#### Sample records for fractal em mercados

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

1991-01-01

Develops the idea of fractals through a laboratory activity that calculates the fractal dimension of ordinary white bread. Extends use of the fractal dimension to compare other complex structures as other breads and sponges. (MDH)

2. Fractal Movies.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Osler, Thomas J.

1999-01-01

Because fractal images are by nature very complex, it can be inspiring and instructive to create the code in the classroom and watch the fractal image evolve as the user slowly changes some important parameter or zooms in and out of the image. Uses programming language that permits the user to store and retrieve a graphics image as a disk file.…

3. The Language of Fractals.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jurgens, Hartmut; And Others

1990-01-01

The production and application of images based on fractal geometry are described. Discussed are fractal language groups, fractal image coding, and fractal dialects. Implications for these applications of geometry to mathematics education are suggested. (CW)

4. A Brief Historical Introduction to Fractals and Fractal Geometry

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Debnath, Lokenath

2006-01-01

This paper deals with a brief historical introduction to fractals, fractal dimension and fractal geometry. Many fractals including the Cantor fractal, the Koch fractal, the Minkowski fractal, the Mandelbrot and Given fractal are described to illustrate self-similar geometrical figures. This is followed by the discovery of dynamical systems and…

5. Music and fractals

Wuorinen, Charles

2015-03-01

Any of the arts may produce exemplars that have fractal characteristics. There may be fractal painting, fractal poetry, and the like. But these will always be specific instances, not necessarily displaying intrinsic properties of the art-medium itself. Only music, I believe, of all the arts possesses an intrinsically fractal character, so that its very nature is fractally determined. Thus, it is reasonable to assert that any instance of music is fractal...

6. Magnetohydrodynamics of fractal media

SciTech Connect

Tarasov, Vasily E.

2006-05-15

The fractal distribution of charged particles is considered. An example of this distribution is the charged particles that are distributed over the fractal. The fractional integrals are used to describe fractal distribution. These integrals are considered as approximations of integrals on fractals. Typical turbulent media could be of a fractal structure and the corresponding equations should be changed to include the fractal features of the media. The magnetohydrodynamics equations for fractal media are derived from the fractional generalization of integral Maxwell equations and integral hydrodynamics (balance) equations. Possible equilibrium states for these equations are considered.

7. Fractal vector optical fields.

PubMed

Pan, Yue; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Guan-Lin; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

2016-07-15

We introduce the concept of a fractal, which provides an alternative approach for flexibly engineering the optical fields and their focal fields. We propose, design, and create a new family of optical fields-fractal vector optical fields, which build a bridge between the fractal and vector optical fields. The fractal vector optical fields have polarization states exhibiting fractal geometry, and may also involve the phase and/or amplitude simultaneously. The results reveal that the focal fields exhibit self-similarity, and the hierarchy of the fractal has the "weeding" role. The fractal can be used to engineer the focal field. PMID:27420485

8. Chaos, Fractals, and Polynomials.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tylee, J. Louis; Tylee, Thomas B.

1996-01-01

Discusses chaos theory; linear algebraic equations and the numerical solution of polynomials, including the use of the Newton-Raphson technique to find polynomial roots; fractals; search region and coordinate systems; convergence; and generating color fractals on a computer. (LRW)

9. Chaos and Fractals.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Barton, Ray

1990-01-01

Presented is an educational game called "The Chaos Game" which produces complicated fractal images. Two basic computer programs are included. The production of fractal images by the Sierpinski gasket and the Chaos Game programs is discussed. (CW)

10. Fractals in the Classroom

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fraboni, Michael; Moller, Trisha

2008-01-01

Fractal geometry offers teachers great flexibility: It can be adapted to the level of the audience or to time constraints. Although easily explained, fractal geometry leads to rich and interesting mathematical complexities. In this article, the authors describe fractal geometry, explain the process of iteration, and provide a sample exercise.…

11. Fractal image compression

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barnsley, Michael F.; Sloan, Alan D.

1989-01-01

Fractals are geometric or data structures which do not simplify under magnification. Fractal Image Compression is a technique which associates a fractal to an image. On the one hand, the fractal can be described in terms of a few succinct rules, while on the other, the fractal contains much or all of the image information. Since the rules are described with less bits of data than the image, compression results. Data compression with fractals is an approach to reach high compression ratios for large data streams related to images. The high compression ratios are attained at a cost of large amounts of computation. Both lossless and lossy modes are supported by the technique. The technique is stable in that small errors in codes lead to small errors in image data. Applications to the NASA mission are discussed.

12. Exploring Fractals in the Classroom.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Naylor, Michael

1999-01-01

Describes an activity involving six investigations. Introduces students to fractals, allows them to study the properties of some famous fractals, and encourages them to create their own fractal artwork. Contains 14 references. (ASK)

13. Fractals: To Know, to Do, to Simulate.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Talanquer, Vicente; Irazoque, Glinda

1993-01-01

Discusses the development of fractal theory and suggests fractal aggregates as an attractive alternative for introducing fractal concepts. Describes methods for producing metallic fractals and a computer simulation for drawing fractals. (MVL)

14. Fractal Geometry of Architecture

Lorenz, Wolfgang E.

In Fractals smaller parts and the whole are linked together. Fractals are self-similar, as those parts are, at least approximately, scaled-down copies of the rough whole. In architecture, such a concept has also been known for a long time. Not only architects of the twentieth century called for an overall idea that is mirrored in every single detail, but also Gothic cathedrals and Indian temples offer self-similarity. This study mainly focuses upon the question whether this concept of self-similarity makes architecture with fractal properties more diverse and interesting than Euclidean Modern architecture. The first part gives an introduction and explains Fractal properties in various natural and architectural objects, presenting the underlying structure by computer programmed renderings. In this connection, differences between the fractal, architectural concept and true, mathematical Fractals are worked out to become aware of limits. This is the basis for dealing with the problem whether fractal-like architecture, particularly facades, can be measured so that different designs can be compared with each other under the aspect of fractal properties. Finally the usability of the Box-Counting Method, an easy-to-use measurement method of Fractal Dimension is analyzed with regard to architecture.

15. Fractal structures and processes

SciTech Connect

Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Beard, D.A.; Percival, D.B.; Raymond, G.M.

1996-06-01

Fractals and chaos are closely related. Many chaotic systems have fractal features. Fractals are self-similar or self-affine structures, which means that they look much of the same when magnified or reduced in scale over a reasonably large range of scales, at least two orders of magnitude and preferably more (Mandelbrot, 1983). The methods for estimating their fractal dimensions or their Hurst coefficients, which summarize the scaling relationships and their correlation structures, are going through a rapid evolutionary phase. Fractal measures can be regarded as providing a useful statistical measure of correlated random processes. They also provide a basis for analyzing recursive processes in biology such as the growth of arborizing networks in the circulatory system, airways, or glandular ducts. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

16. Fractal images induce fractal pupil dilations and constrictions.

PubMed

Moon, P; Muday, J; Raynor, S; Schirillo, J; Boydston, C; Fairbanks, M S; Taylor, R P

2014-09-01

Fractals are self-similar structures or patterns that repeat at increasingly fine magnifications. Research has revealed fractal patterns in many natural and physiological processes. This article investigates pupillary size over time to determine if their oscillations demonstrate a fractal pattern. We predict that pupil size over time will fluctuate in a fractal manner and this may be due to either the fractal neuronal structure or fractal properties of the image viewed. We present evidence that low complexity fractal patterns underlie pupillary oscillations as subjects view spatial fractal patterns. We also present evidence implicating the autonomic nervous system's importance in these patterns. Using the variational method of the box-counting procedure we demonstrate that low complexity fractal patterns are found in changes within pupil size over time in millimeters (mm) and our data suggest that these pupillary oscillation patterns do not depend on the fractal properties of the image viewed. PMID:24978815

17. Electromagnetic fields in fractal continua

Balankin, Alexander S.; Mena, Baltasar; Patiño, Julián; Morales, Daniel

2013-04-01

Fractal continuum electrodynamics is developed on the basis of a model of three-dimensional continuum ΦD3⊂E3 with a fractal metric. The generalized forms of Maxwell equations are derived employing the local fractional vector calculus related to the Hausdorff derivative. The difference between the fractal continuum electrodynamics based on the fractal metric of continua with Euclidean topology and the electrodynamics in fractional space Fα accounting the fractal topology of continuum with the Euclidean metric is outlined. Some electromagnetic phenomena in fractal media associated with their fractal time and space metrics are discussed.

18. Foolin' with Fractals.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clark, Garry

1999-01-01

Reports on a mathematical investigation of fractals and highlights the thinking involved, problem solving strategies used, generalizing skills required, the role of technology, and the role of mathematics. (ASK)

19. Persistence intervals of fractals

Máté, Gabriell; Heermann, Dieter W.

2014-07-01

Objects and structures presenting fractal like behavior are abundant in the world surrounding us. Fractal theory provides a great deal of tools for the analysis of the scaling properties of these objects. We would like to contribute to the field by analyzing and applying a particular case of the theory behind the P.H. dimension, a concept introduced by MacPherson and Schweinhart, to seek an intuitive explanation for the relation of this dimension and the fractality of certain objects. The approach is based on recently elaborated computational topology methods and it proves to be very useful for investigating scaling hidden in dimensions lower than the “native” dimension in which the investigated object is embedded. We demonstrate the applicability of the method with two examples: the Sierpinski gasket-a traditional fractal-and a two dimensional object composed of short segments arranged according to a circular structure.

20. Fractal funcitons and multiwavelets

SciTech Connect

Massopust, P.R.

1997-04-01

This paper reviews how elements from the theory of fractal functions are employed to construct scaling vectors and multiwavelets. Emphasis is placed on the one-dimensional case, however extensions to IR{sup m} are indicated.

1. Fractals and Transformations.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bannon, Thomas J.

1991-01-01

Discussed are several different transformations based on the generation of fractals including self-similar designs, the chaos game, the koch curve, and the Sierpinski Triangle. Three computer programs which illustrate these concepts are provided. (CW)

2. Building Fractal Models with Manipulatives.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coes, Loring

1993-01-01

Uses manipulative materials to build and examine geometric models that simulate the self-similarity properties of fractals. Examples are discussed in two dimensions, three dimensions, and the fractal dimension. Discusses how models can be misleading. (Contains 10 references.) (MDH)

3. Fractal Patterns and Chaos Games

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Devaney, Robert L.

2004-01-01

Teachers incorporate the chaos game and the concept of a fractal into various areas of the algebra and geometry curriculum. The chaos game approach to fractals provides teachers with an opportunity to help students comprehend the geometry of affine transformations.

4. Fractals for Geoengineering

Oleshko, Klaudia; de Jesús Correa López, María; Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez, Victor; Pérez, Olga

2016-04-01

The effectiveness of fractal toolbox to capture the scaling or fractal probability distribution, and simply fractal statistics of main hydrocarbon reservoir attributes, was highlighted by Mandelbrot (1995) and confirmed by several researchers (Zhao et al., 2015). Notwithstanding, after more than twenty years, i&tacute;s still common the opinion that fractals are not useful for the petroleum engineers and especially for Geoengineering (Corbett, 2012). In spite of this negative background, we have successfully applied the fractal and multifractal techniques to our project entitled "Petroleum Reservoir as a Fractal Reactor" (2013 up to now). The distinguishable feature of Fractal Reservoir is the irregular shapes and rough pore/solid distributions (Siler, 2007), observed across a broad range of scales (from SEM to seismic). At the beginning, we have accomplished the detailed analysis of Nelson and Kibler (2003) Catalog of Porosity and Permeability, created for the core plugs of siliciclastic rocks (around ten thousand data were compared). We enriched this Catalog by more than two thousand data extracted from the last ten years publications on PoroPerm (Corbett, 2012) in carbonates deposits, as well as by our own data from one of the PEMEX, Mexico, oil fields. The strong power law scaling behavior was documented for the major part of these data from the geological deposits of contrasting genesis. Based on these results and taking into account the basic principles and models of the Physics of Fractals, introduced by Per Back and Kan Chen (1989), we have developed new software (Muuḱil Kaab), useful to process the multiscale geological and geophysical information and to integrate the static geological and petrophysical reservoiŕ models to dynamic ones. The new type of fractal numerical model with dynamical power law relations among the shapes and sizes of mes&hacute; cells was designed and calibrated in the studied area. The statistically sound power law relations were

5. Fractals for Geoengineering

Oleshko, Klaudia; de Jesús Correa López, María; Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez, Victor; Pérez, Olga

2016-04-01

The effectiveness of fractal toolbox to capture the scaling or fractal probability distribution, and simply fractal statistics of main hydrocarbon reservoir attributes, was highlighted by Mandelbrot (1995) and confirmed by several researchers (Zhao et al., 2015). Notwithstanding, after more than twenty years, it's still common the opinion that fractals are not useful for the petroleum engineers and especially for Geoengineering (Corbett, 2012). In spite of this negative background, we have successfully applied the fractal and multifractal techniques to our project entitled "Petroleum Reservoir as a Fractal Reactor" (2013 up to now). The distinguishable feature of Fractal Reservoir is the irregular shapes and rough pore/solid distributions (Siler, 2007), observed across a broad range of scales (from SEM to seismic). At the beginning, we have accomplished the detailed analysis of Nelson and Kibler (2003) Catalog of Porosity and Permeability, created for the core plugs of siliciclastic rocks (around ten thousand data were compared). We enriched this Catalog by more than two thousand data extracted from the last ten years publications on PoroPerm (Corbett, 2012) in carbonates deposits, as well as by our own data from one of the PEMEX, Mexico, oil fields. The strong power law scaling behavior was documented for the major part of these data from the geological deposits of contrasting genesis. Based on these results and taking into account the basic principles and models of the Physics of Fractals, introduced by Per Back and Kan Chen (1989), we have developed new software (Muukíl Kaab), useful to process the multiscale geological and geophysical information and to integrate the static geological and petrophysical reservoir models to dynamic ones. The new type of fractal numerical model with dynamical power law relations among the shapes and sizes of mesh' cells was designed and calibrated in the studied area. The statistically sound power law relations were established

6. Lava flows are fractals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bruno, B. C.; Taylor, G. J.; Rowland, S. K.; Lucey, P. G.; Self, S.

1992-01-01

Results are presented of a preliminary investigation of the fractal nature of the plan-view shapes of lava flows in Hawaii (based on field measurements and aerial photographs), as well as in Idaho and the Galapagos Islands (using aerial photographs only). The shapes of the lava flow margins are found to be fractals: lava flow shape is scale-invariant. This observation suggests that nonlinear forces are operating in them because nonlinear systems frequently produce fractals. A'a and pahoehoe flows can be distinguished by their fractal dimensions (D). The majority of the a'a flows measured have D between 1.05 and 1.09, whereas the pahoehoe flows generally have higher D (1.14-1.23). The analysis is extended to other planetary bodies by measuring flows from orbital images of Venus, Mars, and the moon. All are fractal and have D consistent with the range of terrestrial a'a and have D consistent with the range of terrestrial a'a and pahoehoe values.

7. Entanglement entropy on fractals

Faraji Astaneh, Amin

2016-03-01

We use the heat kernel method to calculate the entanglement entropy for a given entangling region on a fractal. The leading divergent term of the entropy is obtained as a function of the fractal dimension as well as the walk dimension. The power of the UV cutoff parameter is (generally) a fractional number, which, indeed, is a certain combination of these two indices. This exponent is known as the spectral dimension. We show that there is a novel log-periodic oscillatory behavior in the expression of entropy which has root in the complex dimension of the fractal. We finally indicate that the holographic calculation in a certain hyperscaling-violating bulk geometry yields the same leading term for the entanglement entropy, if one identifies the effective dimension of the hyperscaling-violating theory with the spectral dimension of the fractal. We provide additional support by comparing the behavior of the thermal entropy in terms of the temperature, computed for two geometries, the fractal geometry and the hyperscaling-violating background.

8. Fractal dynamics of earthquakes

SciTech Connect

Bak, P.; Chen, K.

1995-05-01

Many objects in nature, from mountain landscapes to electrical breakdown and turbulence, have a self-similar fractal spatial structure. It seems obvious that to understand the origin of self-similar structures, one must understand the nature of the dynamical processes that created them: temporal and spatial properties must necessarily be completely interwoven. This is particularly true for earthquakes, which have a variety of fractal aspects. The distribution of energy released during earthquakes is given by the Gutenberg-Richter power law. The distribution of epicenters appears to be fractal with dimension D {approx} 1--1.3. The number of after shocks decay as a function of time according to the Omori power law. There have been several attempts to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law by starting from a fractal distribution of faults or stresses. But this is a hen-and-egg approach: to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law, one assumes the existence of another power-law--the fractal distribution. The authors present results of a simple stick slip model of earthquakes, which evolves to a self-organized critical state. Emphasis is on demonstrating that empirical power laws for earthquakes indicate that the Earths crust is at the critical state, with no typical time, space, or energy scale. Of course the model is tremendously oversimplified; however in analogy with equilibrium phenomena they do not expect criticality to depend on details of the model (universality).

9. Skin Depth of Electromagnetic Wave through Fractal Crustal Rocks

Takahara, Kazutaka; Muto, Jun; Nagahama, Hiroyuki

Skin depth of electromagnetic (EM) wave depends on frequency of EM wave ν and electrical properties of rocks and minerals. Previous studies have theoretically assumed that the skin depth Lα(ν) can be expressed as a function of frequency ν by Lα(ν) ∝ ν -φ and φ = 1 at high frequency or φ = 1/2 at low frequency. Based on fractal theory of rocks, we point out that the frequency exponent φ reflects internal fractal structures (i.e., occupancy, distribution and connectivity) of dielectric/conductive matrices of rocks such as pores, cracks, grain boundaries, inclusions and various fluids. Laboratory measurements of dielectric constant and conductivity of granite and previous studies on various rocks as a function of frequency show that φ is an exponent ranging from 1/4 to 1. By extrapolation of the skin depth by laboratory measurements at a given frequency into at other frequencies, the skin depth with variation in φ becomes longer or shorter than that by previous studies. Moreover, at a given frequency, the skin depth decreases with increasing a fractal dimension of fracture systems (decreasing φ). Thus, the skin depth of EM wave through the crust for detecting seismo-EM radiations and through rock salt domes for detecting ultra-high energy neutrinos depends on fractal structures of dielectric/conductive matrices in heterogeneous crust.

10. Fractal dimensions of sinkholes

Reams, Max W.

1992-05-01

Sinkhole perimeters are probably fractals ( D=1.209-1.558) for sinkholes with areas larger than 10,000 m 2, based on area-perimeter plots of digitized data from karst surfaces developed on six geologic units in the United States. The sites in Florida, Kentucky, Indiana and Missouri were studied using maps with a scale of 1:24, 000. Size-number distributions of sinkhole perimeters and areas may also be fractal, although data for small sinkholes is needed for verification. Studies based on small-scale maps are needed to evaluate the number and roughness of small sinkhole populations.

11. FRACTAL DIMENSION OF GALAXY ISOPHOTES

SciTech Connect

Thanki, Sandip; Rhee, George; Lepp, Stephen E-mail: grhee@physics.unlv.edu

2009-09-15

In this paper we investigate the use of the fractal dimension of galaxy isophotes in galaxy classification. We have applied two different methods for determining fractal dimensions to the isophotes of elliptical and spiral galaxies derived from CCD images. We conclude that fractal dimension alone is not a reliable tool but that combined with other parameters in a neural net algorithm the fractal dimension could be of use. In particular, we have used three parameters to segregate the ellipticals and lenticulars from the spiral galaxies in our sample. These three parameters are the correlation fractal dimension D {sub corr}, the difference between the correlation fractal dimension and the capacity fractal dimension D {sub corr} - D {sub cap}, and, thirdly, the B - V color of the galaxy.

12. A Fractal Excursion.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Camp, Dane R.

1991-01-01

After introducing the two-dimensional Koch curve, which is generated by simple recursions on an equilateral triangle, the process is extended to three dimensions with simple recursions on a regular tetrahedron. Included, for both fractal sequences, are iterative formulae, illustrations of the first several iterations, and a sample PASCAL program.…

13. Focus on Fractals.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marks, Tim K.

1992-01-01

Presents a three-lesson unit that uses fractal geometry to measure the coastline of Massachusetts. Two lessons provide hands-on activities utilizing compass and grid methods to perform the measurements and the third lesson analyzes and explains the results of the activities. (MDH)

14. Fractal geometry of music.

PubMed Central

Hsü, K J; Hsü, A J

1990-01-01

Music critics have compared Bach's music to the precision of mathematics. What "mathematics" and what "precision" are the questions for a curious scientist. The purpose of this short note is to suggest that the mathematics is, at least in part, Mandelbrot's fractal geometry and the precision is the deviation from a log-log linear plot. PMID:11607061

15. Fractals in geology and geophysics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turcotte, Donald L.

1989-01-01

The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

16. Fractal dust grains in plasma

SciTech Connect

Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

2012-09-15

Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

17. Fractal rigidity in migraine

Latka, Miroslaw; Glaubic-Latka, Marta; Latka, Dariusz; West, Bruce J.

2004-04-01

We study the middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAfv) in humans using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). Scaling properties of time series of the axial flow velocity averaged over a cardiac beat interval may be characterized by two exponents. The short time scaling exponent (STSE) determines the statistical properties of fluctuations of blood flow velocities in short-time intervals while the Hurst exponent describes the long-term fractal properties. In many migraineurs the value of the STSE is significantly reduced and may approach that of the Hurst exponent. This change in dynamical properties reflects the significant loss of short-term adaptability and the overall hyperexcitability of the underlying cerebral blood flow control system. We call this effect fractal rigidity.

18. Fractal polyzirconosiloxane cluster coatings

SciTech Connect

Sugama, T.

1992-08-01

Fractal polyzirconosiloxane (PZS) cluster films were prepared through the hydrolysis-polycondensation-pyrolysis synthesis of two-step HCl acid-NaOH base catalyzed sol precursors consisting of N-[3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl]-4,5-dihydroimidazole, Zr(OC{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 4}, methanol, and water. When amorphous PZSs were applied to aluminum as protective coatings against NaCl-induced corrosion, the effective film was that derived from the sol having a pH near the isoelectric point in the positive zeta potential region. The following four factors played an important role in assembling the protective PZS coating films: (1) a proper rate of condensation, (2) a moderate ratio of Si-O-Si to Si-O-Zr linkages formed in the PZS network, (3) hydrophobic characteristics, and (4) a specific microstructural geometry, in which large fractal clusters were linked together.

19. Fractal polyzirconosiloxane cluster coatings

SciTech Connect

Sugama, T.

1992-01-01

Fractal polyzirconosiloxane (PZS) cluster films were prepared through the hydrolysis-polycondensation-pyrolysis synthesis of two-step HCl acid-NaOH base catalyzed sol precursors consisting of N-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazole, Zr(OC{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 4}, methanol, and water. When amorphous PZSs were applied to aluminum as protective coatings against NaCl-induced corrosion, the effective film was that derived from the sol having a pH near the isoelectric point in the positive zeta potential region. The following four factors played an important role in assembling the protective PZS coating films: (1) a proper rate of condensation, (2) a moderate ratio of Si-O-Si to Si-O-Zr linkages formed in the PZS network, (3) hydrophobic characteristics, and (4) a specific microstructural geometry, in which large fractal clusters were linked together.

20. Fractal multifiber microchannel plates

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cook, Lee M.; Feller, W. B.; Kenter, Almus T.; Chappell, Jon H.

1992-01-01

The construction and performance of microchannel plates (MCPs) made using fractal tiling mehtods are reviewed. MCPs with 40 mm active areas having near-perfect channel ordering were produced. These plates demonstrated electrical performance characteristics equivalent to conventionally constructed MCPs. These apparently are the first MCPs which have a sufficiently high degree of order to permit single channel addressability. Potential applications for these devices and the prospects for further development are discussed.

1. Fractals and humor

Martin, Demetri

2015-03-01

Demetri Maritn prepared this palindromic poem as his project for Michael Frame's fractal geometry class at Yale. Notice the first, fourth, and seventh words in the second and next-to-second lines are palindromes, the first two and last two lines are palindromes, the middle line, "Be still if I fill its ebb" minus its last letter is a palindrome, and the entire poem is a palindrome...

2. Fractal trace of earthworms

Burdzy, Krzysztof; Hołyst, Robert; Pruski, Łukasz

2013-05-01

We investigate a process of random walks of a point particle on a two-dimensional square lattice of size n×n with periodic boundary conditions. A fraction p⩽20% of the lattice is occupied by holes (p represents macroporosity). A site not occupied by a hole is occupied by an obstacle. Upon a random step of the walker, a number of obstacles, M, can be pushed aside. The system approaches equilibrium in (nlnn)2 steps. We determine the distribution of M pushed in a single move at equilibrium. The distribution F(M) is given by Mγ where γ=-1.18 for p=0.1, decreasing to γ=-1.28 for p=0.01. Irrespective of the initial distribution of holes on the lattice, the final equilibrium distribution of holes forms a fractal with fractal dimension changing from a=1.56 for p=0.20 to a=1.42 for p=0.001 (for n=4,000). The trace of a random walker forms a distribution with expected fractal dimension 2.

3. Darwinian Evolution and Fractals

Carr, Paul H.

2009-05-01

Did nature's beauty emerge by chance or was it intelligently designed? Richard Dawkins asserts that evolution is blind aimless chance. Michael Behe believes, on the contrary, that the first cell was intelligently designed. The scientific evidence is that nature's creativity arises from the interplay between chance AND design (laws). Darwin's Origin of the Species,'' published 150 years ago in 1859, characterized evolution as the interplay between variations (symbolized by dice) and the natural selection law (design). This is evident in recent discoveries in DNA, Madelbrot's Fractal Geometry of Nature, and the success of the genetic design algorithm. Algorithms for generating fractals have the same interplay between randomness and law as evolution. Fractal statistics, which are not completely random, characterize such phenomena such as fluctuations in the stock market, the Nile River, rainfall, and tree rings. As chaos theorist Joseph Ford put it: God plays dice, but the dice are loaded. Thus Darwin, in discovering the evolutionary interplay between variations and natural selection, was throwing God's dice!

4. Fractals in physiology and medicine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goldberger, Ary L.; West, Bruce J.

1987-01-01

The paper demonstrates how the nonlinear concepts of fractals, as applied in physiology and medicine, can provide an insight into the organization of such complex structures as the tracheobronchial tree and heart, as well as into the dynamics of healthy physiological variability. Particular attention is given to the characteristics of computer-generated fractal lungs and heart and to fractal pathologies in these organs. It is shown that alterations in fractal scaling may underlie a number of pathophysiological disturbances, including sudden cardiac death syndromes.

5. Fractals in biology and medicine

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Havlin, S.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Mantegna, R. N.; Ossadnik, S. M.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

1995-01-01

Our purpose is to describe some recent progress in applying fractal concepts to systems of relevance to biology and medicine. We review several biological systems characterized by fractal geometry, with a particular focus on the long-range power-law correlations found recently in DNA sequences containing noncoding material. Furthermore, we discuss the finding that the exponent alpha quantifying these long-range correlations ("fractal complexity") is smaller for coding than for noncoding sequences. We also discuss the application of fractal scaling analysis to the dynamics of heartbeat regulation, and report the recent finding that the normal heart is characterized by long-range "anticorrelations" which are absent in the diseased heart.

6. Dimension of fractal basin boundaries

SciTech Connect

Park, B.S.

1988-01-01

In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show final state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.

7. A Double-Minded Fractal

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simoson, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

This article presents a fun activity of generating a double-minded fractal image for a linear algebra class once the idea of rotation and scaling matrices are introduced. In particular the fractal flip-flops between two words, depending on the level at which the image is viewed. (Contains 5 figures.)

8. Electromagnetism on anisotropic fractal media

Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

2013-04-01

Basic equations of electromagnetic fields in anisotropic fractal media are obtained using a dimensional regularization approach. First, a formulation based on product measures is shown to satisfy the four basic identities of the vector calculus. This allows a generalization of the Green-Gauss and Stokes theorems as well as the charge conservation equation on anisotropic fractals. Then, pursuing the conceptual approach, we derive the Faraday and Ampère laws for such fractal media, which, along with two auxiliary null-divergence conditions, effectively give the modified Maxwell equations. Proceeding on a separate track, we employ a variational principle for electromagnetic fields, appropriately adapted to fractal media, so as to independently derive the same forms of these two laws. It is next found that the parabolic (for a conducting medium) and the hyperbolic (for a dielectric medium) equations involve modified gradient operators, while the Poynting vector has the same form as in the non-fractal case. Finally, Maxwell's electromagnetic stress tensor is reformulated for fractal systems. In all the cases, the derived equations for fractal media depend explicitly on fractal dimensions in three different directions and reduce to conventional forms for continuous media with Euclidean geometries upon setting these each of dimensions equal to unity.

9. The nature of fractal music

Brothers, Harlan J.

2015-03-01

Benoit Mandelbrot always had a strong feeling that music could be viewed from a fractal perspective. However, without our eyes to guide us, how do we gain this perspective? Here we discuss precisely what it means to say that a piece of music is fractal.

10. Target Detection Using Fractal Geometry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuller, J. Joseph

1991-01-01

The concepts and theory of fractal geometry were applied to the problem of segmenting a 256 x 256 pixel image so that manmade objects could be extracted from natural backgrounds. The two most important measurements necessary to extract these manmade objects were fractal dimension and lacunarity. Provision was made to pass the manmade portion to a lookup table for subsequent identification. A computer program was written to construct cloud backgrounds of fractal dimensions which were allowed to vary between 2.2 and 2.8. Images of three model space targets were combined with these backgrounds to provide a data set for testing the validity of the approach. Once the data set was constructed, computer programs were written to extract estimates of the fractal dimension and lacunarity on 4 x 4 pixel subsets of the image. It was shown that for clouds of fractal dimension 2.7 or less, appropriate thresholding on fractal dimension and lacunarity yielded a 64 x 64 edge-detected image with all or most of the cloud background removed. These images were enhanced by an erosion and dilation to provide the final image passed to the lookup table. While the ultimate goal was to pass the final image to a neural network for identification, this work shows the applicability of fractal geometry to the problems of image segmentation, edge detection and separating a target of interest from a natural background.

11. Exterior dimension of fat fractals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.

1985-01-01

Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.

12. Map of fluid flow in fractal porous medium into fractal continuum flow.

PubMed

Balankin, Alexander S; Elizarraraz, Benjamin Espinoza

2012-05-01

This paper is devoted to fractal continuum hydrodynamics and its application to model fluid flows in fractally permeable reservoirs. Hydrodynamics of fractal continuum flow is developed on the basis of a self-consistent model of fractal continuum employing vector local fractional differential operators allied with the Hausdorff derivative. The generalized forms of Green-Gauss and Kelvin-Stokes theorems for fractional calculus are proved. The Hausdorff material derivative is defined and the form of Reynolds transport theorem for fractal continuum flow is obtained. The fundamental conservation laws for a fractal continuum flow are established. The Stokes law and the analog of Darcy's law for fractal continuum flow are suggested. The pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal metric of fractal continuum flow is derived. The generalization of the pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal topology of fractal continuum flow is proposed. The mapping of fluid flow in a fractally permeable medium into a fractal continuum flow is discussed. It is stated that the spectral dimension of the fractal continuum flow d(s) is equal to its mass fractal dimension D, even when the spectral dimension of the fractally porous or fissured medium is less than D. A comparison of the fractal continuum flow approach with other models of fluid flow in fractally permeable media and the experimental field data for reservoir tests are provided. PMID:23004869

13. Map of fluid flow in fractal porous medium into fractal continuum flow

Balankin, Alexander S.; Elizarraraz, Benjamin Espinoza

2012-05-01

This paper is devoted to fractal continuum hydrodynamics and its application to model fluid flows in fractally permeable reservoirs. Hydrodynamics of fractal continuum flow is developed on the basis of a self-consistent model of fractal continuum employing vector local fractional differential operators allied with the Hausdorff derivative. The generalized forms of Green-Gauss and Kelvin-Stokes theorems for fractional calculus are proved. The Hausdorff material derivative is defined and the form of Reynolds transport theorem for fractal continuum flow is obtained. The fundamental conservation laws for a fractal continuum flow are established. The Stokes law and the analog of Darcy's law for fractal continuum flow are suggested. The pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal metric of fractal continuum flow is derived. The generalization of the pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal topology of fractal continuum flow is proposed. The mapping of fluid flow in a fractally permeable medium into a fractal continuum flow is discussed. It is stated that the spectral dimension of the fractal continuum flow ds is equal to its mass fractal dimension D, even when the spectral dimension of the fractally porous or fissured medium is less than D. A comparison of the fractal continuum flow approach with other models of fluid flow in fractally permeable media and the experimental field data for reservoir tests are provided.

14. Fractality of light's darkness.

PubMed

O'Holleran, Kevin; Dennis, Mark R; Flossmann, Florian; Padgett, Miles J

2008-02-01

Natural light fields are threaded by lines of darkness. For monochromatic light, the phenomenon is familiar in laser speckle, i.e., the black points that appear in the scattered light. These black points are optical vortices that extend as lines throughout the volume of the field. We establish by numerical simulations, supported by experiments, that these vortex lines have the fractal properties of a Brownian random walk. Approximately 73% of the lines percolate through the optical beam, the remainder forming closed loops. Our statistical results are similar to those of vortices in random discrete lattice models of cosmic strings, implying that the statistics of singularities in random optical fields exhibit universal behavior. PMID:18352372

15. Fractal Poisson processes

Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

2008-09-01

The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) and Extreme Value Theory (EVT) study, respectively, the stochastic limit-laws of sums and maxima of sequences of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables via an affine scaling scheme. In this research we study the stochastic limit-laws of populations of i.i.d. random variables via nonlinear scaling schemes. The stochastic population-limits obtained are fractal Poisson processes which are statistically self-similar with respect to the scaling scheme applied, and which are characterized by two elemental structures: (i) a universal power-law structure common to all limits, and independent of the scaling scheme applied; (ii) a specific structure contingent on the scaling scheme applied. The sum-projection and the maximum-projection of the population-limits obtained are generalizations of the classic CLT and EVT results - extending them from affine to general nonlinear scaling schemes.

16. Thermodynamics of Photons on Fractals

SciTech Connect

Akkermans, Eric; Dunne, Gerald V.; Teplyaev, Alexander

2010-12-03

A thermodynamical treatment of a massless scalar field (a photon) confined to a fractal spatial manifold leads to an equation of state relating pressure to internal energy, PV{sub s}=U/d{sub s}, where d{sub s} is the spectral dimension and V{sub s} defines the 'spectral volume'. For regular manifolds, V{sub s} coincides with the usual geometric spatial volume, but on a fractal this is not necessarily the case. This is further evidence that on a fractal, momentum space can have a different dimension than position space. Our analysis also provides a natural definition of the vacuum (Casimir) energy of a fractal. We suggest ways that these unusual properties might be probed experimentally.

17. Fractal analysis of Mesoamerican pyramids.

PubMed

Burkle-Elizondo, Gerardo; Valdez-Cepeda, Ricardo David

2006-01-01

A myth of ancient cultural roots was integrated into Mesoamerican cult, and the reference to architecture denoted a depth religious symbolism. The pyramids form a functional part of this cosmovision that is centered on sacralization. The space architecture works was an expression of the ideological necessities into their conception of harmony. The symbolism of the temple structures seems to reflect the mathematical order of the Universe. We contemplate two models of fractal analysis. The first one includes 16 pyramids. We studied a data set that was treated as a fractal profile to estimate the Df through variography (Dv). The estimated Fractal Dimension Dv = 1.383 +/- 0.211. In the second one we studied a data set to estimate the Dv of 19 pyramids and the estimated Fractal Dimension Dv = 1.229 +/- 0.165. PMID:16393505

18. Anomalous Diffusion in Fractal Globules

Tamm, M. V.; Nazarov, L. I.; Gavrilov, A. A.; Chertovich, A. V.

2015-05-01

The fractal globule state is a popular model for describing chromatin packing in eukaryotic nuclei. Here we provide a scaling theory and dissipative particle dynamics computer simulation for the thermal motion of monomers in the fractal globule state. Simulations starting from different entanglement-free initial states show good convergence which provides evidence supporting the existence of a unique metastable fractal globule state. We show monomer motion in this state to be subdiffusive described by ⟨X2(t )⟩˜tαF with αF close to 0.4. This result is in good agreement with existing experimental data on the chromatin dynamics, which makes an additional argument in support of the fractal globule model of chromatin packing.

19. Fractal dynamics of bioconvective patterns

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noever, David A.

1991-01-01

Biologically generated cellular patterns, sometimes called bioconvective patterns, are found to cluster into aggregates which follow fractal growth dynamics akin to diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) models. The pattern formed is self-similar with fractal dimension of 1.66 +/-0.038. Bioconvective DLA branching results from thermal roughening which shifts the balance between ordering viscous forces and disordering cell motility and random diffusion. The phase diagram for pattern morphology includes DLA, boundary spokes, random clusters, and reverse clusters.

20. Fractal electronic devices: simulation and implementation.

PubMed

Fairbanks, M S; McCarthy, D N; Scott, S A; Brown, S A; Taylor, R P

2011-09-01

Many natural structures have fractal geometries that exhibit useful functional properties. These properties, which exploit the recurrence of patterns at increasingly small scales, are often desirable in applications and, consequently, fractal geometry is increasingly employed in diverse technologies ranging from radio antennae to storm barriers. In this paper, we explore the application of fractal geometry to electrical devices. First, we lay the foundations for the implementation of fractal devices by considering diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) of atomic clusters. Under appropriate growth conditions, atomic clusters of various elements form fractal patterns driven by DLA. We perform a fractal analysis of both simulated and physical devices to determine their spatial scaling properties and demonstrate their potential as fractal circuit elements. Finally, we simulate conduction through idealized and DLA fractal devices and show that their fractal scaling properties generate novel, nonlinear conduction properties in response to depletion by electrostatic gates. PMID:21841218

1. Fractal electronic devices: simulation and implementation

Fairbanks, M. S.; McCarthy, D. N.; Scott, S. A.; Brown, S. A.; Taylor, R. P.

2011-09-01

Many natural structures have fractal geometries that exhibit useful functional properties. These properties, which exploit the recurrence of patterns at increasingly small scales, are often desirable in applications and, consequently, fractal geometry is increasingly employed in diverse technologies ranging from radio antennae to storm barriers. In this paper, we explore the application of fractal geometry to electrical devices. First, we lay the foundations for the implementation of fractal devices by considering diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) of atomic clusters. Under appropriate growth conditions, atomic clusters of various elements form fractal patterns driven by DLA. We perform a fractal analysis of both simulated and physical devices to determine their spatial scaling properties and demonstrate their potential as fractal circuit elements. Finally, we simulate conduction through idealized and DLA fractal devices and show that their fractal scaling properties generate novel, nonlinear conduction properties in response to depletion by electrostatic gates.

2. Diffusion, Dispersion, and Uncertainty in Anisotropic Fractal Porous Media

Monnig, N. D.; Benson, D. A.

2007-12-01

Motivated by field measurements of aquifer hydraulic conductivity (K), recent techniques were developed to construct anisotropic fractal random fields, in which the scaling, or self-similarity parameter, varies with direction and is defined by a matrix. Ensemble numerical results are analyzed for solute transport through these 2-D "operator-scaling" fractional Brownian motion (fBm) ln(K) fields. Contrary to some analytic stochastic theories for monofractal K fields, the plume growth rates never exceed Mercado's (1967) purely stratified aquifer growth rate of plume apparent dispersivity proportional to mean distance. Apparent super-stratified growth must be the result of other demonstrable factors, such as initial plume size. The addition of large local dispersion and diffusion does not significantly change the effective longitudinal dispersivity of the plumes. In the presence of significant local dispersion or diffusion, the concentration coefficient of variation CV={σc}/{\\langle c \\rangle} remains large at the leading edge of the plumes. This indicates that even with considerable mixing due to dispersion or diffusion, there is still substantial uncertainty in the leading edge of a plume moving in fractal porous media.

3. Small-angle scattering from fat fractals

Anitas, Eugen M.

2014-06-01

A number of experimental small-angle scattering (SAS) data are characterized by a succession of power-law decays with arbitrarily decreasing values of scattering exponents. To describe such data, here we develop a new theoretical model based on 3D fat fractals (sets with fractal structure, but nonzero volume) and show how one can extract structural information about the underlying fractal structure. We calculate analytically the monodisperse and polydisperse SAS intensity (fractal form factor and structure factor) of a newly introduced model of fat fractals and study its properties in momentum space. The system is a 3D deterministic mass fractal built on an extension of the well-known Cantor fractal. The model allows us to explain a succession of power-law decays and respectively, of generalized power-law decays (GPLD; superposition of maxima and minima on a power-law decay) with arbitrarily decreasing scattering exponents in the range from zero to three. We show that within the model, the present analysis allows us to obtain the edges of all the fractal regions in the momentum space, the number of fractal iteration and the fractal dimensions and scaling factors at each structural level in the fractal. We applied our model to calculate an analytical expression for the radius of gyration of the fractal. The obtained quantities characterizing the fat fractal are correlated to variation of scaling factor with the iteration number.

4. The topological insulator in a fractal space

SciTech Connect

Song, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Yan-Yang; Li, Shu-Shen

2014-06-09

We investigate the band structures and transport properties of a two-dimensional model of topological insulator, with a fractal edge or a fractal bulk. A fractal edge does not affect the robust transport even when the fractal pattern has reached the resolution of the atomic-scale, because the bulk is still well insulating against backscattering. On the other hand, a fractal bulk can support the robust transport only when the fractal resolution is much larger than a critical size. Smaller resolution of bulk fractal pattern will lead to remarkable backscattering and localization, due to strong couplings of opposite edge states on narrow sub-edges which appear almost everywhere in the fractal bulk.

5. Analysis of fractals with combined partition

Dedovich, T. G.; Tokarev, M. V.

2016-03-01

The space—time properties in the general theory of relativity, as well as the discreteness and non-Archimedean property of space in the quantum theory of gravitation, are discussed. It is emphasized that the properties of bodies in non-Archimedean spaces coincide with the properties of the field of P-adic numbers and fractals. It is suggested that parton showers, used for describing interactions between particles and nuclei at high energies, have a fractal structure. A mechanism of fractal formation with combined partition is considered. The modified SePaC method is offered for the analysis of such fractals. The BC, PaC, and SePaC methods for determining a fractal dimension and other fractal characteristics (numbers of levels and values of a base of forming a fractal) are considered. It is found that the SePaC method has advantages for the analysis of fractals with combined partition.

6. Fractal kinetics in drug release from finite fractal matrices

Kosmidis, Kosmas; Argyrakis, Panos; Macheras, Panos

2003-09-01

We have re-examined the random release of particles from fractal polymer matrices using Monte Carlo simulations, a problem originally studied by Bunde et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 83, 5909 (1985)]. A certain population of particles diffuses on a fractal structure, and as particles reach the boundaries of the structure they are removed from the system. We find that the number of particles that escape from the matrix as a function of time can be approximated by a Weibull (stretched exponential) function, similar to the case of release from Euclidean matrices. The earlier result that fractal release rates are described by power laws is correct only at the initial stage of the release, but it has to be modified if one is to describe in one picture the entire process for a finite system. These results pertain to the release of drugs, chemicals, agrochemicals, etc., from delivery systems.

7. The fractal aggregation of asphaltenes.

PubMed

Hoepfner, Michael P; Fávero, Cláudio Vilas Bôas; Haji-Akbari, Nasim; Fogler, H Scott

2013-07-16

This paper discusses time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering results that were used to investigate asphaltene structure and stability with and without a precipitant added in both crude oil and model oil. A novel approach was used to isolate the scattering from asphaltenes that are insoluble and in the process of aggregating from those that are soluble. It was found that both soluble and insoluble asphaltenes form fractal clusters in crude oil and the fractal dimension of the insoluble asphaltene clusters is higher than that of the soluble clusters. Adding heptane also increases the size of soluble asphaltene clusters without modifying the fractal dimension. Understanding the process of insoluble asphaltenes forming fractals with higher fractal dimensions will potentially reveal the microscopic asphaltene destabilization mechanism (i.e., how a precipitant modifies asphaltene-asphaltene interactions). It was concluded that because of the polydisperse nature of asphaltenes, no well-defined asphaltene phase stability envelope exists and small amounts of asphaltenes precipitated even at dilute precipitant concentrations. Asphaltenes that are stable in a crude oil-precipitant mixture are dispersed on the nanometer length scale. An asphaltene precipitation mechanism is proposed that is consistent with the experimental findings. Additionally, it was found that the heptane-insoluble asphaltene fraction is the dominant source of small-angle scattering in crude oil and the previously unobtainable asphaltene solubility at low heptane concentrations was measured. PMID:23808932

8. A Novel Triangular Shaped UWB Fractal Antenna Using Circular Slot

Shahu, Babu Lal; Pal, Srikanta; Chattoraj, Neela

2016-03-01

The article presents the design of triangular shaped fractal based antenna with circular slot for ultra wideband (UWB) application. The antenna is fed using microstrip line and has overall dimension of 24×24×1.6 mm3. The proposed antenna is covering the wide frequency bandwidth of 2.99-11.16 GHz and is achieved using simple fractal based triangular-circular geometries and asymmetrical ground plane. The antenna is designed and parametrical studies are performed using method of moment (MOM) based Full Wave Electromagnetic (EM) software Simulator Zeland IE3D. The prototype of proposed antenna is fabricated and tested to compare the simulated and measured results of various antenna parameters. The antenna has good impedance bandwidth, nearly constant gain and stable radiation pattern. Measured return loss shows fair agreement with simulated one. Also measured group delay variation obtained is less than 1.0 ns, which proves good time domain behavior of the proposed antenna.

9. Fractal characterization of fracture surfaces in concrete

USGS Publications Warehouse

Saouma, V.E.; Barton, C.C.; Gamaleldin, N.A.

1990-01-01

Fractal geometry is used to characterize the roughness of cracked concrete surfaces through a specially built profilometer, and the fractal dimension is subsequently correlated to the fracture toughness and direction of crack propagation. Preliminary results indicate that the fracture surface is indeed fractal over two orders of magnitudes with a dimension of approximately 1.20. ?? 1990.

10. Fractal analysis of time varying data

DOEpatents

2002-01-01

Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

11. Fractal Electronic Circuits Assembled From Nanoclusters

Fairbanks, M. S.; McCarthy, D.; Taylor, R. P.; Brown, S. A.

2009-07-01

Many patterns in nature can be described using fractal geometry. The effect of this fractal character is an array of properties that can include high internal connectivity, high dispersivity, and enhanced surface area to volume ratios. These properties are often desirable in applications and, consequently, fractal geometry is increasingly employed in technologies ranging from antenna to storm barriers. In this paper, we explore the application of fractal geometry to electrical circuits, inspired by the pervasive fractal structure of neurons in the brain. We show that, under appropriate growth conditions, nanoclusters of Sb form into islands on atomically flat substrates via a process close to diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), establishing fractal islands that will form the basis of our fractal circuits. We perform fractal analysis of the islands to determine the spatial scaling properties (characterized by the fractal dimension, D) of the proposed circuits and demonstrate how varying growth conditions can affect D. We discuss fabrication approaches for establishing electrical contact to the fractal islands. Finally, we present fractal circuit simulations, which show that the fractal character of the circuit translates into novel, non-linear conduction properties determined by the circuit's D value.

12. [Fractal analysis of liver fibrosis].

PubMed

Soda, G; Nardoni, S; Bosco, D; Grizzi, F; Dioguardi, N; Melis, M

2003-04-01

This study realized by two different study groups use of Fractal geometry to quantify the complex collagen deposition during chronic liver disease. Thirty standard needle liver biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with chronic HCV-related disease. Three mu-thick sections were cut and stained by means of Picrosirius stain, in order to visualise collagen matrix. The degree of fibrosis was measured using a quantitative scoring system based on the computer-assisted evaluation of the fractal dimension of the deposited collagen surface. The obtained results by both study groups, show that the proposed method is reproducible, rapid and inexpensive. The complex distribution of its collagenous components can be quantified using a single numerical score. This study demonstrated that it is possible to quantify the collagen's irregularity in an objective manner, and that the study of the fractal properties of the collagen shapes is likely to reveal more about its structure and the complex behaviour of its development. PMID:12768879

13. Fractal Universe and Quantum Gravity

SciTech Connect

Calcagni, Gianluca

2010-06-25

We propose a field theory which lives in fractal spacetime and is argued to be Lorentz invariant, power-counting renormalizable, ultraviolet finite, and causal. The system flows from an ultraviolet fixed point, where spacetime has Hausdorff dimension 2, to an infrared limit coinciding with a standard four-dimensional field theory. Classically, the fractal world where fields live exchanges energy momentum with the bulk with integer topological dimension. However, the total energy momentum is conserved. We consider the dynamics and the propagator of a scalar field. Implications for quantum gravity, cosmology, and the cosmological constant are discussed.

14. Texture Analysis In Cytology Using Fractals

Basu, Santanu; Barba, Joseph; Chan, K. S.

1990-01-01

We present some preliminary results of a study aimed to assess the actual effectiveness of fractal theory in the area of medical image analysis for texture description. The specific goal of this research is to utilize "fractal dimension" to discriminate between normal and cancerous human cells. In particular, we have considered four types of cells namely, breast, bronchial, ovarian and uterine. A method based on fractal Brownian motion theory is employed to compute the "fractal dimension" of cells. Experiments with real images reveal that the range of scales over which the cells exhibit fractal property can be used as the discriminatory feature to identify cancerous cells.

15. Roughness Perception of Haptically Displayed Fractal Surfaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Costa, Michael A.; Cutkosky, Mark R.; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

Surface profiles were generated by a fractal algorithm and haptically rendered on a force feedback joystick, Subjects were asked to use the joystick to explore pairs of surfaces and report to the experimenter which of the surfaces they felt was rougher. Surfaces were characterized by their root mean square (RMS) amplitude and their fractal dimension. The most important factor affecting the perceived roughness of the fractal surfaces was the RMS amplitude of the surface. When comparing surfaces of fractal dimension 1.2-1.35 it was found that the fractal dimension was negatively correlated with perceived roughness.

16. Fractal Feature Analysis Of Beef Marblingpatterns

Chen, Kunjie; Qin, Chunfang

The purpose of this study is to investigate fractal behavior of beef marbling patterns and to explore relationships between fractal dimensions and marbling scores. Authors firstly extracted marbling images from beef rib-eye crosssection images using computer image processing technologies and then implemented the fractal analysis on these marbling images based on the pixel covering method. Finally box-counting fractal dimension (BFD) and informational fractal dimension (IFD) of one hundred and thirty-five beef marbling images were calculated and plotted against the beef marbling scores. The results showed that all beef marbling images exhibit fractal behavior over the limited range of scales accessible to analysis. Furthermore, their BFD and IFD are closely related to the score of beef marbling, suggesting that fractal analyses can provide us a potential tool to calibrate the score of beef marbling.

17. Electromagnetic backscattering from one-dimensional drifting fractal sea surface II: Electromagnetic backscattering model

Tao, Xie; William, Perrie; Shang-Zhuo, Zhao; He, Fang; Wen-Jin, Yu; Yi-Jun, He

2016-07-01

Sea surface current has a significant influence on electromagnetic (EM) backscattering signals and may constitute a dominant synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging mechanism. An effective EM backscattering model for a one-dimensional drifting fractal sea surface is presented in this paper. This model is used to simulate EM backscattering signals from the drifting sea surface. Numerical results show that ocean currents have a significant influence on EM backscattering signals from the sea surface. The normalized radar cross section (NRCS) discrepancies between the model for a coupled wave-current fractal sea surface and the model for an uncoupled fractal sea surface increase with the increase of incidence angle, as well as with increasing ocean currents. Ocean currents that are parallel to the direction of the wave can weaken the EM backscattering signal intensity, while the EM backscattering signal is intensified by ocean currents propagating oppositely to the wave direction. The model presented in this paper can be used to study the SAR imaging mechanism for a drifting sea surface. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41276187), the Global Change Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB953901), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China, the Program for the Innovation Research and Entrepreneurship Team in Jiangsu Province, China, the Canadian Program on Energy Research and Development, and the Canadian World Class Tanker Safety Service Program.

18. Exploring Fractal Geometry with Children.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vacc, Nancy Nesbitt

1999-01-01

Heightens the awareness of elementary school teachers, teacher educators, and teacher-education researchers of possible applications of fractal geometry with children and, subsequently, initiates discussion about the appropriateness of including this new mathematics in the elementary curriculum. Presents activities for exploring children's…

19. Fractal statistics of cloud fields

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cahalan, Robert F.; Joseph, Joachim H.

1989-01-01

Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) data, with 80 and 30 m spatial resolution, respectively, have been employed to study the spatial structure of boundary-layer and intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) clouds. The probability distributions of cloud areas and cloud perimeters are found to approximately follow a power-law, with a different power (i.e., fractal dimension) for each cloud type. They are better approximated by a double power-law behavior, indicating a change in the fractal dimension at a characteristic size which depends upon cloud type. The fractal dimension also changes with threshold. The more intense cloud areas are found to have a higher perimeter fractal dimension, perhaps indicative of the increased turbulence at cloud top. A detailed picture of the inhomogeneous spatial structure of various cloud types will contribute to a better understanding of basic cloud processes, and also has implications for the remote sensing of clouds, for their effects on remote sensing of other parameters, and for the parameterization of clouds in general circulation models, all of which rely upon plane-parallel radiative transfer algorithms.

20. The Fractal Self at Play

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marks-Tarlow, Terry

2010-01-01

In this article, the author draws on contemporary science to illuminate the relationship between early play experiences, processes of self-development, and the later emergence of the fractal self. She argues that orientation within social space is a primary function of early play and developmentally a two-step process. With other people and with…

1. Fractal Characterization of Hyperspectral Imagery

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Qiu, Hon-Iie; Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Gamon, John A.

1999-01-01

Two Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) hyperspectral images selected from the Los Angeles area, one representing urban and the other, rural, were used to examine their spatial complexity across their entire spectrum of the remote sensing data. Using the ICAMS (Image Characterization And Modeling System) software, we computed the fractal dimension values via the isarithm and triangular prism methods for all 224 bands in the two AVIRIS scenes. The resultant fractal dimensions reflect changes in image complexity across the spectral range of the hyperspectral images. Both the isarithm and triangular prism methods detect unusually high D values on the spectral bands that fall within the atmospheric absorption and scattering zones where signature to noise ratios are low. Fractal dimensions for the urban area resulted in higher values than for the rural landscape, and the differences between the resulting D values are more distinct in the visible bands. The triangular prism method is sensitive to a few random speckles in the images, leading to a lower dimensionality. On the contrary, the isarithm method will ignore the speckles and focus on the major variation dominating the surface, thus resulting in a higher dimension. It is seen where the fractal curves plotted for the entire bandwidth range of the hyperspectral images could be used to distinguish landscape types as well as for screening noisy bands.

2. Electromagnetic field of fractal distribution of charged particles

SciTech Connect

Tarasov, Vasily E.

2005-08-15

Electric and magnetic fields of fractal distribution of charged particles are considered. The fractional integrals are used to describe fractal distribution. The fractional integrals are considered as approximations of integrals on fractals. Using the fractional generalization of integral Maxwell equation, the simple examples of the fields of homogeneous fractal distribution are considered. The electric dipole and quadrupole moments for fractal distribution are derived.

3. Lung cancer-a fractal viewpoint.

PubMed

Lennon, Frances E; Cianci, Gianguido C; Cipriani, Nicole A; Hensing, Thomas A; Zhang, Hannah J; Chen, Chin-Tu; Murgu, Septimiu D; Vokes, Everett E; Vannier, Michael W; Salgia, Ravi

2015-11-01

Fractals are mathematical constructs that show self-similarity over a range of scales and non-integer (fractal) dimensions. Owing to these properties, fractal geometry can be used to efficiently estimate the geometrical complexity, and the irregularity of shapes and patterns observed in lung tumour growth (over space or time), whereas the use of traditional Euclidean geometry in such calculations is more challenging. The application of fractal analysis in biomedical imaging and time series has shown considerable promise for measuring processes as varied as heart and respiratory rates, neuronal cell characterization, and vascular development. Despite the advantages of fractal mathematics and numerous studies demonstrating its applicability to lung cancer research, many researchers and clinicians remain unaware of its potential. Therefore, this Review aims to introduce the fundamental basis of fractals and to illustrate how analysis of fractal dimension (FD) and associated measurements, such as lacunarity (texture) can be performed. We describe the fractal nature of the lung and explain why this organ is particularly suited to fractal analysis. Studies that have used fractal analyses to quantify changes in nuclear and chromatin FD in primary and metastatic tumour cells, and clinical imaging studies that correlated changes in the FD of tumours on CT and/or PET images with tumour growth and treatment responses are reviewed. Moreover, the potential use of these techniques in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of lung cancer are discussed. PMID:26169924

4. Lung cancer—a fractal viewpoint

PubMed Central

Lennon, Frances E.; Cianci, Gianguido C.; Cipriani, Nicole A.; Hensing, Thomas A.; Zhang, Hannah J.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Murgu, Septimiu D.; Vokes, Everett E.; W. Vannier, Michael; Salgia, Ravi

2016-01-01

Fractals are mathematical constructs that show self-similarity over a range of scales and non-integer (fractal) dimensions. Owing to these properties, fractal geometry can be used to efficiently estimate the geometrical complexity, and the irregularity of shapes and patterns observed in lung tumour growth (over space or time), whereas the use of traditional Euclidean geometry in such calculations is more challenging. The application of fractal analysis in biomedical imaging and time series has shown considerable promise for measuring processes as varied as heart and respiratory rates, neuronal cell characterization, and vascular development. Despite the advantages of fractal mathematics and numerous studies demonstrating its applicability to lung cancer research, many researchers and clinicians remain unaware of its potential. Therefore, this Review aims to introduce the fundamental basis of fractals and to illustrate how analysis of fractal dimension (FD) and associated measurements, such as lacunarity (texture) can be performed. We describe the fractal nature of the lung and explain why this organ is particularly suited to fractal analysis. Studies that have used fractal analyses to quantify changes in nuclear and chromatin FD in primary and metastatic tumour cells, and clinical imaging studies that correlated changes in the FD of tumours on CT and/or PET images with tumour growth and treatment responses are reviewed. Moreover, the potential use of these techniques in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of lung cancer are discussed. PMID:26169924

5. Fractal patterns of fractures in granites

Velde, B.; Dubois, J.; Moore, D.; Touchard, G.

1991-05-01

Fractal measurements using the Cantor's dust method in a linear one-dimensional analysis mode were made on the fracture patterns revealed on two-dimensional, planar surfaces in four granites. This method allows one to conclude that: (1) The fracture systems seen on two-dimensional surfaces in granites are consistent with the part of fractal theory that predicts a repetition of patterns on different scales of observation, self similarity. Fractal analysis gives essentially the same values of D on the scale of kilometres, metres and centimetres (five orders of magnitude) using mapped, surface fracture patterns in a Sierra Nevada granite batholith (Mt. Abbot quadrangle, Calif.). (2) Fractures show the same fractal values at different depths in a given batholith. Mapped fractures (main stage ore veins) at three mining levels (over a 700 m depth interval) of the Boulder batholith, Butte, Mont. show the same fractal values although the fracture disposition appears to be different at different levels. (3) Different sets of fracture planes in a granite batholith, Central France, and in experimental deformation can have different fractal values. In these examples shear and tension modes have the same fractal values while compressional fractures follow a different fractal mode of failure. The composite fracture patterns are also fractal but with a different, median, fractal value compared to the individual values for the fracture plane sets. These observations indicate that the fractal method can possibly be used to distinguish fractures of different origins in a complex system. It is concluded that granites fracture in a fractal manner which can be followed at many scales. It appears that fracture planes of different origins can be characterized using linear fractal analysis.

6. Fractal patterns of fractures in granites

USGS Publications Warehouse

Velde, B.; Dubois, J.; Moore, D.; Touchard, G.

1991-01-01

Fractal measurements using the Cantor's dust method in a linear one-dimensional analysis mode were made on the fracture patterns revealed on two-dimensional, planar surfaces in four granites. This method allows one to conclude that: 1. (1)|The fracture systems seen on two-dimensional surfaces in granites are consistent with the part of fractal theory that predicts a repetition of patterns on different scales of observation, self similarity. Fractal analysis gives essentially the same values of D on the scale of kilometres, metres and centimetres (five orders of magnitude) using mapped, surface fracture patterns in a Sierra Nevada granite batholith (Mt. Abbot quadrangle, Calif.). 2. (2)|Fractures show the same fractal values at different depths in a given batholith. Mapped fractures (main stage ore veins) at three mining levels (over a 700 m depth interval) of the Boulder batholith, Butte, Mont. show the same fractal values although the fracture disposition appears to be different at different levels. 3. (3)|Different sets of fracture planes in a granite batholith, Central France, and in experimental deformation can have different fractal values. In these examples shear and tension modes have the same fractal values while compressional fractures follow a different fractal mode of failure. The composite fracture patterns are also fractal but with a different, median, fractal value compared to the individual values for the fracture plane sets. These observations indicate that the fractal method can possibly be used to distinguish fractures of different origins in a complex system. It is concluded that granites fracture in a fractal manner which can be followed at many scales. It appears that fracture planes of different origins can be characterized using linear fractal analysis. ?? 1991.

7. Fractal applications to complex crustal problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turcotte, Donald L.

1989-01-01

Complex scale-invariant problems obey fractal statistics. The basic definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects with a characteristic linear dimension greater than r satisfies the relation N = about r exp -D where D is the fractal dimension. Fragmentation often satisfies this relation. The distribution of earthquakes satisfies this relation. The classic relationship between the length of a rocky coast line and the step length can be derived from this relation. Power law relations for spectra can also be related to fractal dimensions. Topography and gravity are examples. Spectral techniques can be used to obtain maps of fractal dimension and roughness amplitude. These provide a quantitative measure of texture analysis. It is argued that the distribution of stress and strength in a complex crustal region, such as the Alps, is fractal. Based on this assumption, the observed frequency-magnitude relation for the seismicity in the region can be derived.

8. Fuzzy fractals, chaos, and noise

SciTech Connect

Zardecki, A.

1997-05-01

To distinguish between chaotic and noisy processes, the authors analyze one- and two-dimensional chaotic mappings, supplemented by the additive noise terms. The predictive power of a fuzzy rule-based system allows one to distinguish ergodic and chaotic time series: in an ergodic series the likelihood of finding large numbers is small compared to the likelihood of finding them in a chaotic series. In the case of two dimensions, they consider the fractal fuzzy sets whose {alpha}-cuts are fractals, arising in the context of a quadratic mapping in the extended complex plane. In an example provided by the Julia set, the concept of Hausdorff dimension enables one to decide in favor of chaotic or noisy evolution.

9. The topology of fractal universes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hamilton, A. J. S.

1988-01-01

It is shown how the genus per unit volume of isodensity surfaces in general nonlinear universes is related to the entire hierarchy of correlation functions. The general relation between the correlation function, the probability distribution of densities at several points, and the probability distributions of density and its derivatives at a point are given. Formulas for the area and genus per unit volume of isodensity surfaces are presented. As an application, after first reviewing the case of Gaussian fields, analytic results are reported for one particular example of a thoroughly nonlinear universe, Mandelbrot's Rayleigh-Levy random-walk fractal. While this fractal bears little resemblance to the real universe of galaxies, it possesses the singular and theoretically interesting property that in it cluster-cluster correlations are identically equal to galaxy-galaxy correlations to all orders.

10. Fractals, malware, and data models

Jaenisch, Holger M.; Potter, Andrew N.; Williams, Deborah; Handley, James W.

2012-06-01

We examine the hypothesis that the decision boundary between malware and non-malware is fractal. We introduce a novel encoding method derived from text mining for converting disassembled programs first into opstrings and then filter these into a reduced opcode alphabet. These opcodes are enumerated and encoded into real floating point number format and used for characterizing frequency of occurrence and distribution properties of malware functions to compare with non-malware functions. We use the concept of invariant moments to characterize the highly non-Gaussian structure of the opcode distributions. We then derive Data Model based classifiers from identified features and interpolate and extrapolate the parameter sample space for the derived Data Models. This is done to examine the nature of the parameter space classification boundary between families of malware and the general non-malware category. Preliminary results strongly support the fractal boundary hypothesis, and a summary of our methods and results are presented here.

11. Fractal calculus involving gauge function

Golmankhaneh, Alireza K.; Baleanu, Dumitru

2016-08-01

Henstock-Kurzweil integral or gauge integral is the generalization of the Riemann integral. The functions which are not integrable because of singularity in the senses of Lebesgue or Riemann are gauge integrable. In this manuscript, we have generalized Fα-calculus using the gauge integral method for the integrating of the functions on fractal set subset of real-line where they have singularities. The suggested new method leads to the wider class of functions on the fractal subset of real-line that are *Fα-integrable. Using gauge function we define *Fα-derivative of functions their Fα-derivative is not exist. The reported results can be used for generalizing the fundamental theorem of Fα-calculus.

12. A simultaneous one pot synthesis of two fractal structures via swapping two fractal reaction kinetic states.

PubMed

2016-06-01

We introduce a new class of fractal reaction kinetics wherein two or more distinct fractal structures are synthesized as parts of a singular cascade reaction in a single chemical beaker. Two examples: sphere ↔ spiral & triangle ↔ square fractals, grow 10(6) orders from a single dendrimer (8 nm) to the visible scale. PMID:27166589

13. Electrodynamic properties of fractal clusters

Maksimenko, V. V.; Zagaynov, V. A.; Agranovski, I. E.

2014-07-01

An influence of interference on a character of light interaction both with individual fractal cluster (FC) consisting of nanoparticles and with agglomerates of such clusters is investigated. Using methods of the multiple scattering theory, effective dielectric permeability of a micron-size FC composed of non-absorbing nanoparticles is calculated. The cluster could be characterized by a set of effective dielectric permeabilities. Their number coincides with the number of particles, where space arrangement in the cluster is correlated. If the fractal dimension is less than some critical value and frequency corresponds to the frequency of the visible spectrum, then the absolute value of effective dielectric permeability becomes very large. This results in strong renormalization (decrease) of the incident radiation wavelength inside the cluster. The renormalized photons are cycled or trapped inside the system of multi-scaled cavities inside the cluster. A lifetime of a photon localized inside an agglomerate of FCs is a macroscopic value allowing to observe the stimulated emission of the localized light. The latter opens up a possibility for creation of lasers without inverse population of energy levels. Moreover, this allows to reconsider problems of optical cloaking of macroscopic objects. One more feature of fractal structures is a possibility of unimpeded propagation of light when any resistance associated with scattering disappears.

14. Fractal metrology for biogeosystems analysis

Torres-Argüelles, V.; Oleschko, K.; Tarquis, A. M.; Korvin, G.; Gaona, C.; Parrot, J.-F.; Ventura-Ramos, E.

2010-06-01

The solid-pore distribution pattern plays an important role in soil functioning being related with the main physical, chemical and biological multiscale and multitemporal processes. In the present research, this pattern is extracted from the digital images of three soils (Chernozem, Solonetz and "Chocolate'' Clay) and compared in terms of roughness of the gray-intensity distribution (the measurand) quantified by several measurement techniques. Special attention was paid to the uncertainty of each of them and to the measurement function which best fits to the experimental results. Some of the applied techniques are known as classical in the fractal context (box-counting, rescaling-range and wavelets analyses, etc.) while the others have been recently developed by our Group. The combination of all these techniques, coming from Fractal Geometry, Metrology, Informatics, Probability Theory and Statistics is termed in this paper Fractal Metrology (FM). We show the usefulness of FM through a case study of soil physical and chemical degradation applying the selected toolbox to describe and compare the main structural attributes of three porous media with contrasting structure but similar clay mineralogy dominated by montmorillonites.

15. Fractal Metrology for biogeosystems analysis

Torres-Argüelles, V.; Oleschko, K.; Tarquis, A. M.; Korvin, G.; Gaona, C.; Parrot, J.-F.; Ventura-Ramos, E.

2010-11-01

The solid-pore distribution pattern plays an important role in soil functioning being related with the main physical, chemical and biological multiscale and multitemporal processes of this complex system. In the present research, we studied the aggregation process as self-organizing and operating near a critical point. The structural pattern is extracted from the digital images of three soils (Chernozem, Solonetz and "Chocolate" Clay) and compared in terms of roughness of the gray-intensity distribution quantified by several measurement techniques. Special attention was paid to the uncertainty of each of them measured in terms of standard deviation. Some of the applied methods are known as classical in the fractal context (box-counting, rescaling-range and wavelets analyses, etc.) while the others have been recently developed by our Group. The combination of these techniques, coming from Fractal Geometry, Metrology, Informatics, Probability Theory and Statistics is termed in this paper Fractal Metrology (FM). We show the usefulness of FM for complex systems analysis through a case study of the soil's physical and chemical degradation applying the selected toolbox to describe and compare the structural attributes of three porous media with contrasting structure but similar clay mineralogy dominated by montmorillonites.

16. Fractal signatures in the aperiodic Fibonacci grating.

PubMed

Verma, Rupesh; Banerjee, Varsha; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam

2014-05-01

The Fibonacci grating (FbG) is an archetypal example of aperiodicity and self-similarity. While aperiodicity distinguishes it from a fractal, self-similarity identifies it with a fractal. Our paper investigates the outcome of these complementary features on the FbG diffraction profile (FbGDP). We find that the FbGDP has unique characteristics (e.g., no reduction in intensity with increasing generations), in addition to fractal signatures (e.g., a non-integer fractal dimension). These make the Fibonacci architecture potentially useful in image forming devices and other emerging technologies. PMID:24784044

17. Estimation of Surface Soil Moisture Using Fractal

Chen, Yen Chang; He, Chun Hsuan

2016-04-01

This study establishes the relationship between surface soil moisture and fractal dimension. The surface soil moisture is one of important factors in the hydrological cycle of surface evaporation. It could be used in many fields, such as reservoir management, early drought warning systems, irrigation scheduling and management, and crop yield estimations. Soil surface cracks due to dryness can be used to describe drought conditions. Soil cracking phenomenon and moisture have a certain relationship, thus this study makes used the fractal theory to interpret the soil moisture represented by soil cracks. The fractal dimension of surface soil cracking is a measure of the surface soil moisture. Therefore fractal dimensions can also be used to indicate how dry of the surface soil is. This study used the sediment in the Shimen Reservoir to establish the fractal dimension and soil moisture relation. The soil cracking is created under the control of temperature and thickness of surface soil layers. The results show the increase in fractal dimensions is accompanied by a decreases in surface soil moisture. However the fractal dimensions will approach a constant even the soil moisture continually decreases. The sigmoid function is used to fit the relation of fractal dimensions and surface soil moistures. The proposed method can be successfully applied to estimate surface soil moisture. Only a photo taken from the field is needed and is sufficient to provide the fractal dimension. Consequently, the surface soil moisture can be estimated quickly and accurately.

18. Stability limits for bioconvective fractals - Microgravity prospects

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noever, David A.

1992-01-01

Fractal objects are delicate aggregates which show self-similar behavior and vanishing density for increasing length scales. In practice real fractals in nature however possess only a limited region of verifiable self-similarity. As natural fractal objects increase in size, they become easier to disrupt mechanically. Herein the effects of thermal vibrations and gravity are investigated as deforming forces on fractal aggregation. Example calculations are carried out on a biological fractal formed from the surface aggregation of various cells such as alga and bacteria. For typical cell parameters, the predicted diameter of this so-called 'bioconvective' fractal agrees well with the observed limits of about 5 cm. On earth, this size represents an experimental maximum for finding bioconvective fractal objects. To extend this size range of fractals available for statistical study, a reduced gravity environment offers one way to achieve larger fractals. For these enhanced sizes, the present scaling predicts that microgravity can yield up to a 35-fold improvement in extending statistical resolution.

19. Some problems in fractal differential equations

Su, Weiyi

2016-06-01

Based upon the fractal calculus on local fields, or p-type calculus, or Gibbs-Butzer calculus ([1],[2]), we suggest a constructive idea for "fractal differential equations", beginning from some special examples to a general theory. However, this is just an original idea, it needs lots of later work to support. In [3], we show example "two dimension wave equations with fractal boundaries", and in this note, other examples, as well as an idea to construct fractal differential equations are shown.

20. Order-fractal transitions in abstract paintings

de la Calleja, E. M.; Cervantes, F.; de la Calleja, J.

2016-08-01

In this study, we determined the degree of order for 22 Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff-Besicovitch fractal dimension. Based on the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks were classified according to the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock's paintings are fractal and that this feature was more evident in his later works. However, our results show that the fractal dimension of these paintings ranges among values close to two. We characterize this behavior as a fractal-order transition. Based on the study of disorder-order transition in physical systems, we interpreted the fractal-order transition via the dark paint strokes in Pollock's paintings as structured lines that follow a power law measured by the fractal dimension. We determined self-similarity in specific paintings, thereby demonstrating an important dependence on the scale of observations. We also characterized the fractal spectrum for the painting entitled Teri's Find. We obtained similar spectra for Teri's Find and Number 5, thereby suggesting that the fractal dimension cannot be rejected completely as a quantitative parameter for authenticating these artworks.

1. Diffraction from fractal grating Cantor sets

Golmankhaneh, Alireza K.; Baleanu, D.

2016-08-01

In this paper, we have generalized the Fα-calculus by suggesting Fourier and Laplace transformations of the function with support of the fractals set which are the subset of the real line. Using this generalization, we have found the diffraction fringes from the fractal grating Cantor sets.

2. Fractal nanoparticle plasmonics: the Cayley tree.

PubMed

Gottheim, Samuel; Zhang, Hui; Govorov, Alexander O; Halas, Naomi J

2015-03-24

There has been strong, ongoing interest over the past decade in developing strategies to design and engineer materials with tailored optical properties. Fractal-like nanoparticles and films have long been known to possess a remarkably broad-band optical response and are potential nanoscale components for realizing spectrum-spanning optical effects. Here we examine the role of self-similarity in a fractal geometry for the design of plasmon line shapes. By computing and fabricating simple Cayley tree nanostructures of increasing fractal order N, we are able to identify the principle behind how the multimodal plasmon spectrum of this system develops as the fractal order is increased. With increasing N, the fractal structure acquires an increasing number of modes with certain degeneracies: these modes correspond to plasmon oscillations on the different length scales inside a fractal. As a result, fractals with large N exhibit broad, multipeaked spectra from plasmons with large degeneracy numbers. The Cayley tree serves as an example of a more general, fractal-based route for the design of structures and media with highly complex optical line shapes. PMID:25727720

3. Undergraduate Experiment with Fractal Diffraction Gratings

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monsoriu, Juan A.; Furlan, Walter D.; Pons, Amparo; Barreiro, Juan C.; Gimenez, Marcos H.

2011-01-01

We present a simple diffraction experiment with fractal gratings based on the triadic Cantor set. Diffraction by fractals is proposed as a motivating strategy for students of optics in the potential applications of optical processing. Fraunhofer diffraction patterns are obtained using standard equipment present in most undergraduate physics…

4. Fractal Music: The Mathematics Behind "Techno" Music

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2005-01-01

This article describes sound waves, their basis in the sine curve, Fourier's theorem of infinite series, the fractal equation and its application to the composition of music, together with algorithms (such as those employed by meteorologist Edward Lorenz in his discovery of chaos theory) that are now being used to compose fractal music on…

5. Fractal Trigonometric Polynomials for Restricted Range Approximation

Chand, A. K. B.; Navascués, M. A.; Viswanathan, P.; Katiyar, S. K.

2016-05-01

One-sided approximation tackles the problem of approximation of a prescribed function by simple traditional functions such as polynomials or trigonometric functions that lie completely above or below it. In this paper, we use the concept of fractal interpolation function (FIF), precisely of fractal trigonometric polynomials, to construct one-sided uniform approximants for some classes of continuous functions.

6. A fractal-like resistive network

Saggese, A.; De Luca, R.

2014-11-01

The equivalent resistance of a fractal-like network is calculated by means of approaches similar to those employed in defining the equivalent resistance of an infinite ladder. Starting from an elementary triangular circuit, a fractal-like network, named after Saggese, is developed. The equivalent resistance of finite approximations of this network is measured, and the didactical implications of the model are highlighted.

7. Fractals and cosmological large-scale structure

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Luo, Xiaochun; Schramm, David N.

1992-01-01

Observations of galaxy-galaxy and cluster-cluster correlations as well as other large-scale structure can be fit with a 'limited' fractal with dimension D of about 1.2. This is not a 'pure' fractal out to the horizon: the distribution shifts from power law to random behavior at some large scale. If the observed patterns and structures are formed through an aggregation growth process, the fractal dimension D can serve as an interesting constraint on the properties of the stochastic motion responsible for limiting the fractal structure. In particular, it is found that the observed fractal should have grown from two-dimensional sheetlike objects such as pancakes, domain walls, or string wakes. This result is generic and does not depend on the details of the growth process.

8. Dimensionally Frustrated Diffusion towards Fractal Adsorbers

2007-12-01

Diffusion towards a fractal adsorber is a well-researched problem with many applications. While the steady-state flux towards such adsorbers is known to be characterized by the fractal dimension (DF) of the surface, the more general problem of time-dependent adsorption kinetics of fractal surfaces remains poorly understood. In this Letter, we show that the time-dependent flux to fractal adsorbers (1fractal surface, providing a novel experimental measure of DF and an obvious route to improved sensor design.

9. Randomness in fractals, connectivity dimensions, and percolation

Perreau, M.; Levy, J. C. S.

1989-10-01

The structural properties of random fractals embedded in a d-dimensional Euclidean space are studied by means of transfer-matrix formalism of fractal sets. For d=1, both global and local approaches have been investigated, leading to the definition of a subdimension that is different from the fractal dimension and depends on the probability distribution. This subdimension is shown to be identical for the global and local approaches; then, the scaling corrections involved in this subdimension are the same for both these approaches. For d>1, only the local approach can be generalized, characterizing the connectivity properties of these structures. There are exactly d subdimensions called connectivity dimensions that prove to be useful to describe percolation properties of these fractals. Several percolation thresholds are shown, and the fractal dimension of the sets at the percolation threshold are related to the connectivity dimensions.

10. Fractal dimension of bioconvection patterns

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noever, David A.

1990-01-01

Shallow cultures of the motile algal strain, Euglena gracilis, were concentrated to 2 x 10 to the 6th organisms per ml and placed in constant temperature water baths at 24 and 38 C. Bioconvective patterns formed an open two-dimensional structure with random branches, similar to clusters encountered in the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model. When averaged over several example cultures, the pattern was found to have no natural length scale, self-similar branching, and a fractal dimension (d about 1.7). These agree well with the two-dimensional DLA.

11. Fractal lattice of gelatin nanoglobules

Novikov, D. V.; Krasovskii, A. N.

2012-11-01

The globular structure of polymer coatings on a glass, which were obtained from micellar solutions of gelatin in the isooctane-water-sodium (bis-2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate system, has been studied using electron microscopy. It has been shown that an increase in the average globule size is accompanied by the formation of a fractal lattice of nanoglobules and a periodic physical network of macromolecules in the coating. The stability of such system of the "liquid-in-a-solid" type is limited by the destruction of globules and the formation of a homogeneous network structure of the coating.

12. Random sequential adsorption on fractals

Ciesla, Michal; Barbasz, Jakub

2012-07-01

Irreversible adsorption of spheres on flat collectors having dimension d < 2 is studied. Molecules are adsorbed on Sierpinski's triangle and carpet-like fractals (1 < d < 2), and on general Cantor set (d < 1). Adsorption process is modeled numerically using random sequential adsorption (RSA) algorithm. The paper concentrates on measurement of fundamental properties of coverages, i.e., maximal random coverage ratio and density autocorrelation function, as well as RSA kinetics. Obtained results allow to improve phenomenological relation between maximal random coverage ratio and collector dimension. Moreover, simulations show that, in general, most of known dimensional properties of adsorbed monolayers are valid for non-integer dimensions.

13. Random sequential adsorption on fractals.

PubMed

Ciesla, Michal; Barbasz, Jakub

2012-07-28

Irreversible adsorption of spheres on flat collectors having dimension d < 2 is studied. Molecules are adsorbed on Sierpinski's triangle and carpet-like fractals (1 < d < 2), and on general Cantor set (d < 1). Adsorption process is modeled numerically using random sequential adsorption (RSA) algorithm. The paper concentrates on measurement of fundamental properties of coverages, i.e., maximal random coverage ratio and density autocorrelation function, as well as RSA kinetics. Obtained results allow to improve phenomenological relation between maximal random coverage ratio and collector dimension. Moreover, simulations show that, in general, most of known dimensional properties of adsorbed monolayers are valid for non-integer dimensions. PMID:22852643

14. Fractal Dimension of Bioconvection Patterns

Noever, David A.

1990-10-01

Shallow cultures of the motile algal strain, Euglena gracilis, were concentrated to 2× 106 organisms per ml and placed in constant temperature water baths at 24 and 38 C. Bioconvective patterns formed an open two-dimensional structure with random branches, similar to clusters encountered in the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model. When averaged over several example cultures, the pattern was found to have no natural length scale, self-similar branching and a fractal dimension (d˜1.7). These agree well with the two-dimensional DLA.

15. Snow metamorphism: A fractal approach.

PubMed

Carbone, Anna; Chiaia, Bernardino M; Frigo, Barbara; Türk, Christian

2010-09-01

Snow is a porous disordered medium consisting of air and three water phases: ice, vapor, and liquid. The ice phase consists of an assemblage of grains, ice matrix, initially arranged over a random load bearing skeleton. The quantitative relationship between density and morphological characteristics of different snow microstructures is still an open issue. In this work, a three-dimensional fractal description of density corresponding to different snow microstructure is put forward. First, snow density is simulated in terms of a generalized Menger sponge model. Then, a fully three-dimensional compact stochastic fractal model is adopted. The latter approach yields a quantitative map of the randomness of the snow texture, which is described as a three-dimensional fractional Brownian field with the Hurst exponent H varying as continuous parameters. The Hurst exponent is found to be strongly dependent on snow morphology and density. The approach might be applied to all those cases where the morphological evolution of snow cover or ice sheets should be conveniently described at a quantitative level. PMID:21230135

16. Fractal Dimensions of Macromolecular Structures

PubMed Central

Todoroff, Nickolay; Kunze, Jens; Schreuder, Herman; Hessler, Gerhard; Baringhaus, Karl-Heinz; Schneider, Gisbert

2014-01-01

Quantifying the properties of macromolecules is a prerequisite for understanding their roles in biochemical processes. One of the less-explored geometric features of macromolecules is molecular surface irregularity, or ‘roughness’, which can be measured in terms of fractal dimension (D). In this study, we demonstrate that surface roughness correlates with ligand binding potential. We quantified the surface roughnesses of biological macromolecules in a large-scale survey that revealed D values between 2.0 and 2.4. The results of our study imply that surface patches involved in molecular interactions, such as ligand-binding pockets and protein-protein interfaces, exhibit greater local fluctuations in their fractal dimensions than ‘inert’ surface areas. We expect approximately 22 % of a protein’s surface outside of the crystallographically known ligand binding sites to be ligandable. These findings provide a fresh perspective on macromolecular structure and have considerable implications for drug design as well as chemical and systems biology. PMID:26213587

17. Hexagonal and Pentagonal Fractal Multiband Antennas

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tang, Philip W.; Wahid, Parveen

2005-01-01

Multiband dipole antennas based on hexagonal and pentagonal fractals have been analyzed by computational simulations and functionally demonstrated in experiments on prototypes. These antennas are capable of multiband or wide-band operation because they are subdivided into progressively smaller substructures that resonate at progressively higher frequencies by virtue of their smaller dimensions. The novelty of the present antennas lies in their specific hexagonal and pentagonal fractal configurations and the resonant frequencies associated with them. These antennas are potentially applicable to a variety of multiband and wide-band commercial wireless-communication products operating at different frequencies, including personal digital assistants, cellular telephones, pagers, satellite radios, Global Positioning System receivers, and products that combine two or more of the aforementioned functions. Perhaps the best-known prior multiband antenna based on fractal geometry is the Sierpinski triangle antenna (also known as the Sierpinski gasket), shown in the top part of the figure. In this antenna, the scale length at each iteration of the fractal is half the scale length of the preceding iteration, yielding successive resonant frequencies related by a ratio of about 2. The middle and bottom parts of the figure depict the first three iterations of the hexagonal and pentagonal fractals along with typical dipole-antenna configuration based on the second iteration. Successive resonant frequencies of the hexagonal fractal antenna have been found to be related by a ratio of about 3, and those of the pentagonal fractal antenna by a ratio of about 2.59.

18. Towards a physics on fractals: Differential vector calculus in three-dimensional continuum with fractal metric

Balankin, Alexander S.; Bory-Reyes, Juan; Shapiro, Michael

2016-02-01

One way to deal with physical problems on nowhere differentiable fractals is the mapping of these problems into the corresponding problems for continuum with a proper fractal metric. On this way different definitions of the fractal metric were suggested to account for the essential fractal features. In this work we develop the metric differential vector calculus in a three-dimensional continuum with a non-Euclidean metric. The metric differential forms and Laplacian are introduced, fundamental identities for metric differential operators are established and integral theorems are proved by employing the metric version of the quaternionic analysis for the Moisil-Teodoresco operator, which has been introduced and partially developed in this paper. The relations between the metric and conventional operators are revealed. It should be emphasized that the metric vector calculus developed in this work provides a comprehensive mathematical formalism for the continuum with any suitable definition of fractal metric. This offers a novel tool to study physics on fractals.

19. On the ubiquitous presence of fractals and fractal concepts in pharmaceutical sciences: a review.

PubMed

Pippa, Natassa; Dokoumetzidis, Aristides; Demetzos, Costas; Macheras, Panos

2013-11-18

Fractals have been very successful in quantifying nature's geometrical complexity, and have captured the imagination of scientific community. The development of fractal dimension and its applications have produced significant results across a wide variety of biomedical applications. This review deals with the application of fractals in pharmaceutical sciences and attempts to account the most important developments in the fields of pharmaceutical technology, especially of advanced Drug Delivery nano Systems and of biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics. Additionally, fractal kinetics, which has been applied to enzyme kinetics, drug metabolism and absorption, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are presented. This review also considers the potential benefits of using fractal analysis along with considerations of nonlinearity, scaling, and chaos as calibration tools to obtain information and more realistic description on different parts of pharmaceutical sciences. As a conclusion, the purpose of the present work is to highlight the presence of fractal geometry in almost all fields of pharmaceutical research. PMID:24025993

20. Formation of fractal islands on nonlattice substrates

Luo, Meng-Bo; Ye, Gao-Xiang; Xia, A.-Gen; Jin, Jin-Sheng; Yang, Bo; Xu, Jian-Min

1999-01-01

A Monte Carlo study on the formation of fractal islands on nonlattice substrates is presented. The islands, including disc aggregates and single discs, perform two-dimensional diffusion along four directions with different diffusion step lengths and rigid rotation about their centers of mass on a nonlattice square with periodic boundary conditions. It is found that the fractal dimension of the ramified islands is almost independent of the diffusion step length, rigid rotation angle, and disc size. However, the fractal dimension increases linearly with the surface coverage. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the previous experimental findings of the aggregation of the silver atomic islands on silicone oil surfaces.

1. Fractal-like structures in colloid science.

PubMed

Lazzari, S; Nicoud, L; Jaquet, B; Lattuada, M; Morbidelli, M

2016-09-01

The present work aims at reviewing our current understanding of fractal structures in the frame of colloid aggregation as well as the possibility they offer to produce novel structured materials. In particular, the existing techniques to measure and compute the fractal dimension df are critically discussed based on the cases of organic/inorganic particles and proteins. Then the aggregation conditions affecting df are thoroughly analyzed, pointing out the most recent literature findings and the limitations of our current understanding. Finally, the importance of the fractal dimension in applications is discussed along with possible directions for the production of new structured materials. PMID:27233526

2. Fractal-based wideband invisibility cloak

Cohen, Nathan; Okoro, Obinna; Earle, Dan; Salkind, Phil; Unger, Barry; Yen, Sean; McHugh, Daniel; Polterzycki, Stefan; Shelman-Cohen, A. J.

2015-03-01

A wideband invisibility cloak (IC) at microwave frequencies is described. Using fractal resonators in closely spaced (sub wavelength) arrays as a minimal number of cylindrical layers (rings), the IC demonstrates that it is physically possible to attain a see through' cloaking device with: (a) wideband coverage; (b) simple and attainable fabrication; (c) high fidelity emulation of the free path; (d) minimal side scattering; (d) a near absence of shadowing in the scattering. Although not a practical device, this fractal-enabled technology demonstrator opens up new opportunities for diverted-image (DI) technology and use of fractals in wideband optical, infrared, and microwave applications.

3. Sporadically Fractal Basin Boundaries of Chaotic Systems

SciTech Connect

Hunt, B.R.; Ott, E.; Rosa, E. Jr.

1999-05-01

We demonstrate a new type of basin boundary for typical chaotic dynamical systems. For the case of a two dimensional map, this boundary has the character of the graph of a function that is smooth and differentiable except on a set of fractal dimensions less than one. In spite of the basin boundary being smooth {open_quotes}almost everywhere,{close_quotes} its fractal dimension exceeds one (implying degradation of one{close_quote}s ability to predict the attractor an orbit approaches in the presence of small initial condition uncertainty). We call such a boundary {ital sporadically fractal}. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

4. Fractal analysis of turbulent mixing in fractal-generated turbulence by planar laser-induced fluorescence

Suzuki, Hiroki; Nagata, Kouji; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Hasegawa, Yutaka

2013-07-01

The fractal geometry of turbulent mixing of high-Schmidt-number scalars in multiscale, fractal-generated turbulence (FGT) is experimentally investigated. The difference between the fractal geometry in FGT and that in classical grid turbulence (CGT) generated by a biplane, single-scale grid is also investigated. Nondimensional concentration fields are measured by a planar laser-induced fluorescence technique whose accuracy has recently been improved by our research group, and the fractal dimensions are calculated by using the box-counting method. The mesh Reynolds number is 2500 for both CGT and FGT. The Schmidt number is about 2100. It is found that the threshold width ΔCth, when applying the box-counting method, does not affect the evaluation of the fractal dimension at large scales; therefore, the fractal dimensions at large scales have been investigated in this study. The results show that the fractal dimension in FGT is larger than that in CGT. In addition, the fractal dimension in FGT monotonically increases with the onset of time (or with the downstream direction), whereas that in CGT is almost constant with time. The investigation of the number of counted boxes in a unit area, together with the above results, suggests that turbulent mixing is more enhanced in FGT from the viewpoints of fractal geometry and expansion of the mixing interface.

5. Nanoflow over a fractal surface

Papanikolaou, Michail; Frank, Michael; Drikakis, Dimitris

2016-08-01

This paper investigates the effects of surface roughness on nanoflows using molecular dynamics simulations. A fractal model is employed to model wall roughness, and simulations are performed for liquid argon confined by two solid walls. It is shown that the surface roughness reduces the velocity in the proximity of the walls with the reduction being accentuated when increasing the roughness depth and wettability of the solid wall. It also makes the flow three-dimensional and anisotropic. In flows over idealized smooth surfaces, the liquid forms parallel, well-spaced layers, with a significant gap between the first layer and the solid wall. Rough walls distort the orderly distribution of fluid layers resulting in an incoherent formation of irregularly shaped fluid structures around and within the wall cavities.

6. Fractal characteristics of ozonometric network

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gruzdev, Alexander N.

1994-01-01

The fractal (correlation) dimensions are calculated which characterize the distribution of stations in the ground-based total ozone measuring network and the distribution of nodes in a latitude-longitude grid. The dimension of the ground-based ozonometric network equals 1.67 +/- 0.1 with an appropriate scaling in the 60 to 400 km range. For the latitude-longitude grid two scaling regimes are revealed. One regime, with the dimension somewhat greater than one, is peculiar to smaller scales and limited from a larger scale by the latitudinal resolution of the grid. Another scaling regime, with the dimension equal 1.84, ranges up to 15,000 km scale. The fact that the dimension of a measuring network is less than two possesses problems in observing sparse phenomena. This has to have important consequences for ozone statistics.

7. Fractal cartography of urban areas

Encarnação, Sara; Gaudiano, Marcos; Santos, Francisco C.; Tenedório, José A.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

2012-07-01

In a world in which the pace of cities is increasing, prompt access to relevant information is crucial to the understanding and regulation of land use and its evolution in time. In spite of this, characterization and regulation of urban areas remains a complex process, requiring expert human intervention, analysis and judgment. Here we carry out a spatio-temporal fractal analysis of a metropolitan area, based on which we develop a model which generates a cartographic representation and classification of built-up areas, identifying (and even predicting) those areas requiring the most proximate planning and regulation. Furthermore, we show how different types of urban areas identified by the model co-evolve with the city, requiring policy regulation to be flexible and adaptive, acting just in time. The algorithmic implementation of the model is applicable to any built-up area and simple enough to pave the way for the automatic classification of urban areas worldwide.

8. Fractal cartography of urban areas

PubMed Central

Encarnação, Sara; Gaudiano, Marcos; Santos, Francisco C.; Tenedório, José A.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

2012-01-01

In a world in which the pace of cities is increasing, prompt access to relevant information is crucial to the understanding and regulation of land use and its evolution in time. In spite of this, characterization and regulation of urban areas remains a complex process, requiring expert human intervention, analysis and judgment. Here we carry out a spatio-temporal fractal analysis of a metropolitan area, based on which we develop a model which generates a cartographic representation and classification of built-up areas, identifying (and even predicting) those areas requiring the most proximate planning and regulation. Furthermore, we show how different types of urban areas identified by the model co-evolve with the city, requiring policy regulation to be flexible and adaptive, acting just in time. The algorithmic implementation of the model is applicable to any built-up area and simple enough to pave the way for the automatic classification of urban areas worldwide. PMID:22829981

9. Recurrence Quantification of Fractal Structures

PubMed Central

Webber, Charles L.

2012-01-01

By definition, fractal structures possess recurrent patterns. At different levels repeating patterns can be visualized at higher magnifications. The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, general characteristics of dynamical systems are addressed from a theoretical mathematical perspective. Second, qualitative and quantitative recurrence analyses are reviewed in brief, but the reader is directed to other sources for explicit details. Third, example mathematical systems that generate strange attractors are explicitly defined, giving the reader the ability to reproduce the rich dynamics of continuous chaotic flows or discrete chaotic iterations. The challenge is then posited for the reader to study for themselves the recurrent structuring of these different dynamics. With a firm appreciation of the power of recurrence analysis, the reader will be prepared to turn their sights on real-world systems (physiological, psychological, mechanical, etc.). PMID:23060808

10. Riemann zeros, prime numbers, and fractal potentials.

PubMed

van Zyl, Brandon P; Hutchinson, David A W

2003-06-01

Using two distinct inversion techniques, the local one-dimensional potentials for the Riemann zeros and prime number sequence are reconstructed. We establish that both inversion techniques, when applied to the same set of levels, lead to the same fractal potential. This provides numerical evidence that the potential obtained by inversion of a set of energy levels is unique in one dimension. We also investigate the fractal properties of the reconstructed potentials and estimate the fractal dimensions to be D=1.5 for the Riemann zeros and D=1.8 for the prime numbers. This result is somewhat surprising since the nearest-neighbor spacings of the Riemann zeros are known to be chaotically distributed, whereas the primes obey almost Poissonlike statistics. Our findings show that the fractal dimension is dependent on both level statistics and spectral rigidity, Delta(3), of the energy levels. PMID:16241330

11. Fractal Geometry in the High School Classroom.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Camp, Dane R.

1995-01-01

Discusses classroom activities that involve applications of fractal geometry. Includes an activity sheet that explores Pascal's triangle, Sierpinsky's gasket, and modular arithmetic in two and three dimensions. (Author/MKR)

12. A fractal circular polarized RFID tag antenna

Chaouki, Guesmi; Ferchichi, Abdelhak; Gharsallah, Ali

2013-09-01

In this paper, we present a novel fractal antenna for radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags. The proposed antenna has a resonant frequency equal to 2.45GHz and circular polarization. The fractal technique was very useful to obtain a miniaturization of antenna size by more than 30%. The gain and directivity of the antenna are acceptable for the desired RFID application. All the results are obtained using CST Microwave simulation tool.

13. Multiplexing of encrypted data using fractal masks.

PubMed

Barrera, John F; Tebaldi, Myrian; Amaya, Dafne; Furlan, Walter D; Monsoriu, Juan A; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto

2012-07-15

In this Letter, we present to the best of our knowledge a new all-optical technique for multiple-image encryption and multiplexing, based on fractal encrypting masks. The optical architecture is a joint transform correlator. The multiplexed encrypted data are stored in a photorefractive crystal. The fractal parameters of the key can be easily tuned to lead to a multiplexing operation without cross talk effects. Experimental results that support the potential of the method are presented. PMID:22825170

14. Fractal analysis of DNA sequence data

SciTech Connect

Berthelsen, C.L.

1993-01-01

DNA sequence databases are growing at an almost exponential rate. New analysis methods are needed to extract knowledge about the organization of nucleotides from this vast amount of data. Fractal analysis is a new scientific paradigm that has been used successfully in many domains including the biological and physical sciences. Biological growth is a nonlinear dynamic process and some have suggested that to consider fractal geometry as a biological design principle may be most productive. This research is an exploratory study of the application of fractal analysis to DNA sequence data. A simple random fractal, the random walk, is used to represent DNA sequences. The fractal dimension of these walks is then estimated using the [open quote]sandbox method[close quote]. Analysis of 164 human DNA sequences compared to three types of control sequences (random, base-content matched, and dimer-content matched) reveals that long-range correlations are present in DNA that are not explained by base or dimer frequencies. The study also revealed that the fractal dimension of coding sequences was significantly lower than sequences that were primarily noncoding, indicating the presence of longer-range correlations in functional sequences. The multifractal spectrum is used to analyze fractals that are heterogeneous and have a different fractal dimension for subsets with different scalings. The multifractal spectrum of the random walks of twelve mitochondrial genome sequences was estimated. Eight vertebrate mtDNA sequences had uniformly lower spectra values than did four invertebrate mtDNA sequences. Thus, vertebrate mitochondria show significantly longer-range correlations than to invertebrate mitochondria. The higher multifractal spectra values for invertebrate mitochondria suggest a more random organization of the sequences. This research also includes considerable theoretical work on the effects of finite size, embedding dimension, and scaling ranges.

15. Fractal Analysis of DNA Sequence Data

Berthelsen, Cheryl Lynn

DNA sequence databases are growing at an almost exponential rate. New analysis methods are needed to extract knowledge about the organization of nucleotides from this vast amount of data. Fractal analysis is a new scientific paradigm that has been used successfully in many domains including the biological and physical sciences. Biological growth is a nonlinear dynamic process and some have suggested that to consider fractal geometry as a biological design principle may be most productive. This research is an exploratory study of the application of fractal analysis to DNA sequence data. A simple random fractal, the random walk, is used to represent DNA sequences. The fractal dimension of these walks is then estimated using the "sandbox method." Analysis of 164 human DNA sequences compared to three types of control sequences (random, base -content matched, and dimer-content matched) reveals that long-range correlations are present in DNA that are not explained by base or dimer frequencies. The study also revealed that the fractal dimension of coding sequences was significantly lower than sequences that were primarily noncoding, indicating the presence of longer-range correlations in functional sequences. The multifractal spectrum is used to analyze fractals that are heterogeneous and have a different fractal dimension for subsets with different scalings. The multifractal spectrum of the random walks of twelve mitochondrial genome sequences was estimated. Eight vertebrate mtDNA sequences had uniformly lower spectra values than did four invertebrate mtDNA sequences. Thus, vertebrate mitochondria show significantly longer-range correlations than do invertebrate mitochondria. The higher multifractal spectra values for invertebrate mitochondria suggest a more random organization of the sequences. This research also includes considerable theoretical work on the effects of finite size, embedding dimension, and scaling ranges.

16. Fractals in petroleum geology and earth processes

SciTech Connect

Barton, C.C.; La Pointe, P.R.

1995-12-31

The editors of this book chose a diverse spectrum of papers written by pioneers in the field of fractals and their application to the exploration and production of hydrocarbons. The geology of the Earths crust is complex, chaotic, and unpredictable. Fractal geometry can quantify the spatial heterogeneity of the different geologic patterns and ultimately help improve the results of both production and exploration. To this goal the book has accomplished such an objective with diverse, well-chosen contributions from a variety of experts in the field. The book starts with a chapter introducing the basics, with a short historical foot-note by Benoit Mandelbrot, who is considered the {open_quotes}father of fractals.{close_quotes} Mandelbrot emphasized that geologic processes not only exhibit fractal properties but also are strongly connected to the economic system. This paved the way for the next three chapters that deal with the size and spatial distribution of hydrocarbon reserves and their importance in economic evaluations. The following four chapters deal with the fractal processes as related to sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geomorphologic systems. Chapter five is an interesting one that deals with stratigraphic models and how their fractal processes can be tied with the inter-well correlation and reconstruct depositional environments. The next three chapters are concerned with porous and fractured rocks and how they affect the flow of fluids. The last two chapters (chapters 13 and 14) are of particular interest. Chapter 13 deals with the vertical vs. horizontal well-log variability and application to fractal reservoir modeling. Chapter 14 illustrates how fractal geometry brings mathematical order to geological and geophysical disorder. This is evident when dealing with geophysical modeling and inversion.

17. Fractal scaling of microbial colonies affects growth

Károlyi, György

2005-03-01

The growth dynamics of filamentary microbial colonies is investigated. Fractality of the fungal or actinomycetes colonies is shown both theoretically and in numerical experiments to play an important role. The growth observed in real colonies is described by the assumption of time-dependent fractality related to the different ages of various parts of the colony. The theoretical results are compared to a simulation based on branching random walks.

18. Structural investigations of fat fractals using small-angle scattering

Anitas, Eugen M.

2015-01-01

Experimental small-angle scattering (SAS) data characterized, on a double logarithmic scale, by a succession of power-law decays with decreasing values of scattering exponents, can be described in terms of fractal structures with positive Lebesgue measure (fat fractals). Here we present a theoretical model for fat fractals and show how one can extract structural information about the underlying fractal using SAS method, for the well known fractals existing in the literature: Vicsek and Menger sponge. We calculate analytically the fractal structure factor and study its properties in momentum space. The models allow us to obtain the fractal dimension at each structural level inside the fractal, the number of particles inside the fractal and about the most common distances between the center of mass of the particles.

19. Fractal Dimension in Epileptic EEG Signal Analysis

Uthayakumar, R.

Fractal Analysis is the well developed theory in the data analysis of non-linear time series. Especially Fractal Dimension is a powerful mathematical tool for modeling many physical and biological time signals with high complexity and irregularity. Fractal dimension is a suitable tool for analyzing the nonlinear behaviour and state of the many chaotic systems. Particularly in analysis of chaotic time series such as electroencephalograms (EEG), this feature has been used to identify and distinguish specific states of physiological function.Epilepsy is the main fatal neurological disorder in our brain, which is analyzed by the biomedical signal called Electroencephalogram (EEG). The detection of Epileptic seizures in the EEG Signals is an important tool in the diagnosis of epilepsy. So we made an attempt to analyze the EEG in depth for knowing the mystery of human consciousness. EEG has more fluctuations recorded from the human brain due to the spontaneous electrical activity. Hence EEG Signals are represented as Fractal Time Series.The algorithms of fractal dimension methods have weak ability to the estimation of complexity in the irregular graphs. Divider method is widely used to obtain the fractal dimension of curves embedded into a 2-dimensional space. The major problem is choosing initial and final step length of dividers. We propose a new algorithm based on the size measure relationship (SMR) method, quantifying the dimensional behaviour of irregular rectifiable graphs with minimum time complexity. The evidence for the suitability (equality with the nature of dimension) of the algorithm is illustrated graphically.We would like to demonstrate the criterion for the selection of dividers (minimum and maximum value) in the calculation of fractal dimension of the irregular curves with minimum time complexity. For that we design a new method of computing fractal dimension (FD) of biomedical waveforms. Compared to Higuchi's algorithm, advantages of this method include

20. Fractal Gait Patterns Are Retained after Entrainment to a Fractal Stimulus

PubMed Central

Rhea, Christopher K.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Wittstein, Matthew W.; Leonard, Kelsey B.; MacPherson, Ryan P.; Wright, W. Geoffrey; Haran, F. Jay

2014-01-01

Previous work has shown that fractal patterns in gait can be altered by entraining to a fractal stimulus. However, little is understood about how long those patterns are retained or which factors may influence stronger entrainment or retention. In experiment one, participants walked on a treadmill for 45 continuous minutes, which was separated into three phases. The first 15 minutes (pre-synchronization phase) consisted of walking without a fractal stimulus, the second 15 minutes consisted of walking while entraining to a fractal visual stimulus (synchronization phase), and the last 15 minutes (post-synchronization phase) consisted of walking without the stimulus to determine if the patterns adopted from the stimulus were retained. Fractal gait patterns were strengthened during the synchronization phase and were retained in the post-synchronization phase. In experiment two, similar methods were used to compare a continuous fractal stimulus to a discrete fractal stimulus to determine which stimulus type led to more persistent fractal gait patterns in the synchronization and post-synchronization (i.e., retention) phases. Both stimulus types led to equally persistent patterns in the synchronization phase, but only the discrete fractal stimulus led to retention of the patterns. The results add to the growing body of literature showing that fractal gait patterns can be manipulated in a predictable manner. Further, our results add to the literature by showing that the newly adopted gait patterns are retained for up to 15 minutes after entrainment and showed that a discrete visual stimulus is a better method to influence retention. PMID:25221981

1. Fractal analysis of yeast cell optical speckle

Flamholz, A.; Schneider, P. S.; Subramaniam, R.; Wong, P. K.; Lieberman, D. H.; Cheung, T. D.; Burgos, J.; Leon, K.; Romero, J.

2006-02-01

Steady state laser light propagation in diffuse media such as biological cells generally provide bulk parameter information, such as the mean free path and absorption, via the transmission profile. The accompanying optical speckle can be analyzed as a random spatial data series and its fractal dimension can be used to further classify biological media that show similar mean free path and absorption properties, such as those obtained from a single population. A population of yeast cells can be separated into different portions by centrifuge, and microscope analysis can be used to provide the population statistics. Fractal analysis of the speckle suggests that lower fractal dimension is associated with higher cell packing density. The spatial intensity correlation revealed that the higher cell packing gives rise to higher refractive index. A calibration sample system that behaves similar as the yeast samples in fractal dimension, spatial intensity correlation and diffusion was selected. Porous silicate slabs with different refractive index values controlled by water content were used for system calibration. The porous glass as well as the yeast random spatial data series fractal dimension was found to depend on the imaging resolution. The fractal method was also applied to fission yeast single cell fluorescent data as well as aging yeast optical data; and consistency was demonstrated. It is concluded that fractal analysis can be a high sensitivity tool for relative comparison of cell structure but that additional diffusion measurements are necessary for determining the optimal image resolution. Practical application to dental plaque bio-film and cam-pill endoscope images was also demonstrated.

2. Box-covering algorithm for fractal dimension of weighted networks

Wei, Dai-Jun; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hai-Xin; Hu, Yong; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

2013-10-01

Box-covering algorithm is a widely used method to measure the fractal dimension of complex networks. Existing researches mainly deal with the fractal dimension of unweighted networks. Here, the classical box covering algorithm is modified to deal with the fractal dimension of weighted networks. Box size length is obtained by accumulating the distance between two nodes connected directly and graph-coloring algorithm is based on the node strength. The proposed method is applied to calculate the fractal dimensions of the Sierpinski'' weighted fractal networks, the E.coli network, the Scientific collaboration network, the C.elegans network and the USAir97 network. Our results show that the proposed method is efficient when dealing with the fractal dimension problem of complex networks. We find that the fractal property is influenced by the edge-weight in weighted networks. The possible variation of fractal dimension due to changes in edge-weights of weighted networks is also discussed.

3. Box-covering algorithm for fractal dimension of weighted networks.

PubMed

Wei, Dai-Jun; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hai-Xin; Hu, Yong; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

2013-01-01

Box-covering algorithm is a widely used method to measure the fractal dimension of complex networks. Existing researches mainly deal with the fractal dimension of unweighted networks. Here, the classical box covering algorithm is modified to deal with the fractal dimension of weighted networks. Box size length is obtained by accumulating the distance between two nodes connected directly and graph-coloring algorithm is based on the node strength. The proposed method is applied to calculate the fractal dimensions of the "Sierpinski" weighted fractal networks, the E.coli network, the Scientific collaboration network, the C.elegans network and the USAir97 network. Our results show that the proposed method is efficient when dealing with the fractal dimension problem of complex networks. We find that the fractal property is influenced by the edge-weight in weighted networks. The possible variation of fractal dimension due to changes in edge-weights of weighted networks is also discussed. PMID:24157896

4. Characterizing Hyperspectral Imagery (AVIRIS) Using Fractal Technique

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Qiu, Hong-Lie; Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Quattrochi, Dale

1997-01-01

With the rapid increase in hyperspectral data acquired by various experimental hyperspectral imaging sensors, it is necessary to develop efficient and innovative tools to handle and analyze these data. The objective of this study is to seek effective spatial analytical tools for summarizing the spatial patterns of hyperspectral imaging data. In this paper, we (1) examine how fractal dimension D changes across spectral bands of hyperspectral imaging data and (2) determine the relationships between fractal dimension and image content. It has been documented that fractal dimension changes across spectral bands for the Landsat-TM data and its value [(D)] is largely a function of the complexity of the landscape under study. The newly available hyperspectral imaging data such as that from the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) which has 224 bands, covers a wider spectral range with a much finer spectral resolution. Our preliminary result shows that fractal dimension values of AVIRIS scenes from the Santa Monica Mountains in California vary between 2.25 and 2.99. However, high fractal dimension values (D > 2.8) are found only from spectral bands with high noise level and bands with good image quality have a fairly stable dimension value (D = 2.5 - 2.6). This suggests that D can also be used as a summary statistics to represent the image quality or content of spectral bands.

5. Fractal Analysis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

PubMed Central

Fabrizii, Markus; Moinfar, Farid; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Karperien, Audrey; Ahammer, Helmut

2014-01-01

Introduction Cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) represent precursor lesions of cervical cancer. These neoplastic lesions are traditionally subdivided into three categories CIN 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3, using microscopical criteria. The relation between grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and its fractal dimension was investigated to establish a basis for an objective diagnosis using the method proposed. Methods Classical evaluation of the tissue samples was performed by an experienced gynecologic pathologist. Tissue samples were scanned and saved as digital images using Aperio scanner and software. After image segmentation the box counting method as well as multifractal methods were applied to determine the relation between fractal dimension and grades of CIN. A total of 46 images were used to compare the pathologist's neoplasia grades with the predicted groups obtained by fractal methods. Results Significant or highly significant differences between all grades of CIN could be found. The confusion matrix, comparing between pathologist's grading and predicted group by fractal methods showed a match of 87.1%. Multifractal spectra were able to differentiate between normal epithelium and low grade as well as high grade neoplasia. Conclusion Fractal dimension can be considered to be an objective parameter to grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. PMID:25302712

6. On the stability of fractal globules.

PubMed

Schram, Raoul D; Barkema, Gerard T; Schiessel, Helmut

2013-06-14

The fractal globule, a self-similar compact polymer conformation where the chain is spatially segregated on all length scales, has been proposed to result from a sudden polymer collapse. This state has gained renewed interest as one of the prime candidates for the non-entangled states of DNA molecules inside cell nuclei. Here, we present Monte Carlo simulations of collapsing polymers. We find through studying polymers of lengths between 500 and 8000 that a chain collapses into a globule, which is neither fractal, nor as entangled as an equilibrium globule. To demonstrate that the non-fractalness of the conformation is not just the result of the collapse dynamics, we study in addition the dynamics of polymers that start from fractal globule configurations. Also in this case the chain moves quickly to the weakly entangled globule where the polymer is well mixed. After a much longer time the chain entangles reach its equilibrium conformation, the molten globule. We find that the fractal globule is a highly unstable conformation that only exists in the presence of extra constraints such as cross-links. PMID:23781815

7. Rheological and fractal hydrodynamics of aerobic granules.

PubMed

Tijani, H I; Abdullah, N; Yuzir, A; Ujang, Zaini

2015-06-01

The structural and hydrodynamic features for granules were characterized using settling experiments, predefined mathematical simulations and ImageJ-particle analyses. This study describes the rheological characterization of these biologically immobilized aggregates under non-Newtonian flows. The second order dimensional analysis defined as D2=1.795 for native clusters and D2=1.099 for dewatered clusters and a characteristic three-dimensional fractal dimension of 2.46 depicts that these relatively porous and differentially permeable fractals had a structural configuration in close proximity with that described for a compact sphere formed via cluster-cluster aggregation. The three-dimensional fractal dimension calculated via settling-fractal correlation, U∝l(D) to characterize immobilized granules validates the quantitative measurements used for describing its structural integrity and aggregate complexity. These results suggest that scaling relationships based on fractal geometry are vital for quantifying the effects of different laminar conditions on the aggregates' morphology and characteristics such as density, porosity, and projected surface area. PMID:25836036

8. Characterization of branch complexity by fractal analyses

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alados, C.L.; Escos, J.; Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.

1999-01-01

The comparison between complexity in the sense of space occupancy (box-counting fractal dimension D(c) and information dimension D1) and heterogeneity in the sense of space distribution (average evenness index f and evenness variation coefficient J(cv)) were investigated in mathematical fractal objects and natural branch structures. In general, increased fractal dimension was paired with low heterogeneity. Comparisons between branch architecture in Anthyllis cytisoides under different slope exposure and grazing impact revealed that branches were more complex and more homogeneously distributed for plants on northern exposures than southern, while grazing had no impact during a wet year. Developmental instability was also investigated by the statistical noise of the allometric relation between internode length and node order. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that fractal dimension of branch structure can be used to analyze the structural organization of plants, especially if we consider not only fractal dimension but also shoot distribution within the canopy (lacunarity). These indexes together with developmental instability analyses are good indicators of growth responses to the environment.

9. Construction of fractal nanostructures based on Kepler-Shubnikov nets

Ivanov, V. V.; Talanov, V. M.

2013-05-01

A system of information codes for deterministic fractal lattices and sets of multifractal curves is proposed. An iterative modular design was used to obtain a series of deterministic fractal lattices with generators in the form of fragments of 2 D structures and a series of multifractal curves (based on some Kepler-Shubnikov nets) having Cantor set properties. The main characteristics of fractal structures and their lacunar spectra are determined. A hierarchical principle is formulated for modules of regular fractal structures.

10. Construction of fractal nanostructures based on Kepler-Shubnikov nets

SciTech Connect

Ivanov, V. V. Talanov, V. M.

2013-05-15

A system of information codes for deterministic fractal lattices and sets of multifractal curves is proposed. An iterative modular design was used to obtain a series of deterministic fractal lattices with generators in the form of fragments of 2D structures and a series of multifractal curves (based on some Kepler-Shubnikov nets) having Cantor set properties. The main characteristics of fractal structures and their lacunar spectra are determined. A hierarchical principle is formulated for modules of regular fractal structures.

11. Evolution of Fractal Patterns during a Classical-Quantum Transition

SciTech Connect

Micolich, A. P.; Taylor, R. P.; Davies, A. G.; Bird, J. P.; Newbury, R.; Fromhold, T. M.; Ehlert, A.; Linke, H.; Macks, L. D.; Tribe, W. R.

2001-07-16

We investigate how fractals evolve into nonfractal behavior as the generation process is gradually suppressed. Fractals observed in the conductance of semiconductor billiards are of particular interest because the generation process is semiclassical and can be suppressed by transitions towards either fully classical or fully quantum-mechanical conduction. Investigating a range of billiards, we identify a ''universal'' behavior in the changeover from fractal to nonfractal conductance, which is described by a smooth evolution rather than deterioration in the fractal scaling properties.

12. a New Construction of the Fractal Interpolation Surface

Ri, Songil

2015-10-01

In this paper, we introduce a new construction of the fractal interpolation surface (FIS) using an even more general iterated function systems (IFS) which can generate self-affine and non self-affine fractal surfaces. Here we present the general types of fractal surfaces that are based on nonlinear IFSs.

13. Investigation into How 8th Grade Students Define Fractals

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Karakus, Fatih

2015-01-01

The analysis of 8th grade students' concept definitions and concept images can provide information about their mental schema of fractals. There is limited research on students' understanding and definitions of fractals. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the elementary students' definitions of fractals based on concept image and concept…

14. a Type of Fractal Interpolation Functions and Their Fractional Calculus

Liang, Yong-Shun; Zhang, Qi

2016-05-01

Combine Chebyshev systems with fractal interpolation, certain continuous functions have been approximated by fractal interpolation functions unanimously. Local structure of these fractal interpolation functions (FIF) has been discussed. The relationship between order of Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus and Box dimension of FIF has been investigated.

15. Multiscale differential fractal feature with application to target detection

Shi, Zelin; Wei, Ying; Huang, Shabai

2004-07-01

A multiscale differential fractal feature of an image is proposed and a small target detection method from complex nature clutter is presented. Considering the speciality that the fractal features of man-made objects change much more violently than that of nature's when the scale is varied, fractal features at multiple scales used for distinguishing man-made target from nature clutter should have more advantages over standard fractal dimensions. Multiscale differential fractal dimensions are deduced from typical fractal model and standard covering-blanket method is improved and used to estimate multiscale fractal dimensions. A multiscale differential fractal feature is defined as the variation of fractal dimensions between two scales at a rational scale range. It can stand out the fractal feature of man-made object from natural clutters much better than the fractal dimension by standard covering-blanket method. Meanwhile, the calculation and the storage amount are reduced greatly, they are 4/M and 2/M that of the standard covering-blanket method respectively (M is scale). In the image of multiscale differential fractal feature, local gray histogram statistical method is used for target detection. Experiment results indicate that this method is suitable for both kinds background of land and sea. It also can be appropriate in both kinds of infrared and TV images, and can detect small targets from a single frame correctly. This method is with high speed and is easy to be implemented.

16. Fractal analysis: fractal dimension and lacunarity from MR images for differentiating the grades of glioma.

PubMed

Smitha, K A; Gupta, A K; Jayasree, R S

2015-09-01

Glioma, the heterogeneous tumors originating from glial cells, generally exhibit varied grades and are difficult to differentiate using conventional MR imaging techniques. When this differentiation is crucial in the disease prognosis and treatment, even the advanced MR imaging techniques fail to provide a higher discriminative power for the differentiation of malignant tumor from benign ones. A powerful image processing technique applied to the imaging techniques is expected to provide a better differentiation. The present study focuses on the fractal analysis of fluid attenuation inversion recovery MR images, for the differentiation of glioma. For this, we have considered the most important parameters of fractal analysis, fractal dimension and lacunarity. While fractal analysis assesses the malignancy and complexity of a fractal object, lacunarity gives an indication on the empty space and the degree of inhomogeneity in the fractal objects. Box counting method with the preprocessing steps namely binarization, dilation and outlining was used to obtain the fractal dimension and lacunarity in glioma. Statistical analysis such as one-way analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis helped to compare the mean and to find discriminative sensitivity of the results. It was found that the lacunarity of low and high grade gliomas vary significantly. ROC curve analysis between low and high grade glioma for fractal dimension and lacunarity yielded 70.3% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity and 70.3% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity, respectively. The study observes that fractal dimension and lacunarity increases with an increase in the grade of glioma and lacunarity is helpful in identifying most malignant grades. PMID:26305773

17. Fractal characterization of wear-erosion surfaces

SciTech Connect

Rawers, J.; Tylczak, J.

1999-12-01

Wear erosion is a complex phenomenon resulting in highly distorted and deformed surface morphologies. Most wear surface features have been described only qualitatively. In this study wear surfaces features were quantified using fractal analysis. The ability to assign numerical values to wear-erosion surfaces makes possible mathematical expressions that will enable wear mechanisms to be predicted and understood. Surface characterization came from wear-erosion experiments that included varying the erosive materials, the impact velocity, and the impact angle. Seven fractal analytical techniques were applied to micrograph images of wear-erosion surfaces. Fourier analysis was the most promising. Fractal values obtained were consistent with visual observations and provided a unique wear-erosion parameter unrelated to wear rate. In this study stainless steel was evaluated as a function of wear erosion conditions.

18. Edges of Saturn's rings are fractal.

PubMed

Li, Jun; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

2015-01-01

The images recently sent by the Cassini spacecraft mission (on the NASA website http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/photos/halloffame/) show the complex and beautiful rings of Saturn. Over the past few decades, various conjectures were advanced that Saturn's rings are Cantor-like sets, although no convincing fractal analysis of actual images has ever appeared. Here we focus on four images sent by the Cassini spacecraft mission (slide #42 "Mapping Clumps in Saturn's Rings", slide #54 "Scattered Sunshine", slide #66 taken two weeks before the planet's Augus't 200'9 equinox, and slide #68 showing edge waves raised by Daphnis on the Keeler Gap) and one image from the Voyager 2' mission in 1981. Using three box-counting methods, we determine the fractal dimension of edges of rings seen here to be consistently about 1.63 ~ 1.78. This clarifies in what sense Saturn's rings are fractal. PMID:25883885

19. Fractal materials, beams, and fracture mechanics

Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin; Li, Jun

2009-11-01

Continuing in the vein of a recently developed generalization of continuum thermomechanics, in this paper we extend fracture mechanics and beam mechanics to materials described by fractional integrals involving D, d and R. By introducing a product measure instead of a Riesz measure, so as to ensure that the mechanical approach to continuum mechanics is consistent with the energetic approach, specific forms of continuum-type equations are derived. On this basis we study the energy aspects of fracture and, as an example, a Timoshenko beam made of a fractal material; the local form of elastodynamic equations of that beam is derived. In particular, we review the crack driving force G stemming from the Griffith fracture criterion in fractal media, considering either dead-load or fixed-grip conditions and the effects of ensemble averaging over random fractal materials.

20. Higuchi Fractal Properties of Onset Epilepsy Electroencephalogram

PubMed Central

Khoa, Truong Quang Dang; Ha, Vo Quang; Toi, Vo Van

2012-01-01

Epilepsy is a medical term which indicates a common neurological disorder characterized by seizures, because of abnormal neuronal activity. This leads to unconsciousness or even a convulsion. The possible etiologies should be evaluated and treated. Therefore, it is necessary to concentrate not only on finding out efficient treatment methods, but also on developing algorithm to support diagnosis. Currently, there are a number of algorithms, especially nonlinear algorithms. However, those algorithms have some difficulties one of which is the impact of noise on the results. In this paper, in addition to the use of fractal dimension as a principal tool to diagnose epilepsy, the combination between ICA algorithm and averaging filter at the preprocessing step leads to some positive results. The combination which improved the fractal algorithm become robust with noise on EEG signals. As a result, we can see clearly fractal properties in preictal and ictal period so as to epileptic diagnosis. PMID:22461844

1. the Human BRAIN & Fractal quantum mechanics''

Rosary-Oyong, Se, Glory

In mtDNA ever retrieved from Iman Tuassoly, et.al:Multifractal analysis of chaos game representation images of mtDNA''.Enhances the price & valuetales of HE. Prof. Dr-Ing. B.J. HABIBIE's N-219, in J. Bacteriology, Nov 1973 sought:'' 219 exist as separate plasmidDNA species in E.coli & Salmonella panama'' related to the brain 2 distinct molecular forms of the (Na,K)-ATPase..'' & neuron maintains different concentration of ions(charged atoms'' thorough Rabi & Heisenber Hamiltonian. Further, after fractal space time are geometric analogue of relativistic quantum mechanics''[Ord], sought L.Marek Crnjac: Chaotic fractals at the root of relativistic quantum physics''& from famous Nottale: Scale relativity & fractal space-time:''Application to Quantum Physics , Cosmology & Chaotic systems'',1995. Acknowledgements to HE. Mr. H. TUK SETYOHADI, Jl. Sriwijaya Raya 3, South-Jakarta, INDONESIA.

2. Fractal structure of the interplanetary magnetic field

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Burlaga, L. F.; Klein, L. W.

1985-01-01

Under some conditions, time series of the interplanetary magnetic field strength and components have the properties of fractal curves. Magnetic field measurements made near 8.5 AU by Voyager 2 from June 5 to August 24, 1981 were self-similar over time scales from approximately 20 sec to approximately 3 x 100,000 sec, and the fractal dimension of the time series of the strength and components of the magnetic field was D = 5/3, corresponding to a power spectrum P(f) approximately f sup -5/3. Since the Kolmogorov spectrum for homogeneous, isotropic, stationary turbulence is also f sup -5/3, the Voyager 2 measurements are consistent with the observation of an inertial range of turbulence extending over approximately four decades in frequency. Interaction regions probably contributed most of the power in this interval. As an example, one interaction region is discussed in which the magnetic field had a fractal dimension D = 5/3.

3. Fractal characterization of wear-erosion surfaces

SciTech Connect

Rawers, James C.; Tylczak, Joseph H.

1999-12-01

Wear erosion is a complex phenomenon resulting in highly distorted and deformed surface morphologies. Most wear surface features have been described only qualitatively. In this study wear surfaces features were quantified using fractal analysis. The ability to assign numerical values to wear-erosion surfaces makes possible mathematical expressions that will enable wear mechanisms to be predicted and understood. Surface characterization came from wear-erosion experiments that included varying the erosive materials, the impact velocity, and the impact angle. Seven fractal analytical techniques were applied to micrograph images of wear-erosion surfaces. Fourier analysis was the most promising. Fractal values obtained were consistent with visual observations and provided a unique wear-erosion parameter unrelated to wear rate.

4. Fractal and Multifractal Analysis of Human Gait

Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; del Río Correa, J. L.; Angulo-Brown, F.

2003-09-01

We carried out a fractal and multifractal analysis of human gait time series of young and old individuals, and adults with three illnesses that affect the march: The Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We obtained cumulative plots of events, the correlation function, the Hurst exponent and the Higuchi's fractal dimension of these time series and found that these fractal markers could be a factor to characterize the march, since we obtained different values of these quantities for youths and adults and they are different also for healthy and ill persons and the most anomalous values belong to ill persons. In other physiological signals there is complexity lost related with the age and the illness, in the case of the march the opposite occurs. The multifractal analysis could be also a useful tool to understand the dynamics of these and other complex systems.

5. Fractal structures in casting films from chlorophyll

Pedro, G. C.; Gorza, F. D. S.; de Souza, N. C.; Silva, J. R.

2014-04-01

Chlorophyll (Chl) molecules are important because they can act as natural light-harvesting devices during the photosynthesis. In addition, they have potential for application as component of solar cell. In this work, we have prepared casting films from chlorophyll (Chl) and demonstrated the occurrence of fractal structures when the films were submitted to different concentrations. By using optical microscopy and the box-count method, we have found that the fractal dimension is Df = 1.55. This value is close to predicted by the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model. This suggests that the major mechanism - which determines the growth of the fractal structures from Chl molecules - is the molecular diffusion. Since the efficiencies of solar cells depend on the morphology of their interfaces, these finds can be useful to improve this kind of device.

6. Spontaneous emission from a fractal vacuum

Akkermans, Eric; Gurevich, Evgeni

2013-08-01

Spontaneous emission of a quantum emitter coupled to a QED vacuum with a deterministic fractal structure of its spectrum is considered. We show that the decay probability does not follow a Wigner-Weisskopf exponential decrease but rather an overall power law behavior with a rich oscillatory structure, both depending on the local fractal properties of the vacuum spectrum. These results are obtained by giving first a general perturbative derivation for short times. Then we propose a simplified model which retains the main features of a fractal spectrum to establish analytic expressions valid for all time scales. Finally, we discuss the case of a Fibonacci cavity and its experimental relevance to observe these results.

7. Role of Fractals in Solid Earth Geophysics

Dimri, V. P.

2007-12-01

Various studies carried out across the globe reveal that many of the Earth's processes satisfy fractal statistics, where examples range from the frequency-size statistics of earthquakes to the time series of the Earth's magnetic field. The scaling property of fractal signal is very much appealing for descriptions of many geological features. It is observed from the German Continental Deep Drilling Programme (KTB) and many other deep bore wells around the world that the source distribution of density, magnetic susceptibility, electrical conductivity, acoustic impedance etc. follows power-law, hence they are fractal in nature. This finding has been incorporated in various geophysical techniques to better understand the non-linear processes in Earth systems. Theoretical relation between source and potential fields is established and based on that techniques for gravity and magnetic interpretation methods have been reformulated. A new scaling power spectral method is developed to understand source behaviour and parameters of the Earth's interior. Further, fractal concept of tessellation has been used to model the complex geometrical object, which was hitherto unaddressed. An entirely new technique has been proposed to generate the complex geometrical structures with desired physical property variation for forward and inverse modeling of the geophysical data. Further, the concept of fractal distribution of frequency and magnitude of earthquakes is exploited in aftershock study of the major earthquakes such as, Uttarkashi (1991), Latur (1993), Jabalpur (1997), Chamoli (1999), Bhuj (2001) and Muzzafarabad (2005). This study revealed that the Himalayan earthquakes follow multifractal distribution however, shield earthquakes follow monofractal distribution. This finding has been used to explain the earthquake mechanism in Himalayan and shield areas. The fractal study was extended to sea earthquakes and wave propagation modeling is done to understand the effect of Tsunami

8. Preparation and characterization of fractal elastomer surfaces.

PubMed

Nonomura, Yoshimune; Seino, Eri; Abe, Saya; Mayama, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

The elastomer materials with hierarchical structure and suitable wettability are useful as biological surface model. In the present study, urethane resin and silicone resin elastomers with hierarchical rough surfaces were prepared and referred to as "fractal elastomers". We found a hierarchy of small projections that existed over larger ones on these surfaces. These elastomers were synthesized by transferring a fractal surface structure of alkylketene dimer. The rough structure enhanced the hydrophobicity and weakened friction resistance of the elastomer surfaces. These materials can be useful for artificial skin with biomimetic surface properties. PMID:23985488

9. Fractal boundaries in magnetotail particle dynamics

Chen, J.; Rexford, J. L.; Lee, Y. C.

1990-07-01

It has been recently established that particle dynamics in the magnetotail geometry can be described as a nonintegrable Hamiltonian system with well-defined entry and exit regions through which stochastic orbits can enter and exit the system after repeatedly crossing the equatorial plane. It is shown that the phase space regions occupied by orbits of different numbers of equatorial crossings or different exit modes are separated by fractal boundaries. The fractal boundaries in an entry region for stochastic orbits are examined and the capacity dimension is determined.

10. Wave interactions with continuous fractal layers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kim, Y.; Jaggard, D. L.

1991-01-01

Many natural structures possess self-similar multiscales which can be characterized by power law spectra. Under appropriate conditions, knowledge of the strength of these scale sizes provides information on the physical processes which formed these objects. In this paper, we investigate wave interactions with continuous fractal layers which model geological and variegated structures. Since fractal characteristics of the layers are embedded in the scattered field, they can be retrieved under appropriate conditions. This inversion can be performed in either the frequency or the time domain as desired.

11. Fractal boundaries in magnetotail particle dynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chen, J.; Rexford, J. L.; Lee, Y. C.

1990-01-01

It has been recently established that particle dynamics in the magnetotail geometry can be described as a nonintegrable Hamiltonian system with well-defined entry and exit regions through which stochastic orbits can enter and exit the system after repeatedly crossing the equatorial plane. It is shown that the phase space regions occupied by orbits of different numbers of equatorial crossings or different exit modes are separated by fractal boundaries. The fractal boundaries in an entry region for stochastic orbits are examined and the capacity dimension is determined.

12. Communities and classes in symmetric fractals

Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.

2015-07-01

Two aspects of fractal networks are considered: the community structure and the class structure, where classes of nodes appear as a consequence of a local symmetry of nodes. The analyzed systems are the networks constructed for two selected symmetric fractals: the Sierpinski triangle and the Koch curve. Communities are searched for by means of a set of differential equations. Overlapping nodes which belong to two different communities are identified by adding some noise to the initial connectivity matrix. Then, a node can be characterized by a spectrum of probabilities of belonging to different communities. Our main goal is that the overlapping nodes with the same spectra belong to the same class.

13. Estimation of fractal dimensions from transect data

SciTech Connect

Loehle, C.

1994-04-01

Fractals are a useful tool for analyzing the topology of objects such as coral reefs, forest canopies, and landscapes. Transects are often studied in these contexts, and fractal dimensions computed from them. An open question is how representative a single transect is. Transects may also be used to estimate the dimensionality of a surface. Again the question of representativeness of the transect arises. These two issues are related. This note qualifies the conditions under which transect data may be considered to be representative or may be extrapolated, based on both theoretical and empirical results.

14. Problems of Geophysics that Inspired Fractal Geometry

Mandelbrot, B. B.

2001-12-01

Fractal geometry arose when the speaker used then esoteric mathematics and the concept of invariance as a tool to understand diverse down-to-earth'' practical needs. The first step consisted in using discontinuous functions to represent the variation of speculative prices. The next several steps consisted in introducing infinite-range (global) dependence to handle data from geophysics, beginning with hydrology (and also again in finance). This talk will detail the speaker's debt and gratitude toward several specialists from diverse areas of geophysics who had the greatest impact on fractal geometry in its formative period.

15. Is a chaotic multi-fractal approach for rainfall possible?

Sivakumar, Bellie

2001-04-01

Applications of the ideas gained from fractal theory to characterize rainfall have been one of the most exciting areas of research in recent times. The studies conducted thus far have nearly unanimously yielded positive evidence regarding the existence of fractal behaviour in rainfall. The studies also revealed the insufficiency of the mono-fractal approaches to characterizing the rainfall process in time and space and, hence, the necessity for multi-fractal approaches. The assumption behind multi-fractal approaches for rainfall is that the variability of the rainfall process could be directly modelled as a stochastic (or random) turbulent cascade process, since such stochastic cascade processes were found to generically yield multi-fractals. However, it has been observed recently that multi-fractal approaches might provide positive evidence of a multi-fractal nature not only in stochastic processes but also in, for example, chaotic processes. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the presence of both chaotic and fractal behaviours in the rainfall process to consider the possibility of using a chaotic multi-fractal approach for rainfall characterization. For this purpose, daily rainfall data observed at the Leaf River basin in Mississippi are studied, and only temporal analysis is carried out. The autocorrelation function, the power spectrum, the empirical probability distribution function, and the statistical moment scaling function are used as indicators to investigate the presence of fractal, whereas the presence of chaos is investigated by employing the correlation dimension method. The results from the fractal identification methods indicate that the rainfall data exhibit multi-fractal behaviour. The correlation dimension method yields a low dimension, suggesting the presence of chaotic behaviour. The existence of both multi-fractal and chaotic behaviours in the rainfall data suggests the possibility of a chaotic multi-fractal approach for

16. Comment on "Hydrodynamics of fractal continuum flow" and "Map of fluid flow in fractal porous medium into fractal continuum flow".

PubMed

Li, Jun; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

2013-11-01

In two recent papers [Phys. Rev. E 85, 025302(R) (2012) and Phys. Rev. E 85, 056314 (2012)], the authors proposed fractal continuum hydrodynamics and its application to model fluid flows in fractally permeable reservoirs. While in general providing a certain advancement of continuum mechanics modeling of fractal media to fluid flows, some results and statements to previous works need clarification. We first show that the nonlocal character those authors alleged in our paper [Proc. R. Soc. A 465, 2521 (2009)] actually does not exist; instead, all those works are in the same general representation of derivative operators differing by specific forms of the line coefficient c(1). Next, the claimed generalization of the volumetric coefficient c(3) is, in fact, equivalent to previously proposed product measures when considering together the separate decomposition of c(3) on each coordinate. Furthermore, the modified Jacobian proposed in the two commented papers does not relate the volume element between the current and initial configurations, which henceforth leads to a correction of the Reynolds' transport theorem. Finally, we point out that the asymmetry of the Cauchy stress tensor resulting from the conservation of the angular momentum must not be ignored; this aspect motivates a more complete formulation of fractal continuum models within a micropolar framework. PMID:24329394

17. Comment on Hydrodynamics of fractal continuum flow'' and Map of fluid flow in fractal porous medium into fractal continuum flow''

Li, Jun; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

2013-11-01

In two recent papers [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.85.025302 85, 025302(R) (2012) and Phys. Rev. E10.1103/PhysRevE.85.056314 85, 056314 (2012)], the authors proposed fractal continuum hydrodynamics and its application to model fluid flows in fractally permeable reservoirs. While in general providing a certain advancement of continuum mechanics modeling of fractal media to fluid flows, some results and statements to previous works need clarification. We first show that the nonlocal character those authors alleged in our paper [Proc. R. Soc. A1364-502110.1098/rspa.2009.0101 465, 2521 (2009)] actually does not exist; instead, all those works are in the same general representation of derivative operators differing by specific forms of the line coefficient c1. Next, the claimed generalization of the volumetric coefficient c3 is, in fact, equivalent to previously proposed product measures when considering together the separate decomposition of c3 on each coordinate. Furthermore, the modified Jacobian proposed in the two commented papers does not relate the volume element between the current and initial configurations, which henceforth leads to a correction of the Reynolds’ transport theorem. Finally, we point out that the asymmetry of the Cauchy stress tensor resulting from the conservation of the angular momentum must not be ignored; this aspect motivates a more complete formulation of fractal continuum models within a micropolar framework.

18. Fractal electrodynamics via non-integer dimensional space approach

Tarasov, Vasily E.

2015-09-01

Using the recently suggested vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space, we consider electrodynamics problems in isotropic case. This calculus allows us to describe fractal media in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. We consider electric and magnetic fields of fractal media with charges and currents in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional spaces. An application of the fractal Gauss's law, the fractal Ampere's circuital law, the fractal Poisson equation for electric potential, and equation for fractal stream of charges are suggested. Lorentz invariance and speed of light in fractal electrodynamics are discussed. An expression for effective refractive index of non-integer dimensional space is suggested.

19. Fractality à la carte: a general particle aggregation model

PubMed Central

Nicolás-Carlock, J. R.; Carrillo-Estrada, J. L.; Dossetti, V.

2016-01-01

In nature, fractal structures emerge in a wide variety of systems as a local optimization of entropic and energetic distributions. The fractality of these systems determines many of their physical, chemical and/or biological properties. Thus, to comprehend the mechanisms that originate and control the fractality is highly relevant in many areas of science and technology. In studying clusters grown by aggregation phenomena, simple models have contributed to unveil some of the basic elements that give origin to fractality, however, the specific contribution from each of these elements to fractality has remained hidden in the complex dynamics. Here, we propose a simple and versatile model of particle aggregation that is, on the one hand, able to reveal the specific entropic and energetic contributions to the clusters’ fractality and morphology, and, on the other, capable to generate an ample assortment of rich natural-looking aggregates with any prescribed fractal dimension. PMID:26781204

20. Fractality à la carte: a general particle aggregation model

Nicolás-Carlock, J. R.; Carrillo-Estrada, J. L.; Dossetti, V.

2016-01-01

In nature, fractal structures emerge in a wide variety of systems as a local optimization of entropic and energetic distributions. The fractality of these systems determines many of their physical, chemical and/or biological properties. Thus, to comprehend the mechanisms that originate and control the fractality is highly relevant in many areas of science and technology. In studying clusters grown by aggregation phenomena, simple models have contributed to unveil some of the basic elements that give origin to fractality, however, the specific contribution from each of these elements to fractality has remained hidden in the complex dynamics. Here, we propose a simple and versatile model of particle aggregation that is, on the one hand, able to reveal the specific entropic and energetic contributions to the clusters’ fractality and morphology, and, on the other, capable to generate an ample assortment of rich natural-looking aggregates with any prescribed fractal dimension.

1. Fractality à la carte: a general particle aggregation model.

PubMed

Nicolás-Carlock, J R; Carrillo-Estrada, J L; Dossetti, V

2016-01-01

In nature, fractal structures emerge in a wide variety of systems as a local optimization of entropic and energetic distributions. The fractality of these systems determines many of their physical, chemical and/or biological properties. Thus, to comprehend the mechanisms that originate and control the fractality is highly relevant in many areas of science and technology. In studying clusters grown by aggregation phenomena, simple models have contributed to unveil some of the basic elements that give origin to fractality, however, the specific contribution from each of these elements to fractality has remained hidden in the complex dynamics. Here, we propose a simple and versatile model of particle aggregation that is, on the one hand, able to reveal the specific entropic and energetic contributions to the clusters' fractality and morphology, and, on the other, capable to generate an ample assortment of rich natural-looking aggregates with any prescribed fractal dimension. PMID:26781204

2. Lightning and the Heart: Fractal Behavior in Cardiac Function

PubMed Central

BASSINGTHWAIGHTE, JAMES B.; van BEEK, J. H. G. M.

2010-01-01

Physical systems, from galactic clusters to diffusing molecules, often show fractal behavior. Likewise, living systems might often be well described by fractal algorithms. Such fractal descriptions in space and time imply that there is order in chaos, or put the other way around, chaotic dynamical systems in biology are more constrained and orderly than seen at first glance. The vascular network, the syncytium of cells, the processes of diffusion and transmembrane transport might be fractal features of the heart. These fractal features provide a basis which enables one to understand certain aspects of more global behavior such as atrial or ventricular fibrillation and perfusion heterogeneity. The heart might be regarded as a prototypical organ from these points of view. A particular example of the use of fractal geometry is in explaining myocardial flow heterogeneity via delivery of blood through an asymmetrical fractal branching network. PMID:21938081

3. Fractal Structure in Human Cerebellum Measured by MRI

Zhang, Luduan; Yue, Guang; Brown, Robert; Liu, Jingzhi

2003-10-01

Fractal dimension has been used to quantify the structures of a wide range of objects in biology and medicine. We measured fractal dimension of human cerebellum (CB) in magnetic resonance images of 24 healthy young subjects (12 men, 12 women). CB images were resampled to a series of image sets with different three-dimensional resolutions. At each resolution, the skeleton of the CB white matter was obtained and the number of pixels belonging to the skeleton was determined. Fractal dimension of the CB skeleton was calculated using the box-counting method. The results indicated that the CB skeleton is a highly fractal structure, with a fractal dimension of 2.57+/-0.01. No significant difference in the CB fractal dimension was observed between men and women. Fractal dimension may serve as a quantitative index for structural complexity of the CB at its developmental, degenerative, or evolutionary stages.

4. Fractal superconductivity near localization threshold

SciTech Connect

Feigel'man, M.V.; Ioffe, L.B.; Kravtsov, V.E.; Cuevas, E.

2010-07-15

We develop a semi-quantitative theory of electron pairing and resulting superconductivity in bulk 'poor conductors' in which Fermi energy E{sub F} is located in the region of localized states not so far from the Anderson mobility edge E{sub c}. We assume attractive interaction between electrons near the Fermi surface. We review the existing theories and experimental data and argue that a large class of disordered films is described by this model. Our theoretical analysis is based on analytical treatment of pairing correlations, described in the basis of the exact single-particle eigenstates of the 3D Anderson model, which we combine with numerical data on eigenfunction correlations. Fractal nature of critical wavefunction's correlations is shown to be crucial for the physics of these systems. We identify three distinct phases: 'critical' superconductive state formed at E{sub F} = E{sub c}, superconducting state with a strong pseudo-gap, realized due to pairing of weakly localized electrons and insulating state realized at E{sub F} still deeper inside a localized band. The 'critical' superconducting phase is characterized by the enhancement of the transition temperature with respect to BCS result, by the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of superconductive order parameter and local density of states. The major new feature of the pseudo-gapped state is the presence of two independent energy scales: superconducting gap {Delta}, that is due to many-body correlations and a new 'pseudo-gap' energy scale {Delta}{sub P} which characterizes typical binding energy of localized electron pairs and leads to the insulating behavior of the resistivity as a function of temperature above superconductive T{sub c}. Two gap nature of the pseudo-gapped superconductor is shown to lead to specific features seen in scanning tunneling spectroscopy and point-contact Andreev spectroscopy. We predict that pseudo-gapped superconducting state demonstrates anomalous behavior of the optical

5. Generating Fractals through Self-Replication.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reinstein, David; And Others

1997-01-01

Describes a classroom activity designed to give students hands-on experience using technology and geometric visualization, as well as to explore fractal geometry in a cooperative classroom environment. Natural phenomena is the context of these activities. Enriches understanding of Euclidean geometry and infinite sequences. Lists materials,…

6. Flames in fractal grid generated turbulence

Goh, K. H. H.; Geipel, P.; Hampp, F.; Lindstedt, R. P.

2013-12-01

Twin premixed turbulent opposed jet flames were stabilized for lean mixtures of air with methane and propane in fractal grid generated turbulence. A density segregation method was applied alongside particle image velocimetry to obtain velocity and scalar statistics. It is shown that the current fractal grids increase the turbulence levels by around a factor of 2. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied to show that the fractal grids produce slightly larger turbulent structures that decay at a slower rate as compared to conventional perforated plates. Conditional POD (CPOD) was also implemented using the density segregation technique and the results show that CPOD is essential to segregate the relative structures and turbulent kinetic energy distributions in each stream. The Kolmogorov length scales were also estimated providing values ∼0.1 and ∼0.5 mm in the reactants and products, respectively. Resolved profiles of flame surface density indicate that a thin flame assumption leading to bimodal statistics is not perfectly valid under the current conditions and it is expected that the data obtained will be of significant value to the development of computational methods that can provide information on the conditional structure of turbulence. It is concluded that the increase in the turbulent Reynolds number is without any negative impact on other parameters and that fractal grids provide a route towards removing the classical problem of a relatively low ratio of turbulent to bulk strain associated with the opposed jet configuration.

7. Pond fractals in a tidal flat

Cael, B. B.; Lambert, Bennett; Bisson, Kelsey

2015-11-01

Studies over the past decade have reported power-law distributions for the areas of terrestrial lakes and Arctic melt ponds, as well as fractal relationships between their areas and coastlines. Here we report similar fractal structure of ponds in a tidal flat, thereby extending the spatial and temporal scales on which such phenomena have been observed in geophysical systems. Images taken during low tide of a tidal flat in Damariscotta, Maine, reveal a well-resolved power-law distribution of pond sizes over three orders of magnitude with a consistent fractal area-perimeter relationship. The data are consistent with the predictions of percolation theory for unscreened perimeters and scale-free cluster size distributions and are robust to alterations of the image processing procedure. The small spatial and temporal scales of these data suggest this easily observable system may serve as a useful model for investigating the evolution of pond geometries, while emphasizing the generality of fractal behavior in geophysical surfaces.

8. Turbulence on a Fractal Fourier Set.

PubMed

Lanotte, Alessandra S; Benzi, Roberto; Malapaka, Shiva K; Toschi, Federico; Biferale, Luca

2015-12-31

A novel investigation of the nature of intermittency in incompressible, homogeneous, and isotropic turbulence is performed by a numerical study of the Navier-Stokes equations constrained on a fractal Fourier set. The robustness of the energy transfer and of the vortex stretching mechanisms is tested by changing the fractal dimension D from the original three dimensional case to a strongly decimated system with D=2.5, where only about 3% of the Fourier modes interact. This is a unique methodology to probe the statistical properties of the turbulent energy cascade, without breaking any of the original symmetries of the equations. While the direct energy cascade persists, deviations from the Kolmogorov scaling are observed in the kinetic energy spectra. A model in terms of a correction with a linear dependency on the codimension of the fractal set E(k)∼k(-5/3+3-D) explains the results. At small scales, the intermittency of the vorticity field is observed to be quasisingular as a function of the fractal mode reduction, leading to an almost Gaussian statistics already at D∼2.98. These effects must be connected to a genuine modification in the triad-to-triad nonlinear energy transfer mechanism. PMID:26764993

9. Fractional transport equation on random fractals

Zeng, Qiuhua; Li, Houqiang; Fang, Yaquan

1998-12-01

According to the ways of H.E. Roman and M. Giona with the constitutive equation of diffusive particles in isotropic and homogeneous three dimensions and the Laplace transform we derive the multiscaling fractional transport equation in disordered fractal media, whose solution is consistent with literature results.

10. Pond fractals in a tidal flat.

PubMed

Cael, B B; Lambert, Bennett; Bisson, Kelsey

2015-11-01

Studies over the past decade have reported power-law distributions for the areas of terrestrial lakes and Arctic melt ponds, as well as fractal relationships between their areas and coastlines. Here we report similar fractal structure of ponds in a tidal flat, thereby extending the spatial and temporal scales on which such phenomena have been observed in geophysical systems. Images taken during low tide of a tidal flat in Damariscotta, Maine, reveal a well-resolved power-law distribution of pond sizes over three orders of magnitude with a consistent fractal area-perimeter relationship. The data are consistent with the predictions of percolation theory for unscreened perimeters and scale-free cluster size distributions and are robust to alterations of the image processing procedure. The small spatial and temporal scales of these data suggest this easily observable system may serve as a useful model for investigating the evolution of pond geometries, while emphasizing the generality of fractal behavior in geophysical surfaces. PMID:26651668

11. Light Scattering From Fractal Titania Aggregates

Pande, Rajiv; Sorensen, Christopher M.

1996-03-01

We studied the fractal morphology of titania aggregates by light scattering. Titanium dioxide particles were generated by the thermal decomposition of titanium tetra-isopropoxide(TTIP) in a glass furnace at various temperatures in the range of 100 - 500^o C. We scattered vertically polarized He-Ne laser (λ = 6328Ålight from a laminar aerosol stream of particles and measured the optical structure factor. This structure factor shows Rayleigh, Guinier, fractal and Porod regimes. The radius of gyration Rg was determined from the Guinier analysis. The data were then fit to the Fisher-Burford form to determine the fractal dimension of about 2.0. This fit also delineated the crossover from the fractal to Porod regime, which can be used to determine the monomer particle size of about 0.1 μm. These optical measurements will be compared to electron microscope analysis of aggregates collected from the aerosol. This work was supported by NSF grant CTS-9908153.

12. Fractal Dimensions and Entropies of Meragi Songs

Melodies can be treated as time series systems with the pitches (or frequencies of the notes) representing the values in subsequent intervals. The pattern of a melody can be revealed in a scattering diagram where pitches represent vertices, and the directed pathways which connect the former pitches to the next ones signify the relations established during the performance. The pathways form a pattern which is called animal diagram (or lattice animal) in the vocabulary of graph theory. The slopes of pathways can be used to characterize an animal diagram and thus to characterize a melody; and the scattering diagram can be used to find out the fractal dimension . In addition, the entropy , the maximum entropy , and the negentropy (or the order) of melodies can be determined. The analysis of Meragi songs in terms of fractal dimension and entropy was carried out in this work. It was found out that there is not a correlation between the fractal dimension and the entropy ; therefore, the fractal dimension and the entropy each characterizes different aspects of Meragi songs.

13. A fractal model for crustal deformation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turcotte, D. L.

1986-01-01

It is hypothesized that crustal deformation occurs on a scale-invariant matrix of faults. For simplicity, a two-dimensional pattern of hexagons on which strike-slip faulting occurs is considered. The behavior of the system is controlled by a single parameter, the fractal dimension. Deformation occurs on all scales of faults. The fractal dimension determines the fraction of the total displacement that occurs on the first-order or primary faults. The value of the fractal dimension can be obtained from the frequency-magnitude relation for earthquakes. The results are applied to the San Andreas fault system in central California. Earthquake studies give D = 1.90. The main strand of the San Andreas fault is associated with the primary faults of the fractal system. It is predicted that the relative velocity across the main strand is 2.93 cm/yr. The remainder of the relative velocity of 5.5 cm/yr between the Pacific and North American plates occurs on higher-order faults. The predicted value is in reasonably good agreement with the value 3.39 + or - 0.29 cm/yr obtained from geological studies.

14. A Fractal Perspective on Scale in Geography

Jiang, Bin; Brandt, S.

2016-06-01

Scale is a fundamental concept that has attracted persistent attention in geography literature over the past several decades. However, it creates enormous confusion and frustration, particularly in the context of geographic information science, because of scale-related issues such as image resolution, and the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). This paper argues that the confusion and frustration mainly arise from Euclidean geometric thinking, with which locations, directions, and sizes are considered absolute, and it is time to reverse this conventional thinking. Hence, we review fractal geometry, together with its underlying way of thinking, and compare it to Euclidean geometry. Under the paradigm of Euclidean geometry, everything is measurable, no matter how big or small. However, geographic features, due to their fractal nature, are essentially unmeasurable or their sizes depend on scale. For example, the length of a coastline, the area of a lake, and the slope of a topographic surface are all scale-dependent. Seen from the perspective of fractal geometry, many scale issues, such as the MAUP, are inevitable. They appear unsolvable, but can be dealt with. To effectively deal with scale-related issues, we introduce topological and scaling analyses based on street-related concepts such as natural streets, street blocks, and natural cities. We further contend that spatial heterogeneity, or the fractal nature of geographic features, is the first and foremost effect of two spatial properties, because it is general and universal across all scales. Keywords: Scaling, spatial heterogeneity, conundrum of length, MAUP, topological analysis

15. Fractal analysis of the Navassa Island seascape

USGS Publications Warehouse

2011-01-01

This release provides the numerical results of the fractal analyses discussed in Zawada and others (2010) for the Navassa Island reefscape. The project represents the continuation of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research effort begun in 2006 (Zawada and others, 2006) to understand the patterns and scalability of roughness and topographic complexity from individual corals to complete reefscapes.

16. Fractal surfaces from simple arithmetic operations

2016-04-01

Fractal surfaces ('patchwork quilts') are shown to arise under most general circumstances involving simple bitwise operations between real numbers. A theory is presented for all deterministic bitwise operations on a finite alphabet. It is shown that these models give rise to a roughness exponent H that shapes the resulting spatial patterns, larger values of the exponent leading to coarser surfaces.

17. Dimension of a fractal streamer structure

Lehtinen, Nikolai G.; Østgaard, Nikolai

2015-04-01

Streamer corona plays an important role in formation of leader steps in lightning. In order to understand its dynamics, the streamer front velocity is calculated in a 1D model with curvature. We concentrate on the role of photoionization mechanism in the propagation of the streamer ionization front, the other important mechanisms being electron drift and electron diffusion. The results indicate, in particular, that the effect of photoionization on the streamer velocity for both positive and negative streamers is mostly determined by the photoionization length, with a weaker dependence on the amount of photoionization, and that the velocity is decreased for positive curvature, i.e., convex fronts. These results are used in a fractal model in which the front propagation velocity is simulated as the cluster growth probability [Niemeyer et al, 1984, doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.52.1033]. Monte Carlo simulations of the cluster growth for various ratios of background electric field E to the breakdown field Eb show that the emerging transverse size of the streamers is of the order of the photoionization length, and at the larger scale the streamer structure is a fractal similar to the one obtained in a diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) system. In the absence of electron attachment (Eb = 0), the fractal dimension is the same (D ˜ 1.67) as in the DLA model, and is reduced, i.e., the fractal has less branching, for Eb > 0.

18. Ghost DBI-essence in fractal geometry

Acikgoz, I.; Binbay, F.; Salti, M.; Aydogdu, O.

2016-05-01

Focusing on a fractal geometric ghost dark energy, we reconstruct the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI)-essence-type scalar field and find exact solutions of the potential and warped brane tension. We also discuss statefinders for the selected dark energy description to make it distinguishable among others.

19. Scaling of Hamiltonian walks on fractal lattices.

PubMed

Elezović-Hadzić, Suncica; Marcetić, Dusanka; Maletić, Slobodan

2007-07-01

We investigate asymptotical behavior of numbers of long Hamiltonian walks (HWs), i.e., self-avoiding random walks that visit every site of a lattice, on various fractal lattices. By applying an exact recursive technique we obtain scaling forms for open HWs on three-simplex lattice, Sierpinski gasket, and their generalizations: Given-Mandelbrot (GM), modified Sierpinski gasket (MSG), and n -simplex fractal families. For GM, MSG and n -simplex lattices with odd values of n , the number of open HWs Z(N), for the lattice with N>1 sites, varies as omega(N)}N(gamma). We explicitly calculate the exponent gamma for several members of GM and MSG families, as well as for n-simplices with n=3, 5, and 7. For n-simplex fractals with even n we find different scaling form: Z(N) approximately omega(N)mu(N1/d(f), where d(f) is the fractal dimension of the lattice, which also differs from the formula expected for homogeneous lattices. We discuss possible implications of our results on studies of real compact polymers. PMID:17677410

20. Fractals Illustrate the Mathematical Way of Thinking.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nievergelt, Yves

1991-01-01

Presented are exercises that demonstrate the application of standard concepts in the design of algorithms for plotting certain fractals. The exercises can be used in any course that explains the concepts of bounded or unbounded planar sets and may serve as an application in a course on complex analysis. (KR)

1. Fractal analysis of narwhal space use patterns.

PubMed

Laidre, Kristin L; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads P; Logsdon, Miles L; Hobbs, Roderick C; Dietz, Rune; VanBlaricom, Glenn R

2004-01-01

Quantifying animal movement in response to a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment is critical to understanding the structural and functional landscape influences on population viability. Generalities of landscape structure can easily be extended to the marine environment, as marine predators inhabit a patchy, dynamic system, which influences animal choice and behavior. An innovative use of the fractal measure of complexity, indexing the linearity of movement paths over replicate temporal scales, was applied to satellite tracking data collected from narwhals (Monodon monoceros) (n = 20) in West Greenland and the eastern Canadian high Arctic. Daily movements of individuals were obtained using polar orbiting satellites via the ARGOS data location and collection system. Geographic positions were filtered to obtain a daily good quality position for each whale. The length of total pathway was measured over seven different temporal length scales (step lengths), ranging from one day to one week, and a seasonal mean was calculated. Fractal dimension (D) was significantly different between seasons, highest during summer (D = 1.61, SE 0.04) and winter (D = 1.69, SE 0.06) when whales made convoluted movements in focal areas. Fractal dimension was lowest during fall (D = 1.34, SE 0.03) when whales were migrating south ahead of the forming sea ice. There were no significant effects of size category or sex on fractal dimension by season. The greater linearity of movement during the migration period suggests individuals do not intensively forage on patchy resources until they arrive at summer or winter sites. The highly convoluted movements observed during summer and winter suggest foraging or searching efforts in localized areas. Significant differences between the fractal dimensions on two separate wintering grounds in Baffin Bay suggest differential movement patterns in response to the dynamics of sea ice. PMID:16351924

2. Verifying the Dependence of Fractal Coefficients on Different Spatial Distributions

SciTech Connect

Gospodinov, Dragomir; Marekova, Elisaveta; Marinov, Alexander

2010-01-21

A fractal distribution requires that the number of objects larger than a specific size r has a power-law dependence on the size N(r) = C/r{sup D}propor tor{sup -D} where D is the fractal dimension. Usually the correlation integral is calculated to estimate the correlation fractal dimension of epicentres. A 'box-counting' procedure could also be applied giving the 'capacity' fractal dimension. The fractal dimension can be an integer and then it is equivalent to a Euclidean dimension (it is zero of a point, one of a segment, of a square is two and of a cube is three). In general the fractal dimension is not an integer but a fractional dimension and there comes the origin of the term 'fractal'. The use of a power-law to statistically describe a set of events or phenomena reveals the lack of a characteristic length scale, that is fractal objects are scale invariant. Scaling invariance and chaotic behavior constitute the base of a lot of natural hazards phenomena. Many studies of earthquakes reveal that their occurrence exhibits scale-invariant properties, so the fractal dimension can characterize them. It has first been confirmed that both aftershock rate decay in time and earthquake size distribution follow a power law. Recently many other earthquake distributions have been found to be scale-invariant. The spatial distribution of both regional seismicity and aftershocks show some fractal features. Earthquake spatial distributions are considered fractal, but indirectly. There are two possible models, which result in fractal earthquake distributions. The first model considers that a fractal distribution of faults leads to a fractal distribution of earthquakes, because each earthquake is characteristic of the fault on which it occurs. The second assumes that each fault has a fractal distribution of earthquakes. Observations strongly favour the first hypothesis.The fractal coefficients analysis provides some important advantages in examining earthquake spatial

3. Aesthetic Responses to Exact Fractals Driven by Physical Complexity

PubMed Central

Bies, Alexander J.; Blanc-Goldhammer, Daryn R.; Boydston, Cooper R.; Taylor, Richard P.; Sereno, Margaret E.

2016-01-01

Fractals are physically complex due to their repetition of patterns at multiple size scales. Whereas the statistical characteristics of the patterns repeat for fractals found in natural objects, computers can generate patterns that repeat exactly. Are these exact fractals processed differently, visually and aesthetically, than their statistical counterparts? We investigated the human aesthetic response to the complexity of exact fractals by manipulating fractal dimensionality, symmetry, recursion, and the number of segments in the generator. Across two studies, a variety of fractal patterns were visually presented to human participants to determine the typical response to exact fractals. In the first study, we found that preference ratings for exact midpoint displacement fractals can be described by a linear trend with preference increasing as fractal dimension increases. For the majority of individuals, preference increased with dimension. We replicated these results for other exact fractal patterns in a second study. In the second study, we also tested the effects of symmetry and recursion by presenting asymmetric dragon fractals, symmetric dragon fractals, and Sierpinski carpets and Koch snowflakes, which have radial and mirror symmetry. We found a strong interaction among recursion, symmetry and fractal dimension. Specifically, at low levels of recursion, the presence of symmetry was enough to drive high preference ratings for patterns with moderate to high levels of fractal dimension. Most individuals required a much higher level of recursion to recover this level of preference in a pattern that lacked mirror or radial symmetry, while others were less discriminating. This suggests that exact fractals are processed differently than their statistical counterparts. We propose a set of four factors that influence complexity and preference judgments in fractals that may extend to other patterns: fractal dimension, recursion, symmetry and the number of segments in a

4. Aesthetic Responses to Exact Fractals Driven by Physical Complexity.

PubMed

Bies, Alexander J; Blanc-Goldhammer, Daryn R; Boydston, Cooper R; Taylor, Richard P; Sereno, Margaret E

2016-01-01

Fractals are physically complex due to their repetition of patterns at multiple size scales. Whereas the statistical characteristics of the patterns repeat for fractals found in natural objects, computers can generate patterns that repeat exactly. Are these exact fractals processed differently, visually and aesthetically, than their statistical counterparts? We investigated the human aesthetic response to the complexity of exact fractals by manipulating fractal dimensionality, symmetry, recursion, and the number of segments in the generator. Across two studies, a variety of fractal patterns were visually presented to human participants to determine the typical response to exact fractals. In the first study, we found that preference ratings for exact midpoint displacement fractals can be described by a linear trend with preference increasing as fractal dimension increases. For the majority of individuals, preference increased with dimension. We replicated these results for other exact fractal patterns in a second study. In the second study, we also tested the effects of symmetry and recursion by presenting asymmetric dragon fractals, symmetric dragon fractals, and Sierpinski carpets and Koch snowflakes, which have radial and mirror symmetry. We found a strong interaction among recursion, symmetry and fractal dimension. Specifically, at low levels of recursion, the presence of symmetry was enough to drive high preference ratings for patterns with moderate to high levels of fractal dimension. Most individuals required a much higher level of recursion to recover this level of preference in a pattern that lacked mirror or radial symmetry, while others were less discriminating. This suggests that exact fractals are processed differently than their statistical counterparts. We propose a set of four factors that influence complexity and preference judgments in fractals that may extend to other patterns: fractal dimension, recursion, symmetry and the number of segments in a

5. Novel optical password security technique based on optical fractal synthesizer

Wu, Kenan; Hu, Jiasheng; Wu, Xu

2009-06-01

A novel optical security technique for safeguarding user passwords based on an optical fractal synthesizer is proposed. A validating experiment has been carried out. In the proposed technique, a user password is protected by being converted to a fractal image. When a user sets up a new password, the password is transformed into a fractal pattern, and the fractal pattern is stored in authority. If the user is online-validated, his or her password is converted to a fractal pattern again to compare with the previous stored fractal pattern. The converting process is called the fractal encoding procedure, which consists of two steps. First, the password is nonlinearly transformed to get the parameters for the optical fractal synthesizer. Then the optical fractal synthesizer is operated to generate the output fractal image. The experimental result proves the validity of our method. The proposed technique bridges the gap between digital security systems and optical security systems and has many advantages, such as high security level, convenience, flexibility, hyper extensibility, etc. This provides an interesting optical security technique for the protection of digital passwords.

6. Fractals in art and nature: why do we like them?

Spehar, Branka; Taylor, Richard P.

2013-03-01

Fractals have experienced considerable success in quantifying the visual complexity exhibited by many natural patterns, and continue to capture the imagination of scientists and artists alike. Fractal patterns have also been noted for their aesthetic appeal, a suggestion further reinforced by the discovery that the poured patterns of the American abstract painter Jackson Pollock are also fractal, together with the findings that many forms of art resemble natural scenes in showing scale-invariant, fractal-like properties. While some have suggested that fractal-like patterns are inherently pleasing because they resemble natural patterns and scenes, the relation between the visual characteristics of fractals and their aesthetic appeal remains unclear. Motivated by our previous findings that humans display a consistent preference for a certain range of fractal dimension across fractal images of various types we turn to scale-specific processing of visual information to understand this relationship. Whereas our previous preference studies focused on fractal images consisting of black shapes on white backgrounds, here we extend our investigations to include grayscale images in which the intensity variations exhibit scale invariance. This scale-invariance is generated using a 1/f frequency distribution and can be tuned by varying the slope of the rotationally averaged Fourier amplitude spectrum. Thresholding the intensity of these images generates black and white fractals with equivalent scaling properties to the original grayscale images, allowing a direct comparison of preferences for grayscale and black and white fractals. We found no significant differences in preferences between the two groups of fractals. For both set of images, the visual preference peaked for images with the amplitude spectrum slopes from 1.25 to 1.5, thus confirming and extending the previously observed relationship between fractal characteristics of images and visual preference.

7. Multispectral image fusion based on fractal features

Tian, Jie; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Chunhua

2004-01-01

Imagery sensors have been one indispensable part of the detection and recognition systems. They are widely used to the field of surveillance, navigation, control and guide, et. However, different imagery sensors depend on diverse imaging mechanisms, and work within diverse range of spectrum. They also perform diverse functions and have diverse circumstance requires. So it is unpractical to accomplish the task of detection or recognition with a single imagery sensor under the conditions of different circumstances, different backgrounds and different targets. Fortunately, the multi-sensor image fusion technique emerged as important route to solve this problem. So image fusion has been one of the main technical routines used to detect and recognize objects from images. While, loss of information is unavoidable during fusion process, so it is always a very important content of image fusion how to preserve the useful information to the utmost. That is to say, it should be taken into account before designing the fusion schemes how to avoid the loss of useful information or how to preserve the features helpful to the detection. In consideration of these issues and the fact that most detection problems are actually to distinguish man-made objects from natural background, a fractal-based multi-spectral fusion algorithm has been proposed in this paper aiming at the recognition of battlefield targets in the complicated backgrounds. According to this algorithm, source images are firstly orthogonally decomposed according to wavelet transform theories, and then fractal-based detection is held to each decomposed image. At this step, natural background and man-made targets are distinguished by use of fractal models that can well imitate natural objects. Special fusion operators are employed during the fusion of area that contains man-made targets so that useful information could be preserved and features of targets could be extruded. The final fused image is reconstructed from the

8. Fractal image compression: A resolution independent representation for imagery

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sloan, Alan D.

1993-01-01

A deterministic fractal is an image which has low information content and no inherent scale. Because of their low information content, deterministic fractals can be described with small data sets. They can be displayed at high resolution since they are not bound by an inherent scale. A remarkable consequence follows. Fractal images can be encoded at very high compression ratios. This fern, for example is encoded in less than 50 bytes and yet can be displayed at resolutions with increasing levels of detail appearing. The Fractal Transform was discovered in 1988 by Michael F. Barnsley. It is the basis for a new image compression scheme which was initially developed by myself and Michael Barnsley at Iterated Systems. The Fractal Transform effectively solves the problem of finding a fractal which approximates a digital 'real world image'.

9. Fractal dimension analysis of complexity in Ligeti piano pieces

2005-04-01

Fractal correlation dimensional analysis has been performed with whole solo piano pieces by Gyrgy Ligeti at every 50ms interval of the pieces. The resulting curves of development of complexity represented by the fractal dimension showed up a very reasonable correlation with the perceptional density of events during these pieces. The seventh piece of Ligeti's Musica ricercata'' was used as a test case. Here, each new part of the piece was followed by an increase of the fractal dimension because of the increase of information at the part changes. The second piece Galamb borong,'' number seven of the piano Etudes was used, because Ligeti wrote these Etudes after studying fractal geometry. Although the piece is not fractal in the strict mathematical sense, the overall structure of the psychoacoustic event-density as well as the detailed event development is represented by the fractal dimension plot.

10. ZnS:Cr Nanostructures Building Fractals and Their Properties

SciTech Connect

Gogoi, D. P.; Das, U.; Mohanta, D.; Ahmed, G. A.; Choudhury, A.

2010-10-04

Cr doped ZnS nanostructures have been fabricated through colloidal solution route by using Polyvinyl alcohol (-C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O){sub n} and Polyvinyl pyrrolidone k30 (C{sub 6}H{sub 9}NO){sub x} as dielectric hosts. Growth of fractal structures have been observed through Transmission Electron Microscopy. Higher magnification TEM study reveals that these fractals actually a organize structure of ZnS:Cr nanostructures. The structural study of these nanostructures in the fractals is done by X-Ray Diffraction, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Photoluminescence spectroscopy AFM and MFM. These investigations allow us to form a comprehensive explanation of fractal as well as nanostructure growth. We have done dimensional study of these fractals and the reason behind the formation of these fractals.

11. A tutorial introduction to adaptive fractal analysis

PubMed Central

Riley, Michael A.; Bonnette, Scott; Kuznetsov, Nikita; Wallot, Sebastian; Gao, Jianbo

2012-01-01

The authors present a tutorial description of adaptive fractal analysis (AFA). AFA utilizes an adaptive detrending algorithm to extract globally smooth trend signals from the data and then analyzes the scaling of the residuals to the fit as a function of the time scale at which the fit is computed. The authors present applications to synthetic mathematical signals to verify the accuracy of AFA and demonstrate the basic steps of the analysis. The authors then present results from applying AFA to time series from a cognitive psychology experiment on repeated estimation of durations of time to illustrate some of the complexities of real-world data. AFA shows promise in dealing with many types of signals, but like any fractal analysis method there are special challenges and considerations to take into account, such as determining the presence of linear scaling regions. PMID:23060804

12. Fractal Tempo Fluctuation and Pulse Prediction

PubMed Central

Rankin, Summer K.; Large, Edward W.; Fink, Philip W.

2010-01-01

WE INVESTIGATED PEOPLES’ ABILITY TO ADAPT TO THE fluctuating tempi of music performance. In Experiment 1, four pieces from different musical styles were chosen, and performances were recorded from a skilled pianist who was instructed to play with natural expression. Spectral and rescaled range analyses on interbeat interval time-series revealed long-range (1/f type) serial correlations and fractal scaling in each piece. Stimuli for Experiment 2 included two of the performances from Experiment 1, with mechanical versions serving as controls. Participants tapped the beat at ¼- and ⅛-note metrical levels, successfully adapting to large tempo fluctuations in both performances. Participants predicted the structured tempo fluctuations, with superior performance at the ¼-note level. Thus, listeners may exploit long-range correlations and fractal scaling to predict tempo changes in music. PMID:25190901

13. Fractal characteristics for binary noise radar waveform

Li, Bing C.

2016-05-01

Noise radars have many advantages over conventional radars and receive great attentions recently. The performance of a noise radar is determined by its waveforms. Investigating characteristics of noise radar waveforms has significant value for evaluating noise radar performance. In this paper, we use binomial distribution theory to analyze general characteristics of binary phase coded (BPC) noise waveforms. Focusing on aperiodic autocorrelation function, we demonstrate that the probability distributions of sidelobes for a BPC noise waveform depend on the distances of these sidelobes to the mainlobe. The closer a sidelobe to the mainlobe, the higher the probability for this sidelobe to be a maximum sidelobe. We also develop Monte Carlo framework to explore the characteristics that are difficult to investigate analytically. Through Monte Carlo experiments, we reveal the Fractal relationship between the code length and the maximum sidelobe value for BPC waveforms, and propose using fractal dimension to measure noise waveform performance.

14. Static friction between rigid fractal surfaces

Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Huang, Pengyu; Hanaor, Dorian A. H.; Flores-Johnson, E. A.; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Gan, Yixiang; Shen, Luming

2015-09-01

Using spheropolygon-based simulations and contact slope analysis, we investigate the effects of surface topography and atomic scale friction on the macroscopically observed friction between rigid blocks with fractal surface structures. From our mathematical derivation, the angle of macroscopic friction is the result of the sum of the angle of atomic friction and the slope angle between the contact surfaces. The latter is obtained from the determination of all possible contact slopes between the two surface profiles through an alternative signature function. Our theory is validated through numerical simulations of spheropolygons with fractal Koch surfaces and is applied to the description of frictional properties of Weierstrass-Mandelbrot surfaces. The agreement between simulations and theory suggests that for interpreting macroscopic frictional behavior, the descriptors of surface morphology should be defined from the signature function rather than from the slopes of the contacting surfaces.

15. Fractal energy carpets in non-Hermitian Hofstadter quantum mechanics.

PubMed

Chernodub, Maxim N; Ouvry, Stéphane

2015-10-01

We study the non-Hermitian Hofstadter dynamics of a quantum particle with biased motion on a square lattice in the background of a magnetic field. We show that in quasimomentum space, the energy spectrum is an overlap of infinitely many inequivalent fractals. The energy levels in each fractal are space-filling curves with Hausdorff dimension 2. The band structure of the spectrum is similar to a fractal spider web in contrast to the Hofstadter butterfly for unbiased motion. PMID:26565163

16. Local Earth's gravity field in view of fractal dimension

Mészárosová, Katarína; Minarechová, Zuzana; Janák, Juraj

2013-04-01

The poster presents the relative roughness of chosen characteristics of the Earth's gravity field in several small regions in area of Slovakia (e.g. free-air anomaly, Bouguer anomaly, gravity disturbance...) using the values of fractal dimension. In this approach, a three dimensional box counting method and the Hurst analysis method are applied to estimate the values of fractal dimensions. Then the computed fractal dimension values are used to compare all 3D models of all chosen characteristics.

17. Fractal energy carpets in non-Hermitian Hofstadter quantum mechanics

Chernodub, Maxim N.; Ouvry, Stéphane

2015-10-01

We study the non-Hermitian Hofstadter dynamics of a quantum particle with biased motion on a square lattice in the background of a magnetic field. We show that in quasimomentum space, the energy spectrum is an overlap of infinitely many inequivalent fractals. The energy levels in each fractal are space-filling curves with Hausdorff dimension 2. The band structure of the spectrum is similar to a fractal spider web in contrast to the Hofstadter butterfly for unbiased motion.

18. Fractal tiles associated with shift radix systems.

PubMed

Berthé, Valérie; Siegel, Anne; Steiner, Wolfgang; Surer, Paul; Thuswaldner, Jörg M

2011-01-15

Shift radix systems form a collection of dynamical systems depending on a parameter r which varies in the d-dimensional real vector space. They generalize well-known numeration systems such as beta-expansions, expansions with respect to rational bases, and canonical number systems. Beta-numeration and canonical number systems are known to be intimately related to fractal shapes, such as the classical Rauzy fractal and the twin dragon. These fractals turned out to be important for studying properties of expansions in several settings. In the present paper we associate a collection of fractal tiles with shift radix systems. We show that for certain classes of parameters r these tiles coincide with affine copies of the well-known tiles associated with beta-expansions and canonical number systems. On the other hand, these tiles provide natural families of tiles for beta-expansions with (non-unit) Pisot numbers as well as canonical number systems with (non-monic) expanding polynomials. We also prove basic properties for tiles associated with shift radix systems. Indeed, we prove that under some algebraic conditions on the parameter r of the shift radix system, these tiles provide multiple tilings and even tilings of the d-dimensional real vector space. These tilings turn out to have a more complicated structure than the tilings arising from the known number systems mentioned above. Such a tiling may consist of tiles having infinitely many different shapes. Moreover, the tiles need not be self-affine (or graph directed self-affine). PMID:24068835

19. Fractal property of eye movements in schizophrenia.

PubMed

Yokoyama, H; Niwa, S; Itoh, K; Mazuka, R

1996-08-01

On the basis of a temporal model of animal behavior we conducted temporal analysis of eye movements in schizophrenic subjects (n = 10) and normal controls (n = 10). We found a fractal property in schizophrenic subjects, the fixation time of eye movement during reading ambiguous and difficult sentences showing a clear inverse power law distribution. An exponential distribution of a nonfractal nature was found in normal controls. PMID:8855352

20. The albedo of fractal stratocumulus clouds

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cahalan, Robert F.; Ridgway, William; Wiscombe, Warren J.; Bell, Thomas L.; Snider, Jack B.

1994-01-01

An increase in the planetary albedo of the earth-atmosphere system by only 10% can decrease the equilibrium surface temperature to that of the last ice age. Nevertheless, albedo biases of 10% or greater would be introduced into large regions of current climate models if clouds were given their observed liquid water amounts, because of the treatment of clouds as plane parallel. The focus on marine stratocumulus clouds is due to their important role in cloud radiative forcing and also that, of the wide variety of earth's cloud types, they are most nearly plane parallel, so that they have the least albedo bias. The fractal model employed here reproduces both the probability distribution and the wavenumber spectrum of the stratocumulus liquid water path, as observed during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE). A single new fractal parameter 0 less than or equal to f less than or equal to 1, is introduced and determined empirically by the variance of the logarithm of the vertically integrated liquid water. The reduced reflectivity of fractal stratocumulus clouds is approximately given by the plane-parallel reflectivity evaluated at a reduced 'effective optical thickness,' which when f = 0.5 is tau(sub eff) approximately equal to 10. Study of the diurnal cycle of stratocumulus liquid water during FIRE leads to a key unexpected result: the plane-parallel albedo bias is largest when the cloud fraction reaches 100%, that is, when any bias associated with the cloud fraction vanishes. This is primarily due to the variability increase with cloud fraction. Thus, the within-cloud fractal structure of stratocumulus has a more significant impact on estimates of its mesoscale-average albedo than does the cloud fraction.

1. The Correlation Fractal Dimension of Complex Networks

Wang, Xingyuan; Liu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Mogei

2013-05-01

The fractality of complex networks is studied by estimating the correlation dimensions of the networks. Comparing with the previous algorithms of estimating the box dimension, our algorithm achieves a significant reduction in time complexity. For four benchmark cases tested, that is, the Escherichia coli (E. Coli) metabolic network, the Homo sapiens protein interaction network (H. Sapiens PIN), the Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein interaction network (S. Cerevisiae PIN) and the World Wide Web (WWW), experiments are provided to demonstrate the validity of our algorithm.

2. The fractal structure of the mitochondrial genomes

Oiwa, Nestor N.; Glazier, James A.

2002-08-01

The mitochondrial DNA genome has a definite multifractal structure. We show that loops, hairpins and inverted palindromes are responsible for this self-similarity. We can thus establish a definite relation between the function of subsequences and their fractal dimension. Intriguingly, protein coding DNAs also exhibit palindromic structures, although they do not appear in the sequence of amino acids. These structures may reflect the stabilization and transcriptional control of DNA or the control of posttranscriptional editing of mRNA.

3. Fractal dimension based corneal fungal infection diagnosis

Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Perkins, A. Louise; Beuerman, Roger W.; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

2006-08-01

We present a fractal measure based pattern classification algorithm for automatic feature extraction and identification of fungus associated with an infection of the cornea of the eye. A white-light confocal microscope image of suspected fungus exhibited locally linear and branching structures. The pixel intensity variation across the width of a fungal element was gaussian. Linear features were extracted using a set of 2D directional matched gaussian-filters. Portions of fungus profiles that were not in the same focal plane appeared relatively blurred. We use gaussian filters of standard deviation slightly larger than the width of a fungus to reduce discontinuities. Cell nuclei of cornea and nerves also exhibited locally linear structure. Cell nuclei were excluded by their relatively shorter lengths. Nerves in the cornea exhibited less branching compared with the fungus. Fractal dimensions of the locally linear features were computed using a box-counting method. A set of corneal images with fungal infection was used to generate class-conditional fractal measure distributions of fungus and nerves. The a priori class-conditional densities were built using an adaptive-mixtures method to reflect the true nature of the feature distributions and improve the classification accuracy. A maximum-likelihood classifier was used to classify the linear features extracted from test corneal images as 'normal' or 'with fungal infiltrates', using the a priori fractal measure distributions. We demonstrate the algorithm on the corneal images with culture-positive fungal infiltrates. The algorithm is fully automatic and will help diagnose fungal keratitis by generating a diagnostic mask of locations of the fungal infiltrates.

4. Simulation of geological surfaces using fractals

SciTech Connect

Yfantis, E.A.; Flatman, G.T.; Englund, E.J.

1988-08-01

Methods suggests in the past for simulated ore concentration or pollution concentration over an area of interest, subject to the condition that the simulated surface is passing through specifying points, are based on the assumption of normality. A new method is introduced here which is a generalization of the subdivision method used in fractals. This method is based on the construction of a fractal plane-to-line function f(x, y, R, e, u), where (x, y) is in (a, b) x (c, d), R is the autocorrelation function, e is the resolution limit, and u is a random real function on (-l, l). The simulation using fractals escapes from any distribution assumptions of the data. The given network of points is connected to form quadrilaterals; each one of the quadrilaterals is split based on ways which are extensions of the well-known subdivision method. The quadrilaterals continue to split and grow until resolution obtained in both x and y directions is smaller than a prespecified resolution. If the x coordinate of the ith quadrilateral is in (a/sub i/, b/sub i/) and the y coordinate is in (c/sub i/, d/sub i/), the growth of this quadrilateral is a function of (b/sub i/ - a/sub i/) and (d/sub i/ - c/sub i/); the quadrilateral could grow toward the positive or negative z axis with equal probability forming four new quadrilaterals having a common vertex.

5. Fractality of pulsatile flow in speckle images

Nemati, M.; Kenjeres, S.; Urbach, H. P.; Bhattacharya, N.

2016-05-01

The scattering of coherent light from a system with underlying flow can be used to yield essential information about dynamics of the process. In the case of pulsatile flow, there is a rapid change in the properties of the speckle images. This can be studied using the standard laser speckle contrast and also the fractality of images. In this paper, we report the results of experiments performed to study pulsatile flow with speckle images, under different experimental configurations to verify the robustness of the techniques for applications. In order to study flow under various levels of complexity, the measurements were done for three in-vitro phantoms and two in-vivo situations. The pumping mechanisms were varied ranging from mechanical pumps to the human heart for the in vivo case. The speckle images were analyzed using the techniques of fractal dimension and speckle contrast analysis. The results of these techniques for the various experimental scenarios were compared. The fractal dimension is a more sensitive measure to capture the complexity of the signal though it was observed that it is also extremely sensitive to the properties of the scattering medium and cannot recover the signal for thicker diffusers in comparison to speckle contrast.

6. Fractal analysis of Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation

Moreau, A. L. D.; Lorite, G. S.; Rodrigues, C. M.; Souza, A. A.; Cotta, M. A.

2009-07-01

We have investigated the growth process of Xylella fastidiosa biofilms inoculated on a glass. The size and the distance between biofilms were analyzed by optical images; a fractal analysis was carried out using scaling concepts and atomic force microscopy images. We observed that different biofilms show similar fractal characteristics, although morphological variations can be identified for different biofilm stages. Two types of structural patterns are suggested from the observed fractal dimensions Df. In the initial and final stages of biofilm formation, Df is 2.73±0.06 and 2.68±0.06, respectively, while in the maturation stage, Df=2.57±0.08. These values suggest that the biofilm growth can be understood as an Eden model in the former case, while diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) seems to dominate the maturation stage. Changes in the correlation length parallel to the surface were also observed; these results were correlated with the biofilm matrix formation, which can hinder nutrient diffusion and thus create conditions to drive DLA growth.

7. Aero-acoustic performance of Fractal Spoilers

Nedic, J.; Ganapathisubramani, B.; Vassilicos, C.; Boree, J.; Brizzi, L.; Spohn, A.

2010-11-01

One of the major environmental problems facing the aviation industry is that of aircraft noise. The work presented in this paper, done as part of the OPENAIR Project, looks at reducing spoiler noise through means of large-scale fractal porosity. It is hypothesised that the highly turbulent flow generated by these grids, which have multi-length-scales, would remove the re-circulation region and with it, the low frequency noise it generates. In its place, a higher frequency noise is introduced which is susceptible to atmospheric attenuation, and would be deemed less offensive to the human ear. A total of nine laboratory scaled spoilers were looked at, seven of which had a fractal design, one conventionally porous and one solid for reference. All of the spoilers were mounted on a flat plate and inclined at 30^o to the horizontal. Far-field, microphone array and PIV measurements were taken in an anechoic chamber to determine the acoustic performance and to study the flow coming through the spoilers. A significant reduction in sound pressure level is recorded and is found to be very sensitive to small changes in fractal grid parameters. Wake and drag force measurements indicated that the spoilers increase the drag whilst having minimal effect on the lift.

8. The contact mechanics of fractal surfaces

Buzio, Renato; Boragno, Corrado; Biscarini, Fabio; Buatier de Mongeot, Francesco; Valbusa, Ugo

2003-04-01

The role of surface roughness in contact mechanics is relevant to processes ranging from adhesion to friction, wear and lubrication. It also promises to have a deep impact on applied science, including coatings technology and design of microelectromechanical systems. Despite the considerable results achieved by indentation experiments, particularly in the measurement of bulk hardness on nanometre scales, the contact behaviour of realistic surfaces, showing random multiscale roughness, remains largely unknown. Here we report experimental results concerning the mechanical response of self-affine thin films indented by a micrometric flat probe. The specimens, made of cluster-assembled carbon or of sexithienyl, an organic molecular material, were chosen as prototype systems for the broad class of self-affine fractal interfaces, today including surfaces grown under non-equilibrium conditions, fractures, manufactured metal surfaces and solidified liquid fronts. We observe that a regime exists in which roughness drives the contact mechanics: in this range surface stiffness varies by a few orders of magnitude on small but significant changes of fractal parameters. As a consequence, we demonstrate that soft solid interfaces can be appreciably strengthened by reducing both fractal dimension and surface roughness. This indicates a general route for tailoring the mechanical properties of solid bodies.

9. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Weyl law for fat fractals

Spina, María E.; García-Mata, Ignacio; Saraceno, Marcos

2010-10-01

It has been conjectured that for a class of piecewise linear maps the closure of the set of images of the discontinuity has the structure of a fat fractal, that is, a fractal with positive measure. An example of such maps is the sawtooth map in the elliptic regime. In this work we analyze this problem quantum mechanically in the semiclassical regime. We find that the fraction of states localized on the unstable set satisfies a modified fractal Weyl law, where the exponent is given by the exterior dimension of the fat fractal.

10. GENERATING FRACTAL PATTERNS BY USING p-CIRCLE INVERSION

Ramírez, José L.; Rubiano, Gustavo N.; Zlobec, Borut Jurčič

2015-10-01

In this paper, we introduce the p-circle inversion which generalizes the classical inversion with respect to a circle (p = 2) and the taxicab inversion (p = 1). We study some basic properties and we also show the inversive images of some basic curves. We apply this new transformation to well-known fractals such as Sierpinski triangle, Koch curve, dragon curve, Fibonacci fractal, among others. Then we obtain new fractal patterns. Moreover, we generalize the method called circle inversion fractal be means of the p-circle inversion.

11. The role of the circadian system in fractal neurophysiological control

PubMed Central

Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin R.; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.; Butler, Matthew P.; Shea, Steven A.; Hu, Kun

2013-01-01

Many neurophysiological variables such as heart rate, motor activity, and neural activity are known to exhibit intrinsic fractal fluctuations - similar temporal fluctuation patterns at different time scales. These fractal patterns contain information about health, as many pathological conditions are accompanied by their alteration or absence. In physical systems, such fluctuations are characteristic of critical states on the border between randomness and order, frequently arising from nonlinear feedback interactions between mechanisms operating on multiple scales. Thus, the existence of fractal fluctuations in physiology challenges traditional conceptions of health and disease, suggesting that high levels of integrity and adaptability are marked by complex variability, not constancy, and are properties of a neurophysiological network, not individual components. Despite the subject's theoretical and clinical interest, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying fractal regulation remain largely unknown. The recent discovery that the circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nucleus) plays a crucial role in generating fractal patterns in motor activity and heart rate sheds an entirely new light on both fractal control networks and the function of this master circadian clock, and builds a bridge between the fields of circadian biology and fractal physiology. In this review, we sketch the emerging picture of the developing interdisciplinary field of fractal neurophysiology by examining the circadian system’s role in fractal regulation. PMID:23573942

12. Fractal dimension analyses of lava surfaces and flow boundaries

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cleghorn, Timothy F.

1993-01-01

An improved method of estimating fractal surface dimensions has been developed. The accuracy of this method is illustrated using artificially generated fractal surfaces. A slightly different from usual concept of linear dimension is developed, allowing a direct link between that and the corresponding surface dimension estimate. These methods are applied to a series of images of lava flows, representing a variety of physical and chemical conditions. These include lavas from California, Idaho, and Hawaii, as well as some extraterrestrial flows. The fractal surface dimension estimations are presented, as well as the fractal line dimensions where appropriate.

13. Fractal analysis of scatter imaging signatures to distinguish breast pathologies

Eguizabal, Alma; Laughney, Ashley M.; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Wells, Wendy A.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

2013-02-01

Fractal analysis combined with a label-free scattering technique is proposed for describing the pathological architecture of tumors. Clinicians and pathologists are conventionally trained to classify abnormal features such as structural irregularities or high indices of mitosis. The potential of fractal analysis lies in the fact of being a morphometric measure of the irregular structures providing a measure of the object's complexity and self-similarity. As cancer is characterized by disorder and irregularity in tissues, this measure could be related to tumor growth. Fractal analysis has been probed in the understanding of the tumor vasculature network. This work addresses the feasibility of applying fractal analysis to the scattering power map (as a physical modeling) and principal components (as a statistical modeling) provided by a localized reflectance spectroscopic system. Disorder, irregularity and cell size variation in tissue samples is translated into the scattering power and principal components magnitude and its fractal dimension is correlated with the pathologist assessment of the samples. The fractal dimension is computed applying the box-counting technique. Results show that fractal analysis of ex-vivo fresh tissue samples exhibits separated ranges of fractal dimension that could help classifier combining the fractal results with other morphological features. This contrast trend would help in the discrimination of tissues in the intraoperative context and may serve as a useful adjunct to surgeons.

14. Reinforcement of rubber by fractal aggregates

Witten, T. A.; Rubinstein, M.; Colby, R. H.

1993-03-01

Rubber is commonly reinforced with colloidal aggregates of carbon or silica, whose structure has the scale invariance of a fractal object. Reinforced rubbers support large stresses, which often grow faster than linearly with the strain. We argue that under strong elongation the stress arises through lateral compression of the aggregates, driven by the large bulk modulus of the rubber. We derive a power-law relationship between stress and elongation λ when λgg 1. The predicted power p depends on the fractal dimension D and a second structural scaling exponent C. For diffusion-controlled aggregates this power p should lie beween 0.9 and 1.1 ; for reaction-controlled aggregates p should lie between 1.8 and 2.4. For uniaxial compression the analogous powers lie near 4. Practical rubbers filled with fractal aggregates should approach the conditions of validity for these scaling laws. On renforce souvent le caoutchouc avec des agrégats de carbone ou de silice dont la structure a l'invariance par dilatation d'un objet fractal. Les caoutchoucs ainsi renforcés supportent de grandes contraintes qui croissent souvent plus vite que l'élongation. Nous prétendons que, sous élongation forte, cette contrainte apparaît à cause d'une compression latérale des agrégats induite par le module volumique important du caoutchouc. Nous établissons une loi de puissance reliant la contrainte et l'élongation λ quand λgg 1. Cet exposant p dépend de la dimension fractale D et d'un deuxième exposant structural C. Pour des agrégats dont la cinétique de formation est limitée par diffusion, p vaut entre 0,9 et 1,1. Si la cinétique est limitée par le soudage local des particules, p vaut entre 1,8 et 2,4. Sous compression uniaxiale, les puissances homologues valent environ 4. Des caoutchoucs pratiques chargés de tels agrégats devraient approcher des conditions où ces lois d'échelle sont valables.

15. Reply to Comment on Hydrodynamics of fractal continuum flow' and Map of fluid flow in fractal porous medium into fractal continuum flow' ''

Balankin, Alexander S.; Elizarraraz, Benjamin Espinoza

2013-11-01

The aim of this Reply is to elucidate the difference between the fractal continuum models used in the preceding Comment and the models of fractal continuum flow which were put forward in our previous articles [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.85.025302 85, 025302(R) (2012); PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.85.056314 85, 056314 (2012)]. In this way, some drawbacks of the former models are highlighted. Specifically, inconsistencies in the definitions of the fractal derivative, the Jacobian of transformation, the displacement vector, and angular momentum are revealed. The proper forms of the Reynolds’ transport theorem and angular momentum principle for the fractal continuum are reaffirmed in a more illustrative manner. Consequently, we emphasize that in the absence of any internal angular momentum, body couples, and couple stresses, the Cauchy stress tensor in the fractal continuum should be symmetric. Furthermore, we stress that the approach based on the Cartesian product measured and used in the preceding Comment cannot be employed to study the path-connected fractals, such as a flow in a fractally permeable medium. Thus, all statements of our previous works remain unchallenged.

16. Fractal behavior of traffic volume on urban expressway through adaptive fractal analysis

He, Hong-di; Wang, Jun-li; Wei, Hai-rui; Ye, Cheng; Ding, Yi

2016-02-01

In this paper, we investigate the fractal behavior of traffic volume in urban expressway based on a newly developed adaptive fractal analysis (AFA), which has a number of advantages over traditional method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Before fractal analysis, autocorrelation function was first adopted on traffic volume data and the long-range correlation behavior was found to be existed in both on-ramp and off-ramp situations. Then AFA as well as DFA was applied to further examine the fractal behavior. The results showed that the multifractality and the long-range anti-persistent behavior existed on both on-ramp and off-ramp. Additionally, multifractal analysis on weekdays and weekends are performed respectively and the results show that the degree of multifractality on weekdays is higher than that on weekends, implying that long-range correlation behaviors were more obvious on weekdays. Finally, the source of multifractality is examined with randomly shuffled and the surrogated series. Long-range correlation behaviors are identified in both on-ramp and off-ramp situations and fat-tail distributions were found to make little in the contributions of multifractality.

17. The Calculation of Fractal Dimension in the Presence of Non-Fractal Clutter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Herren, Kenneth A.; Gregory, Don A.

1999-01-01

The area of information processing has grown dramatically over the last 50 years. In the areas of image processing and information storage the technology requirements have far outpaced the ability of the community to meet demands. The need for faster recognition algorithms and more efficient storage of large quantities of data has forced the user to accept less than lossless retrieval of that data for analysis. In addition to clutter that is not the object of interest in the data set, often the throughput requirements forces the user to accept "noisy" data and to tolerate the clutter inherent in that data. It has been shown that some of this clutter, both the intentional clutter (clouds, trees, etc) as well as the noise introduced on the data by processing requirements can be modeled as fractal or fractal-like. Traditional methods using Fourier deconvolution on these sources of noise in frequency space leads to loss of signal and can, in many cases, completely eliminate the target of interest. The parameters that characterize fractal-like noise (predominately the fractal dimension) have been investigated and a technique to reduce or eliminate noise from real scenes has been developed. Examples of clutter reduced images are presented.

18. A comparison of the fractal and JPEG algorithms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cheung, K.-M.; Shahshahani, M.

1991-01-01

A proprietary fractal image compression algorithm and the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) industry standard algorithm for image compression are compared. In every case, the JPEG algorithm was superior to the fractal method at a given compression ratio according to a root mean square criterion and a peak signal to noise criterion.

19. a Fractal Network Model for Fractured Porous Media

Xu, Peng; Li, Cuihong; Qiu, Shuxia; Sasmito, Agus Pulung

2016-04-01

The transport properties and mechanisms of fractured porous media are very important for oil and gas reservoir engineering, hydraulics, environmental science, chemical engineering, etc. In this paper, a fractal dual-porosity model is developed to estimate the equivalent hydraulic properties of fractured porous media, where a fractal tree-like network model is used to characterize the fracture system according to its fractal scaling laws and topological structures. The analytical expressions for the effective permeability of fracture system and fractured porous media, tortuosity, fracture density and fraction are derived. The proposed fractal model has been validated by comparisons with available experimental data and numerical simulation. It has been shown that fractal dimensions for fracture length and aperture have significant effect on the equivalent hydraulic properties of fractured porous media. The effective permeability of fracture system can be increased with the increase of fractal dimensions for fracture length and aperture, while it can be remarkably lowered by introducing tortuosity at large branching angle. Also, a scaling law between the fracture density and fractal dimension for fracture length has been found, where the scaling exponent depends on the fracture number. The present fractal dual-porosity model may shed light on the transport physics of fractured porous media and provide theoretical basis for oil and gas exploitation, underground water, nuclear waste disposal and geothermal energy extraction as well as chemical engineering, etc.

20. Fractal and Multifractal Models Applied to Porous Media - Editorial

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Given the current high level of interest in the use of fractal geometry to characterize natural porous media, a special issue of the Vadose Zone Journal was organized in order to expose established fractal analysis techniques and cutting-edge new developments to a wider Earth science audience. The ...

1. The fractal energy measurement and the singularity energy spectrum analysis

Xiong, Gang; Zhang, Shuning; Yang, Xiaoniu

2012-12-01

The singularity exponent (SE) is the characteristic parameter of fractal and multifractal signals. Based on SE, the fractal dimension reflecting the global self-similar character, the instantaneous SE reflecting the local self-similar character, the multifractal spectrum (MFS) reflecting the distribution of SE, and the time-varying MFS reflecting pointwise multifractal spectrum were proposed. However, all the studies were based on the depiction of spatial or differentiability characters of fractal signals. Taking the SE as the independent dimension, this paper investigates the fractal energy measurement (FEM) and the singularity energy spectrum (SES) theory. Firstly, we study the energy measurement and the energy spectrum of a fractal signal in the singularity domain, propose the conception of FEM and SES of multifractal signals, and investigate the Hausdorff measure and the local direction angle of the fractal energy element. Then, we prove the compatibility between FEM and traditional energy, and point out that SES can be measured in the fractal space. Finally, we study the algorithm of SES under the condition of a continuous signal and a discrete signal, and give the approximation algorithm of the latter, and the estimations of FEM and SES of the Gaussian white noise, Fractal Brownian motion and the multifractal Brownian motion show the theoretical significance and application value of FEM and SES.

2. Fractal Modeling and Scaling in Natural Systems - Editorial

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The special issue of Ecological complexity journal on Fractal Modeling and Scaling in Natural Systems contains representative examples of the status and evolution of data-driven research into fractals and scaling in complex natural systems. The editorial discusses contributions to understanding rela...

3. The fractal nature of vacuum arc cathode spots

SciTech Connect

Anders, Andre

2005-05-27

Cathode spot phenomena show many features of fractals, for example self-similar patterns in the emitted light and arc erosion traces. Although there have been hints on the fractal nature of cathode spots in the literature, the fractal approach to spot interpretation is underutilized. In this work, a brief review of spot properties is given, touching the differences between spot type 1 (on cathodes surfaces with dielectric layers) and spot type 2 (on metallic, clean surfaces) as well as the known spot fragment or cell structure. The basic properties of self-similarity, power laws, random colored noise, and fractals are introduced. Several points of evidence for the fractal nature of spots are provided. Specifically power laws are identified as signature of fractal properties, such as spectral power of noisy arc parameters (ion current, arc voltage, etc) obtained by fast Fourier transform. It is shown that fractal properties can be observed down to the cutoff by measurement resolution or occurrence of elementary steps in physical processes. Random walk models of cathode spot motion are well established: they go asymptotically to Brownian motion for infinitesimal step width. The power spectrum of the arc voltage noise falls as 1/f {sup 2}, where f is frequency, supporting a fractal spot model associated with Brownian motion.

4. Perceptual and Physiological Responses to Jackson Pollock's Fractals.

PubMed

Taylor, Richard P; Spehar, Branka; Van Donkelaar, Paul; Hagerhall, Caroline M

2011-01-01

Fractals have been very successful in quantifying the visual complexity exhibited by many natural patterns, and have captured the imagination of scientists and artists alike. Our research has shown that the poured patterns of the American abstract painter Jackson Pollock are also fractal. This discovery raises an intriguing possibility - are the visual characteristics of fractals responsible for the long-term appeal of Pollock's work? To address this question, we have conducted 10 years of scientific investigation of human response to fractals and here we present, for the first time, a review of this research that examines the inter-relationship between the various results. The investigations include eye tracking, visual preference, skin conductance, and EEG measurement techniques. We discuss the artistic implications of the positive perceptual and physiological responses to fractal patterns. PMID:21734876

5. Computerized analysis of mammographic parenchymal patterns using fractal analysis

Li, Hui; Giger, Maryellen L.; Huo, Zhimin; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Chinander, Michael R.; Lan, Li; Bonta, Ioana R.

2003-05-01

Mammographic parenchymal patterns have been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk. Fractal-based texture analyses, including box-counting methods and Minkowski dimension, were performed within parenchymal regions of normal mammograms of BRCA1/BRCA2 gene mutation carriers and within those of women at low risk for developing breast cancer. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the performance of the computerized radiographic markers in the task of distinguishing between high and low-risk subjects. A multifractal phenomenon was observed with the fractal analyses. The high frequency component of fractal dimension from the conventional box-counting technique yielded an Az value of 0.84 in differentiating between two groups, while using the LDA to estimate the fractal dimension yielded an Az value of 0.91 for the high frequency component. An Az value of 0.82 was obtained with fractal dimensions extracted using the Minkowski algorithm.

6. A Tutorial Review on Fractal Spacetime and Fractional Calculus

He, Ji-Huan

2014-11-01

This tutorial review of fractal-Cantorian spacetime and fractional calculus begins with Leibniz's notation for derivative without limits which can be generalized to discontinuous media like fractal derivative and q-derivative of quantum calculus. Fractal spacetime is used to elucidate some basic properties of fractal which is the foundation of fractional calculus, and El Naschie's mass-energy equation for the dark energy. The variational iteration method is used to introduce the definition of fractional derivatives. Fractal derivative is explained geometrically and q-derivative is motivated by quantum mechanics. Some effective analytical approaches to fractional differential equations, e.g., the variational iteration method, the homotopy perturbation method, the exp-function method, the fractional complex transform, and Yang-Laplace transform, are outlined and the main solution processes are given.

7. Multi-Scale Fractal Analysis of Image Texture and Pattern

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emerson, Charles W.; Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Quattrochi, Dale A.

1999-01-01

Analyses of the fractal dimension of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images of homogeneous land covers near Huntsville, Alabama revealed that the fractal dimension of an image of an agricultural land cover indicates greater complexity as pixel size increases, a forested land cover gradually grows smoother, and an urban image remains roughly self-similar over the range of pixel sizes analyzed (10 to 80 meters). A similar analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper images of the East Humboldt Range in Nevada taken four months apart show a more complex relation between pixel size and fractal dimension. The major visible difference between the spring and late summer NDVI images is the absence of high elevation snow cover in the summer image. This change significantly alters the relation between fractal dimension and pixel size. The slope of the fractal dimension-resolution relation provides indications of how image classification or feature identification will be affected by changes in sensor spatial resolution.

8. A Fractal Dimension Survey of Active Region Complexity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

McAteer, R. T. James; Gallagher, Peter; Ireland, Jack

2005-01-01

A new approach to quantifying the magnetic complexity of active regions using a fractal dimension measure is presented. This fully-automated approach uses full disc MDI magnetograms of active regions from a large data set (2742 days of the SoHO mission; 9342 active regions) to compare the calculated fractal dimension to both Mount Wilson classification and flare rate. The main Mount Wilson classes exhibit no distinct fractal dimension distribution, suggesting a self-similar nature of all active regions. Solar flare productivity exhibits an increase in both the frequency and GOES X-ray magnitude of flares from regions with higher fractal dimensions. Specifically a lower threshold fractal dimension of 1.2 and 1.25 exists as a necessary, but not sufficient, requirement for an active region to produce M- and X-class flares respectively .

9. A fractal approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turcotte, D. L.

1989-01-01

The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects (events) N with a characteristic size greater than r satisfies the relation N proportional to r exp - D is the fractal dimension. The applicability of a fractal relation implies that the underlying physical process is scale-invariant over the range of applicability of the relation. The empirical frequency-magnitude relation for earthquakes defining a b-value is a fractal relation with D = 2b. Accepting the fractal distribution, the level of regional seismicity can be related to the rate of regional strain and the magnitude of the largest characteristic earthquake. High levels of seismic activity indicate either a large regional strain or a low-magnitude maximum characteristic earthquake (or both). If the regional seismicity has a weak time dependence, the approach can be used to make probabilistic seismic hazard assessments.

10. Multi-Scale Fractal Analysis of Image Texture and Pattern

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emerson, Charles W.; Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Quattrochi, Dale A.

1999-01-01

Analyses of the fractal dimension of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images of homogeneous land covers near Huntsville, Alabama revealed that the fractal dimension of an image of an agricultural land cover indicates greater complexity as pixel size increases, a forested land cover gradually grows smoother, and an urban image remains roughly self-similar over the range of pixel sizes analyzed (10 to 80 meters). A similar analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper images of the East Humboldt Range in Nevada taken four months apart show a more complex relation between pixel size and fractal dimension. The major visible difference between the spring and late summer NDVI images of the absence of high elevation snow cover in the summer image. This change significantly alters the relation between fractal dimension and pixel size. The slope of the fractal dimensional-resolution relation provides indications of how image classification or feature identification will be affected by changes in sensor spatial resolution.

11. Laser light scattering as a probe of fractal colloid aggregates

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weitz, David A.; Lin, M. Y.

1989-01-01

The extensive use of laser light scattering is reviewed, both static and dynamic, in the study of colloid aggregation. Static light scattering enables the study of the fractal structure of the aggregates, while dynamic light scattering enables the study of aggregation kinetics. In addition, both techniques can be combined to demonstrate the universality of the aggregation process. Colloidal aggregates are now well understood and therefore represent an excellent experimental system to use in the study of the physical properties of fractal objects. However, the ultimate size of fractal aggregates is fundamentally limited by gravitational acceleration which will destroy the fractal structure as the size of the aggregates increases. This represents a great opportunity for spaceborne experimentation, where the reduced g will enable the growth of fractal structures of sufficient size for many interesting studies of their physical properties.

12. Using Peano Curves to Construct Laplacians on Fractals

Molitor, Denali; Ott, Nadia; Strichartz, Robert

2015-12-01

We describe a new method to construct Laplacians on fractals using a Peano curve from the circle onto the fractal, extending an idea that has been used in the case of certain Julia sets. The Peano curve allows us to visualize eigenfunctions of the Laplacian by graphing the pullback to the circle. We study in detail three fractals: the pentagasket, the octagasket and the magic carpet. We also use the method for two nonfractal self-similar sets, the torus and the equilateral triangle, obtaining appealing new visualizations of eigenfunctions on the triangle. In contrast to the many familiar pictures of approximations to standard Peano curves, that do no show self-intersections, our descriptions of approximations to the Peano curves have self-intersections that play a vital role in constructing graph approximations to the fractal with explicit graph Laplacians that give the fractal Laplacian in the limit.

13. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images

Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

2016-07-01

Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024 ×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images.

14. A Fractal Nature for Polymerized Laminin

PubMed Central

Hochman-Mendez, Camila; Cantini, Marco; Moratal, David; Salmeron-Sanchez, Manuel; Coelho-Sampaio, Tatiana

2014-01-01

Polylaminin (polyLM) is a non-covalent acid-induced nano- and micro-structured polymer of the protein laminin displaying distinguished biological properties. Polylaminin stimulates neuritogenesis beyond the levels achieved by ordinary laminin and has been shown to promote axonal regeneration in animal models of spinal cord injury. Here we used confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize its three-dimensional structure. Renderization of confocal optical slices of immunostained polyLM revealed the aspect of a loose flocculated meshwork, which was homogeneously stained by the antibody. On the other hand, an ordinary matrix obtained upon adsorption of laminin in neutral pH (LM) was constituted of bulky protein aggregates whose interior was not accessible to the same anti-laminin antibody. SEM and AFM analyses revealed that the seed unit of polyLM was a flat polygon formed in solution whereas the seed structure of LM was highly heterogeneous, intercalating rod-like, spherical and thin spread lamellar deposits. As polyLM was visualized at progressively increasing magnifications, we observed that the morphology of the polymer was alike independently of the magnification used for the observation. A search for the Hausdorff dimension in images of the two matrices showed that polyLM, but not LM, presented fractal dimensions of 1.55, 1.62 and 1.70 after 1, 8 and 12 hours of adsorption, respectively. Data in the present work suggest that the intrinsic fractal nature of polymerized laminin can be the structural basis for the fractal-like organization of basement membranes in the neurogenic niches of the central nervous system. PMID:25296244

15. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images.

PubMed

Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

2016-07-01

Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images. PMID:27475069

16. Steady Viscous Flow with Fractal Power Spectrum

Zaks, Michael A.; Pikovsky, Arkady S.; Kurths, Jürgen

1996-11-01

We demonstrate a family of two-dimensional steady viscous flows which have singular continuous (fractal) Fourier spectra. Such flows represent a novel intermediate stage between order and Lagrangian chaos: The motion of individual fluid particles in them is neither entirely correlated nor completely disordered. In the considered setup these flows are presented by the exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and occupy a parameter subset of positive measure. Onset of this unusual state follows the formation of steady eddies and is caused by the development of singularities of return times along the particle paths near the stagnation points.

17. Fractal dimension in nonhyperbolic chaotic scattering

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lau, Yun-Tung; Finn, John M.; Ott, Edward

1991-01-01

In chaotic scattering there is a Cantor set of input-variable values of zero Lebesgue measure (i.e., zero total length) on which the scattering function is singular. For cases where the dynamics leading to chaotic scattering is nonhyperbolic (e.g., there are Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser tori), the nature of this singular set is fundamentally different from that in the hyperbolic case. In particular, for the nonhyperbolic case, although the singular set has zero total length, strong evidence is presented to show that its fractal dimension is 1.

18. Trabecular Bone Mechanical Properties and Fractal Dimension

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hogan, Harry A.

1996-01-01

Countermeasures for reducing bone loss and muscle atrophy due to extended exposure to the microgravity environment of space are continuing to be developed and improved. An important component of this effort is finite element modeling of the lower extremity and spinal column. These models will permit analysis and evaluation specific to each individual and thereby provide more efficient and effective exercise protocols. Inflight countermeasures and post-flight rehabilitation can then be customized and targeted on a case-by-case basis. Recent Summer Faculty Fellowship participants have focused upon finite element mesh generation, muscle force estimation, and fractal calculations of trabecular bone microstructure. Methods have been developed for generating the three-dimensional geometry of the femur from serial section magnetic resonance images (MRI). The use of MRI as an imaging modality avoids excessive exposure to radiation associated with X-ray based methods. These images can also detect trabecular bone microstructure and architecture. The goal of the current research is to determine the degree to which the fractal dimension of trabecular architecture can be used to predict the mechanical properties of trabecular bone tissue. The elastic modulus and the ultimate strength (or strain) can then be estimated from non-invasive, non-radiating imaging and incorporated into the finite element models to more accurately represent the bone tissue of each individual of interest. Trabecular bone specimens from the proximal tibia are being studied in this first phase of the work. Detailed protocols and procedures have been developed for carrying test specimens through all of the steps of a multi-faceted test program. The test program begins with MRI and X-ray imaging of the whole bones before excising a smaller workpiece from the proximal tibia region. High resolution MRI scans are then made and the piece further cut into slabs (roughly 1 cm thick). The slabs are X-rayed again

19. Koch fractal boundary patch over reactive impedance

Reddy V, Venkateshwar; Sarma, N. V. S. N.

2013-04-01

This paper describes the enhancement of bandwidth and miniaturization for patch antennas. Introduction of fractal structure (Square Koch) over reactive impedance surface (RIS) is used to enhance impedance bandwidth while minimizing the patch size. Comparison has been made with those of a single-layer (sub1) antenna and the corresponding dual-layer (RIS) antenna. Approximately double the impedance bandwidth is achieved with the proposed RIS Square Koch antenna 1 when compared with Square Koch antenna 1without RIS. There is a 55 % reduction in the patch size. The simulated results indicate that the presented antennas provide gain of about 2.5dBi over the entire band of frequencies.

20. Haotic, Fractal, and Nonlinear Signal Processing. Proceedings

SciTech Connect

Katz, R.A.

1996-10-01

These proceedings include papers presented at the Third Technical Conference on Nonlinear Dynamics and Full{minus}Spectrum Processing held in Mystic, Connecticut. The Conference focus was on the latest advances in chaotic, fractal and nonlinear signal processing methods. Topics of discussion covered in the Conference include: mathematical frontiers; predictability and control of chaos, detection and classification with applications in acoustics; advanced applied signal processing methods(linear and nonlinear); stochastic resonance; machinery diagnostics; turbulence; geophysics; medicine; and recent novel approaches to modeling nonlinear systems. There were 58 papers in the conference and all have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database. (AIP)

1. Fractal hard drives for quantum information

Wootton, James R.

2016-02-01

A quantum hard drive, capable of storing qubits for unlimited timescales, would be very useful for quantum computation. Unfortunately, the most ideal solutions currently known can only be built in a universe of four spatial dimensions. In a recent publication (Brell 2016 New J. Phys. 18 013050), Brell introduces a new family of models based on these ideal solutions. These use fractal lattices, and result in models whose Hausdorff dimension is less than 3. This opens a new avenue of research towards a quantum hard drive that can be build in our own 3D universe.

2. Kepler mission exoplanet transit data analysis using fractal imaging

Dehipawala, S.; Tremberger, G.; Majid, Y.; Holden, T.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

2012-10-01

The Kepler mission is designed to survey a fist-sized patch of the sky within the Milky Way galaxy for the discovery of exoplanets, with emphasis on near Earth-size exoplanets in or near the habitable zone. The Kepler space telescope would detect the brightness fluctuation of a host star and extract periodic dimming in the lightcurve caused by exoplanets that cross in front of their host star. The photometric data of a host star could be interpreted as an image where fractal imaging would be applicable. Fractal analysis could elucidate the incomplete data limitation posed by the data integration window. The fractal dimension difference between the lower and upper halves of the image could be used to identify anomalies associated with transits and stellar activity as the buried signals are expected to be in the lower half of such an image. Using an image fractal dimension resolution of 0.04 and defining the whole image fractal dimension as the Chi-square expected value of the fractal dimension, a p-value can be computed and used to establish a numerical threshold for decision making that may be useful in further studies of lightcurves of stars with candidate exoplanets. Similar fractal dimension difference approaches would be applicable to the study of photometric time series data via the Higuchi method. The correlated randomness of the brightness data series could be used to support inferences based on image fractal dimension differences. Fractal compression techniques could be used to transform a lightcurve image, resulting in a new image with a new fractal dimension value, but this method has been found to be ineffective for images with high information capacity. The three studied criteria could be used together to further constrain the Kepler list of candidate lightcurves of stars with possible exoplanets that may be planned for ground-based telescope confirmation.

3. The analysis of the influence of fractal structure of stimuli on fractal dynamics in fixational eye movements and EEG signal

PubMed Central

Namazi, Hamidreza; Kulish, Vladimir V.; Akrami, Amin

2016-01-01

One of the major challenges in vision research is to analyze the effect of visual stimuli on human vision. However, no relationship has been yet discovered between the structure of the visual stimulus, and the structure of fixational eye movements. This study reveals the plasticity of human fixational eye movements in relation to the ‘complex’ visual stimulus. We demonstrated that the fractal temporal structure of visual dynamics shifts towards the fractal dynamics of the visual stimulus (image). The results showed that images with higher complexity (higher fractality) cause fixational eye movements with lower fractality. Considering the brain, as the main part of nervous system that is engaged in eye movements, we analyzed the governed Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal during fixation. We have found out that there is a coupling between fractality of image, EEG and fixational eye movements. The capability observed in this research can be further investigated and applied for treatment of different vision disorders. PMID:27217194

4. The analysis of the influence of fractal structure of stimuli on fractal dynamics in fixational eye movements and EEG signal.

PubMed

Namazi, Hamidreza; Kulish, Vladimir V; Akrami, Amin

2016-01-01

One of the major challenges in vision research is to analyze the effect of visual stimuli on human vision. However, no relationship has been yet discovered between the structure of the visual stimulus, and the structure of fixational eye movements. This study reveals the plasticity of human fixational eye movements in relation to the 'complex' visual stimulus. We demonstrated that the fractal temporal structure of visual dynamics shifts towards the fractal dynamics of the visual stimulus (image). The results showed that images with higher complexity (higher fractality) cause fixational eye movements with lower fractality. Considering the brain, as the main part of nervous system that is engaged in eye movements, we analyzed the governed Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal during fixation. We have found out that there is a coupling between fractality of image, EEG and fixational eye movements. The capability observed in this research can be further investigated and applied for treatment of different vision disorders. PMID:27217194

5. The analysis of the influence of fractal structure of stimuli on fractal dynamics in fixational eye movements and EEG signal

Namazi, Hamidreza; Kulish, Vladimir V.; Akrami, Amin

2016-05-01

One of the major challenges in vision research is to analyze the effect of visual stimuli on human vision. However, no relationship has been yet discovered between the structure of the visual stimulus, and the structure of fixational eye movements. This study reveals the plasticity of human fixational eye movements in relation to the ‘complex’ visual stimulus. We demonstrated that the fractal temporal structure of visual dynamics shifts towards the fractal dynamics of the visual stimulus (image). The results showed that images with higher complexity (higher fractality) cause fixational eye movements with lower fractality. Considering the brain, as the main part of nervous system that is engaged in eye movements, we analyzed the governed Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal during fixation. We have found out that there is a coupling between fractality of image, EEG and fixational eye movements. The capability observed in this research can be further investigated and applied for treatment of different vision disorders.

6. Fractal Physiology and the Fractional Calculus: A Perspective

PubMed Central

West, Bruce J.

2010-01-01

This paper presents a restricted overview of Fractal Physiology focusing on the complexity of the human body and the characterization of that complexity through fractal measures and their dynamics, with fractal dynamics being described by the fractional calculus. Not only are anatomical structures (Grizzi and Chiriva-Internati, 2005), such as the convoluted surface of the brain, the lining of the bowel, neural networks and placenta, fractal, but the output of dynamical physiologic networks are fractal as well (Bassingthwaighte et al., 1994). The time series for the inter-beat intervals of the heart, inter-breath intervals and inter-stride intervals have all been shown to be fractal and/or multifractal statistical phenomena. Consequently, the fractal dimension turns out to be a significantly better indicator of organismic functions in health and disease than the traditional average measures, such as heart rate, breathing rate, and stride rate. The observation that human physiology is primarily fractal was first made in the 1980s, based on the analysis of a limited number of datasets. We review some of these phenomena herein by applying an allometric aggregation approach to the processing of physiologic time series. This straight forward method establishes the scaling behavior of complex physiologic networks and some dynamic models capable of generating such scaling are reviewed. These models include simple and fractional random walks, which describe how the scaling of correlation functions and probability densities are related to time series data. Subsequently, it is suggested that a proper methodology for describing the dynamics of fractal time series may well be the fractional calculus, either through the fractional Langevin equation or the fractional diffusion equation. A fractional operator (derivative or integral) acting on a fractal function, yields another fractal function, allowing us to construct a fractional Langevin equation to describe the evolution of a

7. Fractal physiology and the fractional calculus: a perspective.

PubMed

West, Bruce J

2010-01-01

This paper presents a restricted overview of Fractal Physiology focusing on the complexity of the human body and the characterization of that complexity through fractal measures and their dynamics, with fractal dynamics being described by the fractional calculus. Not only are anatomical structures (Grizzi and Chiriva-Internati, 2005), such as the convoluted surface of the brain, the lining of the bowel, neural networks and placenta, fractal, but the output of dynamical physiologic networks are fractal as well (Bassingthwaighte et al., 1994). The time series for the inter-beat intervals of the heart, inter-breath intervals and inter-stride intervals have all been shown to be fractal and/or multifractal statistical phenomena. Consequently, the fractal dimension turns out to be a significantly better indicator of organismic functions in health and disease than the traditional average measures, such as heart rate, breathing rate, and stride rate. The observation that human physiology is primarily fractal was first made in the 1980s, based on the analysis of a limited number of datasets. We review some of these phenomena herein by applying an allometric aggregation approach to the processing of physiologic time series. This straight forward method establishes the scaling behavior of complex physiologic networks and some dynamic models capable of generating such scaling are reviewed. These models include simple and fractional random walks, which describe how the scaling of correlation functions and probability densities are related to time series data. Subsequently, it is suggested that a proper methodology for describing the dynamics of fractal time series may well be the fractional calculus, either through the fractional Langevin equation or the fractional diffusion equation. A fractional operator (derivative or integral) acting on a fractal function, yields another fractal function, allowing us to construct a fractional Langevin equation to describe the evolution of a

8. Elasticity of fractal materials using the continuum model with non-integer dimensional space

Tarasov, Vasily E.

2015-01-01

Using a generalization of vector calculus for space with non-integer dimension, we consider elastic properties of fractal materials. Fractal materials are described by continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. A generalization of elasticity equations for non-integer dimensional space, and its solutions for the equilibrium case of fractal materials are suggested. Elasticity problems for fractal hollow ball and cylindrical fractal elastic pipe with inside and outside pressures, for rotating cylindrical fractal pipe, for gradient elasticity and thermoelasticity of fractal materials are solved.

9. Coevolutionary extremal dynamics on gasket fractal

Lee, Kyoung Eun; Sung, Joo Yup; Cha, Moon-Yong; Maeng, Seong Eun; Bang, Yu Sik; Lee, Jae Woo

2009-11-01

We considered a Bak-Sneppen model on a Sierpinski gasket fractal. We calculated the avalanche size distribution and the distribution of distances between subsequent minimal sites. To observe the temporal correlations of the avalanche, we estimated the return time distribution, the first-return time, and the all-return time distribution. The avalanche size distribution follows the power law, P(s)∼s, with the exponent τ=1.004(7). The distribution of jumping sites also follows the power law, P(r)∼r, with the critical exponent π=4.12(4). We observe the periodic oscillation of the distribution of the jumping distances which originated from the jumps of the level when the minimal site crosses the stage of the fractal. The first-return time distribution shows the power law, P(t)∼t, with the critical exponent τ=1.418(7). The all-return time distribution is also characterized by the power law, P(t)∼t, with the exponent τ=0.522(4). The exponents of the return time satisfy the scaling relation τ+τ=2 for τ⩽2.

10. Light scattering by a reentrant fractal surface.

PubMed

Mendoza-Suárez, A; Méndez, E R

1997-05-20

Recently, rigorous numerical techniques for treating light scattering problems with one-dimensional rough surfaces have been developed. In their usual formulation, these techniques are based on the solution of two coupled integral equations and are applicable only to surfaces whose profiles can be described by single-valued functions of a coordinate in the mean plane of the surface. In this paper we extend the applicability of the integral equation method to surfaces with multivalued profiles. A procedure for finding a parametric description of a given profile is described, and the scattering equations are established within the framework of this formalism. We then present some results of light scattering from a sequence of one-dimensional flat surfaces with defects in the form of triadic Koch curves. Beyond a certain order of the prefractal, the scattering patterns become stationary (within the numerical accuracy of the method). It can then be argued that the results obtained correspond to a surface with a fractal structure. These constitute, to our knowledge, the first rigorous calculations of light scattering from a reentrant fractal surface. PMID:18253371

11. Single cell correlation fractal dimension of chromatin

PubMed Central

Récamier, Vincent; Izeddin, Ignacio; Bosanac, Lana; Dahan, Maxime; Proux, Florence; Darzacq, Xavier

2014-01-01

Chromatin is a major nuclear component, and it is an active matter of debate to understand its different levels of spatial organization, as well as its implication in gene regulation. Measurements of nuclear chromatin compaction were recently used to understand how DNA is folded inside the nucleus and to detect cellular dysfunctions such as cancer. Super-resolution imaging opens new possibilities to measure chromatin organization in situ. Here, we performed a direct measure of chromatin compaction at the single cell level. We used histone H2B, one of the 4 core histone proteins forming the nucleosome, as a chromatin density marker. Using photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) and adaptive optics, we measured the three-dimensional distribution of H2B with nanometric resolution. We computed the distribution of distances between every two points of the chromatin structure, namely the Ripley K(r) distribution. We found that the K(r) distribution of H2B followed a power law, leading to a precise measurement of the correlation fractal dimension of chromatin of 2.7. Moreover, using photoactivable GFP fused to H2B, we observed dynamic evolution of chromatin sub-regions compaction. As a result, the correlation fractal dimension of chromatin reported here can be interpreted as a dynamically maintained non-equilibrium state. PMID:24637833

12. Duality in physiological time: Euclidean and fractal.

PubMed

1996-01-01

The aim of the present study was to differentiate two modalities of intrinsic time scales: i- the geometric or Euclidean modality, which is based on the constant speed of mass transport or of wave transmission in cylindrical structures (arteries, veins, nerves), whose allometric exponent (TE = aMb) is b = 0.33, where M is body mass (kg) and a the mass coefficient; ii- the fractal time scale (TF), which is characteristic of organs with self-similar branching structures and with volume-specific flows, whose allometric exponent is b = 0.25. The proposed dichotomy could be confirmed by means of the statistical analysis of empirical allometric exponents (b). Our findings demonstrate the need to separate the chronology of bulk transport at long distances (inter-organic) which follows an Euclidean geometry (cylinders), from the fractal time scale, which operates at short distances (intra-organic) and is represented by a self-similar branching system which determines both the morphometric and physiometric characteristics within each organ. PMID:9278701

13. Fractal avalanche ruptures in biological membranes

Gözen, Irep; Dommersnes, Paul; Czolkos, Ilja; Jesorka, Aldo; Lobovkina, Tatsiana; Orwar, Owe

2010-11-01

Bilayer membranes envelope cells as well as organelles, and constitute the most ubiquitous biological material found in all branches of the phylogenetic tree. Cell membrane rupture is an important biological process, and substantial rupture rates are found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells under a mechanical load. Rupture can also be induced by processes such as cell death, and active cell membrane repair mechanisms are essential to preserve cell integrity. Pore formation in cell membranes is also at the heart of many biomedical applications such as in drug, gene and short interfering RNA delivery. Membrane rupture dynamics has been studied in bilayer vesicles under tensile stress, which consistently produce circular pores. We observed very different rupture mechanics in bilayer membranes spreading on solid supports: in one instance fingering instabilities were seen resulting in floral-like pores and in another, the rupture proceeded in a series of rapid avalanches causing fractal membrane fragmentation. The intermittent character of rupture evolution and the broad distribution in avalanche sizes is consistent with crackling-noise dynamics. Such noisy dynamics appear in fracture of solid disordered materials, in dislocation avalanches in plastic deformations and domain wall magnetization avalanches. We also observed similar fractal rupture mechanics in spreading cell membranes.

14. Estimating fractal dimension of medical images

Penn, Alan I.; Loew, Murray H.

1996-04-01

Box counting (BC) is widely used to estimate the fractal dimension (fd) of medical images on the basis of a finite set of pixel data. The fd is then used as a feature to discriminate between healthy and unhealthy conditions. We show that BC is ineffective when used on small data sets and give examples of published studies in which researchers have obtained contradictory and flawed results by using BC to estimate the fd of data-limited medical images. We present a new method for estimating fd of data-limited medical images. In the new method, fractal interpolation functions (FIFs) are used to generate self-affine models of the underlying image; each model, upon discretization, approximates the original data points. The fd of each FIF is analytically evaluated. The mean of the fds of the FIFs is the estimate of the fd of the original data. The standard deviation of the fds of the FIFs is a confidence measure of the estimate. The goodness-of-fit of the discretized models to the original data is a measure of self-affinity of the original data. In a test case, the new method generated a stable estimate of fd of a rib edge in a standard chest x-ray; box counting failed to generate a meaningful estimate of the same image.

15. Simulation model of the fractal patterns in ionic conducting polymer films

Amir, Shahizat; Mohamed, Nor; Hashim Ali, Siti

2010-02-01

Normally polymer electrolyte membranes are prepared and studied for applications in electrochemical devices. In this work, polymer electrolyte membranes have been used as the media to culture fractals. In order to simulate the growth patterns and stages of the fractals, a model has been identified based on the Brownian motion theory. A computer coding has been developed for the model to simulate and visualize the fractal growth. This computer program has been successful in simulating the growth of the fractal and in calculating the fractal dimension of each of the simulated fractal patterns. The fractal dimensions of the simulated fractals are comparable with the values obtained in the original fractals observed in the polymer electrolyte membrane. This indicates that the model developed in the present work is within acceptable conformity with the original fractal.

16. How Fractal are Coastlines Really? Observation and Theory

Murray, A.; Barton, C. C.

2007-12-01

Rocky coastlines have been held up as a prime example of fractal geometry since Mandelbrot introduced the concept. However, we will present a map of the fractal dimensions measured for the contiguous United States coastline which shows that many open-ocean sand--and even rocky--coastlines have fractal dimensions close to one; i.e. they tend to not be very fractal. The fractal nature of rocky coastlines likely represents an inherited fluvial or glacial signature that tends to be erased by coastal processes. Recent theoretical and numerical-modeling developments indicate that wave-driven coastal processes on sandy shores tend to produce one-dimensional coastlines. Gradients in alongshore sediment flux tend to smooth a shoreline, as long as the local wave climate is dominated by 'low-angle' waves (waves that approach the coastline in deep water from angles, relative to the coastline orientation, that are lower than the sediment-flux- maximizing angle). Even when a regional wave climate is dominated by high-angle waves--which produce an instability in plan-view shoreline shape--on the large scale, coastlines self organize in a way that produces locally low-angle-dominated wave climates almost everywhere. These processes explain why wave-dominated sandy coastlines, such as the Carolina and Texas coasts, exhibit fractal dimensions barely above one; wave- driven alongshore transport is an anti-fractal landsculpting agent over a range of scales greater than 0.2 km. In contrast, fluvial landsculpting produces famously fractal topography. When rapid sea-level rise causes the approximately horizontal plane of sea level to intersect a fractal fluvial topography, a fractal coastline results. Where wave energy is low, relative to rock erodibility, the fluvial fractal signature can persist. However, on the rocky West Coast of the US, fractal dimensions are relatively low (1.1 - 1.2), suggesting modification by wave-driven processes; that the production and rearrangement of

17. ABC of multi-fractal spacetimes and fractional sea turtles

Calcagni, Gianluca

2016-04-01

We clarify what it means to have a spacetime fractal geometry in quantum gravity and show that its properties differ from those of usual fractals. A weak and a strong definition of multi-scale and multi-fractal spacetimes are given together with a sketch of the landscape of multi-scale theories of gravitation. Then, in the context of the fractional theory with q-derivatives, we explore the consequences of living in a multi-fractal spacetime. To illustrate the behavior of a non-relativistic body, we take the entertaining example of a sea turtle. We show that, when only the time direction is fractal, sea turtles swim at a faster speed than in an ordinary world, while they swim at a slower speed if only the spatial directions are fractal. The latter type of geometry is the one most commonly found in quantum gravity. For time-like fractals, relativistic objects can exceed the speed of light, but strongly so only if their size is smaller than the range of particle-physics interactions. We also find new results about log-oscillating measures, the measure presentation and their role in physical observations and in future extensions to nowhere-differentiable stochastic spacetimes.

18. Fractal frontiers in cardiovascular magnetic resonance: towards clinical implementation.

PubMed

Captur, Gabriella; Karperien, Audrey L; Li, Chunming; Zemrak, Filip; Tobon-Gomez, Catalina; Gao, Xuexin; Bluemke, David A; Elliott, Perry M; Petersen, Steffen E; Moon, James C

2015-01-01

Many of the structures and parameters that are detected, measured and reported in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) have at least some properties that are fractal, meaning complex and self-similar at different scales. To date however, there has been little use of fractal geometry in CMR; by comparison, many more applications of fractal analysis have been published in MR imaging of the brain.This review explains the fundamental principles of fractal geometry, places the fractal dimension into a meaningful context within the realms of Euclidean and topological space, and defines its role in digital image processing. It summarises the basic mathematics, highlights strengths and potential limitations of its application to biomedical imaging, shows key current examples and suggests a simple route for its successful clinical implementation by the CMR community.By simplifying some of the more abstract concepts of deterministic fractals, this review invites CMR scientists (clinicians, technologists, physicists) to experiment with fractal analysis as a means of developing the next generation of intelligent quantitative cardiac imaging tools. PMID:26346700

19. Fractal Analysis of Gas Diffusion in Porous Nanofibers

Xiao, Boqi; Fan, Jintu; Wang, Zongchi; Cai, Xin; Zhao, Xige

2015-02-01

In this study, with the consideration of pore size distribution and tortuosity of capillaries, the analytical model for gas diffusivity of porous nanofibers is derived based on fractal theory. The proposed fractal model for the normalized gas diffusivity (De/D0) is found to be a function of the porosity, the area fractal dimensions of pore and the fractal dimension of tortuous capillaries. It is found that the normalized gas diffusivity decreases with increasing of the tortuosity fractal dimension. However, the normalized gas diffusivity is positively correlated with the porosity. The prediction of the proposed fractal model for porous nanofibers with porosity less than 0.75 is highly consistent with the experimental and analytical results found in the literature. The model predictions are compared with the previously reported experimental data, and are in good agreement between the model predictions and experimental data is found. The validity of the present model is thus verified. Every parameter of the proposed formula of calculating the normalized gas diffusivity has clear physical meaning. The proposed fractal model can reveal the physical mechanisms of gas diffusion in porous nanofibers.

20. Comprehensive Fractal Description of Porosity of Coal of Different Ranks

PubMed Central

Ren, Jiangang; Zhang, Guocheng; Song, Zhimin; Liu, Gaofeng; Li, Bing

2014-01-01

We selected, as the objects of our research, lignite from the Beizao Mine, gas coal from the Caiyuan Mine, coking coal from the Xiqu Mine, and anthracite from the Guhanshan Mine. We used the mercury intrusion method and the low-temperature liquid nitrogen adsorption method to analyze the structure and shape of the coal pores and calculated the fractal dimensions of different aperture segments in the coal. The experimental results show that the fractal dimension of the aperture segment of lignite, gas coal, and coking coal with an aperture of greater than or equal to 10 nm, as well as the fractal dimension of the aperture segment of anthracite with an aperture of greater than or equal to 100 nm, can be calculated using the mercury intrusion method; the fractal dimension of the coal pore, with an aperture range between 2.03 nm and 361.14 nm, can be calculated using the liquid nitrogen adsorption method, of which the fractal dimensions bounded by apertures of 10 nm and 100 nm are different. Based on these findings, we defined and calculated the comprehensive fractal dimensions of the coal pores and achieved the unity of fractal dimensions for full apertures of coal pores, thereby facilitating, overall characterization for the heterogeneity of the coal pore structure. PMID:24955407

1. Fractal dimensions of rampart impact craters on Mars

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ching, Delwyn; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Mouginis-Mark, Peter; Bruno, Barbara C.

1993-01-01

Ejecta blanket morphologies of Martian rampart craters may yield important clues to the atmospheric densities during impact, and the nature of target materials (e.g., hard rock, fine-grained sediments, presence of volatiles). In general, the morphologies of such craters suggest emplacement by a fluidized, ground hugging flow instead of ballistic emplacement by dry ejecta. We have quantitatively characterized the shape of the margins of the ejecta blankets of 15 rampart craters using fractal geometry. Our preliminary results suggest that the craters are fractals and are self-similar over scales of approximately 0.1 km to 30 km. Fractal dimensions (a measure of the extent to which a line fills a plane) range from 1.06 to 1.31. No correlations of fractal dimension with target type, elevation, or crater size were observed, though the data base is small. The range in fractal dimension and lack of correlation may be due to a complex interplay of target properties (grain size, volatile content), atmospheric pressure, and crater size. The mere fact that the ejecta margins are fractals, however, indicates that viscosity and yield strength of the ejecta were at least as low as those of basalts, because silicic lava flows are not generally fractals.

2. Matched filtering method for separating magnetic anomaly using fractal model

Chen, Guoxiong; Cheng, Qiuming; Zhang, Henglei

2016-05-01

Fractal/scaling distribution of magnetization in the crust has found with growing body of evidences from spectral analysis of borehole susceptibility logs and magnetic field data, and fractal properties of magnetic sources have already been considered in processing magnetic data such as the Spector and Grant method for depth determination. In this study, the fractal-based matched filtering method is presented for separating magnetic anomalies caused by fractal sources. We argue the benefits of considering fractal natures of source distribution for data processing in magnetic exploration: the first is that the depth determination can be improved by using multiscaling model to interpret the magnetic data power spectrum; the second is that the matched filtering can be reconstructed by employing the difference in scaling exponent together with the corrected depth and amplitude estimates. In the application of synthetic data obtained from fractal modeling and real aeromagnetic data from the Qikou district of China, the proposed fractal-based matched filtering method obtains more reliable depth estimations as well as improved separation between local anomalies (caused by volcanic rocks) and regional field (crystalline basement) in comparison with the conventional matched filtering method.

3. Fractal properties of lysozyme: a neutron scattering study.

PubMed

Lushnikov, S G; Svanidze, A V; Gvasaliya, S N; Torok, G; Rosta, L; Sashin, I L

2009-03-01

The spatial structure and dynamics of hen egg white lysozyme have been investigated by small-angle and inelastic neutron scattering. Analysis of the results was carried using the fractal approach, which allowed determination of the fractal and fracton dimensions of lysozyme, i.e., consideration of the protein structure and dynamics by using a unified approach. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of thermal denaturation of lysozyme have revealed changes in the fractal dimension in the vicinity of the thermal denaturation temperature that reflect changes in the spatial organization of protein. PMID:19391977

4. Gravitation theory in a fractal space-time

SciTech Connect

Agop, M.; Gottlieb, I.

2006-05-15

Assimilating the physical space-time with a fractal, a general theory is built. For a fractal dimension D=2, the virtual geodesics of this space-time implies a generalized Schroedinger type equation. Subsequently, a geometric formulation of the gravitation theory on a fractal space-time is given. Then, a connection is introduced on a tangent bundle, the connection coefficients, the Riemann curvature tensor and the Einstein field equation are calculated. It results, by means of a dilation operator, the equivalence of this model with quantum Einstein gravity.

5. Multi-Scale Fractal Analysis of Image Texture and Pattern

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emerson, Charles W.

1998-01-01

Fractals embody important ideas of self-similarity, in which the spatial behavior or appearance of a system is largely independent of scale. Self-similarity is defined as a property of curves or surfaces where each part is indistinguishable from the whole, or where the form of the curve or surface is invariant with respect to scale. An ideal fractal (or monofractal) curve or surface has a constant dimension over all scales, although it may not be an integer value. This is in contrast to Euclidean or topological dimensions, where discrete one, two, and three dimensions describe curves, planes, and volumes. Theoretically, if the digital numbers of a remotely sensed image resemble an ideal fractal surface, then due to the self-similarity property, the fractal dimension of the image will not vary with scale and resolution. However, most geographical phenomena are not strictly self-similar at all scales, but they can often be modeled by a stochastic fractal in which the scaling and self-similarity properties of the fractal have inexact patterns that can be described by statistics. Stochastic fractal sets relax the monofractal self-similarity assumption and measure many scales and resolutions in order to represent the varying form of a phenomenon as a function of local variables across space. In image interpretation, pattern is defined as the overall spatial form of related features, and the repetition of certain forms is a characteristic pattern found in many cultural objects and some natural features. Texture is the visual impression of coarseness or smoothness caused by the variability or uniformity of image tone or color. A potential use of fractals concerns the analysis of image texture. In these situations it is commonly observed that the degree of roughness or inexactness in an image or surface is a function of scale and not of experimental technique. The fractal dimension of remote sensing data could yield quantitative insight on the spatial complexity and

6. Fractal Analysis of Stress Sensitivity of Permeability in Porous Media

Tan, Xiao-Hua; Li, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Jian-Yi; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Cai, Jianchao

2015-12-01

A permeability model for porous media considering the stress sensitivity is derived based on mechanics of materials and the fractal characteristics of solid cluster size distribution. The permeability of porous media considering the stress sensitivity is related to solid cluster fractal dimension, solid cluster fractal tortuosity dimension, solid cluster minimum diameter and solid cluster maximum diameter, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, as well as power index. Every parameter has clear physical meaning without the use of empirical constants. The model predictions of permeability show good agreement with those obtained by the available experimental expression. The proposed model may be conducible to a better understanding of the mechanism for flow in elastic porous media.

7. Fractal dimension of cerebral surfaces using magnetic resonance images

SciTech Connect

1988-11-01

The calculation of the fractal dimension of the surface bounded by the grey matter in the normal human brain using axial, sagittal, and coronal cross-sectional magnetic resonance (MR) images is presented. The fractal dimension in this case is a measure of the convolutedness of this cerebral surface. It is proposed that the fractal dimension, a feature that may be extracted from MR images, may potentially be used for image analysis, quantitative tissue characterization, and as a feature to monitor and identify cerebral abnormalities and developmental changes.

8. Lattice animals, fractality and criticality in hadronic and partonic systems

Moretto, L. G.; Elliot, J. B.; Lake, P. T.; Phair, L.

2011-01-01

The cluster description of near coexistence phases (e.g. Fisher theory) requires an evaluation of cluster surface entropy. This surface degeneracy can be estimated with lattice models where clusters appear. The maximum probability lies near the maximum cluster surface. At low temperatures, clusters are forced to be nearly spherical by the surface energy and the associated Boltzmann factor. At higher temperatures and near criticality, the fractal dimension of clusters changes so that clusters become fractal. In the MIT bag model, where there is no surface energy, bags are always fractal.

9. The chaotic atom model via a fractal approximation of motion

Agop, M.; Nica, P.; Gurlui, S.; Focsa, C.; Magop, D.; Borsos, Z.

2011-10-01

A new model of the atom is built based on a complete and detailed nonlinear dynamics analysis (complete time series, Poincaré sections, complete phase space, Lyapunov exponents, bifurcation diagrams and fractal analysis), through the correlation of the chaotic-stochastic model with a fractal one. Some specific mechanisms that ensure the atom functionality are proposed: gun, chaotic gun and multi-gun effects for the excited states (the classical analogue of quantum absorption) and the fractalization of the trajectories for the stationary states (a natural way of introducing the quantification).

10. The use of fractal dimension for texture classification

SciTech Connect

Dixon, K.E.

1989-04-01

This paper addresses the idea of using fractal dimension as a measure of image texture. The computation of the fractal dimension of a grey-scale image and also of the ''fractal signature'' of the image is presented. Two methods of scanning the image for these calculations are introduced: a line scan and a window scan. Several subsets of features extracted from the calculations are investigated as features for classification of the texture. Results from various classification experiments are presented. 5 refs., 8 tabs.

11. Fractal Globules: A New Approach to Artificial Molecular Machines

PubMed Central

Avetisov, Vladik A.; Ivanov, Viktor A.; Meshkov, Dmitry A.; Nechaev, Sergei K.

2014-01-01

The over-damped relaxation of elastic networks constructed by contact maps of hierarchically folded fractal (crumpled) polymer globules was investigated in detail. It was found that the relaxation dynamics of an anisotropic fractal globule is very similar to the behavior of biological molecular machines like motor proteins. When it is perturbed, the system quickly relaxes to a low-dimensional manifold, M, with a large basin of attraction and then slowly approaches equilibrium, not escaping M. Taking these properties into account, it is suggested that fractal globules, even those made by synthetic polymers, are artificial molecular machines that can transform perturbations into directed quasimechanical motion along a defined path. PMID:25418305

12. Anisotropic linear elastic properties of fractal-like composites.

PubMed

Carpinteri, Alberto; Cornetti, Pietro; Pugno, Nicola; Sapora, Alberto

2010-11-01

In this work, the anisotropic linear elastic properties of two-phase composite materials, made up of square inclusions embedded in a matrix, are investigated. The inclusions present a fractal hierarchical distribution and are supposed to have the same Poisson's ratio as the matrix but a different Young's modulus. The effective elastic moduli of the medium are computed at each fractal iteration by coupling a position-space renormalization-group technique with a finite element analysis. The study allows to obtain and generalize some fundamental properties of fractal composite materials. PMID:21230552

13. Fractal globules: a new approach to artificial molecular machines.

PubMed

Avetisov, Vladik A; Ivanov, Viktor A; Meshkov, Dmitry A; Nechaev, Sergei K

2014-11-18

The over-damped relaxation of elastic networks constructed by contact maps of hierarchically folded fractal (crumpled) polymer globules was investigated in detail. It was found that the relaxation dynamics of an anisotropic fractal globule is very similar to the behavior of biological molecular machines like motor proteins. When it is perturbed, the system quickly relaxes to a low-dimensional manifold, M, with a large basin of attraction and then slowly approaches equilibrium, not escaping M. Taking these properties into account, it is suggested that fractal globules, even those made by synthetic polymers, are artificial molecular machines that can transform perturbations into directed quasimechanical motion along a defined path. PMID:25418305

14. Fractal scattering dynamics of the three-dimensional HOCl molecule

Lin, Yi-Der; Barr, Alex M.; Reichl, L. E.; Jung, Christof

2013-01-01

We compare the 2D and 3D classical fractal scattering dynamics of Cl and HO for energies just above dissociation of the HOCl molecule, using a realistic potential energy surface for the HOCl molecule and techniques developed to analyze 3D chaotic scattering processes. For parameter regimes where the HO dimer initially has small vibrational energy, only small intervals of initial conditions show fractal scattering behavior and the scattering process is well described by a 2D model. For parameter regimes where the HO dimer initially has large vibrational energy, the scattering process is fully 3D and is dominated by fractal behavior.

15. Fractal aspects and convergence of Newtons method

SciTech Connect

Drexler, M.

1996-12-31

Newtons Method is a widely established iterative algorithm for solving non-linear systems. Its appeal lies in its great simplicity, easy generalization to multiple dimensions and a quadratic local convergence rate. Despite these features, little is known about its global behavior. In this paper, we will explain a seemingly random global convergence pattern using fractal concepts and show that the behavior of the residual is entirely explicable. We will also establish quantitative results for the convergence rates. Knowing the mechanism of fractal generation, we present a stabilization to the orthodox Newton method that remedies the fractal behavior and improves convergence.

16. Fractal atomic-level percolation in metallic glasses.

PubMed

Chen, David Z; Shi, Crystal Y; An, Qi; Zeng, Qiaoshi; Mao, Wendy L; Goddard, William A; Greer, Julia R

2015-09-18

Metallic glasses are metallic alloys that exhibit exotic material properties. They may have fractal structures at the atomic level, but a physical mechanism for their organization without ordering has not been identified. We demonstrated a crossover between fractal short-range (<2 atomic diameters) and homogeneous long-range structures using in situ x-ray diffraction, tomography, and molecular dynamics simulations. A specific class of fractal, the percolation cluster, explains the structural details for several metallic-glass compositions. We postulate that atoms percolate in the liquid phase and that the percolating cluster becomes rigid at the glass transition temperature. PMID:26383945

17. Process for applying control variables having fractal structures

DOEpatents

Bullock, IV, Jonathan S.; Lawson, Roger L.

1996-01-01

A process and apparatus for the application of a control variable having a fractal structure to a body or process. The process of the present invention comprises the steps of generating a control variable having a fractal structure and applying the control variable to a body or process reacting in accordance with the control variable. The process is applicable to electroforming where first, second and successive pulsed-currents are applied to cause the deposition of material onto a substrate, such that the first pulsed-current, the second pulsed-current, and successive pulsed currents form a fractal pulsed-current waveform.

18. Process for applying control variables having fractal structures

DOEpatents

Bullock, J.S. IV; Lawson, R.L.

1996-01-23

A process and apparatus are disclosed for the application of a control variable having a fractal structure to a body or process. The process of the present invention comprises the steps of generating a control variable having a fractal structure and applying the control variable to a body or process reacting in accordance with the control variable. The process is applicable to electroforming where first, second and successive pulsed-currents are applied to cause the deposition of material onto a substrate, such that the first pulsed-current, the second pulsed-current, and successive pulsed currents form a fractal pulsed-current waveform. 3 figs.

19. Gallery of Chaotic Attractors Generated by Fractal Network

Bouallegue, Kais

During the last decade, fractal processes and chaotic systems were widely studied in many areas of research. Chaotic systems are highly dependent on initial conditions. Small changes in initial conditions can generate widely diverging or converging outcomes for both bifurcation or attraction in chaotic systems. In this work, we present a new method on how to generate a new family of chaotic attractors by combining these with a network of fractal processes. The proposed approach in this article is based upon the construction of a new system of fractal processes.

20. A fractal model of the Universe

Gottlieb, Ioan

The book represents a revisioned, extended, completed and translated version of the book "Superposed Universes. A scientific novel and a SF story" (1995). The book contains a hypothesis by the author concerning the complexity of the Nature. An introduction to the theories of numbers, manyfolds and topology is given. The possible connection with the theory of evolution of the Universe is discussed. The book contains also in the last chapter a SF story based on the hypothesis presented. A connection with fractals theory is given. A part of his earlier studies (1955-1956) were subsequently published without citation by Ali Kyrala (Phys. Rev. vol.117, No.5, march 1, 1960). The book contains as an important appendix the early papers (some of which are published in the coauthoprship with his scientific advisors): 1) T.T. Vescan, A. Weiszmann and I.Gottlieb, Contributii la studiul problemelor geometrice ale teoriei relativitatii restranse. Academia R.P.R. Baza Timisoara. Lucrarile consfatuirii de geometrie diferentiala din 9-12 iunie 1955. In this paper the authors show a new method of the calculation of the metrics. 2) Jean Gottlieb, L'hyphotese d'un modele de la structure de la matiere, Revista Matematica y Fisica Teorica, Serie A, Volumen XY, No.1, y.2, 1964 3) I. Gottlieb, Some hypotheses on space, time and gravitation, Studies in Gravitation Theory, CIP Press, Bucharest, 1988, pp.227-234 as well as some recent papers (published in the coauthorship with his disciples): 4)M. Agop, Gottlieb speace-time. A fractal axiomatic model of the Universe. in Particles and Fields, Editors: M.Agop and P.D. Ioannou, Athens University Press, 2005, pp. 59-141 5) I. Gottlieb, M.Agop and V.Enache, Games with Cantor's dust. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, vol.40 (2009) pp. 940-945 6) I. Gottlieb, My picture over the World, Bull. of the Polytechnic Institute of Iasi. Tom LVI)LX, Fasc. 1, 2010, pp. 1-18. The book contains also a dedication to father Vasile Gottlieb and wife Cleopatra

1. Stochastic and fractal analysis of fracture trajectories

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bessendorf, Michael H.

1987-01-01

Analyses of fracture trajectories are used to investigate structures that fall between 'micro' and 'macro' scales. It was shown that fracture trajectories belong to the class of nonstationary processes. It was also found that correlation distance, which may be related to a characteristic size of a fracture process, increases with crack length. An assemblage of crack trajectory processes may be considered as a diffusive process. Chudnovsky (1981-1985) introduced a 'crack diffusion coefficient' d which reflects the ability of the material to deviate the crack trajectory from the most energetically efficient path and thus links the material toughness to its structure. For the set of fracture trajectories in AISI 304 steel, d was found to be equal to 1.04 microns. The fractal dimension D for the same set of trajectories was found to be 1.133.

2. Fractal fluctuations in cardiac time series

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

West, B. J.; Zhang, R.; Sanders, A. W.; Miniyar, S.; Zuckerman, J. H.; Levine, B. D.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

1999-01-01

Human heart rate, controlled by complex feedback mechanisms, is a vital index of systematic circulation. However, it has been shown that beat-to-beat values of heart rate fluctuate continually over a wide range of time scales. Herein we use the relative dispersion, the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean, to show, by systematically aggregating the data, that the correlation in the beat-to-beat cardiac time series is a modulated inverse power law. This scaling property indicates the existence of long-time memory in the underlying cardiac control process and supports the conclusion that heart rate variability is a temporal fractal. We argue that the cardiac control system has allometric properties that enable it to respond to a dynamical environment through scaling.

3. Fractal Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stepinski, T. F.; Marinova, M. M.; McGovern, P. J.; Clifford, S. M.

2002-01-01

We used statistical properties of drainage networks on Mars as a measure of martian landscape morphology and an indicator of landscape evolution processes. We utilize the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to construct digital elevation maps (DEMs) of several, mostly ancient, martian terrains. Drainage basins and channel networks are computationally extracted from DEMs and their structures are analyzed and compared to drainage networks extracted from terrestrial and lunar DEMs. We show that martian networks are self-affine statistical fractals with planar properties similar to terrestrial networks, but vertical properties similar to lunar networks. The uniformity of martian drainage density is between those for terrestrial and lunar landscapes. Our results are consistent with the roughening of ancient martian terrains by combination of rainfall-fed erosion and impacts, although roughening by other fluvial processes cannot be excluded. The notion of sustained rainfall in recent Mars history is inconsistent with our findings.

4. Non-Homogeneous Fractal Hierarchical Weighted Networks

PubMed Central

Dong, Yujuan; Dai, Meifeng; Ye, Dandan

2015-01-01

A model of fractal hierarchical structures that share the property of non-homogeneous weighted networks is introduced. These networks can be completely and analytically characterized in terms of the involved parameters, i.e., the size of the original graph Nk and the non-homogeneous weight scaling factors r1, r2, · · · rM. We also study the average weighted shortest path (AWSP), the average degree and the average node strength, taking place on the non-homogeneous hierarchical weighted networks. Moreover the AWSP is scrupulously calculated. We show that the AWSP depends on the number of copies and the sum of all non-homogeneous weight scaling factors in the infinite network order limit. PMID:25849619

5. Fractal free energy landscapes in structural glasses.

PubMed

Charbonneau, Patrick; Kurchan, Jorge; Parisi, Giorgio; Urbani, Pierfrancesco; Zamponi, Francesco

2014-01-01

Glasses are amorphous solids whose constituent particles are caged by their neighbours and thus cannot flow. This sluggishness is often ascribed to the free energy landscape containing multiple minima (basins) separated by high barriers. Here we show, using theory and numerical simulation, that the landscape is much rougher than is classically assumed. Deep in the glass, it undergoes a 'roughness transition' to fractal basins, which brings about isostaticity and marginal stability on approaching jamming. Critical exponents for the basin width, the weak force distribution and the spatial spread of quasi-contacts near jamming can be analytically determined. Their value is found to be compatible with numerical observations. This advance incorporates the jamming transition of granular materials into the framework of glass theory. Because temperature and pressure control what features of the landscape are experienced, glass mechanics and transport are expected to reflect the features of the topology we discuss here. PMID:24759041

6. Fractal structure enables temporal prediction in music.

PubMed

Rankin, Summer K; Fink, Philip W; Large, Edward W

2014-10-01

1/f serial correlations and statistical self-similarity (fractal structure) have been measured in various dimensions of musical compositions. Musical performances also display 1/f properties in expressive tempo fluctuations, and listeners predict tempo changes when synchronizing. Here the authors show that the 1/f structure is sufficient for listeners to predict the onset times of upcoming musical events. These results reveal what information listeners use to anticipate events in complex, non-isochronous acoustic rhythms, and this will entail innovative models of temporal synchronization. This finding could improve therapies for Parkinson's and related disorders and inform deeper understanding of how endogenous neural rhythms anticipate events in complex, temporally structured communication signals. PMID:25324107

7. A fractal'' modification of Torricelli's formula

Maramathas, Athanasios J.; Boudouvis, Andreas G.

2010-03-01

A modification is proposed of Torricelli’s (1608-1647) formula for the velocity of water discharging from a small hole at the bottom of a large tank filled with fractal solid material. The new formula takes proper account of the mechanical energy losses due to flow in the solid matrix, thus expanding the area of validity of the classical Torricelli’s formula. Moreover, it offers a convenient alternative to Darcy’s law for estimating the discharge rate from an aquifer. The new formula was derived from laboratory experiments, with a low-Reynolds number discharge flow (Darcian flow). It was tested in a natural karst aquifer where the flow is non-Darcian, at Almiros spring on the island of Crete (Greece). In both cases, the predictive capability of the modified formula is established.

8. Fractal power law in literary English

Gonçalves, L. L.; Gonçalves, L. B.

2006-02-01

We present in this paper a numerical investigation of literary texts by various well-known English writers, covering the first half of the twentieth century, based upon the results obtained through corpus analysis of the texts. A fractal power law is obtained for the lexical wealth defined as the ratio between the number of different words and the total number of words of a given text. By considering as a signature of each author the exponent and the amplitude of the power law, and the standard deviation of the lexical wealth, it is possible to discriminate works of different genres and writers and show that each writer has a very distinct signature, either considered among other literary writers or compared with writers of non-literary texts. It is also shown that, for a given author, the signature is able to discriminate between short stories and novels.

9. Fractals and Forecasting in Earthquakes and Finance

Rundle, J. B.; Holliday, J. R.; Turcotte, D. L.

2011-12-01

It is now recognized that Benoit Mandelbrot's fractals play a critical role in describing a vast range of physical and social phenomena. Here we focus on two systems, earthquakes and finance. Since 1942, earthquakes have been characterized by the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relation, which in more recent times is often written as a moment-frequency power law. A similar relation can be shown to hold for financial markets. Moreover, a recent New York Times article, titled "A Richter Scale for the Markets" [1] summarized the emerging viewpoint that stock market crashes can be described with similar ideas as large and great earthquakes. The idea that stock market crashes can be related in any way to earthquake phenomena has its roots in Mandelbrot's 1963 work on speculative prices in commodities markets such as cotton [2]. He pointed out that Gaussian statistics did not account for the excessive number of booms and busts that characterize such markets. Here we show that both earthquakes and financial crashes can both be described by a common Landau-Ginzburg-type free energy model, involving the presence of a classical limit of stability, or spinodal. These metastable systems are characterized by fractal statistics near the spinodal. For earthquakes, the independent ("order") parameter is the slip deficit along a fault, whereas for the financial markets, it is financial leverage in place. For financial markets, asset values play the role of a free energy. In both systems, a common set of techniques can be used to compute the probabilities of future earthquakes or crashes. In the case of financial models, the probabilities are closely related to implied volatility, an important component of Black-Scholes models for stock valuations. [2] B. Mandelbrot, The variation of certain speculative prices, J. Business, 36, 294 (1963)

10. Vortex-ring-fractal Structure of Atom and Molecule

SciTech Connect

Osmera, Pavel

2010-06-17

This chapter is an attempt to attain a new and profound model of the nature's structure using a vortex-ring-fractal theory (VRFT). Scientists have been trying to explain some phenomena in Nature that have not been explained so far. The aim of this paper is the vortex-ring-fractal modeling of elements in the Mendeleev's periodic table, which is not in contradiction to the known laws of nature. We would like to find some acceptable structure model of the hydrogen as a vortex-fractal-coil structure of the proton and a vortex-fractal-ring structure of the electron. It is known that planetary model of the hydrogen atom is not right, the classical quantum model is too abstract. Our imagination is that the hydrogen is a levitation system of the proton and the electron. Structures of helium, oxygen, and carbon atoms and a hydrogen molecule are presented too.

11. Fractal templates in the escape dynamics of trapped ultracold atoms

SciTech Connect

Mitchell, Kevin A.; Steck, Daniel A.

2007-09-15

We consider the dynamic escape of a small packet of ultracold atoms launched from within an optical dipole trap. Based on a theoretical analysis of the underlying nonlinear dynamics, we predict that fractal behavior can be seen in experimental escape data. These data can be collected by measuring the time-dependent escape rate for packets launched over a range of angles. This fractal pattern is particularly well resolved below the Bose-Einstein transition temperature - a direct result of the extreme phase-space localization of the condensate. We predict that several self-similar layers of this novel fractal should be measurable, and we explain how this fractal pattern can be predicted and analyzed with recently developed techniques in symbolic dynamics.

12. Fractal analysis of permeability near the wall in porous media

Liang, Mingchao; Yu, Boming; Li, Li; Yang, Shanshan; Zou, Mingqing

2014-01-01

In this paper, a fractal model for permeability of porous media is proposed based on Tamayol and Bahrami's method and the fractal theory for porous media. The proposed model is expressed as a function of the mean particle diameter, the length along the macroscopic pressure drop in the medium, porosity, fractal dimensions for pore space and tortuous capillaries, and the ratio of the minimum pore size to the maximum pore size. The relationship between the permeability near the wall and the dimensionless distance from the wall under different conditions is discussed in detail. The predictions by the present fractal model are in good agreement with available experimental data. The present results indicate that the present model may have the potential in comprehensively understanding the mechanisms of flow near the wall in porous media.

13. Facilitated diffusion of proteins through crumpled fractal DNA globules

Smrek, Jan; Grosberg, Alexander Y.

2015-07-01

We explore how the specific fractal globule conformation, found for the chromatin fiber of higher eukaryotes and topologically constrained dense polymers, affects the facilitated diffusion of proteins in this environment. Using scaling arguments and supporting Monte Carlo simulations, we relate DNA looping probability distribution, fractal dimension, and protein nonspecific affinity for the DNA to the effective diffusion parameters of the proteins. We explicitly consider correlations between subsequent readsorption events of the proteins, and we find that facilitated diffusion is faster for the crumpled globule conformation with high intersegmental surface dimension than in the case of dense fractal conformations with smooth surfaces. As a byproduct, we obtain an expression for the macroscopic conductivity of a hypothetic material consisting of conducting fractal nanowires immersed in a weakly conducting medium.

14. Target tracking based on spatio-temporal fractal error

Allen, Brian S.

2007-04-01

This paper presents a novel approach to target tracking using a measurement process based on spatio-temporal fractal error. Moving targets are automatically detected using one-dimensional temporal fractal error. A template derived from the two-dimensional spatial fractal error is then extracted for a designated target to allow for correlation-based template matching in subsequent frames. The outputs of both the spatial and temporal fractal error components are combined and presented as input to a kinematic tracking filter. It is shown that combining the two outputs provides improved tracking performance in the presence of noise, occlusion, other moving objects, and when the target of interest stops moving. Furthermore, reconciliation of the spatial and temporal components also provides a useful mechanism for detecting occlusion and avoiding template drift, a problem typically present in correlation-based trackers. Results are demonstrated using airborne MWIR sequences from the DARPA VIVID dataset.

15. Fractal Particles: Titan's Thermal Structure and IR Opacity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

McKay, C. P.; Rannou, P.; Guez, L.; Young, E. F.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

Titan's haze particles are the principle opacity at solar wavelengths. Most past work in modeling these particles has assumed spherical particles. However, observational evidence strongly favors fractal shapes for the haze particles. We consider the implications of fractal particles for the thermal structure and near infrared opacity of Titan's atmosphere. We find that assuming fractal particles with the optical properties based on laboratory tholin material and with a production rate that allows for a match to the geometric albedo results in warmer troposphere and surface temperatures compared to spherical particles. In the near infrared (1-3 microns) the predicted opacity of the fractal particles is up to a factor of two less than for spherical particles. This has implications for the ability of Cassini to image Titan's surface at 1 micron.

16. Hands-On Fractals and the Unexpected in Mathematics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gluchoff, Alan

2006-01-01

This article describes a hands-on project in which unusual fractal images are produced using only a photocopy machine and office supplies. The resulting images are an example of the contraction mapping principle.

17. Evaluation of Two Fractal Methods for Magnetogram Image Analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stark, B.; Adams, M.; Hathaway, D. H.; Hagyard, M. J.

1997-01-01

Fractal and multifractal techniques have been applied to various types of solar data to study the fractal properties of sunspots as well as the distribution of photospheric magnetic fields and the role of random motions on the solar surface in this distribution. Other research includes the investigation of changes in the fractal dimension as an indicator for solar flares. Here we evaluate the efficacy of two methods for determining the fractal dimension of an image data set: the Differential Box Counting scheme and a new method, the Jaenisch scheme. To determine the sensitivity of the techniques to changes in image complexity, various types of constructed images are analyzed. In addition, we apply this method to solar magnetogram data from Marshall Space Flight Centers vector magnetograph.

18. FRACTAL DIMENSION RESULTS FOR CONTINUOUS TIME RANDOM WALKS

PubMed Central

Meerschaert, Mark M.; Nane, Erkan; Xiao, Yimin

2013-01-01

Continuous time random walks impose random waiting times between particle jumps. This paper computes the fractal dimensions of their process limits, which represent particle traces in anomalous diffusion. PMID:23482421

19. The Classification of HEp-2 Cell Patterns Using Fractal Descriptor.

PubMed

Xu, Rudan; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yang, Zhihao; Song, Bo; Hu, Xiaopeng

2015-07-01

Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) with HEp-2 cells is considered as a powerful, sensitive and comprehensive technique for analyzing antinuclear autoantibodies (ANAs). The automatic classification of the HEp-2 cell images from IIF has played an important role in diagnosis. Fractal dimension can be used on the analysis of image representing and also on the property quantification like texture complexity and spatial occupation. In this study, we apply the fractal theory in the application of HEp-2 cell staining pattern classification, utilizing fractal descriptor firstly in the HEp-2 cell pattern classification with the help of morphological descriptor and pixel difference descriptor. The method is applied to the data set of MIVIA and uses the support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Experimental results show that the fractal descriptor combining with morphological descriptor and pixel difference descriptor makes the precisions of six patterns more stable, all above 50%, achieving 67.17% overall accuracy at best with relatively simple feature vectors. PMID:26011888

20. Hyper-Fractal Analysis: A visual tool for estimating the fractal dimension of 4D objects

Grossu, I. V.; Grossu, I.; Felea, D.; Besliu, C.; Jipa, Al.; Esanu, T.; Bordeianu, C. C.; Stan, E.

2013-04-01

This work presents a new version of a Visual Basic 6.0 application for estimating the fractal dimension of images and 3D objects (Grossu et al. (2010) [1]). The program was extended for working with four-dimensional objects stored in comma separated values files. This might be of interest in biomedicine, for analyzing the evolution in time of three-dimensional images. New version program summaryProgram title: Hyper-Fractal Analysis (Fractal Analysis v03) Catalogue identifier: AEEG_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEG_v3_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 745761 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12544491 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MS Visual Basic 6.0 Computer: PC Operating system: MS Windows 98 or later RAM: 100M Classification: 14 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEEG_v2_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 831-832 Does the new version supersede the previous version? Yes Nature of problem: Estimating the fractal dimension of 4D images. Solution method: Optimized implementation of the 4D box-counting algorithm. Reasons for new version: Inspired by existing applications of 3D fractals in biomedicine [3], we extended the optimized version of the box-counting algorithm [1, 2] to the four-dimensional case. This might be of interest in analyzing the evolution in time of 3D images. The box-counting algorithm was extended in order to support 4D objects, stored in comma separated values files. A new form was added for generating 2D, 3D, and 4D test data. The application was tested on 4D objects with known dimension, e.g. the Sierpinski hypertetrahedron gasket, Df=ln(5)/ln(2) (Fig. 1). The algorithm could be extended, with minimum effort, to

1. Beautiful math, part 2: aesthetic patterns based on fractal tilings.

PubMed

Peichang Ouyang; Fathauer, Robert W

2014-01-01

A fractal tiling (f-tiling) is a tiling whose boundary is fractal. This article presents two families of rare, infinitely many f-tilings. Each f-tiling is constructed by reducing tiles by a fixed scaling factor, using a single prototile, which is a segment of a regular polygon. The authors designed invariant mappings to automatically produce appealing seamless, colored patterns from such tilings. PMID:24808170

2. Fractal surface synthesis based on two dimensional discrete Fourier transform

Zhou, Chao; Gao, Chenghui; Huang, Jianmeng

2013-11-01

The discrete Fourier transform(DFT) is used for fractional Brownian motion(FBM) surface synthesis in tribology(i.e., contact, sliding, and sealing, etc). However, the relationship between fractal parameters(fractal dimension and scale factor) and traditional parameters, the influence of fractal parameters on surface appearance, have not been deeply discussed yet. These lead to some kind of difficulty to ensure the synthesized surfaces with ideal fractal characteristic, required traditional parameters and geometric appearance. A quantitative relationship between fractal parameters and the root mean square deviation of surface ( Sq) is derived based on the energy conservation property between the space and frequency domain of DFT. Under the stability assumption, the power spectrum of a FBM surface is composed of concentric circles strictly, a series of FBM surfaces with prescribed Sq could be synthesized with given fractal dimension, scale factor, and sampling numbers, but the ten-point height( Sz), the skewness( Ssk) and the kurtosis( Sku) are still in random, where the probability distributions of Sz and Ssk are approximately normal distribution. Furthermore, by iterative searching, a surface with desired Abbott-Firestone curve could be obtained among those surfaces. An intuitive explanation for the influence of fractal dimension and scale factor on surface appearance is obtained by discussing the effects on the ratio of energy between high and low frequency components. Based on the relationship between Sq and surface energy, a filtering method of surface with controllable Sq is proposed. The proposed research ensures the synthesized surfaces possess ideal FBM properties with prescribed Sq, offers a method for selecting desired Abbott-Firestone curve of synthesized fractal surfaces, and makes it possible to control the Sq of surfaces after filtering.

3. Fractal geometry of some Martian lava flow margins: Alba Patera

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kauhanen, K.

1993-01-01

Fractal dimension for a few lava flow margins on the gently sloping flanks of Alba Patera were measured using the structured walk method. Fractal behavior was observed at scales ranging from 20 to 100 pixels. The upper limit of the linear part of log(margin length) vs. log(scale) profile correlated well to the margin length. The lower limit depended on resolution and flow properties.

4. Dynamical features of reaction-diffusion fronts in fractals.

PubMed

Méndez, Vicenç; Campos, Daniel; Fort, Joaquim

2004-01-01

The speed of front propagation in fractals is studied by using (i) the reduction of the reaction-transport equation into a Hamilton-Jacobi equation and (ii) the local-equilibrium approach. Different equations proposed for describing transport in fractal media, together with logistic reaction kinetics, are considered. Finally, we analyze the main features of wave fronts resulting from this dynamic process, i.e., why they are accelerated and what is the exact form of this acceleration. PMID:14995742

5. Surface fractal dimension of sintered porous solid niobium

Skatkov, L. I.; Konotop, V. V.; Cheremskoy, P. G.; Gomozov, V. P.; Bayrachny, B. I.

1994-12-01

The surface fractal dimension of porous solid niobium obtained by vacuum sintering Nb powder is experimentally investigated. The surface fractal dimension D is the main object of our study. Results of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) agree very closely with those of Hg porosimetry. The surface dimensions are stated to be of the order of 2.8 which is a stipulation of a highly developed porous structure. Our results provide experimental support to the SAXS theory developed earlier.

6. Superficial lightning injuries--their "fractal" shape and origin.

PubMed

ten Duis, H J; Klasen, H J; Nijsten, M W; Pietronero, L

1987-04-01

The origin of superficial lightning burns was studied. A recently developed mathematical model was invoked to identify fern-shaped burns as 'so-called' fractals. On the basis of this model and discharge experiments, we conclude that 'fractal burns' are caused by surface discharges of a positive polarity. The recognition of such burns can help to elucidate the type and mechanism of the lightning strike. PMID:3580938

7. Experimental control of scaling behavior: what is not fractal?

PubMed

Likens, Aaron D; Fine, Justin M; Amazeen, Eric L; Amazeen, Polemnia G

2015-10-01

The list of psychological processes thought to exhibit fractal behavior is growing. Although some might argue that the seeming ubiquity of fractal patterns illustrates their significance, unchecked growth of that list jeopardizes their relevance. It is important to identify when a single behavior is and is not fractal in order to make meaningful conclusions about the processes underlying those patterns. The hypothesis tested in the present experiment is that fractal patterns reflect the enactment of control. Participants performed two steering tasks: steering on a straight track and steering on a circular track. Although each task could be accomplished by holding the steering wheel at a constant angle, steering around a curve may require more constant control, at least from a psychological standpoint. Results showed that evidence for fractal behavior was strongest for the circular track; straight tracks showed evidence of two scaling regions. We argue from those results that, going forward, the goal of the fractal literature should be to bring scaling behavior under experimental control. PMID:26070902

8. Intrinsic half-metallicity in fractal carbon nitride honeycomb lattices.

PubMed

Wang, Aizhu; Zhao, Mingwen

2015-09-14

Fractals are natural phenomena that exhibit a repeating pattern "exactly the same at every scale or nearly the same at different scales". Defect-free molecular fractals were assembled successfully in a recent work [Shang et al., Nature Chem., 2015, 7, 389-393]. Here, we adopted the feature of a repeating pattern in searching two-dimensional (2D) materials with intrinsic half-metallicity and high stability that are desirable for spintronics applications. Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the electronic properties of fractal frameworks of carbon nitrides have stable ferromagnetism accompanied by half-metallicity, which are highly dependent on the fractal structure. The ferromagnetism increases gradually with the increase of fractal order. The Curie temperature of these metal-free systems estimated from Monte Carlo simulations is considerably higher than room temperature. The stable ferromagnetism, intrinsic half-metallicity, and fractal characteristics of spin distribution in the carbon nitride frameworks open an avenue for the design of metal-free magnetic materials with exotic properties. PMID:26105981

9. Exploring the relationship between fractal features and bacterial essential genes

Yong-Ming, Yu; Li-Cai, Yang; Qian, Zhou; Lu-Lu, Zhao; Zhi-Ping, Liu

2016-06-01

Essential genes are indispensable for the survival of an organism in optimal conditions. Rapid and accurate identifications of new essential genes are of great theoretical and practical significance. Exploring features with predictive power is fundamental for this. Here, we calculate six fractal features from primary gene and protein sequences and then explore their relationship with gene essentiality by statistical analysis and machine learning-based methods. The models are applied to all the currently available identified genes in 27 bacteria from the database of essential genes (DEG). It is found that the fractal features of essential genes generally differ from those of non-essential genes. The fractal features are used to ascertain the parameters of two machine learning classifiers: Naïve Bayes and Random Forest. The area under the curve (AUC) of both classifiers show that each fractal feature is satisfactorily discriminative between essential genes and non-essential genes individually. And, although significant correlations exist among fractal features, gene essentiality can also be reliably predicted by various combinations of them. Thus, the fractal features analyzed in our study can be used not only to construct a good essentiality classifier alone, but also to be significant contributors for computational tools identifying essential genes. Project supported by the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. ZR2014FM022).

10. Fractal Plate Reconstructions, Incorporating Asymmetric Spreading and Kinematics

Pilger, R.

2011-12-01

Accretionary plate boundaries - spreading centers and associated transform faults - possess fractal structure like coastlines. Their apparent length demonstrates self-similarity over a range of scales, maximizing multiplicity (entropy) in a recursive chaotic process. Further, optimal, combined oceanic plate reconstructions, incorporating asymmetric accretion over a range of ages produce fractal structure. The minimum fractal configuration as a function of the reconstruction parameters approximates the Lagrangian constraint (the information) in the maximum entropy formalism. The optimal fractal spectrum itself represents maximum entropy of the reconstructed data describing the spreading center for the preferred rotation parameters. Because fractals are intrinsically discontinuous (and analytic derivatives are unavailable), conventional non-linear least squares approaches are inapplicable. Instead, derivative-free, iterative conjugate gradient and simplex algorithms are utilized. In order to allow for kinematic calculations and integrated reconstructions of diverse data ages, parameters are spline-interpolated, rate-normalized, pseudo-vectors. The new formalism provides a unique fitting criterion and algorithm for simultaneous plate and spreading-center reconstruction and kinematics. It also provides a fractal template for reconstructions of other tectonic types.

11. Fractal continuum model for tracer transport in a porous medium.

PubMed

2013-12-01

A model based on the fractal continuum approach is proposed to describe tracer transport in fractal porous media. The original approach has been extended to treat tracer transport and to include systems with radial and uniform flow, which are cases of interest in geoscience. The models involve advection due to the fluid motion in the fractal continuum and dispersion whose mathematical expression is taken from percolation theory. The resulting advective-dispersive equations are numerically solved for continuous and for pulse tracer injection. The tracer profile and the tracer breakthrough curve are evaluated and analyzed in terms of the fractal parameters. It has been found in this work that anomalous transport frequently appears, and a condition on the fractal parameter values to predict when sub- or superdiffusion might be expected has been obtained. The fingerprints of fractality on the tracer breakthrough curve in the explored parameter window consist of an early tracer breakthrough and long tail curves for the spherical and uniform flow cases, and symmetric short tailed curves for the radial flow case. PMID:24483554

12. Fractal Segmentation and Clustering Analysis for Seismic Time Slices

Ronquillo, G.; Oleschko, K.; Korvin, G.; Arizabalo, R. D.

2002-05-01

Fractal analysis has become part of the standard approach for quantifying texture on gray-tone or colored images. In this research we introduce a multi-stage fractal procedure to segment, classify and measure the clustering patterns on seismic time slices from a 3-D seismic survey. Five fractal classifiers (c1)-(c5) were designed to yield standardized, unbiased and precise measures of the clustering of seismic signals. The classifiers were tested on seismic time slices from the AKAL field, Cantarell Oil Complex, Mexico. The generalized lacunarity (c1), fractal signature (c2), heterogeneity (c3), rugosity of boundaries (c4) and continuity resp. tortuosity (c5) of the clusters are shown to be efficient measures of the time-space variability of seismic signals. The Local Fractal Analysis (LFA) of time slices has proved to be a powerful edge detection filter to detect and enhance linear features, like faults or buried meandering rivers. The local fractal dimensions of the time slices were also compared with the self-affinity dimensions of the corresponding parts of porosity-logs. It is speculated that the spectral dimension of the negative-amplitude parts of the time-slice yields a measure of connectivity between the formation's high-porosity zones, and correlates with overall permeability.

13. The fractal dimension of cell membrane correlates with its capacitance: A new fractal single-shell model

SciTech Connect

Wang Xujing; Becker, Frederick F.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.

2010-12-15

The scale-invariant property of the cytoplasmic membrane of biological cells is examined by applying the Minkowski-Bouligand method to digitized scanning electron microscopy images of the cell surface. The membrane is found to exhibit fractal behavior, and the derived fractal dimension gives a good description of its morphological complexity. Furthermore, we found that this fractal dimension correlates well with the specific membrane dielectric capacitance derived from the electrorotation measurements. Based on these findings, we propose a new fractal single-shell model to describe the dielectrics of mammalian cells, and compare it with the conventional single-shell model (SSM). We found that while both models fit with experimental data well, the new model is able to eliminate the discrepancy between the measured dielectric property of cells and that predicted by the SSM.

14. Fractal mapping of digitized images - Application to the topography of Arizona and comparisons with synthetic images

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Huang, J.; Turcotte, D. L.

1989-01-01

The concept of fractal mapping is introduced and applied to digitized topography of Arizona. It is shown that the fractal statistics satisfy the topography of the state to a good approximation. The fractal dimensions and roughness amplitudes from subregions are used to construct maps of these quantities. It is found that the fractal dimension of actual two-dimensional topography is not affected by the adding unity to the fractal dimension of one-dimensional topographic tracks. In addition, consideration is given to the production of fractal maps from synthetically derived topography.

15. Mercado/Robb/Buchdahl coefficients: an update of 243 common glasses

Bolser, Michael

2002-12-01

The 1983 Mercado/Robb listing of Buchdahl chromatic coordinate coefficients is supplemented with glasses from the Schott and O'Hara catalogues. The coefficients were calculated by using Buchdahl's cubic model. Appropriately selected materials yield a superachromat.

16. Persistent Fluctuations in Stride Intervals under Fractal Auditory Stimulation

PubMed Central

Marmelat, Vivien; Torre, Kjerstin; Beek, Peter J.; Daffertshofer, Andreas

2014-01-01

Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals. PMID:24651455

17. Persistent fluctuations in stride intervals under fractal auditory stimulation.

PubMed

Marmelat, Vivien; Torre, Kjerstin; Beek, Peter J; Daffertshofer, Andreas

2014-01-01

Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals. PMID:24651455

18. Fractal analysis: A new remote sensing tool for lava flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bruno, B. C.; Taylor, G. J.; Rowland, S. K.; Lucey, P. G.; Self, S.

1992-01-01

Many important quantitative parameters have been developed that relate to the rheology and eruption and emplacement mechanics of lavas. This research centers on developing additional, unique parameters, namely the fractal properties of lava flows, to add to this matrix of properties. There are several methods of calculating the fractal dimension of a lava flow margin. We use the 'structured walk' or 'divider' method. In this method, we measure the length of a given lava flow margin by walking rods of different lengths along the margin. Since smaller rod lengths transverse more smaller-scaled features in the flow margin, the apparent length of the flow outline will increase as the length of the measuring rod decreases. By plotting the apparent length of the flow outline as a function of the length of the measuring rod on a log-log plot, fractal behavior can be determined. A linear trend on a log-log plot indicates that the data are fractal. The fractal dimension can then be calculated from the slope of the linear least squares fit line to the data. We use this 'structured walk' method to calculate the fractal dimension of many lava flows using a wide range of rod lengths, from 1/8 to 16 meters, in field studies of the Hawaiian islands. We also use this method to calculate fractal dimensions from aerial photographs of lava flows, using lengths ranging from 20 meters to over 2 kilometers. Finally, we applied this method to orbital images of extraterrestrial lava flows on Venus, Mars, and the Moon, using rod lengths up to 60 kilometers.

19. Percolation experiments in complex fractal media

Redondo, Jose Manuel; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Cherubini, Claudia; Lopez Gzlez-Nieto, Pilar; Vila, Teresa

2013-04-01

Series of flow percolation experiments under gravity were performed in different glass model and real karstic media samples. We present a multifractal characterization of the experiments in several parametric non-dimensional flow descriptors. Using the maximum local multifractal dimension as an additional flow indicator. Also experiments on Non laminar flow and transport conditions in fractured and karstified media were performed at Bari. The investigation on hypothesis of non linear flow and non fickian transport in fractured aquifers led to a distinction on the different role of channels and microchannels and of the presence of vortices and eddy trapping. The dominance of the elongated channels produced early arrival times, with the solute traveling along the high velocity channel network. On the other hand in a lumped structured karstic media, the percolation flow produced long tails with local Eddy mixing, entrapment in eddies, and slow flow out of the eddies. In The laboratory experiments performed in Madrid and in DAMTP Cambridge the role of the initial pressure produced fractal pathway structures even in iniatilly uniform ballotini substrates.

20. Fractal and Euclidean descriptors of platelet shape.

PubMed

Kraus, Max-Joseph; Neeb, Heiko; Strasser, Erwin F

2014-01-01

Platelet shape change is a dynamic membrane surface process that exhibits remarkable morphological heterogeneity. Once the outline of an irregular shape is identified and segmented from a digital image, several mathematical descriptors can be applied to numerical characterize the irregularity of the shapes surface. 13072 platelet outlines (PLO) were segmented automatically from 1928 microscopic images using a newly developed algorithm for the software product Matlab R2012b. The fractal dimension (FD), circularity, eccentricity, area and perimeter of each PLO were determined. 972 PLO were randomly assigned for computer-assisted manual measurement of platelet diameter as well as number, width and length of filopodia per platelet. FD can be used as a surrogate parameter for determining the roughness of the PLO and circularity can be used as a surrogate to estimate the number and length of filopodia. The relationship between FD and perimeter of the PLO reveals the existence of distinct groups of platelets with significant structural differences which may be caused by platelet activation. This new method allows for the standardized continuous numerical classification of platelet shape and its dynamic change, which is useful for the analysis of altered platelet activity (e.g. inflammatory diseases, contact activation, drug testing). PMID:24224894

1. Modeling Hydrothermal Mineralization: Fractal or Multifrcatal Models?

Cheng, Q.

2004-05-01

Hydrothermal mineralization occurs when the natural geo-processes involve the interaction of ore material-carrying hydrothermal fluids with rocks in the earth's crust in a specific geological environment. Mineralization can cause element concentration enrichment or depletion in the country rocks. Local enrichment may form ore body that can be mined for profit at the current economic and technological conditions. To understand the spatial distribution of element concentration enrichment or depletion caused by mineralization in a mineral district is essential for mineral exploration and mineral prediction. Grade-tonnage model and mineral deposits size distribution model are common models used for characterizing mineral deposits. This paper proposes a non-linear mineralization model on the basis of a modified classical igneous differentiation mineralization model to describe the generation of multifractal distribution of element concentration in the country rocks as well as grade-tonnage fractal/multifractal distribution of ore deposits that have been often observed in hydrothermal mineralization. This work may also lead to a singularity model to explain the common properties of mineralization and mineralization-associated geochemical anomaly diversity and the generalized self-similarity of the anomalies. The model has been applied to a case study of mineral deposits prediction and mineral resource assessment in the Abitibi district, northern Ontario, Canada.

2. Analysis of Texture Using the Fractal Model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Navas, William; Espinosa, Ramon Vasquez

1997-01-01

Properties such as the fractal dimension (FD) can be used for feature extraction and classification of regions within an image. The FD measures the degree of roughness of a surface, so this number is used to characterize a particular region, in order to differentiate it from another. There are two basic approaches discussed in the literature to measure FD: the blanket method, and the box counting method. Both attempt to measure FD by estimating the change in surface area with respect to the change in resolution. We tested both methods but box counting resulted computationally faster and gave better results. Differential Box Counting (DBC) was used to segment a collage containing three textures. The FD is independent of directionality and brightness so five features were used derived from the original image to account for directionality and gray level biases. FD can not be measured on a point, so we use a window that slides across the image giving values of FD to the pixel on the center of the window. Windowing blurs the boundaries of adjacent classes, so an edge-preserving, feature-smoothing algorithm is used to improve classification within segments and to make the boundaries sharper. Segmentation using DBC was 90.8910 accurate.

3. Topographic and Roughness Characteristics of the Vastitas Borealis Formation on Mars Described by Fractal Statistics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Garneau, S.; Plaut, J. J.

2000-01-01

The surface roughness of the Vastitas Borealis Formation on Mars was analyzed with fractal statistics. Root mean square slopes and fractal dimensions were calculated for 74 topographic profiles. Results have implications for radar scattering models.

4. Hierarchical socioeconomic fractality: The rich, the poor, and the middle-class

Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.

2014-05-01

Since the seminal work of the Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto, the study of wealth and income has been a topic of active scientific exploration engaging researches ranging from economics and political science to econophysics and complex systems. This paper investigates the intrinsic fractality of wealth and income. To that end we introduce and characterize three forms of socioeconomic scale-invariance-poor fractality, rich fractality, and middle-class fractality-and construct hierarchical fractal approximations of general wealth and income distributions, based on the stitching of these three forms of fractality. Intertwining the theoretical results with real-world empirical data we then establish that the three forms of socioeconomic fractality-amalgamated into a composite hierarchical structure-underlie the distributions of wealth and income in human societies. We further establish that the hierarchical socioeconomic fractality of wealth and income is also displayed by empirical rank distributions observed across the sciences.

5. Fractal prediction model of thermal contact conductance of rough surfaces

Ji, Cuicui; Zhu, Hua; Jiang, Wei

2013-01-01

The thermal contact conductance problem is an important issue in studying the heat transfer of engineering surfaces, which has been widely studied since last few decades, and for predicting which many theoretical models have been established. However, the models which have been existed are lack of objectivity due to that they are mostly studied based on the statistical methodology characterization for rough surfaces and simple partition for the deformation formats of contact asperity. In this paper, a fractal prediction model is developed for the thermal contact conductance between two rough surfaces based on the rough surface being described by three-dimensional Weierstrass and Mandelbrot fractal function and assuming that there are three kinds of asperity deformation modes: elastic, elastoplastic and fully plastic. Influences of contact load and contact area as well as fractal parameters and material properties on the thermal contact conductance are investigated by using the presented model. The investigation results show that the thermal contact conductance increases with the increasing of the contact load and contact area. The larger the fractal dimension, or the smaller the fractal roughness, the larger the thermal contact conductance is. The thermal contact conductance increases with decreasing the ratio of Young's elastic modulus to the microhardness. The results obtained indicate that the proposed model can effectively predict the thermal contact conductance at the interface, which provide certain reference to the further study on the issue of heat transfer between contact surfaces.

6. Wideband Fractal Antennas for Holographic Imaging and Rectenna Applications

SciTech Connect

Bunch, Kyle J.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.

2008-04-18

At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, wideband antenna arrays have been successfully used to reconstruct three-dimensional images at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. Applications of this technology have included portal monitoring, through-wall imaging, and weapons detection. Fractal antennas have been shown to have wideband characteristics due to their self-similar nature (that is, their geometry is replicated at different scales). They further have advantages in providing good characteristics in a compact configuration. We discuss the application of fractal antennas for holographic imaging. Simulation results will be presented. Rectennas are a specific class of antennas in which a received signal drives a nonlinear junction and is retransmitted at either a harmonic frequency or a demodulated frequency. Applications include tagging and tracking objects with a uniquely-responding antenna. It is of interest to consider fractal rectenna because the self-similarity of fractal antennas tends to make them have similar resonance behavior at multiples of the primary resonance. Thus, fractal antennas can be suited for applications in which a signal is reradiated at a harmonic frequency. Simulations will be discussed with this application in mind.

7. Controlling Molecular Growth between Fractals and Crystals on Surfaces.

PubMed

Zhang, Xue; Li, Na; Gu, Gao-Chen; Wang, Hao; Nieckarz, Damian; Szabelski, Paweł; He, Yang; Wang, Yu; Xie, Chao; Shen, Zi-Yong; Lü, Jing-Tao; Tang, Hao; Peng, Lian-Mao; Hou, Shi-Min; Wu, Kai; Wang, Yong-Feng

2015-12-22

Recent studies demonstrate that simple functional molecules, which usually form two-dimensional (2D) crystal structures when adsorbed on solid substrates, are also able to self-assemble into ordered openwork fractal aggregates. To direct and control the growth of such fractal supramolecules, it is necessary to explore the conditions under which both fractal and crystalline patterns develop and coexist. In this contribution, we study the coexistence of Sierpiński triangle (ST) fractals and 2D molecular crystals that were formed by 4,4″-dihydroxy-1,1':3',1″-terphenyl molecules on Au(111) in ultrahigh vacuum. Growth competition between the STs and 2D crystals was realized by tuning substrate and molecular surface coverage and changing the functional groups of the molecular building block. Density functional theory calculations and Monte Carlo simulations are used to characterize the process. Both experimental and theoretical results demonstrate the possibility of steering the surface self-assembly to generate fractal and nonfractal structures made up of the same molecular building block. PMID:26502984

8. Analysis on correlation imaging based on fractal interpolation

Li, Bailing; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua

2015-10-01

One fractal interpolation algorithm has been discussed in detail and the statistical self-similarity characteristics of light field have been analized in correlated experiment. For the correlation imaging experiment in condition of low sampling frequent, an image analysis approach based on fractal interpolation algorithm is proposed. This approach aims to improve the resolution of original image which contains a fewer number of pixels and highlight the image contour feature which is fuzzy. By using this method, a new model for the light field has been established. For the case of different moments of the intensity in the receiving plane, the local field division also has been established and then the iterated function system based on the experimental data set can be obtained by choosing the appropriate compression ratio under a scientific error estimate. On the basis of the iterative function, an explicit fractal interpolation function expression is given out in this paper. The simulation results show that the correlation image reconstructed by fractal interpolation has good approximations to the original image. The number of pixels of image after interpolation is significantly increased. This method will effectively solve the difficulty of image pixel deficiency and significantly improved the outline of objects in the image. The rate of deviation as the parameter has been adopted in the paper in order to evaluate objectively the effect of the algorithm. To sum up, fractal interpolation method proposed in this paper not only keeps the overall image but also increases the local information of the original image.

9. Linear chains and chain-like fractals from electrostatic heteroaggregation.

PubMed

Kim, Anthony Y; Hauch, Kip D; Berg, John C; Martin, James E; Anderson, Robert A

2003-04-01

The internal structure of materials prepared by aggregation of oppositely charged polystyrene spheres (electrostatic heteroaggregation) is investigated by static light scattering, optical microscopy, and Brownian dynamics simulation. Light scattering indicates ultralow mass fractal dimensions, as low as 1.2. Such low fractal dimensions, approaching the theoretical limit of a linear object, imply a chaining mechanism. Optical micrographs reveal linear chains with the particle charge alternating down the chains. Brownian dynamics simulation gives additional support for a chaining mechanism. For the polystyrene system (120-nm primary particle diameters), the fractal dimension is found to increase from 1.2 to 1.7 as the background electrolyte is increased. In terms of electrostatic screening, the results match those reported recently for larger polystyrene spheres. The low fractal dimensions appear to represent a crossover from linear chains to a structure of diffusion-limited aggregates; however, experiments under density-neutral conditions imply that sedimentation plays an important role in the formation of ultralow fractal dimensions. The practical implication is that microcomposites with a locally uniform distribution of starting materials and almost any degree of branching can be prepared from oppositely charged particles. PMID:12742045

10. Energy and Laplacian on Hanoi-type fractal quantum graphs

Alonso-Ruiz, Patricia; Kelleher, Daniel J.; Teplyaev, Alexander

2016-04-01

This article studies potential theory and spectral analysis on compact metric spaces, which we refer to as fractal quantum graphs. These spaces can be represented as a (possibly infinite) union of one-dimensional intervals and a totally disconnected (possibly uncountable) compact set, which roughly speaking represents the set of junction points. Classical quantum graphs and fractal spaces such as the Hanoi attractor are included among them. We begin with proving the existence of a resistance form on the Hanoi attractor, and go on to establish heat kernel estimates and upper and lower bounds on the eigenvalue counting function of Laplacians corresponding to weakly self-similar measures on the Hanoi attractor. These estimates and bounds rely heavily on the relation between the length and volume scaling factors of the fractal. We then state and prove a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a resistance form on a general fractal quantum graph. Finally, we extend our spectral results to a large class of weakly self-similar fractal quantum graphs.

11. Analysis of fractal electrodes for efficient neural stimulation

PubMed Central

Golestanirad, Laleh; Elahi, Behzad; Molina, Alberto; Mosig, Juan R.; Pollo, Claudio; Chen, Robert; Graham, Simon J.

2013-01-01

Planar electrodes are increasingly used in therapeutic neural stimulation techniques such as functional electrical stimulation, epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS), and cortical stimulation. Recently, optimized electrode geometries have been shown to increase the efficiency of neural stimulation by increasing the variation of current density on the electrode surface. In the present work, a new family of modified fractal electrode geometries is developed to enhance the efficiency of neural stimulation. It is shown that a promising approach in increasing the neural activation function is to increase the “edginess” of the electrode surface, a concept that is explained and quantified by fractal mathematics. Rigorous finite element simulations were performed to compute electric potential produced by proposed modified fractal geometries. The activation of 256 model axons positioned around the electrodes was then quantified, showing that modified fractal geometries required a 22% less input power while maintaining the same level of neural activation. Preliminary in vivo experiments investigating muscle evoked potentials due to median nerve stimulation showed encouraging results, supporting the feasibility of increasing neural stimulation efficiency using modified fractal geometries. PMID:23874290

12. Wideband fractal antennas for holographic imaging and rectenna applications

Bunch, Kyle J.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.

2008-04-01

At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, wideband antenna arrays have been successfully used to reconstruct three-dimensional images at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. Applications of this technology have included portal monitoring, through-wall imaging, and weapons detection. Fractal antennas have been shown to have wideband characteristics due to their self-similar nature (that is, their geometry is replicated at different scales). They further have advantages in providing good characteristics in a compact configuration. We discuss the application of fractal antennas for holographic imaging. Simulation results will be presented. Rectennas are a specific class of antennas in which a received signal drives a nonlinear junction and is retransmitted at either a harmonic frequency or a demodulated frequency. Applications include tagging and tracking objects with a uniquely-responding antenna. It is of interest to consider fractal rectenna because the self-similarity of fractal antennas tends to make them have similar resonance behavior at multiples of the primary resonance. Thus, fractal antennas can be suited for applications in which a signal is reradiated at a harmonic frequency. Simulations will be discussed with this application in mind.

13. Fractal approach to the description of the auroral region

SciTech Connect

Chernyshov, A. A. Mogilevsky, M. M.; Kozelov, B. V.

2013-07-15

The plasma of the auroral region, where energetic particles precipitate from the magnetosphere into the ionosphere, is highly inhomogeneous and nonstationary. In this case, traditional methods of classical plasma physics turn out to be inapplicable. In order to correctly describe the dynamic regimes, transition processes, fluctuations, and self-similar scalings in this region, nonlinear dynamics methods based of the concepts of fractal geometry and percolation theory can be used. In this work, the fractal geometry and percolation theory are used to describe the spatial structure of the ionospheric conductivity. The topological properties, fractal dimensions, and connective indices characterizing the structure of the Pedersen and Hall conductivities on the nightside auroral zone are investigated theoretically. The restrictions imposed on the fractal estimates by the condition of ionospheric current percolation are analyzed. It is shown that the fluctuation scalings of the electric fields and auroral glow observed in the auroral zone fit well the restrictions imposed by the critical condition on the percolation of the Pedersen current. Thus, it is demonstrated that the fractal approach is a promising and convenient method for studying the properties of the ionosphere.

14. Relationship between Fractal Dimension and Agreeability of Facial Imagery

Oyama-Higa, Mayumi; Miao, Tiejun; Ito, Tasuo

2007-11-01

Why do people feel happy and good or equivalently empathize more, with smiling face imageries than with ones of expressionless face? To understand what the essential factors are underlying imageries in relating to the feelings, we conducted an experiment by 84 subjects asked to estimate the degree of agreeability about expressionless and smiling facial images taken from 23 young persons to whom the subjects were no any pre-acquired knowledge. Images were presented one at a time to each subject who was asked to rank agreeability on a scale from 1 to 10. Fractal dimensions of facial images were obtained in order to characterize the complexity of the imageries by using of two types of fractal analysis methods, i.e., planar and cubic analysis methods, respectively. The results show a significant difference in the fractal dimension values between expressionless faces and smiling ones. Furthermore, we found a well correlation between the degree of agreeability and fractal dimensions, implying that the fractal dimension optically obtained in relation to complexity in imagery information is useful to characterize the psychological processes of cognition and awareness.

15. Edge extraction of optical subaperture based on fractal dimension method

Wang, Yunqi; Hui, Mei; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Yuejin

2015-09-01

Optical synthetic aperture imaging technology is an effective approach to increase the aperture diameter of optical system for purpose of improving resolution. In optical synthetic aperture imaging system, the edge is more complex than that of traditional optical imaging system, and the relatively large size of the gaps between the subapertures makes cophasing a difficult problem. So it is significant to extract edge phase of each subaperture for achieving phase stitching and avoiding the loss of effective frequency. Fractal dimension as a measure feature of image surface irregularities can statistically evaluate the complexity which is consistent with human visual image perception of rough surface texture. Therefore, fractal dimension provides a powerful tool to describe surface characteristics of image and can be applied to edge extraction. In our research, the box-counting dimension was used to calculate fractal dimension of the whole image. Then the calculated fractal dimension is mapped to grayscale image. The region with large fractal dimension represents a sharper change of the gray scale in original image, which was accurately extracted as the edge region. Subaperture region and interference fringe edge was extracted from interference pattern of optical subaperture, which has laid the foundation for the subaperture edge phase detection in the future work.

16. Fractal variability: An emergent property of complex dissipative systems

Seely, Andrew J. E.; Macklem, Peter

2012-03-01

The patterns of variation of physiologic parameters, such as heart and respiratory rate, and their alteration with age and illness have long been under investigation; however, the origin and significance of scale-invariant fractal temporal structures that characterize healthy biologic variability remain unknown. Quite independently, atmospheric and planetary scientists have led breakthroughs in the science of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this paper, we aim to provide two novel hypotheses regarding the origin and etiology of both the degree of variability and its fractal properties. In a complex dissipative system, we hypothesize that the degree of variability reflects the adaptability of the system and is proportional to maximum work output possible divided by resting work output. Reductions in maximal work output (and oxygen consumption) or elevation in resting work output (or oxygen consumption) will thus reduce overall degree of variability. Second, we hypothesize that the fractal nature of variability is a self-organizing emergent property of complex dissipative systems, precisely because it enables the system's ability to optimally dissipate energy gradients and maximize entropy production. In physiologic terms, fractal patterns in space (e.g., fractal vasculature) or time (e.g., cardiopulmonary variability) optimize the ability to deliver oxygen and clear carbon dioxide and waste. Examples of falsifiability are discussed, along with the need to further define necessary boundary conditions. Last, as our focus is bedside utility, potential clinical applications of this understanding are briefly discussed. The hypotheses are clinically relevant and have potential widespread scientific relevance.

17. Fractal variability: an emergent property of complex dissipative systems.

PubMed

Seely, Andrew J E; Macklem, Peter

2012-03-01

The patterns of variation of physiologic parameters, such as heart and respiratory rate, and their alteration with age and illness have long been under investigation; however, the origin and significance of scale-invariant fractal temporal structures that characterize healthy biologic variability remain unknown. Quite independently, atmospheric and planetary scientists have led breakthroughs in the science of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this paper, we aim to provide two novel hypotheses regarding the origin and etiology of both the degree of variability and its fractal properties. In a complex dissipative system, we hypothesize that the degree of variability reflects the adaptability of the system and is proportional to maximum work output possible divided by resting work output. Reductions in maximal work output (and oxygen consumption) or elevation in resting work output (or oxygen consumption) will thus reduce overall degree of variability. Second, we hypothesize that the fractal nature of variability is a self-organizing emergent property of complex dissipative systems, precisely because it enables the system's ability to optimally dissipate energy gradients and maximize entropy production. In physiologic terms, fractal patterns in space (e.g., fractal vasculature) or time (e.g., cardiopulmonary variability) optimize the ability to deliver oxygen and clear carbon dioxide and waste. Examples of falsifiability are discussed, along with the need to further define necessary boundary conditions. Last, as our focus is bedside utility, potential clinical applications of this understanding are briefly discussed. The hypotheses are clinically relevant and have potential widespread scientific relevance. PMID:22462984

18. Fractal image perception provides novel insights into hierarchical cognition.

PubMed

Martins, M J; Fischmeister, F P; Puig-Waldmüller, E; Oh, J; Geissler, A; Robinson, S; Fitch, W T; Beisteiner, R

2014-08-01

Hierarchical structures play a central role in many aspects of human cognition, prominently including both language and music. In this study we addressed hierarchy in the visual domain, using a novel paradigm based on fractal images. Fractals are self-similar patterns generated by repeating the same simple rule at multiple hierarchical levels. Our hypothesis was that the brain uses different resources for processing hierarchies depending on whether it applies a "fractal" or a "non-fractal" cognitive strategy. We analyzed the neural circuits activated by these complex hierarchical patterns in an event-related fMRI study of 40 healthy subjects. Brain activation was compared across three different tasks: a similarity task, and two hierarchical tasks in which subjects were asked to recognize the repetition of a rule operating transformations either within an existing hierarchical level, or generating new hierarchical levels. Similar hierarchical images were generated by both rules and target images were identical. We found that when processing visual hierarchies, engagement in both hierarchical tasks activated the visual dorsal stream (occipito-parietal cortex, intraparietal sulcus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). In addition, the level-generating task specifically activated circuits related to the integration of spatial and categorical information, and with the integration of items in contexts (posterior cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex, and medial, ventral and anterior regions of temporal cortex). These findings provide interesting new clues about the cognitive mechanisms involved in the generation of new hierarchical levels as required for fractals. PMID:24699014

19. Synthesis of Cobalt Oxides Thin Films Fractal Structures by Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition

PubMed Central

Haniam, P.; Kunsombat, C.; Chiangga, S.; Songsasen, A.

2014-01-01

Thin films of cobalt oxides (CoO and Co3O4) fractal structures have been synthesized by using laser chemical vapor deposition at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Various factors which affect the density and crystallization of cobalt oxides fractal shapes have been examined. We show that the fractal structures can be described by diffusion-limited aggregation model and discuss a new possibility to control the fractal structures. PMID:24672354

20. Synthesis of cobalt oxides thin films fractal structures by laser chemical vapor deposition.

PubMed

Haniam, P; Kunsombat, C; Chiangga, S; Songsasen, A

2014-01-01

Thin films of cobalt oxides (CoO and Co3O4) fractal structures have been synthesized by using laser chemical vapor deposition at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Various factors which affect the density and crystallization of cobalt oxides fractal shapes have been examined. We show that the fractal structures can be described by diffusion-limited aggregation model and discuss a new possibility to control the fractal structures. PMID:24672354

1. Fractal Property in the Light Curve of BL Lac Object S5 0716 + 714

Ou, J. W.; Zheng, Y. G.

2014-09-01

In this paper, we compile the historical R-band data of S5 0716 + 714 from literature and obtain its fractal dimension by using a fractal method and then simulate the data with the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot (W-M) function. It is considered that the light curve has a fractal property.

2. Studying fractal geometry on submicron length scales by small-angle scattering

SciTech Connect

Wong, P.; Lin, J.

1988-08-01

Recent studies have shown that internal surfaces of porous geological materials, such as rocks and lignite coals, can be described by fractals down to atomic length scales. In this paper, the basic properties of self-similar and self-affine fractals are reviewed and how fractal dimensions can be measured by small-angle scattering experiments are discussed.

3. Form in the Natural Environment: Fractal Computer Graphics and Wassily Kandinsky.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Geake, John; Porter, Jim

1992-01-01

Reports on study of use of fractal geometry in a computer graphics program to improve the perception of intermediate grade level students in their paintings. Finds that students are more likely to use changing shapes and colors after viewing slides of fractal computer graphics. Concludes that fractal computer graphics would make highly engaging…

4. Fractal 1/f Dynamics Suggest Entanglement of Measurement and Human Performance

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holden, John G.; Choi, Inhyun; Amazeen, Polemnia G.; Van Orden, Guy

2011-01-01

Variability of repeated measurements in human performances exhibits fractal 1/f noise. Yet the relative strength of this fractal pattern varies widely across conditions, tasks, and individuals. Four experiments illustrate how subtle details of the conditions of measurement change the fractal patterns observed across task conditions. The results…

5. Analyte-Receptor Binding Kinetics for Biosensor Applications: A Single-Fractal and a Dual-Fractal Analysis of the Influence of the Fractal Dimension on the Binding Rate Coefficient.

PubMed

1998-12-15

The diffusion-limited binding kinetics of antigen (analyte) in solution to antibody (receptor) immobilized on a biosensor surface is analyzed within a fractal framework. Most of the data presented are adequately described by a single-fractal analysis. This was indicated by the regression analysis provided by Sigmaplot ("Scientific Graphing Procedure, User's Manual," Jandel Scientific, San Rafael, CA, 1993). A couple of examples of a dual-fractal analysis are also presented. It is of interest to note that the binding rate coefficient and the fractal dimension both exhibit changes in the same direction for the analyte-receptor systems analyzed. Binding rate coefficient expressions as a function of the fractal dimension developed for the analyte-receptor binding systems indicate the high sensitivity of the binding rate coefficient on the fractal dimension when both a single- and a dual-fractal analysis are used. For example, for a single-fractal analysis and for the binding of cell surface proteins from Helicobacter pylori strain in solution to sialyl-(alpha-2,3)-lactose-conjugated (20 mol%) polyacrylamide immobilized on a resonant mirror biosensor (S. Hirmo et al., Anal. Biochem. 257, 63, 1998), the order of dependence of the binding rate coefficient, k, on the fractal dimension, Df, was 14.15. The fractional order of dependence of the binding rate coefficient(s) on the fractal dimension(s) further reinforces the fractal nature of the system. The binding rate coefficient(s) expressions developed as a function of the fractal dimension(s) are of particular value since they provide a means to better control biosensor performance by linking it to the heterogeneity on the surface and further emphasize in a quantitative sense the importance of the nature of the surface in biosensor performance. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9845690

6. An electrical conductivity model for fractal porous media

Wei, Wei; Cai, Jianchao; Hu, Xiangyun; Han, Qi

2015-06-01

Archie's equation is an empirical electrical conductivity-porosity model that has been used to predict the formation factor of porous rock for more than 70 years. However, the physical interpretation of its parameters, e.g., the cementation exponent m, remains questionable. In this study, a theoretical electrical conductivity equation is derived based on the fractal characteristics of porous media. The proposed model is expressed in terms of the tortuosity fractal dimension (DT), the pore fractal dimension (Df), the electrical conductivity of the pore liquid, and the porosity. The empirical parameter m is then determined from physically based parameters, such as DT and Df. Furthermore, a distinct interrelationship between DT and Df is obtained. We find a reasonably good match between the predicted formation factor by our model and experimental data.

7. A fractal analysis of pathogen detection by biosensors

2006-05-01

A fractal analysis is presented for the detection of pathogens such as Franscisela tularensis, and Yersinia pestis (the bacterium that causes plague) using a CANARY (cellular analysis and notification of antigens risks and yields) biosensor (Rider et al., 2003). In general, the binding and dissociation rate coefficients may be adequately described by either a single- or a dual-fractal analysis. An attempt is made to relate the binding rate coefficient to the degree of heterogeneity (fractal dimension value) present on the biosensor surface. Binding and dissociation rate coefficient values obtained are presented. The kinetics aspects along with the affinity values presented are of interest, and should along with the rate coefficients presented for the binding and the dissociation phase be of significant interest in help designing better biosensors for an application area that is bound to gain increasing importance in the future.

8. A study on natural coral stone—a fractal solid

2012-12-01

This present research work contains the study of natural fractal material, coral stone. X-ray diffraction, FTIR, optical, DC and AC electrical characteristics are studied. The study includes Arrhenius like plots for both wafer and powder form of the material. Measurements show a possible partially irreversible phase transition occurs when coral is heated for a long time at an about 115 °C. From the XRD data it has been also established that coral stone contains nano sized clusters which is supported by DC electrical measurement. The variation of AC conductivity of coral with thickness of the sample is studied and found exhibit an interesting feature of fractal solid. A scaling relation between AC conductivity and thickness has also been proposed here. The overall behavior of the specimen is like that of a fractal system.

9. Liver ultrasound image classification by using fractal dimension of edge

Moldovanu, Simona; Bibicu, Dorin; Moraru, Luminita

2012-08-01

Medical ultrasound image edge detection is an important component in increasing the number of application of segmentation, and hence it has been subject of many studies in the literature. In this study, we have classified the liver ultrasound images (US) combining Canny and Sobel edge detectors with fractal analysis in order to provide an indicator about of the US images roughness. We intend to provide a classification rule of the focal liver lesions as: cirrhotic liver, liver hemangioma and healthy liver. For edges detection the Canny and Sobel operators were used. Fractal analyses have been applied for texture analysis and classification of focal liver lesions according to fractal dimension (FD) determined by using the Box Counting method. To assess the performance and accuracy rate of the proposed method the contrast-to-noise (CNR) is analyzed.

10. Fractal structure of equipotential curves on a continuum percolation model

Matsutani, Shigeki; Shimosako, Yoshiyuki; Wang, Yunhong

2012-12-01

We numerically investigate the electric potential distribution over a two-dimensional continuum percolation model between the electrodes. The model consists of overlapped conductive particles on the background with an infinitesimal conductivity. Using the finite difference method, we solve the generalized Laplace equation and show that in the potential distribution, there appear quasi-equipotential clusters which approximately and locally have the same values as steps and stairs. Since the quasi-equipotential clusters have the fractal structure, we compute the fractal dimension of equipotential curves and its dependence on the volume fraction over [0,1]. The fractal dimension in [1.00, 1.246] has a peak at the percolation threshold pc.

11. Fractal projection pursuit classification model applied to geochemical survey data

Xiao, Fan; Chen, Jianguo

2012-08-01

A new hybrid exploratory data analysis method, fractal projection pursuit classification (FPPC) model, is developed on the basis of the projection pursuit (PP) and fractal models. In this model, objective classification results are obtained by applying the projection index on the basis of the number-size fractal model. The real-coded acceleration genetic algorithm (RAGA) is used to optimize the projection index to establish the optimum projection direction in the model. Stream sedimentary geochemical data, Gejiu Mining District, Yunnan Province, China, were chosen in a case study to demonstrate the processing data analysis using FPPC. The results show that the anomalies are associated with known mineral deposits in the eastern part of the Gejiu District, and correlated with faults and granite in the western part of the study area. It is demonstrated that FPPC can be a powerful tool for multi-factor classification analysis and provide an effective approach to identify anomalies for mineral exploration.

12. Power-law hereditariness of hierarchical fractal bones.

PubMed

Deseri, Luca; Di Paola, Mario; Zingales, Massimiliano; Pollaci, Pietro

2013-12-01

In this paper, the authors introduce a hierarchic fractal model to describe bone hereditariness. Indeed, experimental data of stress relaxation or creep functions obtained by compressive/tensile tests have been proved to be fit by power law with real exponent 0 ⩽ β ⩽1. The rheological behavior of the material has therefore been obtained, using the Boltzmann-Volterra superposition principle, in terms of real order integrals and derivatives (fractional-order calculus). It is shown that the power laws describing creep/relaxation of bone tissue may be obtained by introducing a fractal description of bone cross-section, and the Hausdorff dimension of the fractal geometry is then related to the exponent of the power law. PMID:23836622

13. Fractal dimension of microbead assemblies used for protein detection

PubMed Central

Hecht, Ariel; Commiskey, Patrick; Lazaridis, Filippos; Argyrakis, Panos

2014-01-01

We use fractal analysis to calculate the protein concentration in a rotating magnetic assembly of microbeads of size 1μm, which has optimized parameters of sedimentation, binding sites and magnetic volume. We utilize the original Forrest-Witten method, but due to the relatively small number of bead particles, which is of the order of 500, we use a large number of origins and also a large number of algorithm iterations. We find a value of the fractal dimension in the range 1.70–1.90, as a function of the thrombin concentration, which plays the role of binding the microbeads together. This is in good agreement with previous results from magnetorotation studies. The calculation of the fractal dimension using multiple points of reference can be used for any assembly with a relatively small number of particles. PMID:25195559

14. On the vortex dynamics in fractal Fourier turbulence.

PubMed

Lanotte, Alessandra S; Malapaka, Shiva Kumar; Biferale, Luca

2016-04-01

Incompressible, homogeneous and isotropic turbulence is studied by solving the Navier-Stokes equations on a reduced set of Fourier modes, belonging to a fractal set of dimension D . By tuning the fractal dimension parameter, we study the dynamical effects of Fourier decimation on the vortex stretching mechanism and on the statistics of the velocity and the velocity gradient tensor. In particular, we show that as we move from D = 3 to D ∼ 2.8 , the statistics gradually turns into a purely Gaussian one. This result suggests that even a mild fractal mode reduction strongly depletes the stretching properties of the non-linear term of the Navier-Stokes equations and suppresses anomalous fluctuations. PMID:27125678

15. Magnetic Reconnection Rate in Space Plasmas: A Fractal Approach

SciTech Connect

Materassi, Massimo; Consolini, Giuseppe

2007-10-26

Magnetic reconnection is generally discussed via a fluid description. Here, we evaluate the reconnection rate assuming a fractal topology of the reconnection region. The central idea is that the fluid hypothesis may be violated at the scales where reconnection takes place. The reconnection rate, expressed as the Alfven Mach number of the plasma moving toward the diffusion region, is shown to depend on the fractal dimension and on the sizes of the reconnection or diffusion region. This mechanism is more efficient than prediction of the Sweet-Parker model and even Petschek's model for finite magnetic Reynolds number. A good agreement also with rates given by Hall MHD models is found. A discussion of the fractal assumption on the diffusion region in terms of current microstructures is proposed. The comparison with in-situ satellite observations suggests the reconnection region to be a filamentary domain.

16. Statistical fractal border features for MRI breast mass images

Penn, Alan I.; Bolinger, Lizann; Loew, Murray H.

1998-06-01

MRI has been proposed as an alternative method to mammography for detecting and staging breast cancer. Recent studies have shown that architectural features of breast masses may be useful in improving specificity. Since fractal dimension (fd) has been correlated with roughness, and border roughness is an indicator of malignancy, the fd of the mass border is a promising architectural feature for achieving improved specificity. Previous methods of estimating the fd of the mass border have been unreliable because of limited data or overlay restrictive assumptions of the fractal model. We present preliminary results of a statistical approach in which a sample space of fd estimates is generated from a family of self-affine fractal models. The fd of the mass border is then estimated from the statistics of the sample space.

17. Selective modulation of cell response on engineered fractal silicon substrates

PubMed Central

Gentile, Francesco; Medda, Rebecca; Cheng, Ling; Battista, Edmondo; Scopelliti, Pasquale E.; Milani, Paolo; Cavalcanti-Adam, Elisabetta A.; Decuzzi, Paolo

2013-01-01

A plethora of work has been dedicated to the analysis of cell behavior on substrates with ordered topographical features. However, the natural cell microenvironment is characterized by biomechanical cues organized over multiple scales. Here, randomly rough, self-affinefractal surfaces are generated out of silicon,where roughness Ra and fractal dimension Df are independently controlled. The proliferation rates, the formation of adhesion structures, and the morphology of 3T3 murine fibroblasts are monitored over six different substrates. The proliferation rate is maximized on surfaces with moderate roughness (Ra ~ 40 nm) and large fractal dimension (Df ~ 2.4); whereas adhesion structures are wider and more stable on substrates with higher roughness (Ra ~ 50 nm) and lower fractal dimension (Df ~ 2.2). Higher proliferation occurson substrates exhibiting densely packed and sharp peaks, whereas more regular ridges favor adhesion. These results suggest that randomly roughtopographies can selectively modulate cell behavior. PMID:23492898

18. Fractal boundaries in open hydrodynamical flows: Signatures of chaotic saddles

Péntek, Áron; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Tél, Tamás; Grebogi, Celso; Yorke, James A.

1995-05-01

We introduce the concept of fractal boundaries in open hydrodynamical flows based on two gedanken experiments carried out with passive tracer particles colored differently. It is shown that the signature for the presence of a chaotic saddle in the advection dynamics is a fractal boundary between regions of different colors. The fractal parts of the boundaries found in the two experiments contain either the stable or the unstable manifold of this chaotic set. We point out that these boundaries coincide with streak lines passing through appropriately chosen points. As an illustrative numerical experiment, we consider a model of the von Kármán vortex street, a time periodic two-dimensional flow of a viscous fluid around a cylinder.

19. Fractal signatures in analogs of interplanetary dust particles

Katyal, Nisha; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay

2014-10-01

Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are an important constituent of the earths stratosphere, interstellar and interplanetary medium, cometary comae and tails, etc. Their physical and optical characteristics are significantly influenced by the morphology of silicate aggregates which form the core in IDPs. In this paper we reinterpret scattering data from laboratory analogs of cosmic silicate aggregates created by Volten et al. (2007) [1] to extract their morphological features. By evaluating the structure factor, we find that the aggregates are mass fractals with a mass fractal dimension dm≃1.75. The same fractal dimension also characterizes clusters obtained from diffusion limited aggregation (DLA). This suggests that the analogs are formed by an irreversible aggregation of stochastically transported silicate particles.

20. Inkjet printed fractal-connected electrodes with silver nanoparticle ink.

PubMed

Vaseem, Mohammad; Lee, Kil Mok; Hong, A-Ra; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

2012-06-27

The development of a simple and reliable method for nanoparticles-based ink in an aqueous solution is still a challenge for its inkjet printing application. Herein, we demonstrate the inkjet printing of fractal-aggregated silver (Ag) electrode lines on substrates. Spherical, monodisperse Ag nanoparticles have been synthesized using silver nitrate as a precursor, ethylene glycol as a reducing agent, and polyvinyl pyrrollidone as a capping agent. As-synthesized pure Ag nanoparticles were well dispersed in water-ethylene glycol mixture, which was directly used as an ink for inkjet printing. Using this ink, the Ag electrodes of fractal-connected lines were printed on Si/SiO2, glass, and polymer substrates. The fractal-connected Ag lines were attributed to the diffusion-limited aggregation of Ag nanoparticles and the effect of annealing on conductivity was also examined. PMID:22670766

1. Special fractal growth of dendrite copper using a hydrothermal method

Zheng, Yan; Zhang, Zhejuan; Guo, Pingsheng; He, Pingang; Sun, Zhuo

2011-08-01

Special fractal dendrite Cu nanostructures have been synthesized through a simple hydrothermal method, and the effects of the volume ratio between glycerol and water and the concentration of H 3PO 3 on the morphologies of dendrite Cu have been studied in detail. The Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to characterize these Cu products. The results indicate that rhombic diamond and different morphologies of fractal dendrite were prepared because of the accumulation of Cu nuclei based on the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) and the nucleation-limited aggregation (NLA) model. Fortunately, symmetrical leaf-like dendrite Cu nanostructures different from Cu dendrites reported before have been obtained. Additionally, an explanation for the growth of fractal dendrite Cu has been discussed carefully.

2. Study of fractal aperture distribution and flow in fractures

SciTech Connect

Kumar, S.; Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1990-01-01

This study examines the roughness profiles and aperture distributions of fractures and faults by using concepts from fractal geometry. Simple models of flow of fluid in rough fractures are also discussed. A deterministic fractal representation of the roughness profile is presented which is shown to have many distinct advantages over other numerical methods, such as information compression, uniqueness and repeatability of surface simulation, retention of statistical information, and self-similarity over many scales. Also the fractal representation enables an isotropic surface and an aperture distribution to be simulated by examining a measured profile. Saturated fluid flow in fractures is then computed using a combined Navier-Stokes and Darcy equation. 14 refs., 5 figs.

3. Influence of surface tension on fractal contact model

Long, J. M.; Wang, G. F.; Feng, X. Q.; Yu, S. W.

2014-03-01

Almost all solid surfaces have roughness on different length scales, from macro, micro to nano. In the conventional fractal contact model, the macroscopic Hertzian contact theory is employed to predict the contact load-area relation for all sizes of contact spots. However, when the contact radius of an asperity shrinks to nanometers, surface tension may greatly alter the contact behavior. In the present paper, we address surface effects on the contact between a rigid sphere and an elastic half space, and we demonstrate that the contact load-area relation is size-dependent, especially for nanosized asperities. Then, the refined contact relation is incorporated into the Majumdar-Bhushan fractal contact model. It is found that the presence of surface tension requires higher load than the conventional fractal contact model to generate the same real contact area.

4. Fractal Theory for Permeability Prediction, Venezuelan and USA Wells

Aldana, Milagrosa; Altamiranda, Dignorah; Cabrera, Ana

2014-05-01

Inferring petrophysical parameters such as permeability, porosity, water saturation, capillary pressure, etc, from the analysis of well logs or other available core data has always been of critical importance in the oil industry. Permeability in particular, which is considered to be a complex parameter, has been inferred using both empirical and theoretical techniques. The main goal of this work is to predict permeability values on different wells using Fractal Theory, based on a method proposed by Pape et al. (1999). This approach uses the relationship between permeability and the geometric form of the pore space of the rock. This method is based on the modified equation of Kozeny-Carman and a fractal pattern, which allows determining permeability as a function of the cementation exponent, porosity and the fractal dimension. Data from wells located in Venezuela and the United States of America are analyzed. Employing data of porosity and permeability obtained from core samples, and applying the Fractal Theory method, we calculated the prediction equations for each well. At the beginning, this was achieved by training with 50% of the data available for each well. Afterwards, these equations were tested inferring over 100% of the data to analyze possible trends in their distribution. This procedure gave excellent results in all the wells in spite of their geographic distance, generating permeability models with the potential to accurately predict permeability logs in the remaining parts of the well for which there are no core samples, using even porority logs. Additionally, empirical models were used to determine permeability and the results were compared with those obtained by applying the fractal method. The results indicated that, although there are empirical equations that give a proper adjustment, the prediction results obtained using fractal theory give a better fit to the core reference data.

5. A New Fractal Model of Chromosome and DNA Processes

Bouallegue, K.

Dynamic chromosome structure remains unknown. Can fractals and chaos be used as new tools to model, identify and generate a structure of chromosomes?Fractals and chaos offer a rich environment for exploring and modeling the complexity of nature. In a sense, fractal geometry is used to describe, model, and analyze the complex forms found in nature. Fractals have also been widely not only in biology but also in medicine. To this effect, a fractal is considered an object that displays self-similarity under magnification and can be constructed using a simple motif (an image repeated on ever-reduced scales).It is worth noting that the problem of identifying a chromosome has become a challenge to find out which one of the models it belongs to. Nevertheless, the several different models (a hierarchical coiling, a folded fiber, and radial loop) have been proposed for mitotic chromosome but have not reached a dynamic model yet.This paper is an attempt to solve topological problems involved in the model of chromosome and DNA processes. By combining the fractal Julia process and the numerical dynamical system, we have finally found out four main points. First, we have developed not only a model of chromosome but also a model of mitosis and one of meiosis. Equally important, we have identified the centromere position through the numerical model captured below. More importantly, in this paper, we have discovered the processes of the cell divisions of both mitosis and meiosis. All in all, the results show that this work could have a strong impact on the welfare of humanity and can lead to a cure of genetic diseases.

6. Fractal patterns of insect movement in microlandscape mosaics

SciTech Connect

Wiens, J.A.; Crist, T.O. |; With, K.A. |; Milne, B.T.

1995-03-01

How individuals move, whether in short-term searching behavior or long-term dispersal influences the probability that individuals will experience physiological stress or encounter appropriate habitat, potential mates, prey, or predators. Because of variety and complexity, it is often difficult to make sense of movements. Because the fractal dimension of a movement pathway is scale independent, however, it may provide a useful measure for comparing dissimilar taxa. The authors use fractal measures to compare the movement pathways of individual beetles occupying semiarid shortgrass steppe in north-central Colorado. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

7. Counting spanning trees on fractal graphs and their asymptotic complexity

Anema, Jason A.; Tsougkas, Konstantinos

2016-09-01

Using the method of spectral decimation and a modified version of Kirchhoff's matrix-tree theorem, a closed form solution to the number of spanning trees on approximating graphs to a fully symmetric self-similar structure on a finitely ramified fractal is given in theorem 3.4. We show how spectral decimation implies the existence of the asymptotic complexity constant and obtain some bounds for it. Examples calculated include the Sierpiński gasket, a non-post critically finite analog of the Sierpiński gasket, the Diamond fractal, and the hexagasket. For each example, the asymptotic complexity constant is found.

8. Fractional Fokker-Planck equation for fractal media.

PubMed

Tarasov, Vasily E

2005-06-01

We consider the fractional generalizations of equation that defines the medium mass. We prove that the fractional integrals can be used to describe the media with noninteger mass dimensions. Using fractional integrals, we derive the fractional generalization of the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation (Smolukhovski equation). In this paper fractional Fokker-Planck equation for fractal media is derived from the fractional Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. Using the Fourier transform, we get the Fokker-Planck-Zaslavsky equations that have fractional coordinate derivatives. The Fokker-Planck equation for the fractal media is an equation with fractional derivatives in the dual space. PMID:16035878

9. Testing Fractal Methods on Observed and Simulated Solar Magnetograms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adams, M.; Falconer, D. A.; Lee, J. K.; Jones, C.

2003-01-01

The term "magnetic complexity" has not been sufficiently quantified. To accomplish this, we must understand the relationship between the observed magnetic field of solar active regions and fractal dimension measurements. Using data from the Marshall Space Flight Center's vector magnetograph ranging from December 1991 to July 2001, we compare the results of several methods of calculating a fractal dimension, e.g., Hurst coefficient, the Higuchi method, power spectrum, and 2-D Wavelet Packet Analysis. In addition, we apply these methods to synthetic data, beginning with representations of very simple dipole regions, ending with regions that are magnetically complex.

10. EEG signal features extraction based on fractal dimension.

PubMed

Finotello, Francesca; Scarpa, Fabio; Zanon, Mattia

2015-08-01

The spread of electroencephalography (EEG) in countless applications has fostered the development of new techniques for extracting synthetic and informative features from EEG signals. However, the definition of an effective feature set depends on the specific problem to be addressed and is currently an active field of research. In this work, we investigated the application of features based on fractal dimension to a problem of sleep identification from EEG data. We demonstrated that features based on fractal dimension, including two novel indices defined in this work, add valuable information to standard EEG features and significantly improve sleep identification performance. PMID:26737209

11. Fractal dust grains around R Coronae Borealis stars

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wright, Edward L.

1989-01-01

Discrete dipole approximation calculations of the optical properties of random fractal aggregates of graphite spheroids show a UV absorption feature that is too wide and centered at too long a wavelength to fit the observed interstellar 2200-A feature, but which is a good match to the 2400-A feature seen in the hydrogen-deficient R CrB stars reported by Hecht et al. (1984). Graphite fractal grains also match the UV bump and large long-wavelenvth extinction seen in laboratory studies of carbon smoke published by Bussoletti et al. (1987), which are usually attributed to amorphous carbon.

12. A fractal transition in the two dimensional shear layer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jimenez, Javier; Martel, Carlos

1990-01-01

The dependence of product generation with the Peclet and Reynolds number in a numerically simulated, reacting, two dimensional, temporally growing mixing layer is used to compute the fractal dimension of passive scalar interfaces. A transition from a low dimension of 4/3 to a higher one of 5/3 is identified and shown to be associated to the kinematic distortion on the flow field during the first pairing interaction. It is suggested that the structures responsible for this transition are non-deterministic, non-random, inhomogeneous fractals. Only the large scales are involved. No further transition is found for Reynolds numbers up to 20,000.

13. Fractal mechanisms in the electrophysiology of the heart

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goldberger, A. L.

1992-01-01

The mathematical concept of fractals provides insights into complex anatomic branching structures that lack a characteristic (single) length scale, and certain complex physiologic processes, such as heart rate regulation, that lack a single time scale. Heart rate control is perturbed by alterations in neuro-autonomic function in a number of important clinical syndromes, including sudden cardiac death, congestive failure, cocaine intoxication, fetal distress, space sickness and physiologic aging. These conditions are associated with a loss of the normal fractal complexity of interbeat interval dynamics. Such changes, which may not be detectable using conventional statistics, can be quantified using new methods derived from "chaos theory.".

14. Effect of Na+ on surface fractal dimension of compacted bentonite

Xiang, G. S.; Xu, Y. F.; Jiang, H.

2015-05-01

Compacted Tsukinuno bentonite was immersed into NaCl solutions of different concentrations in oedometers, and the surface fractal dimension of bentonite-saline association was measured by nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The application of the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equation and the Neimark thermodynamic method to nitrogen adsorption isotherms indicated that the surface roughness was greater for the bentonite-saline association. The surface fractal dimension of bentonite increased in the NaCl solution with low Na+ concentration, but decreased at high Na+ concentration. This process was accompanied by the same tendency in specific surface area and microporosity with the presence of Na+ coating in the clay particles.

15. Long-range (fractal) correlations in the LEDA database.

di Nella, H.; Montuori, M.; Paturel, G.; Pietronero, L.; Sylos Labini, F.

1996-04-01

All the recent redshift surveys show highly irregular patterns of galaxies on scales of hundreds of megaparsecs such as chains, walls and cells. One of the most powerful catalog of galaxies is represented by the LEDA database that contains more than 36,000 galaxies with redshift. We study the correlation properties of such a sample finding that galaxy distribution shows well defined fractal nature up to R_S_~150h^-1^Mpc with fractal dimension D~2. We test the consistency of these results versus the incompleteness in the sample.

16. Fractal dimension of alumina aggregates grown in two dimensions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Larosa, Judith L.; Cawley, James D.

1992-01-01

The concepts of fractal geometry are applied to the analysis of 0.4-micron alumina constrained to agglomerate in two dimensions. Particles were trapped at the bottom surface of a drop of a dilute suspension, and the agglomeration process was directly observed, using an inverted optical microscope. Photographs were digitized and analyzed, using three distinct approaches. The results indicate that the agglomerates are fractal, having a dimension of approximately 1.5, which agrees well with the predictions of the diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation model.

17. Chaos-based encryption for fractal image coding

Yuen, Ching-Hung; Wong, Kwok-Wo

2012-01-01

A chaos-based cryptosystem for fractal image coding is proposed. The Rényi chaotic map is employed to determine the order of processing the range blocks and to generate the keystream for masking the encoded sequence. Compared with the standard approach of fractal image coding followed by the Advanced Encryption Standard, our scheme offers a higher sensitivity to both plaintext and ciphertext at a comparable operating efficiency. The keystream generated by the Rényi chaotic map passes the randomness tests set by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology, and so the proposed scheme is sensitive to the key.

18. Nonlinear dynamics, fractals, cardiac physiology and sudden death

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goldberger, Ary L.

1987-01-01

The authors propose a diametrically opposite viewpoint to the generally accepted tendency of equating healthy function with order and disease with chaos. With regard to the question of sudden cardiac death and chaos, it is suggested that certain features of dynamical chaos related to fractal structure and fractal dynamics may be important organizing principles in normal physiology and that certain pathologies, including ventricular fibrillation, represent a class of 'pathological periodicities'. Some laboratory work bearing on the relation of nonlinear analysis to physiological and pathophysiological data is briefly reviewed, with tentative theories and models described in reference to the mechanism of ventricular fibrillation.

19. Fractal properties of stellar systems and random forces

Chumak, O. V.; Rastorguev, A. S.

2016-05-01

The nearest neighbor distance distribution law is generalized to fractal stellar media. The asymptotics of the distribution law for the magnitude of a large random force has been derived for them. An expression for the effective mean interparticle distance in such a medium has been found. The derived asymptotics for a power-law change in conditional density is shown to coincide closely with the results obtained within the framework of a general approach. We conclude that the large random forces in a fractal stellar medium are entirely attributable to the nearest neighbors (clumps) located in a sphere with an effective radius determined from a generalized Holtsmark distribution.

20. Stochastic fractal behavior in concentration fluctuation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

PubMed Central

Raymond, Gary M.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.

2010-01-01

Fluctuations in the concentration of Brownian particles in one and two dimensions, or any reasonable measurement of the concentration such as in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, is shown to be a stochastic fractal with a long tail. Being singular at ω = 0, the power spectrum of the fluctuation S(ω) ~ ω −1/2 for diffusion in one dimension, ~ log ω in two dimensions, but non-singular in three dimensions. This discovery provides one simple physical mechanism for possible long-memory fractal behavior, and its implications to various biological processes are discussed. PMID:10457592

1. Fractal differentiation and integration and implication on singularity analysis of extreme geodynamics

Cheng, Qiuming

2016-04-01

Singularity theory states that extreme geo-processes result in anomalous amounts of energy release or material accumulation within a narrow spatial-temporal interval. The products (e.g. mass density and energy density) caused by extreme geo-processes depict singularity without the ordinary derivative and antiderivative (integration) properties. Based on the definition of fractal density, the density measured in fractal dimensional space, in the current paper the author is proposing several operations including fractal derivative and fractal integral to analyze singularity of fractal density. While the ordinary derivative including fractional derivatives as a fundamental tool measuring the sensitivity of change of function (quantity as dependent variable) with change of another quantity as independent variable, the changes are measured in the ordinary space with additive property, fractal derivative (antiderivative) measures the ratio of changes of two quantities measured in fractal space-fractal dimensional space. For example, if the limit of ratio of increment of quantity (Δf) over the associated increment of time (Δtα) measured in α - dimensional space approaches to a finite value, then the limit is referred a α-dimensional fractal derivative of function fand denoted as f' = lim Δf--= df- α Δt→0 Δtα dtα According to the definition of the fractal derivative the ordinary derivative becomes the special case if the space becomes non-fractal space with α value as an integer. In the rest of the paper we demonstrate that fractal density concept and fractal derivative can be applied in describing singularity property of products caused by extreme or avalanche events. The extreme earth-thermal processes such as hydrothermal mineralization occurred in the earth crust, heat flow over ocean ridges, igneous activities or juvenile crust grows, originated from cascade earth dynamics (mantle convection, plate tectonics, and continent crust grow etc.) were analyzed

2. Methods of nanoassembly of a fractal polymer and materials formed thereby

DOEpatents

Newkome, George R; Moorefield, Charles N

2014-09-23

The invention relates to the formation of synthesized fractal constructs and the methods of chemical self-assembly for the preparation of a non-dendritic, nano-scale, fractal constructs or molecules. More particularly, the invention relates to fractal constructs formed by molecular self-assembly, to create synthetic, nanometer-scale fractal shapes. In an embodiment, a nanoscale Sierpinski hexagonal gasket is formed. This non-dendritic, perfectly self-similar fractal macromolecule is comprised of bisterpyridine building blocks that are bound together by coordination to (36) Ru and (6) Fe ions to form a nearly planar array of increasingly larger hexagons around a hollow center.

3. Methods of nanoassembly of a fractal polymer and materials formed thereby

DOEpatents

Newkome, George R.; Moorefield, Charles N.

2012-07-24

The invention relates to the formation of synthesized fractal constructs and the methods of chemical self-assembly for the preparation of a non-dendritic, nano-scale, fractal constructs or molecules. More particularly, the invention relates to fractal constructs formed by molecular self-assembly, to create synthetic, nanometer-scale fractal shapes. In an embodiment, a nanoscale Sierpinski hexagonal gasket is formed. This non-dendritic, perfectly self-similar fractal macromolecule is comprised of bisterpyridine building blocks that are bound together by coordination to 36 Ru and 6 Fe ions to form a nearly planar array of increasingly larger hexagons around a hollow center.

4. [Recent progress of research and applications of fractal and its theories in medicine].

PubMed

Cai, Congbo; Wang, Ping

2014-10-01

Fractal, a mathematics concept, is used to describe an image of self-similarity and scale invariance. Some organisms have been discovered with the fractal characteristics, such as cerebral cortex surface, retinal vessel structure, cardiovascular network, and trabecular bone, etc. It has been preliminarily confirmed that the three-dimensional structure of cells cultured in vitro could be significantly enhanced by bionic fractal surface. Moreover, fractal theory in clinical research will help early diagnosis and treatment of diseases, reducing the patient's pain and suffering. The development process of diseases in the human body can be expressed by the fractal theories parameter. It is of considerable significance to retrospectively review the preparation and application of fractal surface and its diagnostic value in medicine. This paper gives an application of fractal and its theories in the medical science, based on the research achievements in our laboratory. PMID:25764741

5. Fractal texture analysis of the healing process after bone loss.

PubMed

Borowska, Marta; Szarmach, Janusz; Oczeretko, Edward

2015-12-01

Radiological assessment of treatment effectiveness of guided bone regeneration (GBR) method in postresectal and postcystal bone loss cases, observed for one year. Group of 25 patients (17 females and 8 males) who underwent root resection with cystectomy were evaluated. The following combination therapy of intraosseous deficits was used, consisting of bone augmentation with xenogenic material together with covering regenerative membranes and tight wound closure. The bone regeneration process was estimated, comparing the images taken on the day of the surgery and 12 months later, by means of Kodak RVG 6100 digital radiography set. The interpretation of the radiovisiographic image depends on the evaluation ability of the eye looking at it, which leaves a large margin of uncertainty. So, several texture analysis techniques were developed and used sequentially on the radiographic image. For each method, the results were the mean from the 25 images. These methods compute the fractal dimension (D), each one having its own theoretic basis. We used five techniques for calculating fractal dimension: power spectral density method, triangular prism surface area method, blanket method, intensity difference scaling method and variogram analysis. Our study showed a decrease of fractal dimension during the healing process after bone loss. We also found evidence that various methods of calculating fractal dimension give different results. During the healing process after bone loss, the surfaces of radiographic images became smooth. The result obtained show that our findings may be of great importance for diagnostic purpose. PMID:26362075

6. Sandwich type plasmonic platform for MEF using silver fractals

Raut, Sangram L.; Rich, Ryan; Shtoyko, Tanya; Bora, Ilkay; Laursen, Bo W.; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Borejdo, Julian; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy

2015-10-01

In this report, we describe a plasmonic platform with silver fractals for metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) measurements. When a dye containing surface was brought into contact with silver fractals, a significantly enhanced fluorescence signal from the dye was observed. Fluorescence enhancement was studied with the N-methyl-azadioxatriangulenium chloride salt (Me-ADOTA.Cl) in PVA films made from 0.2% PVA (w/v) solution spin-coated on a clean glass coverslip. The Plasmonic Platforms (PP) were assembled by pressing together silver fractals on one glass slide and a separate glass coverslip spin-coated with a uniform Me-ADOTA.Cl in PVA film. In addition, we also tested ADOTA labeled human serum albumin (HSA) deposited on a glass slide for potential PP bioassay applications. Using the new PP, we could achieve more than a 20-fold fluorescence enhancement (bright spots) accompanied by a decrease in the fluorescence lifetime. The experimental results were used to calculate the extinction (excitation) enhancement factor (GA) and fluorescence radiative rate enhancements factor (GF). No change in emission spectrum was observed for a dye with or without contact with fractals. Our studies indicate that this type of PP can be a convenient approach for constructing assays utilizing metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) without the need for depositing the material directly on metal structures platforms.

7. Aggregate fractal dimensions and thermal conduction in nanofluids

Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Goodson, Kenneth E.

2010-10-01

The mechanism producing enhanced thermal conductivities of nanofluids has been the subject of much debate. The formation of aggregates allowing for percolation paths within the fluid has shown the most promise. This work studies the aggregate formation of a nanofluid and compares the results to earlier thermal conductivity measurements and Monte Carlo simulation results. Static light scattering is employed to measure the fractal dimension of aggregates formed in the nanofluid over time at various temperatures and concentrations. As expected, aggregates form more quickly at higher concentrations and temperatures, which explains the increased enhancement with temperature reported by other research groups. The permanent aggregates in the nanofluid are found to have a fractal dimension of 2.4 and the aggregate formations that grow over time are found to have a fractal dimension of 1.8, which is consistent with diffusion limited aggregation. Predictions indicate that as aggregates grow the viscosity increases at a faster rate than thermal conductivity making the highly aggregated nanofluids unfavorable, especially at the low fractal dimension of 1.8.

8. Calculation of multi-fractal dimensions in spin chains

PubMed Central

Atas, Y. Y.; Bogomolny, E.

2014-01-01

It was demonstrated in Atas & Bogomolny (2012 Phys. Rev. E 86, 021104) that the ground-state wave functions for a large variety of one-dimensional spin- models are multi-fractals in the natural spin-z basis. We present here the details of analytical derivations and numerical confirmations of this statement. PMID:24344342

9. Fractality, chaos, and reactions in imperfectly mixed open hydrodynamical flows

Péntek, Á.; Károlyi, G.; Scheuring, I.; Tél, T.; Toroczkai, Z.; Kadtke, J.; Grebogi, C.

1999-12-01

We investigate the dynamics of tracer particles in time-dependent open flows. If the advection is passive the tracer dynamics is shown to be typically transiently chaotic. This implies the appearance of stable fractal patterns, so-called unstable manifolds, traced out by ensembles of particles. Next, the advection of chemically or biologically active tracers is investigated. Since the tracers spend a long time in the vicinity of a fractal curve, the unstable manifold, this fractal structure serves as a catalyst for the active process. The permanent competition between the enhanced activity along the unstable manifold and the escape due to advection results in a steady state of constant production rate. This observation provides a possible solution for the so-called “paradox of plankton”, that several competing plankton species are able to coexists in spite of the competitive exclusion predicted by classical studies. We point out that the derivation of the reaction (or population dynamics) equations is analog to that of the macroscopic transport equations based on a microscopic kinetic theory whose support is a fractal subset of the full phase space.

10. Routes to fractality and entropy in Liesegang systems.

PubMed

Kalash, Leen; Sultan, Rabih

2014-06-01

Liesegang bands are formed when solutions of co-precipitate ions interdiffuse in a 1D gel matrix. In a recent study [R. F. Sultan, Acta. Mech. Sin. 27, 119 (2011)], Liesegang patterns have been characterized as fractal structures. In addition to experimentally obtained patterns, geometric Liesegang patterns were constructed in conformity with the well-known empirical laws. Both mathematical fractal dimensions and box count dimensions for images of PbF2 and PbI2 Liesegang patterns have been calculated. Liesegang patterns can also be described by the entropy state function, and categorized as more or less ordered structures. We revisit the relation between entropy and fractal dimension, and apply it to simulated geometrical Liesegang patterns. We have resort to three different routes for the estimation of the entropy of a Liesegang pattern. The HarFA software enabled the calculation of the Hausdorff dimension and the topological entropy, then the information dimension and the Shannon entropy. In a third pathway, analytical calculations were carried out by estimating the probability of occurrence of a fractal element or coverage. The product of Shannon entropy and Boltzmann constant yields the thermodynamic entropy. The values for PbF2 and PbI2 Liesegang patterns attained the order of magnitude of the reported Third Law entropies, but yet remained lower, in conformity with the more ordered Liesegang structures. PMID:24985435

11. Fractal and geostatistical methods for modeling of a fracture network

SciTech Connect

Chiles, J.P.

1988-08-01

The modeling of fracture networks is useful for fluid flow and rock mechanics studies. About 6600 fracture traces were recorded on drifts of a uranium mine in a granite massif. The traces have an extension of 0.20-20 m. The network was studied by fractal and by geostatistical methods but can be considered neither as a fractal with a constant dimension nor a set of purely randomly located fractures. Two kinds of generalization of conventional models can still provide more flexibility for the characterization of the network: (a) a nonscaling fractal model with variable similarity dimension (for a 2-D network of traces, the dimension varying from 2 for the 10-m scale to 1 for the centimeter scale, (b) a parent-daughter model with a regionalized density; the geostatistical study allows a 3-D model to be established where: fractures are assumed to be discs; fractures are grouped in clusters or swarms; and fracturation density is regionalized (with two ranges at about 30 and 300 m). The fractal model is easy to fit and to simulate along a line, but 2-D and 3-D simulations are more difficult. The geostatistical model is more complex, but easy to simulate, even in 3-D.

12. Routes to fractality and entropy in Liesegang systems

SciTech Connect

Kalash, Leen; Sultan, Rabih

2014-06-01

Liesegang bands are formed when solutions of co-precipitate ions interdiffuse in a 1D gel matrix. In a recent study [R. F. Sultan, Acta. Mech. Sin. 27, 119 (2011)], Liesegang patterns have been characterized as fractal structures. In addition to experimentally obtained patterns, geometric Liesegang patterns were constructed in conformity with the well-known empirical laws. Both mathematical fractal dimensions and box count dimensions for images of PbF{sub 2} and PbI{sub 2} Liesegang patterns have been calculated. Liesegang patterns can also be described by the entropy state function, and categorized as more or less ordered structures. We revisit the relation between entropy and fractal dimension, and apply it to simulated geometrical Liesegang patterns. We have resort to three different routes for the estimation of the entropy of a Liesegang pattern. The HarFA software enabled the calculation of the Hausdorff dimension and the topological entropy, then the information dimension and the Shannon entropy. In a third pathway, analytical calculations were carried out by estimating the probability of occurrence of a fractal element or coverage. The product of Shannon entropy and Boltzmann constant yields the thermodynamic entropy. The values for PbF{sub 2} and PbI{sub 2} Liesegang patterns attained the order of magnitude of the reported Third Law entropies, but yet remained lower, in conformity with the more ordered Liesegang structures.

13. Tearing Plastic: A Laboratory Exercise on Fractals and Hyperbolic Geometry

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taylor, Ron; Timberlake, Todd

2007-01-01

In this article we describe a hands-on activity for a liberal arts mathematics course that focuses on the beauty and unity of mathematics. The purpose of the activity is to tie together several topics in the context of a "real-world" situation. These topics include: fractals, non-Euclidean geometry, symmetry, and Platonic solids. This activity…

14. Real-time fractal signal processing in the time domain

Hartmann, András; Mukli, Péter; Nagy, Zoltán; Kocsis, László; Hermán, Péter; Eke, András

2013-01-01

Fractal analysis has proven useful for the quantitative characterization of complex time series by scale-free statistical measures in various applications. The analysis has commonly been done offline with the signal being resident in memory in full length, and the processing carried out in several distinct passes. However, in many relevant applications, such as monitoring or forecasting, algorithms are needed to capture changes in the fractal measure real-time. Here we introduce real-time variants of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the closely related Signal Summation Conversion (SSC) methods, which are suitable to estimate the fractal exponent in one pass. Compared to offline algorithms, the precision is the same, the memory requirement is significantly lower, and the execution time depends on the same factors but with different rates. Our tests show that dynamic changes in the fractal parameter can be efficiently detected. We demonstrate the applicability of our real-time methods on signals of cerebral hemodynamics acquired during open-heart surgery.

15. Fractal Character of Titania Nanoparticles Formed by Laser Ablation

SciTech Connect

Musaev, O.; Midgley, A; Wrobel, J; Yan, J; Kruger, M

2009-01-01

Titania nanoparticles were fabricated by laser ablation of polycrystalline rutile in water at room temperature. The resulting nanoparticles were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The electron micrograph image of deposited nanoparticles demonstrates fractal properties.

16. The N-Simplex and Its Generalizations towards Fractals

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kosi-Ulbl, Irena; Pagon, Dusan

2002-01-01

Nature is full of different crystals and many of them have shapes of regular geometric objects. Those in which the fractal structure of a geometric object can be recognized are especially unusual. In this paper a generalization of one of these shapes is described: a formation, based on an n-dimensional simplex. The construction of an n-dimensional…

17. Sandwich type plasmonic platform for MEF using silver fractals.

PubMed

Raut, Sangram L; Rich, Ryan; Shtoyko, Tanya; Bora, Ilkay; Laursen, Bo W; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Borejdo, Julian; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy

2015-11-14

In this report, we describe a plasmonic platform with silver fractals for metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) measurements. When a dye containing surface was brought into contact with silver fractals, a significantly enhanced fluorescence signal from the dye was observed. Fluorescence enhancement was studied with the N-methyl-azadioxatriangulenium chloride salt (Me-ADOTA·Cl) in PVA films made from 0.2% PVA (w/v) solution spin-coated on a clean glass coverslip. The Plasmonic Platforms (PP) were assembled by pressing together silver fractals on one glass slide and a separate glass coverslip spin-coated with a uniform Me-ADOTA·Cl in PVA film. In addition, we also tested ADOTA labeled human serum albumin (HSA) deposited on a glass slide for potential PP bioassay applications. Using the new PP, we could achieve more than a 20-fold fluorescence enhancement (bright spots) accompanied by a decrease in the fluorescence lifetime. The experimental results were used to calculate the extinction (excitation) enhancement factor (GA) and fluorescence radiative rate enhancements factor (GF). No change in emission spectrum was observed for a dye with or without contact with fractals. Our studies indicate that this type of PP can be a convenient approach for constructing assays utilizing metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) without the need for depositing the material directly on metal structures platforms. PMID:26452215

18. The Analysis of Leaf Shape Using Fractal Geometry.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hartvigsen, Gregg

2000-01-01

Describes ways to examine leaf structure and shape using fractal geometry. Students can test hypotheses using the leaves of replicated plants to look for non-linear trends in leaf shape along the stems of plants, across species, and under different environmental growth conditions. (SAH)

19. Fractal Reference Signals in Pulse-Width Modulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lurie, Boris; Lurie, Helen

2005-01-01

A report proposes the use of waveforms having fractal shapes reminiscent of sawteeth (in contradistinction to conventional regular sawtooth waveforms) as reference signals for pulse-width modulation in control systems for thrusters of spacecraft flying in formation. Fractal reference signals may also be attractive in some terrestrial control systems - especially those in which pulse-width modulation is used for precise control of electric motors. The report asserts that the use of fractal reference signals would enable the synchronous control of several variables of a spacecraft formation, such that consumption of propellant would be minimized, intervals between thruster firings would be long (as preferred for performing scientific observations), and delays in controlling large-thrust maneuvers for retargeting would be minimized. The report further asserts that whereas different controllers would be needed for different modes of operation if conventional pulsewidth modulation were used, the use of fractal reference signals would enable the same controller to function nearly optimally in all regimes of operation, so that only this one controller would be needed.

20. Fractal discrimination of MRI breast masses using multiple segmentations

Penn, Alan I.; Thompson, Scott F.; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Loew, Murray H.; Bolinger, Lizann

2000-06-01

Fractal dimension (fd) of lesion borders has been proposed as a feature to discriminate between malignant and benign masses on MR breast images. The fd value is computed using a sample space of fractal models, an approach that reduces sensitivity to signal noise and image variability. The user specifies a rectangular region of interest (ROI) around the mass and the algorithm generates a segmentation zone from the ROI. Fractal models are constructed on multiple threshold intensity contours within the segmentation zone. Preliminary results show that the combination of statistical fd feature and expert-observer interpretations improves separation of benign from malignant breast masses when compared to expert-observer interpretations alone. The statistical fd feature has been incorporated into a prototype computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) system that outputs the following to assist the diagnostician in determining clinical action: (1) A likelihood-of-cancer measure computed from fd and reader interpretations, (2) A binary categorical value indicating whether a test case is fd- highly suspicious or fd-inconclusive, (3) The ROI with portions of the mass border with the most cancer-like fractal characteristics highlighted.

1. Cosmological distances and fractal statistics of galaxy distribution

Ribeiro, M. B.

2005-01-01

This paper studies the effect of the distance choice in radial (non-average) statistical tools} used for fractal characterization of galaxy distribution. After reviewing the basics of measuring distances of cosmological sources, various distance definitions are used to calculate the differential density γ and the integral differential density γ* of the dust distribution in the Einstein-de Sitter cosmology. The main results are as follows: (1) the choice of distance plays a crucial role in determining the scale where relativistic corrections must be taken into account, as both γ and γ* are strongly affected by such a choice; (2) inappropriate distance choices may lead to failure to find evidence of a galaxy fractal structure when one calculates those quantities, even if such a structure does occur in the galaxy distribution; (3) the comoving distance and the distance given by Mattig's formula are unsuitable to probe for a possible fractal pattern as they render γ and γ* constant for all redshifts; (4) a possible galaxy fractal system at scales larger than 100 Mpc (z ≈ 0.03) may only be found if those statistics are calculated with the luminosity or redshift distances, as they are the ones where γ and γ* decrease at higher redshifts; (5) Célérier & Thieberger's (\\cite{ct01}) critique of Ribeiro's (\\cite{r95}) earlier study are rendered impaired as their objections were based on misconceptions regarding relativistic distance definitions.

2. Routes to fractality and entropy in Liesegang systems

Kalash, Leen; Sultan, Rabih

2014-06-01

Liesegang bands are formed when solutions of co-precipitate ions interdiffuse in a 1D gel matrix. In a recent study [R. F. Sultan, Acta. Mech. Sin. 27, 119 (2011)], Liesegang patterns have been characterized as fractal structures. In addition to experimentally obtained patterns, geometric Liesegang patterns were constructed in conformity with the well-known empirical laws. Both mathematical fractal dimensions and box count dimensions for images of PbF2 and PbI2 Liesegang patterns have been calculated. Liesegang patterns can also be described by the entropy state function, and categorized as more or less ordered structures. We revisit the relation between entropy and fractal dimension, and apply it to simulated geometrical Liesegang patterns. We have resort to three different routes for the estimation of the entropy of a Liesegang pattern. The HarFA software enabled the calculation of the Hausdorff dimension and the topological entropy, then the information dimension and the Shannon entropy. In a third pathway, analytical calculations were carried out by estimating the probability of occurrence of a fractal element or coverage. The product of Shannon entropy and Boltzmann constant yields the thermodynamic entropy. The values for PbF2 and PbI2 Liesegang patterns attained the order of magnitude of the reported Third Law entropies, but yet remained lower, in conformity with the more ordered Liesegang structures.

3. Protozoan community structure in a fractal soil environment.

PubMed

Finlay, B J; Fenchel, T

2001-09-01

Protozoan abundance was quantified, and 365 protozoan species were recorded, in 150 soil samples from an upland grassland in Scotland. Across the entire size range (2-200 pm) protozoan species richness varied by a factor of two, whereas abundance increased by a factor of 20 with decreasing body size. As the soil had fractal structure, the relatively flat species curve can be explained if spatial heterogeneity determines species number--for in a fractal environment, heterogeneity will be the same at all spatial scales. Community structure appeared to approach a temporary steady-state about six days after re-hydration of dried soil. A simple model based on combining the fractal character of increasing habitat area at smaller spatial scales, with the weight-specific energy requirements of protozoa, provided theoretical curves of abundance and biovolume on body size which provide a reasonable fit to real data. We suggest two possibilities--that the apparent competence of the theoretical model is fortuitous and the product of poorly understood dynamic elements of the trophic structure in the community; or that key elements of protozoan community structure in a fractal soil environment may be largely explained in terms of habitat space and energy requirements. PMID:11693659

4. On the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus for Fractal Sets

Bongiorno, Donatella; Corrao, Giuseppa

2015-04-01

The aim of this paper is to formulate the best version of the Fundamental theorem of Calculus for real functions on a fractal subset of the real line. In order to do that an integral of Henstock-Kurzweil type is introduced.

5. Quantitating the subtleties of microglial morphology with fractal analysis

PubMed Central

Karperien, Audrey; Ahammer, Helmut; Jelinek, Herbert F.

2013-01-01

It is well established that microglial form and function are inextricably linked. In recent years, the traditional view that microglial form ranges between “ramified resting” and “activated amoeboid” has been emphasized through advancing imaging techniques that point to microglial form being highly dynamic even within the currently accepted morphological categories. Moreover, microglia adopt meaningful intermediate forms between categories, with considerable crossover in function and varying morphologies as they cycle, migrate, wave, phagocytose, and extend and retract fine and gross processes. From a quantitative perspective, it is problematic to measure such variability using traditional methods, but one way of quantitating such detail is through fractal analysis. The techniques of fractal analysis have been used for quantitating microglial morphology, to categorize gross differences but also to differentiate subtle differences (e.g., amongst ramified cells). Multifractal analysis in particular is one technique of fractal analysis that may be useful for identifying intermediate forms. Here we review current trends and methods of fractal analysis, focusing on box counting analysis, including lacunarity and multifractal analysis, as applied to microglial morphology. PMID:23386810

6. Fractal Explorations in Secondary Mathematics, Science, and Computer Science.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Egnatoff, William J.

1991-01-01

Fractal geometry is introduced through examples of computational exploration of coastlines, self-similar curves, random walks, and population growth. These explorations, which include the construction of algorithms and the subsequent development and application of simple computer programs, lend themselves to self-directed study and advanced…

7. Fractal and complex network analyses of protein molecular dynamics

Zhou, Yuan-Wu; Liu, Jin-Long; Yu, Zu-Guo; Zhao, Zhi-Qin; Anh, Vo

2014-12-01

Based on protein molecular dynamics, we investigate the fractal properties of energy, pressure and volume time series using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and the topological and fractal properties of their converted horizontal visibility graphs (HVGs). The energy parameters of protein dynamics we considered are bonded potential, angle potential, dihedral potential, improper potential, kinetic energy, Van der Waals potential, electrostatic potential, total energy and potential energy. The shape of the h(q) curves from MF-DFA indicates that these time series are multifractal. The numerical values of the exponent h(2) of MF-DFA show that the series of total energy and potential energy are non-stationary and anti-persistent; the other time series are stationary and persistent apart from series of pressure (with H≈0.5 indicating the absence of long-range correlation). The degree distributions of their converted HVGs show that these networks are exponential. The results of fractal analysis show that fractality exists in these converted HVGs. For each energy, pressure or volume parameter, it is found that the values of h(2) of MF-DFA on the time series, exponent λ of the exponential degree distribution and fractal dimension dB of their converted HVGs do not change much for different proteins (indicating some universality). We also found that after taking average over all proteins, there is a linear relationship between (from MF-DFA on time series) and of the converted HVGs for different energy, pressure and volume.

8. Fractal and stochastic geometry inference for breast cancer: a case study with random fractal models and Quermass-interaction process.

PubMed

Hermann, Philipp; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Mattfeldt, Torsten; Minárová, Mária; Helisová, Kateřina; Nicolis, Orietta; Wartner, Fabian; Stehlík, Milan

2015-08-15

Fractals are models of natural processes with many applications in medicine. The recent studies in medicine show that fractals can be applied for cancer detection and the description of pathological architecture of tumors. This fact is not surprising, as due to the irregular structure, cancerous cells can be interpreted as fractals. Inspired by Sierpinski carpet, we introduce a flexible parametric model of random carpets. Randomization is introduced by usage of binomial random variables. We provide an algorithm for estimation of parameters of the model and illustrate theoretical and practical issues in generation of Sierpinski gaskets and Hausdorff measure calculations. Stochastic geometry models can also serve as models for binary cancer images. Recently, a Boolean model was applied on the 200 images of mammary cancer tissue and 200 images of mastopathic tissue. Here, we describe the Quermass-interaction process, which can handle much more variations in the cancer data, and we apply it to the images. It was found out that mastopathic tissue deviates significantly stronger from Quermass-interaction process, which describes interactions among particles, than mammary cancer tissue does. The Quermass-interaction process serves as a model describing the tissue, which structure is broken to a certain level. However, random fractal model fits well for mastopathic tissue. We provide a novel discrimination method between mastopathic and mammary cancer tissue on the basis of complex wavelet-based self-similarity measure with classification rates more than 80%. Such similarity measure relates to Hurst exponent and fractional Brownian motions. The R package FractalParameterEstimation is developed and introduced in the paper. PMID:25847279

9. Surface fractal analysis of pore structure of high-volume fly-ash cement pastes

Zeng, Qiang; Li, Kefei; Fen-Chong, Teddy; Dangla, Patrick

2010-11-01

The surface fractal dimensions of high-volume fly-ash cement pastes are evaluated for their hardening processes on the basis of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) data. Two surface fractal models are retained: Neimark's model with cylindrical pore hypothesis and Zhang's model without pore geometry assumption. From both models, the logarithm plots exhibit the scale-dependent fractal properties and three distinct fractal regions (I, II, III) are identified for the pore structures. For regions I and III, corresponding to the large (capillary) and small (C-S-H inter-granular) pore ranges respectively, the pore structure shows strong fractal property and the fractal dimensions are evaluated as 2.592-2.965 by Neimark's model and 2.487-2.695 by Zhang's model. The fractal dimension of region I increases with w/ b ratio and hardening age but decreases with fly-ash content by its physical filling effect; the fractal dimension of region III does not evolve much with these factors. The region II of pore size range, corresponding to small capillary pores, turns out to be a transition region and show no clear fractal properties. The range of this region is much influenced by fly-ash content in the pastes. Finally, the correlation between the obtained fractal dimensions and pore structure evolution is discussed in depth.

10. Effective degrees of freedom of a random walk on a fractal.

PubMed

Balankin, Alexander S

2015-12-01

We argue that a non-Markovian random walk on a fractal can be treated as a Markovian process in a fractional dimensional space with a suitable metric. This allows us to define the fractional dimensional space allied to the fractal as the ν-dimensional space F(ν) equipped with the metric induced by the fractal topology. The relation between the number of effective spatial degrees of freedom of walkers on the fractal (ν) and fractal dimensionalities is deduced. The intrinsic time of random walk in F(ν) is inferred. The Laplacian operator in F(ν) is constructed. This allows us to map physical problems on fractals into the corresponding problems in F(ν). In this way, essential features of physics on fractals are revealed. Particularly, subdiffusion on path-connected fractals is elucidated. The Coulomb potential of a point charge on a fractal embedded in the Euclidean space is derived. Intriguing attributes of some types of fractals are highlighted. PMID:26764671

11. Micro and MACRO Fractals Generated by Multi-Valued Dynamical Systems

2014-08-01

Given a multi-valued function Φ : X \\mumap X on a topological space X we study the properties of its fixed fractal \\malteseΦ, which is defined as the closure of the orbit Φω(*Φ) = ⋃n∈ωΦn(*Φ) of the set *Φ = {x ∈ X : x ∈ Φ(x)} of fixed points of Φ. A special attention is paid to the duality between micro-fractals and macro-fractals, which are fixed fractals \\maltese Φ and \\maltese {Φ -1} for a contracting compact-valued function Φ : X \\mumap X on a complete metric space X. With help of algorithms (described in this paper) we generate various images of macro-fractals which are dual to some well-known micro-fractals like the fractal cross, the Sierpiński triangle, Sierpiński carpet, the Koch curve, or the fractal snowflakes. The obtained images show that macro-fractals have a large-scale fractal structure, which becomes clearly visible after a suitable zooming.

12. The Use of Fractals for the Study of the Psychology of Perception:

Mitina, Olga V.; Abraham, Frederick David

The present article deals with perception of time (subjective assessment of temporal intervals), complexity and aesthetic attractiveness of visual objects. The experimental research for construction of functional relations between objective parameters of fractals' complexity (fractal dimension and Lyapunov exponent) and subjective perception of their complexity was conducted. As stimulus material we used the program based on Sprott's algorithms for the generation of fractals and the calculation of their mathematical characteristics. For the research 20 fractals were selected which had different fractal dimensions that varied from 0.52 to 2.36, and the Lyapunov exponent from 0.01 to 0.22. We conducted two experiments: (1) A total of 20 fractals were shown to 93 participants. The fractals were displayed on the screen of a computer for randomly chosen time intervals ranging from 5 to 20 s. For each fractal displayed, the participant responded with a rating of the complexity and attractiveness of the fractal using ten-point scale with an estimate of the duration of the presentation of the stimulus. Each participant also answered the questions of some personality tests (Cattell and others). The main purpose of this experiment was the analysis of the correlation between personal characteristics and subjective perception of complexity, attractiveness, and duration of fractal's presentation. (2) The same 20 fractals were shown to 47 participants as they were forming on the screen of the computer for a fixed interval. Participants also estimated subjective complexity and attractiveness of fractals. The hypothesis on the applicability of the Weber-Fechner law for the perception of time, complexity and subjective attractiveness was confirmed for measures of dynamical properties of fractal images.

13. Microtopographic Inspection and Fractal Analysis of Skin Neoplasia

Costa, Manuel F. M.; Hipolito, Alberto Valencia; Gutierrez, Gustavo Fidel; Chanona, Jorge; Gallegos, Eva Ramón

2008-04-01

Early detection of skin cancer is fundamental to a successful treatment. Changes in the shape, including the relief, of skin lesions are an indicator of a possible malignity. Optical microtopographic inspection of skin lesions can be used to identify diagnostic patterns of benign and malign skin' lesions. Statistical parameters like the mean roughness (Ra) may allow the discrimination between different types of lesions and degree of malignity. Fractal analysis of bi-dimensional and 3D images of skin lesions can validate or complement that assessment by calculation of its fractal dimensions (FD). On the study herein reported the microtopographic inspection of the skin lesions were performed using the optical triangulation based microtopographer developed at the Physics Department of the University of Minho, MICROTOP.03.MFC. The patients that participated in this research work were men and women older than 15 years with the clinical and histopathology diagnoses of: melanoma, basocellular carcinoma, epidermoide carcinoma, actinic keratosis, keratoacantosis and benign nevus. Latex impressions of the lesions were taken and microtopographically analyzed. Characteristic information for each type of studied lesion was obtained. For melanoma it was observed that on the average these tumors present an increased roughness of around 67 percent compared to the roughness of the healthy skin. This feature allows the distinction from other tumors as basocellular carcinoma (were the roughness increase was in the average of 49 percent) and benign lesions as the epidermoide cyst (37 percent) or the seborrhea keratosis (4 percent). Tumor size and roughness are directly proportional to the grade of malignality. The characterization of the fractal geometry of 2D (histological slides) and 3D images of skin lesions was performed by obtaining its FD evaluated by means of the Box counting method. Results obtained showed that the average fractal dimension of histological slide images (FDh

14. Surface Fractal Dimension of Bentonite and its Application in Calculation of Swelling Deformation

Xiang, G. S.; Xu, Y. F.; Jiang, H.

2014-09-01

The correlation between the void ratio of swelled montmorillonite and the vertical overburden pressure can be expressed as {e}{ m} = Kp{ s}{D{ s}-3}. The surface fractal dimension Ds of five bentonites were estimated from the swelling deformation tests according to this fractal correlation. The reliability of surface fractal dimension obtained from the swelling deformation test was confirmed by nitrogen adsorption test, with identical values of surface fractal dimension obtained from both tests. The surface fractal dimension can also be used to estimate the swelling deformation of bentonite, after calculating the swelling coefficient K from the parameters of diffuse double layer (DDL) model in the osmotic swelling phase. Comparison of the model predictions with a number of experimental results on swelling deformation of both Na dominant and Ca dominant bentonites suggests that the surface fractal model works excellent in the cases tested.

15. A Fractal Analysis Approach for the Evaluation of Hybridization Kinetics in Biosensors.

PubMed

2001-02-01

The diffusion-limited hybridization kinetics of analyte in solution to a receptor immobilized on a biosensor or immunosensor surface is analyzed within a fractal framework. The data may be analyzed by a single- or a dual-fractal analysis. This was indicated by the regression analysis provided by Sigmaplot (Sigmaplot, Scientific Graphing Software, User's Manual, Jandel Scientific, CA, 1993). It is of interest to note that the binding rate coefficient and the fractal dimension both exhibit changes, in general, in the same direction for both the single-fractal and the dual-fractal analysis examples presented. The binding rate coefficient expression developed as a function of the analyte concentration in solution and the fractal dimension is of particular value since it provides a means to better control biosensor or immunosensor performance. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11161484

16. Fractals properties of EEG during event-related desynchronization of motor imagery.

PubMed

Nguyen, Ngoc Quang; Truong, Quang Dang Khoa; Kondo, Toshiyuki

2015-08-01

Chaos and fractal dimension are emerging modalities for the research of electroencephalogram (EEG) signal processing. The capability of measuring non-linear characteristics of the fractal dimension enables new methodologies to identify distinct brain activities. Recent studies on the topic focus on utilizing various types of fractals as features in order to design better brain state classification system. However, we have little insight about the EEG signals projected in fractal dimension. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the non-linear characteristics of ongoing EEG signals and event-related desynchronization (ERD) during motor imagery. We observed a considerable synchronization between ERD and fractal dimension. This finding suggests further usage of chaos and fractal theory in investigating brain activities. PMID:26737207

17. Fractal characteristics of fracture morphology of steels irradiated with high-energy ions

Xian, Yongqiang; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Chonghong; Chen, Jiachao; Yang, Yitao; Zhang, Liqing; Song, Yin

2015-06-01

A fractal analysis of fracture surfaces of steels (a ferritic/martensitic steel and an oxide-dispersion-strengthened ferritic steel) before and after the irradiation with high-energy ions is presented. Fracture surfaces were acquired from a tensile test and a small-ball punch test (SP). Digital images of the fracture surfaces obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to calculate the fractal dimension (FD) by using the pixel covering method. Boundary of binary image and fractal dimension were determined with a MATLAB program. The results indicate that fractal dimension can be an effective parameter to describe the characteristics of fracture surfaces before and after irradiation. The rougher the fracture surface, the larger the fractal dimension. Correlation of the change of fractal dimension with the embrittlement of the irradiated steels is discussed.

18. Fractal image analysis - Application to the topography of Oregon and synthetic images.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Huang, Jie; Turcotte, Donald L.

1990-01-01

Digitized topography for the state of Oregon has been used to obtain maps of fractal dimension and roughness amplitude. The roughness amplitude correlates well with variations in relief and is a promising parameter for the quantitative classification of landforms. The spatial variations in fractal dimension are low and show no clear correlation with different tectonic settings. For Oregon the mean fractal dimension from a two-dimensional spectral analysis is D = 2.586, and for a one-dimensional spectral analysis the mean fractal dimension is D = 1.487, which is close to the Brown noise value D = 1.5. Synthetic two-dimensional images have also been generated for a range of D values. For D = 2.6, the synthetic image has a mean one-dimensional spectral fractal dimension D = 1.58, which is consistent with the results for Oregon. This approach can be easily applied to any digitzed image that obeys fractal statistics.

19. Study on Solidification of Phase Change Material in Fractal Porous Metal Foam

Zhang, Chengbin; Wu, Liangyu; Chen, Yongping

2015-02-01

The Sierpinski fractal is introduced to construct the porous metal foam. Based on this fractal description, an unsteady heat transfer model accompanied with solidification phase change in fractal porous metal foam embedded with phase change material (PCM) is developed and numerically analyzed. The heat transfer processes associated with solidification of PCM embedded in fractal structure is investigated and compared with that in single-pore structure. The results indicate that, for the solidification of phase change material in fractal porous metal foam, the PCM is dispersedly distributed in metal foam and the existence of porous metal matrix provides a fast heat flow channel both horizontally and vertically, which induces the enhancement of interstitial heat transfer between the solid matrix and PCM. The solidification performance of the PCM, which is represented by liquid fraction and solidification time, in fractal structure is superior to that in single-pore structure.

20. Observation of two different fractal structures in nanoparticle, protein and surfactant complexes

SciTech Connect

Mehan, Sumit Kumar, Sugam Aswal, V. K.

2014-04-24

Small angle neutron scattering has been carried out from a complex of nanoparticle, protein and surfactant. Although all the components are similarly (anionic) charged, we have observed strong interactions in their complex formation. It is characterized by the coexistence of two different mass fractal structures. The first fractal structure is originated from the protein and surfactant interaction and second from the depletion effect of first fractal structure leading the nanoparticle aggregation. The fractal structure of protein-surfactant complex represents to bead necklace structure of micelle-like clusters of surfactant formed along the unfolded protein chain. Its fractal dimension depends on the surfactant to protein ratio (r) and decreases with the increase in r. However, fractal dimension of nanoparticle aggregates in nanoparticle-protein complex is found to be independent of protein concentration and governed by the diffusion limited aggregation like morphology.

1. Vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space and its applications to fractal media

Tarasov, Vasily E.

2015-02-01

We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for the case of non-integer dimensional space. The first and second orders operations such as gradient, divergence, the scalar and vector Laplace operators for non-integer dimensional space are defined. For simplification we consider scalar and vector fields that are independent of angles. We formulate a generalization of vector calculus for rotationally covariant scalar and vector functions. This generalization allows us to describe fractal media and materials in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. As examples of application of the suggested calculus, we consider elasticity of fractal materials (fractal hollow ball and fractal cylindrical pipe with pressure inside and outside), steady distribution of heat in fractal media, electric field of fractal charged cylinder. We solve the correspondent equations for non-integer dimensional space models.

2. Analysis of Fractional Flow for Transient Two-Phase Flow in Fractal Porous Medium

Lu, Ting; Duan, Yonggang; Fang, Quantang; Dai, Xiaolu; Wu, Jinsui

2016-03-01

Prediction of fractional flow in fractal porous medium is important for reservoir engineering and chemical engineering as well as hydrology. A physical conceptual fractional flow model of transient two-phase flow is developed in fractal porous medium based on the fractal characteristics of pore-size distribution and on the approximation that porous medium consist of a bundle of tortuous capillaries. The analytical expression for fractional flow for wetting phase is presented, and the proposed expression is the function of structural parameters (such as tortuosity fractal dimension, pore fractal dimension, maximum and minimum diameters of capillaries) and fluid properties (such as contact angle, viscosity and interfacial tension) in fractal porous medium. The sensitive parameters that influence fractional flow and its derivative are formulated, and their impacts on fractional flow are discussed.

3. Observation of two different fractal structures in nanoparticle, protein and surfactant complexes

Mehan, Sumit; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.

2014-04-01

Small angle neutron scattering has been carried out from a complex of nanoparticle, protein and surfactant. Although all the components are similarly (anionic) charged, we have observed strong interactions in their complex formation. It is characterized by the coexistence of two different mass fractal structures. The first fractal structure is originated from the protein and surfactant interaction and second from the depletion effect of first fractal structure leading the nanoparticle aggregation. The fractal structure of protein-surfactant complex represents to bead necklace structure of micelle-like clusters of surfactant formed along the unfolded protein chain. Its fractal dimension depends on the surfactant to protein ratio (r) and decreases with the increase in r. However, fractal dimension of nanoparticle aggregates in nanoparticle-protein complex is found to be independent of protein concentration and governed by the diffusion limited aggregation like morphology.

4. The Three-Point Sinuosity Method for Calculating the Fractal Dimension of Machined Surface Profile

Zhou, Yuankai; Li, Yan; Zhu, Hua; Zuo, Xue; Yang, Jianhua

2015-04-01

The three-point sinuosity (TPS) method is proposed to calculate the fractal dimension of surface profile accurately. In this method, a new measure, TPS is defined to present the structural complexity of fractal curves, and has been proved to follow the power law. Thus, the fractal dimension can be calculated through the slope of the fitted line in the log-log plot. The Weierstrass-Mandelbrot (W-M) fractal curves, as well as the real surface profiles obtained by grinding, sand blasting and turning, are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The calculation values are compared to those obtained from root-mean-square (RMS) method, box-counting (BC) method and variation method. The results show that the TPS method has the widest scaling region, the least fit error and the highest accuracy among the methods examined, which demonstrates that the fractal characteristics of the fractal curves can be well revealed by the proposed method.

5. Testing a Threshold: An Approximate Replication of Johnson, Mercado & Acevedo 2012

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johnson, Mark D.; Nicodemus, Christine L.

2016-01-01

In order to better understand the role of working memory in second language (L2) written production, this study contributes to recent research attempting to apply Kellogg's model of working memory in first language (L1) writing to L2 writing research (Ellis & Yuan 2004; Ong & Zhang 2010; Johnson, Mercado & Acevedo 2012). This paper…

6. International trade network: fractal properties and globalization puzzle.

PubMed

Karpiarz, Mariusz; Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata

2014-12-12

Globalization is one of the central concepts of our age. The common perception of the process is that, due to declining communication and transport costs, distance becomes less and less important. However, the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade, which grows in time, indicates that the role of distance increases rather than decreases. This, in essence, captures the notion of the globalization puzzle. Here, we show that the fractality of the international trade system (ITS) provides a simple solution for the puzzle. We argue that the distance coefficient corresponds to the fractal dimension of ITS. We provide two independent methods, the box counting method and spatial choice model, which confirm this statement. Our results allow us to conclude that the previous approaches to solving the puzzle misinterpreted the meaning of the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade. PMID:25541810

7. Excitation gap of fractal quantum hall states in graphene.

PubMed

Luo, Wenchen; Chakraborty, Tapash

2016-01-13

In the presence of a magnetic field and an external periodic potential the Landau level spectrum of a two-dimensional electron gas exhibits a fractal pattern in the energy spectrum which is described as the Hofstadter's butterfly. In this work, we develop a Hartree-Fock theory to deal with the electron-electron interaction in the Hofstadter's butterfly state in a finite-size graphene with periodic boundary conditions, where we include both spin and valley degrees of freedom. We then treat the butterfly state as an electron crystal so that we could obtain the order parameters of the crystal in the momentum space and also in an infinite sample. A phase transition between the liquid phase and the fractal crystal phase can be observed. The excitation gaps obtained in the infinite sample is comparable to those in the finite-size study, and agree with a recent experimental observation. PMID:26657089

8. Excitation gap of fractal quantum hall states in graphene

Luo, Wenchen; Chakraborty, Tapash

2016-01-01

In the presence of a magnetic field and an external periodic potential the Landau level spectrum of a two-dimensional electron gas exhibits a fractal pattern in the energy spectrum which is described as the Hofstadter’s butterfly. In this work, we develop a Hartree-Fock theory to deal with the electron-electron interaction in the Hofstadter’s butterfly state in a finite-size graphene with periodic boundary conditions, where we include both spin and valley degrees of freedom. We then treat the butterfly state as an electron crystal so that we could obtain the order parameters of the crystal in the momentum space and also in an infinite sample. A phase transition between the liquid phase and the fractal crystal phase can be observed. The excitation gaps obtained in the infinite sample is comparable to those in the finite-size study, and agree with a recent experimental observation.

9. Fractals in the Nervous System: Conceptual Implications for Theoretical Neuroscience

PubMed Central

Werner, Gerhard

2010-01-01

This essay is presented with two principal objectives in mind: first, to document the prevalence of fractals at all levels of the nervous system, giving credence to the notion of their functional relevance; and second, to draw attention to the as yet still unresolved issues of the detailed relationships among power-law scaling, self-similarity, and self-organized criticality. As regards criticality, I will document that it has become a pivotal reference point in Neurodynamics. Furthermore, I will emphasize the not yet fully appreciated significance of allometric control processes. For dynamic fractals, I will assemble reasons for attributing to them the capacity to adapt task execution to contextual changes across a range of scales. The final Section consists of general reflections on the implications of the reviewed data, and identifies what appear to be issues of fundamental importance for future research in the rapidly evolving topic of this review. PMID:21423358

10. Fractal ladder models and power law wave equations

PubMed Central

Kelly, James F.; McGough, Robert J.

2009-01-01

The ultrasonic attenuation coefficient in mammalian tissue is approximated by a frequency-dependent power law for frequencies less than 100 MHz. To describe this power law behavior in soft tissue, a hierarchical fractal network model is proposed. The viscoelastic and self-similar properties of tissue are captured by a constitutive equation based on a lumped parameter infinite-ladder topology involving alternating springs and dashpots. In the low-frequency limit, this ladder network yields a stress-strain constitutive equation with a time-fractional derivative. By combining this constitutive equation with linearized conservation principles and an adiabatic equation of state, a fractional partial differential equation that describes power law attenuation is derived. The resulting attenuation coefficient is a power law with exponent ranging between 1 and 2, while the phase velocity is in agreement with the Kramers–Kronig relations. The fractal ladder model is compared to published attenuation coefficient data, thus providing equivalent lumped parameters. PMID:19813816

11. Radar cross section of a planar fractal tree

Demiris, John

1989-03-01

Electromagnetic scattering from trees and vegetation is of prime importance in radar and remote sensing. The actual problem of scattering from trees is rather complicated and involves three dimensional scattering from lossy, electrically large, and randomly oriented objects. In this thesis, the radar cross section of a planar fractal tree is considered. Although a planar tree is far from being real, scattering from it shed light on the scattering phenomenon from an actual tree. The planar tree is generated using fractal geometry and its branches are considered perfectly conducting. The tree is illuminated by a plane wave and the problem is solved using the moment method. Data is presented for the radar cross section for different branching angles of the tree and at different frequencies.

12. Concentration profiles for diffusion and nonlinear transport on fractals

Giona, M.; Adrover, A.; Schwalm, W.; Schwalm, M.

1996-03-01

A Green function renormalization gives transport properties on fractal lattices (finitely or infinitely ramified) to arbitrary numerical precision. We continue an analysis of finite-difference transport modelsfootnote M. Giona et al., Fractals in the Natural and Applied Sciences, ed. M. Novak (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1994) pp. 153-163; M. Giona et al., Chem. E. Sci. (to appear). focusing on spatial concentration profiles, (2) nonlinear transport, (3) global properties from renormalization of the generating function Z(E) = int d φ exp[-φ^t (H -E I )φ/2] (Adjacency matrix H defines the lattice structure.) by methods not based on decimation. In (1) the Fourier transform of spatial concentration profile is computed as a dynamic structure factor. A perturbation expansion is developed in (2), and (3) presents formalism alternative to that of Tramblay and Southern(Tremblay, B. Southern, J. Phys. Lett. (Paris) 44), 843 (1984)..

13. Engineering wave localization in a fractal waveguide network

Pal, Biplab; Patra, Pinaki; Saha, Jyoti Prasad; Chakrabarti, Arunava

2013-02-01

We present an exact analytical method of engineering the localization of classical waves in a fractal waveguide network. It is shown that a countable infinity of localized eigenmodes with a multitude of localization lengths can exist in a Vicsek fractal geometry built with diamond-shaped monomode waveguides as the “unit cells.” The family of localized modes forms clusters of increasing size. The length scale at which the onset of localization for each mode takes place can be engineered at will, following a well-defined prescription developed within the framework of a real space renormalization group. The scheme leads to an exact evaluation of the wave vector for every such localized state, a task that is nontrivial, if not impossible for any random or deterministically disordered waveguide network.

14. Porosity-dependent fractal nature of the porous silicon surface

SciTech Connect

Rahmani, N.; Dariani, R. S.

2015-07-15

Porous silicon films with porosity ranging from 42% to 77% were fabricated by electrochemical anodization under different current density. We used atomic force microscopy and dynamic scaling theory for deriving the surface roughness profile and processing the topography of the porous silicon layers, respectively. We first compared the topography of bare silicon surface with porous silicon and then studied the effect of the porosity of porous silicon films on their scaling behavior by using their self-affinity nature. Our work demonstrated that silicon compared to the porous silicon films has the highest Hurst parameter, indicating that the formation of porous layer due to the anodization etching of silicon surface leads to an increase of its roughness. Fractal analysis revealed that the evolution of the nanocrystallites’ fractal dimension along with porosity. Also, we found that both interface width and Hurst parameter are affected by the increase of porosity.

15. Integrated quantitative fractal polarimetric analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells

Shrestha, Suman; Zhang, Lin; Quang, Tri; Farrahi, Tannaz; Narayan, Chaya; Deshpande, Aditi; Na, Ying; Blinzler, Adam; Ma, Junyu; Liu, Bo; Giakos, George C.

2014-05-01

Digital diagnostic pathology has become one of the most valuable and convenient advancements in technology over the past years. It allows us to acquire, store and analyze pathological information from the images of histological and immunohistochemical glass slides which are scanned to create digital slides. In this study, efficient fractal, wavelet-based polarimetric techniques for histological analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells will be introduced and different monolayer cancer lines will be studied. The outcome of this study indicates that application of fractal, wavelet polarimetric principles towards the analysis of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines may be proved extremely useful in discriminating among healthy and lung cancer cells as well as differentiating among different lung cancer cells.

16. Texture descriptor combining fractal dimension and artificial crawlers

Gonçalves, Wesley Nunes; Machado, Bruno Brandoli; Bruno, Odemir Martinez

2014-02-01

Texture is an important visual attribute used to describe images. There are many methods available for texture analysis. However, they do not capture the detail richness of the image surface. In this paper, we propose a new method to describe textures using the artificial crawler model. This model assumes that agents can interact with the environment and each other. Since this swarm system alone does not achieve a good discrimination, we developed a new method to increase the discriminatory power of artificial crawlers, together with the fractal dimension theory. Here, we estimated the fractal dimension by the Bouligand-Minkowski method due to its precision in quantifying structural properties of images. We validate our method on two texture datasets and the experimental results reveal that our method leads to highly discriminative textural features. The results indicate that our method can be used in different texture applications.

17. Phase transition of the Ising model on a fractal lattice.

PubMed

Genzor, Jozef; Gendiar, Andrej; Nishino, Tomotoshi

2016-01-01

The phase transition of the Ising model is investigated on a planar lattice that has a fractal structure. On the lattice, the number of bonds that cross the border of a finite area is doubled when the linear size of the area is extended by a factor of 4. The free energy and the spontaneous magnetization of the system are obtained by means of the higher-order tensor renormalization group method. The system exhibits the order-disorder phase transition, where the critical indices are different from those of the square-lattice Ising model. An exponential decay is observed in the density-matrix spectrum even at the critical point. It is possible to interpret that the system is less entangled because of the fractal geometry. PMID:26871057

18. Multiresolution processing for fractal analysis of airborne remotely sensed data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jaggi, S.; Quattrochi, D.; Lam, N.

1992-01-01

Images acquired by NASA's Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner are used to compute the fractal dimension as a function of spatial resolution. Three methods are used to determine the fractal dimension: Shelberg's (1982, 1983) line-divider method, the variogram method, and the triangular prism method. A description of these methods and the result of applying these methods to a remotely-sensed image is also presented. The scanner data was acquired over western Puerto Rico in January, 1990 over land and water. The aim is to study impacts of man-induced changes on land that affect sedimentation into the near-shore environment. The data were obtained over the same area at three different pixel sizes: 10 m, 20 m, and 30 m.

19. Fractal Formation and Trend Trading Strategy in Futures Market

Masteika, Saulius; Rutkauskas, Aleksandras V.; Lopata, Audrius

The paper presents the details of trend trading algorithm in futures market. A contribution of this paper lies in a modified chart pattern related to a fractal formation, nonlinearity and chaos theory, broadly discussed by Benoit B. Mandelbrot and Bill M. Williams. As typical fractal pattern often is being applied in conjunction with other forms of technical analysis, like moving averages, Elliott Waves analysis or MACD indicators the proposed pattern is presented as a basic indicator itself. The strategy can be applied as up-trend market forecasting tool. The efficiency of the proposed strategy was tested with the most active North American futures contracts using 10 years historical daily data. Experimental results showed better returns if compared to overall market average-CRB index.

20. Fractal scaling properties in nonstationary heartbeat time series

Peng, C.-K.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

1996-06-01

Under healthy conditions, the normal cardiac (sinus) interbeat interval fluctuates in a complex manner. Quantitative analysis using techniques adapted from statistical physics reveals the presence of long-range power-law correlations extending over thousands of heartbeats. This scale-invariant (fractal) behavior suggests that the regulatory system generating these fluctuations is operating far from equilibrium. In contrast, we find that for subjects at high risk of sudden death (e.g. congestive heart failure patients) these long-range correlations break down. Application of fractal scaling analysis and related techniques provides new approaches to assessing cardiac risk and forecasting sudden cardiac death, as well as motivating development of novel physiological models of systems that appear to be hetero-dynamic'' rather than `homeo-static.''

1. Relativistic corrections to fractal analyses of the galaxy distribution

Célérier, M.-N.; Thieberger, R.

2001-02-01

The effect of curvature on the results of fractal analyses of the galaxy distribution is investigated. We show that, if the universe satisfies the criteria of a wide class of parabolic homogeneous models, the observers measuring the fractal index with the integrated conditional density procedure may use the Hubble formula, without having to allow for curvature, out to distances of 600 Mpc, and possibly far beyond. This contradicts a previous claim by Ribeiro (\\cite{r33}) that, in the Einstein-de Sitter case, relativistic corrections should be taken into account at much smaller scales. We state for the class of cosmological models under study, and give grounds for conjecture for others, that the averaging procedure has a smoothing effect and that, therefore, the redshift-distance relation provides an upper limit to the relativistic corrections involved in such analyses.

2. International Trade Network: Fractal Properties and Globalization Puzzle

Karpiarz, Mariusz; Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata

2014-12-01

Globalization is one of the central concepts of our age. The common perception of the process is that, due to declining communication and transport costs, distance becomes less and less important. However, the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade, which grows in time, indicates that the role of distance increases rather than decreases. This, in essence, captures the notion of the globalization puzzle. Here, we show that the fractality of the international trade system (ITS) provides a simple solution for the puzzle. We argue that the distance coefficient corresponds to the fractal dimension of ITS. We provide two independent methods, the box counting method and spatial choice model, which confirm this statement. Our results allow us to conclude that the previous approaches to solving the puzzle misinterpreted the meaning of the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade.

3. Predicting beauty: fractal dimension and visual complexity in art.

PubMed

Forsythe, A; Nadal, M; Sheehy, N; Cela-Conde, C J; Sawey, M

2011-02-01

Visual complexity has been known to be a significant predictor of preference for artistic works for some time. The first study reported here examines the extent to which perceived visual complexity in art can be successfully predicted using automated measures of complexity. Contrary to previous findings the most successful predictor of visual complexity was Gif compression. The second study examined the extent to which fractal dimension could account for judgments of perceived beauty. The fractal dimension measure accounts for more of the variance in judgments of perceived beauty in visual art than measures of visual complexity alone, particularly for abstract and natural images. Results also suggest that when colour is removed from an artistic image observers are unable to make meaningful judgments as to its beauty. PMID:21241285

4. Fractal Analysis of Permeability of Unsaturated Fractured Rocks

PubMed Central

Jiang, Guoping; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lili

2013-01-01

A physical conceptual model for water retention in fractured rocks is derived while taking into account the effect of pore size distribution and tortuosity of capillaries. The formula of calculating relative hydraulic conductivity of fractured rock is given based on fractal theory. It is an issue to choose an appropriate capillary pressure-saturation curve in the research of unsaturated fractured mass. The geometric pattern of the fracture bulk is described based on the fractal distribution of tortuosity. The resulting water content expression is then used to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the fractured medium based on the well-known model of Burdine. It is found that for large enough ranges of fracture apertures the new constitutive model converges to the empirical Brooks-Corey model. PMID:23690746

5. Phase transition of the Ising model on a fractal lattice

Genzor, Jozef; Gendiar, Andrej; Nishino, Tomotoshi

2016-01-01

The phase transition of the Ising model is investigated on a planar lattice that has a fractal structure. On the lattice, the number of bonds that cross the border of a finite area is doubled when the linear size of the area is extended by a factor of 4. The free energy and the spontaneous magnetization of the system are obtained by means of the higher-order tensor renormalization group method. The system exhibits the order-disorder phase transition, where the critical indices are different from those of the square-lattice Ising model. An exponential decay is observed in the density-matrix spectrum even at the critical point. It is possible to interpret that the system is less entangled because of the fractal geometry.

6. Fractal structure formation from Ag nanoparticle films on insulating substrates.

PubMed

Tang, Jing; Li, Zhiyong; Xia, Qiangfei; Williams, R Stanley

2009-07-01

Two dimensional (2D) fractal structures were observed to form from fairly uniform Ag island films (equivalent mass thicknesses of 1.5 and 5 nm) on insulating silicon dioxide surfaces (thermally grown silicon oxide on Si or quartz) upon immersion in deionized water. This result is distinctly different from the previously observed three-dimensional (3D) growth of faceted Ag nanocrystals on conductive surfaces (ITO and graphite) as the result of an electrochemical Ostwald ripening process, which also occurs on native oxide covered silicon surfaces as reported here. The fractal structures formed by diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) of Ag species on the insulating surfaces. We present the experimental observation of this phenomenon and discuss some possible mechanisms for the DLA formation. PMID:19496573

7. Fractal growth in the presence of a surface force field

Carlier, F.; Brion, E.; Akulin, V. M.

2012-05-01

We numerically simulate the dynamics of atomic clusters aggregation deposited on a surface interacting with the growing island. We make use of the well-known DLA model but replace the underlying diffusion equation by the Smoluchowski equation which results in a drifted DLA model and anisotropic jump probabilities. The shape of the structures resulting from their aggregation-limited random walk is affected by the presence of a Laplacian potential due to, for instance, the surface stress field. We characterize the morphologies we obtain by their Hausdorff fractal dimension as well as the so-called external fractal dimension. We compare our results to previously published experimental results for antimony and silver clusters deposited onto graphite surface.

8. Transport in fractal media: an effective scale-invariant approach.

PubMed

2012-06-01

In this paper an advective-dispersion equation with scale-dependent coefficients is proposed for describing transport through fractals. This equation is obtained by imposing scale invariance and assuming that the porosity, the dispersion coefficient, and the velocity follow fractional power laws on the scale. The model incorporates the empirically found trends in highly heterogeneous media, regarding the dependence of the dispersivity on the scale and the dispersion coefficient on the velocity. We conclude that the presence of nontrivial fractal parameters produces anomalous dispersion, as expected, and that the presence of convective processes induces a reescalation in the concentration and shifts the tracer velocity to different values with respect to the nonfractal case. PMID:23005215

9. Fractal scaling properties in nonstationary heartbeat time series

SciTech Connect

Peng, C. |; Havlin, S. |; Stanley, H.E.; Goldberger, A.L. |

1996-06-01

Under healthy conditions, the normal cardiac (sinus) interbeat interval fluctuates in a complex manner. Quantitative analysis using techniques adapted from statistical physics reveals the presence of long-range power-law correlations extending over thousands of heartbeats. This scale-invariant (fractal) behavior suggests that the regulatory system generating these fluctuations is operating far from equilibrium. In contrast, we find that for subjects at high risk of sudden death (e.g. congestive heart failure patients) these long-range correlations break down. Application of fractal scaling analysis and related techniques provides new approaches to assessing cardiac risk and forecasting sudden cardiac death, as well as motivating development of novel physiological models of systems that appear to be {open_quote}{open_quote}hetero-dynamic{close_quote}{close_quote} rather than {open_quote}{open_quote}homeo-static.{close_quote}{close_quote} {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

10. Breathing frequency bias in fractal analysis of heart rate variability.

PubMed

Perakakis, Pandelis; Taylor, Michael; Martinez-Nieto, Eduardo; Revithi, Ioanna; Vila, Jaime

2009-09-01

Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is an algorithm widely used to determine fractal long-range correlations in physiological signals. Its application to heart rate variability (HRV) has proven useful in distinguishing healthy subjects from patients with cardiovascular disease. In this study we examined the effect of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) on the performance of DFA applied to HRV. Predictions based on a mathematical model were compared with those obtained from a sample of 14 normal subjects at three breathing frequencies: 0.1Hz, 0.2Hz and 0.25Hz. Results revealed that: (1) the periodical properties of RSA produce a change of the correlation exponent in HRV at a scale corresponding to the respiratory period, (2) the short-term DFA exponent is significantly reduced when breathing frequency rises from 0.1Hz to 0.2Hz. These findings raise important methodological questions regarding the application of fractal measures to short-term HRV. PMID:19559748

11. Analysis of transient flow and starting pressure gradient of power-law fluid in fractal porous media

Tan, Xiao-Hua; Li, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Liu, Jian-Yi; Cai, Jianchao

2015-09-01

A transient flow model for power-law fluid in fractal porous media is derived by combining transient flow theory with the fractal properties of tortuous capillaries. Pressure changes of transient flow for power-law fluid in fractal porous media are related to pore fractal dimension, tortuosity fractal dimension and the power-law index. Additionally, the starting pressure gradient model of power-law fluid in fractal porous media is established. Good agreement between the predictions of the present model and that of the traditional empirical model is obtained, the sensitive parameters that influence the starting pressure gradient are specified and their effects on the starting pressure gradient are discussed.

12. Fractal nature of multiple shear bands in severely deformed metallic glass

SciTech Connect

Sun, B. A.; Wang, W. H.

2011-05-16

We present an analysis of fractal geometry of extensive and complex shear band patterns in a severely deformed metallic glass. We show that the shear band patterns have fractal characteristics, and the fractal dimensions are determined by the stress noise induced by the interaction between shear bands. A theoretical model of the spatial evolution of multiple shear bands is proposed in which the collective shear bands slide is considered as a stochastic process far from thermodynamic equilibrium.

13. Robust Sierpiński triangle fractals on symmetry-mismatched Ag(100).

PubMed

Zhang, Xue; Li, Na; Liu, Liwei; Gu, Gaochen; Li, Chao; Tang, Hao; Peng, Lianmao; Hou, Shimin; Wang, Yongfeng

2016-08-18

Sierpiński triangle fractals were constructed on both Ag(111) and symmetry-mismatched fourfold Ag(100) surfaces through chemical reaction between H3PH molecules and Fe atoms under vacuum. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the fractals were stabilized by the strong coordination interaction between Fe and O atoms. In comparison, pure H3PH molecules formed fractals via moderately strong hydrogen bonds only on Ag(111), not on Ag(100). PMID:27498982

14. About Schrödinger Equation on Fractals Curves Imbedding in R 3

Golmankhaneh, Alireza Khalili; Golmankhaneh, Ali Khalili; Baleanu, Dumitru

2014-09-01

In this paper we introduced the quantum mechanics on fractal time-space. In a suggested formalism the time and space vary on Cantor-set and Von-Koch curve, respectively. Using Feynman path method in quantum mechanics and F α -calculus we find Schrëdinger equation on on fractal time-space. The Hamiltonian and momentum fractal operator has been indicated. More, the continuity equation and the probability density is given in view of F α -calculus.

15. About Schrödinger Equation on Fractals Curves Imbedding in R 3

Golmankhaneh, Alireza Khalili; Golmankhaneh, Ali Khalili; Baleanu, Dumitru

2015-04-01

In this paper we introduced the quantum mechanics on fractal time-space. In a suggested formalism the time and space vary on Cantor-set and Von-Koch curve, respectively. Using Feynman path method in quantum mechanics and F α -calculus we find Schrëdinger equation on on fractal time-space. The Hamiltonian and momentum fractal operator has been indicated. More, the continuity equation and the probability density is given in view of F α -calculus.

16. Ising ferromagnet on a fractal family: Thermodynamical functions and scaling laws

Redinz, José Arnaldo; de Magalhães, Aglaé C. N.

1995-02-01

The Ising model with external magnetic field on infinitely ramified fractal lattices is studied. We derive exact expressions for the specific heat, spontaneous magnetization, and susceptibility. The critical exponents α, β, and γ corresponding to these respective thermal functions (at zero field) as well as the correlation length critical exponent ν are obtained. The hyperscaling law extended to fractals and the Rushbrooke scaling law are verified for these fractals.

17. Fractal position spectrum for a class of oscillators

2015-10-01

We show that the position operator in a class of f-deformed oscillators has a fractal spectrum, homeomorphic to the Cantor set, via a unitary transformation to Harper’s model. The class corresponds to a choice of ergodic operators for the deformation function. Hofstadter’s butterfly is plotted by direct diagonalization of a position operator with an originally vanishing diagonal. This is equivalent to a one-dimensional hamiltonian without potential.

18. Fractal analysis reveals reduced complexity of retinal vessels in CADASIL.

PubMed

Cavallari, Michele; Falco, Teresa; Frontali, Marina; Romano, Silvia; Bagnato, Francesca; Orzi, Francesco

2011-01-01

The Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) affects mainly small cerebral arteries and leads to disability and dementia. The relationship between clinical expression of the disease and progression of the microvessel pathology is, however, uncertain as we lack tools for imaging brain vessels in vivo. Ophthalmoscopy is regarded as a window into the cerebral microcirculation. In this study we carried out an ophthalmoscopic examination in subjects with CADASIL. Specifically, we performed fractal analysis of digital retinal photographs. Data are expressed as mean fractal dimension (mean-D), a parameter that reflects complexity of the retinal vessel branching. Ten subjects with genetically confirmed diagnosis of CADASIL and 10 sex and age-matched control subjects were enrolled. Fractal analysis of retinal digital images was performed by means of a computer-based program, and the data expressed as mean-D. Brain MRI lesion volume in FLAIR and T1-weighted images was assessed using MIPAV software. Paired t-test was used to disclose differences in mean-D between CADASIL and control groups. Spearman rank analysis was performed to evaluate potential associations between mean-D values and both disease duration and disease severity, the latter expressed as brain MRI lesion volumes, in the subjects with CADASIL. The results showed that mean-D value of patients (1.42±0.05; mean±SD) was lower than control (1.50±0.04; p = 0.002). Mean-D did not correlate with disease duration nor with MRI lesion volumes of the subjects with CADASIL. The findings suggest that fractal analysis is a sensitive tool to assess changes of retinal vessel branching, likely reflecting early brain microvessel alterations, in CADASIL patients. PMID:21556373

19. Nonclassical transport in fractal media with a diffusion barrier

SciTech Connect

Dvoretskaya, O. A. Kondratenko, P. S.

2013-04-15

We investigate the impurity transport in a randomly heterogeneous fractal medium with a diffusion barrier. The barrier is due to low permeable medium surrounding the source. The transport regimes and asymptotic (large-distance) concentration distributions are found. The presence of the diffusion barrier results in the retardation of the transport regimes at short times. As regards the asymptotic concentration distribution, the barrier influence persists for long times as well.

20. Multi-Scale Fractal Analysis of Image Texture and Pattern

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emerson, Charles W.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

1997-01-01

Fractals embody important ideas of self-similarity, in which the spatial behavior or appearance of a system is largely scale-independent. Self-similarity is a property of curves or surfaces where each part is indistinguishable from the whole. The fractal dimension D of remote sensing data yields quantitative insight on the spatial complexity and information content contained within these data. Analyses of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images of homogeneous land covers near Huntsville, Alabama revealed that the fractal dimension of an image of an agricultural land cover indicates greater complexity as pixel size increases, a forested land cover gradually grows smoother, and an urban image remains roughly self-similar over the range of pixel sizes analyzed(l0 to 80 meters). The forested scene behaves as one would expect-larger pixel sizes decrease the complexity of the image as individual clumps of trees are averaged into larger blocks. The increased complexity of the agricultural image with increasing pixel size results from the loss of homogeneous groups of pixels in the large fields to mixed pixels composed of varying combinations of NDVI values that correspond to roads and vegetation. The same process occur's in the urban image to some extent, but the lack of large, homogeneous areas in the high resolution NDVI image means the initially high D value is maintained as pixel size increases. The slope of the fractal dimension-resolution relationship provides indications of how image classification or feature identification will be affected by changes in sensor resolution.

1. Fractal dimensions of flocs between clay particles and HAB organisms

Wang, Hongliang; Yu, Zhiming; Cao, Xihua; Song, Xiuxian

2011-05-01

The impact of harmful algal blooms (HABs) on public health and related economics have been increasing in many coastal regions of the world. Sedimentation of algal cells through flocculation with clay particles is a promising strategy for controlling HABs. Previous studies found that removal efficiency (RE) was influenced by many factors, including clay type and concentration, algal growth stage, and physiological aspects of HAB cells. To estimate the effect of morphological characteristics of the aggregates on HAB cell removal, fractal dimensions were measured and the RE of three species of HAB organism, Heterosigma akashiwo, Alexandrium tamarense, and Skeletonema costatum, by original clay and modified clay, was determined. For all HAB species, the modified clay had a higher RE than original clay. For the original clay, the two-dimensional fractal dimension ( D 2) was 1.92 and three-dimensional fractal dimension ( D 3) 2.81, while for the modified clay, D 2 was 1.84 and D 3 was 2.50. The addition of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) lead to a decrease of the repulsive barrier between clay particles, and resulted in lower D 2 and D 3. Due to the decrease of D 3, and the increase of the effective sticking coefficient, the flocculation rate between modified clay particles and HAB organisms increased, and thus resulted in a high RE. The fractal dimensions of flocs differed in HAB species with different cell morphologies. For example, Alexandrium tamarense cells are ellipsoidal, and the D 3 and D 2 of flocs were the highest, while for Skeletonema costatum, which has filamentous cells, the D 3 and D 2 of flocs were the lowest.

2. Baby universes and fractal structure of 2d gravity

Thorleifsson, Gudmar

1994-04-01

We extract the string susceptibility exponent γstr by measuring the distribution of baby universes on surfaces in the case of various matter fields coupled to discrete 2d quantum gravity. For c <= 1 the results are in good agreement with the KPZ-formula, if logarithmic corrections are taken into account for c = 1. For c > 1 it is not as clear how to extract γstr but universality with respect to c is observed in the fractal structure.

3. LCAO approximation for scaling properties of the Menger sponge fractal.

PubMed

Sakoda, Kazuaki

2006-11-13

The electromagnetic eigenmodes of a three-dimensional fractal called the Menger sponge were analyzed by the LCAO (linear combination of atomic orbitals) approximation and a first-principle calculation based on the FDTD (finite-difference time-domain) method. Due to the localized nature of the eigenmodes, the LCAO approximation gives a good guiding principle to find scaled eigenfunctions and to observe the approximate self-similarity in the spectrum of the localized eigenmodes. PMID:19529555

4. Fractal analysis of the hierarchic structure of fossil coal surface

SciTech Connect

Alekseev, A.D.; Vasilenko, T.A.; Kirillov, A.K.

2008-05-15

The fractal analysis is described as method of studying images of surface of fossil coal, one of the natural sorbent, with the aim of determining its structural surface heterogeneity. The deformation effect as a reduction in the dimensions of heterogeneity boundaries is considered. It is shown that the theory of nonequilibrium dynamic systems permits to assess a formation level of heterogeneities involved into a sorbent composition by means of the Hurst factor.

5. Fractal patterns formed by growth of radial viscous fingers*

Praud, Olivier

2004-03-01

We examine fractal patterns formed by the injection of air into oil in a thin (0.13 mm) layer contained between two cylindrical glass plates of 288 mm diameter (a Hele-Shaw cell) [1]. The resultant radially grown patterns are similar to those formed in Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA), but the relation between the continuum limit of DLA and continuum (Laplacian) growth remains an open question. Our viscous fingering patterns in the limit of very high pressure difference reach an asymptotic state in which they exhibit a fractal dimension of 1.70± 0.02, in good agreement with a calculation of the fractal dimension of a DLA cluster, 1.713± 0.003 [2]. The generalized dimensions are also computed and show that the observed pattern is self-similar with Dq = 1.70 for all q. Further, the probability density function of shielding angles suggests the existence of a critical angle close to 75 degrees. This result is in accord with numerical and analytical evidence of a critical angle in DLA [3]. Thus fractal viscous fingering patterns and Diffusion Limited Aggregation clusters have a similar geometrical structure. *Work conducted in collaboration with H.L. Swinney, M.G. Moore and Eran Sharon [1] E. Sharon, M. G. Moore, W. D. McCormick, and H. L. Swinney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 205504 (2003). [2] B.Davidovitch et A. Levermann and I. Procaccia, Phys. Rev. E 62, 5919 (2000). [3] D. A. Kessler et al., Phys. Rev. E 57, 6913 (1998).

6. Mapping soil fractal dimension in agricultural fields with GPR

Oleschko, K.; Korvin, G.; Muñoz, A.; Velazquez, J.; Miranda, M. E.; Carreon, D.; Flores, L.; Martínez, M.; Velásquez-Valle, M.; Brambila, F.; Parrot, J.-F.; Ronquillo, G.

2008-09-01

We documented that the mapping of the fractal dimension of the backscattered Ground Penetrating Radar traces (Fractal Dimension Mapping, FDM) accomplished over heterogeneous agricultural fields gives statistically sound combined information about the spatial distribution of Andosol' dielectric permittivity, volumetric and gravimetric water content, bulk density, and mechanical resistance under seven different management systems. The roughness of the recorded traces was measured in terms of a single number H, the Hurst exponent, which integrates the competitive effects of volumetric water content, pore topology and mechanical resistance in space and time. We showed the suitability to combine the GPR traces fractal analysis with routine geostatistics (kriging) in order to map the spatial variation of soil properties by nondestructive techniques and to quantify precisely the differences under contrasting tillage systems. Three experimental plots with zero tillage and 33, 66 and 100% of crop residues imprinted the highest roughness to GPR wiggle traces (mean HR/S=0.15), significantly different to Andosol under conventional tillage (HR/S=0.47).

7. A deterministic pseudo-fractal networks with time-delay

Xing, Changming; Yang, Lin; Ma, Jun

2015-08-01

In this paper, inspired by the pseudo-fractal networks (PFN) and the delayed pseudo-fractal networks (DPFN), we present a novel delayed pseudo-fractal networks model, denoted by NDPFN. Different from the generation algorithm of those two networks, every edge of the novel model has a time-delay to generate new nodes after producing one node. We derive exactly the main structural properties of the novel networks: degree distribution, clustering coefficient, diameter and average path length. Analytical results show that the novel networks have small-world effect and scale-free topology. Comparing topological parameters of these three networks, we find that the degree exponent of the novel networks is the largest while the clustering coefficient and the average path length are the smallest. It means that this kind of delay could weaken the heterogeneity and the small-world features of the network. Particularly, the delay effect in the NDPFN is contrary to that in the DPFN, which illustrates the variety of delay method could produce different effects on the network structure. These present findings may be helpful for a deeper understanding of the time-delay influence on the network topology.

8. Fractal analysis on human dynamics of library loans

Fan, Chao; Guo, Jin-Li; Zha, Yi-Long

2012-12-01

In this paper, the fractal characteristic of human behaviors is investigated from the perspective of time series constructed with the amount of library loans. The values of the Hurst exponent and length of non-periodic cycle calculated through rescaled range analysis indicate that the time series of human behaviors and their sub-series are fractal with self-similarity and long-range dependence. Then the time series are converted into complex networks by the visibility algorithm. The topological properties of the networks such as scale-free property and small-world effect imply that there is a close relationship among the numbers of repetitious behaviors performed by people during certain periods of time. Our work implies that there is intrinsic regularity in the human collective repetitious behaviors. The conclusions may be helpful to develop some new approaches to investigate the fractal feature and mechanism of human dynamics, and provide some references for the management and forecast of human collective behaviors.

9. Singularity spectrum of fractal signals from wavelet analysis: Exact results

SciTech Connect

Bacry, E.; Muzy, J.F.; Arneodo, A. )

1993-02-01

The multifractal formalism for singular measures is revisited using the wave transform. For Bernoulli invariant measures of some expanding Markov maps, the generalized fractal dimensions are proved to be transition points for the scaling exponents of some partition functions defined from the wavelet transform modulus maxima. The generalization of this formalism to fractal signals is established for the class of distribution functions of these singular invariant measures. It is demonstrated that the Hausdorff dimension D(h) of the set of singularities of Hoelder exponent h can be directly determined from the wavelet transform modulus maxima. The singularity spectrum so obtained is shown to be not disturbed by the presence, in the signal, of a superimposed polynomial behavior of order n, provided one uses an analyzing wavelet that possesses at least N > n vanishing moments. However, it is shown that a C[infinity] behavior generally induces a phase transition in the D(h) singularity spectrum that somewhat masks the weakest singularities. This phase transition actually depends on the number N of vanishing moments of the analyzing wavelet; its observation is emphasized as a reliable experimental test for the existence of nonsingular behavior in the considered signal. These theoretical results are illustrated with numerical examples. They are likely to be valid for a large class of fractal functions as suggested by recent applications to fractional Brownian motions and turbulent velocity signals.

10. Feature extraction algorithm for space targets based on fractal theory

Tian, Balin; Yuan, Jianping; Yue, Xiaokui; Ning, Xin

2007-11-01

In order to offer a potential for extending the life of satellites and reducing the launch and operating costs, satellite servicing including conducting repairs, upgrading and refueling spacecraft on-orbit become much more frequently. Future space operations can be more economically and reliably executed using machine vision systems, which can meet real time and tracking reliability requirements for image tracking of space surveillance system. Machine vision was applied to the research of relative pose for spacecrafts, the feature extraction algorithm was the basis of relative pose. In this paper fractal geometry based edge extraction algorithm which can be used in determining and tracking the relative pose of an observed satellite during proximity operations in machine vision system was presented. The method gets the gray-level image distributed by fractal dimension used the Differential Box-Counting (DBC) approach of the fractal theory to restrain the noise. After this, we detect the consecutive edge using Mathematical Morphology. The validity of the proposed method is examined by processing and analyzing images of space targets. The edge extraction method not only extracts the outline of the target, but also keeps the inner details. Meanwhile, edge extraction is only processed in moving area to reduce computation greatly. Simulation results compared edge detection using the method which presented by us with other detection methods. The results indicate that the presented algorithm is a valid method to solve the problems of relative pose for spacecrafts.

11. Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Fractal Analysis of Damaged DNA

PubMed Central

2015-01-01

Cancer starts when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. In fact cells become cancer cells because of DNA damage. A DNA walk of a genome represents how the frequency of each nucleotide of a pairing nucleotide couple changes locally. In this research in order to study the cancer genes, DNA walk plots of genomes of patients with lung cancer were generated using a program written in MATLAB language. The data so obtained was checked for fractal property by computing the fractal dimension using a program written in MATLAB. Also, the correlation of damaged DNA was studied using the Hurst exponent measure. We have found that the damaged DNA sequences are exhibiting higher degree of fractality and less correlation compared with normal DNA sequences. So we confirmed this method can be used for early detection of lung cancer. The method introduced in this research not only is useful for diagnosis of lung cancer but also can be applied for detection and growth analysis of different types of cancers. PMID:26539245

12. Special fractal growth of dendrite copper using a hydrothermal method

SciTech Connect

Zheng Yan; Zhang Zhejuan; Guo Pingsheng; He Pingang; Sun Zhuo

2011-08-15

Special fractal dendrite Cu nanostructures have been synthesized through a simple hydrothermal method, and the effects of the volume ratio between glycerol and water and the concentration of H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} on the morphologies of dendrite Cu have been studied in detail. The Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to characterize these Cu products. The results indicate that rhombic diamond and different morphologies of fractal dendrite were prepared because of the accumulation of Cu nuclei based on the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) and the nucleation-limited aggregation (NLA) model. Fortunately, symmetrical leaf-like dendrite Cu nanostructures different from Cu dendrites reported before have been obtained. Additionally, an explanation for the growth of fractal dendrite Cu has been discussed carefully. - Graphical abstract: Uniform dendritic Cu are grown through controlling V{sub glycerol/water} in range of 0.6-1.2 and the concentration of H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} in range of 0.06-0.3 M. The rhombic cluster Cu are obtained by decreasing the amount of glycerol. Highlights: > Volume ratio of glycerol/water and concentration of H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} were varied, respectively. > Morphologies of dendritic Cu have some changes. > Leaf-like and rhombic cluster Cu were obtained. > The concentration changes affect the aggregation of Cu crystallites. > The aggregation and crystallographic orientation cause leaf-like Cu nanostructures.

13. Surface evaluation by estimation of fractal dimension and statistical tools.

PubMed

Hotar, Vlastimil; Salac, Petr

2014-01-01

Structured and complex data can be found in many applications in research and development, and also in industrial practice. We developed a methodology for describing the structured data complexity and applied it in development and industrial practice. The methodology uses fractal dimension together with statistical tools and with software modification is able to analyse data in a form of sequence (signals, surface roughness), 2D images, and dividing lines. The methodology had not been tested for a relatively large collection of data. For this reason, samples with structured surfaces produced with different technologies and properties were measured and evaluated with many types of parameters. The paper intends to analyse data measured by a surface roughness tester. The methodology shown compares standard and nonstandard parameters, searches the optimal parameters for a complete analysis, and specifies the sensitivity to directionality of samples for these types of surfaces. The text presents application of fractal geometry (fractal dimension) for complex surface analysis in combination with standard roughness parameters (statistical tool). PMID:25250380

14. Fractal analysis of radiologists' visual scanning pattern in screening mammography

Alamudun, Folami T.; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Hudson, Kathy; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Tourassi, Georgia

2015-03-01

Several researchers have investigated radiologists' visual scanning patterns with respect to features such as total time examining a case, time to initially hit true lesions, number of hits, etc. The purpose of this study was to examine the complexity of the radiologists' visual scanning pattern when viewing 4-view mammographic cases, as they typically do in clinical practice. Gaze data were collected from 10 readers (3 breast imaging experts and 7 radiology residents) while reviewing 100 screening mammograms (24 normal, 26 benign, 50 malignant). The radiologists' scanpaths across the 4 mammographic views were mapped to a single 2-D image plane. Then, fractal analysis was applied on the composite 4- view scanpaths. For each case, the complexity of each radiologist's scanpath was measured using fractal dimension estimated with the box counting method. The association between the fractal dimension of the radiologists' visual scanpath, case pathology, case density, and radiologist experience was evaluated using fixed effects ANOVA. ANOVA showed that the complexity of the radiologists' visual search pattern in screening mammography is dependent on case specific attributes (breast parenchyma density and case pathology) as well as on reader attributes, namely experience level. Visual scanning patterns are significantly different for benign and malignant cases than for normal cases. There is also substantial inter-observer variability which cannot be explained only by experience level.

15. A physically based connection between fractional calculus and fractal geometry

Butera, Salvatore; Di Paola, Mario

2014-11-01

We show a relation between fractional calculus and fractals, based only on physical and geometrical considerations. The link has been found in the physical origins of the power-laws, ruling the evolution of many natural phenomena, whose long memory and hereditary properties are mathematically modelled by differential operators of non integer order. Dealing with the relevant example of a viscous fluid seeping through a fractal shaped porous medium, we show that, once a physical phenomenon or process takes place on an underlying fractal geometry, then a power-law naturally comes up in ruling its evolution, whose order is related to the anomalous dimension of such geometry, as well as to the model used to describe the physics involved. By linearizing the non linear dependence of the response of the system at hand to a proper forcing action then, exploiting the Boltzmann superposition principle, a fractional differential equation is found, describing the dynamics of the system itself. The order of such equation is again related to the anomalous dimension of the underlying geometry.

16. Modeling fractal cities using the correlated percolation model.

Makse, Hernán A.; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

1996-03-01

Cities grow in a way that might be expected to resemble the growth of two-dimensional aggregates of particles, and this has led to recent attempts to model urban growth using ideas from the statistical physics of clusters. In particular, the model of diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) has been invoked to rationalize the apparently fractal nature of urban morphologies(M. Batty and P. Longley, Fractal Cities) (Academic, San Diego, 1994). The DLA model predicts that there should exist only one large fractal cluster, which is almost perfectly screened from incoming 'development units' (representing, for example, people, capital or resources), so that almost all of the cluster growth takes place at the tips of the cluster's branches. We show that an alternative model(H. A. Makse, S. Havlin, H. E. Stanley, Nature 377), 608 (1995), in which development units are correlated rather than being added to the cluster at random, is better able to reproduce the observed morphology of cities and the area distribution of sub-clusters ('towns') in an urban system, and can also describe urban growth dynamics. Our physical model, which corresponds to the correlated percolation model in the presence of a density gradient, is motivated by the fact that in urban areas development attracts further development. The model offers the possibility of predicting the global properties (such as scaling behavior) of urban morphologies.

17. A physically based connection between fractional calculus and fractal geometry

SciTech Connect

Butera, Salvatore; Di Paola, Mario

2014-11-15

We show a relation between fractional calculus and fractals, based only on physical and geometrical considerations. The link has been found in the physical origins of the power-laws, ruling the evolution of many natural phenomena, whose long memory and hereditary properties are mathematically modelled by differential operators of non integer order. Dealing with the relevant example of a viscous fluid seeping through a fractal shaped porous medium, we show that, once a physical phenomenon or process takes place on an underlying fractal geometry, then a power-law naturally comes up in ruling its evolution, whose order is related to the anomalous dimension of such geometry, as well as to the model used to describe the physics involved. By linearizing the non linear dependence of the response of the system at hand to a proper forcing action then, exploiting the Boltzmann superposition principle, a fractional differential equation is found, describing the dynamics of the system itself. The order of such equation is again related to the anomalous dimension of the underlying geometry.

18. An effective algorithm for quick fractal analysis of movement biosignals.

PubMed

Ripoli, A; Belardinelli, A; Palagi, G; Franchi, D; Bedini, R

1999-01-01

The problem of numerically classifying patterns, of crucial importance in the biomedical field, is here faced by means of their fractal dimension. A new simple algorithm was developed to characterize biomedical mono-dimensional signals avoiding computationally expensive methods, generally required by the classical approach of the fractal theory. The algorithm produces a number related to the geometric behaviour of the pattern providing information on the studied phenomenon. The results are independent of the signal amplitude and exhibit a fractal measure ranging from 1 to 2 for monotonically going-forwards monodimensional curves, in accordance with theory. Accurate calibration and qualification were accomplished by analysing basic waveforms. Further studies concerned the biomedical field with special reference to gait analysis: so far, well controlled movements such as walking, going up and downstairs and running, have been investigated. Controlled conditions of the test environment guaranteed the necessary repeatability and the accuracy of the practical experiments in setting up the methodology. The algorithm showed good performance in classifying the considered simple movements in the selected sample of normal subjects. The results obtained encourage us to use this technique for an effective on-line movement correlation with other long-term monitored variables such as blood pressure, ECG, etc. PMID:10738684

19. Print protection using high-frequency fractal noise

Mahmoud, Khaled W.; Blackledge, Jonathon M.; Datta, Sekharjit; Flint, James A.

2004-06-01

All digital images are band-limited to a degree that is determined by a spatial extent of the point spread function; the bandwidth of the image being determined by the optical transfer function. In the printing industry, the limit is determined by the resolution of the printed material. By band limiting the digital image in such away that the printed document maintains its fidelity, it is possible to use the out-of-band frequency space to introduce low amplitude coded data that remains hidden in the image. In this way, a covert signature can be embedded into an image to provide a digital watermark, which is sensitive to reproduction. In this paper a high frequency fractal noise is used as a low amplitude signal. A statistically robust solution to the authentication of printed material using high-fractal noise is proposed here which is based on cross-entropy metrics to provide a statistical confidence test. The fractal watermark is based on application of self-affine fields, which is suitable for documents containing high degree of texture. In principle, this new approach will allow batch tracking to be performed using coded data that has been embedded into the high frequency components of the image whose statistical characteristics are dependent on the printer/scanner technology. The details of this method as well as experimental results are presented.

20. Evaluation of Dewatering Performance and Fractal Characteristics of Alum Sludge

PubMed Central

Sun, Yongjun; Fan, Wei; Zheng, Huaili; Zhang, Yuxin; Li, Fengting; Chen, Wei

2015-01-01

The dewatering performance and fractal characteristics of alum sludge from a drinking-water treatment plant were investigated in this study. Variations in residual turbidity of supernatant, dry solid content (DS), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), floc size, fractal dimension, and zeta potential were analyzed. Sludge dewatering efficiency was evaluated by measuring both DS and SRF. Results showed that the optimum sludge dewatering efficiency was achieved at 16 mg∙L-1 flocculant dosage and pH 7. Under these conditions, the maximum DS was 54.6%, and the minimum SRF was 0.61 × 1010 m∙kg-1. Floc-size measurements demonstrated that high flocculant dosage significantly improved floc size. Correlation analysis further revealed a strong correlation between fractal dimension and floc size after flocculation. A strong correlation also existed between floc size and zeta potential, and flocculants with a higher cationic degree had a larger correlation coefficient between floc size and zeta potential. In the flocculation process, the main flocculation mechanisms involved adsorption bridging under an acidic condition, and a combination between charge neutralization and adsorption-bridging interaction under neutral and alkaline conditions. PMID:26121132