal cord imaging capabilities can be expanded where bundled 2D multi-planar reformats and 3D reconstruction software for CT are not available and in situations where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is either not available or appropriate (e.g. metallic implants). Given the worldwide burden of trauma and considering the limited availability of MRI and advanced generation CT scanners, we propose an alternative, potentially useful approach to imaging spinal cord that might be useful in areas where technical capabilities and support are limited. PMID:21293767

  15. Effective Hydrogen Generation from the Hydrogen Sulfide Solution by using Stratified Type Photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, H.; Yokoyama, S.; Baba, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Tohji, K.

    2008-02-25

    Stratified type photocatalyst with the extremely higher photocatalytic activities can be synthesized by using the chemical reaction between the Na{sub 2}S solution and Cd(OH){sub 2} precursors. This type of photocatalyst has the specific morphology which constructed by the nano-sized and capsule like formed structure, and the metal concentration was gradually changed in its wall. The 'charge gradient' was formed at the metal sulfide and oxide/hydroxide junction in the wall, which favored for the separation of the photo excited electron-hole pair. Consequently, stratified type photocatalyst shows the high catalytic activity than the usual nano CdS particles. By the addition of sulfur compound into the bio reactor contained the sulfur reducing bacteria, the H{sub 2}S gas concentration can increased to about 1000 times enlarge than the usual condition. Therefore, we can conclude that the enhancement of the H{sub 2}S gas evolved from the bio reactor was successfully achievement, and we don't need to afraid the shortage risk of H{sub 2}S supply. These H{sub 2}S gas concentration can enlarged to 80% by using A type zeorite. Especially, Ca-A type zeorite is considered as the suitable material.

  16. International perspectives on the physical inactivity crisis--structural solutions over evidence generation?

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian; Finegood, Diane T; Matsudo, Victor

    2009-10-01

    Many programs to increase physical activity have been evaluated in developed countries, where 'leisure time physical activity' is the most frequent domain for interventions. In developing countries, and also with reference to global obesity prevention, different kinds of interventions targeting 'total physical activity' are needed. This requires efforts across agencies and sectors, and in the domains of work, active transport, reduced sitting time, as well as leisure time physical activity promotion. In considering possible solutions, this commentary examined the use of complex systems, where integrated efforts across sectors and agencies might, in combination, contribute to increasing total physical activity. The key sets of actions required globally to increase physical activity were, in our opinion, [i] efforts to disseminate individual-level behavior change programs to reach much larger populations rather than volunteers, [ii] social marketing and mass communication campaigns to change social norms in the community and among professionals and policymakers, [iii] efforts to influence the social and physical environment to make them more conducive to physical activity, and [iv] the development and implementation of national physical activity plans and strategies, with sufficient timelines and resources to achieve measurable change. PMID:19647014

  17. Fourth order spatial derivative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton’s potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

  18. Fourth order spatial derivative gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bemfica, F. S.; Gomes, M.

    2011-10-15

    In this work, we study a modified theory of gravity that contains up to fourth order spatial derivatives as a model for the Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The propagator is evaluated and, as a result, one extra pole is obtained, corresponding to a spin-2 nonrelativistic massless particle, an extra term which jeopardizes renormalizability, besides the unexpected general relativity unmodified propagator. Then unitarity is proved at the tree level, where the general relativity pole has been shown to have no dynamics, remaining only the 2 degrees of freedom of the new pole. Next, the nonrelativistic effective potential is determined from a scattering process of two identical massive gravitationally interacting bosons. In this limit, Newton's potential is obtained, together with a Darwin-like term that comes from the extra nonpole term in the propagator. Regarding renormalizability, this extra term may be harmful by power counting, but it can be eliminated by adjusting the free parameters of the model. This adjustment is in accord with the detailed balance condition suggested in the literature and shows that the way in which extra spatial derivative terms are added is of fundamental importance.

  19. Fourth goal of perinatal medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ounsted, C; Roberts, J C; Gordon, M; Milligan, B

    1982-01-01

    Reduction in maternal mortality, infant mortality, and infant morbidity have been successively the goals of perinatal medicine. The fourth is to reduce bonding failure. In July 1978 a preventive service was started in the John Radcliffe Maternity Hospital. A twice-weekly round is made. Midwives refer families who cause them concern. In the first year the referral rate ws 20.5 per 1000 liveborn babies. The referred sample differed from the hospital population in terms of maternal psychiatric history, marital state and babies' admission to special care. The main reasons for referral were: doubt about parenting ability (27%), psychiatric history (15%), disturbed behaviour in hospital (14%), and diffuse social and medical problems (17%). Long-term care was needed for only 14% of families. At their first birthdays, six babies were placed away from their natural parents; the sample had had a slightly higher than expected admission rate to hospital; the distribution of weights did not differ from the expected; doctors and health visitors were still concerned about one-quarter of the families. Seven cases of screening failure were found among those not referred to our service, but only one was seriously abused. No child referred in the first year has been seriously neglected or abused. PMID:6802338

  20. Ion Beam Generation from an Electrolyte Solution Containing Polyatomic Cations and Anions for Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Watanabe, Kouji; Saito, Naoaki; Nonaka, Hidehiko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nakanaga, Taisuke; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Kurokawa, Akira; Ichimura, Shingo; Tomita, Mitsuhiro

    2009-12-01

    A solution-type ion beam source was fabricated to utilize polyatomic anions as well as polyatomic cations that are stable in solutions. The ion source consists of an electrospray section at atmospheric pressure and a vacuum section with a differential pumping system. To demonstrate the beam generation of cations or anions, ethanol solution containing a room-temperature molten salt (i.e., an ionic liquid) was tested. The ionic liquid, N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, consists of a polyatomic cation, [C8H20ON]+, and a polyatomic anion, [C2F6NO4S2]-. Ions produced at atmospheric pressure were passed through an aperture into a vacuum chamber and then transported to a target. The effects of the aperture dimensions were investigated in the range from 50 to 200 µm in diameter and 0.25 to 1 mm in thickness. The ratio of current passing through the aperture into the vacuum chamber to the total electrosprayed current was on the order of 10-3 to 10-5. The ratio increased with increasing aperture diameter. A reduction in the aperture thickness also improved the ratio. Beam current increased with applied voltage in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes. It was demonstrated that stable negative-ion beams as well as positive-ion beams on the order of pA were produced.

  1. Generalist solutions to complex problems: generating practice-based evidence - the example of managing multi-morbidity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing proportion of people are living with long term conditions. The majority have more than one. Dealing with multi-morbidity is a complex problem for health systems: for those designing and implementing healthcare as well as for those providing the evidence informing practice. Yet the concept of multi-morbidity (the presence of >2 diseases) is a product of the design of health care systems which define health care need on the basis of disease status. So does the solution lie in an alternative model of healthcare? Discussion Strengthening generalist practice has been proposed as part of the solution to tackling multi-morbidity. Generalism is a professional philosophy of practice, deeply known to many practitioners, and described as expertise in whole person medicine. But generalism lacks the evidence base needed by policy makers and planners to support service redesign. The challenge is to fill this practice-research gap in order to critically explore if and when generalist care offers a robust alternative to management of this complex problem. We need practice-based evidence to fill this gap. By recognising generalist practice as a ‘complex intervention’ (intervening in a complex system), we outline an approach to evaluate impact using action-research principles. We highlight the implications for those who both commission and undertake research in order to tackle this problem. Summary Answers to the complex problem of multi-morbidity won’t come from doing more of the same. We need to change systems of care, and so the systems for generating evidence to support that care. This paper contributes to that work through outlining a process for generating practice-based evidence of generalist solutions to the complex problem of person-centred care for people with multi-morbidity. PMID:23919296

  2. Fuel cells provide a revenue-generating solution to power quality problems

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.M. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Electric power quality and reliability are becoming increasingly important as computers and microprocessors assume a larger role in commercial, health care and industrial buildings and processes. At the same time, constraints on transmission and distribution of power from central stations are making local areas vulnerable to low voltage, load addition limitations, power quality and power reliability problems. Many customers currently utilize some form of premium power in the form of standby generators and/or UPS systems. These include customers where continuous power is required because of health and safety or security reasons (hospitals, nursing homes, places of public assembly, air traffic control, military installations, telecommunications, etc.) These also include customers with industrial or commercial processes which can`t tolerance an interruption of power because of product loss or equipment damage. The paper discusses the use of the PC25 fuel cell power plant for backup and parallel power supplies for critical industrial applications. Several PC25 installations are described: the use of propane in a PC25; the use by rural cooperatives; and a demonstration of PC25 technology using landfill gas.

  3. Probing the interface of microscopic clay particles in aqueous solution by second harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, E.C.Y.; Eisenthal, K.B.

    1999-07-22

    The abundance in nature and the unique adsorptive and catalytic properties of clay particles make them a subject of fundamental and technological interest. Clay particles have long been recognized as important catalysts in petroleum-forming reactions and in the chemical evolution of certain organic compounds related to the origin of life. The large surface area make them excellent adsorbents and is the basis for their increasing use to remove organic and inorganic environmental pollutants. Industries also use them in a number of applications, e.g., decolorizing agents, carriers for insecticides, and detergent formulation. Second harmonic generation (SHG) is applied for the first time to study the surfaces of clay particles. An SHG signal was detected from an aqueous suspension of disk-shaped montmorillonite clay particles of 0.5 {micro}m diameter and 0.01 {micro}m thickness. The origin of the SHG signal is the polarization of water molecules by surface charges located in the edge region of the clay particles. On addition of the organic molecule 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PR) to the clay aqueous suspension, a strong SHG signal originating from the PR molecules adsorbed onto the edge surfaces of the clay particles was obtained. The PR adsorbed on the basal planes do not contribute to the SHG signal because of cancellation effects. These experimental results demonstrate the applicability of the SHG method for studying molecular adsorption and the electrostatic properties of clay particles.

  4. Career Development Intervention in Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Ruth

    This paper contains a unit of six career awareness lessons for use by elementary guidance counselors with fourth grade students. Prepared to be used with fourth graders in a middle class small community elementary school in Wisconsin, the unit is based on developmental needs that have been identified for this age group. It is intended to be both…

  5. FABRIC FILTER SYSTEM STUDY; FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the fourth year of operation (ending October 1, 1981) of a fabric filter installed by Southwestern Public Service Co. on its Harrington Station Unit 2 coal-fired boiler in Amarillo, Texas. Project work during the fourth year concentrated on fabric stud...

  6. ULTRACOATINGS: Enabling Energy and Power Solutions in High Contact Stress Environments through Next-Generation Nanocoatings

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.; Qu, J.; Higdon, C. III

    2011-09-30

    This industry-driven project was the result of a successful response by Eaton Corporation to a DOE/ITP Program, Grand Challenge, industry call. It consisted of a one-year effort in which ORNL participated in the area of friction and wear testing. In addition to Eaton Corporation and ORNL (CRADA), the project team included: Ames Laboratory, who developed the underlying concept for titanium- zirconium-boron (TZB) based nanocomposite coatings; Borg-Warner Morse TEC, an automotive engine timing chain manufacturer in Ithaca, New York, with its own proprietary hard coating; and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc., a dry-solids pump manufacturer in San Fernando Valley, California. This report focuses only on the portion of work that was conducted by ORNL, in a CRADA with Eaton Corporation. A comprehensive final report for the entire effort, which ended in September 2010, has been prepared for DOE by the team. The term 'ultracoatings' derives from the ambitious technical target for the new generation of nanocoatings. As applications, Eaton was specifically considering a fuel pump and a gear application in which the product of the contact pressure and slip velocity during operation of mating surfaces, commonly called the 'PV value', was equal to or greater than 70,000 MPa-m/s. This ambitious target challenges the developers of coatings to produce material capable of strong bonding to the substrate, as well as high wear resistance and the ability to maintain sliding friction at low, energy-saving levels. The partners in this effort were responsible for the selection and preparation of such candidate ultracoatings, and ORNL used established tribology testing capabilities to help screen these candidates for performance. This final report summarizes ORNL's portion of the nanocomposite coatings development effort and presents both generated data and the analyses that were used in the course of this effort. Initial contact stress and speed calculations showed that laboratory tests

  7. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  8. An integrated evaluation of thirteen modelling solutions for the generation of hourly values of air relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregaglio, Simone; Donatelli, Marcello; Confalonieri, Roberto; Acutis, Marco; Orlandini, Simone

    2010-11-01

    The availability of hourly air relative humidity (HARH) data is a key requirement for the estimation of epidemic dynamics of plant fungal pathogens, in particular for the simulation of both the germination of the spores and the infection process. Most of the existing epidemic forecasting models require these data as input directly or indirectly, in the latter case for the estimation of leaf wetness duration. In many cases, HARH must be generated because it is not available in historical series and when there is the need to simulate epidemics either on a wide scale or with different climate scenarios. Thirteen modelling solutions (MS) for the generation of this variable were evaluated, with different input requirements and alternative approaches, on a large dataset including several sites and years. A composite indicator was developed using fuzzy logic to compare and to evaluate the performances of the models. The indicator consists of four modules: Accuracy, Correlation, Pattern and Robustness. Results showed that when available, daily maximum and minimum air relative humidity data substantially improved the estimation of HARH. When such data are not available, the choice of the MS is crucial, given the difference in predicting skills obtained during the analysis, which allowed a clear detection of the best performing MS. This study represents the first step of the creation of a robust modelling chain coupling the MS for the generation of HARH and disease forecasting models, including the systematic validation of each step of the simulation.

  9. Neural crest: The fourth germ layer

    PubMed Central

    Shyamala, K; Yanduri, Sarita; Girish, HC; Murgod, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The neural crest cells (NCCs), a transient group of cells that emerges from the dorsal aspect of the neural tube during early vertebrate development has been a fascinating group of cells because of its multipotency, long range migration through embryo and its capacity to generate a prodigious number of differentiated cell types. For these reasons, although derived from the ectoderm, the neural crest (NC) has been called the fourth germ layer. The non neural ectoderm, the neural plate and the underlying mesoderm are needed for the induction and formation of NC cells. Once formed, NC cells start migrating as a wave of cells, moving away from the neuroepithelium and quickly splitting into distinct streams. These migrating NCCs home in to different regions and give rise to plethora of tissues. Umpteen number of signaling molecules are essential for formation, epithelial mesenchymal transition, delamination, migration and localization of NCC. Authors believe that a clear understanding of steps and signals involved in NC formation, migration, etc., may help in understanding the pathogenesis behind cancer metastasis and many other diseases. Hence, we have taken this review to discuss the various aspects of the NC cells. PMID:26604500

  10. In situ generated highly active copper oxide catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction at low overpotential in alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Cui, Shengsheng; Qian, Manman; Sun, Zijun; Du, Pingwu

    2016-04-25

    Developing efficient water oxidation catalysts made up of earth-abundant elements has attracted much attention as a step toward for future clean energy production. Herein we report a simple one-step method to generate a low cost copper oxide catalyst film in situ from a copper(ii) ethylenediamine complex. The resulting catalyst has excellent activity toward the oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline solutions. A catalytic current density of 1.0 mA cm(-2) and 10 mA cm(-2) for the catalyst film requires the overpotentials of only ∼370 mV and ∼475 mV in 1.0 M KOH, respectively. This catalytic performance shows that the new catalyst is one of the best Cu-based heterogeneous OER catalysts to date. PMID:27020763

  11. A fourth order spline collocation approach for a business cycle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayfy, A.; Khoury, S.; Ibdah, H.

    2013-10-01

    A collocation approach, based on a fourth order cubic B-splines is presented for the numerical solution of a Kaleckian business cycle model formulated by a nonlinear delay differential equation. The equation is approximated and the nonlinearity is handled by employing an iterative scheme arising from Newton's method. It is shown that the model exhibits a conditionally dynamical stable cycle. The fourth-order rate of convergence of the scheme is verified numerically for different special cases.

  12. A fourth-order box method for solving the boundary layer equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, S. F.

    1977-01-01

    A fourth order box method for calculating high accuracy numerical solutions to parabolic, partial differential equations in two variables or ordinary differential equations is presented. The method is the natural extension of the second order Keller Box scheme to fourth order and is demonstrated with application to the incompressible, laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations. Numerical results for high accuracy test cases show the method to be significantly faster than other higher order and second order methods.

  13. Ill-defined problem solving in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: linking episodic memory to effective solution generation.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, S; Vandermorris, S; Al-Haj, M; Cohen, S; Winocur, G; Moscovitch, M

    2015-02-01

    It is well accepted that the medial temporal lobes (MTL), and the hippocampus specifically, support episodic memory processes. Emerging evidence suggests that these processes also support the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems which are those that do not have a set routine or solution. To test the relation between episodic memory and problem solving, we examined the ability of individuals with single domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a condition characterized by episodic memory impairment, to solve ill-defined social problems. Participants with aMCI and age and education matched controls were given a battery of tests that included standardized neuropsychological measures, the Autobiographical Interview (Levine et al., 2002) that scored for episodic content in descriptions of past personal events, and a measure of ill-defined social problem solving. Corroborating previous findings, the aMCI group generated less episodically rich narratives when describing past events. Individuals with aMCI also generated less effective solutions when solving ill-defined problems compared to the control participants. Correlation analyses demonstrated that the ability to recall episodic elements from autobiographical memories was positively related to the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems. The ability to solve these ill-defined problems was related to measures of activities of daily living. In conjunction with previous reports, the results of the present study point to a new functional role of episodic memory in ill-defined goal-directed behavior and other non-memory tasks that require flexible thinking. Our findings also have implications for the cognitive and behavioural profile of aMCI by suggesting that the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems is related to sustained functional independence. PMID:25575452

  14. Special polynomials associated with the fourth order analogue to the Painlevé equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A.; Demina, Maria V.

    2007-04-01

    Rational solutions of the fourth order analogue to the Painlevé equations are classified. Special polynomials associated with the rational solutions are introduced. The structure of the polynomials is found. Formulae for their coefficients and degrees are derived. It is shown that special solutions of the Fordy Gibbons, the Caudrey Dodd Gibbon and the Kaup Kupershmidt equations can be expressed through solutions of the equation studied.

  15. On loss of accuracy and non-uniqueness of solutions generated by equivalent linearization and cumulant-neglect methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, F.-G.; Ahmadi, G.

    1990-03-01

    The equivalent linearization, the Gaussian closure and the non-Gaussian cumulant-neglect closure schemes are used to analyze responses of a non-linear system with multiple potential wells under random external excitations. The resulting response statistics are compared with those obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations and exact stationary solutions to the corresponding Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation. The question of uniqueness of mean-square responses for different approximation methods is also examined and discussed. The results presented show that accuracies of these approximation techniques vary depending on the nature and strength of non-linearity of the system and the intensity of excitation. For certain conditions, the exact mean-square responses are underestimated by a factor of ten or more. The Gaussian closure technique and the equivalent linearization method lead to identical results which are somewhat less accurate than those obtained by the non-Gaussian cumulant-neglect closure scheme. It is also shown that the solution generated by these techniques may not be unique.

  16. Corrosive effect of disinfection solution containing hydroxyl radicals generated by photolysis of H(2)O(2) on dental metals.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Yamada, Yasutomo; Takada, Yukyo; Mokudai, Takayuki; Ikai, Hiroyo; Inagaki, Ryoichi; Kanno, Taro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Kohno, Masahiro; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the corrosive effect of disinfection solution containing hydroxyl radicals generated by photolysis of H(2)O(2)on dental metals. Static immersion test was performed on four different dental metals: Ti, Type 316L stainless steel, Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy, and Co-Cr alloy. Metal specimens were immersed in 1 M H(2)O(2)(=3.4%) with or without light-emitting diode (LED) light irradiation (wavelength: 400 nm) for 1 week, and then the amounts of released ions were analyzed. Corrosive effect of the disinfection solution containing hydroxyl radicals on any dental metals tested in the present study never exceeded that of H(2)O(2) alone. Therefore, disinfection systems based on the photolysis of H(2)O(2) for the cleaning of dentures and treatment of oral infectious diseases would not cause problematic metal corrosion whenever the concentration of H(2)O(2) does not exceed 3%, which is a concentration used as an oral disinfectant. PMID:23207198

  17. Quarterly environmental data summary for fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the fourth quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.

  18. (Shippingport Atomic Power Station). Quarterly operating report, fourth quarter 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    At the beginning of the fourth quarter of 1980, the Shippingport Atomic Power Station remained shutdown for the normally planned semiannual maintenance and testing program, initiated September 12, 1980. Operational testing began on November 7. Maximum power was achieved November 28 and was maintained throughout the remainder of the quarter except as noted. The LWBR Core has generated 19,046.07 EFPH from start-up through the end of the quarter. During this quarter, approximately 0.000025 curies of Xe 133 activity were released from the station. During the fourth quarter of 1980, 1081 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste was shipped out of state for burial. These shipments contained 0.037 curies of radioactivity.

  19. Clinical performance of the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 rapid test to correctly differentiate HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection in screening algorithms using third and fourth generation assays and to identify cross reactivity with the HIV-1 Western Blot

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Eric M.; Harb, Socorro; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Background An accurate and rapid serologic method to differentiate HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection is required since the confirmatory HIV-1 Western Blot (WB) may demonstrate cross-reactivity with HIV-2 antibodies. Objectives To evaluate the performance of the Bio-Rad Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 rapid assay as a supplemental test to correctly identify HIV-2 infection and identify HIV-1 WB cross-reactivity with HIV-2 in clinical samples tested at an academic medical center. Study design Between August 2008 and July 2012, clinical samples were screened for HIV using either 3rd-or 4th-generation HIV-1/2 antibody or combination antibody and HIV-1 p24 antigen assays, respectively. All repeatedly reactive samples were reflexed for Multispot rapid testing. Multispot HIV-2 and HIV-1 and HIV-2-reactive samples were further tested using an HIV-2 immunoblot assay and HIV-1 or HIV-2 RNA assays when possible. The HIV-1 WB was performed routinely for additional confirmation and to assess for HIV-2 antibody cross-reactivity. Results Of 46,061 samples screened, 890 (89.6%) of 993 repeatedly reactive samples were also Multispot-reactive: 882 for HIV-1; three for only HIV-2; and five for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. All three HIV-2-only Multispot-positives along with a single dually reactive HIV-1/2 Multispot-positive were also HIV-2 immunoblot-positive; the latter was HIV-1 RNA negative and HIV-2 RNA positive. Conclusions The Multispot rapid test performed well as a supplemental test for HIV-1/2 diagnostic testing. Four new HIV-2 infections (0.45%) were identified from among 890 Multispot-reactive tests. The use of HIV-1 WB alone to confirm HIV-1/2 screening assays may underestimate the true prevalence of HIV-2 infection in the United States. PMID:24342468

  20. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137

  1. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  2. On Comparison of Series and Numerical Solutions for Flow of Eyring-Powell Fluid with Newtonian Heating And Internal Heat Generation/Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Tasawar; Ali, Shafqat; Farooq, Muhammad Asif; Alsaedi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the combined effects of Newtonian heating and internal heat generation/absorption in the two-dimensional flow of Eyring-Powell fluid over a stretching surface. The governing non-linear analysis of partial differential equations is reduced into the ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The resulting problems are computed for both series and numerical solutions. Series solution is constructed using homotopy analysis method (HAM) whereas numerical solution is presented by two different techniques namely shooting method and bvp4c. A comparison of homotopy solution with numerical solution is also tabulated. Both solutions are found in an excellent agreement. Dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are plotted and discussed for various emerging physical parameters. PMID:26402366

  3. Generation of WO{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} catalysts from solid solutions of tungsten in zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Cortes-Jacome, Maria A.; Angeles-Chavez, Carlos; Bokhimi, Xim; Toledo-Antonio, J.A. . E-mail: jtoledo@imp.mx

    2006-08-15

    WO{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} samples were obtained by precipitating zirconium oxynitrate in presence of WO{sub 4} {sup =} species in solution from ammonium metatungstate at pH=10.0. Samples were characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy filtered-TEM. The ammonia retained in the dried sample produced a reductive atmosphere to generate W{sup 5+} ions coexisting with W{sup 6+} ions to produce a solid solution of tungsten in the zirconia lattice to stabilize the zirconia tetragonal phase when the sample was annealed at 560 deg. C. When the sample was annealed at 800 deg. C, the W atoms near crystallite surface were oxidized to W{sup 6+}, producing patches of WO{sub 3} on the zirconia crystallite. The HR-TEM analysis confirmed the existence of the solid solution when the sample was annealed at 560 deg. C, and two types of crystalline regions were identified: One with nearly spherical morphology, an average diameter of 8 nm and the atomic distribution of tetragonal zirconia. The second one had a non-spherical morphology with well-faceted faces and dimensions larger than 30 nm, and the atom distribution of tetragonal zirconia. When samples were annealed at 800 deg. C two different zirconia crystallites were formed: Those where only part of the dissolved tungsten atoms segregated to crystallite surface producing patches of nanocrystalline WO{sub 3} on the crystallite surface of tetragonal zirconia stabilized with tungsten. The second type corresponded to monoclinic zirconia crystallites with patches of nanocrystalline WO{sub 3} on their surface. The tungsten segregation gave rise to the WO{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} catalysts. - Graphical abstract: WO {sub x} -ZrO{sub 2} catalysts were obtained by precipitating zirconium oxynitrate in presence of WO{sub 4} {sup =}species. Initially, the W atoms remained inside the crystallite after

  4. Facile Preparation of Highly Conductive Metal Oxides by Self-Combustion for Solution-Processed Thermoelectric Generators.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young Hun; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Lee, Changjin; Cho, Song Yun

    2016-03-01

    Highly conductive indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were successfully fabricated via a self-combustion reaction for application in solution-processed thermoelectric devices. Self-combustion efficiently facilitates the conversion of soluble precursors into metal oxides by lowering the required annealing temperature of oxide films, which leads to considerable enhancement of the electrical conductivity of IZO thin films. Such enhanced electrical conductivity induced by exothermic heat from a combustion reaction consequently yields high performance IZO thermoelectric films. In addition, the effect of the composition ratio of In to Zn precursors on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of the IZO thin films was investigated. IZO thin films with a composition ratio of In:Zn = 6:2 at the low annealing temperature of 350 °C showed an enhanced electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and power factor of 327 S cm(-1), 50.6 μV K(-1), and 83.8 μW m(-1) K(-2), respectively. Moreover, the IZO thin film prepared at an even lower temperature of 300 °C retained a large power factor of 78.7 μW m(-1) K(-2) with an electrical conductivity of 168 S cm(-1). Using the combustive IZO precursor, a thermoelectric generator consisting of 15 legs was fabricated by a printing process. The thermoelectric array generated a thermoelectric voltage of 4.95 mV at a low temperature difference (5 °C). We suggest that the highly conductive IZO thin films by self-combustion may be utilized for fabricating n-type flexible printed thermoelectric devices. PMID:26856774

  5. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  6. Green solution: 120W ArF immersion light source supporting the next-generation multiple-pattering lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumazaki, Takahito; Ohta, Takeshi; Ishida, Keisuke; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Kurosu, Akihiko; Kakizaki, Kouji; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2015-03-01

    The difficulty of EUV lithography system development has prolonged the industry's dependence on ArF excimer lasers to realize further advancements in lithography process technologies. Smaller CD with reduced cost requires tighter specifications, and the potential extension to 450mm wafers introduces extremely difficult performance challenges on lasers. One of the most important features of the next generation lasers will be the ability to support green operations while further improving cost of ownership and performance. For example, electricity consumption costs and the dependence on rare gases, such as neon and helium, will become critical considerations for HVM process going forward. As a laser vendor, Gigaphoton continues to innovate and develop solutions that address these important issues. The latest model GT64A with its field-proven, twin-chamber platform has reduced environmental impact while upgrading performance and power. A variety of green technologies are employed on the GT64A. The first is the reduction of gas usage. Parameters, such as input power and gas pressure are closely monitored during operations and fed back to the injection/exhaust gas controller system. By applying a special algorithm, the laser gas consumption can be reduced by up to 50%. More than 96% of the gas used by the lasers is neon. Another rare gas that requires attention is Helium. Recently the unstable supply of helium became a serious worldwide issue. To cope with this situation, Gigaphoton is developing lasers that support completely helium-free operations.

  7. Heat Generation/Absorption Effects in a Boundary Layer Stretched Flow of Maxwell Nanofluid: Analytic and Numeric Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Awais, Muhammad; Hayat, Tasawar; Irum, Sania; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Analysis has been done to investigate the heat generation/absorption effects in a steady flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid over a surface which is stretching linearly in its own plane. An upper convected Maxwell model (UCM) has been utilized as the non-Newtonian fluid model in view of the fact that it can predict relaxation time phenomenon which the Newtonian model cannot. Behavior of the relaxations phenomenon has been presented in terms of Deborah number. Transport phenomenon with convective cooling process has been analyzed. Brownian motion “Db” and thermophoresis effects “Dt” occur in the transport equations. The momentum, energy and nanoparticle concentration profiles are examined with respect to the involved rheological parameters namely the Deborah number, source/sink parameter, the Brownian motion parameters, thermophoresis parameter and Biot number. Both numerical and analytic solutions are presented and found in nice agreement. Comparison with the published data is also made to ensure the validity. Stream lines for Maxwell and Newtonian fluid models are presented in the analysis. PMID:26115101

  8. Heat Generation/Absorption Effects in a Boundary Layer Stretched Flow of Maxwell Nanofluid: Analytic and Numeric Solutions.

    PubMed

    Awais, Muhammad; Hayat, Tasawar; Irum, Sania; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Analysis has been done to investigate the heat generation/absorption effects in a steady flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid over a surface which is stretching linearly in its own plane. An upper convected Maxwell model (UCM) has been utilized as the non-Newtonian fluid model in view of the fact that it can predict relaxation time phenomenon which the Newtonian model cannot. Behavior of the relaxations phenomenon has been presented in terms of Deborah number. Transport phenomenon with convective cooling process has been analyzed. Brownian motion "Db" and thermophoresis effects "Dt" occur in the transport equations. The momentum, energy and nanoparticle concentration profiles are examined with respect to the involved rheological parameters namely the Deborah number, source/sink parameter, the Brownian motion parameters, thermophoresis parameter and Biot number. Both numerical and analytic solutions are presented and found in nice agreement. Comparison with the published data is also made to ensure the validity. Stream lines for Maxwell and Newtonian fluid models are presented in the analysis. PMID:26115101

  9. Definition and use of Solution-focused Sustainability Assessment: A novel approach to generate, explore and decide on sustainable solutions for wicked problems.

    PubMed

    Zijp, Michiel C; Posthuma, Leo; Wintersen, Arjen; Devilee, Jeroen; Swartjes, Frank A

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces Solution-focused Sustainability Assessment (SfSA), provides practical guidance formatted as a versatile process framework, and illustrates its utility for solving a wicked environmental management problem. Society faces complex and increasingly wicked environmental problems for which sustainable solutions are sought. Wicked problems are multi-faceted, and deriving of a management solution requires an approach that is participative, iterative, innovative, and transparent in its definition of sustainability and translation to sustainability metrics. We suggest to add the use of a solution-focused approach. The SfSA framework is collated from elements from risk assessment, risk governance, adaptive management and sustainability assessment frameworks, expanded with the 'solution-focused' paradigm as recently proposed in the context of risk assessment. The main innovation of this approach is the broad exploration of solutions upfront in assessment projects. The case study concerns the sustainable management of slightly contaminated sediments continuously formed in ditches in rural, agricultural areas. This problem is wicked, as disposal of contaminated sediment on adjacent land is potentially hazardous to humans, ecosystems and agricultural products. Non-removal would however reduce drainage capacity followed by increased risks of flooding, while contaminated sediment removal followed by offsite treatment implies high budget costs and soil subsidence. Application of the steps in the SfSA-framework served in solving this problem. Important elements were early exploration of a wide 'solution-space', stakeholder involvement from the onset of the assessment, clear agreements on the risk and sustainability metrics of the problem and on the interpretation and decision procedures, and adaptive management. Application of the key elements of the SfSA approach eventually resulted in adoption of a novel sediment management policy. The stakeholder

  10. Higher order accurate partial implicitization: An unconditionally stable fourth-order-accurate explicit numerical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The previously obtained second-order-accurate partial implicitization numerical technique used in the solution of fluid dynamic problems was modified with little complication to achieve fourth-order accuracy. The Von Neumann stability analysis demonstrated the unconditional linear stability of the technique. The order of the truncation error was deduced from the Taylor series expansions of the linearized difference equations and was verified by numerical solutions to Burger's equation. For comparison, results were also obtained for Burger's equation using a second-order-accurate partial-implicitization scheme, as well as the fourth-order scheme of Kreiss.

  11. Youth Violence: Developing Local and State Solutions. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session on Focusing on Youth Violence and Developing Local and State Solutions (Memphis and Nashville, TN, February 15 and 16, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This hearing focused on youth violence and the importance of developing local and state solutions. Senator Fred Thompson made an introductory statement. This was followed by four panels on each of 2 days of testimony. Day one's first panel included involved students and business people from Memphis, TN. The second panel included two Tennessee…

  12. Fourth Generation Evaluation, Program Review and the Institutional Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowin, Bob

    Program evaluation can be understood as the process of looking at how all aspects of a program or department have been functioning as the basis for informed planning and decision making. Although the objective dimensions used in evaluations can vary, methodologies can be categorized according to the four category framework (i.e., describing…

  13. Acceptance Test Report for Fourth Generation Hanford Corrosion Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-10-23

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) will document the satisfactory operation of the corrosion probe cabinets destined for installation on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. This ATR will be performed by the manufacturer on each cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinets to be installed on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. One cabinet will be installed on each tank. Each cabinet will contain corrosion monitoring hardware to be connected to existing corrosion probes already installed in each tank. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation (input a known signal and see if the instrumentation records the proper value).

  14. Acceptance test plan for fourth generation Hanford corrosion monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-07-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) will document the satisfactory operation of the corrosion probe cabinets destined for installation on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. This ATP will be performed by the manufacturer on each cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinets to be installed on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. One cabinet will be installed on each tank. Each cabinet will contain corrosion monitoring hardware to be connected to existing corrosion probes already installed in each tank. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation (input a known signal and see if the instrumentation records the proper value).

  15. Use of a new tandem cation/anion exchange system with clinical-scale generators provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.R. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Guhlke, S. |

    1998-03-01

    In this paper the authors describe the first application of a simple and inexpensive post elution tandem cation-anion exchange column system which is based on generator elution with salts of weak acids such as ammonium acetate instead of saline solution to provide very high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188 from clinical scale molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator prepared from low specific activity (n,y) molybdenum-99, and tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators, respectively. Initial passage of the bolus through a strong cation exchange cartridge converts the ammonium acetate to acetic acid which is essentially not ionized at the acidic pH, allowing specific subsequent amine type (QMA SepPak{trademark}) anion exchange cartridge column trapping of the microscopic levels of the pertechnetate or perrhenate. Subsequent elution of the anion cartridge with a small volume (< 1 mL) of saline then provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m by concentration of the high eluant volumes obtained by elution of clinical-scale (1 Ci) generators. This new approach also works very effectively to obtain high specific volume solutions of rhenium-188 (> 500 mCi/mL) from the alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator.

  16. Finite-gap solutions of 2+1 dimensional integrable nonlinear evolution equations generated by the Neumann systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinbing

    2010-08-01

    Each soliton equation in the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) hierarchy, the 2+1 dimensional breaking soliton equation, and the 2+1 dimensional Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Kotera-Sawada (CDGKS) equation are reduced to two or three Neumann systems on the tangent bundle TSN -1 of the unit sphere SN -1. The Lax-Moser matrix for the Neumann systems of degree N -1 is deduced in view of the Mckean-Trubowitz identity and a bilinear generating function, whose favorite characteristic accounts for the problem of the genus of Riemann surface matching to the number of elliptic variables. From the Lax-Moser matrix, the constrained Hamiltonians in the sense of Dirac-Poisson bracket for all the Neumann systems are written down in a uniform recursively determined by integrals of motion. The involution of integrals of motion and constrained Hamiltonians is completed on TSN -1 by using a Lax equation and their functional independence is displayed over a dense open subset of TSN -1 by a direct calculation, which contribute to the Liouville integrability of a family of Neumann systems in a new systematical way. We also construct the hyperelliptic curve of Riemann surface and the Abel map straightening out the restricted Neumann flows that naturally leads to the Jacobi inversion problem on the Jacobian with the aid of the holomorphic differentials, from which some finite-gap solutions expressed by Riemann theta functions for the 2+1 dimensional breaking soliton equation, the 2+1 dimensional CDGKS equation, the KdV, and the fifth-order KdV equations are presented by means of the Riemann theorem.

  17. Wormhole geometries in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varieschi, Gabriele U.; Ault, Kellie L.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analysis of the classic wormhole geometries based on conformal Weyl gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting traversable wormholes remains the same as in the seminal study by Morris and Thorne, namely, that effective super-luminal motion is a viable consequence of the metric. Improving on previous work on the subject, we show that for particular choices of the shape and redshift functions the wormhole metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the main energy conditions at or near the wormhole throat. Some exotic matter might still be needed at the junction between our solutions and flat spacetime, but we demonstrate that the averaged null energy condition (as evaluated along radial null geodesics) is satisfied for a particular set of wormhole geometries. Therefore, if fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, traversable wormholes might become a realistic solution for interstellar travel.

  18. Wormhole geometries in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varieschi, Gabriele; Ault, Kellie

    2016-03-01

    We present an analysis of the classic wormhole geometries based on conformal Weyl gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting traversable wormholes remain the same as in the seminal study by Morris and Thorne, namely, that effective super-luminal motion is a viable consequence of the metric. Improving on previous work on the subject, we show that for particular choices of the shape and redshift functions, the wormhole metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the main energy conditions, as was the case of the original solutions. In particular, the resulting geometry does not require the use of exotic matter at or near the wormhole throat. Therefore, if fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, traversable wormholes might become a realistic solution for interstellar travel. This work was supported by a Grant from the Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering, Loyola Marymount University.

  19. Generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution using C/PbO2 and Pb/PbO2 electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalwa, Nasser Abu; Tamos, Hassan; ElAskalni, Mohamed; El Agha, Abed Rhman

    2012-06-01

    Two modified electrodes (Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2) were prepared by electrodepositing a lead oxide layer on lead and carbon substrates. These modified electrodes were used as anodes for the generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution. Different operating conditions and factors affecting the treatment process of NaOCl generation, including current density, pH values, conductive electrolytes, and electrolysis time, were studied and optimized. By comparison the C/PbO2 electrode shows a higher efficiency than the Pb/PbO2 electrode for the generation of NaOCl.

  20. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ particle generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The research conducted by Textron Defense Systems (TDS) represents a potential new and innovative concept for dispersed coal liquefaction. The technical approach is generation of ultra-fine catalyst particles from supercritical solutions by rapid expansion of either catalyst only, or mixtures of catalyst and coal material in supersaturated solvents. The process of rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions was developed at Battelle`s Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the intended purpose of providing a new analytical technique for characterizing supercritical fluids. The concept forming the basis of this research is that ultra-fine particles can be generated from supercritical solutions by rapid expansion of either catalyst or catalyst/coal-material mixtures in supersaturated solvents, such as carbon dioxide or water. The focal point of this technique is the rapid transfer of low vapor pressure solute (i.e., catalyst), dissolved in the supercritical fluid solvent, to the gas phase as the solution is expanded through an orifice. The expansion process is characterized by highly nonequilibrium conditions which cause the solute to undergo extremely rapid supersaturation with respect to the solvent, leading to nucleation and particle growth resulting in nanometer size catalyst particles. A supercritical expansion system was designed and built by TDS at their Haverhill facility.

  1. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  2. The Fourth Alternative: Leisure Search and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liptak, John J.

    1991-01-01

    Identifies three traditional methods of assisting unemployed in job search process (placement or job development, job banks, and teaching people how to find jobs) and suggests leisure search and planning as fourth job search alternative. Sees leisure interests as relatively untapped resources that unemployed might use to find employment or develop…

  3. Fourth & Fifth Graders Make Blueprints from Scratch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sandy

    1988-01-01

    Describes a project in which third and fourth graders in a special education writing skills class learned how to design a house and make blueprints. Discusses the project's beneficial effects on student writing and public speaking skills, vocabulary, telephone skills, and effective peer interaction. (SV)

  4. The Egyptian Press: An Official Fourth Estate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawhorne, Clifton O.

    A descriptive study based on Egyptian law, printed sources, and interviews clarifies our picture of the Egyptian Press by examining its status as a constitutionally mandated "Fourth Estate." The constitutional amendment, the resultant Egyptian Press Law, and the "Law Of Shame" (all passed in 1980), are designed to create a heavily controlled press…

  5. The Fourth Domain of Educational Objectives: Induction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, Wes

    1985-01-01

    Tests the claim to comprehensiveness of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives by analyzing educational objectives of some freshmen orientation programs and those connected with human developmental tasks. It is concluded that the taxonomy should be enlarged with a fourth domain: actual induction into tasks for which students are being…

  6. Children, Play, and Development. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Fergus P.

    2010-01-01

    Children, Play, and Development, Fourth Edition, discusses the relationship of play to the physical, social, intellectual, and emotional growth of the child. Author Fergus P. Hughes focuses on the historical, sociocultural, and ethological context of play; the role of development in play; and the wide range of theories that provide a framework for…

  7. The Fourth Basic: Computer Skills. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin County Board of Education, Elizabethtown, KY.

    Traditionally, the fundamental goal of all American education has been to provide students with adequate competencies in reading, writing, and mathematics. A year-long project, conducted at three high schools in Hardin County, Kentucky, provided for the development of a fourth basic: computer skills. Through this project, computer skills were…

  8. "Researching" with Third- and Fourth-Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Barbara

    1970-01-01

    In order to instill in children the skills which will be basic to their school experience, words implying a process (such as "hemp,""parasite," and "vanilla") may be "researched" by third and fourth graders through the use of a dictionary, an encyclopedia, a supplementary book on the subject, and an interview with an adult. The child makes a…

  9. Literature for Today's Young Adults. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

    Designed to help teachers open young minds to literature, this book presents criteria for evaluating books in all genres and their suggested classroom uses, an examination of hotly debated topics, and an overview of the significance of young adult literature. The fourth edition of the book features 30 boxed inserts containing essays by some of the…

  10. Effective Literacy Instruction, K-8. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leu, Donald J., Jr.; Kinzer, Charles K.

    Systematically integrating technology with accepted practices for teaching reading in a balanced literacy education program, this book helps to develop insightful teachers empowered to make thoughtful decisions about reading instruction. Updated and extensively revised with new material throughout, this fourth edition features a balanced…

  11. Singapore: The Fourth Way in Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This article has two main objectives. It first outlines the first three waves of change termed by Hargreaves and Shirley (The Fourth Way: The inspiring future for educational change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, "2009") as the First, Second and Third Way that defined global educational policy and practice since the 1960s. It then introduces…

  12. Business Management for Independent Schools. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This fourth edition of a guide for independent school business managers has been produced in looseleaf format so that changes may be made promptly as decisions of regulatory bodies require modifications in current practice. Fourteen chapters are organized under three broad topic headings. Chapters in part 1, Accounting and Financial Reporting,…

  13. Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Gina

    2012-01-01

    For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

  14. Use of a solution cathode glow discharge for cold vapor generation of mercury with determination by ICP-atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenli; Chan, George C-Y; Ray, Steven J; Zhang, Xinrong; Hieftje, Gary M

    2008-09-15

    A novel vapor-generation technique is described for mercury determination in aqueous solutions. Without need for a chemical reducing agent, dissolved mercury species are converted to volatile Hg vapor in a solution cathode glow discharge. The generated Hg vapor is then transported to an inductively coupled plasma for determination by atomic emission spectrometry. Mercury vapor is readily generated from a background electrolyte containing 0.1 M HNO 3. Vapor generation efficiency was found to be higher by a factor of 2-3 in the presence of low molecular weight organic acids (formic or acetic acids) or alcohols (ethanol). Optimal conditions for discharge-induced vapor generation and reduced interference from concomitant inorganic ions were also identified. However, the presence of chloride ion reduces the efficiency of Hg-vapor generation. In the continuous sample introduction mode, the detection limit was found to be 0.7 microg L (-1), and repeatability was 1.2% RSD ( n = 11) for a 20 microg L (-1) standard. In comparison with other vapor generation methods, it offers several advantages: First, it is applicable to both inorganic and organic Hg determination; organic mercury (thiomersal) can be directly transformed into volatile Hg species without the need for prior oxidation. Second, the vapor-generation efficiency is high; the efficiency (with formic acid as a promoter) is superior to that of conventional SnCl 2-HCl reduction. Third, the vapor generation is extremely rapid and therefore is easy to couple with flow injection. The method is sensitive and simple in operation, requires no auxiliary reagents, and serves as a useful alternative to conventional vapor generation for ultratrace Hg determination. PMID:18710258

  15. Pseudospectral collocation methods for fourth order differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malek, Alaeddin; Phillips, Timothy N.

    1994-01-01

    Collocation schemes are presented for solving linear fourth order differential equations in one and two dimensions. The variational formulation of the model fourth order problem is discretized by approximating the integrals by a Gaussian quadrature rule generalized to include the values of the derivative of the integrand at the boundary points. Collocation schemes are derived which are equivalent to this discrete variational problem. An efficient preconditioner based on a low-order finite difference approximation to the same differential operator is presented. The corresponding multidomain problem is also considered and interface conditions are derived. Pseudospectral approximations which are C1 continuous at the interfaces are used in each subdomain to approximate the solution. The approximations are also shown to be C3 continuous at the interfaces asymptotically. A complete analysis of the collocation scheme for the multidomain problem is provided. The extension of the method to the biharmonic equation in two dimensions is discussed and results are presented for a problem defined in a nonrectangular domain.

  16. The Fourth Law of Behavior Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Chabris, Christopher F.; Lee, James J.; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Laibson, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Behavior genetics is the study of the relationship between genetic variation and psychological traits. Turkheimer (2000) proposed “Three Laws of Behavior Genetics” based on empirical regularities observed in studies of twins and other kinships. On the basis of molecular studies that have measured DNA variation directly, we propose a Fourth Law of Behavior Genetics: “A typical human behavioral trait is associated with very many genetic variants, each of which accounts for a very small percentage of the behavioral variability.” This law explains several consistent patterns in the results of gene discovery studies, including the failure of candidate gene studies to robustly replicate, the need for genome-wide association studies (and why such studies have a much stronger replication record), and the crucial importance of extremely large samples in these endeavors. We review the evidence in favor of the Fourth Law and discuss its implications for the design and interpretation of gene-behavior research. PMID:26556960

  17. Bounding CKM Mixing with a Fourth Family

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, Michael S.

    2009-04-22

    CKM mixing between third family quarks and a possible fourth family is constrained by global fits to the precision electroweak data. The dominant constraint is from nondecoupling oblique corrections rather than the vertex correction to Z {yields} {bar b}b used in previous analyses. The possibility of large mixing suggested by some recent analyses of FCNC processes is excluded, but 3-4 mixing of the same order as the Cabbibo mixing of the first two families is allowed.

  18. Documentation of the Fourth Order Band Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay-Rivas, E.; Hoitsma, D.

    1979-01-01

    A general circulation model is presented which uses quadratically conservative, fourth order horizontal space differences on an unstaggered grid and second order vertical space differences with a forward-backward or a smooth leap frog time scheme to solve the primitive equations of motion. The dynamic equations for motion, finite difference equations, a discussion of the structure and flow chart of the program code, a program listing, and three relevent papers are given.

  19. Fourth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This publication consists of papers presented at NASA Langley Research Center's fourth workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. Topic considered include: Proving properties of accident; modeling and validating SAFER in VDM-SL; requirement analysis of real-time control systems using PVS; a tabular language for system design; automated deductive verification of parallel systems. Also included is a fundamental hardware design in PVS.

  20. Fourth High Alpha Conference, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the Fourth High Alpha Conference was to focus on the flight validation of high angle-of-attack technologies and provide an in-depth review of the latest high angle-of-attack activities. Areas that were covered include: high angle-of-attack aerodynamics, propulsion and inlet dynamics, thrust vectoring, control laws and handling qualities, tactical utility, and forebody controls.

  1. Fourth High Alpha Conference, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the Fourth High Alpha Conference, held at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center on July 12-14, 1994, was to focus on the flight validation of high angle of attack technologies and provide an in-depth review of the latest high angle of attack activities. Areas that were covered include high angle of attack aerodynamics, propulsion and inlet dynamics, thrust vectoring, control laws and handling qualities, and tactical utility.

  2. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to design and fabricate an experimental ultra-fine particle generation system; use this system to generate ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles; and to access the ability of these ultra-fine catalyst particles to improve the performance of solubilization stage of two-stage, catalytic-catalytic liquefaction processes.

  3. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this program is to design and fabricate an experimental ultra-fine particle generation system; use this system to generate ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles; and to access the ability of these ultra-fine catalyst particles to improve the performance of the solubilization stage of two-stage, catalytic-catalytic liquefaction processes.

  4. Solution synthesis of telluride-based nano-barbell structures coated with PEDOT:PSS for spray-printed thermoelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Eun Jin; Kang, Young Hun; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Lee, Changjin; Cho, Song Yun

    2016-05-01

    Solution-processable telluride-based heterostructures coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS) were synthesized through a solution-phase reaction at low temperatures. The water-based synthesis yielded PEDOT:PSS-coated Te-Bi2Te3 nano-barbell structures with a high Seebeck coefficient that can be stably dispersed in water. These hybrid solutions were deposited onto a substrate by the spray-printing method to prepare thermoelectric generators. The thermoelectric properties of the Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were significantly enhanced by a simple acid treatment due to the increased electrical conductivity, and the power factor of those materials can be effectively tuned over a wide range depending on the acid concentration of the treatment. The power factors of the synthesized Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrids were optimized to 60.05 μW m-1 K-2 with a Seebeck coefficient of 93.63 μV K-1 and an electrical conductivity of 69.99 S cm-1. The flexible thermoelectric generator fabricated by spray-printing Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solutions showed an open-circuit voltage of 1.54 mV with six legs at ΔT = 10 °C. This approach presents the potential for realizing printing-processable hybrid thermoelectric materials for application in flexible thermoelectric generators.Solution-processable telluride-based heterostructures coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS) were synthesized through a solution-phase reaction at low temperatures. The water-based synthesis yielded PEDOT:PSS-coated Te-Bi2Te3 nano-barbell structures with a high Seebeck coefficient that can be stably dispersed in water. These hybrid solutions were deposited onto a substrate by the spray-printing method to prepare thermoelectric generators. The thermoelectric properties of the Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were significantly enhanced by a simple acid treatment due to the increased electrical conductivity, and

  5. Femtosecond laser-induced hard X-ray generation in air from a solution flow of Au nano-sphere suspension using an automatic positioning system.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Hung; Masim, Frances Camille P; Porta, Matteo; Nguyen, Mai Thanh; Yonezawa, Tetsu; Balčytis, Armandas; Wang, Xuewen; Rosa, Lorenzo; Juodkazis, Saulius; Hatanaka, Koji

    2016-09-01

    Femtosecond laser-induced hard X-ray generation in air from a 100-µm-thick solution film of distilled water or Au nano-sphere suspension was carried out by using a newly-developed automatic positioning system with 1-µm precision. By positioning the solution film for the highest X-ray intensity, the optimum position shifted upstream as the laser power increased due to breakdown. Optimized positioning allowed us to control X-ray intensity with high fidelity. X-ray generation from Au nano-sphere suspension and distilled water showed different power scaling. Linear and nonlinear absorption mechanism are analyzed together with numerical modeling of light delivery. PMID:27607607

  6. Tetra(1,1,4,4-tetramethyl-6,7-tetralino)porphyrazine as a novel luminescence sensor of laser-induced singlet oxygen generation in solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnovskii, A A; Schweitzer, C; Leismann, H; Tanielian, C; Luk'yanets, Evgenii A

    2000-05-31

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra and quantum yields of fluorescence and singlet oxygen generation were studied in air-saturated solutions of a newly synthesised dye, tetra(1,1,4,4-tetramethyl-6,7-tetralino)porphyrazine (TMTP), in benzene. Photophysical properties of TMTP are similar to those of previously studied tetra(4-tert-butyl) phthalocyanine (TBPc). However, the TMTP absorption and fluorescence bands are shifted to the longer wavelengths compared with those of TBPc. The laser-induced generation of singlet molecular oxygen {sup 1}O{sub 2} in TMTP solutions caused strong singlet oxygen-sensitised delayed fluorescence of the dye. The efficiency of singlet-oxygen-sensitised formation of excited TMTP molecules is two times higher than that of TBPc. It is shown that TMTP can serve as an efficient luminescence sensor of singlet oxygen. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  7. Two-boundary grid generation for the solution of the three dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Ph.D. Thesis - Old Dominion Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A grid generation technique called the two boundary technique is developed and applied for the solution of the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The Navier-Stokes equations are transformed from a cartesian coordinate system to a computational coordinate system, and the grid generation technique provides the Jacobian matrix describing the transformation. The two boundary technique is based on algebraically defining two distinct boundaries of a flow domain and the distribution of the grid is achieved by applying functions to the uniform computational grid which redistribute the computational independent variables and consequently concentrate or disperse the grid points in the physical domain. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a MacCormack time-split technique. Grids and supersonic laminar flow solutions are obtained for a family of three dimensional corners and two spike-nosed bodies.

  8. 7. DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF FOURTH STREET VIADUCT SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF FOURTH STREET VIADUCT SHOWING ORNAMENTAL LIGHTING AND STAIRS AT MISSION STREET OVERCROSSING. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Fourth Street Viaduct, Spanning Los Angeles River, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 22. THIRD FLOOR, 202 EAST FOURTH STREET LOOKING SOUTHEAST, PARTITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. THIRD FLOOR, 202 EAST FOURTH STREET LOOKING SOUTHEAST, PARTITION SCAR MARKED BY CONTRASTING WALLPAPER TREATMENTS - Phillips-Thompson Building, 200-206 East Fourth Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  10. Deformation quantization of the Pais-Uhlenbeck fourth order oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra-Montiel, Jasel; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efraín

    2015-11-01

    We analyze the quantization of the Pais-Uhlenbeck fourth order oscillator within the framework of deformation quantization. Our approach exploits the Noether symmetries of the system by proposing integrals of motion as the variables to obtain a solution to the ⋆-genvalue equation, namely the Wigner function. We also obtain, by means of a quantum canonical transformation the wave function associated to the Schrödinger equation of the system. We show that unitary evolution of the system is guaranteed by means of the quantum canonical transformation and via the properties of the constructed Wigner function, even in the so called equal frequency limit of the model, in agreement with recent results.

  11. Fourth NASA Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains copies of all those technical papers received in time for publication just prior to the Fourth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage and Technologies, held March 28-30, 1995, at the University of Maryland, University College Conference Center, in College Park, Maryland. This series of conferences continues to serve as a unique medium for the exchange of information on topics relating to the ingestion and management of substantial amounts of data and the attendant problems involved. This year's discussion topics include new storage technology, stability of recorded media, performance studies, storage system solutions, the National Information infrastructure (Infobahn), the future for storage technology, and lessons learned from various projects. There also will be an update on the IEEE Mass Storage System Reference Model Version 5, on which the final vote was taken in July 1994.

  12. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to design and fabricate an experimental ultra-fine particle generation system; use this system to generate ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles; and to access the ability of these ultra-fine catalyst particles to improve the performance of the solubilization stage of two-stage, catalytic-catalytic liquefaction processes. The effort applied to this program during this reporting period focused on assembling the supercritical particle generation/collection system. Effort was applied to constructing a shakedown testing plan also.

  13. Phase-matching solutions for high-order harmonic generation in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Serebryannikov, E E; von der Linde, D; Zheltikov, A M

    2004-12-01

    Hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers are shown to allow phase-matched high-order harmonic generation by an isolated guided mode of pump radiation. Regimes of phase matching are analyzed for the fundamental guided mode of pump field with a wavelength around 800 nm, generating harmonics within the wavelength range of 25-50 nm in hollow photonic-crystal fibers filled with argon, krypton, and helium. Geometric parameters of the fiber structure and the pressure of the gas filling the fiber core are shown to serve as important, often orthogonal, control knobs, allowing a fine adjustment of the phase matching for high-order harmonic generation. PMID:15697538

  14. Analytical and numerical solutions of the potential and electric field generated by different electrode arrays in a tumor tissue under electrotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Electrotherapy is a relatively well established and efficient method of tumor treatment. In this paper we focus on analytical and numerical calculations of the potential and electric field distributions inside a tumor tissue in a two-dimensional model (2D-model) generated by means of electrode arrays with shapes of different conic sections (ellipse, parabola and hyperbola). Methods Analytical calculations of the potential and electric field distributions based on 2D-models for different electrode arrays are performed by solving the Laplace equation, meanwhile the numerical solution is solved by means of finite element method in two dimensions. Results Both analytical and numerical solutions reveal significant differences between the electric field distributions generated by electrode arrays with shapes of circle and different conic sections (elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic). Electrode arrays with circular, elliptical and hyperbolic shapes have the advantage of concentrating the electric field lines in the tumor. Conclusion The mathematical approach presented in this study provides a useful tool for the design of electrode arrays with different shapes of conic sections by means of the use of the unifying principle. At the same time, we verify the good correspondence between the analytical and numerical solutions for the potential and electric field distributions generated by the electrode array with different conic sections. PMID:21943385

  15. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  16. A note on the generation of phase plane plots on a digital computer. [for solution of nonlinear differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is presented for generating phase plane plots on a digital computer which circumvents the difficulties associated with more traditional methods of numerical solving nonlinear differential equations. In particular, the nonlinear differential equation of operation is formulated.

  17. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this program is to design and fabricate an experimental ultra-fine particle generation system; use this system to generate ultra-fine, iron compound, catalyst particles; and to access the ability of these ultra-fine catalyst particles to improve the performance of the solubilization stage of two-stage, catalytic-catalytic liquefaction processes. The effort applied to this program during this reporting period was devoted to experimental design and fabrication tasks.

  18. Community-Based Social Networks: Generation of Power Law Degree Distribution and IP Solutions to the KPP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wentao

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is two-fold: (1) to investigate the degree distribution property of community-based social networks (CSNs) and (2) to provide solutions to a pertinent problem, the Key Player Problem. In the first part of this thesis, we consider a growing community-based network in which the ability of nodes competing for links to new…

  19. 7 CFR 51.2296 - Three-fourths half kernel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Three-fourths half kernel. 51.2296 Section 51.2296... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2296 Three-fourths half kernel. Three-fourths half kernel means a portion of a half of a kernel which has more...

  20. Developing a yearlong Next Generation Science Standard (NGSS) learning sequence focused on climate solutions: opportunities, challenges and reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, E.; Centeno, D.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last four years, the Green Ninja Project (GNP) has been developing educational media (e.g., videos, games and online lessons) to help motivate student interest and engagement around climate science and solutions. Inspired by the new emphasis in NGSS on climate change, human impact and engineering design, the GNP is developing a technology focused, integrative, and yearlong science curriculum focused around solutions to climate change. Recognizing the importance of teacher training on the successful implementation of NGSS, we have also integrated teacher professional development into our curriculum. During the presentation, we will describe the design philosophy around our middle school curriculum and share data from a series of classes that are piloting the curriculum during Fall 2015. We will also share our perspectives on how data, media creation and engineering can be used to create educational experiences that model the type of 'three-dimensional learning' encouraged by NGSS.

  1. Fourth International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension and to review recent developments in sensors, controls, superconducting magnet technology, and design/implementation practices, the Fourth International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at The Nagaragawa Convention Center in Gifu, Japan, on October 30 - November 1, 1997. The symposium included 13 sessions in which a total of 35 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of maglev, controls, high critical temperature (T(sub c)) superconductivity, bearings, magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBS), levitation, modeling, and applications. A list of attendees is included in the document.

  2. Non-integrability of the fourth Painlevé equation in the Liouville-Arnold sense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanova, Tsvetana

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the integrability of the fourth Painlevé equation (PIV) from the point of view of the Hamiltonian dynamics. We prove that the fourth Painlevé equation with parameters a = m, b = -2(1 + 2n + m) where m, n \\in { Z} , is not integrable in the Liouville-Arnold sense by means of meromorphic first integrals. We explicitly compute formal and analytic invariants of the second variational equations which generate topologically the differential Galois group. In this way our calculations and the Ziglin-Ramis-Morales-Ruiz-Simó method yield the non-integrability results.

  3. A Fourth Order Difference Scheme for the Maxwell Equations on Yee Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Fathy, Aly E; Wilson, Joshua L

    2008-09-01

    The Maxwell equations are solved by a long-stencil fourth order finite difference method over a Yee grid, in which different physical variables are located at staggered mesh points. A careful treatment of the numerical values near the boundary is introduced, which in turn leads to a 'symmetric image' formula at the 'ghost' grid points. Such a symmetric formula assures the stability of the boundary extrapolation. In turn, the fourth order discrete curl operator for the electric and magnetic vectors gives a complete set of eigenvalues in the purely imaginary axis. To advance the dynamic equations, the four-stage Runge-Kutta method is utilized, which results in a full fourth order accuracy in both time and space. A stability constraint for the time step is formulated at both the theoretical and numerical levels, using an argument of stability domain. An accuracy check is presented to verify the fourth order precision, using a comparison between exact solution and numerical solutions at a fixed final time. In addition, some numerical simulations of a loss-less rectangular cavity are also carried out and the frequency is measured precisely.

  4. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The program objective is to generate ultra-fine catalyst particles (20 to 400 {Angstrom} in size) and quantify their potential for improving coal dissolution in the solubilization stage of two-stage catalytic-catalytic liquefaction systems. It has been shown that catalyst activity increases significantly with decreasing particle size for particle sizes in the submicron range. Ultra-fine catalyst particle generation will be accomplished using a novel two-step process. First, the severe conditions produced by a supercritical fluid (e.g., supercritical H{sub 2}O or CO{sub 2}) will be used to dissolve suitable catalyst compounds (e.g., Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeS{sub 2}, and/or Fe(CO){sub 5}). Sulfur containing compounds may be added to the supercritical solvent during catalyst dissolution to enhance the catalytic activity of the resulting ultra-fine, iron based, catalyst particles.

  5. The oxygen isotope evolution of parent body aqueous solutions as recorded by multiple carbonate generations in the Lonewolf Nunataks 94101 CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. R.; Sofe, M. R.; Lindgren, P.; Starkey, N. A.; Franchi, I. A.

    2013-11-01

    The CM2 carbonaceous chondrite LON 94101 contains aragonite and two generations of calcite that provide snapshots of the chemical and isotopic evolution of aqueous solutions during parent body alteration. Aragonite was the first carbonate to crystallize. It is rare, heterogeneously distributed within the meteorite matrix, and its mean oxygen isotope values are δ18O 39.9 ± 0.6‰, Δ17O -0.3 ± 1.0‰ (1σ). Calcite precipitated soon afterwards, and following a fall in solution Mg/Ca ratios, to produce small equant grains with a mean oxygen isotope value of δ18O 37.5 ± 0.7‰, Δ17O 1.4 ± 1.1‰ (1σ). These grains were partially or completely replaced by serpentine and tochilinite prior to precipitation of the second generation of calcite, which occluded an open fracture to form a millimetre-sized vein, and replaced anhydrous silicates within chondrules and the matrix. The vein calcite has a mean composition of δ18O 18.4 ± 0.3‰, Δ17O -0.5 ± 0.5‰ (1σ). Petrographic and isotopic results therefore reveal two discrete episodes of mineralisation that produced calcite generations with contrasting δ18O, and mean Δ17O values. The aragonite and equant calcite crystallized over a relatively brief period early in the aqueous alteration history of the parent body, and from static fluids that were evolving chemically in response to mineral dissolution and precipitation. The second calcite generation crystallized from solutions of a lower Δ17O, and a lower δ18O and/or higher temperature. As two generations of calcite whose petrographic characteristics and oxygen isotopic compositions are similar to those in LON 94101 occur in at least one other CM2, multiphase carbonate mineralisation could be the typical outcome of the sequence of chemical reactions during parent body aqueous alteration. It is equally possible however that the second generation of calcite formed in response to an event such as impact fracturing and concomitant fluid mobilisation that affected

  6. EPR-Spin Trapping and Flow Cytometric Studies of Free Radicals Generated Using Cold Atmospheric Argon Plasma and X-Ray Irradiation in Aqueous Solutions and Intracellular Milieu.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Hidefumi; Zhao, Qing-Li; Hassan, Mariame Ali; Andocs, Gabor; Nojima, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-spin trapping and flow cytometry were used to identify free radicals generated using argon-cold atmospheric plasma (Ar-CAP) in aqueous solutions and intracellularly in comparison with those generated by X-irradiation. Ar-CAP was generated using a high-voltage power supply unit with low-frequency excitation. The characteristics of Ar-CAP were estimated by vacuum UV absorption and emission spectra measurements. Hydroxyl (·OH) radicals and hydrogen (H) atoms in aqueous solutions were identified with the spin traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), 3,3,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (M4PO), and phenyl N-t-butylnitrone (PBN). The occurrence of Ar-CAP-induced pyrolysis was evaluated using the spin trap 3,5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzene sulfonate (DBNBS) in aqueous solutions of DNA constituents, sodium acetate, and L-alanine. Human lymphoma U937 cells were used to study intracellular oxidative stress using five fluorescent probes with different affinities to a number of reactive species. The analysis and quantification of EPR spectra revealed the formation of enormous amounts of ·OH radicals using Ar-CAP compared with that by X-irradiation. Very small amounts of H atoms were detected whereas nitric oxide was not found. The formation of ·OH radicals depended on the type of rare gas used and the yield correlated inversely with ionization energy in the order of krypton > argon = neon > helium. No pyrolysis radicals were detected in aqueous solutions exposed to Ar-CAP. Intracellularly, ·OH, H2O2, which is the recombination product of ·OH, and OCl- were the most likely formed reactive oxygen species after exposure to Ar-CAP. Intracellularly, there was no practical evidence for the formation of NO whereas very small amounts of superoxides were formed. Despite the superiority of Ar-CAP in forming ·OH radicals, the exposure to X-rays proved more lethal. The mechanism of free radical formation in aqueous solutions and an

  7. EPR-Spin Trapping and Flow Cytometric Studies of Free Radicals Generated Using Cold Atmospheric Argon Plasma and X-Ray Irradiation in Aqueous Solutions and Intracellular Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Hidefumi; Zhao, Qing-Li; Hassan, Mariame Ali; Andocs, Gabor; Nojima, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-spin trapping and flow cytometry were used to identify free radicals generated using argon-cold atmospheric plasma (Ar-CAP) in aqueous solutions and intracellularly in comparison with those generated by X-irradiation. Ar-CAP was generated using a high-voltage power supply unit with low-frequency excitation. The characteristics of Ar-CAP were estimated by vacuum UV absorption and emission spectra measurements. Hydroxyl (·OH) radicals and hydrogen (H) atoms in aqueous solutions were identified with the spin traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), 3,3,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (M4PO), and phenyl N-t-butylnitrone (PBN). The occurrence of Ar-CAP-induced pyrolysis was evaluated using the spin trap 3,5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzene sulfonate (DBNBS) in aqueous solutions of DNA constituents, sodium acetate, and L-alanine. Human lymphoma U937 cells were used to study intracellular oxidative stress using five fluorescent probes with different affinities to a number of reactive species. The analysis and quantification of EPR spectra revealed the formation of enormous amounts of ·OH radicals using Ar-CAP compared with that by X-irradiation. Very small amounts of H atoms were detected whereas nitric oxide was not found. The formation of ·OH radicals depended on the type of rare gas used and the yield correlated inversely with ionization energy in the order of krypton > argon = neon > helium. No pyrolysis radicals were detected in aqueous solutions exposed to Ar-CAP. Intracellularly, ·OH, H2O2, which is the recombination product of ·OH, and OCl- were the most likely formed reactive oxygen species after exposure to Ar-CAP. Intracellularly, there was no practical evidence for the formation of NO whereas very small amounts of superoxides were formed. Despite the superiority of Ar-CAP in forming ·OH radicals, the exposure to X-rays proved more lethal. The mechanism of free radical formation in aqueous solutions and an

  8. Numerical solution of Williamson fluid flow past a stretching cylinder and heat transfer with variable thermal conductivity and heat generation/absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, M. Y.; Bibi, M.; Khan, Farzana; Salahuddin, T.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, Williamson fluid flow and heat transfer over a stretching cylinder is discussed. The thermal conductivity is assumed to be vary linearly with temperature. Heat generation/absorption effects are also taken into account. Modeled partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential form by using appropriate transformations. Shooting method in conjunction with Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method is used to find the solution of the problem. Moreover, the effects of different flow parameters γ, λ, ɛ, β and Pr on velocity and temperature profiles are shown graphically. Local Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient are shown in tabular and graphical form.

  9. Summary of the Fourth AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C.; Tinoco, Edward N.; Mani, Mori; Rider, Ben; Zickuhr, Tom; Levy, David W.; Brodersen, Olaf P.; Eisfeld, Bernhard; Crippa, Simone; Wahls, Richard A.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Murayama, Mitcuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Results from the Fourth AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-IV) are summarized. The workshop focused on the prediction of both absolute and differential drag levels for wing-body and wing-body-horizontal-tail configurations that are representative of transonic transport air- craft. Numerical calculations are performed using industry-relevant test cases that include lift- specific flight conditions, trimmed drag polars, downwash variations, dragrises and Reynolds- number effects. Drag, lift and pitching moment predictions from numerous Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics methods are presented. Solutions are performed on structured, unstructured and hybrid grid systems. The structured-grid sets include point- matched multi-block meshes and over-set grid systems. The unstructured and hybrid grid sets are comprised of tetrahedral, pyramid, prismatic, and hexahedral elements. Effort is made to provide a high-quality and parametrically consistent family of grids for each grid type about each configuration under study. The wing-body-horizontal families are comprised of a coarse, medium and fine grid; an optional extra-fine grid augments several of the grid families. These mesh sequences are utilized to determine asymptotic grid-convergence characteristics of the solution sets, and to estimate grid-converged absolute drag levels of the wing-body-horizontal configuration using Richardson extrapolation.

  10. Direct control of the grid point distribution in meshes generated by elliptic equations. [for solution of Navier-Stokes nozzle flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middlecoff, J. F.; Thomas, P. D.

    1979-01-01

    The generation of computational grids suitable for obtaining accurate numerical solutions to the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is the subject of intensive research. For a wide class of nozzle configurations, a three-dimensional grid can be constructed by a sequence of two-dimensional grids in successive cross-sectional planes. The present paper is concerned with numerical generation of two-dimensional grids. An effective method of interior grid control is presented based on a modified elliptic system containing free parameters. For a simply connected region, the free parameters are computed from the Dirichlet boundary values. The resulting interior grid point distribution is controlled entirely by a priori selection of the grid point distribution along the boundaries of the section.

  11. Single drop solution electrode glow discharge for plasma assisted-chemical vapor generation: sensitive detection of zinc and cadmium in limited amounts of samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-ang; Tan, Qing; Hou, Xiandeng; Xu, Kailai; Zheng, Chengbin

    2014-12-16

    A simple and sensitive approach is proposed and evaluated for determination of ultratrace Zn and Cd in limited amounts of samples or tens of cells based on a novel single drop (5-20 μL) solution electrode glow discharge assisted-chemical vapor generation technique. Volatile species of Zn and Cd were immediately generated and separated from the liquid phase for transporting to atomic fluorescence or atomic mass spectrometric detectors for their determination only using hydrogen when the glow discharge was ignited between the surface of a liquid drop and the tip of a tungsten electrode. Limits of detection are better than 0.01 μg L(-1) (0.2 pg) for Cd and 0.1 μg L(-1) (2 pg) for Zn, respectively, and comparable or better than the previously reported results due to only a 20 μL sampling volume required, which makes the proposed technique convenient for the determination of Zn and Cd in limited amounts of samples or even only tens of cells. The proposed method not only retains the advantages of conventional chemical vapor generation but also provides several unique advantages, including better sensitivity, lower sample and power consumption, higher chemical vapor generation efficiencies and simpler setup, as well as greener analytical chemistry. The utility of this technique was demonstrated by the determination of ultratrace Cd and Zn in several single human hair samples, Certified Reference Materials GBW07601a (human hair powder) and paramecium cells. PMID:25409265

  12. Energy solutions in rural Africa: mapping electrification costs of distributed solar and diesel generation versus grid extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, S.; Bódis, K.; Huld, T.; Moner-Girona, M.

    2011-07-01

    Three rural electrification options are analysed showing the cost optimal conditions for a sustainable energy development applying renewable energy sources in Africa. A spatial electricity cost model has been designed to point out whether diesel generators, photovoltaic systems or extension of the grid are the least-cost option in off-grid areas. The resulting mapping application offers support to decide in which regions the communities could be electrified either within the grid or in an isolated mini-grid. Donor programs and National Rural Electrification Agencies (or equivalent governmental departments) could use this type of delineation for their program boundaries and then could use the local optimization tools adapted to the prevailing parameters. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent European Commission and UNEP policy.

  13. The first FDA marketing authorizations of next-generation sequencing technology and tests: challenges, solutions and impact for future assays.

    PubMed

    Bijwaard, Karen; Dickey, Jennifer S; Kelm, Kellie; Težak, Živana

    2015-01-01

    The rapid emergence and clinical translation of novel high-throughput sequencing technologies created a need to clarify the regulatory pathway for the evaluation and authorization of these unique technologies. Recently, the US FDA authorized for marketing four next generation sequencing (NGS)-based diagnostic devices which consisted of two heritable disease-specific assays, library preparation reagents and a NGS platform that are intended for human germline targeted sequencing from whole blood. These first authorizations can serve as a case study in how different types of NGS-based technology are reviewed by the FDA. In this manuscript we describe challenges associated with the evaluation of these novel technologies and provide an overview of what was reviewed. Besides making validated NGS-based devices available for in vitro diagnostic use, these first authorizations create a regulatory path for similar future instruments and assays. PMID:25370936

  14. Optimization of second harmonic generation of gold nanospheres and nanorods in aqueous solution: the dominant role of surface area.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Hoang Minh; Nguyen, Phuong Phong; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle

    2016-01-28

    Size and shape of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have a strong influence on their second order nonlinear optical properties. In this work, we propose a systematic investigation of surface and shape effects in the case of small gold nanoparticles. Colloidal solutions on AuNPs with different sizes and shapes have been synthesized, i.e. nanospheres (diameters 3.0; 11.6; 15.8; 17.4; 20.0 and 43 nm) and nanorods (aspect ratios 1.47; 1.63 and 2.30). The first hyperpolarizability β values of these AuNPs have been measured by harmonic light scattering (HLS) at 1064 nm. For nanospheres and nanorods, we found that their β values are governed by a purely local, dipolar contribution, as confirmed by their surface area dependence. As an important consequence of these surface effects, we have revisited the previously reported aspect ratio dependence of β values for gold nanorods, and evidenced the predominant influence of nanoparticle area over aspect ratio considerations. PMID:26751609

  15. The classical Taub-Nut system: factorization, spectrum generating algebra and solution to the equations of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latini, Danilo; Ragnisco, Orlando

    2015-05-01

    The formalism of SUperSYmmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM) is properly modified in such a way to be suitable for the description and the solution of a classical maximally superintegrable Hamiltonian system, the so-called Taub-Nut system, associated with the Hamiltonian: In full agreement with the results recently derived by Ballesteros et al for the quantum case, we show that the classical Taub-Nut system shares a number of essential features with the Kepler system, that is just its Euclidean version arising in the limit η \\to 0, and for which a ‘SUSYQM’ approach has been recently introduced by Kuru and Negro. In particular, for positive η and negative energy the motion is always periodic; it turns out that the period depends upon η and goes to the Euclidean value as η \\to 0. Moreover, the maximal superintegrability is preserved by the η-deformation, due to the existence of a larger symmetry group related to an η-deformed Runge-Lenz vector, which ensures that in {{{R}}3} closed orbits are again ellipses. In this context, a deformed version of the third Kepler’s law is also recovered. The closing section is devoted to a discussion of the η \\lt 0 case, where new and partly unexpected features arise.

  16. Generational diversity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions. PMID:20395729

  17. Searching for the fourth family quarks through anomalous decays

    SciTech Connect

    Sahin, M.; Sultansoy, S.; Turkoz, S.

    2010-09-01

    The flavor democracy hypothesis predicts the existence of the fourth standard model family. Because of the high masses of the fourth family quarks, their anomalous decays could be dominant if certain criteria are met. This will drastically change the search strategy at hadron colliders. We show that the fourth standard model family down quarks with masses up to 400-450 GeV can be observed (or excluded) via anomalous decays by Tevatron.

  18. High temperature aqueous potassium and sodium phosphate solutions: two-liquid-phase boundaries and critical phenomena, 275-400/sup 0/C; potential applications for steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, W.L.

    1981-12-01

    Two-liquid-phase boundaries at temperatures between 275 and 400/sup 0/C were determined for potassium phosphate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions for compositions from 0 to 60 wt % dissolved salt. The stoichiometric mole ratios, K/PO/sub 4/ or Na/PO/sub 4/, were varied from 1.00 to 2.12 and from 1.00 to 2.16 for the potassium and sodium systems, respectively. Liquid-vapor critical temperatures were also determined for most of the dilute liquid phases that formed. The minimum temperatures (below which a single solution existed) of two-liquid-phase formation were 360/sup 0/C for the potassium system and 279/sup 0/C for the sodium system at mole ratios of 2.00 and 2.16, respectively. For the sodium system at mole ratios greater than 2.16, solids crystallized at lower temperatures as expected from earlier studies. In contrast, potassium solutions that were explored at mole ratios from 2.12 to 3.16 and at temperatures below 360/sup 0/C did not produce solid phases nor liquid-liquid immiscibilities. Aside from the generally unusual observations of two immiscible liquids in an aqueous inorganic salt system, the results could possibly be applied to the use of phosphate additives in steam power generators. 16 refs.

  19. A fingerprinting mixing model approach to generate uniformly representative solutions for distributed contributions of sediment sources in a Pyrenean drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazón, Leticia; Gaspar, Leticia; Latorre, Borja; Blake, Will; Navas, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Spanish Pyrenean reservoirs are under pressure from high sediment yields in contributing catchments. Sediment fingerprinting approaches offer potential to quantify the contribution of different sediment sources, evaluate catchment erosion dynamics and develop management plans to tackle the reservoir siltation problems. The drainage basin of the Barasona reservoir (1509 km2), located in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, is an alpine-prealpine agroforest basin supplying sediments to the reservoir at an annual rate of around 350 t km-2 with implications for reservoir longevity. The climate is mountain type, wet and cold, with both Atlantic and Mediterranean influences. Steep slopes and the presence of deep and narrow gorges favour rapid runoff and large floods. The ability of geochemical fingerprint properties to discriminate between the sediment sources was investigated by conducting the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H-test and a stepwise discriminant function analysis (minimization of Wilk's lambda). This standard procedure selects potential fingerprinting properties as optimum composite fingerprint to characterize and discriminate between sediment sources to the reservoir. Then the contribution of each potential sediment source was assessed by applying a Monte Carlo mixing model to obtain source proportions for the Barasona reservoir sediment samples. The Monte Carlo mixing model was written in C programming language and designed to deliver a user-defined number possible solutions. A Combinatorial Principals method was used to identify the most probable solution with associated uncertainty based on source variability. The unique solution for each sample was characterized by the mean value and the standard deviation of the generated solutions and the lower goodness of fit value applied. This method is argued to guarantee a similar set of representative solutions in all unmixing cases based on likelihood of occurrence. Soil samples for the different potential sediment

  20. 95. ROOM 402 (LAW LIBRARY), EAST WING, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. ROOM 402 (LAW LIBRARY), EAST WING, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 4. RAMP FOR BENJAMIN FRANKLIN BRIDGE (FOURTH ST.) BETWEEN VINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. RAMP FOR BENJAMIN FRANKLIN BRIDGE (FOURTH ST.) BETWEEN VINE AND RACE STS., LOOKING NORTHWEST - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  3. Generation of Free Oxygen Atoms O(3P) in Solution by Photolysis of 4-Benzoylpyridine N-Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Carraher, Jack M.; Bakac, Andreja

    2014-08-04

    Laser flash photolysis of 4-benzoylpyridine N-oxide (BPyO) at 308 nm in aqueous solutions generates a triplet excited state 3BPyO* that absorbs strongly in the visible, λmax 490 and 380 nm. 3BPyO* decays with the rate law kdecay/s-1 = (3.3 ± 0.9) × 104 + (1.5 ± 0.2) × 109 [BPyO] to generate a mixture of isomeric hydroxylated benzoylpyridines, BPy(OH), in addition to small amounts of oxygen atoms, O(3P). Molecular oxygen quenches 3BPyO*, kQ = 1.4 × 109 M-1 s-1, but the yields of O(3P) increase in O2-saturated solutions to 36%. Other triplet quenchers have a similar effect, which rules out the observed 3BPyO* as a source of O(3P). It is concluded that O(3P) is produced from either 1BPyO* or a short-lived, unobserved, higher energy triplet generated directly from 1BPyO*. 3BPyO* is reduced by Fe2+ and by ABTS2- to the radical anion BPyO.- which exhibits a maximum at 510 nm, ε = 2200 M-1 cm-1. The anion engages in back electron transfer with ABTS.- with k = 1.7 × 109 M-1 s-1. The same species can be generated by reducing ground state BPyO with .C(CH3)2OH. The photochemistry of BPyO in acetonitrile is similar to that in aqueous solutions.

  4. On a novel graded areal density solution to facilitate ramp wave generation in plate-impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, Jonathan; Fitzmaurice, Brianna; Goff, Michael; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Wood, David; Pinto, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Building on a substantial body of work on functionally graded materials in the literature, it has been previously shown that the use of graded areal density impactors, in conjunction with buffer materials, allows generation of ramp-wave loading profiles in impacted targets. Such off-principle-Hugoniot loading paths are of particular interest where control of one or more state variables (e.g. temperature) is desirable during the loading event. Previous attempts to produce suitable graded areal density impactors have focused on rapid protoyping techniques such as 3D printing. While suitable for small-scale production of impactors, such technologies are relatively immature. Instead, here a novel approach to creating graded areal density structures - TWI Ltd's novel surface modification process, SurfiSculpt®, with a nominal surface spike distribution of 1.5 per mm2, has been employed to produce the required impactors. Initial experimental results are presented highlighting the potential of this experimental approach; further, these results - combined with basic hydrocode simulations - are used to postulated idealised structures which would allow useful loading paths such as the Adiabat to be readily accessed.

  5. An Analytical Solution for Exciton Generation, Reaction, and Diffusion in Nanotube and Nanowire-Based Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Bellisario, Darin O; Paulson, Joel A; Braatz, Richard D; Strano, Michael S

    2016-07-21

    Excitonic solar cells based on aligned or unaligned networks of nanotubes or nanowires offer advantages with respect of optical absorption, and control of excition and electrical carrier transport; however, there is a lack of predictive models of the optimal orientation and packing density of such devices to maximize efficiency. Here-in, we develop a concise analytical framework that describes the orientation and density trade-off on exciton collection computed from a deterministic model of a carbon nanotube (CNT) photovoltaic device under steady-state operation that incorporates single- and aggregate-nanotube photophysics published earlier (Energy Environ Sci, 2014, 7, 3769). We show that the maximal film efficiency is determined by a parameter grouping, α, representing the product of the network density and the effective exciton diffusion length, reflecting a cooperativity between the rate of exciton generation and the rate of exciton transport. This allows for a simple, master plot of EQE versus film thickness, parametric in α allowing for optimal design. This analysis extends to any excitonic solar cell with anisotropic transport elements, including polymer, nanowire, quantum dot, and nanocarbon photovoltaics. PMID:27357970

  6. Efficient Sorption and Removal of Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) from Aqueous Solution by Metal Hydroxides Generated in Situ by Electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Yujuan; Niu, Junfeng; Yue, Zhihan; Huang, Qingguo

    2015-09-01

    Removal of environmentally persistent perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), that is, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs, C4 ∼ C10) were investigated through sorption on four metal hydroxide flocs generated in situ by electrocoagulation in deionized water with 10 mM NaCl as supporting electrolyte. The results indicated that the zinc hydroxide flocs yielded the highest removal efficiency with a wide range concentration of PFOA/PFOS (1.5 μM ∼ 0.5 mM) at the zinc dosage <150 mg L(-1) with the energy consumption <0.18 Wh L(-1). The sorption kinetics indicated that the zinc hydroxide flocs had an equilibrium adsorbed amount (qe) up to 5.74/7.69 mmol g(-1) (Zn) for PFOA/PFOS at the initial concentration of 0.5 mM with an initial sorption rate (v0) of 1.01 × 10(3)/1.81 × 10(3) mmol g(-1) h(-1). The sorption of PFOA/PFOS reached equilibrium within <10 min. The sorption mechanisms of PFAAs on the zinc hydroxide flocs were proposed based on the investigation of various driving forces. The results indicated that the hydrophobic interaction was primarily responsible for the PFAAs sorption. The electrocoagulation process with zinc anode may have a great potential for removing PFAAs from industrial wastewater as well as contaminated environmental waterbody. PMID:26244813

  7. Quantum Phase Transitions and Typical Case, Polynomial Time Solution of Randomly Generated NP-Complete Problems via Adiabatic Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, William; Lloyd, Seth

    2006-03-01

    We argue theoretically that adiabatic quantum computation using only polynomial resources can solve almost all members of a nontrivial randomly generated set of NP-complete problem instances, namely the problem of finding the ground states of spin glasses on 3D cubic lattices having independent, identically Gaussian-distributed couplings. The argument uses the droplet model of quantum spin glasses, particularly its prediction that the paramagnet-spin glass transition is unstable to even infinitesimal longitudinal fields. We then review the ongoing debate as to how well the droplet model describes 3D spin glasses and note that those inclined to view the intractability of NP-complete problems as a guiding physical intuition could take the results presented here as justifying greater suspicion toward the droplet model. Finally, due to this uncertainty as well as uncertainty in regard to the typical case classical complexity of this random NP-complete problem, we outline work using rigorous mean-field methods on a NP-complete problem whose typical-case classical complexity on random instances is better established, namely MAX CLIQUE on random graphs.

  8. Pulse Q-Band EPR and ENDOR Spectroscopies of the Photochemically Generated Monoprotonated Benzosemiquinone Radical in Frozen Alcoholic Solution

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Marco; Okamura, Melvin Y.; Niklas, Jens; Pandelia, Maria-Eirini; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Quinones are essential cofactors in many physiological processes, among them proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) in photosynthesis and respiration. A key intermediate in PCET is the monoprotonated semiquinone radical. In this work we produced the monoprotonated benzosemiquinone (BQH•) by UV illumination of BQ dissolved in 2-propanol at cryogenic temperatures and investigated the electronic and geometric structures of BQH• in the solid state (80 K) using EPR and ENDOR techniques at 34 GHz. The g–tensor of BQH• was found to be similar to that of the anionic semiquinone species (BQ•−) in frozen solution. The peaks present in the ENDOR spectrum of BQH• were identified and assigned by 1H/2H substitutions. The experiments reconfirmed that the hydroxyl proton (O−H) on BQH•, which is abstracted from a solvent molecule, mainly originates from the central CH group of 2-propanol. They also showed that the protonation has a strong impact on the electron spin distribution over the quinone. This is reflected in the hyperfine couplings (hfc’s) of the ring protons, which dramatically changed with respect to those typically observed for BQ•−. The hfc tensor of the O−H proton was determined by a detailed orientation-selection ENDOR study and found to be rhombic, resembling those of protons covalently bound to carbon atoms in a π-system (i.e. α-protons). It was found that the O−H bond lies in the quinone plane and is oriented along the direction of the quinone oxygen lone pair orbital. DFT calculations were performed on different structures of BQH• coordinated by four, three, or zero 2-propanol molecules. The O−H bond length was found to be around 1.0 Å, typical for a single covalent O−H bond. Good agreement between experimental and DFT results were found. This study provides a detailed picture of the electronic and geometric structures of BQH• and should be applicable to other naturally occurring quinones. PMID:22731760

  9. Ultracoatings: Enabling Energy and Power Solutions in High Contact Stress Environments through next-generation Nanocoatings Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton B. Higdon III

    2012-03-20

    A review of current commercially available, industrial-grade, low friction coatings will show that interfacial contact pressures nearing 1GPa ({approx}150ksi) inherently limit surface engineering solutions like WC, TiN, TiAlN, and so forth. Extremely hard coatings, then, are often pursued as the principle path, although they too are not without significant limitations. A majority of these compounds are inherently brittle in nature or may not pair well with their mating substrate. In either case, their durability in high contact stress environments is compromised. In parallel to thin film coatings, many conventional surface treatments do not yield an interface hard enough to withstand extreme stresses under load. New research into advanced, nanocomposite materials like (Ti, Zr)B2 shows great promise. Bulk compacts of this compound have demonstrated an order of magnitude better wear resistance than current offerings, notably materials like tungsten carbide. At a laboratory level, the (Ti,Zr)B2 nanocomposite material exhibited abrasive and erosive wear resistance nearly ten times better than existing mixed-phase boride systems. In ASTM abrasion and erosion testing, these new compositions exhibit wear resistance superior to other known advanced materials such as RocTec 500 and 'Borazon' cubic boron nitride. Many significant challenges exist for mass production of (Ti, Zr)B2, one of which is the necessary processing technology that is capable of minimizing deleterious impurity phases. Secondly, this material's performance is derived from a synergistic effect of the two materials existing as a single phase structure. While the individual constituents of TiB2 and ZrB2 do yield improvements to wear resistance, their singular effects are not as significant. Lastly, deposition of this material on a commercial level requires thorough knowledge of nanocomposite boride solids; the benefits associated with these innovative new materials are just being realized. Advancing this

  10. Calculating excess chemical potentials using dynamic simulations in the fourth dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Pomes, R.; Eisenmesser, E.; Post, C.B.; Roux, B.

    1999-08-01

    A general method for computing excess chemical potentials is presented. The excess chemical potential of a solute or ligand molecule is estimated from the potential of mean-force (PMF) calculated along a nonphysical fourth spatial dimension, {ital w}, into which the molecule is gradually inserted or from which it is gradually abstracted. According to this {open_quotes}4D-PMF{close_quotes} (four dimensional) scheme, the free energy difference between two limiting states defines the excess chemical potential: At w={plus_minus}{infinity}, the molecule is not interacting with the rest of the system, whereas at w=0, it is fully interacting. Use of a fourth dimension avoids the numerical instability in the equations of motion encountered upon growing or shrinking solute atoms in conventional free energy perturbation simulations performed in three dimensions, while benefiting from the efficient sampling of configurational space afforded by PMF calculations. The applicability and usefulness of the method are illustrated with calculations of the hydration free energy of simple Lennard-Jones (LJ) solutes, a water molecule, and camphor, using molecular dynamics simulations and umbrella sampling. Physical insight into the nature of the PMF profiles is gained from a continuum treatment of short- and long-range interactions. The short-range barrier for dissolution of a LJ solute in the added dimension provides an apparent surface tension of the solute. An approximation to the long-range behavior of the PMF profiles is made in terms of a continuum treatment of LJ dispersion and electrostatic interactions. Such an analysis saves the need for configurational sampling in the long-range limit of the fourth dimension. The 4D-PMF method of calculating excess chemical potentials should be useful for neutral solute and ligand molecules with a wide range of sizes, shapes, and polarities. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Solution cathode glow discharge induced vapor generation of mercury and its application to mercury speciation by high performance liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Qian; Zhu, Zhenli; Hu, Shenghong; Jin, Lanlan

    2011-07-15

    A novel solution cathode glow discharge (SCGD) induced vapor generation was developed as interface to on-line couple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) for the speciation of inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)), methyl-mercury (MeHg) and ethyl-mercury (EtHg). The decomposition of organic mercury species and the reduction of Hg(2+) could be completed in one step with this proposed SCGD induced vapor generation system. The vapor generation is extremely rapid and therefore is easy to couple with flow injection (FI) and HPLC. Compared with the conventional HPLC-CV-AFS hyphenated systems, the proposed HPLC-SCGD-AFS system is very simple in operation and eliminates auxiliary redox reagents. Parameters influencing mercury determination were optimized, such as concentration of formic acid, discharge current and argon flow rate. The method detection limits for HPLC-SCGD-AFS system were 0.67 μg L(-1) for Hg(2+), 0.55 μg L(-1) for MeHg and 1.19 μg L(-1) for EtHg, respectively. The developed method was validated by determination of certified reference material (GBW 10029, tuna fish) and was further applied for the determination of mercury in biological samples. PMID:21641599

  12. Using Inquiry to Learn about Soil: A Fourth Grade Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Paula A.; Wingate, Elisha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe a fourth-grade inquiry unit on soil. The unit was designed and taught by preservice elementary teachers as part of a university science methods course. Using a student-driven inquiry approach to designing curriculum, the unit engaged fourth graders in learning about the physical properties soil, erosion, worms, and…

  13. Linguistic Structures in the Discourse of Fourth and Sixth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Lester S.; Fredrick, Wayne C.

    An attempt was made to measure the language behavior of students in the upper elementary grades. The procedures and results of research in the following five areas are described in this report: (1) Relationship between the Linguistic Ability Test and the written discourse of fourth and sixth graders; (2) Comparisons of the discourse of fourth and…

  14. Reading To Learn: Lessons from Exemplary Fourth-Grade Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.; Johnston, Peter H.

    Fourth graders around the country face new, high-stakes standardized tests, drawing increased attention to the need for effective literacy instruction in the upper elementary grades. This book goes beyond "political catch phrases" to examine what actually works in the fourth-grade classroom. The book offers a view of the techniques and strategies…

  15. Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced and updated, this Fourth Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The Fourth Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces…

  16. Ohio Ag in the Classroom. Fourth Grade Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Agriculture, Columbus.

    Adapted from Idaho's fourth grade agricultural education curriculum guide, this manual was created because there were insufficient resources available to Ohio students about the systems that provide human beings with food and fiber. Economically Ohio's largest industry, agriculture, serves as a basis for providing fourth-grade teachers with…

  17. Black rings with fourth dipole cause less hair loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Borun D.

    2012-07-01

    An example of entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual was recently studied in [1]. The enigmatic bulk configurations, considered within the STU model, can be mapped under spectral flow into black rings with three monopole and dipole charges. Even though the bulk and CFT configurations existed in the same region of parameter space, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the bulk configurations was found to be lower than the microscopic entropy from the CFT. While it is possible that the difference in entropy is due to the bulk and boundary configurations being at different points in the moduli space, it is also possible that the bulk configurations embeddable within the STU model are not the most entropic. New families of BPS black ring solutions with four electric and four dipole magnetic charges have recently been explicitly constructed in [2]. These black rings are not embeddable within the STU model. In this paper we investigate if these black rings can be entropically dominant over the STU model black rings. We find that the new black rings are always entropically subdominant to the STU-model black rings. However, for small fourth dipole charge these black rings continue to be dominant over the BMPV in a small region of parameters and are thus enigmatic.

  18. Endangered Languages and Literacy. Proceedings of the Fourth FEL Conference (Charlotte, North Carolina, September 21-24, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Nicholas, Ed.; Rudes, Blair, Ed.

    Papers for the fourth Foundation for Endangered Languages (FEL) Conference include the following: "Endangered languages and Literacy" (Nicholas Ostler, Blair Rudes); "Keynote Address: On Native Language Literacy: a Personal Perspective" (Ofelia Zepeda); "A Community's Solution to Some Literacy Problems: The Mayangna of Nicaragua" (Elena…

  19. Task reports on developing techniques for scattering by 3D composite structures and to generate new solutions in diffraction theory using higher order boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.

    1990-01-01

    There are two tasks described in this report. First, an extension of a two dimensional formulation is presented for a three dimensional body of revolution. With the introduction of a Fourier expansion of the vector electric and magnetic fields, a coupled two dimensional system is generated and solved via the finite element method. An exact boundary condition is employed to terminate the mesh and the fast fourier transformation is used to evaluate the boundary integrals for low O(n) memory demand when an iterative solution algorithm is used. Second, the diffraction by a material discontinuity in a thick dielectric/ferrite layer is considered by modeling the layer as a distributed current sheet obeying generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTC's).

  20. Fourth Meeting on CPT and Lorentz Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostelecký, V. Alan

    2008-03-01

    polarized electrons / B. R. Heckel et al. -- Seeking a solution of the pioneer anomaly / M. M. Nieto and J. D. Anderson -- Testing Lorentz symmetry with gravity / Q. C. Bailey -- Preferred frame effects in relativistic binary pulsars / M. Kramer and N. Wex -- APOLLO: next generation lunar laser ranging / T. W. Murphy, Jr. et al. -- Constraints on Lorentz violation from gravity Probe B / J. M. Overduin -- Preliminary results from a test of CPT and Lorentz symmetry using a K-[symbol]He co-magnetometer / T. W. Kornack, G. Vasilakis, and M. V. Rornalis -- Constraining quantum gravity with GLAST / F. Kuehn, R. Hughes, and B. Winer -- Renormalization of Lorentz-violating theories / D. Anselmi -- Renormalization of gauge theories with Lorentz violation / D. Colladay and P. McDonald -- A POEM-based test of the WEP using a Sounding Rocket (SR-POEM) / R. D. Reasenberg and J. D. Phillips -- Testing alternative oscillation scenarios with atmospheric neutrinos using AMANDA-II data from 2000 to 2003 / J. Ahrens and J. L. Kelley -- Measurement of the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen / B. Juhász and E. Widmann -- Spontaneous Lorentz violation and baryogenesis / J. Shu -- Lorentz invariance tested with fast optical ion clocks in a storage ring / G. Gwinner et al. -- Bose-Einstein condensates and Lorentz violation / D. Colladay and P. McDonald -- Embedding geometry and decomposition of gravity / T. E. Clark et al. -- The first lunar laser ranging constraints on gravity sector SME parameters / J. B. R. Battat, J. F. Chandler, and C. W. Stubbs -- A theory of gravity from Lorentz violation / R. Potting -- Search for Lorentz violation in a high-frequency gravitational experiment below 50 microns / W. A. Jensen, S. M. Lewis, and J. C. Long -- Lorentz violation and torsion / N. Russell -- Probing Lorentz invariance using coherent optical phenomena / J. P. Cotter, M. P. Hill, and B. T. H. Varcoe -- Constraint analysis of bumblebee models / N. Gagne and A. Vrublevslcis -- Ives

  1. Proceedings: Fourth Workshop on Mining Scientific Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C

    2001-07-24

    Commercial applications of data mining in areas such as e-commerce, market-basket analysis, text-mining, and web-mining have taken on a central focus in the JCDD community. However, there is a significant amount of innovative data mining work taking place in the context of scientific and engineering applications that is not well represented in the mainstream KDD conferences. For example, scientific data mining techniques are being developed and applied to diverse fields such as remote sensing, physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, structural mechanics, computational fluid dynamics etc. In these areas, data mining frequently complements and enhances existing analysis methods based on statistics, exploratory data analysis, and domain-specific approaches. On the surface, it may appear that data from one scientific field, say genomics, is very different from another field, such as physics. However, despite their diversity, there is much that is common across the mining of scientific and engineering data. For example, techniques used to identify objects in images are very similar, regardless of whether the images came from a remote sensing application, a physics experiment, an astronomy observation, or a medical study. Further, with data mining being applied to new types of data, such as mesh data from scientific simulations, there is the opportunity to apply and extend data mining to new scientific domains. This one-day workshop brings together data miners analyzing science data and scientists from diverse fields to share their experiences, learn how techniques developed in one field can be applied in another, and better understand some of the newer techniques being developed in the KDD community. This is the fourth workshop on the topic of Mining Scientific Data sets; for information on earlier workshops, see http://www.ahpcrc.org/conferences/. This workshop continues the tradition of addressing challenging problems in a field where the diversity of applications is

  2. Mandibular asymmetry and the fourth dimension.

    PubMed

    Kaban, Leonard B

    2009-03-01

    This paper represents more than 30 years of discussion and collaboration with Drs Joseph Murray and John Mulliken in an attempt to understand growth patterns over time (ie, fourth dimension) in patients with hemifacial microsomia (HFM). This is essential for the development of rational treatment protocols for children and adults with jaw asymmetry. Traditionally, HFM was thought of as a unilateral deformity, but it was recognized that 20% to 30% of patients had bilateral abnormalities. However, early descriptions of skeletal correction addressed almost exclusively lengthening of the short (affected) side of the face. Based on longitudinal clinical observations of unoperated HFM patients, we hypothesized that abnormal mandibular growth is the earliest skeletal manifestation and that restricted growth of the mandible plays a pivotal role in progressive distortion of both the ipsilateral and contralateral facial skeleton. This hypothesis explains the progressive nature of the asymmetry in patients with HFM and provides the rationale for surgical lengthening of the mandible in children to prevent end-stage deformity. During the past 30 years, we have learned that this phenomenon of progressive distortion of the adjacent and contralateral facial skeleton occurs with other asymmetric mandibular undergrowth (tumor resection, radiation therapy, or posttraumatic defects) and overgrowth (mandibular condylar hyperplasia) conditions. In this paper, I describe the progression of deformity with time in patients with mandibular asymmetry as a result of undergrowth and overgrowth. Understanding these concepts is critical for the development of rational treatment protocols for adults with end-stage asymmetry and for children to minimize secondary deformity. PMID:19182686

  3. Fourth National Development Plan 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of chapters 6 and 20 of Zambia's Fourth National Development Plan (1989-93). Chapter 6 deals with the interrelationship between population and development. The high rate of population growth has placed enormous pressure on the country's educational system, health sector, and employment and has led to increased rural-urban migration and urbanization. The rate of population growth has outstripped the ability of the country to produce enough food for self-sufficiency. Thus, population dynamics are being considered as part of the national development process for the first time in this development plan, and a national population policy has been adopted. The objectives of the population policy are to slow population growth, to improve maternal-child health, to integrate population into the development planning process, to strengthen institutions involved in population activities, to establish a National Population Council, to strengthen the population data base, to extend family planning (FP) coverage to all adults, to reduce total fertility from 7.2 to 4, and to reduce infant mortality from 97/1000 to 75/1000. The strategies to implement the policy include population education measures, upgrading and expanding FP programs, expanding primary health care and maternal-child health (MCH) programs, and providing human resource training in appropriate fields. The institutional framework to implement these goals and strategies exists in Zambia, and various programs will be coordinated by a newly created National Population Council. Chapter 20 of the development plan covers health issues and specifies measures to improve MCH care, and FP services. Specific FP targets include increasing the number of FP acceptors from 15 to 50% by the end of 1993. PMID:12344448

  4. Numerical study of fourth-order linearized compact schemes for generalized NLS equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hong-lin; Shi, Han-sheng; Zhao, Ying

    2014-08-01

    The fourth-order compact approximation for the spatial second-derivative and several linearized approaches, including the time-lagging method of Zhang et al. (1995), the local-extrapolation technique of Chang et al. (1999) and the recent scheme of Dahlby et al. (2009), are considered in constructing fourth-order linearized compact difference (FLCD) schemes for generalized NLS equations. By applying a new time-lagging linearized approach, we propose a symmetric fourth-order linearized compact difference (SFLCD) scheme, which is shown to be more robust in long-time simulations of plane wave, breather, periodic traveling-wave and solitary wave solutions. Numerical experiments suggest that the SFLCD scheme is a little more accurate than some other FLCD schemes and the split-step compact difference scheme of Dehghan and Taleei (2010). Compared with the time-splitting pseudospectral method of Bao et al. (2003), our SFLCD method is more suitable for oscillating solutions or the problems with a rapidly varying potential.

  5. Unified Electronic Currency Based on the Fourth Party Platform Integrated Payment Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Xu; Qiqi, Hu

    This paper presents a solution of unified e-currency based on the fourth party platform integrated payment service. The purpose of the paper is to solve the problem of distribution and resource-wasting caused by the lack of unified electronic currency, and to solve regulatory difficulties due to regulation size caused by a wide variety of e-currency. Methods: This article first analyzes the problems in the development of electronic money, and then proposes the concept of a unified electronic currency based on the fourth party platform integrated payment service. Besides, it proposes a unified mechanism and transaction procedures for unified e-currency, and analyzes the liquidation process, security and regulatory requirements, which are involved in using unified electronic currency.

  6. CT stereotaxy guided lateral trans-cerebellar programmable fourth ventriculo-peritoneal shunting for symptomatic trapped fourth ventricle.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R R; Pawar, S J; Devadas, R V; Dev, E J

    2001-10-01

    A trapped fourth ventricle is a rare clinico-radiological entity producing symptoms suggestive of a progressive posterior fossa mass lesion. It is mainly reported in children as a late complication of lateral ventricular shunting to relieve infantile post-meningitic or post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Optional treatment of the trapped fourth ventricle remains controversial. Placement of fourth ventricular shunting via a conventional midline approach can be fraught with complications in about 40% of the patients. Authors report a successful CT Stereotaxy guided high pressure (80 mm H(2)O) programmable fourth ventriculo-peritoneal shunting via a lateral trans-cerebellar approach in a 14-year-old girl with a trapped fourth ventricle, which occurred as a late complication of ventriculo-peritoneal shunting in her infancy. Her preoperative symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, bobble-head doll syndrome and bilateral abducens palsies completely improved following the surgery. Lateral trans-cerebellar stereotactic placement of the fourth ventricular catheter and the use of high-pressure (low flow) programmable shunt (to avoid complications associated with over drainage) are beneficial in some patients with trapped fourth ventricle. PMID:11532552

  7. Power Technologies Energy Data Book - Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Aabakken, J.

    2006-08-01

    This report, prepared by NREL's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, includes up-to-date information on power technologies, including complete technology profiles. The data book also contains charts on electricity restructuring, power technology forecasts, electricity supply, electricity capability, electricity generation, electricity demand, prices, economic indicators, environmental indicators, and conversion factors.

  8. Heterojunction of Zinc Blende/Wurtzite in Zn1-xCdxS Solid Solution for Efficient Solar Hydrogen Generation: X-ray Absorption/Diffraction Approaches.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ying-Ya; Suen, Nian-Tzu; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Hung, Sung-Fu; Chen, Chi-Liang; Chan, Ting-Shan; Dong, Chung-Li; Chan, Chih-Chieh; Chen, San-Yuan; Chen, Hao Ming

    2015-10-14

    In the past decade, inorganic semiconductors have been successfully demonstrated as light absorbers in efficient solar water splitting to generate chemical fuels. Pseudobinary semiconductors Zn1-xCdxS (0≤x≤1) have exhibited a superior photocatalytic reactivity of H2 production from splitting of water by artificial solar irradiation without any metal catalysts. However, most studies had revealed that the extremely high efficiency with an optimal content of Zn1-xCdxS solid solution was determined as a result of elevating the conduction band minimum (CBM) and the width of bandgap. In addition to corresponding band structure and bandgap, the local crystal structure should be taken into account as well to determine its photocatalytic performance. Herein, we demonstrated the correlations between the photocatalytic activity and structural properties that were first studied through synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The crystal structure transformed from zinc blende to coexisted phases of major zinc blende and minor wurtzite phases at a critical point. The heterojunction formed by coexistence of zinc blende and wurtzite phases in the Zn1-xCdxS solid solution can significantly improve the separation and migration of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. Besides, X-ray absorption spectra and UV-vis spectra revealed that the bandgap of the Zn0.45Cd0.55S sample extended into the region of visible light because of the incorporation of Cd element in the sample. These results provided a significant progress toward the realization of the photoelectrochemical mechanism in heterojunction between zinc blende and wurtzite phases, which can effectively separate the charge-carriers and further suppress their recombination to enhance the photocatalytic reactivity. PMID:26402651

  9. Role of radiolytically generated species in radiation induced polymerization of sodium p-styrene sulphonate (SSS) in aqueous solution: Steady state and pulse radiolysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Mohan, H.; Sabharwal, S.; Majali, A. B.

    2000-06-01

    Radiation induced polymerization of sodium p-styrene sulphonate (SSS) in aqueous solution has been investigated by steady state and pulse radiolysis techniques. Effect of dose, dose rate, monomer concentration, pH and ambient conditions on polymerization was investigated. The reactions of primary radicals of water radiolysis such as OH radical, e -aq, H atom, O rad - and some oxidizing radicals like N rad 3, Cl rad -2,Br rad -2, and reducing specie like CO rad -2 with SSS have also been investigated. SSS reacts with OH radical with a rate constant of 5.9×10 9 dm 3 mol -1s -1 at pH 6.3. The results indicate that ˜83% of OH radicals undergo electron transfer reaction resulting in a cation radical species while remaining ˜17% react via addition reaction. The hydrated electron reacts with SSS with a rate constant 1.3×10 10 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 to form an anion that undergoes fast protonation to form H-adduct at pH 6.3. At high pH (>10) the anion is able to transfer electron to methyl vilogen and p-nitro aceto phenone ( p-NAP) where as H-adduct is unable to transfer electron. At pH ˜1 H atom reaction with SSS is diffusion controlled with a rate constant of 5×10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 and results in formation of H adduct. It was seen that anion reacts with solute an order faster than cation generated radiolytically indicating anionic initiation of polymerization of SSS. Molecular weight of the polymer formed by radiation polymerization, determined by viscosity measurement, are of the order of 10 7 and higher molecular weight polymers are obtained at lower dose rates. In presence of a crosslinking agent gelation of polymer is much faster than the monomer and a polymer concentration ˜20% is most efficiently crosslinked.

  10. 3. FOURTH FLOOR OF LARD REFINERY (NOTICE ORIGINAL WOODEN BEAMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOURTH FLOOR OF LARD REFINERY (NOTICE ORIGINAL WOODEN BEAMS AND UNDATED LARD PRESS AND VATS ON RIGHT SIDE) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Lard Refinery, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  11. 97. DETAIL OF FOURTH CATWALK LEVEL SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. DETAIL OF FOURTH CATWALK LEVEL SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING NORTH, INNER DOME ON RIGHT WITH KNEE BRACE FROM INNER COLUMN TO CROSS BEAM - Maryland State House, State Circle, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, MD

  12. 3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT POSTS AND OIL PRESS IN THE CENTER) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Oil House, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  13. View of fourth level platform from north. Note the outline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of fourth level platform from north. Note the outline of the Shuttle cargo bay and wing formed by the edge of the platforms. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift platform segments away from the Shuttle assembly during testing. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  15. 31. Fourth floor, looking south at former milkstorage tank room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Fourth floor, looking south at former milk-storage tank room, spiral stair in right hand corner - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  16. 21. Fourth floor, second level of milk room looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Fourth floor, second level of milk room looking southeast (original location of heaters) - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  17. 25. VIEW FOURTH FLOOR, ELEVATOR PULLEY TRANSPORT SYSTEM, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW FOURTH FLOOR, ELEVATOR PULLEY TRANSPORT SYSTEM, LOOKING AT TOP MAIN WOOD AND STEEL BEAM SUPPORT SYSTEM, NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  18. 15. MIDPANEL POINT CONNECTION, NORTH SIDE BETWEEN THIRD AND FOURTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MID-PANEL POINT CONNECTION, NORTH SIDE BETWEEN THIRD AND FOURTH PANELS FROM WEST END OF TRUSS. NOTE NUMBERS STAMPED IN MEMBERS. - Riddle Bridge, Spanning Gasconada River, Dixon, Pulaski County, MO

  19. INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS AND CEILING HAS WOODEN NAILERS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, North Armory, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  20. 7. LIGHT WELLPhotograph taken from a fourth floor window. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LIGHT WELL--Photograph taken from a fourth floor window. The skylight, now covered, can be seen at the bottom. Northwest - Empire Building, 430 Sixteenth Street, South Corner of Sixteenth Street & Glenarm Place, Denver, Denver County, CO

  1. 43. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, CLOSER VIEW OF STACKS, FORCED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, CLOSER VIEW OF STACKS, FORCED DRAFT FANS, AND COAL BUNKER - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  2. 44. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, GENERAL VIEW OF BASE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, GENERAL VIEW OF BASE OF STACKS, FORCED DRAFT FANS, AND COAL BUNKER LOOKING TO COAL BUNKER - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  3. 42. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, FORCED DRAFT FANS ABOVE BOILERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, FORCED DRAFT FANS ABOVE BOILERS (SEE DRAWING Nos. 10 & 11 OF 13) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  4. Fourth floor rooftop corner detail, looking south. Note Capitol Dome ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Fourth floor rooftop corner detail, looking south. Note Capitol Dome and Washington Monument in distance. - Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Company Warehouse, 1111 North Capitol Street, NE, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. FOURTH FLOOR, NORTH HALF. VIEW NORTH SHOWING LINE OF PHOENIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOURTH FLOOR, NORTH HALF. VIEW NORTH SHOWING LINE OF PHOENIX COLUMNS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, East Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  6. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - Fourth Quarter 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2009-12-31

    The Fourth Quarter 2009 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  7. 30. Fourth floor attic, sterilizing room with autoclaves, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Fourth floor attic, sterilizing room with autoclaves, view to north - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  8. 15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF TUBS, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS. OPEN METAL BREWER'S STAIR VISIBLE ALONG WEST WALL - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 5. West side of Fourth Street; concrete abutment pier and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. West side of Fourth Street; concrete abutment pier and crib work, June 29, 1931. Photographer: unknown - Marquette Ore Dock No. 6, Approach, Between Fifth & Lake Streets, Marquette, Marquette County, MI

  10. 6. West side of Fourth Street; concrete foundation of crib ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West side of Fourth Street; concrete foundation of crib work, June 29, 1931. Photographer: unknown - Marquette Ore Dock No. 6, Approach, Between Fifth & Lake Streets, Marquette, Marquette County, MI

  11. 12. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE). VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  12. 7. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO WEST: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO WEST: FERGUSON & HAAS AUTOMATIC WRAPPING MACHINE INSTALLED BY 1929 - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  13. 5. FOURTH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINES TO NORTHWEST: PRESS (LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FOURTH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINES TO NORTHWEST: PRESS (LEFT CENTER), MANUAL CUTTERS (CENTER, RIGHT CENTER) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  14. Man and Energy, Module C. Fourth Grade. Pilot Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasco County Schools, Dade City, FL.

    This booklet is one of a set of learning modules on energy for use by students and teachers in the fourth grade. This module investigates solar energy, ecology, and fossil fuels. Included are laboratory activities and values exercises. (BT)

  15. 11. SANDSORTING BUILDING, FOURTH FLOOR; ELEVATOR No. 2 AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, FOURTH FLOOR; ELEVATOR No. 2 AT LEFT CENTER, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  16. Metastable alloy nanoparticles, metal-oxide nanocrescents and nanoshells generated by laser ablation in liquid solution: influence of the chemical environment on structure and composition.

    PubMed

    Scaramuzza, Stefano; Agnoli, Stefano; Amendola, Vincenzo

    2015-11-14

    Alloy nanoparticles are characterized by the combination of multiple interesting properties, which are attractive for technological and scientific purposes. A frontier topic of this field is nanoalloys with compositions not thermodynamically allowed at ordinary temperature and pressure (i.e. metastable), because they require out-of-equilibrium synthetic approaches. Recently, laser ablation synthesis in solution (LASiS) was successfully applied for the realization of metastable nanoalloys because of the fast kinetics of nanoparticle formation. However, the role played by the chemical environment on the final composition and structure of laser generated nanoalloys still has to be fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the influence of different synthetic conditions on the LASiS of metastable nanoalloys composed of Au and Fe, such as the use of water instead of ethanol, the bubbling of inert gases and the addition of a few vol% of H2O2 and H2O. The two elements showed different reactivity when LASiS was performed in water instead of ethanol, while minor effects were observed from bubbling pure gases such as N2, Ar and CO2 in the liquid solution. Moreover, the plasmonic response and the structure of the nanoalloys were sensibly modified by adding H2O2 to water. We also found that nanoparticle production is dramatically influenced just by adding 0.2% of H2O in ethanol. These results suggest that the formation of a cavitation bubble with long lifetime and large size during LASiS is useful for the preservation of the metastable alloy composition, whereas an oxidative environment hampers the formation of metastable alloy nanoparticles. Overall, by acting on the type of solvent and solutes, we were able to switch from a traditional synthetic approach for the composition of Au-Fe nanoalloys to one using a reactive environment, which gives unconventional structures such as metal@iron-oxide nanoshells and nanocrescents of oxide supported on metal nanospheres. These results

  17. Scout fourth stage attitude and velocity control (AVC) system feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byars, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating a guidance system in the Scout fourth stage to achieve a significant improvement in expected payload delivery accuracy is studied. The technical investigations included the determination of the AVC equipment performance requirements, establishment of qualification and acceptance test levels, generation of layouts illustrating design approaches for the upper D and payload transition sections to incorporate the hardware, and the preparation of a vendor bid package. Correction concepts, utilizing inertial velocity and attitude, were identified and evaluated. Fourth stage attitude adjustments as determined from inertial velocity variation through the first three stages and a final velocity correction based upon the measured in-plane component errors at injection were employed. Results show radical reductions in apogee-perigee deviations.

  18. Lagrangian perturbations and the matter bispectrum I: fourth-order model for non-linear clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Rampf, Cornelius; Buchert, Thomas E-mail: buchert@obs.univ-lyon1.fr

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the Lagrangian perturbation theory of a homogeneous and isotropic universe in the non-relativistic limit, and derive the solutions up to the fourth order. These solutions are needed for example for the next-to-leading order correction of the (resummed) Lagrangian matter bispectrum, which we study in an accompanying paper. We focus on flat cosmologies with a vanishing cosmological constant, and provide an in-depth description of two complementary approaches used in the current literature. Both approaches are solved with two different sets of initial conditions — both appropriate for modelling the large-scale structure. Afterwards we consider only the fastest growing mode solution, which is not affected by either of these choices of initial conditions. Under the reasonable approximation that the linear density contrast is evaluated at the initial Lagrangian position of the fluid particle, we obtain the nth-order displacement field in the so-called initial position limit: the nth order displacement field consists of 3(n-1) integrals over n linear density contrasts, and obeys self-similarity. Then, we find exact relations between the series in Lagrangian and Eulerian perturbation theory, leading to identical predictions for the density contrast and the peculiar-velocity divergence up to the fourth order.

  19. Application of adomian decomposition method for singularly perturbed fourth order boundary value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Sinan; Bildik, Necdet

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we use Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) to solve the singularly perturbed fourth order boundary value problem. In order to make the calculation process easier, first the given problem is transformed into a system of two second order ODEs, with suitable boundary conditions. Numerical illustrations are given to prove the effectiveness and applicability of this method in solving these kinds of problems. Obtained results shows that this technique provides a sequence of functions which converges rapidly to the accurate solution of the problems.

  20. Environmental Biosciences Program Fourth Quarter Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.d.

    2003-04-30

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risk issues. These initiatives are consistent with the Medical University's role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable the Medical University to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBP's success in convening worldwide scientific expertise is due in part to the inherent credibility the Medical University brings to the process of addressing these complex issues.

  1. Environmental Biosciences Program Fourth Quarter Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2004-06-30

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), asbestos and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making.

  2. Environmental Biosciences Program Fourth Quarter Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2005-06-30

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation s need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems. Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs), and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making. Questions, comments or requests for further information concerning the activities under this cooperative agreement can be forwarded to Dr. Lawrence C. Mohr in the EBP office of the Medical University of South Carolina at (843) 792-1532.

  3. Detailed Analysis of the Solution Heat Treatment of a Third-Generation Single-Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloy CMSX-10K®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Hon Tong; D'Souza, Neil; Dong, Hongbiao; Stone, Howard J.; Rae, Catherine M. F.

    2016-02-01

    A detailed analysis of the response of as-cast third-generation single-crystal nickel-based superalloy CMSX-10K® to solution heat treatment (SHT) has been carried out, alongside an SHT optimization exercise. The analysis was conducted through microstructural characterization, differential scanning calorimetry, and compositional homogeneity measurements, quantifying (i) the dissolution and microstructural evolution of the inter-dendritic constituents, (ii) the shift in thermo-physical characteristics of the material, and (iii) the change in compositional homogeneity across the microstructure, in order to gain further understanding of these phenomena during the progression of the SHT. During the early stages of SHT, the coarse cellular γ'/narrow γ channel inter-dendritic constituents which were the last areas to solidify during casting, progressively dissolve; homogenization between these inter-dendritic areas and adjacent dendritic areas leads to a rapid increase in the incipient melting temperature T IM. The fine γ/γ' morphology which were the first inter-dendritic constituents to solidify after primary γ dendrite solidification were found to progressively coarsen; however, subsequent dissolution of these coarsened γ/γ' inter-dendritic areas did not result in significant increases in the T IM until the near-complete dissolution of these inter-dendritic areas. After the final SHT step, residual compositional micro-segregation could still be detected across the microstructure despite the near-complete dissolution of these remnant inter-dendritic areas; even so the T IM of the material approached the solidus temperature of the alloy.

  4. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a clinical tool for extending the…

  5. Construction of Three Dimensional Solutions for the Maxwell Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yefet, A.; Turkel, E.

    1998-01-01

    We consider numerical solutions for the three dimensional time dependent Maxwell equations. We construct a fourth order accurate compact implicit scheme and compare it to the Yee scheme for free space in a box.

  6. A compact solution to computational acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, K.-Y.; Man, Raymond S. O.; Davis, Sanford

    1995-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the linearized, dimensional Euler equations for acoustic computation can be accurately solved as a set of decoupled first-order wave equations, and that if ordered properly, this system of simple waves has unambiguous, easily implemented boundary conditions, allowing waves of same group speeds to pass through numerical boundaries or comply with wall conditions. Thus, the task of designing a complex multi-dimensional scheme with approximate far-field boundary conditions reduces to the design of higher order schemes for the one-dimensional simple wave equation. A compact finite-difference scheme and a characteristically exact but numerically n(th) order accurate boundary condition are introduced for solving the first order wave equation. Spanning a three-point two-level stencil, this low-dispersion implicit scheme has a third order spatial accuracy when used on nonuniform meshes, fourth order accurate on uniform meshes, and a temporal accuracy of second order due to the choice of trapezoidal integration for algorithmic simplicity. The robustness and accuracy of the scheme are demonstrated through a series of numerical experiments and comparisons with published results. When tested on the one-dimensional wave equation on a uniform grid, this scheme allows a Gaussian wave packet to pass through any finite domain with low numerical dispersion characteristic of a spatially fourth-order scheme and reflections at numerical boundaries maintained below truncation error. On highly stretched and irregular grids, only mild dispersions are found in the solution while solutions by other methods fail or are severely distorted. Yet, this scheme is no more sophisticated to solve or implement than the Crank-Nicolson scheme. This scheme has been tested on four categories of the ICASE/LaRC benchmark problems, which include propagation of acoustic and convective waves in Cartesian and cylindrical domains, reflection of acoustic wave at stationary

  7. Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, Farhat

    2015-01-06

    The Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2013) was held in Saint Malo, France, at the Palais du Grand Large on 25-28 June 2013 (http://web.luli.polytechnique.fr/ICHED2013/). This meeting was the fourth in a series which was first held in 2008. This conference covered all the important aspects of High Energy Density Physics including fundamental topics from strong-field physics to creating new states of matter (including radiation-dominated, high-pressure quantum and relativistic plasmas) and ultra-fast lattice dynamics on the timescale of atomic transitions.

  8. Project DEEP STEAM: fourth meeting of the technical advisory panel, Albuquerque, NM, November 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.; Donaldson, A.B.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Hart, C.M.; Johnson, D.R.; Mulac, A.J.; Wayland, J.R.; Weirick, L.J.

    1981-07-01

    The Fourth Project DEEP STEAM Technical Advisory Panel Meeting was held on 5 and 6 November 1980 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to review the status of project DEEP STEAM. This Proceedings, following the order of the meeting, is divided into five main sections: the injection string modification program, the downhole steam generator program, supporting activities, field testing, and the Advisory Panel recommendations and discussion. Each of the 17 presentations is summarized, and a final Discussion section has been added, when needed, for inclusion of comments and replies related to specific presentations. Finally, the Advisory Panel recommendations and the ensuing discussion are summarized in the closing section.

  9. Solution of 3-dimensional time-dependent viscous flows. Part 1: Investigation of candidate algoriths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, B. C.; Mcdonald, H.

    1979-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing a numerical scheme for solving the time dependent viscous compressible three dimensional flow to aid in the design of helicopter rotors. Numerical algorithms are examined to determine their overall suitability for the efficient and routine solution of an appropriate system of partial differential equations. It is concluded that a consistently split time linearized block implicit scheme using either quintic B spline collocation or the generalized operator compact implicit approach to generate a fourth order accurate algorithm is particularly well suited for use on the present problem. High cell Reynolds number behavior leads to favoring the generalized operator compact implicit approach over the quintic B spline collocation method.

  10. Kinetic modeling and determination role of sono/photo nanocatalyst-generated radical species on degradation of hydroquinone in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Sajad; Ayati, Bita; Rezaee, Abbas

    2016-06-01

    Experimental findings of sonophotocatalytic process were used in degradation of hydroquinone to assess kinetic modeling and determine the effect of various active radical species. First, the effects of three photocatalytic, sonocatalytic, and sonophotocatalytic processes were studied for hydroquinone removal to determine kinetic constants and calculate the activation energy of reactions, and then the selected process was evaluated to determine active radical species. The reactor was composed of two parts, one included ultrasonic probe (sonocatalytic part) with powers 22, 80, and 176 W and the second part was the location of UV lamp (photocatalytic part) with tubular flow and power 15 W. After three systems were examined and the efficient system was selected, the role of different active species such as hydroxyl radical (OH(·)), superoxide radical (O2 (·-)), hole (h(+)), electrons (e (-)), and single oxygen molecule ((1)O2) and contribution of each of them were determined in hydroquinone degradation. According to tests, the results of this study showed that sonophotocatalytic integrated method as selected system among three systems studied followed the first-order equation for hydroquinone degradation and active hydroxyl species with 45 % and electron and hole with 15 and 10 %, respectively, had the highest and lowest contributions to conversion of hydroquinone. The findings showed that dissolved oxygen increases the capability of active radical formation so that 28.2 % of hydroquinone removal was increased under aeration compared to without aeration. Also, removal efficiency decreased 62 % with N2 injection due to the withdrawal of oxygen from the sample. By adding 25 Mm of sodium azide (NaN3) to stock solution, 46.5 % reduction was developed because single oxygen ((1)O2) played the role of an active species. The advantages of integrated sonocatalytic and photocatalytic method are the generation of active radical species with more variety and ultimately

  11. Fourth annual report to Congress, Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

  12. Dietary Behaviors among Fourth Graders: A Social Cognitive Theory Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Sara J.; Sargent, Roger G.; Rheaume, Carol E.; Saunders, Ruth P.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the impact of behavioral, personal, and environmental factors on fourth graders' dietary practices, using a social cognitive theory framework. Survey results highlighted social cognitive variables that significantly influenced dietary behaviors: gender, race, socioeconomic status, fruit and vegetable availability at home, nutrition…

  13. 18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH BLOCKS AND PULLEYS OVERHEAD LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  14. 19. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, DETAIL BLOCKS, PULLEYS, AND ELECTRIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, DETAIL BLOCKS, PULLEYS, AND ELECTRIC MOTOR LOOKING EAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  15. Discrimination Evidence for Examining Fourth Grade Students' Learning Disability Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Abdulhameed S.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of discriminate variables (perceptual-motor, hyperactivity disorder, neurological and psychological skills) to distinguish between normal (n = 68) and students with learning disabilities (n = 72) in fourth grade. Three instruments were developed: perceptual-motor scale, hyperactivity disorder scale, skills test…

  16. Sights, Sounds, Senses in Step with Reading. Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Mildred W.; Messerli, John H.

    This ESEA Title III bibliography presents books, films, filmstrips, and records that correlate with stories from selected fourth-grade basic reading books. The list of books is prepared from the suggested lists of the Ginn, Houghton Mifflin, Lippincott, and Scott, Foresman reading series. The bibliography includes sections about animals and birds,…

  17. Second-to-Fourth Digit Length, Testosterone and Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempel, P.; Gohlke, B.; Klempau, J.; Zinsberger, P.; Reuter, M.; Hennig, J.

    2005-01-01

    Based on stimulating findings suggesting that prenatal levels of steroids may influence cognitive functions, a study with N=40 healthy volunteers of both sexes was conducted. Prenatal levels of testosterone (T) were estimated by use of the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) which is supposed to be controlled by the same genes involved in…

  18. The Nature of Implementing Response to Intervention in Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALSuliman, Maha

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this concurrent embedded mixed-method study was to describe the implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI) and understand the role of Response to Intervention at the fourth-grade elementary school level on the academic performance. This study examined both qualitative and quantitative data. In the qualitative phase, a…

  19. Film Preference Patterns of Fourth and Fifth Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Carole Alice Shirreffs

    This study identifies and describes the interest patterns of 218 fourth and fifth grade children in two schools in Baton Rouge, Louisiana--one black Title I school, one white suburban school--as they pertain to the content and technique of the short film, and to determine whether these interest were related to sex, or race-socioeconomic status.…

  20. 43. 'Firing Pier, Third and Fourth Floors and Roof Plan,' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. 'Firing Pier, Third and Fourth Floors and Roof Plan,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3869-46, Y&D Drawing 190843. Scale 1/4' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  1. Plains Indians of North America. Grade Level: Fourth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Beth

    This is a fourth-grade teaching unit on the Plains Indians of North America. It is composed of a content outline, statement of unit goals, unit behavioral objectives, initiating activities, developmental activities, closing activities, unit evaluation plan, and a bibliography. The content outline shows that the unit covers the Plains Indian's…

  2. OVERVIEW OF FOURTH LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB (ROOFTOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF FOURTH LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB (ROOFTOP LEVEL OF BUILDING) SHOWING TOP OF MISSILE TUBE. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. The N400 and the Fourth Grade Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coch, Donna

    2015-01-01

    While behavioral and educational data characterize a fourth grade shift in reading development, neuroscience evidence is relatively lacking. We used the N400 component of the event-related potential waveform to investigate the development of single word processing across the upper elementary years, in comparison to adult readers. We presented…

  4. Did that Dog Sniff Violate the Fourth Amendment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Catherine; Middleton, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Is sniffing at the front door of a private home by a trained narcotics detection dog a Fourth Amendment search requiring probable cause? Is a "drug dog" somehow like a manmade technology, such as a thermal imaging device? These were a couple of the questions recently presented to the U.S. Supreme Court during arguments in "Florida v. Jardines."…

  5. The Akan of Ghana. An Instructional Unit for Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Rosarita

    This teaching guide presents objectives, resources, and evaluation criteria for teaching pupils in fourth grade social studies and fine arts classes about Africa, and particularly the Akan ethnic group in Africa. This unit was developed at an interdisciplinary summer workshop for teachers on African culture. The major objective is to help students…

  6. Dental Hygiene Program Clinic Manual, Fall 1997. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Errico, Mary; Cama, Christine; Pastoriza-Maldonado, Alida

    This is the fourth edition of the Clinic Manual for the Dental Hygiene Program at Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community College in the Bronx (New York). It contains general information, grading procedures, performance guides, and clinical forms related to the program. Section 1 provides an introduction to clinic philosophy, policies, goals and…

  7. Fourth Way in Action? The Evolution of Singapore's Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Hargreaves and Shirley's "The Fourth Way" offers a valuable framework for considering the challenges and dilemmas that confront education change practitioners. In this article, I consider how well their framework fits the evolution and more recent changes in Singapore education. History, context culture and aspirations are seen as providing for…

  8. Fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Kanber, H.; Olli, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    The observation of a fourth-order acoustic torque in intense sound fields is reported. The torque was determined by measuring the acoustically induced angular deflection of a polished cylinder suspended by a torsion fiber. This torque was measured in a sound field of amplitude greater than that in which first-order acoustic torque has been observed.

  9. Educating Children with Multiple Disabilities: A Collaborative Approach. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orelove, Fred P., Ed.; Sobsey, Dick, Ed.; Silberman, Rosanne K., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Now in its fourth edition, this highly respected, bestselling textbook gives undergraduate and graduate students up-to-the-minute research and strategies for educating children with severe and multiple disabilities. This popular core text--for 15 years, a staple of teacher training programs in special education and related fields--thoroughly…

  10. Lipid Analysis: Isolation, separation, identification and lipidomic analysis - Fourth Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Review of book, Lipid Analysis, Isolation, separation, identification and lipidomic analysis - Fourth Edition, by W.W. Chrisitie and X. Han, 2010. William W. Christie is considered by many to be the most prominent international authority on lipid analysis. The co-author, Dr. Xianlin Han, is a pion...

  11. Cultural Literacy of Fourth-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of fourth-year students in obstetrics at one medical school confirmed the absence of a liberal undergraduate education and indicated their failure to acquire cultural knowledge during their premedical and medical education. Knowledge deficits extended beyond the humanities to nonmedical sciences and the history and philosophy of medicine.…

  12. Peace and World Order Studies: A Curriculum Guide. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Barbara J., Ed.

    The fourth edition of this curriculum guide will help college, university, and secondary school educators design and update courses, familiarize themselves with new literature and resources, and plan and justify new academic programs in the study of global problems. While syllabus categories remain the same as in previous editions, several new…

  13. Operation Sluggie and Other Software Products from the Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Theresa Boedeker; Rogel, Jeannine

    1995-01-01

    Describes a project that taught groups of fourth graders how to develop instructional software for second and third graders in the areas of mathematics and science. Topics include project goals for students and the teacher; integrating technology; documentation and packaging; community involvement; and benefits to students. (LRW)

  14. An Examination of Fourth Graders' Aesthetic Engagement with Literary Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Linda T.

    2013-01-01

    Reader response, simulation, and assimilation theories offer insights to our emotional connections with characters. Findings from a study conducted with avid fourth-grade readers show that when the children feel they are next to the character, they acentrally imagine the narrative and experience sympathy. The children also participate and…

  15. Texas Superintendents' Role in Student Fourth Amendment Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Stacey

    This study analyzed the current student drug testing policies of Texas public school districts in the context of the Fourth Amendment rights of students. Court decisions on this issue conflict, and school administrators, attorneys, and other concerned parties may be interested in knowing school districts policies. Responses were received from 827…

  16. Participation and Withdrawal among Fourth-Grade Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Jeremy D.; Cox, Deborah

    1992-01-01

    Classroom participation and nonparticipation were studied for 1,388 fourth graders rated by their teachers as active participators, passive participators, or nonparticipators. Participators appeared distinct on achievement measures since the first grade and maintained those distinctions. Youngsters who withdraw from classroom participation should…

  17. Fourth-order mutual coherence function in oceanic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Baykal, Yahya

    2016-04-10

    We have recently expressed the structure constant of atmospheric turbulence in terms of the oceanic turbulence parameters, which are the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum, rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, rate of dissipation of the mean-squared temperature, wavelength, Kolmogorov microscale, and link length. In this paper, utilizing this recently found structure constant and the fourth-order mutual coherence function of atmospheric turbulence, we present the fourth-order mutual coherence function to be used in oceanic turbulence evaluations. Thus, the found fourth-order mutual coherence function of oceanic turbulence is evaluated for the special case of a point source located at the transmitter origin and at a single receiver point. The variations of this special case of the fourth-order mutual coherence function of oceanic turbulence against the changes in the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum, the rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, the rate of dissipation of the mean-squared temperature, the wavelength, and the Kolmogorov microscale at various link lengths are presented. PMID:27139862

  18. Administration of the Small Public Library. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingand, Darlene E.

    Since the publication of its first edition in 1965, this book has been a standard resource for setting up and managing cutting-edge small public library facilities. Completely revised and updated, this fourth edition continues that tradition with many more figures (28 in this edition), case studies and sample policies, and new content on grant…

  19. The Value of the Fourth Year of Mathematics. Math Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    Too many students and educators view the senior year and graduation from high school as an end point, rather than one vital step along the education pipeline. Students who engage in a fourth year of math tap into and build upon their advanced analytic skills and are more likely to have better success in postsecondary course work, as they have…

  20. A "Perfect" Case Study: Perfectionism in Academically Talented Fourth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelson, Jill L.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of perfectionism is bound to surface when discussing the social and emotional development of gifted children and adolescents. The author has observed gifted and talented fourth graders who have exhibited perfectionism in a myriad of unhealthy ways. She was able to document and categorize the manifestations of perfectionism. In this…

  1. Rentz's Student Affairs Practice in Higher Education. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Naijian

    2011-01-01

    The mission of this new fourth edition is to provide the reader with a solid foundation in the historical and philosophical perspectives of college student affairs development; assist the reader in understanding the major concepts and purpose of student affairs' practice, methods, and program models; enable the reader to conceptualize the theme,…

  2. Reflections on Doing Geography: Learning Observations from the Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delahunty, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy's (TNC) Orchard Bog site in Shady Valley, Tennessee, is a unique Appalachian mountain bog that provides many opportunities for student exploration. A biogeographer, a field technician, two biologists, and a historian combined their expertise to teach 100 fourth graders how historians and scientists learn about past…

  3. 16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Parker Dam, only top fourth of dam visible, at 320' high, Parker Dam is one of the highest in the world. Much of this height is because dam penetrates well below river bottom to fasten to bedrock. - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  4. The Informed Argument: A Multidisciplinary Reader and Guide. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert K.

    Reflecting the belief that learning is best fostered by encouraging students to read, reflect, and write about serious issues, this book is designed to help students argue on behalf of their beliefs so that other people will take them seriously. The 85 readings gathered in the book (60 of which are new to the fourth edition) give students adequate…

  5. Billiard systems with polynomial integrals of third and fourth degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Tatiana

    2001-03-01

    The problem of the existence of polynomial-in-momenta first integrals for dynamical billiard systems is considered. Examples of billiards with irreducible integrals of third and fourth degree are constructed with the help of the integrable problems of Goryachev-Chaplygin and Kovalevsky from rigid body dynamics.

  6. Geometric Understanding and Misconceptions among Gifted Fourth-Eighth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Marguerite M.

    The Van Hiele theory asserts that there exist five hierarchical levels of geometric thinking that a successful learner passes through. The purpose of the study described in this paper was to investigate the geometric understanding and misconceptions in students in the fourth through eighth grades who have been identified as gifted. The students…

  7. 46. VIEW ON THE ROOF, LOOKING AT THE TOP (FOURTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VIEW ON THE ROOF, LOOKING AT THE TOP (FOURTH STORY) OF THE TOWER FROM THE NORTHEAST TO THE SOUTHWEST (NOTE: GROUPS OF THREE WINDOWS IN EACH SIDE OF TOWER, ORNAMENTED WITH BROWNSTONE ARCHES AND BROWNSTONE SILLS WITHOUT BRACKETS) - Kenworthy Hall, State Highway 14 (Greensboro Road), Marion, Perry County, AL

  8. 6. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO NORTH: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FOURTH FLOOR, DETAIL OF HOTEL SOAP LINE TO NORTH: AMERICAN CAR & FOUNDRY COMPANY MANUAL SOAP CUTTER INSTALLED 1932 (FOREGROUND); CONVEYORS; AND R.A. JONES & COMPANY HORIZONTAL PRESS INSTALLED 1931 (BACKGROUND) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-15, 90-96 Greene Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  9. 13. Missile site control building, third and fourth floor interior, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Missile site control building, third and fourth floor interior, showing east corner and former electrical equipment area, room #306. This building was salvaged and sealed in the 1970's; the lower floors also suffered flooding - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  10. Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  11. Eating Attitudes in Fourth-, Sixth-, and Eighth-Grade Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhyne-Winkler, Martha C.

    1994-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes of fourth-, sixth-, and eighth-grade girls (n=379) and relationship between those attitudes and achievement scores, school ability, absenteeism, family income, grade level, family size, age, height/weight ratio, diet history, weight satisfaction, appearance satisfaction, and school anxiety. Found that eating-disordered…

  12. REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM, 4A, FOURTH GRADE SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Special School District 1, Minn.

    THE FIFTH IN A SERIES OF 17 VOLUMES, THIS VOLUME PROVIDES THE FOURTH GRADE TEACHER WITH A GUIDE TO THE REORGANIZED SCIENCE CURRICULUM OF THE MINNEAPOLIS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THE MATERIALS ARE INTENDED TO BE AUGMENTED AND REVISED AS THE NEED ARISES. THERE IS A DETAILED OUTLINE OF THE CONTENT FOR GRADE 4 FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING MAJOR AREAS AROUND WHICH…

  13. Fourth Grade: Late Fall and Early Spring Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Joel Robert, Ed.

    Activity plans for fourth grade outdoor education experiences comprise the bulk of this curriculum guide. Many of the outlines have been developed through practical application and experimentation by staff members of the Outdoor and Environmental Education Center (OEEC) of the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, City Schools. Activities and studies for the…

  14. Nature's Energy, Module B. Fourth Grade. Pilot Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasco County Schools, Dade City, FL.

    This booklet is one of a set of learning modules on energy for use by students and teachers in the fourth grade. This module examines man's use of fossil fuels, electricity production, and other energy sources. Included are laboratory activities and values exercises. (BT)

  15. VIEW OF THE WEST CHECKOUT CELL, FOURTH LEVEL OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE WEST CHECK-OUT CELL, FOURTH LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. VIEW OF THE EAST CHECKOUT CELL, FOURTH LEVEL OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE EAST CHECK-OUT CELL, FOURTH LEVEL OF THE EXTERNAL TANK CHECK-OUT CELLS, HB-2, FACING NORTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. Fourth Inventory. Computers in Higher Education, 1976-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblen, John W., Ed.; Baird, Thomas B., Ed.

    The fourth national inventory of computers in higher education, 1976-77 is presented. The four inventories together provide detailed snapshots of the history of computer utilization by U.S. higher education since 1964. The contents of the publication include a description of the inventory and statistical data on the computer systems, expenditures…

  18. The Impact of Russian Enrichment in the Fourth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mardis, Sherri L.

    An evaluation of a foreign language experience program for fourth graders in an inner-city school is presented. First, an introductory section reviews literature on the rationale for and structure of foreign language programs in the elementary school. In the program, students learned about Russian foreign language and culture in a weekly 30-minute…

  19. Standards of Good Practice for Education Abroad. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forum on Education Abroad, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This fourth edition of the Forum on Education Abroad's "Standards of Good Practice for Education Abroad" augments previous editions of the "Standards." Since the last edition was published in 2008, Forum member institutions and organizations have implemented the Standards in program development and assessment, using the Standards in the Forum's…

  20. Extended monopole solution of the Blandford-Znajek mechanism: Higher order terms for a Kerr parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Kentarou; Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2008-07-15

    The Blandford-Znajek mechanism, by which the rotational energy of a black hole is extracted through electromagnetic fields, is one of the promising candidates as an essential process of the central engine of active compact objects such as gamma-ray bursts. The only known analytical solution of this mechanism is the perturbative monopole solution for Kerr parameter a up to the second order terms. In order to apply the Blandford-Znajek mechanism to rapidly rotating black holes, we try to obtain the perturbation solution up to the fourth order. As a result, we find that the fourth order terms of the vector potential diverge at infinity, and this implies that the perturbation approach breaks down at a large distance from the black hole. Although there are some uncertainties about the solution due to the unknown boundary condition at infinity for the fourth order terms, we can derive the evaluation of the total energy flux extracted from the black hole up to fourth order of a without any ambiguity. Furthermore, from the comparison between the numerical solution, which is valid for 0fourth order solution, we find that the fourth order solution reproduces the numerical result better than the second order solution. At the same time, since the fourth order solution does not match well with the numerical result at large a, we conclude that more higher order terms are required to reproduce the numerical result.

  1. Fourth standard model family neutrino at future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Sultansoy, S.

    2005-09-01

    It is known that flavor democracy favors the existence of the fourth standard model (SM) family. In order to give nonzero masses for the first three-family fermions flavor democracy has to be slightly broken. A parametrization for democracy breaking, which gives the correct values for fundamental fermion masses and, at the same time, predicts quark and lepton Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrices in a good agreement with the experimental data, is proposed. The pair productions of the fourth SM family Dirac ({nu}{sub 4}) and Majorana (N{sub 1}) neutrinos at future linear colliders with {radical}(s)=500 GeV, 1 TeV, and 3 TeV are considered. The cross section for the process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{nu}{sub 4}{nu}{sub 4}(N{sub 1}N{sub 1}) and the branching ratios for possible decay modes of the both neutrinos are determined. The decays of the fourth family neutrinos into muon channels ({nu}{sub 4}(N{sub 1}){yields}{mu}{sup {+-}}W{sup {+-}}) provide cleanest signature at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. Meanwhile, in our parametrization this channel is dominant. W bosons produced in decays of the fourth family neutrinos will be seen in detector as either di-jets or isolated leptons. As an example, we consider the production of 200 GeV mass fourth family neutrinos at {radical}(s)=500 GeV linear colliders by taking into account di-muon plus four jet events as signatures.

  2. Methotrexate administration directly into the fourth ventricle in children with malignant fourth ventricular brain tumors: a pilot clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, David I; Rytting, Michael; Zaky, Wafik; Kerr, Marcia; Ketonen, Leena; Kundu, Uma; Moore, Bartlett D; Yang, Grace; Hou, Ping; Sitton, Clark; Cooper, Laurence J; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Lee, Dean A; Thall, Peter F; Khatua, Soumen

    2015-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemotherapy can be safely administered directly into the fourth ventricle to treat recurrent malignant brain tumors in children. For the first time in humans, methotrexate was infused into the fourth ventricle in children with recurrent, malignant brain tumors. A catheter was surgically placed into the fourth ventricle and attached to a ventricular access device. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow was confirmed by CINE MRI postoperatively. Each cycle consisted of 4 consecutive daily methotrexate infusions (2 milligrams). Disease response was monitored with serial MRI scans and CSF cytologic analysis. Trough CSF methotrexate levels were sampled. Five patients (3 with medulloblastoma and 2 with ependymoma) received 18, 18, 12, 9, and 3 cycles, respectively. There were no serious adverse events or new neurological deficits attributed to methotrexate. Two additional enrolled patients were withdrawn prior to planned infusions due to rapid disease progression. Median serum methotrexate level 4 h after infusion was 0.04 µmol/L. Range was 0.02-0.13 µmol/L. Median trough CSF methotrexate level 24 h after infusion was 3.18 µmol/L (range 0.53-212.36 µmol/L). All three patients with medulloblastoma had partial response or stable disease until one patient had progressive disease after cycle 18. Both patients with ependymoma had progressive disease after 9 and 3 cycles, respectively. Low-dose methotrexate can be infused into the fourth ventricle without causing neurological toxicity. Some patients with recurrent medulloblastoma experience a beneficial anti-tumor effect both within the fourth ventricle and at distant sites. PMID:26255071

  3. Generation of spherically symmetric metrics in f( R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirabi, Z.; Halilsoy, M.; Mazharimousavi, S. Habib

    2016-06-01

    In D-dimensional spherically symmetric f( R) gravity there are three unknown functions to be determined from the fourth order differential equations. It is shown that the system remarkably may be integrated to relate two functions through the third one to provide a reduction to second order equations accompanied with a large class of potential solutions. The third function, which acts as the generator of the process, is F(R) =mathrm{d}f(R)/dR. We recall that our generating function has been employed as a scalar field with an accompanying self-interacting potential previously, which is entirely different from our approach. Reduction of f( R) theory into a system of equations seems to be efficient enough to generate a solution corresponding to each generating function. As particular examples, besides the known ones, we obtain new black hole solutions in any dimension D. We further extend our analysis to cover non-zero energy-momentum tensors. Global monopole and Maxwell sources are given as examples.

  4. Stability of cefozopran hydrochloride in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Przemysław; Skibiński, Robert; Paczkowska, Magdalena; Garbacki, Piotr; Talaczyńska, Alicja; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Jelińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pH on the stability of cefozopran hydrochloride (CZH) was investigated in the pH range of 0.44-13.00. Six degradation products were identified with a hybrid ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometer. The degradation of CZH as a result of hydrolysis was a pseudo-first-order reaction. As general acid-base hydrolysis of CZH was not occurred in the solutions of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, acetate, borate and phosphate buffers, kobs = kpH because specific acid-base catalysis was observed. Specific acid-base catalysis of CZH consisted of the following reactions: hydrolysis of CZH catalyzed by hydrogen ions (kH+), hydrolysis of dications (k1H2O), monocations (k2H2O) and zwitter ions (k3H2O) and hydrolysis of zwitter ions (k1OH-) and monoanions (k2OH-) of CZH catalyzed by hydroxide ions. The total rate of the reaction was equal to the sum of partial reactions: [Formula: see text]. CZH similarly like other fourth generation cephalosporin was most stable at slightly acidic and neutral pH and less stable in alkaline pH. The cleavage of the β-lactam ring resulting from a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon in the β-lactam moiety is the preferred degradation pathway of β-lactam antibiotics in aqueous solutions. PMID:26079426

  5. A Comparison of Gender and Socioeconomic Bracket in Fourth Grade Students when Measuring Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Kelly A.

    The goal of this study was to assess students' abilities when measuring volume as well as providing a hands-on method for designing a water-filtration process. I studied the trends among gender, time, and ability to measure water in two different groups of fourth grade students. Fourth grade students from both higher income and lower income school districts visited a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Studio in order to participate in hands-on, problem-based learning. The students in this study attempted to solve the "Dirty Water Problem" by measuring 281ml of dirty water solution, and using household tools to filter and clean the dirty water. This study showed that 68% of students from a high-income socioeconomic bracket were able to measure a determined volume of water independently. Meanwhile, only 18% of students from a low-income socioeconomic bracket were able to complete the same task independently. In the low-income bracket, 78% of students required assistance measuring a volume of water, indicating that the majority of these students performed below grade level. Where time spent at the station was concerned, the difference between high-income and low-income socioeconomic brackets was insignificant. Key Words: STEM, measurement, volume, design, Dirty Water Problem, socioeconomic bracket.

  6. Primary intra-fourth ventricular meningioma: Report two cases

    PubMed Central

    Sadashiva, Nishanth; Rao, Shilpa; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Shukla, Dhaval

    2016-01-01

    Meningioma's occurring intraventricular region are rare and these occurring in the fourth ventricle is even rare. Because of the rarity, it is not usually considered as a differential diagnosis in any age group. Clinical features and Imaging is not characteristic, and most of them are thought to be some different tumor. Here, we discuss two cases harboring a primary fourth ventricular meningioma Grade II, which was surgically excised successfully. Total excision was achieved in both cases and as the tumor was firm to soft and vermian splitting was not required. Understanding the clinical features and a careful preoperative radiological examination is required to differentiate this tumor from more commonly occurring lesions at this location. PMID:27114661

  7. Schwannoma originating in lateral recess of the fourth ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Kachhara, Rajneesh; Raje, Prakash; Pauranik, Apoorva

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial schwannomas most commonly occur in relation to vestibular nerves followed by trigeminal nerves. Authors describe a very unusual case of schwannomas originating in lateral recess of the fourth ventricle. Tumor was completely excised micro-surgically via midline suboccipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy. Dissection of the surgical specimen revealed that the tumor was completely free from surrounding structures and just hanging in the fourth ventricle. It was not attached to any cranial nerves, brain parenchyma, and blood vessel or to the dura mater. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. To our knowledge, no such case has been reported so far from this extremely rare location. Relevant literature is reviewed and hypothesis for ectopic location of these tumors has been highlighted. PMID:23293673

  8. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.D. )

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  9. Galaxy rotation curves from a fourth order gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, P.; Singh, T. P.

    2014-03-01

    While the standard and most popular explanation for the flatness of galaxy rotation curves is dark matter, one cannot at this stage rule out an explanation based on a modified law of gravitation, which agrees with Newtonian gravitation on the scale of the Solar system, but differs from it on larger length scales. Examples include Modfied Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) and Scalar-Tensor-Vector Gravity (STVG). Here, we have reported on a fourth order modification of the Poisson equation, which yields the same Yukawa type modification of Newtonian gravity as STVG, and which can explain flat galaxy rotation curves for a large sample of galaxies, once specific values for two parameters have been chosen. We have speculated on two possible origins for this modified Poisson equation: First, a possible fourth order modification of general relativity, and second, quadrupole gravitational polarization induced on a galaxy because of the pull of neighbouring galaxies.

  10. US Energy Industry Financial Developments, 1993 fourth quarter, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-14

    This report traces key financial trends in the US energy industry for the fourth quarter of 1993. Financial data (only available for publicly-traded US companies) are included in two broad groups -- fossil fuel production and rate-regulated electric utilities. All financial data are taken from public sources such as energy industry corporate reports and press releases, energy trade publications, and The Wall Street Journal`s Earnings Digest; return on equity is calculated from data available from Standard and Poor`s Compustat data service. Since several major petroleum companies disclose their income by lines of business and geographic area, these data are also presented in this report. Although the disaggregated income concept varies by company and is not strictly comparable to corporate income, relative movements in income by lines of business and geographic area are summarized as useful indicators of short-term changes in the underlying profitability of these operations. Based on information provided in 1993 fourth quarter financial disclosures, the net income for 82 petroleum companies -- including 18 majors -- was unchanged between the fourth quarter of 1992 and the fourth quarter of 1993. An 18-percent decline in crude oil prices resulted in a deterioration of the performance of upstream (oil and gas production) petroleum companies during the final quarter of 1993. However, prices for refined products fell much less than the price of crude oil, resulting in higher refined product margins and downstream (refining, marketing and transport) petroleum earnings. An increase in refined product demand also contributed to the rise in downstream income.

  11. Proceedings of the fourth workshop on grand unification

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, H.A.; Langacker, P.; Steinhardt, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    This book compiles the papers presented at the fourth conference of grand unified theories of nuclear physics held in University of Pennsylvania April 1983. The topics covered were proton decay theory; angular distribution and flux of atmospheric neutrinos; atmospheric neutrinos and astrophysical neutrinos in proton decay experiments; review of future nucleon decay experiments; monopole experiments; searches for magnetic monopole; monopoles, gauge, fields and anomalies; darkmatter, galaxies and voids; adiabatic fluctuations; supersymmetry, supergravity, and Kaluza-Klein theories; superstring theory and superunification.

  12. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Fourth Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (A MU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (July -Sept 2004). Tasks covered are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension and (5) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest.

  13. 29. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING INTO THE FOURTH TAILRACE (COUNTING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING INTO THE FOURTH TAILRACE (COUNTING FROM THE DOWNSTREAM END TO THE UPSTREAM END SOUTHEAST TO NORTHWEST). NOTE THE DRIVE SHAFT, GEAR AND WATER LINE EXTENDING FROM THE STEEL BULKHEAD. THIS EQUIPMENT IS EXTANT FROM THE ERA OF PULP MILL OPERATIONS. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  14. Fourth-integral resonance study on Alladin at SRC

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Crosbie, E.; Teng, L.; Bridges, J.; Ciarlette, D.; Symon, K.; Trzeciak, W.

    1995-07-01

    The fourth-integral betatron resonance driven by sextupoles was studied on the electron storage ring Aladdin at SRC. The resonance feature of capturing the phase space particles in the resonance islands was dearly demonstrated. In a computer simulation, the finite beam size is simulated by multi-particle tracking and the decoherence of the betatron oscillation was shown to agree well with experiment observation.

  15. Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; Fourth year report

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J.; North, G.R.; Smith, N.R.

    1994-05-01

    The scope of the report is to present the results of the fourth year`s work on the atmospheric modeling part of the global climate studies task. The development testing of computer models and initial results are discussed. The appendices contain studies that provide supporting information and guidance to the modeling work and further details on computer model development. Complete documentation of the models, including user information, will be prepared under separate reports and manuals.

  16. Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford, B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Patt, Frederick S.; Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Franz, Bryan A.; Robinson, Wayne D.; Feldman, Gene Carl; Bailey, Sean W.

    2003-01-01

    The efforts to improve the data quality for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) data products have continued, following the third reprocessing of the global data set in May 2000. Analyses have been ongoing to address all aspects of the processing algorithms, particularly the calibration methodologies, atmospheric correction, and data flagging and masking. All proposed changes were subjected to rigorous testing, evaluation and validation. The results of these activities culminated in the fourth reprocessing, which was completed in July 2002. The algorithm changes, which were implemented for this reprocessing, are described in the chapters of this volume. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the activities leading up to the fourth reprocessing, and summarizes the effects of the changes. Chapter 2 describes the modifications to the on-orbit calibration, specifically the focal plane temperature correction and the temporal dependence. Chapter 3 describes the changes to the vicarious calibration, including the stray light correction to the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) data and improved data screening procedures. Chapter 4 describes improvements to the near-infrared (NIR) band correction algorithm. Chapter 5 describes changes to the atmospheric correction and the oceanic property retrieval algorithms, including out-of-band corrections, NIR noise reduction, and handling of unusual conditions. Chapter 6 describes various changes to the flags and masks, to increase the number of valid retrievals, improve the detection of the flag conditions, and add new flags. Chapter 7 describes modifications to the level-la and level-3 algorithms, to improve the navigation accuracy, correct certain types of spacecraft time anomalies, and correct a binning logic error. Chapter 8 describes the algorithm used to generate the SeaWiFS photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) product. Chapter 9 describes a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, which is used in one of the changes

  17. Task reports on developing techniques for scattering by 3D composite structures and to generate new solutions in diffraction theory using higher order boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.

    1991-01-01

    There are two tasks described in this report. First, an extension of a two dimensional formulation is presented for a three dimensional body of revolution. A Fourier series expansion of the vector electric and magnetic fields is employed to reduce the dimensionality of the system, and an exact boundary condition is employed to terminate the mesh. The mesh termination boundary is chosen such that it leads to convolutional boundary operators for low O(n) memory demand. Second, rigorous uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) diffraction coefficients are presented for a coated convex cylinder simulated with generalized impedance boundary conditions. Ray solutions are obtained which remain valid in the transition region and reduce uniformly those in the deep lit and shadow regions. A uniform asymptotic solution is also presented for observations in the close vicinity of the cylinder.

  18. Accelerated Program in Elementary-School Mathematics--The Fourth Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Ihrke, Constance

    1970-01-01

    Describes fourth year (1966-67) of a longitudinal study of 30 bright fourth graders. All but one student showed definite improvement for the combined performances of tests administered to measure progress. (EK)

  19. Long-time behavior of a finite volume discretization for a fourth order diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Jan; Matthes, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    We consider a non-standard finite-volume discretization of a strongly non-linear fourth order diffusion equation on the d-dimensional cube, for arbitrary d≥slant 1 . The scheme preserves two important structural properties of the equation: the first is the interpretation as a gradient flow in a mass transportation metric, and the second is an intimate relation to a linear Fokker–Planck equation. Thanks to these structural properties, the scheme possesses two discrete Lyapunov functionals. These functionals approximate the entropy and the Fisher information, respectively, and their dissipation rates converge to the optimal ones in the discrete-to-continuous limit. Using the dissipation, we derive estimates on the long-time asymptotics of the discrete solutions. Finally, we present results from numerical experiments which indicate that our discretization is able to capture significant features of the complex original dynamics, even with a rather coarse spatial resolution.

  20. Boundary Closures for Fourth-order Energy Stable Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Finite Difference Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Yamaleev, Nail K.; Frankel, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    A general strategy exists for constructing Energy Stable Weighted Essentially Non Oscillatory (ESWENO) finite difference schemes up to eighth-order on periodic domains. These ESWENO schemes satisfy an energy norm stability proof for both continuous and discontinuous solutions of systems of linear hyperbolic equations. Herein, boundary closures are developed for the fourth-order ESWENO scheme that maintain wherever possible the WENO stencil biasing properties, while satisfying the summation-by-parts (SBP) operator convention, thereby ensuring stability in an L2 norm. Second-order, and third-order boundary closures are developed that achieve stability in diagonal and block norms, respectively. The global accuracy for the second-order closures is three, and for the third-order closures is four. A novel set of non-uniform flux interpolation points is necessary near the boundaries to simultaneously achieve 1) accuracy, 2) the SBP convention, and 3) WENO stencil biasing mechanics.