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Sample records for fr14ap10p proposed flood

  1. 78 FR 48701 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  2. 78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  3. 77 FR 18839 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  4. 78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  5. 78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  6. 77 FR 18844 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  7. 77 FR 18835 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  8. 77 FR 74859 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  9. 78 FR 5826 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  10. 77 FR 18842 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  11. 78 FR 5824 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  12. 78 FR 5822 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  13. 77 FR 55856 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ...Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports for the communities listed in......

  14. 77 FR 39721 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports for the communities listed in......

  15. 77 FR 56669 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  16. 78 FR 8181 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  17. 78 FR 77481 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency ; Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  18. 77 FR 76501 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  19. 78 FR 72920 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  20. 78 FR 43906 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Riverside Riverside County Flood Control County. and Water Conservation District, 1995 Market Street... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood...

  1. 77 FR 25495 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  2. 77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  3. 77 FR 73490 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  4. 78 FR 36217 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  5. 78 FR 36212 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  6. 77 FR 50709 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  7. 78 FR 20341 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  8. 78 FR 20339 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  9. 78 FR 20343 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  10. 77 FR 46104 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  11. 78 FR 32679 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  12. 78 FR 20344 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  13. 78 FR 48888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  14. 78 FR 43907 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  15. 78 FR 28888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  16. 78 FR 58334 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  17. 78 FR 43910 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  18. 78 FR 43909 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  19. 78 FR 14584 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  20. 78 FR 36222 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  1. 77 FR 27076 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the...

  2. 78 FR 52956 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Register (78 FR 36220-36222) a proposed flood hazard determination notice that contained an erroneous table... FR 36220. The table provided here represents the proposed flood hazard determinations and communities... . In the proposed flood hazard determination notice published at 78 FR 36220 in the June 17,...

  3. 76 FR 73534 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this proposed rule is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and......

  4. 76 FR 50960 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this proposed rule is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and......

  5. 76 FR 73537 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this proposed rule is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and......

  6. 75 FR 61373 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this notice is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and modified......

  7. 76 FR 3590 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this notice is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and modified......

  8. 75 FR 78664 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this notice is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and modified......

  9. 77 FR 51744 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 74 FR 66602, in the December 16, 2009, issue of the... proposed rule at 74 FR 66602. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance..., FEMA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that included an erroneous flooding source...

  10. 76 FR 19005 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  11. 76 FR 23528 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  12. 75 FR 5909 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  13. 75 FR 59192 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  14. 75 FR 23642 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  15. 76 FR 43968 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  16. 75 FR 59188 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  17. 76 FR 66887 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  18. 75 FR 43479 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  19. 75 FR 34415 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  20. 75 FR 5925 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  1. 76 FR 40670 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  2. 76 FR 62006 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  3. 75 FR 59184 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  4. 75 FR 55515 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this notice is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and modified......

  5. 77 FR 70454 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Register a ] proposed flood hazard determination notice at FR 77 44651 that contained a table which... notice published at 77 FR 44651 in the July 30, 2012, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal...

  6. 77 FR 46994 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... proposed rule published at 76 FR 8965 in the February 16, 2011, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA... here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and modified..., it addresses the following flooding sources: Jones Bayou, Mississippi River, and Porter Bayou....

  7. 75 FR 5930 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... published on May 26, 2009, at 74 FR 24729. The table for Ransom County, North Dakota, and Incorporated Areas... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the...

  8. 75 FR 3885 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations... locations above. Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located at the community...

  9. 75 FR 5929 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... published on September 8, 2009, at 74 FR 46047. The table for Carroll County, Arkansas, and Incorporated... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the...

  10. 77 FR 40627 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Administrator for Mitigation, Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency. BILLING CODE... Development Building, 25 Dorrance Street, Providence, RI 02903. Big Horn County, Wyoming, and...

  11. 76 FR 8330 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2011-1061, appearing on pages 3590-3595, in the issue of...

  12. 76 FR 50443 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2011-16640 appearing on pages 39063 through 39067 in the issue...

  13. 76 FR 12308 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2011-2281 beginning on page 5769 in the issue of Wednesday, February...

  14. 78 FR 45943 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... . In the proposed flood hazard determination notice published at 77 FR 25498 in the April 30, 2012... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 77 FR 25498. The... published. Correction In Proposed rule FR Doc. 2012-10280, beginning on page 25495 in the issue of April...

  15. 78 FR 45944 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... . In the proposed flood hazard determination notice published at 77 FR 21792 in the April 11, 2012... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 77 FR 21792. The... published. Correction In Proposed rule FR Doc. 2012-8600, beginning on page 21791 in the issue of April...

  16. 76 FR 9714 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... In the proposed rule published at 76 FR 1121, in the January 7, 2011, issue of the Federal Register... previously published proposed rule at 76 FR 1121. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood... location approximately 216 feet downstream of Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway should have been...

  17. 75 FR 19328 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on...

  18. 78 FR 48703 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 78 FR 14581-14583.../factsheets/2010/srp_fs.pdf . In the proposed flood hazard determination notice published at 78 FR 14581-14583... should be used in lieu of that previously published. Correction In Proposed rule FR Doc....

  19. 76 FR 21695 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... +596 City of Huntsville. downstream of Bailey Cove Road Southeast. At the upstream side of None...

  20. 75 FR 67310 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... meter. ** BFEs to be changed include the listed downstream and upstream BFEs, and include BFEs...

  1. 78 FR 14738 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... published at 75 FR 62061 and at 77 FR 55785. The table provided here represents the flooding sources... In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 62061, in the October 7, 2010, issue of the Federal Register... published at 77 FR 55785 in the September 11, 2012 issue of the Federal Register under the authority of...

  2. 76 FR 70386 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream..., Mississippi Mississippi Town of Carrollton...... Big Sand Creek Approximately 0.6 mile downstream of...

  3. 75 FR 29219 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream...) Existing Modified City of Alexandria, Virginia Backlick Run Approximately +79 +80 0.4 mile downstream...

  4. 76 FR 20606 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Unincorporated Areas of downstream of Old U.S. Sevier County. Highway 89. Approximately 500 feet None...

  5. 75 FR 29258 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Areas Brushy Creek Approximately 100 feet None +437 Unincorporated Areas of downstream of North...

  6. 76 FR 8986 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream.... Tanners Creek Approximately 0.46 mile +488 +489 City of Greendale, City downstream of U.S. of...

  7. 75 FR 31361 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Incorporated Areas Pearl River Approximately 1.0 mile None +341 City of Carthage. downstream of State...

  8. 76 FR 26968 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Road. Linda Creek Approximately 0.7 mile +172 +173 Unincorporated Areas of downstream of...

  9. 75 FR 62751 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... downstream of Big Barren Creek.... +1055 +1032 Claiborne County. ] Approximately 28 miles upstream of...

  10. 76 FR 26978 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... of Wayne. downstream of the downstream county boundary. Approximately 100 feet None +951 upstream...

  11. 75 FR 29246 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... include the listed downstream and upstream BFEs, and include BFEs located on the stream reach between...

  12. 75 FR 55527 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream.... ** BFEs to be changed include the listed downstream and upstream BFEs, and include BFEs located on...

  13. 76 FR 26976 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... of Ragland, Town confluence. of Riverside. Approximately 5.5 miles None +486 downstream of...

  14. 76 FR 70403 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream.... community (downstream of North Brinton Road). Lake Manitonka Entire shoreline within None +941 Township...

  15. 75 FR 77598 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Cottleville, downstream of Norfolk City of O'Fallon, City Southern Railroad. of St. Peters, Town of...

  16. 75 FR 75945 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Skagit County. Just downstream of the +49 +52 Burlington Northern Railroad. North Fork Skagit River...

  17. 76 FR 59361 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Cross County, Arkansas Arkansas Unincorporated Areas of Turkey Creek Approximately 0.48 mile...

  18. 75 FR 61371 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... City of Trussville, downstream of Whites Town of Argo, Town of Chapel Parkway. Margaret, Town of...

  19. 75 FR 19320 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Tombigbee River). with the Tombigbee Sumter County. River to approximately 0.5 mile downstream of...

  20. 75 FR 55507 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Unincorporated Areas of downstream of Jersey Sierra County. Flat Bridge. Approximately 167 feet None...

  1. 75 FR 75949 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Waverly. community. Black River Approximately 2.69 None +612 Township of Aloha. miles downstream of...

  2. 76 FR 36482 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Heights, Virginia Virginia City of Colonial Heights Old Town Creek Approximately 0.63 mile downstream...

  3. 78 FR 22222 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... published at 75 FR 55515 and 77 FR 73394. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location... buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 55515 in the September 13, 2010, issue of the... were subsequently published at 77 FR ] 73394 in the December 10, 2012, issue of the Federal...

  4. 77 FR 50668 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... at 76 FR 53082 and at 76 FR 61295. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location... for the contents in those buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 76 FR 53082, in the August 25, 2011 issue of the Federal Register, and in the correction notice published at 76 FR 61295,...

  5. 76 FR 14360 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 19320. The... contents in those buildings. Corrections In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 19321, in the April 14.... Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Factory Creek (backwater effects from...

  6. 78 FR 78993 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... comparison. Correction In the proposed flood hazard determination notice published at 77 FR 18844 in the... for the City of Woodland. In addition, revisions to the Preliminary FIRM have since been made and..., WA 98626. City of Longview City Hall, 1525 Broadway Street, Longview, WA 98632. City of Woodland...

  7. 78 FR 78995 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Mitigation, Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency. BILLING CODE 9110-12-P ..., Paris, MI 49338. City of Big Rapids City Hall, 226 North Michigan Avenue, Big Rapids, MI 49307....

  8. 76 FR 54415 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ...On March 25, 2009, FEMA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that contained an erroneous table. This document provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published. The table provided in this document represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and modified elevations, and communities affected for Cumberland County,......

  9. 77 FR 76998 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...On May 25, 2010, FEMA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that contained an erroneous table. This notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 29219. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and modified elevations, and communities affected for Butler County,......

  10. 76 FR 16722 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 73 FR 70944. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... buildings. Corrections In the proposed rule published at 73 FR 70944, in the November 24, 2008, issue of...

  11. 77 FR 51743 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 78654. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... for the contents in those buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 78654, in...

  12. 76 FR 13570 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 47169. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective... contents in those buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 74 FR 47169, in the September...

  13. 76 FR 26981 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 76 FR 8978. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... buildings. Corrections In the proposed rule published at 76 FR 8978, in the February 16, 2011, issue of...

  14. 77 FR 15664 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 76 FR 46701. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, and effective... In the proposed rule published at 76 FR 46701, in the August 3, 2011, issue of the Federal...

  15. 76 FR 13571 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 46074. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... contents in those buildings. ] Correction In the proposed rule published at 74 FR 46074, in the September...

  16. 77 FR 67324 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 76 FR 73537. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... In the proposed rule published at 76 FR 73537, in the November 29, 2011, issue of the...

  17. 78 FR 7441 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations Correction In notice document 2012-27366, appearing on pages 67016-67018 in the issue of Thursday, November 8, 2012, make...

  18. 77 FR 18766 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations... located on the stream reach between the referenced locations above. Please refer to the revised...

  19. 77 FR 66788 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 76 FR 56724... proposed rule published at 76 FR 56724, in the September 14, 2011, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA...). Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Demarest Kill, East Branch Hackensack River,...

  20. 76 FR 13572 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...On December 7, 2010, FEMA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that contained an erroneous table. This notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 75945. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and modified elevations, and communities affected for Skagit County,......

  1. 78 FR 20941 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at FR 77 67016... for comparison. Correction In the proposed flood hazard determination notice published at 77 FR 67016... Online at: http://www.geology.deq.ms.gov/floodmaps/Projects/FY2009/?county=Rankin City of Brandon...

  2. 75 FR 50955 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 46047. The... buildings. Corrections In the proposed rule published at 74 FR 46047 in the September 8, 2009, issue of the... addresses the following flooding sources: Atlantic Ocean, Bonny Eagle Pond, Cape Porpoise Harbor,...

  3. Flood risk: proposal of an integrated urban area flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sole, A.; Zuccaro, G.

    2003-04-01

    The recent hydrogeological events have increased the interest of the public opinion and of the Scientific Community towards a more accurate study regarding the phenomena of flooding in urban areas. The present project proposes a new model that integrates optimally a model of propagation in riverbed of the flood wave and one of flooding in urban areas. Indeed, to be able to simulate at best the evolution of a flood event it is obvious that, given to their narrow link, the phenomena of outflow in riverbed and overflow must be considered together. When the discharge assumes such a value as to let the water exceed the banks and flood on the surrounding areas, the flow in riverbed both upstream -in case of subcritical flow- and downstream of the overflow point remains influenced by the amount of spilled water. The remaining part continues its course in riverbed until it does not meet another point in which the level of the free surface exceeds that of the banks. In order to delimit the overflowed areas, therefore, it is necessary to precisely calculate the water amount that overflows. Namely, if this value is underestimated, the computed area will be less than the real one in the point of overflow and greater downstream, while, if the value is overestimated, it will be greater in the considered point and inferior downstream. Another phenomenon to be taken into account is the type of propagation of the fluid mass in urban area because of the shape and the presence of obstacles that render such territory poorly adequate for a standard simulation of the outflow with traditionals models and instruments. A further complication not to be neglected is the strongly non stationary behavior of a flood event, as described by the hydrogrammes outgoing from hydrological models relative to events of extreme precipitation. In the present work we consider necessary not only to treat together, but also to integrate thoroughly the modelling of the outflow in riverbed and outside riverbed

  4. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Note: For references to FR pages showing lists of flood elevation determinations, see the List of CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS...

  5. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Note: For references to FR pages showing lists of flood elevation determinations, see the List of CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS...

  6. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Note: For references to FR pages showing lists of flood elevation determinations, see the List of CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Proposed flood elevation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS...

  7. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Note: For references to FR pages showing lists of flood elevation determinations, see the List of CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposed flood elevation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS...

  8. 77 FR 55784 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... the flooding source name previously published proposed rule at 75 FR 19320. (Catalog of Federal... buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 19320, in the April 14, 2010, issue of the... for one of the flooding sources for Franklin County, North Carolina and Incorporated Areas....

  9. 77 FR 66791 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Allegheny County, PA (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 72661, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding... Allegheny County, PA (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Proposed... rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Allegheny County, Pennsylvania...

  10. 78 FR 28779 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... proposed rulemaking at 75 FR 67304, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding... Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Armstrong County, Pennsylvania...

  11. 77 FR 51745 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 62061. The... rule published at 75 FR 62061, in the October 7, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a.... Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Back Creek, Big Elk Creek, Bohemia River,...

  12. 77 FR 29678 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... satisfies the data requirements outlined in 44 CFR 67.6(b) is considered an appeal. Comments unrelated to..., and Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection Online at: http://www.in.gov/dnr/water/7293.htm... Online at: http://www.dnr.sc.gov/water/flood/comaps.html City of Manning 29 West Boyce Street,...

  13. 77 FR 18841 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... satisfies the data requirements outlined in 44 CFR 67.6(b) is considered an appeal. Comments unrelated to... County, South Carolina, and Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection Online at: http://www.dnr.sc... Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports...

  14. 77 FR 66785 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... combines all three notices to be used in lieu of the information published at 73 FR 4144, 75 FR 59192 and 76 FR 46705. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced... rule published 76 FR 46705, in the August 3, 2011 issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a...

  15. 76 FR 43637 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 12799. The... rule published at 74 FR 12799 in the March 25, 2009, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a.... Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Bailey Branch (backwater effects from...

  16. 76 FR 26982 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 73 FR 70944. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... rule published at 73 FR 70944 in the November 24, 2008, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published...

  17. 77 FR 50667 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 29246. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... rule published at 75 FR 29246, in the May 25, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published...

  18. 77 FR 50665 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 55515. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective... rule published at 75 FR 55515, in the September 13, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA...

  19. 76 FR 45215 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 55168. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... rule published at 74 FR 55168, in the October 27, 2009, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published...

  20. 77 FR 73394 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 55515. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective... rule published at 75 FR 55515, in the September 13, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA...

  1. 76 FR 12665 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 47169. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective... rule published at 74 FR 47169, in the September 15, 2009, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA...

  2. 76 FR 46715 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 29290. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... rule published at 75 FR 29290, in the May 25, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published...

  3. 76 FR 46716 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 31373. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... rule published at 75 FR 31373, in the June 3, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published...

  4. 76 FR 50443 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 73 FR 35112, at 73 FR 52234, and at 74 FR 22151. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced... rule published at 73 FR 35112, in the June 20, 2008, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published...

  5. 44 CFR 67.4 - Proposed flood elevation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CEO; and (c) Publication of the proposed flood elevation determination in a prominent local newspaper at least twice during the ten day period immediately following the notification of the CEO. Editorial Note: For references to FR pages showing lists of flood elevation determinations, see the List of...

  6. 76 FR 43965 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... FR 70944. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations... buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 73 FR 70944, in the November 24, 2008, issue of the... Areas. Specifically, it addresses the flooding sources Cumberland River (Lake Barkley) and...

  7. 76 FR 50446 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... contents in those buildings. Corrections In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 31347, in the June 3, 2010... published proposed rule at 75 FR 31347. This proposed rule also is opening a comment period for Rowell Creek... of 1988, in the previously published proposed rule at 75 FR 31347. In addition, this proposed rule...

  8. 78 FR 29696 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Lake County, Illinois, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... Lake County, Illinois, and Incorporated Areas AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Lake County, Illinois, and... rulemaking at 76 FR 39063, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources...

  9. 78 FR 28780 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Beaver County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... rulemaking at 75 FR 61377, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in... Beaver County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Beaver County, Pennsylvania...

  10. 78 FR 28780 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Greene County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... rulemaking at 76 FR 26978, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in... Greene County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Greene County, Pennsylvania...

  11. 78 FR 75542 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Fayette County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... rulemaking at 75 FR 61377, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in... Fayette County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Fayette County, Pennsylvania...

  12. 76 FR 26980 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 68744, in the November 9, 2010, issue of the... community in the list of map repository addresses. The correct name of the community is the Town of Michiana... community as the City of Michiana Shores in the previously published proposed rule at 75 FR 68744....

  13. 76 FR 14359 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... rule published at 75 FR 61377, in the October 5, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a... descriptions for these BFEs in the previously published proposed rule at 75 FR 61377. (Catalog of Federal... description for the proposed BFE of 1,032 feet, referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of...

  14. 76 FR 13569 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... rule published at 75 FR 68744, in the November 9, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a... listing the location descriptions for these BFEs in the previously published proposed rule at 75 FR 68744... for the proposed BFE of 1,290 feet, referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988,...

  15. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.12 Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by... rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section...

  16. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.12 Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by... rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section...

  17. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.12 Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by... rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section...

  18. 76 FR 45485 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 12804. The... contents in those buildings. Corrections In the proposed rule published at 74 FR 12804, in the March 25... Ohio River), Cypress Creek (backwater effects from Ohio River), Deer Creek (backwater effects from...

  19. 77 FR 73396 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 29219. The... buildings. Corrections In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 29219, in the May 25, 2010, issue of the... may submit comments, identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1089, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief,...

  20. 78 FR 22221 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in addition to the information published at 76 FR 50960. The... at 76 FR 50960, in the August 17, 2011, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a table under... previously published. Correction In proposed rule FR Doc. 2011-20966, beginning on page 50952 in the issue...

  1. 78 FR 8089 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... in lieu of the information published at 76 FR 73537 and 76 FR 67325. The table provided here... rule published at 76 FR 73537, in the November 29, 2011, issue of the Federal Register, and in the proposed correction rule published at 76 FR 67325, in the November 9, 2012, issue of the Federal...

  2. 77 FR 74142 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 29238 and 76 FR 62006, in the May 25, 2010 and... elevations, and communities affected for Iron County, Utah, and Incorporated Areas. Specifically, it... of 44 CFR 67.4. The tables, entitled ``Iron County, Utah, and Incorporated Areas'' addressed...

  3. 75 FR 47751 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in ] lieu of the information published at 74 FR 31656. The... buildings. Corrections In the proposed rule published at 74 FR 31656, in the July 2, 2009, issue of the..., Crescent Lake, Dock Brook, Elkins Brook, Fore River, Highland Lake, Jackson Brook, Presumpscot River,...

  4. Proposal of global flood vulnerability scenarios for evaluating future potential flood losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Y.; Tanoue, M.; Watanabe, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding is one of the most hazardous and damaging natural disasters causing serious economic loss and casualties across the world (Jongman et al., 2015). Previous studies showed that the global temperature increase affects regional weather pattern, and several general circulation model (GCM) simulations suggest the increase of flood events in both frequency and magnitude in many parts of the world (Hirabayashi et al., 2013). Effective adaptation to potential flood risks under the warming climate requires an in-depth understanding of both the physical and socioeconomic contributors of the flood risk. To assess the realistic future potential flood risk, future sophisticated vulnerability scenarios associated with the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are necessary. In this study we propose a new future vulnerability scenarios in mortality. Our vulnerability scenarios are constructed based on the modeled flood exposure (population potentially suffered by flooding) and a past from 1980 to 2005. All the flood fatality data were classified according to four income levels (high, mid-high, mid-low and low). Our proposed scenarios have three pathways regarding to SSPs; High efficiency (HE) scenario (SSP1, SSP4 (rich country) and SSP5), Medium efficiency (ME) scenario (SSP2), and Low efficiency (LE) scenario (SSP3 and SSP4 (poor country)). The maximum mortality protection level on each category was detected by applying exponential curve fitting with offset term. Slopes in the HE scenario are assumed to be equal to slopes estimated by regression analysis in each category. The slope in the HE scenario is defined by the mean value of all countries' slope value that is approximately -0.33 mortality decreases per year. The EM-DAT mortality data shows a decreasing trend in time in almost all of the countries. Although mortalities in some countries show an increasing trend, this is because these countries were affected by once-in-hundred-years floods after 1990's. The slope in

  5. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  6. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  7. PAI-OFF: A new proposal for online flood forecasting in flash flood prone catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, G. H.; Cullmann, J.

    2008-10-01

    SummaryThe Process Modelling and Artificial Intelligence for Online Flood Forecasting (PAI-OFF) methodology combines the reliability of physically based, hydrologic/hydraulic modelling with the operational advantages of artificial intelligence. These operational advantages are extremely low computation times and straightforward operation. The basic principle of the methodology is to portray process models by means of ANN. We propose to train ANN flood forecasting models with synthetic data that reflects the possible range of storm events. To this end, establishing PAI-OFF requires first setting up a physically based hydrologic model of the considered catchment and - optionally, if backwater effects have a significant impact on the flow regime - a hydrodynamic flood routing model of the river reach in question. Both models are subsequently used for simulating all meaningful and flood relevant storm scenarios which are obtained from a catchment specific meteorological data analysis. This provides a database of corresponding input/output vectors which is then completed by generally available hydrological and meteorological data for characterizing the catchment state prior to each storm event. This database subsequently serves for training both a polynomial neural network (PoNN) - portraying the rainfall-runoff process - and a multilayer neural network (MLFN), which mirrors the hydrodynamic flood wave propagation in the river. These two ANN models replace the hydrological and hydrodynamic model in the operational mode. After presenting the theory, we apply PAI-OFF - essentially consisting of the coupled "hydrologic" PoNN and "hydrodynamic" MLFN - to the Freiberger Mulde catchment in the Erzgebirge (Ore-mountains) in East Germany (3000 km 2). Both the demonstrated computational efficiency and the prediction reliability underline the potential of the new PAI-OFF methodology for online flood forecasting.

  8. 77 FR 66791 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Wicomico County, MD, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... proposed rulemaking at 75 FR 5909, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1085, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch,...

  9. Effects of flood controls proposed for West Branch Brandywine Creek, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour rainfall, distributed over time according to the U.S. Soil Conservation Service type II rainfall distribution, was used as input to calibrated rainfall-runoff models of three subbasins in the West Branch Brandywine Creek watershed. The effects of four proposed flood controls were evaluated by using these rainfalls to simulate discharge hydrographs with and without the flood controls and comparing the simulated peak discharges. In the Honey Brook subbasin, 2-, 10-, and 100-year flood-discharge hydrographs were generated for station West Branch Brandywine Creek at Coatesville. For the 2- and 10-year floods, proposed flood controls would reduce the peak discharge from 1 to 8 percent. The combination of all three flood controls proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would reduce the 100-year peak discharge 44 percent. In the Modena subbasin, 2-, 10-, and 100-year flood-discharge hydrographs were generated for station West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena. A flood control proposed for Sucker Run, a tributary, would reduce the peak discharge of Sucker Run at State Route 82 by 22, 25, and 27 percent and the peak discharge of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena by 10, 6, and less than 1 percent for the 2-, 10-, and 100-year floods, respectively. For the 2- and 10- year floods, flood control proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would have little effect on the peak discharge of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena. For the 100-year flood, the combination of all three flood controls proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would reduce the peak discharge at Modena 25 percent. When flood control in the Modena subbasin was combined with flood control in the Coatesville subbasin, the 10-percent reduction in the 2-year flood peak of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena was due almost entirely to flood control in the Modena subbasin. For the 10-year flood, flood control in the Modena subbasin would reduce the peak discharge 6 percent, and any single flood

  10. 77 FR 58507 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for the Unincorporated Areas of Hoke County, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and..., FEMA published a proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 3590, proposing flood elevation determinations along one...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood...

  11. 77 FR 55785 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... FR 62061. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations... rule published at 75 FR 62061, in the October 7, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a... Jurisdictions). Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Good Spring Creek, Little...

  12. 76 FR 3596 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for York County, Maine (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... published August 18, 2010, at 75 FR 50955 is withdrawn. ADDRESSES: The docket for this withdrawn rulemaking... proposed rulemaking at 75 FR 50955, proposing flood elevation determinations along multiple flooding... York County, Maine (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION:...

  13. 78 FR 78992 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations for Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana and Incorporated Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On April 4, 2013, FEMA published proposed notices at 78 FR 20340 and 78 FR 20341... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations for Plaquemines...

  14. 77 FR 59880 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Coos County, OR, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1204, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal...: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration... rulemaking at 76 FR 43968, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources...

  15. 77 FR 66790 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Madison County, AL and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1189, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal...: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration... rulemaking at 76 FR 21695, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources...

  16. 77 FR 55787 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Clay County, FL, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1222, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal...: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration... rulemaking at 76 FR 62006, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources...

  17. 77 FR 55787 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for the City of Carson City, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On November 29, 2011, FEMA published a proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 73537, proposing... City of Carson City, NV AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Proposed rule... concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for the City of Carson City, Nevada. DATES:...

  18. 76 FR 70745 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Flood Insurance Program--Mortgage Portfolio Protection Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency Management Agency, as...

  19. 78 FR 78808 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Pierce County, Washington, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ..., and Incorporated Areas. DATES: The proposed rule published December 6, 2007, at 72 FR 68784, corrected April 16, 2012, at 77 FR 22551, is withdrawn effective December 27, 2013. ADDRESSES: You may submit... proposed rulemaking at 72 FR 68784, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more...

  20. 77 FR 61559 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... September 15, 2009 and May 25, 2010, FEMA published a proposed rulemaking at 74 FR 47169 and 75 FR 29296... North Star Borough, Alaska, and Incorporated Areas AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS... its proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Fairbanks North Star...

  1. Floods

    MedlinePlus

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  2. 77 FR 76998 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Nobles County, MN, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... comments, identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1184, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 23528, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more...

  3. 77 FR 65842 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for the Unincorporated Areas of Robeson County, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... submit comments, identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1171, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 3590, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more...

  4. 77 FR 65843 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Montgomery County, Alabama and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1223, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal...: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration... proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 70386, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more...

  5. 77 FR 66791 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Yakima County, WA, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1233, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal...: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration... proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 73537, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more...

  6. 77 FR 58507 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for the Unincorporated Areas of Highlands County, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... comments, identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1204, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 43968, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more...

  7. 77 FR 55787 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Hampden County, MA, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... comments, identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1066, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... proposed rulemaking at 74 FR 46047, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more...

  8. 77 FR 21516 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... those tables, to be used in lieu of the information published at 72 FR 68769 and 73 FR 26060. The table... contents in those buildings. Corrections In the proposed rule published at 72 FR 68769, in the December 6... rule published at 73 FR 26060, in the May 8, 2008, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published...

  9. Towards flash flood disaster prevention: the SciNetNat Haz proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinos, Papatheodorou; Elena, Tzanou; Carmen, Maftei; Ozgur, Kirca; Hafzullah, Aksoy

    2015-04-01

    Floods occur with a continuously increasing frequency due to climatic changes and cause serious damage in the wider Black Sea area, endangering human life and property. As societies continuously expand, these phenomena are expected to play an increasingly important role, blocking sustainable development unless properly tackled. Flash flood prevention seems at this point, to be the target of effectively mitigating the potential threat. Since in many cases, there is a cross-border character of the problem, collaborative efforts have to be made involving cooperation between countries. To this end, a variety of problems exist, including the "information gap" related to the unavailability of data and the multitude of methodologies used to assess flood hazard; a fact that renders comparison of hazard assessment results and cross border cooperation ineffective. An effort made within the context of the SciNetNatHaz project, suggests a two step approach to produce reliable the results which can lead to decision making regarding designing preventive measures. The first step aims at defining the flood prone areas on a regional scale, using geomorphometric models and readily available topographic data; thus overcoming the problem of data availability for any region of interest. The second step follows a vulnerability and risk assessment of the flood prone areas of interest and focuses on the calculation of flood parameters on a local scale using hydraulic models. Implementation of the full process is based on Open Source software tools so that it can be implemented with minimal costs by anyone interested. Implementation of the proposed procedure in three different cases in Greece and in Romania shows that it can provide accurate and reliable results to support decision making regarding the design of preventive measures. Keywords: Flash floods, hazard assessment, flood disaster prevention, HEC-RAS, SAGA GIS . Acknowledgements: This work is partially funded by the EU through the

  10. Model Study on Potential Contributions of the Proposed Huangpu Gate to Flood Control in Taihu Lake Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Zhang, H.; Ye, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Taihu Lake basin, one of the most developed and dynamic regions, is located in the hinterland of the Yangtze River Delta, Eastern China. The largest flood in history is the 1999 flood event with a return period of 1 in 200 years, which is above the current capacity of flooding defense in the basin with a return period of 1 in 50 years. Due to its flat saucer-like terrain, the capacity of the flood control system is dependent on the flood defense infrastructure and the peripheral tidal conditions. The Huangpu River, connecting the Taihu Lake and the Yangtze River, is one of the major drains, which is strongly influenced by high tide conditions in the coastal waters of the Yangtze River. Hence, constructing an estuary gate is considered one of the effective solutions to the flooding problem in the basin. This paper aims to quantitatively analyze the potential contributions of the proposed Huangpu gate to flood control capacity of the basin under various flooding scenarios. It is concluded that the Huangpu gate is an effective mean to evacuate the floodwaters, by reducing peak levels in the upper part of the tide-affected river. It's beneficiaries include the Taihu Lake, the related surrounding areas along the Taipu Canal and the Huangpu River basin. Keywords: Flood control, Estuary gate, Taihu Lake Basin, Scenario analysis, Tide intrusion

  11. Study and proposals related to extensive flooding in the Siret River area during the summer of 2008 in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanescu, Victor; Stefan, Sabina; Irimescu, Anisoara

    2010-05-01

    Extensive flooding due to overflowing of the Siret River and associated runoff in smaller rivers in northeastern Romania at the end of July 2008 are discussed, taking into account the meteorological and hydrological contexts. The flooding events in Romania claimed human deaths and population displacement, large-scale destruction of housing and infrastructure. Although the Siret river is quite shallow, and several dams and reservoirs restrict and control its flow, the area along the river remains prone to periodic flooding, mainly in spring and summer. Several observations are made on the viability of settlements close to Siret riverbed in Romania, related to the repeatability of situations such as that during the summer of 2008. Generally, the relative shallowness of the river Siret may cause flash floods, when its level increases rapidly due to abundant precipitation. As such, the horizontal extent of the flooding due to runoff is a factor seemingly more important than the short-lived increases in depth, combined with the speed of the flow. As a direct result of the flooding, crops and buildings were damaged. The probability that similar meteorological contexts can cause flooding with the extent of that in 2008 will be discussed. Also, some possible means to improve the reaction of authorities and delivery of relief by them to the affected population will be proposed. Regarding the meteorological context, a presentation of the cyclonic system that has brought heavy and/or continuous rain in northern and northeastern Romania will be made. As proposal for improving the delivery of resources toward the affected area and population, a software system designed to shorten the process of conveying relevant information to decisional factors, and to increase the speed of information between interesed parties will be discussed. The possible outcome of this specific case study will be the improvement of the decisional flux required in times of natural disasters, flooding

  12. Flood Assessment at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and the Proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeltzer, J. S.; Millier, J. J.; Gustafson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    A flood assessment at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) and the proposed Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed to determine the 100-year flood hazard at these facilities. The study was conducted to determine whether the RWMS and HWSU are located within a 100-year flood hazard as defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and to provide discharges for the design of flood protection.

  13. 77 FR 23270 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, National Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ...; Comment Request, National Flood Insurance Program Call Center and Agent Referral Enrollment Form AGENCY... them in obtaining such coverage. Collection of Information Title: National Flood Insurance Program Call Center and Agent Referral Enrollment Form. Type of Information Collection: Revision of a...

  14. 76 FR 64361 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... nature of their claim appeal, names and titles of persons contacted, dates of contact, contact... revision of the National Flood Insurance Claims Appeals Process. The appeal process establishes a formal mechanism to allow policyholders to appeal the decisions of any insurance agent, adjuster, insurance...

  15. Assessment of Potential Flood Events and Impacts at INL's Proposed Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Sites

    SciTech Connect

    A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter

    2010-09-01

    Rates, depths, erosion potential, increased subsurface transport rates, and annual exceedance probability for potential flooding scenarios have been evaluated for the on-site alternatives of Idaho National Laboratory’s proposed remote handled low-level waste disposal facility. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of flood impacts are required to meet the Department of Energy’s Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE-O 435.1), its natural phenomena hazards assessment criteria (DOE-STD-1023-95), and the Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1) guidance in addition to being required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental assessment (EA). Potential sources of water evaluated include those arising from (1) local precipitation events, (2) precipitation events occurring off of the INL (off-site precipitation), and (3) increased flows in the Big Lost River in the event of a Mackay Dam failure. On-site precipitation events include potential snow-melt and rainfall. Extreme rainfall events were evaluated for the potential to create local erosion, particularly of the barrier placed over the disposal facility. Off-site precipitation carried onto the INL by the Big Lost River channel was evaluated for overland migration of water away from the river channel. Off-site precipitation sources evaluated were those occurring in the drainage basin above Mackay Reservoir. In the worst-case scenarios, precipitation occurring above Mackay Dam could exceed the dam’s capacity, leading to overtopping, and eventually complete dam failure. Mackay Dam could also fail during a seismic event or as a result of mechanical piping. Some of the water released during dam failure, and contributing precipitation, has the potential of being carried onto the INL in the Big Lost River channel. Resulting overland flows from these flood sources were evaluated for

  16. Hydrogeologic maps of proposed flood detention area, Green Swamp area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.; Grubb, Hayes F.

    1978-01-01

    Information about the hydrogeology of that part of the Green Swamp area which has been designated by Southwest Florida Water Management District as the Flood Detention Area is given on seven maps. The maps show (1) core-hole numbers, (2) sand thickness, (3) clay thickness, (4) clay vertical hydraulic conductivity, (5) clay leakance, (6) depth to Floridan aquifer, and (7) altitude of top of Floridan aquifer. The data were obtained from 85 core holes drilled in 1977 and from 24 core hole drilled previously. The 127 square-mile study area is part of the headwaters of the Withlacooche River and the Little Wthlacoochee River. The data will be useful in future water-resources planning and in a concurrent interpretive study of the Green Swamp area. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. 76 FR 3595 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Cumberland County, ME (All Jurisdictions)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 9, 2010, FEMA published a proposed rulemaking at 75 FR 47751, proposing... Cumberland County, ME (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of..., Maine (All Jurisdictions). DATES: Effective Date: The notice of proposed rulemaking is withdrawn...

  18. 77 FR 59880 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for the City of McCleary, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...- 1221, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal Emergency Management... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 5, 2011, FEMA published a proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 61649,...

  19. Floods and Flash Flooding

    MedlinePlus

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  20. 78 FR 79362 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Nicollet County, Minnesota, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Incorporated Areas. DATES: The proposed rule published October 6, 2011, at 76 FR 62006, is withdrawn as of... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal....Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering...

  1. 78 FR 14737 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Sussex County, Delaware, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Incorporated Areas. DATES: The proposed rule published April 6, 2011 (76 FR 19006) is withdrawn as of March 7..., Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Federal Emergency....dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management...

  2. 78 FR 34014 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Bolivar County, Mississippi and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... comments, identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1178, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch... INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... and on August 7, 2012, FEMA published a proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 8965 and 77 FR...

  3. Simulated monthly hydrologic data and estimated flood characteristics for Cherry Creek at a proposed reservoir site near Terry, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Johnson, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    A monthly hydrologic budget for water years 1937- 92 was developed for the proposed Cherry Creek Reservoir (maximum volume about 14,100 acre-feet). Monthly suspended-sediment loads and dissolved- solids concentrations in the reservoir and flood hydrographs and volumes having recurrence intervals of 25-, 50-, and 100-years were estimated. Monthly streamflow and precipitation were estimated using a mixed-station, record-extension procedure. Monthly suspended-sediment and dissolved-solids concentrations in the reservoir were estimated from regression relations between logarithms of concen- tration and streamflow. The simulation showed that flows that Cherry Creek generally were adequate to maintain the reservoir elevation above the minimum operating level for a seepage loss of 0 cubic ft per square. With a seepage loss rate of 3 cubic ft per square, diversions from the Yellowstone River were required for about on third of the months. Cumulative sediment deposition during the 56-year simulation period was about 138 acre-ft from Cherry Creek alone and was about 149 acre-ft when additional water was imported from the Yellowstone River. The concentration of dissolved solids in the reservoir reached a maximum value of about 2,540 mg/L for a seepage loss of 0 cubic ft per square. For a seepage loss of 3 cubic ft per square, water was imported from the Yellowstone River and the maximum concentration of dissolved solids was about 1,200 mg/L. Volumes for flood discharges were estimated from synthetic 24-hour duration storms that were used in a rainfall-runoff model (HEC-1).

  4. Flooding and Flood Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  5. Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir (Pre-Work and Project Proposal), Class I

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Mikael, Sami

    2002-02-05

    This project outlines a proposal to improve the recovery of light oil from waterflooded fluvial dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoir through a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) flood. The site is the Port Neches Field in Orange County, Texas. The field is well explored and well exploited. The project area is 270 acres within the Port Neches Field.

  6. A finite-element model study of the impact of the proposed I-326 crossing on flood stages of the Congaree River near Columbia, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.K.; Bennett, C. S., III

    1981-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite element surface water model was used to study the hydraulic impact of the proposed Interstate Route 326 crossing of the Congaree River near Columbia, SC. The finite element model was assessed as a potential operational tool for analyzing complex highway crossings and other modifications of river flood plains. Infrared aerial photography was used to define regions of homogeneous roughness in the flood plain. Finite element networks approximating flood plain topography were designed using elements of three roughness types. High water marks established during an 8-yr flood that occurred in October 1976 were used to calibrate the model. The maximum flood of record, an approximately 100-yr flood that occurred in August 1908, was modeled in three cases: dikes on the right bank, dikes on the left bank, and dikes on both banks. In each of the three cases, simulations were performed both without and with the proposed highway embankments in place. Detailed information was obtained about backwater effects upstream from the proposed highway embankments, changes in flow distribution resulting from the embankments, and local velocities in the bridge openings. On the basis of results from the model study, the South Carolina Department of Highways and Public Transportation changed the design of several bridge openings. A simulation incorporating the new design for the case with dikes on the left bank indicated that both velocities in the bridge openings and backwater were reduced. A major problem in applying the model was the difficulty in predicting the network detail necessary to avoid local errors caused by roughness discontinuities and large depth gradients. (Lantz-PTT)

  7. Effects of proposed highway embankment modifications on water-surface elevations in the lower Pearl River flood plain near Slidell, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, J.J.; Schuck-Kolben, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    Major flooding in the lower Pearl River basin in recent years has caused extensive damage to homes and highways in the area. In 1980 and 1983, Interstate Highway 10 and U.S. Highway 190 were overtopped. In 1983, the Interstate Highway 10 crossing was seriously damaged by the flood. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, Office of Highways, used a two-dimensional finite-element surface-water flow model to evaluate the effects the proposed embankment modifications at Interstate Highway 10 and U.S. Highway 90 on the water-surface elevations in the lower Pearl River flood plain near Slidell, Louisiana. The proposed modifications that were considered for the 1983 flood are: (1) Removal of all highway embankments, the natural condition, (2) extension of the West Pearl River bridge by 1,000 feet at U.S. Highway 90, (3) construction of a new 250-foot bridge opening in the U.S. Highways 190 and 90, west of the intersection of the highways. The proposed highway bridge modifications also incorporated lowering of ground-surface elevations under the new bridges to sea level. The modification that provided the largest reduction in backwater, about 35 percent, was a new bridge in Interstate Highway 10. The modification of the West Pearl River bridge at U.S. Highway 90 and replacement of the bridge in U.S. Highway 190 provide about a 25% reduction in backwater each. For the other modification conditions that required structural modifications, maximum backwater computed on the west side of the flood plain ranges from 0.0 to 0.8 foot and on the east side from 0.0 to 0.6 foot. Results show that although backwater is greater on the west side of the flood plain than on the east side, upstream of highway embankments, backwater decreases more rapidly in the upstream direction on the west side of the flood plain than on the east side. Analysis of the proposed modifications indicates that backwater would still occur on

  8. 77 FR 71404 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Flood Risk Management Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Management Study. The Buffalo District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) will be the lead agency in... measures to improve flood risk management, navigation, water quality, recreation, and fish and wildlife... Engineers, Buffalo District, CELRB-PM-PB, 1776 Niagara Street, Buffalo, NY 14207-3199. FOR...

  9. A Methodology For Flood Vulnerability Analysis In Complex Flood Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, R.; Martina, M. L. V.; Dottori, F.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, flood risk management is gaining importance in order to mitigate and prevent flood disasters, and consequently the analysis of flood vulnerability is becoming a key research topic. In this paper, we propose a methodology for large-scale analysis of flood vulnerability. The methodology is based on a GIS-based index, which considers local topography, terrain roughness and basic information about the flood scenario to reproduce the diffusive behaviour of floodplain flow. The methodology synthetizes the spatial distribution of index values into maps and curves, used to represent the vulnerability in the area of interest. Its application allows for considering different levels of complexity of flood scenarios, from localized flood defence failures to complex hazard scenarios involving river reaches. The components of the methodology are applied and tested in two floodplain areas in Northern Italy recently affected by floods. The results show that the methodology can provide an original and valuable insight of flood vulnerability variables and processes.

  10. Environmental assessment of a proposed steam flood of the Shallow Oil Zone, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The US Department of Energy proposes to develop a limited enhanced oil recovery project in the Shallow Oil Zone at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) Elk Hills. The project would employ steam forced into the oil-bearing formation through injector wells, and would involve two phases. The initiation of the second phase would be dependent on the economic success of the first phase. The total project would require the drilling of 22 new wells in a 45-acre area supporting seven existing production wells. It would also require construction of various surface facilities including a tank setting (gas-oil separation system), steam generators, and a water treatment plant. Adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed steam flood project would include the effects on vegetation, wildlife and land-use resulting from the total reconfiguration of the topography within the project bondaries. Other adverse impacts include the emission of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and particulates from steam generators, vehicles and associated surface facilities. Minor adverse impacts include localized noise and dust during constuction, and reduction of visual quality. 48 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  12. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  13. Continental Flood Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Continental flood basalts have been receiving considerable scientific attention lately. Recent publications have focused on several particular flood-basalt provinces (Brito-Arctic, Karoo, Parana', Deccan, and Columbia Plateau), and much attention has been given to the proposed connection between flood-basalt volcanism, bolide impacts, and mass extinctions. The editor of Continental Flood Basalts, J. D. Macdougall, conceived the book to assemble in a single volume, from a vast and scattered literature, an overview of each major post-Cambrian flood-basalt province.Continental Flood Basalts has 10 chapters; nine treat individual flood-basalt provinces, and a summary chapter compares and contrasts continental flood-basalts and mid-oceanic ridge basalts. Specifically, the chapters address the Columbia River basalt, the northwest United States including the Columbia River basalt, the Ethiopian Province, the North Atlantic Tertiary Province, the Deccan Traps, the Parana' Basin, the Karoo Province, the Siberian Platform, and Cenozoic basaltic rocks in eastern China. Each chapter is written by one or more individuals with an extensive background in the province.

  14. Pakistan Flooding

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Flooding in Pakistan     View Larger Image In late July 2010, flooding caused by heavy monsoon rains began in several regions of Pakistan, ... river is 23 kilometers (14 miles) wide or more in spots, and flooding in much of the surrounding region, particularly in the Larkana ...

  15. Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir (Pre-Work and Project Proposal - Appendix)

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Mikael, Sami

    2002-02-05

    The main objective of the Port Neches Project was to determine the feasibility and producibility of CO2 miscible flooding techniques enhanced with horizontal drilling applied to a Fluvial Dominated Deltaic reservoir. The second was to disseminate the knowledge gained through established Technology Transfer mechanisms to support DOE's programmatic objectives of increasing domestic oil production and reducing abandonment of oil fields.

  16. A rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment: considering multiple flood sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Tatano, H.

    2015-08-01

    Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals with each flood source independently, which leads to an underestimation of flood risk in the floodplain. Even in floodplains that have no risk from coastal flooding, flooding from river channels and inundation caused by insufficient drainage capacity should be considered simultaneously. For integrated flood risk management, it is necessary to establish a methodology to estimate flood risk distribution across a floodplain. In this paper, a rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment, which considers the joint effects of multiple flood sources, is proposed. The concept of critical rainfall duration determined by the concentration time of flooding is introduced to connect response characteristics of different flood sources with rainfall. A copula method is then adopted to capture the correlation of rainfall amount with different critical rainfall durations. Rainfall events are designed taking advantage of the copula structure of correlation and marginal distribution of rainfall amounts within different critical rainfall durations. A case study in the Otsu River Basin, Osaka prefecture, Japan was conducted to demonstrate this methodology.

  17. Polymer flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Littmann, W.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of polymer flooding, an enhanced oil recovery method using water soluble polymers to increase the viscosity of flood water, for the displacement of crude oil from porous reservoir rocks. Although this method is becoming increasingly important, there is very little literature available for the engineer wishing to embark on such a project. In the past, polymer flooding was mainly the subject of research. The results of this research are spread over a vast number of single publications, making it difficult for someone who has not kept up-to-date with developments during the last 10-15 years to judge the suitability of polymer flooding to a particular field case. This book tries to fill that gap. An indispensable book for reservoir engineers, production engineers and lab. technicians within the petroleum industry.

  18. Evaluating flood potential with GRACE in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodtsova, Tatiana; Molodtsov, Sergey; Kirilenko, Andrei; Zhang, Xiaodong; VanLooy, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Reager and Famiglietti (2009) proposed an index, Reager's Flood Potential Index (RFPI), for early large-scale flood risk monitoring using the Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly (TWSA) product derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). We evaluated the efficacy of the RFPI for flood risk assessment over the continental USA using multi-year flood observation data from 2003 to 2012 by the US Geological Survey and Dartmouth Flood Observatory. In general, we found a good agreement between the RFPI flood risks and the observed floods on regional and even local scales. RFPI demonstrated skill in predicting the large-area, long-duration floods, especially during the summer season.

  19. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  20. Lateral Flooding Associated to Wave Flood Generation on River Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Núñez, C.; Parrot, J.-F.

    2016-06-01

    This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the lower basin of Coatzacoalcos river, Veracruz (Mexico) defining the successive areas where lateral flooding occurs on its downstream movement.

  1. Estimating the Upper Tail of Flood Frequency Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James A.

    1987-08-01

    Procedures for estimating recurrence intervals of extreme floods are developed. Estimation procedures proposed in this paper differ from standard procedures in that only the largest 10-20% of flood peaks are explicitly used to estimate flood quantiles. Quantile estimation procedures are developed for both annual peak and seasonal flood frequency distributions. The underlying model of flood peaks is a marked point process ?, where ? represents time of occurrence of the jth flood during year i and the mark ? represents magnitude of the flood peak. Results from extreme value theory are used to parameterize the upper tail of flood peak distributions. Quantile estimation procedures are applied to the 92-year record of flood peaks from the Potomac River. Results suggest that Potomac flood peaks are bounded above. The estimated upper bound is only 20% larger than the flood of record.

  2. Characterization of remarkable floods in France, a transdisciplinary approach applied on generalized floods of January 1910

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudou, Martin; Lang, Michel; Vinet, Freddy; Coeur, Denis

    2014-05-01

    The 2007 Flood Directive promotes the integration and valorization of historical and significant floods in flood risk management (Flood Directive Text, chapter II, and article 4). Taking into account extreme past floods analysis seems necessary in the mitigation process of vulnerability face to flooding risk. In France, this aspect of the Directive was carried out through the elaboration of Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment (PFRA) and the establishment of a 2000 floods list. From this first list, a sample of 176 floods, considered as remarkable has been selected. These floods were compiled in discussion with local authorities in charge of flood management (Lang et al., 2012) and have to be integrated in priority in local risk management policies. However, a consideration emerges about this classification: how a remarkable flood can be defined? According which criteria can it be considered as remarkable? To answer these questions, a methodology has been established by building an evaluation grid of remarkable floods in France. The primary objective of this grid is to analyze the remarkable flood's characteristics (hydrological and meteorological characteristics, sociological- political and economic impacts), and secondly to propose a classification of significant floods selected in the 2011 PFRA. To elaborate this evaluation grid, several issues had to be taken into account. First, the objective is to allow the comparison of events from various periods. These temporal disparities include the integration of various kinds of data and point out the importance of historical hydrology. It is possible to evaluate accurately the characteristics of recent floods by interpreting quantitative data (for example hydrological records. However, for floods that occurred before the 1960's it is necessary resorting to qualitative information such as written sources is necessary (Coeur, Lang, 2008). In a second part the evaluation grid requires equitable criteria in order not to

  3. Flood detection/monitoring using adjustable histogram equalization technique.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Fakhera; Riaz, Muhammad Mohsin; Ghafoor, Abdul; Arif, Fahim

    2014-01-01

    Flood monitoring technique using adjustable histogram equalization is proposed. The technique overcomes the limitations (overenhancement, artifacts, and unnatural look) of existing technique by adjusting the contrast of images. The proposed technique takes pre- and postimages and applies different processing steps for generating flood map without user interaction. The resultant flood maps can be used for flood monitoring and detection. Simulation results show that the proposed technique provides better output quality compared to the state of the art existing technique. PMID:24558332

  4. Flood Detection/Monitoring Using Adjustable Histogram Equalization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Muhammad Mohsin; Ghafoor, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Flood monitoring technique using adjustable histogram equalization is proposed. The technique overcomes the limitations (overenhancement, artifacts, and unnatural look) of existing technique by adjusting the contrast of images. The proposed technique takes pre- and postimages and applies different processing steps for generating flood map without user interaction. The resultant flood maps can be used for flood monitoring and detection. Simulation results show that the proposed technique provides better output quality compared to the state of the art existing technique. PMID:24558332

  5. Proposed Future Disposition of Certain Cerro Grande Fire Flood and Sediment Retention Structures at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-07

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to analyze the environmental consequences resulting from the future disposition of certain flood retention structures built in the wake of the Cerro Grande Fire within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In May 2000, a prescription burn, started on Federally-administered land to the northwest of LANL, blew out of control and was designated as a wildfire. This wildfire, which became known as the Cerro Grande Fire, burned approximately 7,650 acres (3,061 hectares) within the boundaries of LANL before it was extinguished. During the fire a number of emergency actions were undertaken by the Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to suppress and extinguish the fire within LANL; immediately thereafter, NNSA undertook additional emergency actions to address the post-fire conditions. Due to hydrophobic soils (non-permeable soil areas created as a result of very high temperatures often associated with wild fires) and the loss of vegetation from steep canyon sides caused by the fire, surface runoff and soil erosion on hillsides above LANL were greatly increased over prefire levels. The danger to LANL facilities and structures and homes located down-canyon from the burned area was magnified.

  6. The Global Flood Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage

  7. Visual Sensing for Urban Flood Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing climatic extremes, the frequency and severity of urban flood events have intensified worldwide. In this study, image-based automated monitoring of flood formation and analyses of water level fluctuation were proposed as value-added intelligent sensing applications to turn a passive monitoring camera into a visual sensor. Combined with the proposed visual sensing method, traditional hydrological monitoring cameras have the ability to sense and analyze the local situation of flood events. This can solve the current problem that image-based flood monitoring heavily relies on continuous manned monitoring. Conventional sensing networks can only offer one-dimensional physical parameters measured by gauge sensors, whereas visual sensors can acquire dynamic image information of monitored sites and provide disaster prevention agencies with actual field information for decision-making to relieve flood hazards. The visual sensing method established in this study provides spatiotemporal information that can be used for automated remote analysis for monitoring urban floods. This paper focuses on the determination of flood formation based on image-processing techniques. The experimental results suggest that the visual sensing approach may be a reliable way for determining the water fluctuation and measuring its elevation and flood intrusion with respect to real-world coordinates. The performance of the proposed method has been confirmed; it has the capability to monitor and analyze the flood status, and therefore, it can serve as an active flood warning system. PMID:26287201

  8. Visual Sensing for Urban Flood Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing climatic extremes, the frequency and severity of urban flood events have intensified worldwide. In this study, image-based automated monitoring of flood formation and analyses of water level fluctuation were proposed as value-added intelligent sensing applications to turn a passive monitoring camera into a visual sensor. Combined with the proposed visual sensing method, traditional hydrological monitoring cameras have the ability to sense and analyze the local situation of flood events. This can solve the current problem that image-based flood monitoring heavily relies on continuous manned monitoring. Conventional sensing networks can only offer one-dimensional physical parameters measured by gauge sensors, whereas visual sensors can acquire dynamic image information of monitored sites and provide disaster prevention agencies with actual field information for decision-making to relieve flood hazards. The visual sensing method established in this study provides spatiotemporal information that can be used for automated remote analysis for monitoring urban floods. This paper focuses on the determination of flood formation based on image-processing techniques. The experimental results suggest that the visual sensing approach may be a reliable way for determining the water fluctuation and measuring its elevation and flood intrusion with respect to real-world coordinates. The performance of the proposed method has been confirmed; it has the capability to monitor and analyze the flood status, and therefore, it can serve as an active flood warning system. PMID:26287201

  9. Tsunami flooding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric; Jones, Henry; McBride, Mark; Fedors, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Panel 5 focused on tsunami flooding with an emphasis on Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) as derived from its counterpart, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) that determines seismic ground-motion hazards. The Panel reviewed current practices in PTHA and determined the viability of extending the analysis to extreme design probabilities (i.e., 10-4 to 10-6). In addition to earthquake sources for tsunamis, PTHA for extreme events necessitates the inclusion of tsunamis generated by submarine landslides, and treatment of the large attendant uncertainty in source characterization and recurrence rates. Tsunamis can be caused by local and distant earthquakes, landslides, volcanism, and asteroid/meteorite impacts. Coastal flooding caused by storm surges and seiches is covered in Panel 7. Tsunamis directly tied to earthquakes, the similarities with (and path forward offered by) the PSHA approach for PTHA, and especially submarine landslide tsunamis were a particular focus of Panel 5.

  10. Analysis of water surface and flow distribution for the design flood at a proposed highway crossing of the Sabine River near Tatum, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, J.J.; Myers, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The simulations of the proposed and alternate designs indicate a lateral component of the water-surface slope at the embankment. Redistribution of flow across the floodplain also is indicated in both simulations. Some of the differences in the response between the two designs are affected by geometric features of the floodplain other than the embankment-opening geometry.

  11. Analysing uncertainties associated with flood hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhold, Clemens; Stanzel, Philipp; Nachtnebel, Hans-Peter

    2010-05-01

    Risk zonation maps are mostly derived from design floods which propagate through the study area. The respective delineation of inundated flood plains is a fundamental input for the flood risk assessment of exposed objects. It is implicitly assumed that the river morphology will not vary, even though it is obvious that the river bed elevation can quickly and drastically change during flood events. The objectives of this study were (1) to integrate river bed dynamics into flood risk assessment and (2) to quantify uncertainties associated to flood hazard modelling by means of (i) hydrology (input hydrographs) (ii) sediment transport (torrential input, river bed elevation) (iii) hydrodynamics (water surface levels) The proposed concept was applied to the River Ill in the Western Austrian Alps. In total, 138 flood and associated sediment transport scenarios were considered, simulated and illustrated for the main river stem. The calculated morphological changes of the river bed during peak flow provided a basis to estimate the variability of possible water surface levels and inundated areas, necessary for flood hazard assessment. The applied multi-scenario approach was compared to the normatively defined design flood event to account for the uncertainty of flood risk management decisions based on a few scenarios. Due to the incorporation of river morphological changes and variations in rainfall characteristics into flood hazard assessment, for 12 % of considered cross sections inundations were calculated where safety was expected.

  12. Cyber surveillance for flood disasters.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective. PMID:25621609

  13. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective. PMID:25621609

  14. From flood management systems to flood resilient systems: integration of flood resilient technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salagnac, J.-L.; Diez, J.; Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    concerns, water-resistant materials, vulnerability assessment ? Flood resilient system (FReS) concept has been proposed as a new framework to address flood situations. Such systems intend to better approach such situations from a holistic point of view. FReS encompass ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. FReS design and implementation conditions have been addressed by the FP7 SMARTeST (Smart Resilience Technology, Systems and Tools) project. The focus of this Project on the use of available and innovative communication, forecasting and flood protection technologies leads to an original contribution which highlights both the scope and the limits of this technology driven approach. These reflexions contribute to the elaboration of guidelines for the design of FReS.

  15. Urban flood risk assessment using sewer flooding databases.

    PubMed

    Caradot, Nicolas; Granger, Damien; Chapgier, Jean; Cherqui, Frédéric; Chocat, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a global challenge for the 21st century. One key aspect remains protection against urban flooding. The main objective is to ensure or maintain an adequate level of service for all inhabitants. However, level of service is still difficult to assess and the high-risk locations difficult to identify. In this article, we propose a methodology, which (i) allows water managers to measure the service provided by the urban drainage system with regard to protection against urban flooding; and (ii) helps stakeholders to determine effective strategies for improving the service provided. One key aspect of this work is to use a database of sewer flood event records to assess flood risk. Our methodology helps urban water managers to assess the risk of sewer flooding; this approach does not seek to predict flooding but rather to inform decision makers on the current level of risk and on actions which need to be taken to reduce the risk. This work is based on a comprehensive definition of risk, including territorial vulnerability and perceptions of urban water stakeholders. This paper presents the results and the methodological contributions from implementing the methodology on two case studies: the cities of Lyon and Mulhouse. PMID:22097068

  16. Floods, flood control, and bottomland vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2000-01-01

    Bottomland plant communities are typically dominated by the effects of floods. Floods create the surfaces on which plants become established, transport seeds and nutrients, and remove establish plants. Floods provide a moisture subsidy that allows development of bottomland forests in arid regions and produce anoxic soils, which can control bottomland plant distribution in humid regions. Repeated flooding produces a mosaic of patches of different age, sediment texture, and inundation duration; this mosaic fosters high species richness.

  17. Building A Database Of Flood Extension Maps Using Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roque, D.; Afonso, N.; Fonseca, A. M.; Heleno, S.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic flood models can be used to identify the regions prone to floods. In order to achieve reliable information, the models must be calibrated using data from past floods. In this study, a set of optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are used to obtain flood extension maps in the lower River Tagus, Portugal, from 1992 to 2012. An object-based approach and thresholding operations are used to extract the flood boundaries. While for optical data two thresholding operations are enough, for SAR images, successive thresholding procedures are applied over different data types in order to identify flooded regions with distinct characteristics (smooth water, disturbed water and emerged elements). The proposed method allowed the extraction of flood boundaries for 25 flood dates, with an 88% of correctly detected flood area for both the optical and the SAR data.

  18. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant...

  19. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant...

  20. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant...

  1. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant...

  2. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant...

  3. Flooding and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  4. Inland Flood Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen E.

    2000-07-01

    A comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of issues related to inland flood hazards, this important work addresses physical controls on flooding, flood processes and effects, and responses to flooding, from the perspectives of human, aquatic, and riparian communities. The contributors, recognized experts in their fields, draw on examples and case studies of inland flood hazards from around the world. The volume is unique in that it addresses how the nonoccurrence of floods, in association with flow regulation and other human manipulation of river systems, may create hazards for aquatic and riparian communities. This book will be a valuable resource for all professionals concerned with inland flood hazards.

  5. Flood risk mapping at European scale.

    PubMed

    Barredo, J I; de Roo, A; Lavalle, C

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate a framework for flood risk mapping at pan-European scale produced by the Weather-Driven Natural Hazards (WDNH) action of the EC-JRC-IES. Early results are presented in the form of flood risk index maps. We assess several flood risk factors that contribute to the occurrence of flood disasters. Among the causal factors of a flood disaster one is triggering a natural event in the form of extreme precipitation and consequently extreme river discharge and extreme flood water levels. The threatening natural event represents the hazard component in our assessment. Furthermore exposure and vulnerability are anthropogenic factors that contribute also to flood risk. In the proposed approach, flood risk is considered on the light of exposure, vulnerability and hazard. We use a methodology with a marked territorial approach for the assessment of the flood risk. Hence, based on mathematical calculations, risk is the product of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Improvements on datasets availability and spatial scale are foreseen in the next phases of this study. This study is also a contribution to the discussion about the need for communication tools between the natural hazard scientific community and the political and decision making players in this field. PMID:17851200

  6. Characterization of remarkable floods in France, a transdisciplinary approach applied on generalized floods of January 1910

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudou, Martin; Lang, Michel; Vinet, Freddy; Coeur, Denis

    2014-05-01

    The 2007 Flood Directive promotes the integration and valorization of historical and significant floods in flood risk management (Flood Directive Text, chapter II, and article 4). Taking into account extreme past floods analysis seems necessary in the mitigation process of vulnerability face to flooding risk. In France, this aspect of the Directive was carried out through the elaboration of Preliminary Flood Risk Assessment (PFRA) and the establishment of a 2000 floods list. From this first list, a sample of 176 floods, considered as remarkable has been selected. These floods were compiled in discussion with local authorities in charge of flood management (Lang et al., 2012) and have to be integrated in priority in local risk management policies. However, a consideration emerges about this classification: how a remarkable flood can be defined? According which criteria can it be considered as remarkable? To answer these questions, a methodology has been established by building an evaluation grid of remarkable floods in France. The primary objective of this grid is to analyze the remarkable flood's characteristics (hydrological and meteorological characteristics, sociological- political and economic impacts), and secondly to propose a classification of significant floods selected in the 2011 PFRA. To elaborate this evaluation grid, several issues had to be taken into account. First, the objective is to allow the comparison of events from various periods. These temporal disparities include the integration of various kinds of data and point out the importance of historical hydrology. It is possible to evaluate accurately the characteristics of recent floods by interpreting quantitative data (for example hydrological records. However, for floods that occurred before the 1960's it is necessary resorting to qualitative information such as written sources is necessary (Coeur, Lang, 2008). In a second part the evaluation grid requires equitable criteria in order not to

  7. 78 FR 36220 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Frederick, MD 20678. St. Mary's County, Maryland, and Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection..., 1005 Merriman Street, Port Neches, TX 77651. ] City of Taylor Landing Taylor Landing Building...

  8. 75 FR 67304 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... +1121 upstream of Dynamite Road. Catfish Creek Approximately 500 feet None +1034 Township of...

  9. 76 FR 19007 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    .... Stearns County, Minnesota, and Incorporated Areas Clearwater River Approximately 60 feet None +1010.... Williamsburg County. Approximately 745 feet None +52 upstream of Mulberry Road. Murray Swamp At the Johnsons....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p....

  10. 75 FR 59181 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... 56303. Barrett Pond At the confluence with +356 +361 Town of Philipstown. Clove Creek. Approximately 2,741 None +378 feet upstream of Fishkill Road. ] Clove Creek Approximately 50 feet +258 +259 Town...

  11. 75 FR 61377 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376.... downstream of South 10th Street. Approximately 1,500 None +1233 feet upstream of Pi Hack Street. *...

  12. 76 FR 39800 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... railroad. Fishing Creek Approximately 500 feet +50 +49 Town of Leggett, upstream of the Maple....9 mile None +63 upstream of North Carolina Highway 122. Maple Swamp At the Fishing Creek +50...

  13. 77 FR 67325 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 76 FR 70397. The... rule published at 76 FR 70397, in the November 14, 2011, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published... inspection at Village Hall, 103 North Maple Street, North Freedom, WI 53951. Village of Rock Springs Maps...

  14. 75 FR 31347 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ...; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables published under the... upstream of Forest None +45 Boulevard. Miller Creek At the confluence with None +6 City of Jacksonville... None +8 City of Jacksonville. feet upstream of Argyle Forest Boulevard. Just downstream of I- None...

  15. 76 FR 53082 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are a part of the floodplain... +691 City of Berlin, Town of downstream of Meadow Dummer, Town of Errol, Road. Town of Gorham, Town...

  16. 77 FR 67016 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... Department of County. Planning and Zoning, 100 Jefferson County Parkway, Suite 3, Golden, CO 80401. Franklin.../water/6644.htm Town of Brookville Franklin County Government Center, Area Planning Office, 1010 Franklin Avenue, Brookville, IN 47012. Town of Cedar Grove Franklin County Government Center, Area Planning...

  17. 78 FR 36213 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Street Southeast, Rochester, MN 55904. Upper Rock Watershed Columbia County, Wisconsin, and Incorporated...V/ColumbiaRockRiverWI RegionalWorkspaces/RegionV/ColumbiaRockRiverWI City of Columbus City Hall, 105... Street, Doylestown, WI 53928. Village of Fall River Village Hall, 641 South Main Street, Fall River,...

  18. 75 FR 78647 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... 223. Approximately 850 feet None +753 downstream of U.S. Route 223. Wolf Creek Approximately 1,050... of Wolf Creek Highway. Wolf Creek Approximately 1,050 None +762 Charter Township of feet upstream...

  19. 75 FR 78654 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376.... upstream of the confluence with Wolf Camp Run. Approximately 1.32 None +1215 miles upstream of the confluence with Wolf Camp Run. Little Wills Creek At the confluence with +934 +932 Township of Wills...

  20. 75 FR 68744 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... inspection at 420 Mount Rushmore Road, Custer, SD 57730. Unincorporated Areas of Custer County Maps are available for inspection at 420 Mount Rushmore Road, Custer, SD 57730. ] Forest County, Wisconsin,...

  1. 76 FR 58436 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... miles None 1 Hawaii County. southwest of the intersection of Chain of Craters Road and Hilina Pali...

  2. 75 FR 29296 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... miles +581 +582 upstream of the confluence with Marble Creek. Kentucky River Tributary 2 From the... upstream of the confluence with the Kentucky River. Marble Creek (Backwater effects from From...

  3. 75 FR 62057 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... mile upstream of Grief Road. Newtons Creek I (backwater effects From the confluence None +335... upstream of Grief Road. Ohio River Approximately 1,700 +331 +334 City of Paducah, feet downstream of...

  4. 76 FR 1121 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1 meter... Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea...

  5. 76 FR 56724 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to the... Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea...

  6. 75 FR 78650 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to the... Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea...

  7. 75 FR 31373 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level... Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. Mean Sea Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1 meter. ** BFEs to...

  8. 75 FR 29253 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... 925 6th Street, Del Norte, CO 81132. Washington County, Florida, and Incorporated Areas Alligator... confluence with Holmes Creek. Helms Branch At the confluence with None +78 City of Chipley, Alligator...

  9. 77 FR 18837 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ..., Melbourne, FL 32901. City of Palm Bay City Hall, 120 Malabar Road Southeast, Palm Bay, FL 32907. City of... Hammock Road, Melbourne Village, FL 32904. Town of Palm Shores Town Clerk's Office, 151 Palm Circle, Palm.../ City of Coconut Creek City Hall, 4800 West Copans Road, Coconut Creek, FL 33063. City of Cooper...

  10. 76 FR 59960 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376..., Arizona, and Incorporated Areas Agua Caliente Split Flow Approximately 1,500 +2584 +2583 Unincorporated... +2593 downstream of the Agua Caliente Wash divergence. Agua Caliente Spur Flow Approximately 0.5...

  11. 76 FR 61295 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... County, Texas and Incorporated Areas'', in the first column, in the second entry ``Tributary BF-1... table, in the same column, in the third entry ``Tributary BF-M-1'' should read ``Black Fork Creek Tributary BF-M-1''. 3. On the same page, in the same section, in the same table, in the same column, in...

  12. 76 FR 50952 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... Boone/Cole +562 +563 County boundary. Missouri River Tributary 1 From the Missouri River +562 +563... +530 City of Chamois, boundary. Unincorporated Areas of Osage County. At the Cole County +548...

  13. 75 FR 75941 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376...) Approximately 1,400 +101 +102 Unincorporated Areas of feet downstream of Harris County. Candle Creek...

  14. 76 FR 70397 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376...). upstream of Bert T. County. Combs Mountain Parkway. Approximately 1,670 feet +844 +846 upstream of...

  15. 76 FR 36044 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... County. Approximately 1.0 mile None +606 upstream of Ghost Creek Road. Little River Tributary 1 At...

  16. 75 FR 31377 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... None +847 Unincorporated Areas with Pawpaw Creek. of Fairfield County, Village of Baltimore.... Pawpaw Creek At the confluence None +844 Unincorporated Areas with Walnut Creek. of Fairfield...

  17. 76 FR 61649 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... upstream of Laurel Oaks Circle. Nova Canal North Reach 1 Approximately 775 feet None +7 City of Holly Hill... Avenue. Nova Canal North Reach 2 Approximately 1,660 None +7 City of Daytona Beach, feet downstream...

  18. 76 FR 46705 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376..., Red Oak Avenue to the south, and Royal Trails Road to the west. Multiple Ponding Areas Area bound by... None +47 Unincorporated Areas of Lane to the north, Lake County. Flag Street to the east, Red...

  19. 75 FR 62048 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... Lake Entire shoreline within None +959 City of Apple Valley. Dakota County. Keller Lake Entire shoreline within None +936 City of Apple Valley. Dakota County. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. +...

  20. 76 FR 8984 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... downstream of Juneau. Yandukin Drive. Approximately 0.23 mile 30 31 upstream of Egan Drive. Lemon...

  1. 77 FR 44651 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... satisfies the data requirements outlined in 44 CFR 67.6(b) is considered an appeal. Comments unrelated to..., Montana, and Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection Online at: http://www.bakeraecom.com/index...: http://www.ncfloodmaps.com Town of Indian Trail Administrative Services, 130 Blythe Drive, Indian...

  2. 77 FR 18846 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection Online at: http://www.bakeraecom.com/index.php/region-viii... Inspection Online at: http://www.starr-team.com/starr/RegionalWorkspaces/RegionVII/PottawatomieCountyIowa... Inspection Online at: http://www.rampp-team.com/nm.htm City of Clovis Administrative Office, 321...

  3. 78 FR 36215 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Cloud County, Kansas, and Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection Online at: www.fema.gov.... City of Miltonvale City Hall, 107 Starr Avenue, Miltonvale, KS 67466. Unincorporated Areas of Cloud County... Cloud County Courthouse, 811 Washington Street, Concordia, KS 66901. (Catalog of...

  4. 78 FR 29768 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ..., PA 18848. Borough of Troy Borough Office, 49 Elmira Street, Troy, PA 16947. Borough of Wyalusing... Road, New Albany, PA 18833. Township of Armenia Township of Armenia, 41 Stoney Ledge Lane, Troy, PA.... Township of Towanda Township Office, 44 Chapel Street, Towanda, PA 18848. Township of Troy Township...

  5. 78 FR 58338 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Boulevard, Dora, AL 35062. City of Jasper City Hall, 400 West 19th Street, Jasper, AL 35501. Town of... Department, 1801 3rd Avenue South, Jasper, AL 35502. Navajo County, Arizona, and Incorporated Areas...

  6. 78 FR 20939 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... Huntingburg City Hall, 508 East 4th Street, Huntingburg, IN 47542. City of Jasper City Hall, 610 Main Street, Jasper, IN 47547. Town of Ferdinand Town Hall, 2065 Main Street, Ferdinand, IN 47532. Unincorporated Areas of Dubois County.. Dubois County Courthouse, One Courthouse Square, Jasper, IN 47546. Clay...

  7. 76 FR 46701 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376.......... None +565 Town of Moultonborough, Town of Sandwich. Weed Brook At the Berry Pond None +569 Town of... (Whittier Highway). Weed Brook Diversion At the Weed Brook None +569 Town of Moultonborough. Tributary...

  8. 76 FR 32896 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... the upstream side of +542 +540 Montclair Avenue. Chalk Hill Branch At the upstream side of +517...

  9. 78 FR 8177 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ..., PA 19020. Township of Bridgeton Bridgeton Township Office, 1370 Bridgeton Hill Road, Upper Black Eddy... Lake Warren Road, Upper Black Eddy, PA 18972. Township of Northampton Northampton Township... Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection Online at:...

  10. 75 FR 29264 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... affected elevation Elevation in meters (MSL) Effective Modified Carter County, Kentucky, and Incorporated... River). with the Little Sandy Carter County. River to approximately 0.5 mile upstream of Eagle...

  11. 75 FR 67317 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... the intersection of Powell Road and Mars Road (at Junction 13NK0240). Spring Hill Lakes...

  12. 75 FR 31342 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables.... Sebasticook River Approximately 2,500 None +129 Township of Unity. feet downstream of the boundary between the.... Township of Unity Maps are available for inspection at the Kennebec County Office, 125 State...

  13. 75 FR 29290 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables.... Approximately 640 feet None +935 upstream of Ginger Drive. * National Geodetic Vertical Datum. + North...

  14. 77 FR 22551 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... rule published at 72 FR 68784, in the December 6, 2007, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a...), East Fork Clear Creek, East Fork Clear Creek (west stem), Fennel Creek, Gig Harbor, Lacamas Creek...--Meeker Ditch, Clover Creek, Crescent Creek, Fennel Creek, Lacamas Creek, Mashel River, Morey Creek,...

  15. 75 FR 68738 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... Number 27 Playa Drain..... Just upstream of None +3663 City of El Paso. Vocational Drive. Just...

  16. 75 FR 28511 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... County. approximately 1,175 feet upstream of Opossum Lane. Plum Creek (Backwater effects from From the... 300 feet of Muhlenberg County. downstream of the confluence with Plum Creek Tributary 4. Plum...

  17. 75 FR 32684 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... (U.S. Route 62). Plum Creek Approximately 0.82 mile +946 +947 City of Canal Fulton, downstream...

  18. 77 FR 57066 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 28511. The... rule published at 75 FR 28511, in the May 21, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a... Run (backwater effects from Sandlick Creek), Plum Creek (backwater effects from Green River),...

  19. 78 FR 14578 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... basis of the floodplain management measures that the community is required either to adopt or to show... Preliminary FIRM, and where applicable, the FIS report for each community are available for inspection at both the online location and the respective Community Map Repository address listed in the tables...

  20. 76 FR 8978 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376.... approximate ly 1,375 feet upstream of Lewis Clark Road Puzzle Creek From the +641 +637 Unincorpora...

  1. 76 FR 72661 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... 1.7 miles +1081 +1083 upstream of State Route 106. Salt Lick Creek At the Susquehanna +875...

  2. 78 FR 28891 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    .... City of Ludington City Hall, 400 South Harrison Street, Ludington, MI 49431. Township of Amber Amber Township Hall, 171 South Amber Road, Scottville, MI 49454. Township of Branch Branch Township Hall,...

  3. 77 FR 58562 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Tuscaloosa County, Alabama, and Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection Online at: http://www.adeca... Boulevard, Northport, AL 35476. City of Tuscaloosa City Hall, 2201 University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, AL... Tuscaloosa Tuscaloosa County Public Works County. Department, 2810 35th Street, Tuscaloosa, AL...

  4. 76 FR 21693 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 72 FR 73732. The... rule published at 72 FR 73732, in the December 28, 2007, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published..., Root River, Sorenson Creek, Union Grove Industrial Tributary, Unnamed Tributary No. 18 to Kilbourn...

  5. 76 FR 39063 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... Northwest and Hanover Road Northwest. Kirtland Detention Pond Entire shoreline....... None +5359 City...

  6. 75 FR 31368 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... Kentucky River). with the Kentucky Woodford County. River to approximately 1,220 feet upstream of Gun...

  7. 77 FR 58560 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    .../dnr/water/6497.htm City of Tipton Tipton County Courthouse, 101 East Jefferson Street, Tipton, IN... Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection Online at: http://www.in.gov/dnr/water/6648.htm City of... Courthouse, 200 6th Street, Point Pleasant, WV 25550. Wood County, West Virginia, and Incorporated Areas...

  8. 75 FR 29268 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. ] Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... Route 100/East boundary: Approximately 1,000 feet west of Southwest 75th Avenue/South boundary: Southwest 163rd Street/West boundary: Approximately 1,500 feet east of Southwest 101st Avenue. *...

  9. 75 FR 60013 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... None +584 Newton Branch. East Fork to Soap Creek At the confluence with None +594 City of Midlothian, Soap Creek. Unincorporated Areas of Ellis County. Just upstream of None +616 Weatherford Road....

  10. 75 FR 9561 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables.... Approximately 0.6 mile +523 +524 upstream of Ortho Road. Soap Creek Just upstream of the +503 +500 City...

  11. 77 FR 31372 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... inspection at both the online location and the respective Community Map Repository address listed in the... online through the FEMA Map Service Center at www.msc.fema.gov for comparison. You may submit comments...., Washington, DC 20472, (202) 646-4064, or (email) Luis.Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov ; or visit the FEMA...

  12. 78 FR 43908 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Ipswich Town Hall, 25 Green Street, Ipswich, MA 01938. Town of Manchester-By-The-Sea Town Hall, 10 Central Street, Manchester-by-the-Sea, MA 01944. Town of Marblehead Town Hall, 188 Washington Street,...

  13. 78 FR 57646 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Online at: http://www.fema.gov/preliminaryfloodhazarddata preliminaryfloodhazarddata City of Manchester City Hall, 208 East Main Street, Manchester, IA 52057. Unincorporated Areas of Delaware County Delaware County Engineering Office, 2139 Highway 38, Manchester, IA 52057. Calhoun County, Texas, and...

  14. 76 FR 8965 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... Branch At the Little Horse None +200 Unincorporated Areas of Creek confluence. Aiken County. Approximately 1.7 miles None +236 upstream of the Little Horse Creek confluence. Gopher Branch At the...

  15. 78 FR 8179 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    .../water/7359.htm Town of Medaryville Town Hall, 409 East Main Street, Medaryville, IN 47957. Town of... Rice Street East, Wayzata, MN 55391. ] Harris County, Texas, and Incorporated Areas Maps Available for... information shown on the Preliminary FIRM and FIS report that satisfies the data requirements outlined in...

  16. 76 FR 45488 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 73 FR 55469... Rule published at 73 FR 55469 in the September 25, 2008, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published... (backwater effects from Ohio River), Sugar Creek (backwater effects from Ohio River), Tiger Ditch...

  17. 76 FR 43966 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 31342. The... rule published at 75 FR 31342, in the June 3, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a..., Illinois River, Lick Creek, Mackinaw River, Prairie Creek, and School Creek. DATES: Comments are to...

  18. 76 FR 5769 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... feet +1075 +1072 Township of Huston, upstream of Private Township of Woodbury. Drive. Approximately...

  19. 75 FR 6600 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... shoreline....... None +1216 Unincorpo rated Areas of Polk County, Village of Luck. Clam Falls Flowage...

  20. 77 FR 73393 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 5909. The... rule published at 75 FR 5909, in the February 5, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1085, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch,...

  1. 77 FR 73398 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 5909. The... rule published at 75 FR 5909, in the February 5, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published a..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B- 1085, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch,...

  2. 77 FR 21791 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ..., North Haven, CT 06473. Bracken County, Kentucky, and Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection Online at: http://www.bakeraecom.com/index.php/kentucky/bracken/ City of Augusta City Offices, 219 Main... of Bracken County. Bracken County Courthouse, 116 West Miami Street, Brooksville, KY 41004....

  3. 76 FR 19018 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables published under the authority of Sec. 67.... Approximately 75 feet +4933 +4931 downstream of Denrose Court. Business Park South Approximately 140 feet +4933... Pownal. County, New York, boundary. At the Berkshire +566 +567 County, Massachusetts, boundary....

  4. 75 FR 81957 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376.... Bronson South Ditch Just upstream of Lime Rock None +59 Town of Bronson, Road. Unincorporated Areas of... Building, 202 South 13th Street, Suite. 3, Huntingdon, PA 16652. Township of Spruce Creek Maps...

  5. 75 FR 62061 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376.... Approximately 140 feet None +122 upstream of Louisiana Highway 830-4. Staulking Head Creek Approximately 489... Cecil County. Elk Neck Road. Approximately 1,939 None +11 feet upstream of Old Elk Neck Road....

  6. 75 FR 29238 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... 16692. Township of Sandy Maps are available for inspection at 1094 Chestnut Avenue, DuBois, PA...

  7. 44 CFR 67.3 - Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). 67.3 Section 67.3 Emergency Management and... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.3 Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). The Federal...

  8. 44 CFR 67.3 - Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). 67.3 Section 67.3 Emergency Management and... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.3 Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). The Federal...

  9. 44 CFR 67.3 - Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). 67.3 Section 67.3 Emergency Management and... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.3 Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). The Federal...

  10. 44 CFR 67.3 - Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). 67.3 Section 67.3 Emergency Management and... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program APPEALS FROM PROPOSED FLOOD ELEVATION DETERMINATIONS § 67.3 Establishment and maintenance of a flood elevation determination docket (FEDD). The Federal...

  11. Amazon flood wave hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigg, Mark A.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Bates, Paul D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Vega, Maria C.

    2009-07-01

    SummaryA bathymetric survey of 575 km of the central Amazon River and one of its tributaries, the Purus, are combined with gauged data to characterise the Amazon flood wave, and for hydraulic modelling of the main channel for the period June 1995-March 1997 with the LISFLOOD-FP and HEC-RAS hydraulic models. Our investigations show that the Amazon flood wave is subcritical and diffusive in character and, due to shallow bed slopes, backwater conditions control significant reach lengths and are present for low and high water states. Comparison of the different models shows that it is necessary to include at least the diffusion term in any model, and the RMSE error in predicted water elevation at all cross sections introduced by ignoring the acceleration and advection terms is of the order of 0.02-0.03 m. The use of a wide rectangular channel approximation introduces an error of 0.10-0.15 m on the predicted water levels. Reducing the bathymetry to a simple bed slope and with mean cross section only, introduces an error in the order of 0.5 m. These results show that when compared to the mean annual amplitude of the Amazon flood wave of 11-12 m, water levels are relatively insensitive to the bathymetry of the channel model. The implication for remote sensing studies of the central Amazon channel, such as those proposed with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT), is that even relatively crude assumptions regarding the channel bathymetry will be valid in order to derive discharge from water surface slope of the main channel, as long as the mean channel area is approximately correct.

  12. Statistical analysis of the uncertainty related to flood hazard appraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, Vincenza; Freni, Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    The estimation of flood hazard frequency statistics for an urban catchment is of great interest in practice. It provides the evaluation of potential flood risk and related damage and supports decision making for flood risk management. Flood risk is usually defined as function of the probability, that a system deficiency can cause flooding (hazard), and the expected damage, due to the flooding magnitude (damage), taking into account both the exposure and the vulnerability of the goods at risk. The expected flood damage can be evaluated by an a priori estimation of potential damage caused by flooding or by interpolating real damage data. With regard to flood hazard appraisal several procedures propose to identify some hazard indicator (HI) such as flood depth or the combination of flood depth and velocity and to assess the flood hazard corresponding to the analyzed area comparing the HI variables with user-defined threshold values or curves (penalty curves or matrixes). However, flooding data are usually unavailable or piecemeal allowing for carrying out a reliable flood hazard analysis, therefore hazard analysis is often performed by means of mathematical simulations aimed at evaluating water levels and flow velocities over catchment surface. As results a great part of the uncertainties intrinsic to flood risk appraisal can be related to the hazard evaluation due to the uncertainty inherent to modeling results and to the subjectivity of the user defined hazard thresholds applied to link flood depth to a hazard level. In the present work, a statistical methodology was proposed for evaluating and reducing the uncertainties connected with hazard level estimation. The methodology has been applied to a real urban watershed as case study.

  13. FLOOD EVENT MAPPING IMAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    OSEI flood products (FLD) include multichannel color composite imagery and single-channel grayscale imagery of enlarged river areas or increased sediment flow. Typically, these events are displayed by comparison to imagery taken when flooding was not occurring.

  14. Uncertainty in flood risk mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Luisa M. S.; Fonte, Cidália C.; Gomes, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    , which indicates all possible peak flow values and the possibility of their occurrence. To produce the LCM a supervised soft classifier is used to perform the classification of a satellite image and a possibility distribution is assign to the pixels. These extra data provide additional land cover information at the pixel level and allow the assessment of the classification uncertainty, which is then considered in the identification of the parameters uncertainty used to compute peak flow. The proposed approach was applied to produce vulnerability and risk maps that integrate uncertainty in the urban area of Leiria, Portugal. A SPOT - 4 satellite image and DEMs of the region were used and the peak flow was computed using the Soil Conservation Service method. HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS, Matlab and ArcGIS software programs were used. The analysis of the results obtained for the presented case study enables the order of magnitude of uncertainty on the watershed peak flow value and the identification of the areas which are more susceptible to flood risk to be identified.

  15. Flood frequency analyses with annual and partial flood series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezak, N.; Brilly, M.; Sraj, M.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study was (1) to analyse the influence of time scale of the data on the results, (2) to analyse the relations between discharge, volume and time of flood waves of the Sava river at Litija (Slovenia), (3) to perform flood frequency analyses of peak discharges with annual and partial data series and compare the results and (4) to explore the influence of threshold value by POT method. Calculations and analyses were made for the period 1953-2010. Daily scale data sets (considering also local maximum) were used. The flood frequency analyses were based on anual and partial data series. The differences between daily and hourly time scale data sets were explored. Daily and hourly time scale hydrographs were compared and differences were analysed. Differences were adequately small. Daily time series with included maximums were logical choice because of the length of the daily time series and because hourly time series were not continuous due to gauging equipment failures. Important objective of the study was to analyse the relationship between discharge, volume and duration of flood waves. Baseflow was separated from continuous daily discharge measurements on simple and complex hydrographs. Simple graphical method with three points was used. Many different coefficients like base flow index were calculated and different combinations of correlation coefficient of wave components were examined. Annual maximum series were used to study the relationship between wave components. Flood frequency analyses were made with annual maximum series and partial duration series. Log-normal distribution, Pearson distribution type 3, log-Pearson distribution type 3, Gumbel distribution, exponential distribution, GEV distribution and GL distribution were used for annual maximum series. Simple equation of linear transformation was used to determine the design discharge and procedure which is proposed in Flood Estimation Handbook was used with GEV and GL distribution

  16. Flood management: prediction of microbial contamination in large-scale floods in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jonathon; Lai, Ka Man; Davies, Mike; Clifton, David; Ridley, Ian; Biddulph, Phillip

    2011-07-01

    With a changing climate and increased urbanisation, the occurrence and the impact of flooding is expected to increase significantly. Floods can bring pathogens into homes and cause lingering damp and microbial growth in buildings, with the level of growth and persistence dependent on the volume and chemical and biological content of the flood water, the properties of the contaminating microbes, and the surrounding environmental conditions, including the restoration time and methods, the heat and moisture transport properties of the envelope design, and the ability of the construction material to sustain the microbial growth. The public health risk will depend on the interaction of these complex processes and the vulnerability and susceptibility of occupants in the affected areas. After the 2007 floods in the UK, the Pitt review noted that there is lack of relevant scientific evidence and consistency with regard to the management and treatment of flooded homes, which not only put the local population at risk but also caused unnecessary delays in the restoration effort. Understanding the drying behaviour of flooded buildings in the UK building stock under different scenarios, and the ability of microbial contaminants to grow, persist, and produce toxins within these buildings can help inform recovery efforts. To contribute to future flood management, this paper proposes the use of building simulations and biological models to predict the risk of microbial contamination in typical UK buildings. We review the state of the art with regard to biological contamination following flooding, relevant building simulation, simulation-linked microbial modelling, and current practical considerations in flood remediation. Using the city of London as an example, a methodology is proposed that uses GIS as a platform to integrate drying models and microbial risk models with the local building stock and flood models. The integrated tool will help local governments, health authorities

  17. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  18. Effectiveness of water infrastructure for river flood management - Part 1: Flood hazard assessment using hydrological models in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M. A.; Kwak, Y.; Khairul, M. I.; Arifuzzaman, M. B.; Magome, J.; Sawano, H.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-06-01

    This study introduces a flood hazard assessment part of the global flood risk assessment (Part 2) conducted with a distributed hydrological Block-wise TOP (BTOP) model and a GIS-based Flood Inundation Depth (FID) model. In this study, the 20 km grid BTOP model was developed with globally available data on and applied for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river basin. The BTOP model was calibrated with observed river discharges in Bangladesh and was applied for climate change impact assessment to produce flood discharges at each BTOP cell under present and future climates. For Bangladesh, the cumulative flood inundation maps were produced using the FID model with the BTOP simulated flood discharges and allowed us to consider levee effectiveness for reduction of flood inundation. For the climate change impacts, the flood hazard increased both in flood discharge and inundation area for the 50- and 100-year floods. From these preliminary results, the proposed methodology can partly overcome the limitation of the data unavailability and produces flood~maps that can be used for the nationwide flood risk assessment, which is presented in Part 2 of this study.

  19. Flood discharge measurement of mountain rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-C.

    2012-11-01

    An efficient method that accounts for personal safety, accuracy and reliability for measuring flood discharge of mountain rivers is proposed. It is composed of new measurement method, tools, and techniques. Measuring flood discharge from mountain rivers by using conventional method is costly, time-consuming, and dangerous. Thus previous discharge measurements for mountainous areas were typically based on estimated precipitation, which alone cannot generate accurate measurements. This study applies a novel flood discharge measurement system composed of an Acoustic Doppler Profiler and crane system to accurately and quickly measure velocity distributions and water depths. Moreover a novel and efficient method for measuring discharge, which is based on the relationship between mean and maximum velocities and the relationship between cross-sectional area and gauge height is applied to estimate flood discharge. Flood discharge from mountain rivers can be estimated easily and rapidly by measuring maximum velocity in the river crosssection and the gauge height. The measured flood discharges can be utilized to create a reliable stage-discharge relationship for continuous estimations of discharge using records of water stage. The proposed method was applied to the Nanshih River, Taiwan. Results of measured discharges and estimated discharges only slightly differed from each other, demonstrating the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  20. 77 FR 31814 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Insurance Coverage and Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ...The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is withdrawing a previously published Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) concerning National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) insurance premium rates for structures that have suffered multiple flood losses. The proposed rule would have required owners of such structures to pay a higher premium for flood insurance if they declined an offer of......

  1. Flash floods in Catalonia: a recurrent situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llasat, M. C.; Llasat-Botija, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Lindbergh, S.

    2010-09-01

    This work focuses on the analysis and characterization of the flash flood events occurring during summer in Catalonia. To this aim, a database with information about the social impact produced by all flood events recorded in Catalonia between 1982 and 2007 has been built. The social impact was obtained systematically on the basis of news press data and, occasionally, on the basis of insurance data. Flood events have been classified into ordinary, extraordinary and catastrophic floods, following the proposal of Llasat et al.~(2005). However, bearing in mind flash flood effects, some new categories concerning casualties and car damage have also been introduced. The spatial and temporal distribution of these flood events has been analyzed and, in an effort to better estimate the social impact and vulnerability, some indicators have been defined and analyzed for a specific region. These indicators allow an analysis of spacial and temporal trends as well as characterization of the events. Results show a flash-flood increase in summer and early autumn, mainly due to inter-annual and intra-annual changes in population density.

  2. Flash floods in Catalonia: a recurrent situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llasat, M. C.; Lindbergh, S.; Llasat-Botija, M.; Rodríguez, A.; Zaragoza, A.

    2009-09-01

    A database with information about the social impact produced by all the flood events recorded in Catalonia between 1982 and 2007 has been built. Original information comes from the INUNGAMA database (1900-2000) presented by Barnolas and Llasat (2007), the PRESSGAMA database (1982-2007) (Llasat et al., in rev.) and information from different published works (Barriendos et al, 2003; Barriendos and Pomés, 1993). Social impact has been obtained systematically in basis to news press data and, occasionally, in basis to insurance data. Flood events have been classified in ordinary floods, extraordinary floods and catastrophic ones, following the proposal of Llasat et al (2005). However, having in mind the flash floods effects, some new categories concerning casualties and car damages have also been introduced. The spatial and temporal distribution of these flood events has been analysed. Results have been compared with those obtained for the period 1900-2000 (Barnolas and Llasat, 2007) and 1350-2000 (Barrera et al, 2006). In order to better estimate the social impact and vulnerability some indicators have been defined and analyzed for some specific cases and a specific region. Besides the indicators applied in the INUNCAT Plan to obtain a cartography of flood risk in Catalonia, other ones like the number of cars affected or the number of request received by the meteorological service, has been also taken into account. These indicators allow analyzing global and temporal trends as well as characterizing the events. The selected region has been the Maresme, which is a flood prone region with a great density of population and that experiences every year one or more flash floods. The annual number of floods shows a positive trend that cannot be justified by the rainfall trend. Both vulnerability and hazard components have been considered and a discussion about the flood prevention measures is presented. The third part of this work has been centred in the analysis and

  3. Probability plotting position formulas for flood records with historical information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    For purposes of evaluating fitted flood frequency distributions or for purposes of estimating distributions directly from plots of flood peaks versus exceedance probabilities (either by subjective or objective techniques), one needs a probability plotting position formula which can be applied to all of the flood data available: both systematic and historic floods. Some of the formulas in use are simply extensions of existing formulas (such as Hazen and Weibull) used on systematic flood records. New plotting position formulas proposed by Hirsch and Stedinger (1986) and in this paper are based on a recognition that the flood data arises from partially censored sampling of the flood record. The theoretical appropriateness, bias in probability and bias in discharge of the various plotting position formulas are considered. The methods are compared in terms of their effects on flood frequency estimation when an objective curve-fitting method of estimation is employed. Consideration is also given to the correct interpretation of the historical record length and the effect of incorrectly assuming that record length equals the time since the first known historical flood. This assumption is employed in many flood frequency studies and may result in a substantial bias in estimated design flood magnitudes. ?? 1987.

  4. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  5. Alabama district flood plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

  6. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  7. RASOR flood modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Joost; Buckman, Lora; Bachmann, Daniel; Visser, Martijn; Tollenaar, Daniel; Vatvani, Deepak; Kramer, Nienke; Goorden, Neeltje

    2015-04-01

    Decision making in disaster management requires fast access to reliable and relevant information. We believe that online information and services will become increasingly important in disaster management. Within the EU FP7 project RASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment and Spatialisation of Risk) an online platform is being developed for rapid multi-hazard risk analyses to support disaster management anywhere in the world. The platform will provide access to a plethora of GIS data that are relevant to risk assessment. It will also enable the user to run numerical flood models to simulate historical and newly defined flooding scenarios. The results of these models are maps of flood extent, flood depths and flow velocities. The RASOR platform will enable to overlay historical event flood maps with observations and Earth Observation (EO) imagery to fill in gaps and assess the accuracy of the flood models. New flooding scenarios can be defined by the user and simulated to investigate the potential impact of future floods. A series of flood models have been developed within RASOR for selected case study areas around the globe that are subject to very different flood hazards: • The city of Bandung in Indonesia, which is prone to fluvial flooding induced by heavy rainfall. The flood hazard is exacerbated by land subsidence. • The port of Cilacap on the south coast of Java, subject to tsunami hazard from submarine earthquakes in the Sunda trench. • The area south of city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, prone to coastal and/or riverine flooding. • The island of Santorini in Greece, which is subject to tsunamis induced by landslides. Flood models have been developed for each of these case studies using mostly EO data, augmented by local data where necessary. Particular use was made of the new TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) product from the German Aerospace centre (DLR) and EADS Astrium. The presentation will describe the flood models and the

  8. Flood hazard and flood risk assessment using a time series of satellite images: a case study in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Skakun, Sergii; Kussul, Nataliia; Shelestov, Andrii; Kussul, Olga

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the use of time series of satellite imagery to flood hazard mapping and flood risk assessment is presented. Flooded areas are extracted from satellite images for the flood-prone territory, and a maximum flood extent image for each flood event is produced. These maps are further fused to determine relative frequency of inundation (RFI). The study shows that RFI values and relative water depth exhibit the same probabilistic distribution, which is confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The produced RFI map can be used as a flood hazard map, especially in cases when flood modeling is complicated by lack of available data and high uncertainties. The derived RFI map is further used for flood risk assessment. Efficiency of the presented approach is demonstrated for the Katima Mulilo region (Namibia). A time series of Landsat-5/7 satellite images acquired from 1989 to 2012 is processed to derive RFI map using the presented approach. The following direct damage categories are considered in the study for flood risk assessment: dwelling units, roads, health facilities, and schools. The produced flood risk map shows that the risk is distributed uniformly all over the region. The cities and villages with the highest risk are identified. The proposed approach has minimum data requirements, and RFI maps can be generated rapidly to assist rescuers and decisionmakers in case of emergencies. On the other hand, limitations include: strong dependence on the available data sets, and limitations in simulations with extrapolated water depth values. PMID:24372226

  9. An objective method for partitioning the entire flood season into multiple sub-seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lu; Singh, Vijay P.; Guo, Shenglian; Zhou, Jianzhong; Zhang, Junhong; Liu, Pan

    2015-09-01

    Information on flood seasonality is required in many practical applications, such as seasonal frequency analysis and reservoir operation. Several statistical methods for identifying flood seasonality have been widely used, such as directional method (DS) and relative frequency (RF) method. However, using these methods, flood seasons are identified subjectively by visually assessing the temporal distribution of flood occurrences. In this study, a new method is proposed to identify flood seasonality and partition the entire flood season into multiple sub-seasons objectively. A statistical experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Results demonstrated that the proposed method performed satisfactorily. Then the proposed approach was applied to the Geheyan and Baishan Reservoirs, China, having different flood regimes. It is shown that the proposed method performs extremely well for the observed data, and is more objective than the traditional methods.

  10. A global flash flood forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baugh, Calum; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Hewson, Tim; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-04-01

    The sudden and devastating nature of flash flood events means it is imperative to provide early warnings such as those derived from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) forecasts. Currently such systems exist on basin, national and continental scales in Europe, North America and Australia but rely on high resolution NWP forecasts or rainfall-radar nowcasting, neither of which have global coverage. To produce global flash flood forecasts this work investigates the possibility of using forecasts from a global NWP system. In particular we: (i) discuss how global NWP can be used for flash flood forecasting and discuss strengths and weaknesses; (ii) demonstrate how a robust evaluation can be performed given the rarity of the event; (iii) highlight the challenges and opportunities in communicating flash flood uncertainty to decision makers; and (iv) explore future developments which would significantly improve global flash flood forecasting. The proposed forecast system uses ensemble surface runoff forecasts from the ECMWF H-TESSEL land surface scheme. A flash flood index is generated using the ERIC (Enhanced Runoff Index based on Climatology) methodology [Raynaud et al., 2014]. This global methodology is applied to a series of flash floods across southern Europe. Results from the system are compared against warnings produced using the higher resolution COSMO-LEPS limited area model. The global system is evaluated by comparing forecasted warning locations against a flash flood database of media reports created in partnership with floodlist.com. To deal with the lack of objectivity in media reports we carefully assess the suitability of different skill scores and apply spatial uncertainty thresholds to the observations. To communicate the uncertainties of the flash flood system output we experiment with a dynamic region-growing algorithm. This automatically clusters regions of similar return period exceedence probabilities, thus presenting the at-risk areas at a spatial

  11. Flash flood warnings using the ensemble precipitation forecasting technique: A case study on forecasting floods in Taiwan caused by typhoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tsun-Hua; Yang, Sheng-Chi; Ho, Jui-Yi; Lin, Gwo-Fong; Hwang, Gong-Do; Lee, Cheng-Shang

    2015-01-01

    A flash flood is an event that develops rapidly. Given early warnings with sufficient lead time, flood forecasting can help people prepare disaster prevention measures. To provide this early warning, a statistics-based flood forecasting model was developed to evaluate the flooding potential in urban areas using ensemble quantitative precipitation forecasts (the Taiwan Cooperative Precipitation Ensemble Forecast Experiment, TAPEX). The proposed model uses different sources of information, such as (i) the designed capacity of storm sewer systems, (ii) a flood inundation potential database, and (iii) historical flooding observations, to evaluate the potential for flash flooding situations to occur. Using 24-, 48- and 72-h ahead precipitation forecasts from the TAPEX, the proposed model can assess the flooding potential with two levels of risk and at the township scale with a 3-day lead time. The proposed model is applied to Pingtung County, which includes 33 townships and is located in southern Taiwan. A dataset of typhoon storms from 2010 to 2014 was used to evaluate the model performance. The accuracy and threat score for testing events are 0.68 and 0.30, respectively, with a lead time of 24 h. The accuracy and threat score for training events are 0.82 and 0.31, respectively, with a lead time of 24 h. The model performance decreases when the lead time is extended. However, the model demonstrates its potential as a valuable reference to improve emergency responses to alleviate the loss of lives and property due to flooding.

  12. Framework for probabilistic flood risk assessment in an Alpine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeberger, Klaus; Huttenlau, Matthias; Steinberger, Thomas; Achleitner, Stefan; Stötter, Johann

    2014-05-01

    Flooding is among the natural hazards that regularly cause significant losses to property and human lives. The assessment of flood risk delivers crucial information for all participants involved in flood risk management and especially for local authorities and insurance companies in order to estimate the possible flood losses. Therefore a framework for assessing flood risk has been developed and is introduced with the presented contribution. Flood risk is thereby defined as combination of the probability of flood events and of potential flood damages. The probability of occurrence is described through the spatial and temporal characterisation of flood. The potential flood damages are determined in the course of vulnerability assessment, whereas, the exposure and the vulnerability of the elements at risks are considered. Direct costs caused by flooding with the focus on residential building are analysed. The innovative part of this contribution lies on the development of a framework which takes the probability of flood events and their spatio-temporal characteristic into account. Usually the probability of flooding will be determined by means of recurrence intervals for an entire catchment without any spatial variation. This may lead to a misinterpretation of the flood risk. Within the presented framework the probabilistic flood risk assessment is based on analysis of a large number of spatial correlated flood events. Since the number of historic flood events is relatively small additional events have to be generated synthetically. This temporal extrapolation is realised by means of the method proposed by Heffernan and Tawn (2004). It is used to generate a large number of possible spatial correlated flood events within a larger catchment. The approach is based on the modelling of multivariate extremes considering the spatial dependence structure of flood events. The input for this approach are time series derived from river gauging stations. In a next step the

  13. Glacier generated floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, J.S.; Fountain, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    Destructive floods result from drainage of glacier-dammed lakes and sudden release of water stored within glaciers. There is a good basis - both empirical and theoretical - for predicting the magnitude of floods from ice-dammed lakes, although some aspects of flood initiation need to be better understood. In contrast, an understanding of floods resulting from release of internally stored water remains elusive, owing to lack of knowledge of how and where water is stored and to inadequate understanding of the complex physics of the temporally and spatially variable subglacial drainage system.Destructive floods result from drainage of glacier-dammed lakes and sudden release of water stored within glaciers. There is a good basis - both empirical and theoretical - for predicting the magnitude of floods from ice-dammed lakes, although some aspects of flood initiation need to be better understood. In contrast, an understanding of floods resulting from release of internally stored water remains elusive, owing to lack of knowledge of how and where water is stored and to inadequate understanding of the complex physics of the temporally and spatially variable subglacial drainage system.

  14. The Spokane flood controversy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1978-01-01

    An enormous plexus of proglacial channels that eroded into the loess and basalt of the Columbia Plateau, eastern Washington is studied. This channeled scabland contained erosional and depositional features that were unique among fluvial phenomena. Documentation of the field relationships of the region explains the landforms as the product of a relatively brief, but enormous flood, then so-called the Spokane flood.

  15. Discover Floods Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

  16. Japan: Tsunami Flooding

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... of 41 kilometers (25 miles) by 89 kilometers (55 miles). Flooding extending about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) inland is visible just north ... March 18, 2005 and March 19, 2011 - Before and after tsunami flooding along Japan's eastern coast. project:  MISR ...

  17. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... plantings (7 CFR Part 613, Plant Materials Centers, 16 U.S.C. 590 a-e, f, and 7 U.S.C. 1010-1011). If NRCS... maps, information, or an onsite analysis will be used to determine whether the proposed NRCS action is... with technical flood hazard data and information on flood-plain natural values. NRCS informs the...

  18. On Submitting a Proposal to a Publisher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard

    1973-01-01

    Over-the-transom'' proposals for college textbooks continue to flood editors' desks, but very few are properly prepared. This article suggests both guidelines for a good proposal, as well as some additional hints for textbook publication. (Author/JA)

  19. Flood Warning and Forecasting System in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskova, Danica

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, it finished project Flood Warning and Forecasting System (POVAPSYS) as part of the flood protection in Slovakia till 2010. The aim was to build POVAPSYS integrated computerized flood forecasting and warning system. It took a qualitatively higher level of output meteorological and hydrological services in case of floods affecting large territorial units, as well as local flood events. It is further unfolding demands on performance and coordination of meteorological and hydrological services, troubleshooting observation, evaluation of data, fast communication, modeling and forecasting of meteorological and hydrological processes. Integration of all information entering and exiting to and from the project POVAPSYS provides Hydrological Flood Forecasting System (HYPOS). The system provides information on the current hydrometeorological situation and its evolution with the generation of alerts and notifications in case of exceeding predefined thresholds. HYPOS's functioning of the system requires flawless operability in critical situations while minimizing the loss of its key parts. HYPOS is a core part of the project POVAPSYS, it is a comprehensive software solutions based on a modular principle, providing data and processed information including alarms, in real time. In order to achieve full functionality of the system, in proposal, we have put emphasis on reliability, robustness, availability and security.

  20. Long term prediction of flood occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Cristina; Montanari, Alberto; José Polo, María

    2016-05-01

    How long a river remembers its past is still an open question. Perturbations occurring in large catchments may impact the flow regime for several weeks and months, therefore providing a physical explanation for the occasional tendency of floods to occur in clusters. The research question explored in this paper may be stated as follows: can higher than usual river discharges in the low flow season be associated to a higher probability of floods in the subsequent high flow season? The physical explanation for such association may be related to the presence of higher soil moisture storage at the beginning of the high flow season, which may induce lower infiltration rates and therefore higher river runoff. Another possible explanation is persistence of climate, due to presence of long-term properties in atmospheric circulation. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro, whose catchment area amounts to 71 000 km2. We look at the stochastic connection between average river flows in the pre-flood season and the peak flows in the flood season by using a bivariate probability distribution. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is significantly impacted by the river flow regime in the low flow season. The proposed technique, which can be classified as a data assimilation approach, may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated to the estimation of the flood probability.

  1. 78 FR 21143 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  2. 78 FR 52954 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  3. 78 FR 52953 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  4. 78 FR 5820 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  5. 78 FR 5821 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  6. 78 FR 45938 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  7. 78 FR 45937 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  8. 78 FR 9406 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  9. 78 FR 43905 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  10. 78 FR 14316 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  11. 78 FR 43904 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  12. 78 FR 20337 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  13. 78 FR 20338 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  14. 78 FR 14577 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  15. 78 FR 14576 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  16. 78 FR 36216 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  17. 78 FR 36219 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  18. 78 FR 29762 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  19. 78 FR 36220 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  20. 78 FR 32678 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  1. 78 FR 32679 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  2. 78 FR 64521 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  3. 78 FR 29761 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  4. 78 FR 43904 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  5. 78 FR 29763 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  6. Support vector regression for real-time flood stage forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pao-Shan; Chen, Shien-Tsung; Chang, I.-Fan

    2006-09-01

    SummaryFlood forecasting is an important non-structural approach for flood mitigation. The flood stage is chosen as the variable to be forecasted because it is practically useful in flood forecasting. The support vector machine, a novel artificial intelligence-based method developed from statistical learning theory, is adopted herein to establish a real-time stage forecasting model. The lags associated with the input variables are determined by applying the hydrological concept of the time of response, and a two-step grid search method is applied to find the optimal parameters, and thus overcome the difficulties in constructing the learning machine. Two structures of models used to perform multiple-hour-ahead stage forecasts are developed. Validation results from flood events in Lan-Yang River, Taiwan, revealed that the proposed models can effectively predict the flood stage forecasts one-to-six-hours ahead. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the lags associated with the input variables.

  7. A method for mapping flood hazard along roads.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Zahra; Nickman, Alireza; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart

    2014-01-15

    A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways. PMID:24361730

  8. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  9. Seasonal characteristics of flood regimes across the Alpine-Carpathian range.

    PubMed

    Parajka, J; Kohnová, S; Bálint, G; Barbuc, M; Borga, M; Claps, P; Cheval, S; Dumitrescu, A; Gaume, E; Hlavčová, K; Merz, R; Pfaundler, M; Stancalie, G; Szolgay, J; Blöschl, G

    2010-11-17

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the differences in the long-term regimes of extreme precipitation and floods across the Alpine-Carpathian range using seasonality indices and atmospheric circulation patterns to understand the main flood-producing processes. This is supported by cluster analyses to identify areas of similar flood processes, both in terms of precipitation forcing and catchment processes. The results allow to isolate regions of similar flood generation processes including southerly versus westerly circulation patterns, effects of soil moisture seasonality due to evaporation and effects of soil moisture seasonality due to snow melt. In many regions of the Alpine-Carpathian range, there is a distinct shift in flood generating processes with flood magnitude as evidenced by a shift from summer to autumn floods. It is argued that the synoptic approach proposed here is valuable in both flood analysis and flood estimation. PMID:25067854

  10. Effectiveness of Water Infrastructure for River Flood Management: Part 2 - Flood Risk Assessment and Its Changes in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Gusyev, M.; Arifuzzaman, B.; Khairul, I.; Iwami, Y.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-06-01

    A case study of Bangladesh presents a methodological possibility based on a global approach for assessing river flood risk and its changes considering flood hazard, exposure, basic vulnerability and coping capacity. This study consists of two parts in the issue of flood change: hazard assessment (Part 1) and risk assessment (Part 2). In Part 1, a hazard modeling technology was introduced and applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) basin to quantify the change of 50- and 100-year flood hazards in Bangladesh under the present (1979-2003) and future (2075-2099) climates. Part 2 focuses on estimating nationwide flood risk in terms of affected people and rice crop damage due to a 50-year flood hazard identified in Part 1, and quantifying flood risk changes between the presence and absence of existing water infrastructure (i.e., embankments). To assess flood risk in terms of rice crop damage, rice paddy fields were extracted and flood stage-damage curves were created for maximum risk scenarios as a demonstration of risk change in the present and future climates. The preliminary results in Bangladesh show that a tendency of flood risk change strongly depends on the temporal and spatial dynamics of exposure and vulnerability such as distributed population and effectiveness of water infrastructure, which suggests that the proposed methodology is applicable anywhere in the world.

  11. Flood Insurance in Canada: Implications for Flood Management and Residential Vulnerability to Flood Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  12. Intelligent Real-Time Reservoir Operation for Flood Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, L.; Hsu, H.

    2008-12-01

    Real-time flood control of a multi-purpose reservoir should consider decreasing the flood peak stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage during typhoon seasons. It is a continuous and instant decision-making process based on relevant operating rules, policy and water laws, in addition the immediate rainfall and the hydrology information; however, it is difficult to learn the intelligent experience from the elder operators. The main purpose of this study is to establish the automatic reservoir flood control model to achieve the goal of a reservoir operation during flood periods. In this study, we propose an intelligent reservoir operating methodology for real-time flood control. First, the genetic algorithm is used to search the optimal solutions, which can be considered as extracting the knowledge of reservoir operation strategies. Then, the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), which uses a hybrid learning procedure for extracting knowledge in the form of fuzzy if-then rules, is used to learn the input-output patterns and then to estimate the optimal flood operation. The Shihmen reservoir in Northern Taiwan was used as a case study, where its 26 typhoon events are investigated by the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed control model can perform much better than the original reservoir operator in 26 flood events and effectively achieve decreasing peak flood stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage.

  13. Imprecise probabilistic estimation of design floods with epistemic uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Fu, Guangtao; Zhou, Huicheng

    2016-06-01

    An imprecise probabilistic framework for design flood estimation is proposed on the basis of the Dempster-Shafer theory to handle different epistemic uncertainties from data, probability distribution functions, and probability distribution parameters. These uncertainties are incorporated in cost-benefit analysis to generate the lower and upper bounds of the total cost for flood control, thus presenting improved information for decision making on design floods. Within the total cost bounds, a new robustness criterion is proposed to select a design flood that can tolerate higher levels of uncertainty. A variance decomposition approach is used to quantify individual and interactive impacts of the uncertainty sources on total cost. Results from three case studies, with 127, 104, and 54 year flood data sets, respectively, show that the imprecise probabilistic approach effectively combines aleatory and epistemic uncertainties from the various sources and provides upper and lower bounds of the total cost. Between the total cost and the robustness of design floods, a clear trade-off which is beyond the information that can be provided by the conventional minimum cost criterion is identified. The interactions among data, distributions, and parameters have a much higher contribution than parameters to the estimate of the total cost. It is found that the contributions of the various uncertainty sources and their interactions vary with different flood magnitude, but remain roughly the same with different return periods. This study demonstrates that the proposed methodology can effectively incorporate epistemic uncertainties in cost-benefit analysis of design floods.

  14. Nogales flood detention study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  15. Regional flood frequency analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book, the fourth of a four volume set, contains five sections encompassing major aspects of regional flood frequency analysis. Each section starts usually with an invited state-of-the-art paper followed by contributed papers. The first section provides an assessment of regional flood frequency analysis. Methods for performing regional frequency analysis for ungaged watersheds are presented in Section 2. More discussion on regional frequency analysis is provided in Section 3. Selection and comparison of regional frequency methods are dealt with in Section 4; these are of great interest to the user. Increasing attention is being focused these days on paleohydrologic flood analysis. This topic is covered in Section 5.

  16. Flooding could follow wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Summertime wildfires that have already burned about 2.7 million hectares in the United States may cause a double-whammy for property owners by greatly increasing the risk of flooding, according to the Federal Emergency Management Agency or FEMA.FEMA director Joe Allbaugh said, “The loss of trees, ground cover, and other vegetation has greatly increased the possibility of flash floods and mudflows.” Allbaugh said that land scorched and barren from the loss of natural forest barriers can take decades to recover and result in erosion and devastating floods.

  17. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  18. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  19. Estimation of the relative severity of floods in small ungauged catchments for preliminary observations on flash flood preparedness: a case study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il

    2012-04-01

    An increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration has caused significant danger and loss of life and property in Korea as well as many other parts of the World. Since such floods usually accompanied by rapid runoff and debris flow rise quite quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage, this study presents a new flash flood indexing methodology to promptly provide preliminary observations regarding emergency preparedness and response to flash flood disasters in small ungauged catchments. Flood runoff hydrographs are generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the annual maximum rainfall series of long-term observed data in the two selected small ungauged catchments. The relative flood severity factors quantifying characteristics of flood runoff hydrographs are standardized by the highest recorded maximum value, and then averaged to obtain the flash flood index only for flash flood events in each study catchment. It is expected that the regression equations between the proposed flash flood index and rainfall characteristics can provide the basis database of the preliminary information for forecasting the local flood severity in order to facilitate flash flood preparedness in small ungauged catchments. PMID:22690208

  20. Flood risk under future climate in West Africa: linking extreme value models and flood generating processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramblay, Yves; Amoussou, Ernest; Dorigo, Wouter; Mahé, Gil

    2014-05-01

    For many areas in the world, there is a need for future projections of flood risk in order to improve the possible mitigation actions. However, such an exercise is often made difficult in data-sparse regions, where the limited access to hydrometric data does not allow calibrating hydrological models in a robust way under non-stationary conditions. In this study we present an approach to estimate the possible changes in flood risks, which incorporates flood generating processes into statistical models for extreme values. This approach is illustrated for a West African catchment, the Mono River (12900km²), with discharge, precipitation and temperature data are available between 1988 and 2010 in a few stations and where the dominant flood generating process is soil saturation. A soil moisture accounting model, calibrated against a merged surface soil moisture microwave satellite dataset, is used to estimate the annual maximum soil saturation level that is then related to the location parameter of a Generalized Extreme Value model of annual maximum discharge. With such a model, it is possible to estimate the changes in flood quantiles from the changes in the annual maximum soil saturation level. An ensemble of regional climate models from the ENSEMBLES-AMMA project are then considered to estimate the potential future changes in soil saturation and subsequently the changes in flood risks for the period 2028-2050. A sensitivity analysis of the non-stationary flood quantiles has shown that with the projected changes on precipitation (-2%) and temperature (+1.22°) under the scenario A1B, the projected flood quantiles would stay in the range of the observed variability during 1988-2010. The proposed approach, relying on low data requirements and few assumptions, could be useful to estimate the projected changes in flood risks for other data-sparse catchments.

  1. Flooding the market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Diane; McShane, Michael

    2013-11-01

    A flood insurance market with risk-based prices in the UK will only stimulate climate change adaptation if it is part of a wider strategy that includes land-use planning, building regulations and water management.

  2. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    2002-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the flooding predictor, an advanced process control strategy, into a universally useable tool that will maximize the separation yield of a distillation column.

  3. Flood hazard assessment in areas prone to flash flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvočka, Davor; Falconer, Roger A.; Bray, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary climate projections suggest that there will be an increase in the occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events in the future. These precipitation extremes are usually the main cause for the emergence of extreme flooding, such as flash flooding. Flash floods are among the most unpredictable, violent and fatal natural hazards in the world. Furthermore, it is expected that flash flooding will occur even more frequently in the future due to more frequent development of extreme weather events, which will greatly increase the danger to people caused by flash flooding. This being the case, there will be a need for high resolution flood hazard maps in areas susceptible to flash flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by flash flooding. Two different types of flood hazard assessment methods were tested: (i) a widely used method based on an empirical analysis, and (ii) a new, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. Two flash flood events were considered herein, namely: the 2004 Boscastle flash flood and the 2007 Železniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas susceptible to extreme flooding, the flood hazard assessment should be conducted using methods based on a mechanics-based analysis. In comparison to standard flood hazard assessment methods, these physically based methods: (i) take into account all of the physical forces, which act on a human body in floodwater, (ii) successfully adapt to abrupt changes in the flow regime, which often occur for flash flood events, and (iii) rapidly assess a flood hazard index in a relatively short period of time.

  4. Flood Resilient Technological Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; Monnot, J. V.; Marquez Paniagua, P.; Pámpanas, P.; Paz Abuín, S.; Prendes, P.; Videra, O.; U. P. M. Smartest Team

    2012-04-01

    As a consequence of the paradigm shift of the EU water policy (Directive 2007/60/EC, EC 2003) from defense to living with flood, floods shall be faced in the future through resilient solutions, seeking to improve the permanence of flood protection, and getting thus beyond traditional temporary and human-relying solutions. But the fact is that nowadays "Flood Resilient (FRe) Building Technological Products" is an undefined concept, and concerned FRe solutions cannot be even easily identified. "FRe Building Technological materials" is a wide term involving a wide and heterogeneous range of solutions. There is an interest in offering an identification and classification of the referred products, since it will be useful for stakeholders and populations at flood risk for adopting the most adequate protections when facing floods. Thus, a previous schematic classification would enable us at least to identify most of them and to figure out autonomous FRe Technological Products categories subject all of them to intense industrial innovative processes. The flood resilience enhancement of a given element requires providing it enough water-repelling capacity, and different flood resilient solutions can be sorted out: barriers, waterproofing and anticorrosive. Barriers are palliative solutions that can be obtained either from traditional materials, or from technological ones, offering their very low weight and high maneuverability. Belonging barriers and waterproofing systems to industrial branches clearly different, from a conceptual point of view, waterproofing material may complement barriers, and even be considered as autonomous barriers in some cases. Actually, they do not only complement barriers by their application to barriers' singular weak points, like anchors, joints, but on the other hand, waterproofing systems can be applied to enhance the flood resilience of new building, as preventive measure. Anticorrosive systems do belong to a clearly different category

  5. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  6. Preparing for floods: flood forecasting and early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloke, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    Flood forecasting and early warning has continued to stride ahead in strengthening the preparedness phases of disaster risk management, saving lives and property and reducing the overall impact of severe flood events. For example, continental and global scale flood forecasting systems such as the European Flood Awareness System and the Global Flood Awareness System provide early information about upcoming floods in real time to various decisionmakers. Studies have found that there are monetary benefits to implementing these early flood warning systems, and with the science also in place to provide evidence of benefit and hydrometeorological institutional outlooks warming to the use of probabilistic forecasts, the uptake over the last decade has been rapid and sustained. However, there are many further challenges that lie ahead to improve the science supporting flood early warning and to ensure that appropriate decisions are made to maximise flood preparedness.

  7. A new nonlinear Muskingum flood routing model incorporating lateral flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karahan, Halil; Gurarslan, Gurhan; Geem, Zong Woo

    2015-06-01

    A new nonlinear Muskingum flood routing model taking the contribution from lateral flow into consideration was developed in the present study. The cuckoo search algorithm, a quite novel and robust algorithm, was used in the calibration and verification of the model parameters. The success and the dependability of the proposed model were tested on five different sets of synthetic and real flood data. The optimal solutions for the test cases were determined by the currently proposed model rather than by different models taken from the literature, indicating that this model could be suitable for use in flood routing problems.

  8. Estimating flood hydrographs and volumes for Alabama streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olin, D.A.; Atkins, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The hydraulic design of highway drainage structures involves an evaluation of the effect of the proposed highway structures on lives, property, and stream stability. Flood hydrographs and associated flood volumes are useful tools in evaluating these effects. For design purposes, the Alabama Highway Department needs information on flood hydrographs and volumes associated with flood peaks of specific recurrence intervals (design floods) at proposed or existing bridge crossings. This report will provide the engineer with a method to estimate flood hydrographs, volumes, and lagtimes for rural and urban streams in Alabama with drainage areas less than 500 sq mi. Existing computer programs and methods to estimate flood hydrographs and volumes for ungaged streams have been developed in Georgia. These computer programs and methods were applied to streams in Alabama. The report gives detailed instructions on how to estimate flood hydrographs for ungaged rural or urban streams in Alabama with drainage areas less than 500 sq mi, without significant in-channel storage or regulations. (USGS)

  9. Flood Forecasting in River System Using ANFIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Nazrin; Choudhury, P.

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate applicability of artificial intelligence techniques such as ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) in forecasting flood flow in a river system. The proposed technique combines the learning ability of neural network with the transparent linguistic representation of fuzzy system. The technique is applied to forecast discharge at a downstream station using flow information at various upstream stations. A total of three years data has been selected for the implementation of this model. ANFIS models with various input structures and membership functions are constructed, trained and tested to evaluate efficiency of the models. Statistical indices such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CORR) and Coefficient of Efficiency (CE) are used to evaluate performance of the ANFIS models in forecasting river flood. The values of the indices show that ANFIS model can accurately and reliably be used to forecast flood in a river system.

  10. Coastal flood management in Semarang, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marfai, Muh Aris; King, Lorenz

    2008-10-01

    Semarang is one of the biggest cities in Indonesia and is nowadays suffering from coastal flooding. Land subsidences, high water tide, and inadequate structural measures play important roles in the coastal inundations. Structural and non-structural methods for controlling coastal flooding including dykes, drainage systems, pump stations, polder systems, coastal-land reclamations, coastal planning and management, public education, as well as the establishment of an institutional framework for disaster management have been implemented in the Semarang coastal area. Although some improvements have been made, the current flood management system has generally failed to address a wide range of coastal inundation problems. Some improvement actions have been proposed including stakeholders involvement on the disaster mitigation. For a long period coastal management, accelerated sea level rises due to global warming should also be taken into account.

  11. Flood Forecasting in River System Using ANFIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ullah, Nazrin; Choudhury, P.

    2010-10-26

    The aim of the present study is to investigate applicability of artificial intelligence techniques such as ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) in forecasting flood flow in a river system. The proposed technique combines the learning ability of neural network with the transparent linguistic representation of fuzzy system. The technique is applied to forecast discharge at a downstream station using flow information at various upstream stations. A total of three years data has been selected for the implementation of this model. ANFIS models with various input structures and membership functions are constructed, trained and tested to evaluate efficiency of the models. Statistical indices such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CORR) and Coefficient of Efficiency (CE) are used to evaluate performance of the ANFIS models in forecasting river flood. The values of the indices show that ANFIS model can accurately and reliably be used to forecast flood in a river system.

  12. Dynamic building risk assessment theoretic model for rainstorm-flood utilization ABM and ABS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wenze; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Hailei; Huang, Yingliang; Wu, Xuelian; Sun, Bingyun

    2015-12-01

    Flood is one of natural disasters with the worst loss in the world. It needs to assess flood disaster risk so that we can reduce the loss of flood disaster. Disaster management practical work needs the dynamic risk results of building. Rainstorm flood disaster system is a typical complex system. From the view of complex system theory, flood disaster risk is the interaction result of hazard effect objects, rainstorm flood hazard factors, and hazard environments. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is an important tool for complex system modeling. Rainstorm-flood building risk dynamic assessment method (RFBRDAM) was proposed using ABM in this paper. The interior structures and procedures of different agents in proposed meth had been designed. On the Netlogo platform, the proposed method was implemented to assess the building risk changes of the rainstorm flood disaster in the Huaihe River Basin using Agent-based simulation (ABS). The results indicated that the proposed method can dynamically assess building risk of the whole process for the rainstorm flood disaster. The results of this paper can provide one new approach for flood disaster building risk dynamic assessment and flood disaster management.

  13. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2015-08-01

    The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of adaptation strategies to cope with flood-related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data, and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, adapt or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility index for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This index is a component of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed index correctly identified populations less prepared to avoid flood effects or able to cope with them, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.

  14. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2014-12-01

    The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of adaptation strategies to cope with flood related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, adapt or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility index for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This index is part of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed index correctly identified populations more socially susceptible to floods, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels, when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.

  15. The calibration of flood inundation models using uncertain satellite observed flood extent maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, E. M.; Bates, P. D.; Freer, J. E.; Mason, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    The performance of flood inundation models is often assessed using satellite data; however, due to emergent vegetation, wind roughening and other factors these data have inherent uncertainty. Here, we develop a methodology to evaluate the impact of uncertainty in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observed flood extents on the calibration of the LISFLOOD-FP flood inundation model. Two case studies are used, the River Dee in North Wales, UK, using a 12.5m resolution ERS-2 SAR image, and the River Derwent in Cumbria, England, UK, using a 1m TerraSAR-X image. Water surface elevations are calculated at the margin of the flood by intersecting the observed flood extent with high resolution LiDAR topographic data. The proposed methodology calibrates the friction parameters in the inundation model using multiple random subsamples of the observed data points to sample from the uncertainty in the observed data. Using this methodology we assess how different subsets of the observed data can produce different optimum parameter sets. We then produce probabilistic flood inundation maps that are able to identify areas of uncertainty not identified by a deterministic model assessment.

  16. Rapid Exposure Assessment of Nationwide River Flood for Disaster Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Park, J.; Arifuzzaman, B.; Iwami, Y.; Amirul, Md.; Kondoh, A.

    2016-06-01

    considerably increased. For flood disaster risk reduction, it is important to identify and characterize flood area, locations (particularly lowland along rivers), and durations. For this purpose, flood mapping and monitoring are an imperative process and the fundamental part of risk management as well as emergency response. Our ultimate goal is to detect flood inundation areas over a nationwide scale despite limitations of optical and multispectral images, and to estimate flood risk in terms of affected people. We propose a methodological possibility to be used as a standard approach for nationwide rapid flood exposure assessment with the use of the multi-temporal Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), a big contributor to progress in near-real-time flood mapping. The preliminary results in Bangladesh show that a propensity of flood risk change strongly depends on the temporal and spatial dynamics of exposure such as distributed population.

  17. Flooding in Bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Masakazu; Matumoto, Aoki

    2010-05-01

    Edo River to diverge from Tone River on the right side flows away through Tokyo downtown, and into Tokyo Bay. Tone River of main stream flows through the north region of Kanto into Chiba prefecture of rural aria. Tone River originally flowed through present Edo River into Tokyo downtown. So when Tokyo (Edo era) became the political center of Japan 400 years ago, this place had been suffered from flood caused by augmenting downstream flowing of rainfall over watershed catchment area. Edo Government extended near independent small rivers and connected with Tone River and led away most of flood water transportation into Chiba prefecture to be a rural reason. The present rout of the river has been determined in the mass during the 16th century. Created artificial Edo River experimentally divided into 40 percentage and artificial Tone River divided into 60 percentage of flood water transportation. After that Japanese Government confirmed a safety against flood and confirmed to be a safety Tokyo by using SFM (storage function method) and SNFM (steady non-uniform flow method). Japanese Government estimated Plan High Water Discharge 17,500m3/s at upstream of the divergent point and Edo river flowing through 40 percentage (7,000m3/s) of 17,500m3/s which was same ratio as Edo era. But SFM and SNFM could not explain dynamic flow phenomena. We surveyed how many channel storage amount were there in this river by using UFM (unsteady flow method). We reproduce real flowing shape and carried out more detail dynamic phenomena. In this research, we had taken up diverse and various 11floods from 1981. These floods were confirmed that Edo River to be bifurcated less than 40 percentages. Large flood are not always high ratio of diversion in to Edo River. It's almost smaller ratio rather than higher ratio. For example, peak discharge 11,117m3/s, Aug. 1982 flood was bifurcated into Edo river flowing through 20 percentage of 11,117m3/s. Small flood peak discharge 1,030m3/s, Aug. 1992

  18. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  19. Floods on Duck River in the vicinity of Centerville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    This flood hazard information report describes the extent and severity of the flood potential along a selected reach of the Duck River in the vicinity of Centerville, Tennessee. The report was prepared in response to a request by the town for up-to-date information regarding the flood potential along the studied stream reach in order to better administer its floodplain management program. This report does not propose plans or the solution of identified flood problems along the studied stream reach. Rather, the information and technical data contained herein are intended to provide a sound basis for informed decisions regarding the wise use of flood-prone lands within the town of Centerville and the surrounding portion of Hickman County. 3 references, 8 figures, 6 tables.

  20. A statistical approach to evaluate flood risk at the regional level: an application to Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Mauro; Marchesini, Ivan; Salvati, Paola; Donnini, Marco; Guzzetti, Fausto; Sterlacchini, Simone; Zazzeri, Marco; Bonazzi, Alessandro; Carlesi, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Floods are frequent and widespread in Italy, causing every year multiple fatalities and extensive damages to public and private structures. A pre-requisite for the development of mitigation schemes, including financial instruments such as insurance, is the ability to quantify their costs starting from the estimation of the underlying flood hazard. However, comprehensive and coherent information on flood prone areas, and estimates on the frequency and intensity of flood events, are not often available at scales appropriate for risk pooling and diversification. In Italy, River Basins Hydrogeological Plans (PAI), prepared by basin administrations, are the basic descriptive, regulatory, technical and operational tools for environmental planning in flood prone areas. Nevertheless, such plans do not cover the entire Italian territory, having significant gaps along the minor hydrographic network and in ungauged basins. Several process-based modelling approaches have been used by different basin administrations for the flood hazard assessment, resulting in an inhomogeneous hazard zonation of the territory. As a result, flood hazard assessments expected and damage estimations across the different Italian basin administrations are not always coherent. To overcome these limitations, we propose a simplified multivariate statistical approach for the regional flood hazard zonation coupled with a flood impact model. This modelling approach has been applied in different Italian basin administrations, allowing a preliminary but coherent and comparable estimation of the flood hazard and the relative impact. Model performances are evaluated comparing the predicted flood prone areas with the corresponding PAI zonation. The proposed approach will provide standardized information (following the EU Floods Directive specifications) on flood risk at a regional level which can in turn be more readily applied to assess flood economic impacts. Furthermore, in the assumption of an appropriate

  1. Potential flood volume of Himalayan glacial lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, K.; Sakai, A.; Takenaka, S.; Nuimura, T.; Surazakov, A. B.; Sawagaki, T.; Yamanokuchi, T.

    2013-01-01

    Glacial lakes are potentially dangerous sources of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), and represent a serious natural hazard in Himalayan countries. Despite the development of various indices aimed at determining the risk of such flooding, an objective evaluation of the thousands of Himalayan glacial lakes has yet to be completed. In this study we propose a single index, based on the depression angle from the lakeshore, which allows the lakes to be assessed using remotely sensed digital elevation models (DEMs). We test our approach on five lakes in Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet using images taken by the declassified Hexagon KH-9 satellite before these lakes flooded. All five lakes had a steep lakefront area (SLA), on which a depression angle was steeper than our proposed threshold of 10° before the GLOF event, but the SLA was no longer evident after the events. We further calculated the potential flood volume (PFV); i.e. the maximum volume of floodwater that could be released if the lake surface was lowered sufficiently to eradicate the SLA. This approach guarantees repeatability because it requires no particular expertise to carry out. We calculated PFVs for more than 2000 Himalayan glacial lakes using the ASTER data. The distribution follows a power-law function, and we identified 49 lakes with PFVs of over 10 million m3 that require further detailed field investigations.

  2. A complete procedure for multivariate index-flood model application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requena, Ana Isabel; Chebana, Fateh; Mediero, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Multivariate frequency analyses are needed to study floods due to dependence existing among representative variables of the flood hydrograph. Particularly, multivariate analyses are essential when flood-routing processes significantly attenuate flood peaks, such as in dams and flood management in flood-prone areas. Besides, regional analyses improve at-site quantile estimates obtained at gauged sites, especially when short flow series exist, and provide estimates at ungauged sites where flow records are unavailable. However, very few studies deal simultaneously with both multivariate and regional aspects. This study seeks to introduce a complete procedure to conduct a multivariate regional hydrological frequency analysis (HFA), providing guidelines. The methodology joins recent developments achieved in multivariate and regional HFA, such as copulas, multivariate quantiles and the multivariate index-flood model. The proposed multivariate methodology, focused on the bivariate case, is applied to a case study located in Spain by using hydrograph volume and flood peak observed series. As a result, a set of volume-peak events under a bivariate quantile curve can be obtained for a given return period at a target site, providing flexibility to practitioners to check and decide what the design event for a given purpose should be. In addition, the multivariate regional approach can also be used for obtaining the multivariate distribution of the hydrological variables when the aim is to assess the structure failure for a given return period.

  3. Toward economic flood loss characterization via hazard simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Cunha, Luciana K.; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann; Smith, James A.

    2016-08-01

    Among all natural disasters, floods have historically been the primary cause of human and economic losses around the world. Improving flood risk management requires a multi-scale characterization of the hazard and associated losses—the flood loss footprint. But this is typically not available in a precise and timely manner, yet. To overcome this challenge, we propose a novel and multidisciplinary approach which relies on a computationally efficient hydrological model that simulates streamflow for scales ranging from small creeks to large rivers. We adopt a normalized index, the flood peak ratio (FPR), to characterize flood magnitude across multiple spatial scales. The simulated FPR is then shown to be a key statistical driver for associated economic flood losses represented by the number of insurance claims. Importantly, because it is based on a simulation procedure that utilizes generally readily available physically-based data, our flood simulation approach has the potential to be broadly utilized, even for ungauged and poorly gauged basins, thus providing the necessary information for public and private sector actors to effectively reduce flood losses and save lives.

  4. Characterization of flash floods induced by tropical cyclones in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real-Rangel, R. A.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the role of tropical cyclones (hurricanes, tropical storms and depressions) in the generation of flash floods in Mexico. For this, a severity assessment during several cyclonic events for selected catchments was estimated through the evaluation of a flash flood index recently proposed by Kim and Kim (2014). This classification is revised, considering the forcing and areal extent of torrential rainfall generated by the incidence of tropical cyclones on the studied catchments, enabling the further study of the flood regime in catchments located in tropical regions. The analysis incorporates characteristics of the flood hydrographs such as the hydrograph shape (rising curve gradient, magnitude of the peak discharge and flood response time) in order to identify flash-flood prone areas. Results show the Qp-A scaling relationship in catchments that were impacted by tropical cyclones, enabling their comparison against floods generated by other meteorological events (e.g. convective and orographic storms). Results will inform on how peak flows relationships are modified by cyclonic events and highlighting the contribution of cyclonic precipitation to flash-flooding susceptibility.

  5. Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods * The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. * The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). * On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. * In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. * On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding. South Georgia March and April 2009 Floods * The March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. * No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). * Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

  6. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy; Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  7. 78 FR 48884 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or regulatory floodways on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports have been made final for the communities listed in the table......

  8. An approach to the implementation of European Directive 2007/60/EC on flood risk management in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dráb, A.; Říha, J.

    2010-09-01

    Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (the Flood Risk Directive) signifies that flood risk analysis methods are gaining ground in EC Member States and, therefore, also in the Czech Republic (CR). Procedures of flood risk analysis have been developed in the Czech Republic since the catastrophic floods of 1997 in line with European and worldwide trends and have been tested and applied in hundreds of case studies to date. Currently, the Flood Risk Directive Guideline based on past experience with flood risk analysis applications is being processed. The aim of the paper is to present flood risk analysis procedures and specially developed techniques for the assembly of flood hazard, danger and flood risk maps. Methods related to flood risk management plans are briefly mentioned as well. The following particular problems are discussed in more detail: an application and extension of the "danger matrix" approach, the definition of residual danger, the formulation of efficiency criteria and preliminary multi-criteria flood risk assessment. These issues were tested in practical applications at pilot locations in the Czech Republic. Present experience provides evidence that the flood risk analysis methods used in the Czech Republic are in harmony with the requirements of the Flood Risk Directive. The proposed and applied methods are based primarily on existing available data such as flood extent maps, cadastral maps, the Register of Census Districts and Structures and others.

  9. Importance of Integrating High-Resoultion 2D Flood Hazard Maps in the Flood Disaster Management of Marikina City, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapales, B. J. M.; Mendoza, J.; Uichanco, C.; Lagmay, A. M. F. A.; Moises, M. A.; Delmendo, P.; Tingin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has been a perennial problem in the city of Marikina. These incidences result in human and economic losses. In response to this, the city has been investing in their flood disaster mitigation program in the past years. As a result, flooding in Marikina was reduced by 31% from 1992 to 2004. [1] However, these measures need to be improved so as to mitigate the effects of floods with more than 100 year return period, such as the flooding brought by tropical storm Ketsana in 2009 which generated 455mm of rains over a 24-hour period. Heavy rainfall caused the streets to be completely submerged in water, leaving at least 70 people dead in the area. In 2012, the Southwest monsoon, enhanced by a typhoon, brought massive rains with an accumulated rainfall of 472mm for 22-hours, a number greater than that which was experienced during Ketsana. At this time, the local government units were much more prepared in mitigating the risk with the use of early warning and evacuation measures, resulting to zero casualty in the area. Their urban disaster management program, however, can be further improved through the integration of high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps in the city's flood disaster management. The use of these maps in flood disaster management is essential in reducing flood-related risks. This paper discusses the importance and advantages of integrating flood maps in structural and non-structural mitigation measures in the case of Marikina City. Flood hazard maps are essential tools in predicting the frequency and magnitude of floods in an area. An information that may be determined with the use of these maps is the locations of evacuation areas, which may be accurately positioned using high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps. Evacuation of areas that are not vulnerable of being inundated is one of the unnecessary measures that may be prevented and thus optimizing mitigation efforts by local government units. This paper also discusses proposals for a more efficient

  10. Importance of Integrating High-Resoultion 2D Flood Hazard Maps in the Flood Disaster Management of Marikina City, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapales, Ben Joseph; Mendoza, Jerico; Uichanco, Christopher; Mahar Francisco Amante Lagmay, Alfredo; Moises, Mark Anthony; Delmendo, Patricia; Eneri Tingin, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Flooding has been a perennial problem in the city of Marikina. These incidences result in human and economic losses. In response to this, the city has been investing in their flood disaster mitigation program in the past years. As a result, flooding in Marikina was reduced by 31% from 1992 to 2004. [1] However, these measures need to be improved so as to mitigate the effects of floods with more than 100 year return period, such as the flooding brought by tropical storm Ketsana in 2009 which generated 455mm of rains over a 24-hour period. Heavy rainfall caused the streets to be completely submerged in water, leaving at least 70 people dead in the area. In 2012, the Southwest monsoon, enhanced by a typhoon, brought massive rains with an accumulated rainfall of 472mm for 22-hours, a number greater than that which was experienced during Ketsana. At this time, the local government units were much more prepared in mitigating the risk with the use of early warning and evacuation measures, resulting to zero casualty in the area. Their urban disaster management program, however, can be further improved through the integration of high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps in the city's flood disaster management. The use of these maps in flood disaster management is essential in reducing flood-related risks. This paper discusses the importance and advantages of integrating flood maps in structural and non-structural mitigation measures in the case of Marikina City. Flood hazard maps are essential tools in predicting the frequency and magnitude of floods in an area. An information that may be determined with the use of these maps is the locations of evacuation areas, which may be accurately positioned using high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps. Evacuation of people in areas that are not vulnerable of being inundated is one of the unnecessary measures that may be prevented and thus optimizing mitigation efforts by local government units. This paper also discusses proposals for a more

  11. Hydrologic Flood Routing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggen, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

  12. The Stanford Flood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes, from the flood to the start of freeze-drying operations, the preservation efforts of Stanford University regarding books damaged by water in the Green Library in November 1978. Planning, action, and mopping-up activities are chronicled, and 20 suggestions are offered as guidance in future similar situations. (JD)

  13. Improving Sugarcane Flood Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida is often exposed to high water tables and periodic floods. Growers are concerned that elevated water tables for prolonged periods and during certain phases of growth reduce yields. However, these wet conditions help co...

  14. Flooding on Elbe River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heavy rains in Central Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in more than a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Elbe River and its tributaries was taken on August 20, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The floodwaters that inundated Dresden, Germany, earlier this week have moved north. As can be seen, the river resembles a fairly large lake in the center of the image just south of the town of Wittenberg. Flooding was also bad further downriver in the towns of Maqgdeburge and Hitzacker. Roughly 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes in northern Germany. Fifty thousand troops, border police, and technical assistance workers were called in to combat the floods along with 100,000 volunteers. The floodwaters are not expected to badly affect Hamburg, which sits on the mouth of the river on the North Sea. Credit:Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  15. After the Flood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    When floodwater swept through the McVities biscuit factory in Carlisle in January 2005 few were confident that it would reopen. The factory, in the Caldewgate area of the city, was one of the first casualties of the flood, as water, nine feet deep in places, coursed trough the food preparation areas, destroying equipment and covering everything in…

  16. Climate, orography and scale controls on flood frequency in Triveneto (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persiano, Simone; Castellarin, Attilio; Salinas, Jose Luis; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Brath, Armando

    2016-05-01

    The growing concern about the possible effects of climate change on flood frequency regime is leading Authorities to review previously proposed reference procedures for design-flood estimation, such as national flood frequency models. Our study focuses on Triveneto, a broad geographical region in North-eastern Italy. A reference procedure for design flood estimation in Triveneto is available from the Italian NCR research project "VA.PI.", which considered Triveneto as a single homogeneous region and developed a regional model using annual maximum series (AMS) of peak discharges that were collected up to the 1980s by the former Italian Hydrometeorological Service. We consider a very detailed AMS database that we recently compiled for 76 catchments located in Triveneto. All 76 study catchments are characterized in terms of several geomorphologic and climatic descriptors. The objective of our study is threefold: (1) to inspect climatic and scale controls on flood frequency regime; (2) to verify the possible presence of changes in flood frequency regime by looking at changes in time of regional L-moments of annual maximum floods; (3) to develop an updated reference procedure for design flood estimation in Triveneto by using a focused-pooling approach (i.e. Region of Influence, RoI). Our study leads to the following conclusions: (1) climatic and scale controls on flood frequency regime in Triveneto are similar to the controls that were recently found in Europe; (2) a single year characterized by extreme floods can have a remarkable influence on regional flood frequency models and analyses for detecting possible changes in flood frequency regime; (3) no significant change was detected in the flood frequency regime, yet an update of the existing reference procedure for design flood estimation is highly recommended and we propose the RoI approach for properly representing climate and scale controls on flood frequency in Triveneto, which cannot be regarded as a single

  17. Floods and Fluvial Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiti, F.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have recently addressed the complex interactions existing at various spatial scales among riparian vegetation, channel morphology and wood storage. The majority of these investigations has been carried out in relatively natural river systems, focusing mostly on the long-term vegetation-morphology dynamics under "equilibrium" conditions. Little is still known about the role of flood events - of different frequency/magnitude - on several aspects of such dynamics, e.g. entrainment conditions of in-channel wood, erosion rates of vegetation from channel margins and from islands, transport distances of wood elements of different size along the channel network. Even less understood is how the river's evolutionary trajectory may affect these processes, and thus the degree to which conceptual models derivable from near-natural systems could be applicable to human-disturbed channels. Indeed, the different human pressures - present on most river basins worldwide - have greatly impaired the morphological and ecological functions of fluvial wood, and the attempts to "restore" in-channel wood storage are currently carried out without a sufficient understanding of wood transport processes occurring during floods. On the other hand, the capability to correctly predict the magnitude of large wood transport during large floods is now seen as crucial - especially in mountain basins - for flood hazard mapping, as is the identification of the potential wood sources (e.g. landslides, floodplains, islands) for the implementation of sound and effective hazard mitigation measures. The presentation will first summarize the current knowledge on fluvial wood dynamics and modelling at different spatial and temporal scales, with a particular focus on mountain rivers. The effects of floods of different characteristics on vegetation erosion and wood transport will be then addressed presenting some study cases from rivers in the European Alps and in the Italian Apennines featuring

  18. Flood-flow characteristics of Nancy Creek at Georgia Highway 400 extension near Atlanta, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, McGlone; Hess, Glen W.

    1987-01-01

    The Highway Division, Georgia Department of Transportation, plans the extension of Georgia Highway 400 from Interstate 285 southward to Interstate 85. As part of this extension, the Highway Division plans construction of a bridge crossing Nancy Creek near Atlanta, Georgia. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Highway Division, determined the flood flow characteristics of Nancy Creek near the bridge crossing. The flood frequency, elevation discharge relation, flood profiles, floodway, and flood flow effects were determined. The maximum backwater effect for the proposed bridge and relocated channel was 0.2 ft for the 100-yr flood. The relocated channel will drastically shorten flow length near the proposed State Highway 400 extension and reduce the 100-yr flood elevation between one and two ft from existing conditions between the proposed site and Windsor Parkway. (Author 's abstract)

  19. The value of integrating information from multiple hazards for flood risk analysis and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Rodríguez, J. T.; Escuder-Bueno, I.; Altarejos-García, L.; Serrano-Lombillo, A.

    2014-02-01

    This article presents a methodology for estimating flood risk in urban areas integrating pluvial flooding, river flooding and failure of both small and large dams. The first part includes a review of basic concepts on flood risk analysis, evaluation and management. Flood risk analyses may be developed at local, regional and national level, however a general methodology to perform a quantitative flood risk analysis including different flood hazards is still required. The second part describes the proposed methodology, which presents an integrated approach - combining pluvial, river flooding and flooding from dam failure, as applied to a case study: an urban area located downstream of a dam under construction. The methodology enhances the approach developed within the SUFRI project ("Sustainable Strategies of Urban Flood Risk Management to cope with the residual risk", 2009-2011). This article also shows how outcomes from flood risk analysis provide better and more complete information to inform authorities, local entities and the stakeholders involved in decision-making with regard to flood risk management.

  20. Flood control and loss estimation for paddy field at midstream of Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cham, T. C.; Mitani, Y.

    2015-09-01

    2011 Thailand flood has brought serious impact to downstream of Chao Phraya River Basin. The flood peak period started from August, 2011 to the end of October, 2011. This research focuses on midstream of Chao Phraya River Basin, which is Nakhon Sawan area includes confluence of Nan River and Yom River, also confluence of Ping River and Nan River. The main purpose of this research is to understand the flood generation, estimate the flood volume and loss of paddy field, also recommends applicable flood counter measurement to ease the flood condition at downstream of Chao Phraya River Basin. In order to understand the flood condition, post-analysis is conducted at Nakhon Sawan. The post-analysis consists of field survey to measure the flood marks remained and interview with residents to understand living condition during flood. The 2011 Thailand flood generation at midstream is simulated using coupling of 1D and 2D hydrodynamic model to understand the flood generation during flood peak period. It is calibrated and validated using flood marks measured and streamflow data received from Royal Irrigation Department (RID). Validation of results shows good agreement between simulated result and actual condition. Subsequently, 3 scenarios of flood control are simulated and Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to assess the spatial distribution of flood extent and reduction of loss estimation at paddy field. In addition, loss estimation for paddy field at midstream is evaluated using GIS with the calculated inundation depth. Results show the proposed flood control at midstream able to minimize 5% of the loss of paddy field in 26 provinces.

  1. Reinforcing flood-risk estimation.

    PubMed

    Reed, Duncan W

    2002-07-15

    Flood-frequency estimation is inherently uncertain. The practitioner applies a combination of gauged data, scientific method and hydrological judgement to derive a flood-frequency curve for a particular site. The resulting estimate can be thought fully satisfactory only if it is broadly consistent with all that is reliably known about the flood-frequency behaviour of the river. The paper takes as its main theme the search for information to strengthen a flood-risk estimate made from peak flows alone. Extra information comes in many forms, including documentary and monumental records of historical floods, and palaeological markers. Meteorological information is also useful, although rainfall rarity is difficult to assess objectively and can be a notoriously unreliable indicator of flood rarity. On highly permeable catchments, groundwater levels present additional data. Other types of information are relevant to judging hydrological similarity when the flood-frequency estimate derives from data pooled across several catchments. After highlighting information sources, the paper explores a second theme: that of consistency in flood-risk estimates. Following publication of the Flood estimation handbook, studies of flood risk are now using digital catchment data. Automated calculation methods allow estimates by standard methods to be mapped basin-wide, revealing anomalies at special sites such as river confluences. Such mapping presents collateral information of a new character. Can this be used to achieve flood-risk estimates that are coherent throughout a river basin? PMID:12804255

  2. A framework for global river flood risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsemius, H. C.; Van Beek, L. P. H.; Jongman, B.; Ward, P. J.; Bouwman, A.

    2012-08-01

    There is an increasing need for strategic global assessments of flood risks in current and future conditions. In this paper, we propose a framework for global flood risk assessment for river floods, which can be applied in current conditions, as well as in future conditions due to climate and socio-economic changes. The framework's goal is to establish flood hazard and impact estimates at a high enough resolution to allow for their combination into a risk estimate. The framework estimates hazard at high resolution (~1 km2) using global forcing datasets of the current (or in scenario mode, future) climate, a global hydrological model, a global flood routing model, and importantly, a flood extent downscaling routine. The second component of the framework combines hazard with flood impact models at the same resolution (e.g. damage, affected GDP, and affected population) to establish indicators for flood risk (e.g. annual expected damage, affected GDP, and affected population). The framework has been applied using the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB, which includes an optional global flood routing model DynRout, combined with scenarios from the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE). We performed downscaling of the hazard probability distributions to 1 km2 resolution with a new downscaling algorithm, applied on Bangladesh as a first case-study application area. We demonstrate the risk assessment approach in Bangladesh based on GDP per capita data, population, and land use maps for 2010 and 2050. Validation of the hazard and damage estimates has been performed using the Dartmouth Flood Observatory database and damage estimates from the EM-DAT database and World Bank sources. We discuss and show sensitivities of the estimated risks with regard to the use of different climate input sets, decisions made in the downscaling algorithm, and different approaches to establish impact models.

  3. Simplified graphical tools for assessing flood-risk change over large flood-prone areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carisi, F.; Domeneghetti, A.; Castellarin, A.

    2015-06-01

    We propose and investigate the reliability of simplified graphical tools, which we term Hypsometric Vulnerability Curves, HVCs, for assessing flood vulnerability and risk over large geographical areas and for defining sustainable flood-risk mitigation strategies. These curves rely on the use of inundation scenarios simulated by means of quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2-D) hydrodynamic models that reproduce the hydraulic behaviour of the floodable area outside the main embankment system of the study river reach. We present an application of HVCs constructed on the basis of land use and census data collected during the last 50 years for assessing the recent dynamics of the flood vulnerability and risk over a large floodable area along a 350 km stretch of the River Po (Northern Italy). We also compared the proposed simplified approach with a traditional approach based on simulations performed with the fully-2-D hydrodynamic model TELEMAC-2-D, a widely employed and well-known 2-D finite-element scheme. By means of this comparison, we characterize the accuracy of the proposed simplified approach (i.e. quasi-2-D model and HVCs) for flood-risk assessment over large geographical areas and different historical land-use scenarios.

  4. Flood marks of the 1813 flood in the Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklanek, Pavol; Pekárová, Pavla; Halmová, Dana; Pramuk, Branislav; Bačová Mitková, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    In August 2013, 200 years have passed since the greatest and most destructive floods known in the Slovak river basins. The flood affected almost the entire territory of Slovakia, northeastern Moravia, south of Poland. River basins of Váh (Orava, Kysuca), Poprad, Nitra, Hron, Torysa, Hornád, upper and middle Vistula, Odra have been most affected. The aim of this paper is to map the flood marks documenting this catastrophic flood in Slovakia. Flood marks and registrations on the 1813 flood in the Váh river basin are characterized by great diversity and are written in Bernolák modification of Slovak, in Latin, German and Hungarian. Their descriptions are stored in municipal chronicles and Slovak and Hungarian state archives. The flood in 1813 devastated the entire Váh valley, as well as its tributaries. Following flood marks were known in the Vah river basin: Dolná Lehota village in the Orava river basin, historical map from 1817 covering the Sučany village and showing three different cross-sections of the Váh river during the 1813 flood, flood mark in the city of Trenčín, Flood mark in the gate of the Brunovce mansion, cross preserved at the old linden tree at Drahovce, and some records in written documents, e.g. Cifer village. The second part of the study deals with flood marks mapping in the Hron, Hnilec and Poprad River basins, and Vistula River basin in Krakow. On the basis of literary documents and the actual measurement, we summarize the peak flow rates achieved during the floods in 1813 in the profile Hron: Banská Bystrica. According to recent situation the 1813 flood peak was approximately by 1.22 m higher, than the flood in 1974. Also in the Poprad basin is the August 1813 flood referred as the most devastating flood in last 400 years. The position of the flood mark is known, but the building was unfortunately removed later. The water level in 1813 was much higher than the water level during the recent flood in June 2010. In Cracow the water level

  5. Generating precipitation ensembles for flood alert and risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caseri, Angelica; Javelle, Pierre; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Leblois, Etienne

    2015-04-01

    Floods represent one of the major natural disasters that are often responsible for fatalities and economic losses. Flood warning systems are needed to anticipate the arrival of severe events and mitigate their impacts. Flood alerts are particularly important for risk management and response in the nowcasting of flash floods. In this case, precipitation fields observed in real time play a crucial role and observational uncertainties must be taken into account. In this study, we investigate the potential of a framework which combines a geostatistical conditional simulation method that considers information from precipitation radar and rain gauges, and a distributed rainfall-runoff model to generate an ensemble of precipitation fields and produce probabilistic flood alert maps. We adapted the simulation method proposed by Leblois and Creutin (2013), based on the Turning Band Method (TBM) and a conditional simulation approach, to consider the temporal and spatial characteristics of radar data and rain gauge measurements altogether and generate precipitation ensembles. The AIGA system developed by Irstea and Météo-France for predicting flash floods in the French Mediterranean region (Javelle et al., 2014) was used to transform the generated precipitation ensembles into ensembles of discharge at the outlet of the studied catchments. Finally, discharge ensembles were translated into maps providing information on the probability of exceeding a given flood threshold. A total of 19 events that occurred between 2009 and 2013 in the Var region (southeastern France), a region prone to flash floods, was used to illustrate the approach. Results show that the proposed method is able to simulate an ensemble of realistic precipitation fields and capture peak flows of flash floods. This was shown to be particularly useful at ungauged catchments, where uncertainties on the evaluation of flood peaks are high. The results obtained also show that the approach developed can be used to

  6. Probable maximum flood control; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility.

  7. Flood risk under future climate in data sparse regions: Linking extreme value models and flood generating processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramblay, Yves; Amoussou, Ernest; Dorigo, Wouter; Mahé, Gil

    2014-11-01

    For many areas in the world, there is a need for future projections of flood risk in order to improve the possible mitigation actions. However, such an exercise is often made difficult in data-sparse regions, where the limited access to hydrometric data does not allow calibrating hydrological models in a robust way under non-stationary conditions. In this study we present an approach to estimate possible changes in flood risks, which incorporates flood generating processes into statistical models for extreme values. This approach is illustrated for a West African catchment, the Mono River (12,900 km2), with discharge, precipitation and temperature data available between 1988 and 2010 and where the dominant flood generating process is soil saturation. A soil moisture accounting (SMA) model, calibrated against a merged surface soil moisture microwave satellite dataset, is used to estimate the annual maximum soil saturation level that is related to the location parameter of a generalized extreme value model of annual maximum discharge. With such a model, it is possible to estimate the changes in flood quantiles from the changes in the annual maximum soil saturation level. An ensemble of regional climate models from the ENSEMBLES-AMMA project are then considered to estimate the potential future changes in soil saturation and subsequently the changes in flood risks for the period 2028-2050. A sensitivity analysis of the non-stationary flood quantiles has shown that with the projected changes on precipitation (-2%) and temperature (+1.22°) under the scenario A1B, the projected flood quantiles would stay in the range of the observed variability during 1988-2010. The proposed approach, relying on low data requirements, could be useful to estimate the projected changes in flood risks for other data-sparse catchments where the dominant flood-generating process is soil saturation.

  8. Floods on East Fork Mulberry Creek and Price Branch in the vicinity of Lynchburg, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    This flood hazard information report describes the extent and severity of the possible flooding along selected reaches of those streams listed above for watershed and channel conditions as of March 1986. It was prepared by TVA in response to a request from the town of Lynchburg for up-to-date information regarding the flood potential along the studied stream reaches in order to assist the town to better administer its floodplain management program. Detailed information is provided concerning the current flood threat along the studied stream reaches. The report does not propose plans for the solution of identified flood problems. Rather, it provides the flood information needed to make informed decisions regarding the use of flood-prone lands within the study area.

  9. A flood risk curve development for inundation disaster considering spatio-temporal rainfall distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Tachikawa, Y.; Yorozu, K.

    2015-06-01

    To manage flood disaster with an exceeding designed level, flood risk control based on appropriate risk assessment is essential. To make an integrated economic risk assessment by flood disaster, a flood risk curve, which is a relation between flood inundation damage and its exceedance probability, plays an important role. This research purposes a method to develop a flood risk curve by utilizing a probability distribution function of annual maximum rainfall through rainfall-runoff and inundation simulations so that risk assessment can consider climate and socio-economic changes. Among a variety of uncertainties, the method proposed in this study considered spatio-temporal rainfall distributions that have high uncertainty for damage estimation. The method was applied to the Yura-gawa river basin (1882 km2) in Japan; and the annual economic benefit of an existing dam in the basin was successfully quantified by comparing flood risk curves with/without the dam.

  10. Impact of rainfall spatial variability on Flash Flood Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douinot, Audrey; Roux, Hélène; Garambois, Pierre-André; Larnier, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    built for each studied catchment. The proposed methodology is applied on three Mediterranean catchments often submitted to flash floods. The new forecasting method as well as the Flash Flood Guidance method (uniform rainfall threshold) are tested on 25 flash floods events that had occurred on those catchments. Results show a significant impact of rainfall spatial variability. Indeed, it appears that the uniform rainfall threshold (FFG threshold) always overestimates the observed rainfall threshold. The difference between the FFG threshold and the proposed threshold ranges from 8% to 30%. The proposed methodology allows the calculation of a threshold more representative of the observed one. However, results strongly depend on the related event duration and on the catchment properties. For instance, the impact of the rainfall spatial variability seems to be correlated with the catchment size. According to these results, it seems to be interesting to introduce information on the catchment properties in the threshold calculation. Flash Flood Guidance Improvement Team, 2003. River Forecast Center (RFC) Development Management Team. Final Report. Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD), Silver Spring, Mary-land. Le Lay, M. and Saulnier, G.-M., 2007. Exploring the signature of climate and landscape spatial variabilities in flash flood events: Case of the 8-9 September 2002 Cévennes-Vivarais catastrophic event. Geophysical Research Letters, 34(L13401), doi:10.1029/2007GL029746. Roux, H., Labat, D., Garambois, P.-A., Maubourguet, M.-M., Chorda, J. and Dartus, D., 2011. A physically-based parsimonious hydrological model for flash floods in Mediterranean catchments. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. J1 - NHESS, 11(9), 2567-2582. Zoccatelli, D., Borga, M., Zanon, F., Antonescu, B. and Stancalie, G., 2010. Which rainfall spatial information for flash flood response modelling? A numerical investigation based on data from the Carpathian range, Romania. Journal of Hydrology, 394(1-2), 148-161.

  11. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards.

    PubMed

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability. PMID:25526847

  12. Flooding in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  13. Identification of flood-rich and flood-poor periods in flood series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediero, Luis; Santillán, David; Garrote, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a general concern about non-stationarity of flood series has arisen, as changes in catchment response can be driven by several factors, such as climatic and land-use changes. Several studies to detect trends in flood series at either national or trans-national scales have been conducted. Trends are usually detected by the Mann-Kendall test. However, the results of this test depend on the starting and ending year of the series, which can lead to different results in terms of the period considered. The results can be conditioned to flood-poor and flood-rich periods located at the beginning or end of the series. A methodology to identify statistically significant flood-rich and flood-poor periods is developed, based on the comparison between the expected sampling variability of floods when stationarity is assumed and the observed variability of floods in a given series. The methodology is applied to a set of long series of annual maximum floods, peaks over threshold and counts of annual occurrences in peaks over threshold series observed in Spain in the period 1942-2009. Mediero et al. (2014) found a general decreasing trend in flood series in some parts of Spain that could be caused by a flood-rich period observed in 1950-1970, placed at the beginning of the flood series. The results of this study support the findings of Mediero et al. (2014), as a flood-rich period in 1950-1970 was identified in most of the selected sites. References: Mediero, L., Santillán, D., Garrote, L., Granados, A. Detection and attribution of trends in magnitude, frequency and timing of floods in Spain, Journal of Hydrology, 517, 1072-1088, 2014.

  14. Cerberus Flood Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows streamlined landforms carved by catastrophic floods that occurred in the eastern Cerberus region, some time in the distant martian past.

    Location near: 15.1oN, 193.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  15. Catchment scale multi-objective flood management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Steve; Worrall, Peter; Rosolova, Zdenka; Hammond, Gene

    2010-05-01

    techniques will include: controlling headwater drainage, increasing evapotranspiration and interception by creating new woodlands in the upper catchment areas, enabling coarse woody debris dams to slow down water flows through steep valleys, improving soil water storage potential by appropriate soil and crop management, retaining water on lowland flood meadows and wet woodland creation within the floodplain. The project, due to run from 2009 until 2013, incorporates hydrometric and water quality monitoring, together with hydrologic and hydraulic modelling in order to attempt to demonstrate the effect of land management changes on flood dynamics and flood risk management. To date, the project team have undertaken the fundamental catchment characterisation work to understand its physical setting and the interaction of the physical processes that influence the hydrological response of the catchment to incident precipitation. The results of this initial work has led to the identification of a suitably robust hydrometric monitoring network within the catchments to meet the needs of providing both quantitative evidence of the impacts of land management change on flood risk, together with generating good quality datasets for the validation and testing of the new hydrologic models. As the project aims to demonstrate ‘best practice' in all areas, the opportunity has been taken to install a network of automatic hydrometric monitoring equipment, together with an associated telemetry system, in order to maximise data coverage, accuracy and reliability. Good quality datasets are a critical requirement for reliable modelling. The modelling will also be expanded to incorporate climate change scenarios. This paper will describe the catchment characterisation work undertaken to date, the proposed land management changes in relation to flood risk management, the initial catchment hydraulic modelling work and the implementation of the new hydrometric monitoring network within the study area.

  16. Technology tames midwest floods

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Millions glued to television sets across the nation watched as record breaking floods on the giant Missouri and Mississippi rivers rampaged through the Midwest. The summer saw heavy, unprecedented storms, pelting unrelenting rainfall on Minnesota, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Illinois, and Missouri. During June and July heavy rains fell 39 out of 54 days. Tributary reservoirs in Kansas, Missouri, and Iowa filled. Tens of thousands of volunteers worked round the clock piling sandbags into makeshift levees. The Missouri and Mississippi, sometimes destroying and washing away everything in their paths, crested at all time highs. The same satellite transmitting technology that let television viewers see storm fronts moving across the Midwest creating the disaster is also responsible for saving untold lives and mitigating flood losses estimated at more than $6 billion in the Missouri River Basin alone. A network of hundreds of automated Satellite Data Collection Platforms (DCPs) interfaced with self-reporting gauges, used to measure such crucial data as rainfall and river levels, to provide fast, reliable realtime weather and flood data.

  17. Probabilistic modeling of financial exposure to flood in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncoulon, David; Quantin, Antoine; Leblois, Etienne

    2014-05-01

    CCR is a French reinsurance company which offers natural catastrophe covers with the State guarantee. Within this framework, CCR develops its own models to assess its financial exposure to floods, droughts, earthquakes and other perils, and thus the exposure of insurers and the French State. A probabilistic flood model has been developed in order to estimate the financial exposure of the Nat Cat insurance market to flood events, depending on their annual occurrence probability. This presentation is organized in two parts. The first part is dedicated to the development of a flood hazard and damage model (ARTEMIS). The model calibration and validation on historical events are then described. In the second part, the coupling of ARTEMIS with two generators of probabilistic events is achieved: a stochastic flow generator and a stochastic spatialized precipitation generator, adapted from the SAMPO model developed by IRSTEA. The analysis of the complementary nature of these two generators is proposed: the first one allows generating floods on the French hydrological station network; the second allows simulating surface water runoff and Small River floods, even on ungauged rivers. Thus, the simulation of thousands of non-occured, but possible events allows us to provide for the first time an estimate of the financial exposure to flooding in France at different scales (commune, department, country) and from different points of view (hazard, vulnerability and damages).

  18. Deep degassing and the eruptibility of flood basalt magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, B. A.; Manga, M.

    2015-12-01

    Individual flood basalt lavas often exceed 103 km3 in volume, and many such lavas erupt during emplacement of flood basalt provinces. The large volume of individual flood basalt lavas demands correspondingly large magma reservoirs within or at the base of the crust. To erupt, some fraction of this magma must become buoyant and overpressure must be sufficient to encourage failure and dike propagation. Because the overpressure associated with a new injection of magma is inversely proportional to the total reservoir volume, buoyancy overpressure has been proposed as a trigger for flood basalt eruptions. To test this hypothesis, we develop a new one-dimensional model for buoyancy overpressure-driven eruptions that combines volatile exsolution, bubble growth and rise, assimilation, and permeable fluid escape through the surrounding country rocks. Degassing during emplacement of flood basalt provinces may have major environmental repercussions. We investigate the temporal evolution of permeable degassing through the crust and degassing during eruptive episodes. We find that assimilation of volatile-rich country rocks strongly enhances flood basalt eruptibility, implying that the eruptive dynamics of flood basalts may be intertwined with their climatic consequences.

  19. - and Cloud-Supported Geospatial Service Aggregation for Flood Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X.; Di, L.; Deng, M.; Chen, A.; Sun, Z.; Huang, C.; Shao, Y.; Ye, X.

    2015-07-01

    Flooding caused serious losses in China in the past two decades; therefore, responding to and mitigating the impact of flooding is a task of critical importance. The traditional flood response process is usually very time-consuming and labor-intensive. The Service-Oriented Architecture SOA-based flood response is a method with low efficiency due to the large volume of geospatial data transfer, and this method cannot meet the real-time requirement of a rapid response to flooding. This paper presents an Agent- and Cloud-supported geospatial service aggregation to obtain a more efficient geospatial service system for the response to flooding. The architecture of this method is designed and deployed on the Cloud environment, and the flooding response prototype system is built on the Amazon AWS Cloud to demonstrate that the proposed method can avoid transferring large volumes of geospatial data or Big Spatial Data. Consequently, this method is able to achieve better performance than that of the SOA-based method.

  20. Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

  1. Public perception of flood risks, flood forecasting and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilly, M.; Polic, M.

    2005-04-01

    A multidisciplinary and integrated approach to the flood mitigation decision making process should provide the best response of society in a flood hazard situation including preparation works and post hazard mitigation. In Slovenia, there is a great lack of data on social aspects and public response to flood mitigation measures and information management. In this paper, two studies of flood perception in the Slovenian town Celje are represented. During its history, Celje was often exposed to floods, the most recent serious floods being in 1990 and in 1998, with a hundred and fifty return period and more than ten year return period, respectively. Two surveys were conducted in 1997 and 2003, with 157 participants from different areas of the town in the first, and 208 in the second study, aiming at finding the general attitude toward the floods. The surveys revealed that floods present a serious threat in the eyes of the inhabitants, and that the perception of threat depends, to a certain degree, on the place of residence. The surveys also highlighted, among the other measures, solidarity and the importance of insurance against floods.

  2. Application of satellite products and hydrological modelling for flood early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koriche, Sifan A.; Rientjes, Tom H. M.

    2016-06-01

    Floods have caused devastating impacts to the environment and society in Awash River Basin, Ethiopia. Since flooding events are frequent, this marks the need to develop tools for flood early warning. In this study, we propose a satellite based flood index to identify the runoff source areas that largely contribute to extreme runoff production and floods in the basin. Satellite based products used for development of the flood index are CMORPH (Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique: 0.25° by 0.25°, daily) product for calculation of the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) for calculation of the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI). Other satellite products used in this study are for rainfall-runoff modelling to represent rainfall, potential evapotranspiration, vegetation cover and topography. Results of the study show that assessment of spatial and temporal rainfall variability by satellite products may well serve in flood early warning. Preliminary findings on effectiveness of the flood index developed in this study indicate that the index is well suited for flood early warning. The index combines SPI and TWI, and preliminary results illustrate the spatial distribution of likely runoff source areas that cause floods in flood prone areas.

  3. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Susceptibility Index - contribution to a vulnerability index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacinto, R.; Grosso, N.; Reis, E.; Dias, L.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2015-08-01

    This work defines a national flood susceptibility index for the Portuguese continental territory, by proposing the aggregation of different variables which represent natural conditions for permeability, runoff and accumulation. This index is part of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). This approach expands on previous works by trying to bridge the gap between different flood mechanisms (e.g. progressive and flash floods) occurring at different spatial scales in the Portuguese territory through (a) selecting homogeneously processed data sets and (b) aggregating their values to better translate the spatially continuous and cumulative influence in floods at multiple spatial scales. Results show a good ability to capture, in the higher susceptibility classes, different flood types: fluvial floods and flash floods. Lower values are usually related to mountainous areas, low water accumulation potential and more permeable soils. Validation with independent flood data sets confirmed these index characteristics, although some overestimation can be seen in the southern region of Alentejo where, due to a dense hydrographic network and an overall low slope, floods are not as frequent as a result of lower precipitation mean values. Future work will focus on (i) including extreme precipitation data sets to represent the triggering factor, (ii) improving representation of smaller and stepper basins, (iii) optimizing variable weight definition process and (iii) developing more robust independent flood validation data sets.

  4. Flood risk assessment in The Netherlands: a case study for dike ring South Holland.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N; Kok, Matthijs; Vrijling, Johannes K

    2008-10-01

    Large parts of The Netherlands are below sea level. Therefore, it is important to have insight into the possible consequences and risks of flooding. In this article, an analysis of the risks due to flooding of the dike ring area South Holland in The Netherlands is presented. For different flood scenarios the potential number of fatalities is estimated. Results indicate that a flood event in this area can expose large and densely populated areas and result in hundreds to thousands of fatalities. Evacuation of South Holland before a coastal flood will be difficult due to the large amount of time required for evacuation and the limited time available. By combination with available information regarding the probability of occurrence of different flood scenarios, the flood risks have been quantified. The probability of death for a person in South Holland due to flooding, the so-called individual risk, is small. The probability of a flood disaster with many fatalities, the so-called societal risk, is relatively large in comparison with the societal risks in other sectors in The Netherlands, such as the chemical sector and aviation. The societal risk of flooding appears to be unacceptable according to some of the existing risk limits that have been proposed in literature. These results indicate the necessity of a further societal discussion on the acceptable level of flood risk in The Netherlands and the need for additional risk reducing measures. PMID:18761731

  5. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Susceptibility Index - contribution for a vulnerability index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacinto, R.; Grosso, N.; Reis, E.; Dias, L.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2014-12-01

    This work defines a national flood susceptibility index for the Portuguese continental territory, by proposing the aggregation of different variables which represent natural conditions for permeability, runoff and accumulation. This index is part of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). This approach expands on previous works by trying to bridge the gap between different floods mechanisms (e.g. progressive and flash floods) occurring at different spatial scales in the Portuguese territory through: (a) selecting homogeneously processed datasets, (b) aggregating their values to better translate the spatially continuous and cumulative influence in floods at multiple spatial scales. Results show a good ability to capture, in the higher susceptibility classes, different flood types: progressive floods and flash floods. Lower values are usually related to: mountainous areas, low water accumulation potential and more permeable soils. Validation with independent flood datasets confirmed these index characteristics, although some overestimation can be seen in the southern region of Alentejo where, due to a dense hydrographic network and an overall low slope, floods are not as frequent as a result of lower precipitation mean values. Future work will focus on: (i) including extreme precipitation datasets to represent the triggering factor, (ii) improving representation of smaller and stepper basins, (iii) optimizing variable weight definition process, (iii) developing more robust independent flood validation datasets.

  6. Quantifying riverine and storm-surge flood risk by single-family residence: application to Texas.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Kunreuther, Howard; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann

    2013-12-01

    The development of catastrophe models in recent years allows for assessment of the flood hazard much more effectively than when the federally run National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) was created in 1968. We propose and then demonstrate a methodological approach to determine pure premiums based on the entire distribution of possible flood events. We apply hazard, exposure, and vulnerability analyses to a sample of 300,000 single-family residences in two counties in Texas (Travis and Galveston) using state-of-the-art flood catastrophe models. Even in zones of similar flood risk classification by FEMA there is substantial variation in exposure between coastal and inland flood risk. For instance, homes in the designated moderate-risk X500/B zones in Galveston are exposed to a flood risk on average 2.5 times greater than residences in X500/B zones in Travis. The results also show very similar average annual loss (corrected for exposure) for a number of residences despite their being in different FEMA flood zones. We also find significant storm-surge exposure outside of the FEMA designated storm-surge risk zones. Taken together these findings highlight the importance of a microanalysis of flood exposure. The process of aggregating risk at a flood zone level-as currently undertaken by FEMA-provides a false sense of uniformity. As our analysis indicates, the technology to delineate the flood risks exists today. PMID:23781922

  7. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Flood Insurance Program (see 44 CFR part 59 et seq.) provides for a standard flood insurance policy... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788.3 Agriculture... Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood...

  8. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Flood Insurance Program (see 44 CFR part 59 et seq.) provides for a standard flood insurance policy... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788.3 Agriculture... Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood...

  9. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Flood Insurance Program (see 44 CFR part 59 et seq.) provides for a standard flood insurance policy... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788.3 Agriculture... Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood...

  10. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Flood Insurance Program (see 44 CFR part 59 et seq.) provides for a standard flood insurance policy... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788.3 Agriculture... Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood...

  11. Estimation of Flood Inundation Extent Using Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H.; Wang, Y.; Cheng, I.; Chang, L.

    2008-12-01

    Establishing the flood and inundation forecasting systems may provide the flood disaster and extent information that will be helpful to deal with some contingencies and emergencies, then alleviate the risk and losses of the flood disasters. The conventional simulations of flood inundation extent need a huge amount of data and computing time by using a series of numerical models; moreover, it is necessary to simulate some different conditions beforehand. It is really difficult to reach on-line simulation and forecast of the inundation extent. The main purpose of this study is to propose the methodology of the inundation extent estimation model in the small watershed by using artificial neural network. In order to solve the lack of the observed hydrological data, this study uses the flood inundation potential maps as the training data of neural networks; then, innovates the methodology for building the inundation extent estimation model. For evaluating the practicability and accuracy of the proposed approach is tested in Fong-Shan City in Southern Taiwan as a case study. The results show that the ANN can be applied with high accuracy to the study of estimating flood inundation extent.

  12. The Semantic Network of Flood Hydrological Data for Kelantan, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Aziyati; Din, Norashidah Md; Yussof, Salman; Ullah Khan, Samee

    2016-03-01

    Every year, authorities in Malaysia are putting efforts on disaster management mechanisms including the flood incidence that might hit the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This includes the state of Kelantan of which it was reported that flood is just a normal event occurred annually. However, the aftermath was always unmanageable and had left the state to struggle for its own recoveries. Though it was expected that flood occurred every year, among the worst were in 1967, 1974, 1982 and recently in December 2014. This study is proposing a semantic network as an approach to the method of utilising big data analytics in analysing the huge data from the state’s flood reading stations. It is expected that by using current computing edge can also facilitate mitigating this particular disaster.

  13. Satellite remote sensing for land use and flooding duration monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoz, A.; Chauvelon, P.; Pichaud, M.

    2009-04-01

    We show limits and potential applications of satellite images linked with agricultural and natural habitats and flooded duration problematic. Satellite images could play a major role in the study and monitoring context. When we started our satellite images collection in 1975, it allowed us to map annual variations of habitats and flooded areas. Since the year 2004, we've acquired an important quantity of Spot 5 images through a special programming (ISIS program), which cover the area during all the hydrological year. Using them, the knowledge of spatiotemporal dynamics of habitats and flooded areas, could then, be formalised in a much better way. We present results of inventory and monitoring in the Rhone delta context, South of France, an area of high wetland biodiversity in a Mediterranean catchment area. Our objective is to propose an operational methodology for inventory and monitoring of wetland habitats and wetland flooded duration. The exceptional spatial and temporal resolution sharpness is demonstrated.

  14. Probabilistic flood hazard mapping: effects of uncertain boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, A.; Vorogushyn, S.; Castellarin, A.; Merz, B.; Brath, A.

    2013-08-01

    Comprehensive flood risk assessment studies should quantify the global uncertainty in flood hazard estimation, for instance by mapping inundation extents together with their confidence intervals. This appears of particular importance in the case of flood hazard assessments along dike-protected reaches, where the possibility of occurrence of dike failures may considerably enhance the uncertainty. We present a methodology to derive probabilistic flood maps in dike-protected flood prone areas, where several sources of uncertainty are taken into account. In particular, this paper focuses on a 50 km reach of River Po (Italy) and three major sources of uncertainty in hydraulic modelling and flood mapping: uncertainties in the (i) upstream and (ii) downstream boundary conditions, and (iii) uncertainties in dike failures. Uncertainties in the definition of upstream boundary conditions (i.e. design-hydrographs) are assessed through a copula-based bivariate analysis of flood peaks and volumes. Uncertainties in the definition of downstream boundary conditions are characterised by uncertainty in the rating curve with confidence intervals which reflect discharge measurement and interpolation errors. The effects of uncertainties in boundary conditions and randomness of dike failures are assessed by means of the Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM), a recently proposed hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model that considers three different dike failure mechanisms: overtopping, piping and micro-instability due to seepage. The results of the study show that the IHAM-based analysis enables probabilistic flood hazard mapping and provides decision-makers with a fundamental piece of information for devising and implementing flood risk mitigation strategies in the presence of various sources of uncertainty.

  15. Effects of rating-curve uncertainty on probabilistic flood mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, A.; Vorogushyn, S.; Castellarin, A.; Merz, B.; Brath, A.

    2012-08-01

    Comprehensive flood risk assessment studies should quantify the global uncertainty in flood hazard estimation, for instance by mapping inundation extents together with their confidence intervals. This appears of particular importance in case of flood hazard assessments along dike-protected reaches where the possibility of occurrence of dike failures may considerably enhance the uncertainty. We present a methodology to derive probabilistic flood maps in dike-protected flood prone areas, where several sources of uncertainty are taken into account. In particular, this paper focuses on a 50 km reach of River Po (Italy) and three major sources of uncertainty in hydraulic modelling and flood mapping: uncertainties in the (i) upstream and (ii) downstream boundary conditions, and (iii) uncertainties in dike failures. Uncertainties in the definition of upstream boundary conditions (i.e. design-hydrographs) are assessed by applying different bivariate copula families to model the frequency regime of flood peaks and volumes. Uncertainties in the definition of downstream boundary conditions are characterised by associating the rating-curve used as downstream boundary condition with confidence intervals which reflect discharge measurements errors and interpolation errors. The effects of uncertainties in boundary conditions and randomness of dike failures are assessed by means of the Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM), a recently proposed hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model that considers three different failure mechanisms: overtopping, piping and micro-instability due to seepage. The results of the study show that the IHAM-based analysis enables probabilistic flood hazard mapping and provides decision makers with a fundamental piece of information for devising and implementing flood risk mitigation strategies in the presence of various sources of uncertainty.

  16. Dynamic flood risk: case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano

    2013-04-01

    While many progresses have been made in the static assessment of (current) flood risk, additional transdisciplinary research is required for the development of new methods for the dynamic assessment of (future) flood risk, which is very much needed in a rapidly changing environment. To this end, it is essential to understand why flood risk has changed in the past. This presentation shows the scientific outcomes of diverse case studies (the Po river in Italy and a number of African rivers), whereby data and models are utilized to analyse and interpret the dynamics of flood risk. In particular, a number of hypotheses were tested by considering different agents of change, such as climate and/or land-use, flood prevention measures, human population dynamics. These case studies show that one of the main challenges in assessing (dynamic) flood risk is the deep interconnection not only between the different agents of change, but also between the components of risk (i.e. hazard, exposure, vulnerability or resilience). For instance, changes in flood hazard often trigger changes in exposure and vulnerability to flooding, and vice versa. These complex interactions seem to make predictions of future flood risk over long time scales rather difficult, if not impossible.

  17. Flood Risk Due to Hurricane Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivera, Francisco; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Irish, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the expected economic losses caused by hurricane inundation. We used surge response functions, which are physics-based dimensionless scaling laws that give surge elevation as a function of the hurricane's parameters (i.e., central pressure, radius, forward speed, approach angle and landfall location) at specified locations along the coast. These locations were close enough to avoid significant changes in surge elevations between consecutive points, and distant enough to minimize calculations. The probability of occurrence of a surge elevation value at a given location was estimated using a joint probability distribution of the hurricane parameters. The surge elevation, at the shoreline, was assumed to project horizontally inland within a polygon of influence. Individual parcel damage was calculated based on flood water depth and damage vs. depth curves available for different building types from the HAZUS computer application developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Parcel data, including property value and building type, were obtained from the county appraisal district offices. The expected economic losses were calculated as the sum of the products of the estimated parcel damages and their probability of occurrence for the different storms considered. Anticipated changes for future climate scenarios were considered by accounting for projected hurricane intensification, as indicated by sea surface temperature rise, and sea level rise, which modify the probability distribution of hurricane central pressure and change the baseline of the damage calculation, respectively. Maps of expected economic losses have been developed for Corpus Christi in Texas, Gulfport in Mississippi and Panama City in Florida. Specifically, for Port Aransas, in the Corpus Christi area, it was found that the expected economic losses were in the range of 1% to 4% of the property value for current climate conditions, of 1% to 8% for the 2030's and

  18. Flood resilience urban territories. Flood resilience urban territories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraud, Hélène; Barroca, Bruno; Hubert, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    The flood's impact during the last twenty years on French territory reveals our lack of preparation towards large-extended floods which might cause the stopping of companies' activity, services, or lead to housing unavailability during several months. New Orleans' case has to exemplify us: four years after the disaster, the city still couldn't get back its dynamism. In France, more than 300 towns are flood-exposed. While these towns are the mainspring of territory's development, it is likely that the majority of them couldn't get up quickly after a large-extended flood. Therefore, to understand and improve the urban territory's resilience facing floods is a real stake for territory's development. Urban technical networks supply, unify and irrigate all urban territories' constituents. Characterizing their flood resilience can be interesting to understand better urban resilience. In this context, waste management during and after floods is completely crucial. During a flood, the waste management network can become dysfunctional (roads cut, waste storage installations or waste treatment flooded). How can the mayor respect his obligation to guarantee salubrity and security in his city? In post flood the question is even more problematic. The waste management network presents a real stake for territory's restart. After a flood, building materials, lopped-of branches, furniture, business stocks, farm stocks, mud, rubbles, animal cadavers are wet, mixed, even polluted by hydrocarbons or toxic substances. The waste's volume can be significant. Sanitary and environmental risks can be crucial. In view of this situation, waste's management in post crisis period raises a real problem. What to make of this waste? How to collect it? Where to stock it? How to process it? Who is responsible? Answering these questions is all the more strategic since this waste is the mark of disaster. Thus, cleaning will be the first population's and local actor's reflex in order to forget the

  19. Tharsis Flood Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows channels carved by catastrophic floods in the Tharsis region of Mars. This area is located northwest of the volcano, Jovis Tholus, and east of the large martian volcano, Olympus Mons. The terrain is presently mantled with fine dust.

    Location near: 20.8oN, 118.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  20. Floods in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows flooding in central China on July 4, 2002. In the false-color image vegetation appears orange and water appears dark blue to black. Because of the cloud cover and the fact that some of the water is filled with sediment, the false-color image provides a clearer picture of where rivers have exceeded their banks and lakes have risen. The river in this image is the Yangtze River, and the large lake is the Poyang Hu. Credits: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  1. Flooding in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. 78 FR 14318 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or regulatory floodways on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may...

  3. Ontogeny of a flood plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Pizzuto, J.E.; Meade, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The ontogeny of five flood-plain segments is described for a period of 18 yr following a major flood in 1978 on the Powder River in southeastern Montana. The flood plains developed on relatively elevated sand and gravel deposits left within the channel by the 1978 flood. In cross section, the flood plains resemble benches with well-developed natural levees. Flood-plain growth occurred as sediment was draped onto preexisting surfaces in layers of sand and mud a few centimeters to decimeters thick, resulting in some lateral, but mostly vertical accretion. Annual and biannual measurements indicated that, as the flood-plain segments grew upward, the annual rate of vertical accretion decreased as the partial duration recurrence interval for the threshold or bankfull discharge increased from 0.16 to 1.3 yr. It is clear that a constant recurrence interval for overbank flow cannot be meaningfully assigned to this type of flood-plain ontogeny. These flood plains did not grow on migrating point bars, and vertical accretion at least initially occurred within the channel, rather than across the valley flat during extensive overbank flows. Sediments of these flood plains define narrow, elongated stratigraphic units that border the active channel and onlap older flood-plain deposits. These characteristics are considerably different from those of many facies models for meandering river deposits. Facies similar to those described in this paper are likely to be preserved, thereby providing important evidence in the geologic record for episodes of periodic channel expansion by ancient rivers.

  4. Flood hazard probability mapping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantari, Zahra; Lyon, Steve; Folkeson, Lennart

    2015-04-01

    In Sweden, spatially explicit approaches have been applied in various disciplines such as landslide modelling based on soil type data and flood risk modelling for large rivers. Regarding flood mapping, most previous studies have focused on complex hydrological modelling on a small scale whereas just a few studies have used a robust GIS-based approach integrating most physical catchment descriptor (PCD) aspects on a larger scale. The aim of the present study was to develop methodology for predicting the spatial probability of flooding on a general large scale. Factors such as topography, land use, soil data and other PCDs were analysed in terms of their relative importance for flood generation. The specific objective was to test the methodology using statistical methods to identify factors having a significant role on controlling flooding. A second objective was to generate an index quantifying flood probability value for each cell, based on different weighted factors, in order to provide a more accurate analysis of potential high flood hazards than can be obtained using just a single variable. The ability of indicator covariance to capture flooding probability was determined for different watersheds in central Sweden. Using data from this initial investigation, a method to subtract spatial data for multiple catchments and to produce soft data for statistical analysis was developed. It allowed flood probability to be predicted from spatially sparse data without compromising the significant hydrological features on the landscape. By using PCD data, realistic representations of high probability flood regions was made, despite the magnitude of rain events. This in turn allowed objective quantification of the probability of floods at the field scale for future model development and watershed management.

  5. Flood Risk, Flood Mitigation, and Location Choice: Evaluating the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qin; Davlasheridze, Meri

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to worsen the negative effects of natural disasters like floods. The negative impacts, however, can be mitigated by individuals' adjustments through migration and relocation behaviors. Previous literature has identified flood risk as one significant driver in relocation decisions, but no prior study examines the effect of the National Flood Insurance Program's voluntary program-the Community Rating System (CRS)-on residential location choice. This article fills this gap and tests the hypothesis that flood risk and the CRS-creditable flood control activities affect residential location choices. We employ a two-stage sorting model to empirically estimate the effects. In the first stage, individuals' risk perception and preference heterogeneity for the CRS activities are considered, while mean effects of flood risk and the CRS activities are estimated in the second stage. We then estimate heterogeneous marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for the CRS activities by category. Results show that age, ethnicity and race, educational attainment, and prior exposure to risk explain risk perception. We find significant values for the CRS-creditable mitigation activities, which provides empirical evidence for the benefits associated with the program. The marginal WTP for an additional credit point earned for public information activities, including hazard disclosure, is found to be the highest. Results also suggest that water amenities dominate flood risk. Thus, high amenity values may increase exposure to flood risk, and flood mitigation projects should be strategized in coastal regions accordingly. PMID:26552993

  6. A framework for global river flood risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsemius, H. C.; Van Beek, L. P. H.; Bouwman, A.; Ward, P. J.; Jongman, B.

    2012-04-01

    There is an increasing need for strategic global assessments of flood risks. Such assessments may be required by: (a) International Financing Institutes and Disaster Management Agencies to evaluate where, when, and which investments in flood risk mitigation are most required; (b) (re-)insurers, who need to determine their required coverage capital; and (c) large companies to account for risks of regional investments. In this contribution, we propose a framework for global river flood risk assessment. The framework combines coarse scale resolution hazard probability distributions, derived from global hydrological model runs (typical scale about 0.5 degree resolution) with high resolution estimates of exposure indicators. The high resolution is required because floods typically occur at a much smaller scale than the typical resolution of global hydrological models, and exposure indicators such as population, land use and economic value generally are strongly variable in space and time. The framework therefore estimates hazard at a high resolution ( 1 km2) by using a) global forcing data sets of the current (or in scenario mode, future) climate; b) a global hydrological model; c) a global flood routing model, and d) importantly, a flood spatial downscaling routine. This results in probability distributions of annual flood extremes as an indicator of flood hazard, at the appropriate resolution. A second component of the framework combines the hazard probability distribution with classical flood impact models (e.g. damage, affected GDP, affected population) to establish indicators for flood risk. The framework can be applied with a large number of datasets and models and sensitivities of such choices can be evaluated by the user. The framework is applied using the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB, combined with a global flood routing model. Downscaling of the hazard probability distributions to 1 km2 resolution is performed with a new downscaling algorithm, applied

  7. Quantifying Floods of a Flood Regime in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipple, A. A.; Fleenor, W. E.; Viers, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Interaction between a flood hydrograph and floodplain topography results in spatially and temporally variable conditions important for ecosystem process and function. Individual floods whose frequency and dimensionality comprise a river's flood regime contribute to that variability and in aggregate are important drivers of floodplain ecosystems. Across the globe, water management actions, land use changes as well as hydroclimatic change associated with climate change have profoundly affected natural flood regimes and their expression within the floodplain landscape. Homogenization of riverscapes has degraded once highly diverse and productive ecosystems. Improved understanding of the range of flood conditions and spatial variability within floodplains, or hydrospatial conditions, is needed to improve water and land management and restoration activities to support the variable conditions under which species adapted. This research quantifies the flood regime of a floodplain site undergoing restoration through levee breaching along the lower Cosumnes River of California. One of the few lowland alluvial rivers of California with an unregulated hydrograph and regular floodplain connectivity, the Cosumnes River provides a useful test-bed for exploring river-floodplain interaction. Representative floods of the Cosumnes River are selected from previously-established flood types comprising the flood regime and applied within a 2D hydrodynamic model representing the floodplain restoration site. Model output is analyzed and synthesized to quantify and compare conditions in space and time, using metrics such as depth and velocity. This research establishes methods for quantifying a flood regime's floodplain inundation characteristics, illustrates the role of flow variability and landscape complexity in producing heterogeneous floodplain conditions, and suggests important implications for managing more ecologically functional floodplains.

  8. Predicting Flood Hazards in Systems with Multiple Flooding Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, A.; Schubert, J.; Cheng, L.; AghaKouchak, A.; Sanders, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    Delineating flood zones in systems that are susceptible to flooding from a single mechanism (riverine flooding) is a relatively well defined procedure with specific guidance from agencies such as FEMA and USACE. However, there is little guidance in delineating flood zones in systems that are susceptible to flooding from multiple mechanisms such as storm surge, waves, tidal influence, and riverine flooding. In this study, a new flood mapping method which accounts for multiple extremes occurring simultaneously is developed and exemplified. The study site in which the method is employed is the Tijuana River Estuary (TRE) located in Southern California adjacent to the U.S./Mexico border. TRE is an intertidal coastal estuary that receives freshwater flows from the Tijuana River. Extreme discharge from the Tijuana River is the primary driver of flooding within TRE, however tide level and storm surge also play a significant role in flooding extent and depth. A comparison between measured flows at the Tijuana River and ocean levels revealed a correlation between extreme discharge and ocean height. Using a novel statistical method based upon extreme value theory, ocean heights were predicted conditioned up extreme discharge occurring within the Tijuana River. This statistical technique could also be applied to other systems in which different factors are identified as the primary drivers of flooding, such as significant wave height conditioned upon tide level, for example. Using the predicted ocean levels conditioned upon varying return levels of discharge as forcing parameters for the 2D hydraulic model BreZo, the 100, 50, 20, and 10 year floodplains were delineated. The results will then be compared to floodplains delineated using the standard methods recommended by FEMA for riverine zones with a downstream ocean boundary.

  9. Flood-related mortality--Missouri, 1993.

    PubMed

    1993-12-10

    Public health surveillance documented the impact of flood-related morbidity following the floods in the midwestern United States during the summer of 1993 (1,2). Because of extensive flooding of the Missouri and Mississippi rivers and their tributaries, the Missouri Department of Health (MDH) initiated surveillance to monitor flood-related mortality. This report summarizes epidemiologic information about deaths in Missouri that resulted from riverine flooding and flash flooding during the summer and fall of 1993. PMID:8246857

  10. Floods in the Raccoon River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains requires information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitude and frequency, bench mark data, and flood profiles for the Raccoon River and some of its tributaries. Ir covers the Raccoon River, the North Raccoon River to the northern boundary of Sac County and the lower reaches of the Middle and South Raccoon Rivers.

  11. Flooding in Southern Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

  12. Flooding along Danube River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heavy rains in Central and Eastern Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in over a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Danube River and its tributaries was taken on August 19, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Budapest, the capital of Hungary, sits just south of the large bend in the river at the top of the image. Here the water reached levels not seen since 1965. Fortunately, the riverbanks are lined with 33-foot retainer walls throughout the city, so it did not face the same fate as Dresden or Prague along the Elbe River. But as one can see, the floodwaters hit many rural areas farther south. As last reported, the water was receding along the Danube. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  13. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  14. Carnivorous arthropods after spring flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spring flooding is a common practice in Wisconsin cranberries, but flooding as insect control produces variable results among marshes. This project is aimed at figuring out why it works, and why it sometimes doesn’t. We have focused on tracking arthropod populations to explain the observed patterns ...

  15. Impacts of dyke development in flood prone areas in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta to downstream flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanh Triet Nguyen, Van; Dung Nguyen, Viet; Fujii, Hideto; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Chau and Chau Doc. The MK test statistic results (Z) for these stations are -0.23, -1.39 and -0.84 respectively. In contrary, significant increasing trend (at α = 1%) of annual flood peak at Can Tho and My Thuan is calculated, with the Z value are 5.20 and 4.28. A Monte Carlo experiment by adding assumed observation errors of 5%, 10% and 15% results in similar trend for these stations. After the trend analysis, a set of scenarios are generated based on various hydrological boundaries, infrastructure developments and climate change scenarios. The scenarios are simulated with the quasi-2D hydrodynamic model for the Mekong Delta (Dung, 2011; Manh, 2014) in order to separate and quantify the impacts of flood protection measures to the flood regime in the lower part of the delta in a spatially explicit manner, with a special focus on the urban and economic centers Can Tho and My Thuan. Based on these scenarios the change in flood hazard caused by the infrastructure development that has to be expected is described and possible mitigation actions are proposed.

  16. Probabilistic floodplain hazard mapping: managing uncertainty by using a bivariate approach for flood frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, Angela; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Floods are a global problem and are considered the most frequent natural disaster world-wide. Many studies show that the severity and frequency of floods have increased in recent years and underline the difficulty to separate the effects of natural climatic changes and human influences as land management practices, urbanization etc. Flood risk analysis and assessment is required to provide information on current or future flood hazard and risks in order to accomplish flood risk mitigation, to propose, evaluate and select measures to reduce it. Both components of risk can be mapped individually and are affected by multiple uncertainties as well as the joint estimate of flood risk. Major sources of uncertainty include statistical analysis of extremes events, definition of hydrological input, channel and floodplain topography representation, the choice of effective hydraulic roughness coefficients. The classical procedure to estimate flood discharge for a chosen probability of exceedance is to deal with a rainfall-runoff model associating to risk the same return period of original rainfall, in accordance with the iso-frequency criterion. Alternatively, a flood frequency analysis to a given record of discharge data is applied, but again the same probability is associated to flood discharges and respective risk. Moreover, since flood peaks and corresponding flood volumes are variables of the same phenomenon, they should be, directly, correlated and, consequently, multivariate statistical analyses must be applied. This study presents an innovative approach to obtain flood hazard maps where hydrological input (synthetic flood design event) to a 2D hydraulic model has been defined by generating flood peak discharges and volumes from: a) a classical univariate approach, b) a bivariate statistical analysis, through the use of copulas. The univariate approach considers flood hydrographs generation by an indirect approach (rainfall-runoff transformation using input rainfall

  17. Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

    2009-04-01

    will be informed on how and how much their systems are vulnerable. It is a first level of information that has to be completed to become a real decision making tool. Indeed, we have seen that major floods cause almost always failures in the flood defense system. So potentially the city could face a flood event and managers recovery works. Knowing the vulnerability of the city, direct and indirect impacts, how can managers optimize recovery actions? Our research will focus first on proposing recovery scenarios based on the city system and second on vulnerability indicators to first limit damages during floods and to speed up recovery actions. At last, a GIS will be developed to assist stakeholders to take spatial measures to reduce city system weakness before a flood event and to help them to decide on how to optimize recovery actions after a flood event. Dealing with these two temporal scales will allow obtaining more flood resilient cities.

  18. A New Holistic Security Approach for Government Critical Systems: Flooding Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhabeeb, Mohammed; Almuhaideb, Abdullah; Le, Phu Dung; Srinivasan, Bala

    Flooding attack is a threat to services in the Internet. They can cause significant financial losses. This paper presents a new holistic security approach which prevents flooding in the government critical systems. A new corporation with local service providers has been suggested to finding the real source of the flooding attacks. In addition, a new concept of a dynamic-multi-communicationpoint is included to make the prevention of flooding attacks easier. Also the dynamic key encryption technique is adapted as a part of the proposed approach to enhance its functionality.

  19. Optimized Flood Forecasts Using a Statistical Enemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Micha; Fredj, Erick

    2016-04-01

    The method presented here assembles an optimized flood forecast from a set of consecutive WRF-Hydro simulations by applying coefficients which we derive from straightforward statistical procedures. Several government and research institutions that produce climate data offer ensemble forecasts, which merge predictions from different models to gain a more accurate fit to observed data. Existing ensemble forecasts present climate and weather predictions only. In this research we propose a novel approach to constructing hydrological ensembles for flood forecasting. The ensemble flood forecast is created by combining predictions from the same model, but initiated at different times. An operative flood forecasting system, run by the Israeli Hydrological Service, produces flood forecasts twice daily with a 72 hour forecast period. By collating the output from consecutive simulation runs we have access to multiple overlapping forecasts. We then apply two statistical procedures to blend these consecutive forecasts, resulting in a very close fit to observed flood runoff. We first employ cross-correlation with a time lag to determine a time shift for each of the original, consecutive forecasts. This shift corrects for two possible sources of error: slow or fast moving weather fronts in the base climate data; and mis-calibrations of the WRF-Hydro model in determining the rate of flow of surface runoff and in channels. We apply this time shift to all consecutive forecasts, then run a linear regression with the observed runoff data as the dependent variable and all shifted forecasts as the predictor variables. The solution to the linear regression equation is a set of coefficients that corrects the amplitude errors in the forecasts. These resulting regression coefficients are then applied to the consecutive forecasts producing a statistical ensemble which, by design, closely matches the observed runoff. After performing this procedure over many storm events in the Negev region

  20. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.