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Sample records for fractional bayes factor

  1. Bayes factors and multimodel inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Multimodel inference has two main themes: model selection, and model averaging. Model averaging is a means of making inference conditional on a model set, rather than on a selected model, allowing formal recognition of the uncertainty associated with model choice. The Bayesian paradigm provides a natural framework for model averaging, and provides a context for evaluation of the commonly used AIC weights. We review Bayesian multimodel inference, noting the importance of Bayes factors. Noting the sensitivity of Bayes factors to the choice of priors on parameters, we define and propose nonpreferential priors as offering a reasonable standard for objective multimodel inference.

  2. Seasonal export fluxes of size-fractionated particulate derived from polonium-210: A case study in Xiamen Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weifeng; Huang, Yipu; Chen, Min; Qiu, Yusheng

    2010-03-01

    Size-fractionated 210Po and 210Pb, in the size fractions >0.4 μm, >2 μm and >10 μm, were examined to determine the seasonal variability of particulate fluxes in Xiamen Bay. Good correlations between 210Po and particulate organic carbon (POC) or non-Particulate Organic Matter (nPOM) suggested that 210Po can be used to trace the export fluxes of POC and nPOM. Both steady-state (SS) model and nSS model were used to evaluate fluxes of size-fractionated 210Po, results showed that nSS model was better than the SS model in coastal areas. Based on the nSS model, size-fractionated POC fluxes decreased with increasing particle size. For the particle size studied, maximum POC fluxes occurred in autumn, followed by spring, winter, and summer. Fluxes of nPOM were an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding size-fractionated POC fluxes. Differences between size-fractionated nPOM fluxes indicated that hydrodynamic conditions were the main factor regulating transportation of particulate out of the inner Bay. In winter most particulates, including >10 μm particles, were transported under the strongest hydrodynamic conditions. In contrast, only a fraction of the <2 μm particulates were transported from the inner Bay in spring. This study suggested that 210Po is a powerful tracer of seasonal particulate export in coastal seas.

  3. Default Bayes Factors for Model Selection in Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a Bayes factor solution for inference in multiple regression. Bayes factors are principled measures of the relative evidence from data for various models or positions, including models that embed null hypotheses. In this regard, they may be used to state positive evidence for a lack of an effect, which is not possible…

  4. Using Bayes factors for multi-factor, biometric authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giffin, A.; Skufca, J. D.; Lao, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-factor/multi-modal authentication systems are becoming the de facto industry standard. Traditional methods typically use rates that are point estimates and lack a good measure of uncertainty. Additionally, multiple factors are typically fused together in an ad hoc manner. To be consistent, as well as to establish and make proper use of uncertainties, we use a Bayesian method that will update our estimates and uncertainties as new information presents itself. Our algorithm compares competing classes (such as genuine vs. imposter) using Bayes Factors (BF). The importance of this approach is that we not only accept or reject one model (class), but compare it to others to make a decision. We show using a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve that using BF for determining class will always perform at least as well as the traditional combining of factors, such as a voting algorithm. As the uncertainty decreases, the BF result continues to exceed the traditional methods result.

  5. A Bayes factor meta-analysis of Bem's ESP claim.

    PubMed

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, statisticians and psychologists have provided the critique that p-values do not capture the evidence afforded by data and are, consequently, ill suited for analysis in scientific endeavors. The issue is particular salient in the assessment of the recent evidence provided for ESP by Bem (2011) in the mainstream Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Wagenmakers, Wetzels, Borsboom, and van der Maas (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 426-432, 2011) have provided an alternative Bayes factor assessment of Bem's data, but their assessment was limited to examining each experiment in isolation. We show here that the variant of the Bayes factor employed by Wagenmakers et al. is inappropriate for making assessments across multiple experiments, and cannot be used to gain an accurate assessment of the total evidence in Bem's data. We develop a meta-analytic Bayes factor that describes how researchers should update their prior beliefs about the odds of hypotheses in light of data across several experiments. We find that the evidence that people can feel the future with neutral and erotic stimuli to be slight, with Bayes factors of 3.23 and 1.57, respectively. There is some evidence, however, for the hypothesis that people can feel the future with emotionally valenced nonerotic stimuli, with a Bayes factor of about 40. Although this value is certainly noteworthy, we believe it is orders of magnitude lower than what is required to overcome appropriate skepticism of ESP. PMID:21573926

  6. An extreme comparison of two downscaling approaches using Bayes factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, K.; Wheater, H. S.; Onof, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Extreme rainfall events are the long-standing hydrological interest of flood defence and water resources management. Although traditional extreme value theory allows stationary extreme assessment, recent development of rainfall downscaling approaches driven by projections of Global Climate models (GCMs) facilitates non-stationary extreme assessments. Additionally, using stochastic downscaling, the downscaled rainfall series can be probabilistic so that the inherent uncertainty of the used approaches can be explicitly presented. However, there is little work on performance benchmarking of extremes simulated by alternative downscaling approaches. In the United Kingdom (UK), two independently developed downscaling methodologies are (1) the UK climate projections (UKCP09) weather generators and (2) the Generalised linear model (GLM) approach. Both downscaling approaches can provide daily rainfall series at catchment scale. As a quantitative benchmark, Bayes factors are proposed as a tool for comparing ensemble extremes generated from the two UK models. Using Monte Carlo Integration and Laplace's approximation, Bayes factors for the 30th largest annual event within a 30 year period of the two methods are approximated for six catchments in the UK. Despite their similar average monthly statistics (i.e. mean, variance, autocorrelation and skewness), results show that the preferred approach for extreme results is catchment specific. The implications and possible interpretations of diverse extreme results from different downscaling approaches are discussed.

  7. Molecular size fractions of bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) exhibit differentiated regulation of colorectal cancer cell growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Louise; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Burnard, Sharon; Forsyth, Santina; Head, Richard; King, Kerryn; Patten, Glen; Watkins, Peter; Williams, Roderick; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Lockett, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Numerous in vitro studies using solvent or aqueous extracts of raw dietary plant material have demonstrated modulation of colon cancer cell growth and apoptosis and effects on immune and nonimmune pathways of inflammation. We have developed a generic, 3-staged food-compatible process involving heating for conversion of dietary plants into food ingredients and report results on potential colon cancer-regulating properties of processed forms of Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis). In vitro studies demonstrated inhibition of cancer cell growth by processed Bay leaf products in HT-29, HCT-116, Caco-2, and SW-480 human cancer cell lines, which were accompanied by variable levels of elevated apoptosis. Bay leaf also exerted moderate inhibition of cycloxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase enzymatic activity. In addition, these extracts significantly downregulated interferon-γ production in T helper Type 1-stimulated whole blood from healthy donors. Furthermore, size fractionation of the extracts revealed that antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities were associated with low mass (primarily polyphenolics and essential oils) and high mass (primarily proteins including polyphenol oxidase) chemical classes, respectively. Bay leaf exerted in vitro bioactivity that might be relevant to protecting against early events in sporadic colorectal cancer, with potential for further optimization of bioactivity by size-based fractionation. PMID:23859043

  8. Metal pollution in a contaminated bay: relationship between metal geochemical fractionation in sediments and accumulation in a polychaete.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenhong; Xu, Zhizhen; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-08-01

    Jinzhou Bay in Northern China has been seriously contaminated with metals due to the impacts of smelting activities. In this study, we investigated the relationship between metal accumulation in a deposit-feeding polychaete Neanthes japonica and metal concentration and geochemical fractionation (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni) in sediments of Jinzhou Bay. Compared with the historical data, metals in the more mobile geochemical fraction (exchangeable and carbonate fractions) were gradually partitioned into the more stable fraction (Fe-Mn oxides) over time. Metal concentration and geochemical fractionation in sediment significantly affected metal bioavailability and accumulation in polychaetes, except for Ni. Metal accumulation in polychaetes was significantly influenced by Fe or Mn content, and to a lesser degree by organic matter. Prediction of metal bioaccumulation in polychaetes was greatly improved by normalizing metal concentrations to Mn content in sediment. The geochemical fractionation of metals in sediments including the exchangeable, organic matter and Fe-Mn oxides were important in controlling the sediment metal bioavailability to polychaetes. PMID:24811945

  9. Bayes factor for investigative assessment of selected handwriting features.

    PubMed

    Taroni, F; Marquis, R; Schmittbuhl, M; Biedermann, A; Thiéry, A; Bozza, S

    2014-09-01

    This paper extends previous research on the use of multivariate continuous data in comparative handwriting examinations, notably for gender classification. A database has been constructed by analyzing the contour shape of loop characters of type a and d by means of Fourier analysis, which allows characters to be described in a global way by a set of variables (e.g., Fourier descriptors). Sample handwritings were collected from right- and left-handed female and male writers. The results reported in this paper provide further arguments in support of the view that investigative settings in forensic science represent an area of application for which the Bayesian approach offers a logical framework. In particular, the Bayes factor is computed for settings that focus on inference of gender and handedness of the author of an incriminated handwritten text. An emphasis is placed on comparing the efficiency for investigative purposes of characters a and d. PMID:25117907

  10. Dynamics of REE accumulation and fractionation in the subcolloidal fraction of bottom sediments in the Razdol'naya River-Amur Bay section, Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, D. M.

    2016-05-01

    The REE contents (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) are determined by atomic emission spectroscopy in the subcolloidal fraction of bottom sediments in the Razdol'naya River-Amur Bay section. The mean contents of lanthanides in soils and river bottom sediments (before the mixing zone) are calculated. The increase in REE content and the fractioning in the series from light to middle and heavy REE in sediments of different estuary zones (river, water mixing, and marine), with the latter related to flocculation, sorption on iron and manganese hydroxides, clay minerals (hydromica, smectites), and lifetime accumulation of marine plankton, are dtermined. Via extraction of 0.5 N sodium hydroxide solution, the content of lanthanides associated with humic substances of subcolloidal fraction from the Amur Bay sediments are determined: 1.3 to 8.2% of La; 1.1 to 11% of Ce; and 0.3 to 1.5 of Gd.

  11. SURVEY OF CHEMICAL FACTORS IN SAGINAW BAY (LAKE HURON)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in Saginaw Bay, Michigan (western Lake Huron) was surveyed during 32 cruises in 1974 and 1975, as part of the International Joint Commission's Upper Lakes Reference Study co-sponsored by the United States and Canada. Goals of the study were to establish a base of wa...

  12. Chesapeake Bay recovery and factors affecting trends: Long-termmonitoring, indicators, and insights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the outcome of restoration efforts is the only way to identify the status of a recovery and the most effective management strategies. In this paper, we discuss Chesapeake Bay and watershed recovery and factors influencing water quality trends. For over 30 years, the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership’s long-term tidal and watershed water quality monitoring networks have measured physical, chemical and biological parameters throughout the bay and its surrounding watershed underpinning an adaptive management process to drive ecosystem recovery. There are many natural and anthropogenic factors operating and interacting to affect the watershed and bay water quality recovery responses to management actions. Across habitats and indicators, the bay and its watershed continue to express a diverse spatial and temporal fabric of multiscale conditions, stressors and trends that show a range of health conditions and impairments, as well as evidence of progress and degradation. Recurrent independent reviews of the monitoring program have driven a culture of continued adaptation of the monitoring networks to reflect ever evolving management information needs. The adherence to bay and watershed-wide consistent monitoring protocols provides monitoring data supporting analyses and development of scientific syntheses that underpin indicator and model development, regulatory assessments, targeting of management actions, evaluation of management effectiveness, and directing of priorities and policies.

  13. DESICCATION AND OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING THE UPPER INTERTIDAL DISTRIBUTION OF EELGRASS IN YAQUINA BAY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) in Pacific Northwest is primarily intertidal, yet little research has been done on what factors control its upper intertidal growth boundary. In July 2000 a two year study was initiated in Yaquina Bay (Newport, OR) to evaluate the effects of four factor...

  14. Factors Controlling Tidal Flat Morphology in South San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearman, J. A.; Foxgrover, A.; Friedrichs, C.; Jaffe, B.

    2006-12-01

    Since the 1850's, the San Francisco Bay has been subjected to a wide array of human-induced change. From the time of the first US Coast and Geodetic Survey bathymetric surveys in 1858, the saltmarshes and mudflats of South San Francisco Bay (SSFB) have decreased in area by 80% and 40%, respectively. Much of the saltmarsh loss was due to salt pond leveeing, while mudflat loss can be related to lack of sediment input, wind-wave erosion, and sea level rise. Plans for marsh restoration include breaching of salt pond levees with the goal of restoring the 15,100 acres of acquired ponds to tidal marsh the largest such restoration in the western US. The effect this would have upon the adjacent mudflats is unclear. In this analysis, the tidal flats of SSFB are broken into geographically similar regions and multiple cross-sections are drawn from mean high water to below mean lower low water at close intervals, allowing for a mean tidal flat bathymetric profile to be determined for each segment and for each time period 1858, 1898, 1931, 1956, 1983, 2005. Eigenfunction analysis is used to separate the spatial and temporal changes in profile shape into the dominant components of variability, allowing evaluation of the behavior of mudflats relative to spatially and temporally-varying forcings. The components of bathymetric variability derived from objective statistical analysis are compared to theoretical models for tidal flat profiles as a function of waves, tides and sediment supply. Theoretical models predict that wave-dominated or sediment-starved flats tend to have concave-upwards bathymetric profiles, whereas tide-dominated or accretionary flats tend to have convex-upwards bathymetric profiles. Initial results from an analysis of the 1980's bathymetry data suggest the South Bay mudflats can be broken into three morphologically distinct sections: 1) concave-up, erosional mudflats in the Eastern zone, which is most subject to wind waves; 2) convex-up, accretionary flats in

  15. Species delimitation using Bayes factors: simulations and application to the Sceloporus scalaris species group (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Grummer, Jared A; Bryson, Robert W; Reeder, Tod W

    2014-03-01

    Current molecular methods of species delimitation are limited by the types of species delimitation models and scenarios that can be tested. Bayes factors allow for more flexibility in testing non-nested species delimitation models and hypotheses of individual assignment to alternative lineages. Here, we examined the efficacy of Bayes factors in delimiting species through simulations and empirical data from the Sceloporus scalaris species group. Marginal-likelihood scores of competing species delimitation models, from which Bayes factor values were compared, were estimated with four different methods: harmonic mean estimation (HME), smoothed harmonic mean estimation (sHME), path-sampling/thermodynamic integration (PS), and stepping-stone (SS) analysis. We also performed model selection using a posterior simulation-based analog of the Akaike information criterion through Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis (AICM). Bayes factor species delimitation results from the empirical data were then compared with results from the reversible-jump MCMC (rjMCMC) coalescent-based species delimitation method Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography (BP&P). Simulation results show that HME and sHME perform poorly compared with PS and SS marginal-likelihood estimators when identifying the true species delimitation model. Furthermore, Bayes factor delimitation (BFD) of species showed improved performance when species limits are tested by reassigning individuals between species, as opposed to either lumping or splitting lineages. In the empirical data, BFD through PS and SS analyses, as well as the rjMCMC method, each provide support for the recognition of all scalaris group taxa as independent evolutionary lineages. Bayes factor species delimitation and BP&P also support the recognition of three previously undescribed lineages. In both simulated and empirical data sets, harmonic and smoothed harmonic mean marginal-likelihood estimators provided much higher marginal-likelihood estimates

  16. Environmental Factors Shape Sediment Anammox Bacterial Communities in Hypernutrified Jiaozhou Bay, China▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Hongyue; Chen, Ruipeng; Wang, Lin; Guo, Lizhong; Chen, Pingping; Tang, Zuwang; Tian, Fang; Li, Shaozheng; Klotz, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an important process in the marine nitrogen cycle. Because ongoing eutrophication of coastal bays contributes significantly to the formation of low-oxygen zones, monitoring of the anammox bacterial community offers a unique opportunity for assessment of anthropogenic perturbations in these environments. The current study used targeting of 16S rRNA and hzo genes to characterize the composition and structure of the anammox bacterial community in the sediments of the eutrophic Jiaozhou Bay, thereby unraveling their diversity, abundance, and distribution. Abundance and distribution of hzo genes revealed a greater taxonomic diversity in Jiaozhou Bay, including several novel clades of anammox bacteria. In contrast, the targeting of 16S rRNA genes verified the presence of only “Candidatus Scalindua,” albeit with a high microdiversity. The genus “Ca. Scalindua” comprised the apparent majority of active sediment anammox bacteria. Multivariate statistical analyses indicated a heterogeneous distribution of the anammox bacterial assemblages in Jiaozhou Bay. Of all environmental parameters investigated, sediment organic C/organic N (OrgC/OrgN), nitrite concentration, and sediment median grain size were found to impact the composition, structure, and distribution of the sediment anammox bacterial community. Analysis of Pearson correlations between environmental factors and abundance of 16S rRNA and hzo genes as determined by fluorescent real-time PCR suggests that the local nitrite concentration is the key regulator of the abundance of anammox bacteria in Jiaozhou Bay sediments. PMID:20833786

  17. Spatial distribution and controlling factors of sedimentary bodies in Jiaozhou Bay and Adjacent Sea Areas, Qingdao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Heping; Li, Guangxue; Li, Shuanglin; Li, Shaoquan; Li, Chun

    2011-06-01

    The distributions of thickness of unconsolidated Quaternary sedimentary layers in Jiaozhou Bay and Qingdao offshore area were studied by using 1079-km high-resolution shallow seismic profiles and drilling core data, and the factors controlling the Quaternary evolution were discussed. The results show that such thickness distributions resulted from the coactions of geologic structures and marine hydrodynamic conditions since the Holocene. The geologic structures controlled the slope deposit, proluvial and fluvial fillings since the late Pleistocene. Holocene marine hydrodynamics eroded away sediments at the bay mouth, and tides carried these eroded materials to the sides of the bay mouth and released them there, forming channel-ridge-alternating geomorphic features. During transgressive processes, the sea level rose rapidly, and insufficient sediment supply and tidal actions yielded the relict sediments in the east of Qingdao offshore area.

  18. [Distribution, seasonal variation and influence factors of dissolved inorganic arsenic in the Sanggou Bay].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Ren, Jing-Ling; Liu, Su-Mei; Jiang, Zeng-Jie; Du, Jin-Zhou; Fang, Jian-Guang

    2014-07-01

    The biogeochemical behavior of arsenic in the aquatic environment has already captured the attentions of scientists due to its complex forms and toxicity. Four cruises were carried out in April, August, October 2011 and January 2012 in the Sanggou Bay. The concentrations of total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs, TDIAs = [ As(5+] + [As(3+)]) and arsenite (As(3+)) were measured by Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS). The concentrations of TDIAs ranged from 3.4-12.4 nmol x L(-1) in April, 8.9-16.9 nmol x L(-1) in August, 14.7-21.3 nmol x L(-1) in October and 13.8-21.9 nmol x L(-1) in January. The concentrations of arsenite ranged from 0.3-2.1 nmol x L(-1), 0.4-3.8 nmol x L(-1), 1.8-4.0 nmol x L(-1) and 0.3-2.9 nmol x L(-1) during four cruises, respectively. The concentrations of TDIAs in spring and summer were lower than those in autumn and winter, and high values of TDIAs appeared in the bay-mouth and the coastal estuary. The concentrations of arsenite in spring and winter were lower than those in summer and autumn. The maximum As(3+)/TDIAs ratios appeared in summer. The mean value of TDIAs in the Sanggou Bay was (13.9 +/- 4.7) nmol x L(-1), which was lower than the national primary drinking in water Standards from USEPA and met the first grade water quality based on the environmental quality standards for surface water of China. It indicates that there is no obvious anthropogenic pollution. The concentrations of TDIAs in the Sanggou Bay were lower than those in the Ailian Bay and the Lidao Bay in spring and summer due to the different hydrological environments and terrestrial inputs. Riverine input, incursion of Yellow Sea and biological activities were the three main factors impacting the distribution of TDIAs in the Sanggou Bay, and the influence of aquaculture activities was particularly significant. The enrichment of arsenic by aquaculture may lead to potential ecological crisis and food safety problems, and need to be paid more

  19. Factors Influencing Spatial and Annual Variability in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) Meadows in Willapa Bay, Washington, and Coos Bay, Oregon, Estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Rumrill, Steven; Woodruff, Dana L.; Williams, Greg D.; Southard, John A.; Sargeant, Susan L.

    2003-08-01

    Environmental factors that influence annual variability and spatial differences in eelgrass meadows (Zostera marina L.) were examined within Willapa Bay, WA, and Coos Bay, OR, over a period of 4 years (1998-2001). A suite of eelgrass metrics were recorded annually at field sites that spanned the estuarine gradient from the marine-dominated to mesohaline regions. Growth of eelgrass plants was also monitored on a monthly basis within Sequim Bay, WA. Both the spatial cover and density of Z. marina were positively correlated with estuarine salinity and inversely correlated with temperature of the tideflat sediment. Experimental evidence verified that optimal eelgrass growth occurred at highest salinities and relatively low temperatures. Eelgrass density, biomass, and the incident of flowering plants all increased substantially in Willapa Bay, and less so in Coos Bay, over the duration of the study. Warmer winters and cooler summers associated with the transition from El Ni?o to La Ni?a ocean conditions during the study period were correlated with the increase in eelgrass abundance and flowering. Anthropogenic factors (e.g., disturbance and erosion by vessel wakes and recreational shellfishing activities) may have contributed to spatial variability. Our findings indicate that large-scale changes in climate and nearshore ocean conditions can exert a strong regional influence on eelgrass abundance, which can vary annually by as much as 700% in Willapa Bay. Lower levels of variability observed in Coos Bay may be due to the stronger and more direct influence of the nearshore Pacific Ocean. We conclude that climate variation may have profound effects on the abundance and distribution of eelgrass meadows throughout the Pacific Northwest, and we anticipate that ocean conditions will emerge as a primary driving force for living estuarine resources and ecological processes that are associated with Z. marina beds within the landscape of these estuarine tidal basins.

  20. Derivation of a Bayes factor to distinguish between linked or pleiotropic quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed Central

    Varona, L; Gómez-Raya, L; Rauw, W M; Clop, A; Ovilo, C; Noguera, J L

    2004-01-01

    A simple procedure to calculate the Bayes factor between linked and pleiotropic QTL models is presented. The Bayes factor is calculated from the marginal prior and posterior densities of the locations of the QTL under a linkage and a pleiotropy model. The procedure is computed with a Gibbs sampler, and it can be easily applied to any model including the location of the QTL as a variable. The procedure was compared with a multivariate least-squares method. The proposed procedure showed better results in terms of power of detection of linkage when low information is available. As information increases, the performance of both procedures becomes similar. An example using data provided by an Iberian by Landrace pig intercross is presented. The results showed that three different QTL segregate in SSC6: a pleiotropic QTL affects myristic, palmitic, and eicosadienoic fatty acids; another pleiotropic QTL affects palmitoleic, stearic, and vaccenic fatty acids; and a third QTL affects the percentage of linoleic acid. In the example, the Bayes factor approach was more powerful than the multivariate least-squares approach. PMID:15020485

  1. Factors affecting suspended-solids concentrations in South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of suspended-solids concentration (SSC) were made at two depths at three sites in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay) to determine the factors that affect SSC. Twenty-eight segments of reliable and continuous SSC time series data longer than 14 days were collected from late 1991 or 1992 through September 1993. Spectral analysis and singular spectrum analysis were used to relate these data segments to time series of several potential forcing factors, including diurnal and semidiurnal tides, the spring-neap tidal cycle, wind shear, freshwater runoff, and longitudinal density differences. SSC is greatest during summer when a landward wind shear is applied to South Bay by the afternoon sea breeze. About one half the variance of SSC is caused by the spring-neap cycle, and SSC lags the spring-neap cycle by about 2 days. Relatively short duration of slack water limits the duration of deposition of suspended solids and consolidation of newly deposited bed sediment during the tidal cycle, so suspended solids accumulate in the water column as a spring tide is approached and slowly deposit as a neap tide is approached. Perturbations in SSC caused by wind and local runoff from winter storms during the study period were usually much smaller than SSC variations caused by the spring-neap cycle. Variations of SSC at the study sites at tidal timescales are tidally forced, and nonlinear physical processes are significant. Advective transport dominates during spring tides when water with higher SSC due to wind wave resuspension is advected to the main channel from shallow water, but during neap tides, advective transport is less significant. The findings of this and other studies indicate that the tidally averaged transport of suspended solids responds to seasonal variations of wind shear in South Bay.

  2. Factors affecting herbicide yields in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, June 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hainly, R.A.; Kahn, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Median concentrations and instantaneous yields of alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine were generally highest at sites in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin and in agricultural subbasins. Instantaneous herbicide yields are related to land use, hydrogeologic setting, streamflow yield, and agricultural row cropping practices. The significance of these relations may be affected by the interdependence of the factors. The percentage of basin area planted in corn is the most influential factor in the prediction of herbicide yield. Instantaneous yields of all five herbicides measured in June 1994 related poorly to averaged 199094 herbicide use. Annually averaged herbicide-use data are too general to use as a predictor for short-term herbicide yields. An evaluation of factors affecting herbicide yields could be refined with more-current land use and land cover information and a more accurate estimate of the percentage of basin area planted in corn. Factors related to herbicide yields can be used to predict herbicide yields in other basins within the Chesapeake Bay watershed and to develop an estimate of herbicide loads to Chesapeake Bay.Median concentrations and instantaneous yields of alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine were generally highest at sites in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin and in agricultural subbasins. Instantaneous herbicide yields are related to land use, hydrogeologic setting, streamflow yield, and agricultural row cropping practices. The significance of these relations may be affected by the interdependence of the factors. The percentage of basin area planted in corn is the most influential factor in the prediction of herbicide yield. Instantaneous yields of all five herbicides measured in June 1994 related poorly to averaged 1990-94 herbicide use. Annually averaged herbicide-use data are too general to use as a predictor for short-term herbicide yields. An evaluation of factors affecting herbicide yields could

  3. Factors controlling floc settling velocity within San Francisco Bay, USA and comparisons with parameterisation approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Andrew; Schoellhamer, David

    2014-05-01

    Much of the sediment within San Francisco Bay (SFB) is cohesive and can therefore act as transport mechanism for pollutants which adsorb to clay minerals. Furthermore, muddy sediment can flocculate when resuspended; this significantly alters their transport characteristics, which poses a serious complication to the modelling of sediment pathways. The aim of this research was to determine the factors that affect floc settling velocity along a longitudinal transect in an estuary. We collected and analysed data on flocs and on potential controlling factors along a 147 km transect the length of San Francisco Bay, USA, on June 17th, 2008. The INSSEV-LF video system, which includes the novel video-based LabSFLOC instrument (developed by Manning) was used to measure floc diameters and settling velocities at 30 stations at a height of 0.7 m above the estuary bed. Floc sizes (D) ranged from 22 microns to 639 microns settling velocities (Ws) ranged between 0.04 mm/s to 15.8 mm/s during the longitudinal transect. Nearbed turbulent shear stresses throughout the transect duration were within the 0.2-0.5 Pa range which typically stimulates flocculation growth. Individual D-Ws-floc density plots suggest the suspended sediments encountered throughout SFB were composed of both mud and mixed sediment flocs. The macroflocs and microflocs (demarcation at 160 microns) sub-populations demonstrated parameterised settling velocities which spanned nearly double the range of the sample mean settling velocities (Ws_mean spanned 0.6-6 mm/s). The macroflocs tended to dominate the suspended mass (up to 77% of the ambient suspended solids concentration; SSC) from San Pablo Bay through to Carquinez Strait (the vicinity of the turbidity maximum zone). Microfloc mass was particularly significant (typically 60-100% of the SSC) in the northern section of South Bay and most of Central Bay. During slack tide, larger and faster settling flocs deposited, accounting for most of the longitudinal

  4. [Zooplankton community structure in relation to influencing factors in different parts of Hangzhou Bay in autumn].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-rong; Xu, Zhao-li; Xu, Jia-yi; Chen, Jia-jie

    2015-09-01

    Based on the data collected from three oceanographic surveys in the east area of north (30.68°-30.83° N,121.67°-121.87° E), the east area of south (29.95°-30.24° N,121.60°- 121.85° E), and the west area of north (30.58°--30.77° N,121.31°--121.56° E) Hangzhou Bay during the autumn of 2009, 2011 and 2012, we analyzed the species composition, ecological groups and the similarity of zooplankton community, as well as influencing factors. The results indicated that a total of 14 species belonging to 6 groups were identified in the west area of north Hangzhou Bay. Tortanus vermiculus was the predominant species. The zooplankton assembles were mainly influenced by the runoff strength of the Qiantang River. The zooplankton fauna was mainly composed of the subtropical estuarine brackish-water species, accounting for 79.8% in the total abundance. A total of 19 species belonging to 6 groups were identified in the east area of north Hangzhou Bay. The composition of zooplankton community was mainly influenced by the Changjiang diluted water and offshore water of the East China Sea. It was mainly composed of warm-temperature and subtropical nearshore low-salinity species, accounting for 43.5% and 31.1% in the total abundance, respectively. In the east area of south Hangzhou Bay, a total of 25 species belonging to 7 groups were identified. The composition of zooplankton community was mainly influenced by the offshore water of the East China Sea. The dominate eco-group types were subtropical nearshore low-salinity and subtropical nearshore species, accounting for 72.3% and 18.3% in the total abundance, respectively. And the ecological groups of species with the highest abundance was Labidocera sinilobata, accounting for 65.3% in the total abundance. By hierarchical cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) method, it was found that the zooplankton communities in the three parts of Hangzhou Bay were significantly different, which were closely

  5. Jamaica Bay studies VII: Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of ducks in a New York estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Joanna; Trout, J. Richard; Wander, Wade; Ritter, Glenn S.

    1984-12-01

    The abundance and distribution of ducks (Anatini, Cairinini, Aythyini, Mergini, Oxyurini) were examined at Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, a coastal estuary on Long Island, New York. The refuge contains a variety of tidal habitats as well two freshwater impoundments. The largest concentrations of diving ducks were present in March and April, and from October through December; while the largest concentrations of dabbling ducks were present from June through December. Thus, diving ducks used the refuge on migration whereas dabbling ducks used the refuge during and following the breeding season. Time of year was thus the most significant factor affecting distribution and abundance. Some species were present all year, including Black Duck Anas rubripes, Mallard A. platyrhynchos, Gadwall A. strepera, and Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis. Although both dabblers and divers used all areas of the bay, dabblers used both ponds while divers used only the East Pond. Dabbling ducks concentrated in the bay at low tide, and on the ponds at high tide. There were more divers on the bay on a falling tide although tide direction did not influence the abundance or distribution of dabblers. Temperature and wind variables influenced the distribution of all ducks: they used the bay at low temperatures, and rafted in large flocks on the bay in intermediate, Northwest winds. Only the numbers and distribution of dabblers were significantly influenced by cloud cover. We conclude that abiotic factors influence the abundance and distribution of ducks on Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, and that tidal factors should be considered when managing migratory or wintering populations of ducks.

  6. Benthic polychaetes in the Ratnagiri bay, India: influence of anthropogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Soniya; Bhokepode, Kanchan; Telavane, Madhavi; Kubal, Priti; Gajbhiye, S N

    2011-11-01

    Study of changes in macrobenthic community structure is an intrinsic part of many environmental monitoring programmes. Hence, it is pivotal to distinguish the effects of natural and anthropogenic factors on these sensitive organisms for accurate assessment and management of coastal environment. Polychaete species diversity of five stations in the Ratnagiri bay was investigated during premonsoon and postmonsoon months in 2007. Though no spatial trends in polychaete diversity vis-à-vis the pollution was visible, the polychaete univariate indices were uniformily better in premonsoon indicating clear seasonal trends. Shannon diversity values ranged from 1.4-2.4 during premonsoon and 0.6-1.6 during postmonsoon. Station 5, which was most impacted by anthropogenic wastes as demonstrated by the anoxic conditions coupled with higher nutrient load, had comparatively higher H' values (1.9 and 1.6) and better evenness values (0.9 and 0.7) during both seasons indicating that the polychaetes were not influenced by anthropogenic contamination. The study indicates that the polychaete distribution and diversity in the bay were governed primarily by variations in sediment texture rather than the anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:22471207

  7. Trophic accumulation of PSP toxins in zooplankton during Alexandrium fundyense blooms in Casco Bay, Gulf of Maine, April June 1998. I. Toxin levels in A. fundyense and zooplankton size fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucette, Gregory J.; Turner, Jefferson T.; Powell, Christine L.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Anderson, Donald M.

    2005-09-01

    The transfer of marine algal toxins involving a range of phytoplanktivorous vectors is well documented as a means of exposing organisms at higher trophic levels (including humans) to these naturally occurring yet harmful compounds. While previous studies have examined the potential for, and dynamics of, algal toxin accumulation by individual zooplankton species, few have attempted to distinguish the contribution of various grazer size classes to toxin trophic transfer in natural communities and characterize some of the factors that can influence this process. The current investigation was aimed at describing the size-fractioned (64-100, 100-200, 200-500, >500 μm) accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins by zooplankton in Casco Bay and the adjacent coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine during a series of cruises from April to June 1998. Several variables, including the abundance of PSP toxin-producing Alexandrium fundyense, in-water toxin concentrations associated with this dinoflagellate, and algal toxin cell quotas, were measured and their relationship to zooplankton toxin accumulation assessed. A principal finding of this work was the ability of any grazer size class examined (including grazers present in the 20-64 μm A. fundyense-containing fraction) to serve as an initial vector for introducing PSP toxins into the Casco Bay food web at various times during the sampling period, thereby providing multiple potential routes of toxin trophic transfer. In addition, trends observed in the coincident mapping of A. fundyense cells and their associated toxin were generally in agreement, yet did not remain closely coupled at all times. Therefore, although A. fundyense abundance can be a reasonable indicator of PSP toxin presence in the phytoplankton, this relationship can vary considerably and lead to situations where elevated toxin levels occur at low cell concentrations and vice versa. The uncoupling of A. fundyense cell and in-water toxin

  8. Tracking polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congener patterns in Newark Bay surface sediment using principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF).

    PubMed

    Saba, Tarek; Su, Steave

    2013-09-15

    PCB congener data for Newark Bay surface sediments were analyzed using PCA and PMF, and relationships between the outcomes from these two techniques were explored. The PCA scores plot separated the Lower Passaic River Mouth samples from North Newark Bay, thus indicating dissimilarity. Although PCA was able to identify subareas in the Bay system with specific PCB congener patterns (e.g., higher chlorinated congeners in Elizabeth River), further conclusions reading potential PCB source profiles or potential upland source areas were not clear for the PCA scores plot. PMF identified five source factors, and explained the Bay sample congener profiles as a mix of these Factors. This PMF solution was equivalent to (1) defining an envelope that encompasses all samples on the PCA scores plot, (2) defining source factors that plot on that envelope, and (3) explaining the congener profile for each Bay sediment sample (inside the scores plot envelope) as a mix of factors. PMF analysis allowed identifying characteristic features in the source factor congener distributions that allowed tracking of source factors to shoreline areas where PCB inputs to the Bay may have originated. The combined analysis from PCA and PMF showed that direct discharges to the Bay are likely the dominant sources of PCBs to the sediment. Review of historical upland activities and regulatory files will be needed, in addition to the PCA and PMF analysis, to fully reconstruct the history of operations and PCB releases around the Newark Bay area that impacted the Bay sediment. PMID:23831929

  9. Immunogenic dialyzable factor derived from a ribosomal fraction of Salmonella typhimurium. I. Preparation of the protective dialyzable factor from the ribosomal fraction by the freeze-thaw procedure.

    PubMed

    Kita, E; Matsuura, H; Masuda, S; Tomihata, S; Kashiba, S

    1983-01-01

    The preparation, properties, and immunogenicity of the dialyzable factor from a ribosomal fraction of Salmonella typhimurium are described. The ribosomal fraction was purified to eliminate O-antigenic components, by affinity chromatography (Sepharose-anti-O antibody conjugates used as immunoadsorbent). The dialyzable factor was obtained in the concentrated dialysate of the purified ribosomal fraction which was alternately frozen in dry-ice acetone and thawed in an 80 C water bath, for a total of five or six cycles. When this preparation was tested for its ability to protect mice against challenge with 1,000 LD50 of the homologous bacteria, it afforded 100% protection at a dose equivalent to 5.0 micrograms of RNA. The protection conferred by this factor was mainly cell mediated but immune serum enhanced this immunity despite the fact that no antibodies were detected in it. The protective activity of this factor was sensitive to RNase digestion but resistant to proteolytic enzymes. Ion exchange chromatography of this factor with DEAE-Sephadex A-25 (in 7 M Urea-0.02 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5) resulted in a single A260 peak which was found to be immunogenic. Chemical analysis of this peak after it was concentrated and desalted revealed that this immunogenic fraction was composed mainly of mixed nucleotides. The data indicate that protective immunity conferred by a ribosomal vaccine is associated with RNA but may not require the intact RNA molecule. PMID:6346023

  10. A Bayes Factor Meta-Analysis of Recent Extrasensory Perception Experiments: Comment on Storm, Tressoldi, and Di Risio (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.; Province, Jordan M.

    2013-01-01

    Psi phenomena, such as mental telepathy, precognition, and clairvoyance, have garnered much recent attention. We reassess the evidence for psi effects from Storm, Tressoldi, and Di Risio's (2010) meta-analysis. Our analysis differs from Storm et al.'s in that we rely on Bayes factors, a Bayesian approach for stating the evidence from data for…

  11. Picoplankton Bloom in Global South? A High Fraction of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria in Metagenomes from a Coastal Bay (Arraial do Cabo—Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrat, Rafael R. C.; Ferrera, Isabel; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dávila, Alberto M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Marine habitats harbor a great diversity of microorganism from the three domains of life, only a small fraction of which can be cultivated. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly popular for addressing microbial diversity without culture, serving as sensitive and relatively unbiased methods for identifying and cataloging the diversity of nucleic acid sequences derived from organisms in environmental samples. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAP) play important roles in carbon and energy cycling in aquatic systems. In oceans, those bacteria are widely distributed; however, their abundance and importance are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to estimate abundance and diversity of AAPs in metagenomes from an upwelling affected coastal bay in Arraial do Cabo, Brazil, using in silico screening for the anoxygenic photosynthesis core genes. Metagenomes from the Global Ocean Sample Expedition (GOS) were screened for comparative purposes. AAPs were highly abundant in the free-living bacterial fraction from Arraial do Cabo: 23.88% of total bacterial cells, compared with 15% in the GOS dataset. Of the ten most AAP abundant samples from GOS, eight were collected close to the Equator where solar irradiation is high year-round. We were able to assign most retrieved sequences to phylo-groups, with a particularly high abundance of Roseobacter in Arraial do Cabo samples. The high abundance of AAP in this tropical bay may be related to the upwelling phenomenon and subsequent picoplankton bloom. These results suggest a link between upwelling and light abundance and demonstrate AAP even in oligotrophic tropical and subtropical environments. Longitudinal studies in the Arraial do Cabo region are warranted to understand the dynamics of AAP at different locations and seasons, and the ecological role of these unique bacteria for biogeochemical and energy cycling in the ocean. PMID:26871866

  12. Picoplankton Bloom in Global South? A High Fraction of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria in Metagenomes from a Coastal Bay (Arraial do Cabo--Brazil).

    PubMed

    Cuadrat, Rafael R C; Ferrera, Isabel; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dávila, Alberto M R

    2016-02-01

    Marine habitats harbor a great diversity of microorganism from the three domains of life, only a small fraction of which can be cultivated. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly popular for addressing microbial diversity without culture, serving as sensitive and relatively unbiased methods for identifying and cataloging the diversity of nucleic acid sequences derived from organisms in environmental samples. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAP) play important roles in carbon and energy cycling in aquatic systems. In oceans, those bacteria are widely distributed; however, their abundance and importance are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to estimate abundance and diversity of AAPs in metagenomes from an upwelling affected coastal bay in Arraial do Cabo, Brazil, using in silico screening for the anoxygenic photosynthesis core genes. Metagenomes from the Global Ocean Sample Expedition (GOS) were screened for comparative purposes. AAPs were highly abundant in the free-living bacterial fraction from Arraial do Cabo: 23.88% of total bacterial cells, compared with 15% in the GOS dataset. Of the ten most AAP abundant samples from GOS, eight were collected close to the Equator where solar irradiation is high year-round. We were able to assign most retrieved sequences to phylo-groups, with a particularly high abundance of Roseobacter in Arraial do Cabo samples. The high abundance of AAP in this tropical bay may be related to the upwelling phenomenon and subsequent picoplankton bloom. These results suggest a link between upwelling and light abundance and demonstrate AAP even in oligotrophic tropical and subtropical environments. Longitudinal studies in the Arraial do Cabo region are warranted to understand the dynamics of AAP at different locations and seasons, and the ecological role of these unique bacteria for biogeochemical and energy cycling in the ocean. PMID:26871866

  13. Near-shore hypoxia in the Chesapeake Bay: Patterns and relationships among physical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitburg, Denise L.

    1990-06-01

    Near-shore, shallow waters in the Chesapeake Bay periodically experience episodes of anoxia or severe hypoxia during summer. In order to examine the severity and temporal pattern of hypoxia, and environmental factors that may lead to such episodes, dissolved oxygen, salinity and temperature were measured at 15-min intervals during the summers of 1987 and 1988 in a western shore oyster bed. Bottom dissolved oxygen concentrations averaged lower at a 4-m site than at a 2-m site. At the 4-m site, dissolved oxygen concentrations dropped below 2 mg l -1 during approximately 40% of days and below 1 mg l -1 during approximately 10% of days each summer. However, diel fluctuations in oxygen concentrations were sufficiently large that even on days of the most severe oxygen minima, dissolved oxygen concentrations always reached or exceeded a level tolerable by most estuarine organisms during some part of the day. During episodes of severe hypoxia on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay, oxygen minima (1) coincided with increased salinities and ebb tides, (2) were preceded by winds from the S-SSE (minima of ⩽0·5 1 mg l -1) or SW (minima of 0·6-1·1 mg l -1), and (3) were reached during 22.00-06.00 hours. Severe hypoxia at the study site therefore appeared to result from intrusions of bottom water, which were most effectively driven by southerly winds. Tidal currents were required to provide the final force that brought deep water close to shore. The diel pattern of intrusions is most likely caused by winds, which were often either too strong or had too weak a southerly component to permit intrusions (without near-shore mixing and reaeration) to occur during afternoon-early evening hours, and the diel periodicity of tides. Short-term fluctuations in temperature and salinity were not as great as fluctuations in dissolved oxygen when compared to seasonal fluctuations of each parameter. For many organisms, short-term fluctuations in temperature and salinity may therefore be

  14. An improved optimization algorithm and Bayes factor termination criterion for sequential projection pursuit

    SciTech Connect

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Jarman, Kristin H.; Harvey, Scott D.; Posse, Christian; Wright, Bob W.

    2005-05-28

    A fundamental problem in analysis of highly multivariate spectral or chromatographic data is reduction of dimensionality. Principal components analysis (PCA), concerned with explaining the variance-covariance structure of the data, is a commonly used approach to dimension reduction. Recently an attractive alternative to PCA, sequential projection pursuit (SPP), has been introduced. Designed to elicit clustering tendencies in the data, SPP may be more appropriate when performing clustering or classification analysis. However, the existing genetic algorithm (GA) implementation of SPP has two shortcomings, computation time and inability to determine the number of factors necessary to explain the majority of the structure in the data. We address both these shortcomings. First, we introduce a new SPP algorithm, a random scan sampling algorithm (RSSA), that significantly reduces computation time. We compare the computational burden of the RSS and GA implementation for SPP on a dataset containing Raman spectra of twelve organic compounds. Second, we propose a Bayes factor criterion, BFC, as an effective measure for selecting the number of factors needed to explain the majority of the structure in the data. We compare SPP to PCA on two datasets varying in type, size, and difficulty; in both cases SPP achieves a higher accuracy with a lower number of latent variables.

  15. RNA sequencing supports distinct reactive oxygen species-mediated pathways of apoptosis by high and low size mass fractions of Bay leaf (Lauris nobilis) in HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Annabelle L; Ververis, Katherine; Sayakkarage, Dheeshana; Khan, Abdul W; Rafehi, Haloom; Ziemann, Mark; Loveridge, Shanon J; Lazarus, Ross; Kerr, Caroline; Lockett, Trevor; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C; Bennett, Louise E

    2015-08-01

    Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis) in mammalian cancer and HT-29 adenocarcinoma cells have been previously attributed to effects of polyphenolic and essential oil chemical species. Recently, we demonstrated differentiated growth-regulating effects of high (HFBL) versus low molecular mass (LFBL) aqueous fractions of bay leaf and now confirm by comparative effects on gene expression, that HFBL and LFBL suppress HT-29 growth by distinct mechanisms. Induction of intra-cellular lesions including DNA strand breakage by extra-cellular HFBL, invoked the hypothesis that iron-mediated reactive oxygen species with capacity to penetrate cell membrane, were responsible for HFBL-mediated effects, supported by equivalent effects of HFBL in combination with γ radiation. Activities of HFBL and LFBL were interpreted to reflect differentiated responses to iron-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS), occurring either outside or inside cells. In the presence of LFBL, apoptotic death was relatively delayed compared with HFBL. ROS production by LFBL mediated p53-dependent apoptosis and recovery was suppressed by promoting G1/S phase arrest and failure of cellular tight junctions. In comparison, intra-cellular anti-oxidant protection exerted by LFBL was absent for extra-cellular HFBL (likely polysaccharide-rich), which potentiated more rapid apoptosis by producing DNA double strand breaks. Differentiated effects on expression of genes regulating ROS defense and chromatic condensation by LFBL versus HFBL, were observed. The results support ferrous iron in cell culture systems and potentially in vivo, can invoke different extra-cellular versus intra-cellular ROS-mediated chemistries, that may be regulated by exogenous, including dietary species. PMID:26114728

  16. Carbon isotopic fractionation in macroalgae from Cádiz Bay (Southern Spain): Comparison with other bio-geographic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Jesús M.; de los Santos, Carmen B.; Lucas Pérez-Lloréns, J.; Vergara, Juan J.

    2009-11-01

    The 13C signature of forty-five macroalgal species from intertidal zones at Cádiz Bay was analysed in order to research the extension of diffusive vs. non-diffusive utilisation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and to perform a comparison with data published for other bio-geographic regions. The ∂ 13C values ranged from -6.8‰ to -33‰, although the span of variation was different depending on the taxa. Thus, ∂ 13C for Chlorophyta varied from -7‰ ( Codium adhaerens) to -29.6‰ ( Flabellia petiolata), while all the Phaeophyceae (excepting Padina pavonica with ∂ 13C higher than -10‰) had values between -10‰, and -20‰. The widest variation range was recorded in Rhodophyta, from values above -10‰ ( Liagora viscida) to values lower than -30‰ obtained in three species belonging to the subclass Rhodymeniophycidae. Accordingly, the mean ∂ 13C value calculated for red algae (-20.2‰) was significantly lower than that for brown (-15.9‰) and green algae (-15.6‰). Most of the analysed red algae were species inhabiting crevices and the low intertidal fringe which explains that, on average, the shaded-habitat species had a ∂ 13C value lower than those growing fully exposed to sun (i.e. in rockpools or at the upper intertidal zone). The comparison between the capacity for non-diffusive use of DIC (i.e. active or facilitated transport of HCO 3- and/or CO 2) and the ∂ 13C values reveals that values more negative than -30‰ indicate that photosynthesis is dependent on CO 2 diffusive entry, whereas values above this threshold would not indicate necessary the operation of a non-diffusive DIC transport mechanism. Furthermore, external carbonic anhydrase activity ( extCA) and ∂ 13C values were negatively correlated indicating that the higher the dependence of the photosynthesis on the CO 2 supplied from HCO 3- via extCA, the lower the ∂ 13C in the algal material. The comparison between the ∂ 13C values obtained for the analysed species and those

  17. A Bayes factor meta-analysis of recent extrasensory perception experiments: comment on Storm, Tressoldi, and Di Risio (2010).

    PubMed

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D; Province, Jordan M

    2013-01-01

    Psi phenomena, such as mental telepathy, precognition, and clairvoyance, have garnered much recent attention. We reassess the evidence for psi effects from Storm, Tressoldi, and Di Risio's (2010) meta-analysis. Our analysis differs from Storm et al.'s in that we rely on Bayes factors, a Bayesian approach for stating the evidence from data for competing theoretical positions. In contrast to more conventional analyses, inference by Bayes factors allows the analyst to state evidence for the no-psi-effect null as well as for a psi-effect alternative. We find that the evidence from Storm et al.'s presented data set favors the existence of psi by a factor of about 6 billion to 1, which is noteworthy even for a skeptical reader. Much of this effect, however, may reflect difficulties in randomization: Studies with computerized randomization have smaller psi effects than those with manual randomization. When the manually randomized studies are excluded and omitted studies included, the Bayes factor evidence is at most 330 to 1, a greatly attenuated value. We argue that this value is unpersuasive in the context of psi because there is no plausible mechanism and because there are almost certainly omitted replication failures. PMID:23294092

  18. Structuring factors and recent changes in subtidal macrozoobenthic communities of a coastal lagoon, Arcachon Bay (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Hugues; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Chardy, Pierre; Bachelet, Guy

    2005-09-01

    Fourteen years after a previous investigation in Arcachon Bay (SW France), the quantitative distribution of subtidal macrozoobenthic communities was assessed in 2002 through a stratified sampling strategy involving a larger number of stations (89 vs. 18) than in 1988. A total of 226 taxa were recorded. Cluster Analysis and Correspondence Analysis identified nine station groups corresponding to benthic faunal assemblages and their characteristic species. Multiple Discriminant Analysis showed that the main environmental factors influencing the distribution of faunal assemblages were sediment parameters and distance from the ocean. Depth was a minor structuring factor. At the scale of the lagoon, biogenic structures such as Zostera marina beds, Crepidula fornicata-dominated bottoms or dead oyster shell bottoms did not display any particular assemblage of infauna. Comparison with previous quantitative data from the 1988 survey provided more precision on the distribution of benthic assemblages and revealed community changes at a 14-year scale. These modifications reflected a general increase of silt and clay content in the sediment in the internal parts of channels, inducing community change. These changes can be correlated to the recent first signs of a moderate eutrophication process which have appeared, since 1988, through the development of green macroalgae in some parts of the lagoon. This trend was enhanced in transverse channels with reduced hydrodynamics and led to muddy areas where green macroalgae tended to accumulate. Locally, the dredging of sandbanks induced stronger currents and allowed the marine influence to occur, and also induced community change. These observations confirm that surveys of macrobenthic communities are useful tools to assess coastal ecosystem change even in moderately disturbed environments.

  19. Estimating the Seismic Quality Factor (Q) in the Western Izmit Bay, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baydar, B.; Kaslilar, A.

    2012-12-01

    The seismic Q (quality factor) parameter, the inverse of attenuation, is a petrophysical parameter being more sensitive to lithology and physical properties of the medium (pressure, temperature, saturation to fluid and gas, etc) than the velocity and it can be used as an indicator to determine the physical changes along the fault zones. The multi-channel seismic reflection data of the Western Izmit Bay, collected after 17 August 1999 Izmit Earthquake (Mw=7.6) by Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey is used for the Q estimation to investigate the lateral and vertical variations of the Q parameter along the seismic profiles. The Q value is determined from the reflection seismograms, and is an average of the quality factors of the layers passed by the reflected wavelet. Since it is difficult and less reliable to estimate the interval-Q values from surface seismic reflection data, instead of estimating the interval-Q values for lithological correlation, the variations of the Q parameter along and around the North Anatolian Fault zone is investigated. In this study, the constant-Q wavelet modeling method, based on the comparison of the attenuated synthetic wavelets by the observed wavelets, is used. The measure of agreement of the wavelets are provided by two methods: the correlation coefficient and L2 norm. The prominent, isolated reflected waves are determined from the raw shot data of the seismic reflection profile and used for Q estimation. In a former study it is observed that the correlation coefficient method has a limitation for the estimation of the Q value higher than 100. Therefore the Q parameter is estimated by two different methods along four seismic lines and the results are compared. It is seen that the L2 norm method gives more reliable results when compared to the correlation coefficient method. It is also observed that low Q values are observed in shallow sediments and around the North Anatolian Fault.

  20. Experimental determination of the Si isotope fractionation factor between liquid metal and liquid silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hin, Remco C.; Fitoussi, Caroline; Schmidt, Max W.; Bourdon, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The conditions of core formation and the abundances of the light elements in Earth's core remain debated. Silicon isotope fractionation provides a tool contributing to this subject. We present experimentally determined Si isotope fractionation factors between liquid metal and liquid silicate at 1450 °C and 1750 °C, which allow calibrating the temperature dependence of Si isotope fractionation. Experiments were performed in a centrifuging piston cylinder at 1 GPa, employing both graphite and MgO capsules. Tin was used to lower the melting temperature of the metal alloys for experiments performed at 1450 °C. Tests reveal that neither Sn nor C significantly affects Si isotope fractionation. An alkaline fusion technique was employed to dissolve silicate as well as metal phases prior to ion exchange chemistry and mass spectrometric analysis. The results show that metal is consistently enriched in light isotopes relative to the silicate, yielding average metal-silicate fractionation factors of -1.48±0.08‰ and -1.11±0.14‰ at 1450 °C and 1750 °C, respectively. The temperature dependence of equilibrium Si isotope fractionation between metal and silicate can thus be described as Δ30SiMetal-Silicate=-4.42(±0.05)×106/T2. The Si isotope equilibrium fractionation is thus about 1.7 times smaller than previously proposed on the basis of experiments. A consequence of this smaller fractionation is that the calculated difference between the Si isotope composition of the bulk Earth and that of the bulk silicate Earth generated by core formation is smaller than previously thought. It is therefore increasingly difficult to match the Si isotope composition of the bulk silicate Earth with that of chondrites for metal-silicate equilibration temperatures above ∼2500 K. This suggests that Si isotopes were more sensitive to the early stages of core formation when low oxygen fugacities allowed significant incorporation of Si into metal.

  1. Novel Bayes Factors That Capture Expert Uncertainty in Prior Density Specification in Genetic Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Amy V.; Cox, Angela; Lin, Wei‐Yu; Easton, Douglas F.; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bayes factors (BFs) are becoming increasingly important tools in genetic association studies, partly because they provide a natural framework for including prior information. The Wakefield BF (WBF) approximation is easy to calculate and assumes a normal prior on the log odds ratio (logOR) with a mean of zero. However, the prior variance (W) must be specified. Because of the potentially high sensitivity of the WBF to the choice of W, we propose several new BF approximations with logOR ∼N(0,W), but allow W to take a probability distribution rather than a fixed value. We provide several prior distributions for W which lead to BFs that can be calculated easily in freely available software packages. These priors allow a wide range of densities for W and provide considerable flexibility. We examine some properties of the priors and BFs and show how to determine the most appropriate prior based on elicited quantiles of the prior odds ratio (OR). We show by simulation that our novel BFs have superior true‐positive rates at low false‐positive rates compared to those from both P‐value and WBF analyses across a range of sample sizes and ORs. We give an example of utilizing our BFs to fine‐map the CASP8 region using genotype data on approximately 46,000 breast cancer case and 43,000 healthy control samples from the Collaborative Oncological Gene‐environment Study (COGS) Consortium, and compare the single‐nucleotide polymorphism ranks to those obtained using WBFs and P‐values from univariate logistic regression. PMID:25727067

  2. Computing the Partial Fraction Decomposition of Rational Functions with Irreducible Quadratic Factors in the Denominators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2012-01-01

    In this note, a new method for computing the partial fraction decomposition of rational functions with irreducible quadratic factors in the denominators is presented. This method involves polynomial divisions and substitutions only, without having to solve for the complex roots of the irreducible quadratic polynomial or to solve a system of linear…

  3. Cr isotope fractionation factors for Cr(VI) reduction by a metabolically diverse group of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban; Johnson, Thomas M.; Sanford, Robert A.

    2014-10-01

    Reduction of Cr(VI) is an important process that determines the geochemical behavior, mobility and bioavailability of Cr in both terrestrial and marine environments. Many metabolically diverse microorganisms possess Cr(VI) reduction capacity. Cr(VI) reduction fractionates Cr isotopes and thus 53Cr/52Cr ratios can be used to monitor Cr(VI) reduction and redox conditions. The magnitude of isotopic fractionation (ε) for a variety of microbial reduction mechanisms must be known for accurate interpretation of observed shifts in 53Cr/52Cr ratios. We determined isotopic fractionation factors for Cr(VI) reduction by metal reducers Geobacter sulfurreducens and Shewanella sp. strain NR, a denitrifying soil bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri DCP-Ps1, and a sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris. All bacteria investigated in this study produced significant Cr isotope fractionation. The fractionation (ε) for G. sulfurreducens, Shewanella sp. (NR), P. stutzeri DCP-Ps1, and D. vulgaris were -3.03‰ ± 0.12‰, -2.17‰ ± 0.22‰, -3.14‰ ± 0.13‰, and -3.01‰ ± 0.11‰, respectively. Despite differences in microbial strains in this study, the ε did not vary significantly except for Shewanella sp. (NR). Our results suggest that strong isotopic fractionation is induced during Cr(VI) reduction under electron donor poor (∼300 μM) conditions.

  4. Effects of environmental and biotic factors on carbon isotopic fractionation during decomposition of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoan; Jia, Yufu; Li, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle because the CO2 emitted from soil respiration is an important source of atmospheric CO2. Carbon isotopic fractionation occurs during SOM decomposition, which leads to 12C to enrich in the released CO2 while 13C to enrich in the residual SOM. Understanding the isotope fractionation has been demonstrated to be helpful for studying the global carbon cycle. Soil and litter samples were collected from soil profiles at 27 different sites located along a vertical transect from 1200 to 4500 m above sea level (a.s.l.) in the south-eastern side of the Tibetan Plateau. Their carbon isotope ratios, C and N concentrations were measured. In addition, fiber and lignin in litter samples were also analyzed. Carbon isotope fractionation factor (α) during SOM decomposition was estimated indirectly as the slope of the relationship between carbon isotope ratios of SOM and soil C concentrations. This study shows that litter quality and soil water play a significant role in isotope fractionation during SOM decomposition, and the carbon isotope fractionation factor, α, increases with litter quality and soil water content. However, we found that temperature had no significant impact on the α variance.

  5. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Preserves Salivary Gland Function After Fractionated Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Limesand, Kirsten H.; Avila, Jennifer L.; Victory, Kerton; Chang, Hui-Hua; Shin, Yoon Joo; Grundmann, Oliver; Klein, Rob R.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer consists of fractionated radiation treatments that cause significant damage to salivary glands leading to chronic salivary gland dysfunction with only limited prevention and treatment options currently available. This study examines the feasibility of IGF-1 in preserving salivary gland function following a fractionated radiation treatment regimen in a pre-clinical model. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to fractionated radiation, and salivary gland function and histological analyses of structure, apoptosis, and proliferation were evaluated. Results: In this study, we report that treatment with fractionated doses of radiation results in a significant level of apoptotic cells in FVB mice after each fraction, which is significantly decreased in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Salivary gland function is significantly reduced in FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation; however, myr-Akt1 transgenic mice maintain salivary function under the same treatment conditions. Injection into FVB mice of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which activates endogenous Akt, suppressed acute apoptosis and preserved salivary gland function after fractionated doses of radiation 30 to 90 days after treatment. FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation had significantly lower levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive salivary acinar cells 90 days after treatment, which correlated with a chronic loss of function. In contrast, FVB mice injected with IGF-1 before each radiation treatment exhibited acinar cell proliferation rates similar to those of untreated controls. Conclusion: These studies suggest that activation of IGF-1-mediated pathways before head-and-neck radiation could modulate radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction and maintain glandular homeostasis.

  6. Oxygen isotope fractionation factors between anhydrite and water from 100 to 550°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Hitoshi; Kusakabe, Minoru; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Matsuo, Sadao; Somiya, Shigeyuki

    1981-03-01

    Oxygen isotope exchange between anhydrite and water was studied from 100 to 550°C, using the partial equilibrium method. The exchange rate was extremely low in NaCl solution. In the lower-temperature range, acid solutions were used to produce sufficient reaction to determine the oxygen isotope fractionation factors. The fractionation factors obtained in the present study are definitely different from those given by Lloyd [8]. They are similar to those for the HSO 4--water system studied by Mizutani and Rafter [19], and are consistently 2‰ higher than those of the barite-water system by Kusakabe and Robinson [5]. The temperature dependence of the oxygen isotope fractionation factors was calculated by the least squares method in which the weight was taken to be inversely proportional to the experimental error. The fractionation is given by: 10 3lnαanhydrite-water=3.21×(10 3/T) 2-4.72 Available δ 18O values of natural anhydrite were used to test the validity of this expression. It is shown that this newly revised geothermometer can be successfully applied to natural hydrothermal anhydrite.

  7. Spatial patterns of distribution and the influence of seasonal and abiotic factors on demersal ichthyofauna in an estuarine tropical bay.

    PubMed

    da Silva, D R; Paranhos, R; Vianna, M

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on the influence of local-scale environmental factors on key metrics of fish community structure and function at Guanabara Bay, an estuarine system that differs from all other south-western Atlantic estuaries due to the influence of an annual low-intensity upwelling event during late spring and summer, between November and March, when a warm rainy climate prevails. The spatial patterns of the bottom temperature and salinity were more heterogeneous during the rainy season than the dry season, being linked to total precipitation and seasonal oceanographic events. The study identified 130 species and 45 families, placing Guanabara Bay as one of the most species-rich tropical estuarine ecosystems, far exceeding 22 other Brazilian estuaries. These results, in addition to characteristics such as a relatively well-preserved mangrove forest, high productivity and favourable conditions for the growth and reproduction of estuarine species, indicate that Guanabara Bay plays a central role in supporting large populations of fishes, including commercially important species. PMID:27401484

  8. Variations of summer phytoplankton community related to environmental factors in a macro-tidal estuarine embayment, Hangzhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuexia; Yu, Jun; Jiang, Zhibing; Wang, Qin; Wang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    To explore the distribution and composition of phytoplankton community and their responses to environmental changes, summer net-collected phytoplankton and physicochemical parameters in the Hangzhou Bay during 2004-2010 were investigated. A total of four phyla and 84 species were identified, including 67 diatom and 12 dinoflagellate species. The dominant species constantly consisted of the diatoms, although the dominance of dinoflagellate and cyanobacteria increased recently. Due to great spatio-temporal variations in environmental factors (salinity, suspended solids, and nutrient concentration), significant heterogeneities in community compositions among different years and subregions (inner and middle sections, and bay mouth) were found based on the analyses of multidimensional scaling and similarity. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that salinity and Si/N were the main variables associated with algal assemblage. Compared with the historical data since the 1980s, eutrophication (N, P, and N/P increased with decreasing Si/N) was exacerbated drastically. Moreover, climatic forcing and human activities resulted in a series of physical alterations, including sediment retention, temperature increase, and salinity decrease as well as reduction in water exchanges. All these changes induced obvious increases in cell density and Chl- a while decreases in species diversity and diatom-dinoflagellate ratio as well as the shifting of dominant species. Therefore, the long-term phytoplankton variations were closely related to anthropogenic and climatic perturbations in the Hangzhou Bay.

  9. Testing general relativity with compact coalescing binaries: comparing exact and predictive methods to compute the Bayes factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Grover, Katherine; Mandel, Ilya; Vecchio, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    The second generation of gravitational-wave detectors is scheduled to start operations in 2015. Gravitational-wave signatures of compact binary coalescences could be used to accurately test the strong-field dynamical predictions of general relativity (GR). Computationally expensive data analysis pipelines, including TIGER (test infrastructure for general relativity), have been developed to carry out such tests. As a means to cheaply assess whether a particular deviation from GR can be detected, Cornish et al (2011 Phys. Rev. D 84 062003) and Vallisneri (2012 Phys. Rev. D 86 082001) recently proposed an approximate scheme to compute the Bayes factor between a GR gravitational-wave model and a model representing a class of alternative theories of gravity parametrized by one additional parameter. This approximate scheme is based on only two easy-to-compute quantities: the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the signal and the fitting factor (FF) between the signal and the manifold of possible waveforms within GR. In this work, we compare the prediction from the approximate formula against an exact numerical calculation of the Bayes factor using the lalinference library. We find that, using frequency-domain waveforms, the approximate scheme predicts exact results with good accuracy, providing the correct scaling with the SNR at a FF value of 0.992 and the correct scaling with the FF at a SNR of 20, down to a FF of ˜ 0.9. We extend the framework for the approximate calculation of the Bayes factor, which significantly increases its range of validity, at least to FFs of ˜ 0.7 or higher.

  10. Long-Term Results and Prognostic Factors of Fractionated Strontium-90 Eye Applicator for Pterygium

    SciTech Connect

    Arruda Viani, Gustavo Stefano, Eduardo Jose; Fendi, Ligia Issa de; Carrara Fonseca, Ellen

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term safety, effectiveness, and prognostic factors of fractionated postoperative {beta}-irradiation. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2005, 623 patients with 737 pterygium lesions were treated with a strontium-90 eye applicator after surgical excision. The median follow-up period was 60 months (range, 6.7-139.5). Of the 737 lesions, 644 were primary and 93 were recurrences after surgical removal alone. Fractionated radiotherapy (RT) to a total dose of 35 Gy in five to seven fractions was used. Results: A total of 73 local pterygium recurrences (9.9%) were noted. Of the recurrent cases, 80% were noted within 3 years after treatment. The 5- and 10-year probability of local control was 90% and 88%, respectively. The multivariate analysis for all cases demonstrated that gender, age, total radiation dose, recurrent pterygia, and interval between surgery and RT affected the overall local control rate. Late toxicities that might have been associated with strontium-90 RT included scleromalacia (scleral thinning) in nine eyes, adhesion of the eyelids in eight, cataracts in six, and scleral ulcer in five eyes. Conclusion: Fractionated strontium-90 RT to a total dose of approximately 35 Gy in five to seven fractions results in a similar local control rate as higher doses in other series, with an acceptable complication rate.

  11. Chesapeake Bay study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives and scope of the Chesapeake Bay study are discussed. The physical, chemical, biological, political, and social phenomena of concern to the Chesapeake Bay area are included in the study. The construction of a model of the bay which will provide a means of accurately studying the interaction of the ecological factors is described. The application of the study by management organizations for development, enhancement, conservation, preservation, and restoration of the resources is examined.

  12. Factors Leading to Variability of Emission Factors, Single Scattering Albedo, and Elemental Carbon Fraction from Biofuel Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roden, C. A.; Bond, T. C.; Conway, S.; Osorto Pinel, B.; Maccarty, N.

    2006-12-01

    In a three-year study of field and laboratory emissions of traditional and improved biofuel cookstoves, we found that field measured particulate emissions of actual cooking events average 2.5 times those of reproduced lab emissions. Emission factors are highly dependent on the care and skill of the operator, and the resulting combustion; these do not appear to be accurately reproduced in the lab. The single scatter albedo (SSA) of the emissions is very low in both lab and field measurements, averaging about 0.3 for lab tests and around 0.5 for field tests, indicating that the primary particles are climate warming. In Honduras, improved stoves generally had lower emission factors than traditional stoves. Over the course of 3 summers we have measured field emissions from traditional cookstoves, relatively-new improved cookstoves, and "broken-in" improved cookstoves. For improved stoves, the presence of a chimney generally resulted in lower emission factors but left the SSA unaffected. Traditional cookstoves had an average PM emission factor of 8.5 g/kg significantly larger than previous studies. Particulate emission factors for improved cookstoves without and with chimneys averaged about 5.7 g/kg and 3.5 g/kg respectively. The elemental carbon (EC) fraction of PM varied significantly between individual tests, but averaged about 25% for each of the categories. Wood type affects on the PM emission factor, the SSA of the emissions and EC fraction. During our 2006 field measurements, we performed multiple emission measurements on the same stove while varying the fuel. Pine wood generally produced more PM than oak per kilogram of fuel. Additionally, Ocote, a resinous pitch pine often used in Central America for lighting fires, produces emissions which have a very low SSA and high EC fraction. We present the elemental carbon fraction and mass emission factors for different type of stoves and testing conditions. We summarize the characteristics of the particles emitted

  13. An unconditional exact test for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law: sample-space ordering using the Bayes factor.

    PubMed Central

    Montoya-Delgado, L E; Irony, T Z; de B Pereira, C A; Whittle, M R

    2001-01-01

    Much forensic inference based upon DNA evidence is made assuming that the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is valid for the genetic loci being used. Several statistical tests to detect and measure deviation from HWE have been devised, each having advantages and limitations. The limitations become more obvious when testing for deviation within multiallelic DNA loci is attempted. Here we present an exact test for HWE in the biallelic case, based on the ratio of weighted likelihoods under the null and alternative hypotheses, the Bayes factor. This test does not depend on asymptotic results and minimizes a linear combination of type I and type II errors. By ordering the sample space using the Bayes factor, we also define a significance (evidence) index, P value, using the weighted likelihood under the null hypothesis. We compare it to the conditional exact test for the case of sample size n = 10. Using the idea under the method of chi(2) partition, the test is used sequentially to test equilibrium in the multiple allele case and then applied to two short tandem repeat loci, using a real Caucasian data bank, showing its usefulness. PMID:11404348

  14. BAY 81-8973, a full-length recombinant factor VIII: Human heat shock protein 70 improves the manufacturing process without affecting clinical safety.

    PubMed

    Maas Enriquez, Monika; Thrift, John; Garger, Stephen; Katterle, Yvonne

    2016-11-01

    BAY 81-8973 is a full-length, unmodified recombinant human factor VIII (FVIII) approved for the treatment of hemophilia A. BAY 81-8973 has the same amino acid sequence as the currently marketed sucrose-formulated recombinant FVIII (rFVIII-FS) product and is produced using additional advanced manufacturing technologies. One of the key manufacturing advances for BAY 81-8973 is introduction of the gene for human heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) into the rFVIII-FS cell line. HSP70 facilitates proper folding of proteins, enhances cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis, and potentially impacts rFVIII glycosylation. HSP70 expression in the BAY 81-8973 cell line along with other manufacturing advances resulted in a higher-producing cell line and improvements in the pharmacokinetics of the final product as determined in clinical studies. HSP70 protein is not detected in the harvest or in the final BAY 81-8973 product. However, because this is a new process, clinical trial safety assessments included monitoring for anti-HSP70 antibodies. Most patients, across all age groups, had low levels of anti-HSP70 antibodies before exposure to the investigational product. During BAY 81-8973 treatment, 5% of patients had sporadic increases in anti-HSP70 antibody levels above a predefined threshold (cutoff value, 239 ng/mL). No clinical symptoms related to anti-HSP70 antibody development occurred. In conclusion, addition of HSP70 to the BAY 81-8973 cell line is an innovative technology for manufacturing rFVIII aimed at improving protein folding and expression. Improved pharmacokinetics and no effect on safety of BAY 81-8973 were observed in clinical trials in patients with hemophilia A. PMID:27436242

  15. Human transcription factors contain a high fraction of intrinsically disordered regions essential for transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Minezaki, Yoshiaki; Homma, Keiichi; Kinjo, Akira R; Nishikawa, Ken

    2006-06-16

    Human transcriptional regulation factors, such as activators, repressors, and enhancer-binding factors are quite different from their prokaryotic counterparts in two respects: the average sequence in human is more than twice as long as that in prokaryotes, while the fraction of sequence aligned to domains of known structure is 31% in human transcription factors (TFs), less than half of that in bacterial TFs (72%). Intrinsically disordered (ID) regions were identified by a disorder-prediction program, and were found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. Analysis of 401 human TFs with experimental evidence from the Swiss-Prot database showed that as high as 49% of the entire sequence of human TFs is occupied by ID regions. More than half of the human TFs consist of a small DNA binding domain (DBD) and long ID regions frequently sandwiching unassigned regions. The remaining TFs have structural domains in addition to DBDs and ID regions. Experimental studies, particularly those with NMR, revealed that the transactivation domains in unbound TFs are usually unstructured, but become structured upon binding to their partners. The sequences of human and mouse TF orthologues are 90.5% identical despite a high incidence of ID regions, probably reflecting important functional roles played by ID regions. In general ID regions occupy a high fraction in TFs of eukaryotes, but not in prokaryotes. Implications of this dichotomy are discussed in connection with their functional roles in transcriptional regulation and evolution. PMID:16697407

  16. Factors determining δ13C and δ18O fractionation in aragonitic otoliths of marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorrold, Simon R.; Campana, Steven E.; Jones, Cynthia M.; Swart, Peter K.

    1997-07-01

    Fish otoliths are aragonitic accretions located within the inner ear of teleost fish. The acellular nature of otoliths, along with taxon-specific shapes, chronological growth increments, and abundance in the fossil record suggest that the stable isotope chemistry of these structures may be unique recorders of environmental conditions experienced by fish in both modern and ancient water masses. To assess the factors determining δ 13C and δ 18O fractionation in fish otoliths, we reared Atlantic croaker ( Micropogonias undulatus) larvae under controlled environmental conditions. Metabolic effects apparently generated large isotopic disequilibria in the δ 13C values of M. undulatus otoliths. We found evidence of a negative regression between δ 13C- carbonate-δ 13C water (δ 13C) and temperature: δ 13C = -1.78 - 0.18 T °C However, this relationship was aliased to a degree by a positive correlation between δ 13C and somatic growth and otolith precipitation rates. Oxygen isotopes were deposited close to equilibrium with the ambient water. The relationship between temperature and the 18O/ 16O fractionation factor (α) was determined empirically to be: 1000 ln α = 18.56(10 3T K -1) - 32.54 The fractionation factor was not affected by either otolith precipitation or fish growth rates. Reconstruction of water temperature histories should, therefore, be possible from the δ 18O values of M. undulatus otoliths with a precision of 1°C, providing the δ 18O of the ambient water can be estimated.

  17. The influence of void fraction on the submerged perforated sheet hydraulic friction factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinkov, V. N.; Elkin, I. V.; Emelianov, D. A.; Melikhov, V. I.; Melikhov, O. I.; Nerovnov, A. A.; Nikonov, S. M.; Parfenov, Yu. V.

    2015-07-01

    The results from an experimental investigation of two-phase flow motion through a submerged perforated sheet (SPS) obtained at the Elektrogorsk Research Center test facility are presented. The test facility, the test section of which is a transverse "cutout" from the full-scale PGV-1000 steam generator with the models of vessel internals, is described in detail. The procedure for carrying out trial startups is outlined, and the system of instrument and control devices is described. The SPS used in all experimental modes of operation had the perforation ratio (the hole area to the sheet area ratio) equal to 5.7%. The pressure in the system was around 7 MPa, and the flow rate of supplied steam was varied from 4.23 to 7.94 t/h, which corresponded to the steam velocity at the evaporation surface equal to 0.15-0.29 m/s. Distributions of pressure difference across the SPS and void fractions under the SPS and above it are obtained. The SPS hydraulic friction factor for a two-phase flow is determined as a result of processing the experimental data. A correction for two-phase nature of the flow for the SPS operating conditions is determined by comparing the obtained SPS hydraulic friction factor for a two-phase flow with the SPS hydraulic friction factor to single-phase flow of steam. It is shown that this correction can be either greater than unity (at low void fractions) or less than unity (at high void fractions).

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor assessment in different blood fractions of gastrointestinal cancer patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, Girolamo; Coviello, Maria; Chiriatti, Annalisa; Stea, Baldassarre; Montemurro, Severino; Quaranta, Michele; Dittadi, Ruggero; Paradiso, Angelo

    2004-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to play a central role in tumour angiogenesis. Up to now inconclusive data have been published on the clinical-biological significance of circulating VEGF and on the most suitable blood fraction for measuring it. The aims of this pilot study were to assess VEGF in blood compartments of 16 healthy control volunteers and 56 gastrointestinal cancer patients, prospectively collected, to identify the most suitable blood fraction for the determination of VEGF and to evaluate its possible clinical-biological significance. Samples of serum (S) and plasma (P) in both sodium citrate (SC) and sodium citrate-theophylline-adenosine-dipyridamole (CTAD) were collected from venous blood. After the centrifugation and separation methods VEGF levels were detected by ELISA in: S, plasma-platelets poor (P-PP), plasma-activated platelets rich (P-APR) and blood-lysed whole (B-LW). The best differentiation between healthy control volunteers and cancer patients in VEGF level was seen for P-APRCTAD (mean value: 278 pg/ml vs 77 pg/ml; p=0.0036 by t-test). No significant correlation among the blood fractions of VEGF analysed and clinical-pathological features was found. Our data suggest that P-APRCTAD blood fraction, obtained according to well standardised conditions, could represent the most suitable compartment for the assessment of VEGF. We suggest that VEGF levels in P-APRCTAD could play a role as an angiogenic marker of malignant gastrointestinal transformation. Further studies on a larger series of patients and healthy controls with the same experimental methodological conditions are required to confirm our preliminary conclusions. PMID:14719080

  19. Fractionation studies on a factor in linseed meal protecting against selenosis in chicks.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L S; Chang, C H

    1976-03-01

    Growth rate of Single Combe White Leghorn cockerels fed a casein-gelatin-glucose diet was significantly depressed at two weeks when 10 p.p.m. or more selenium was added to the diet. When 20% linseed meal was included in the diet, growth was not reduced with 10 p.p.m. selenium and only slightly reduced with 20 p.p.m. selenium. Including 20% soybean meal failed to modify the toxicity. Levels of 5 and 10% linseed meal were less effective in counteracting selenosis than was 20%. Fractionation studies showed that a protective factor in linseed meal was extracted by methanol and ethanol and was not destroyed by autoclaving. Ashing the ethanol extract destroyed its activity. The factor was readily extracted by chlorform:methanol (2:1) but less effectively by acetone and diethyl ether. Washed chloroform:methanol extract was inactive but the washings contained the factor. Concentrates of the factor were active at less than 1% of the dry matter of the diet. The results of these studies show that linseed meal contains a heat stable, organic, polar factor that modified selenium toxicity in the chick. PMID:947092

  20. A Tutorial on Computing Bayes Factors for Single-Subject Designs.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rivka M; Hartogs, Bregje M A; Morey, Richard D

    2015-11-01

    When researchers are interested in the effect of certain interventions on certain individuals, single-subject studies are often performed. In their most simple form, such single-subject studies require that a subject is measured on relevant criterion variables several times before an intervention and several times during or after the intervention. Scores from the two phases are then compared in order to investigate the intervention effect. Since observed scores typically consist of a mixture of true scores and random measurement error, simply looking at the difference in scores can be misleading. Hence, de Vries & Morey (2013) developed models and hypothesis tests for single-subject data, quantifying the evidence in data for the size and presence of an intervention effect. In this paper we give a non-technical overview of the models and hypothesis tests and show how they can be applied on real data using the BayesSingleSub R package, with the aid of an empirical data set. PMID:26520223

  1. Matching-adjusted indirect comparisons of efficacy of BAY 81-8973 vs two recombinant factor VIII for the prophylactic treatment of severe hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Pocoski, Jennifer; Li, Nanxin; Ayyagari, Rajeev; Church, Nikki; Maas Enriquez, Monika; Xiang, Quer; Kelkar, Sneha; Du, Ella X; Wu, Eric Q; Xie, Jipan

    2016-01-01

    Background No head-to-head trials comparing recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) products currently exist. This was a matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) study of efficacy of BAY 81-8973 with antihemophilic factor (recombinant) plasma/albumin-free method (rAHF-PFM) and turoctocog alfa for the prophylaxis of severe hemophilia A. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify trials of rAHF-PFM and turoctocog alfa. Comparisons were conducted using BAY 81-8973 individual patient data (IPD) from LEOPOLD trials and published data from rAHF-PFM and turoctocog alfa trials. Differences in outcome reporting were reconciled using transformation of BAY 81-8973 IPD. Patients in pooled LEOPOLD trials were weighted to match baseline characteristics for rAHF-PFM or turoctocog alfa trials using MAICs. After matching, annualized bleed rates (ABRs) were compared using weighted t-tests. Results Two rAHF-PFM trials and one turoctocog alfa trial were identified. In these trials, rFVIIIs were dosed thrice weekly or every other day; in LEOPOLD trials, BAY 81-8973 was dosed twice- or thrice weekly. Three MAICs were conducted because the two rAHF-PFM trials calculated ABRs differently, matching for age, race, and weight (turoctocog alfa only). BAY 81-8973 had similar ABR of all bleeds vs rAHF-PFM (two trials: 4.8 vs 6.3, 1.9 vs 1.8 [square root transform]) and lower ABR of spontaneous bleeds and trauma bleeds (2.6 vs 4.1, 2.1 vs 4.7; both P<0.05). BAY 81-8973 showed lower ABR of all bleeds and spontaneous bleeds vs turoctocog alfa (4.3 vs 6.5, 2.8 vs 4.3; both P<0.05) and similar ABR of trauma bleeds (1.5 vs 1.6). In subgroup analysis, twice-weekly BAY 81-8973 had similar ABRs of all bleeds, spontaneous bleeds, and trauma bleeds compared to rAHF-PFM and turoctocog alfa. Conclusion This indirect comparison found that prophylaxis with BAY 81-8973, even including the lower frequency of two times a week and lower factor VIII consumption, has efficacy comparable to r

  2. Relationship between environmental factors and plankton in the Bayuquan Port, Liaodong Bay, China: a five-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lun; Yang, Guojun; Wang, Nianbin; Lu, Xiaoqian

    2015-11-01

    To understand the relationship between the plankton community and environmental factors and water quality in the Bayuquan Port of Liaodong Bay, China, and investigations were carried out during six different periods (April 2009, April 2010, October 2011, April 2012, October 2012, and April 2013). This area was characterized by high levels of nutrient and suspended solids (SPS) during survey periods, and eutrophication led to the occurrence of red tides in April and October 2012 and April 2013. Our analyses revealed that the plankton communities of Bayuquan Port lacked stability and were affected seriously by external disturbance (e.g., oceanographic engineering and river runoff). Our data indicate that oil, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), SPS, and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) were key factors that regulated the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities. The partial redundancy analysis (partial RDA) suggested that oil and SPS were the most important environmental variables affecting the phytoplankton community in April 2010 and 2012, whereas DIN concentration played a governing role in zooplankton dynamics. Oil and Chl- a concentrations affected significantly the zooplankton community in October 2012. Therefore, the plankton communities could reflect both dynamic changes in coastal environmental factors and the ongoing eutrophication process caused by anthropogenic activities in this area.

  3. Relationship between environmental factors and plankton in the Bayuquan Port, Liaodong Bay, China: a five-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lun; Yang, Guojun; Wang, Nianbin; Lu, Xiaoqian

    2016-07-01

    To understand the relationship between the plankton community and environmental factors and water quality in the Bayuquan Port of Liaodong Bay, China, and investigations were carried out during six different periods (April 2009, April 2010, October 2011, April 2012, October 2012, and April 2013). This area was characterized by high levels of nutrient and suspended solids (SPS) during survey periods, and eutrophication led to the occurrence of red tides in April and October 2012 and April 2013. Our analyses revealed that the plankton communities of Bayuquan Port lacked stability and were affected seriously by external disturbance (e.g., oceanographic engineering and river runoff). Our data indicate that oil, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), SPS, and chlorophyll a (Chl- a) were key factors that regulated the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities. The partial redundancy analysis (partial RDA) suggested that oil and SPS were the most important environmental variables affecting the phytoplankton community in April 2010 and 2012, whereas DIN concentration played a governing role in zooplankton dynamics. Oil and Chl- a concentrations affected significantly the zooplankton community in October 2012. Therefore, the plankton communities could reflect both dynamic changes in coastal environmental factors and the ongoing eutrophication process caused by anthropogenic activities in this area.

  4. Factors affecting measurement of channel thickness in asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Dou, Haiyang; Jung, Euo Chang; Lee, Seungho

    2015-05-01

    Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) has been considered to be a useful tool for simultaneous separation and characterization of polydisperse macromolecules or colloidal nanoparticles. AF4 analysis requires the knowledge of the channel thickness (w), which is usually measured by injecting a standard with known diffusion coefficient (D) or hydrodynamic diameter (dh). An accurate w determination is a challenge due to its uncertainties arising from the membrane's compressibility, which may vary with experimental condition. In the present study, influence of factors including the size and type of the standard on the measurement of w was systematically investigated. The results revealed that steric effect and the particles-membrane interaction by van der Waals or electrostatic force may result in an error in w measurement. PMID:25817708

  5. Differences in the fractional abundances of carbohydrates of natural and recombinant human tissue factor

    PubMed Central

    Krudysz-Amblo, Jolanta; Jennings, Mark E; Matthews, Dwight E; Mann, Kenneth G; Butenas, Saulius

    2011-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is a single polypeptide integral membrane glycoprotein composed of 263 residues and is essential to life in its role as the initiator of blood coagulation. Objective Previously we have shown that the activity of the natural placental TF (pTF) and the recombinant TF (rTF) from Sf9 insect cells is different (Krudysz-Amblo, J. et al(2010) J. Biol. Chem. 285, 3371–3382). In this study, using mass spectrometry, we show by quantitative analysis that the extent of glycosylation varies on each protein. Results Fractional abundance, of each glycan composition at each of the three glycosylation sites, reveals the most pronounced difference to be at asparagine (Asn) 11. This residue is located in the region of extensive TFfactor VIIa (FVIIa) interaction. Carbohydrate fractional abundance at Asn11 revealed that glycosylation in the natural placental TF is much more prevalent (~76%) than in the recombinant protein (~20%). The extent of glycosylation on Asn124 and Asn137 is similar in the two proteins, despite the pronounced differences in the carbohydrate composition. Additionally, 77% of rTF exists as TF des-1, 2 (missing the first two amino acids from the N-terminus). In contrast, only 31% of pTF is found in the des-1, 2 form. Conclusion These observations may attribute to the difference in the ability of TF-FVIIa complex to activate factor X (FX). Structural and functional comparison of the recombinant and natural protein advances our understanding and knowledge on the biological activity of TF. PMID:21172408

  6. Diagnostic value and influencing factors of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in suspected asthma patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yubo; Li, Li; Han, Rui; Lei, Wenhui; Li, Zhongyan; Li, Kunlin; Kang, Jun; Chen, Hengyi; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the critical value and possible influencing factors of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in suspected asthma patients. Methods: 923 suspected asthmatics consecutively referred to our hospital during December 2012 to July 2014 were selected. All cases were carried out FeNO measurement at first; next, spirometry, bronchoprovocation tests or bronchodilation tests were used to confirm or exclude asthma. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to determine the best cut-off value of FeNO for asthma diagnosis. Results: In bronchoprovocation test, 125 cases were diagnosed as asthma, other 283 were non-asthmatics. FeNO levels of asthmatics were significantly higher than non-asthmatics (median, 64.8 ppb vs. 27.9 ppb, P < 0.01). In this group of patients, 64 ppb was the best cut-off value of FeNO to identify asthma with sensitivity of 52.0% and specificity of 94.35%. In bronchodilation test, 185 patients were diagnosed as asthma, other 330 were non-asthmatics. FeNO levels of asthmatics were significantly higher than non-asthmatics (median, 60.6 ppb vs. 29.05 ppb, P < 0.01). In bronchodilation test patients, 41 ppb was the best cut-off value of FeNO to identify asthma with sensitivity of 72.43% and specificity of 74.85%. Influencing factors analysis showed that sex was an independent factor affecting patients’ FeNO level. Conclusion: FeNO was an effective auxiliary diagnosis method for bronchial asthma. 64 ppb and 41 ppb was the best cut-off value of FeNO to identify asthma in bronchoprovocation test or bronchodilation test, respectively. Sex was an independent factor affecting patients’ FeNO level. PMID:26191266

  7. STIMULATION OF DEFENSE FACTORS FOR OYSTERS DEPLOYED TO CONTAMINATED SITES IN PENSACOLA BAY, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A positive association between chemical contaminants and defense factors has been established for eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from Florida, but it is unknown whether such factors can be stimulated through short-term exposure to contaminants in the field. Hatchery oyst...

  8. Neurite-promoting factor in conditioned medium from RN22 Schwannoma cultures: bioassay, fractionation, and properties.

    PubMed

    Manthorpe, M; Varon, S; Adler, R

    1981-09-01

    On polyornithine (PORN) substrata dissociated 8-day chick embryo ciliary ganglionic neurons will survive if the culture medium is supplemented with Ciliary neuronotrophic Factor. However, neuritic growth will not occur unless the substratum is derivatized with a PORN-bindable Neurite Promoting Factor (PNPF). In this preliminary study we report that soluble PNPF can be (1) assayed by a convenient in vitro system; (2) obtained in relatively large amounts from serum-free media conditioned over RN22 Schwannoma cultures; (3) concentrated by using Amicon XM100 ultrafiltration; and (4) separated from nearly all of the non-active protein by using ion-exchange chromatography. The partially purified PNPF can be concentrated using XM100 and is heat- and protease-sensitive. In the course of these fractionation studies we observed in some cases a concentration-dependent interference with the expression of PNPF activity in the bioassay; we propose graphical methods to permit the simultaneous determination of PNPF and the extent of such interference. Different treatments that affected the interference property did not always affect PNPF activity in a reciprocal manner, leaving open the possibility that the interference with PNPF activity results from reversible alteration of the PNPF molecule, or that there exists a separate interfering agent. PMID:7276956

  9. Optimization of the safety factor profile for high noninductive current fraction discharges in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferron, J. R.; Holcomb, C. T.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Turco, F.; White, A. E.; DeBoo, J. C.; Doyle, E. J.; Hyatt, A. W.; La Haye, R. J.; Murakami, M.; Petrie, T. W.; Petty, C. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Zeng, L.

    2011-06-01

    In order to assess the optimum q profile for discharges in DIII-D with 100% of the current driven noninductively (fNI = 1), the self-consistent response of the plasma profiles to changes in the q profile was studied in high fNI, high βN discharges through a scan of qmin and q95 at two values of βN. As expected, both the bootstrap current fraction, fBS, and fNI increased with q95. The temperature and density profiles were found to broaden as either qmin or βN is increased. A consequence is that fBS does not continue to increase at the highest values of qmin. A scaling function that depends on qmin, q95, and the peaking factor for the thermal pressure was found to represent well the fBS/βN inferred from the experimental profiles. The changes in the shapes of the density and temperature profiles as βN is increased modify the bootstrap current density (JBS) profile from peaked close to the axis to relatively flat in the region between the axis and the H-mode pedestal. Therefore, significant externally driven current density in the region inside the H-mode pedestal is required in addition to JBS in order to match the profiles of the noninductive current density (JNI) to the desired total current density (J). In this experiment, the additional current density was provided mostly by neutral beam current drive with the neutral-beam-driven current fraction 40-90% of fBS. The profiles of JNI and J were most similar at qmin ≈ 1.35-1.65, q95 ≈ 6.8, where fBS is also maximum, establishing this q profile as the optimal choice for fNI = 1 operation in DIII-D with the existing set of external current drive sources.

  10. The fractionation factors of stable carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios for VOCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, H.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere, some of which are carcinogenic, teratogenic, or mutagenic. VOCs in ambient air originate from many sources, including vehicle exhausts, gasoline evaporation, solvent use, natural gas emissions, and industrial processes, and undergo intricate chemical reactions in the atmosphere. To develop efficient air pollution remediation strategies, it is important to clearly identify the emission sources and elucidate the reaction mechanisms in the atmosphere. Recently, stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of VOCs in some sources and ambient air have been measured by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). In this study, we measured δ13C and stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δD) of atmospheric VOCs by using the gas chromatography/thermal conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupled with a thermal desorption instrument (TD-GC/TC/IRMS). The wider δD differences between sources were found in comparison with the δ13C studies. Therefore, determining δD values of VOCs in ambient air is potentially useful in identifying VOC sources and their reactive behavior in the atmosphere. However, to elucidate the sources and behavior of atmospheric VOCs more accurately, isotopic fractionation during atmospheric reaction must be considered. In this study, we determined isotopic fractionation of the δ13C and δD values for the atmospheric some VOCs under irradiation conditions. As the results, δ13C for target all VOCs and δD for most VOCs were increasing after irradiation. But, the δD values for both benzene and toluene tended to decrease as irradiation time increased. We also estimated the fractionation factors for benzene and toluene, 1.27 and 1.05, respectively, which differed from values determined in previous studies. In summary, we were able to identify an inverse isotope effect for the δD values of benzene and toluene

  11. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor in fractional laser resurfacing with the carbon dioxide laser.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Ge, Hongmei; Zhou, Chuanqing; Chai, Xinyu; Ren, Qiu Shi

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mechanisms of cutaneous remodeling induced by fractional CO(2) laser treatment. The dorsal skin of Kunming mice was exposed to a single-pass fractional CO(2) laser treatment. Biopsies were taken 1 h, and 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after treatment. Skin samples VEGF expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, fibroblasts by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and types I and III collagen by ELISA. Staining for VEGF was found in many types of cell including fibroblasts. The amount of VEGF in the skin of laser-treated areas had increased significantly compared to that in the control areas on days 1 and 3 (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively), then decreased by day 7 after treatment and returned to the baseline level. The number of fibroblasts in the skin of the laser-treated areas had increased significantly compared to that in control areas on days 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 after irradiation (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively). The amount of type I collagen was significantly higher in the skin of the laser-treated areas compared to that in control areas from day 28 to day 56 (P < 0.05, respectively), and type III collagen was significantly higher from day 3 to day 56 (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively). There was a positive correlation between the level of VEGF and fibroblast proliferation early stage after laser treatment (r = 0.853, P < 0.01), but there was no correlation after the first week (r = -0.124, P > 0.05). The amounts of type I and III collagen showed no significant correlations with the expression of VEGF in the late stages after laser treatment (r = 0.417, P > 0.05 and r = 0.340, P > 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that VEGF might be mainly involved in the early stages of wound healing, including the stages

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING TIME-ACTIVITY BUDGETS OF BUFFLEHEAD WINTERING IN NARRAGANSETT, BAY, RI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Daily activities of wintering waterfowl can be influenced by the physical environment and by habitat factors such as prey abundance and availability. We examined variability in diurnal activity budgets of Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola) wintering at seven locations within Narragan...

  13. Bacterial community structure and its regulating factors in the intertidal sediment along the Liaodong Bay of Bohai Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Binghui; Wang, Liping; Liu, Lusan

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the entire species composition of the microorganisms is crucial to understand their roles in the biogeochemical cycles. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from six intertidal sediment samples along the Liaodong Bay of Bohai Sea, China, and was sequenced which yielded a total of 64,496 high-quality sequences from 83,485 reads, with an average read length of 463 bp. The sequences were assigned to 20,718 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) which belong to 42 phyla, 90 classes and 376 genera. At the different taxonomic levels, both the dominants and their abundances varied significantly among the six sites. Phylum Proteobacteria predominated in all the six samples, however, not only the abundance of this phylum varied significantly but also the proportions of Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and delta- and epsilon-Proteobacteria varied greatly. The site sediment median grain size and dissolved oxygen (DO) revealed to be key factors regulating the observed significant differences in the bacterial community between sampling sites. In addition, the bacterial composition might be more sensitive than the richness and diversity to the studied environmental conditions. PMID:24231160

  14. The distribution characteristics of rare metal elements in surface sediments from four coastal bays on the northwestern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuhong; Li, Jin; Wu, Shuzhuang; Yan, Wen; Huang, Weixia; Miao, Li; Chen, Zhong

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of rare metal elements (Zr, Sn, Ti, Y, Nb, Ta, Ce, La, Nd and Th) in surface sediments from four bays along the northwestern coast of the South China Sea allowed infer their main controlling factors and their mineralization potential as metals placer. The results revealed that their contents in surface sediments are very variable but show a clear geographic regularity. The average content of all elements in those areas decreases from the East to the West, with the minimum value of all elements in Leizhou Bay, the maximum value of Zr, Y, La, Ce, Nd and Th in Zhanjiang Bay, and the maximum values of Sn, Ti, Nb and Ta in Hailing Bay. The relative enrichment of these elements in two easternmost bays (Hailing Bay and Shuidong Bay) are attributed to the southwest alongshore current, which drain and transport terrigenous sediments from the granite region of the South China into these two bays. The correlation results between all element contents and fine sediment fraction (<63 μm) suggested that the main factors controlling the distribution of Ti, Nb and Sn should be the fine fraction of the sediment, but alternatively Zr, Y, La, Ce, Nd and Th are rich in heavy minerals and/or bioclasts, and Ta maybe affected by both. Detail analysis shows that sediments from Hailing Bay may contain abundant zircon, cassiterite, ilmenite (or rutile), xenotime, monazite, niobium tantalite and other rare metal minerals, with a good prospect as a rare metal placer resource, and the zircon, xenotime and monazite may also have good metallogenic prospects in Shuidong Bay and in the local area of Zhangjian Bay.

  15. Assessment of source apportionment by Positive Matrix Factorization analysis on fine and coarse urban aerosol size fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanasiou, A. A.; Siskos, P. A.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the differences observed in source profiles in the urban environment, when chemical composition parameters from different aerosol size fractions are subjected to factor analysis. Source apportionment was performed in an urban area where representative types of emission sources are present. PM 10 and PM 2 samples were collected within the Athens Metropolitan area and analysed for trace elements, inorganic ions and black carbon. Analysis by two-way and three-way Positive Matrix Factorization was performed, in order to resolve sources from data obtained for the fine and coarse aerosol fractions. A difference was observed: seven factors describe the best solution in PMF3 while six factors in PMF2. Six factors derived from PMF3 analysis correspond to those described by the PMF2 solution for the fine and coarse particles separately. These sources were attributed to road dust, marine aerosol, soil, motor vehicles, biomass burning, and oil combustion. The additional source resolved by PMF3 was attributed to a different type of road dust. Combustion sources (oil combustion and biomass burning) were correctly attributed by PMF3 solely to the fine fraction and the soil source to the coarse fraction. However, a motor vehicle's contribution to the coarse fraction was found only by three-way PMF. When PMF2 was employed in PM 10 concentrations the optimum solution included six factors. Four source profiles corresponded to the previously identified as vehicles, road dust, biomass burning and marine aerosol, while two could not be clearly identified. Source apportionment by PMF2 analysis based solely on PM 10 aerosol composition data, yielded unclear results, compared to results from PMF2 and PMF3 analyses on fine and coarse aerosol composition data.

  16. Factors that influence the hydrologic recovery of wetlands in the Northern Tampa Bay area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although of less importance than the other three factors, a low-lying topographical position benefited the hydrologic condition of several of the study wetlands (S-68 Cypress and W-12 Cypress) both before and after the reductions in groundwater withdrawals. Compared to wetlands in a higher topographical position, those in a lower position had longer hydroperiods because of their greater ability to receive more runoff from higher elevation wetlands and to establish surface-water connections to other isolated wetlands and surface-water bodies through low-lying surface-water channels during wet conditions. In addition, wetlands in low-lying areas benefited from groundwater inflow when groundwater levels were higher than wetland water levels.

  17. Determination of water-soluble and insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic aerosol by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry: distribution and summer seasonal evolution at Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land).

    PubMed

    Annibaldi, A; Truzzi, C; Illuminati, S; Bassotti, E; Scarponi, G

    2007-02-01

    Eight PM10 aerosol samples were collected in the vicinity of the "Mario Zucchelli" Italian Antarctic Station (formerly Terra Nova Bay Station) during the 2000-2001 austral summer using a high-volume sampler and precleaned cellulose filters. The aerosol mass was determined by differential weighing of filters carried out in a clean chemistry laboratory under controlled temperature and humidity. A two-step sequential extraction procedure was used to separate the water-soluble and the insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions. Cd, Pb and Cu were determined in the two fractions using an ultrasensitive square wave anodic stripping voltammetric (SWASV) procedure set up for and applied to aerosol samples for the first time. Total extractable metals showed maxima at midsummer for Cd and Pb and a less clear trend for Cu. In particular, particulate metal concentrations ranged as follows: Cd 0.84-9.2 microg g(-1) (average 4.7 microg g(-1)), Pb 13.2-81 microg g(-1) (average 33 microg g(-1)), Cu 126-628 microg g(-1) (average 378 microg g(-1)). In terms of atmospheric concentration, the values were: Cd 0.55-6.3 pg m(-3) (average 3.4 pg m(-3)), Pb 8.7-48 pg m(-3) (average 24 pg m(-3)), Cu 75-365 pg m(-3) (average 266 pg m(-3)). At the beginning of the season the three metals appear widely distributed in the insoluble (HCl-extractable) fraction (higher proportions for Cd and Pb, 90-100%, and lower for Cu, 70-90%) with maxima in the second half of December. The soluble fraction then increases, and at the end of the season Cd and Pb are approximately equidistributed between the two fractions, while for Cu the soluble fraction reaches its maximum level of 36%. Practically negligible contributions are estimated for crustal and sea-spray sources. Low but significant volcanic contributions are estimated for Cd and Pb (approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively), while there is an evident although not quantified marine biogenic source, at least for Cd. The estimated natural

  18. Antinutritional factors and functionality of protein-rich fractions of industrial guar meal as affected by heat processing.

    PubMed

    Nidhina, N; Muthukumar, S P

    2015-04-15

    Proximate composition analysis and antinutritional factor composition of different fractions of industrial guar meal: raw churi (IRC), heated churi (IHC), final churi (IFC) and guar korma (IGK) were studied and compared. Protein content was found to be very high in IGK (52.7%) when compared to the churi fractions (32-33%) and the trypsin inhibitor activities were found to be negligible in all the fractions (0.58-1.8 mg/g). Single fraction (IGK) was selected for further studies, based on the protein content. The antinutritional factors of selected fractions were significantly reduced by different heat treatments. Heat treatments significantly increased the water absorbing capacity of IGK, but reduced the nitrogen solubility, emulsifying and foaming capacity. Highest L(∗) value was observed for boiled IGK, highest a(∗) and b(∗) values for roasted IGK, during colour measurement. FTIR spectral analysis revealed the presence several aromatic groups in IGK and slight modifications in the molecular structure during heat treatments. PMID:25466107

  19. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Views of James Bay, Canada     ... show the winter landscape of James Bay, Ontario, Canada from three of the instrument's nine cameras. The image at left captures the opening ... down. The image on the right was taken seven minutes after the first image from the most oblique, aftward-viewing camera. "These ...

  20. Trophic accumulation of PSP toxins in zooplankton during Alexandrium fundyense blooms in Casco Bay, Gulf of Maine, April-June 1998. II. . Zooplankton abundance and size-fractionated community composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jefferson T.; Doucette, Gregory J.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Anderson, Donald M.

    2005-09-01

    During spring blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in Casco Bay, Maine in 1998, we investigated vectorial intoxication of various zooplankton size fractions with PSP toxins, including zooplankton community composition from quantitative zooplankton samples (>102 μm), as well as zooplankton composition in relation to toxin levels in various size fractions (20-64, 64-100, 100-200, 200-500, >500 μm). Zooplankton abundance in 102 μm mesh samples was low (most values<10,000 animals m -3) from early April through early May, but increased to maxima in mid-June (cruise mean=121,500 animals m -3). Quantitative zooplankton samples (>102 μm) were dominated by copepod nauplii, and Oithona similis copepodites and adults at most locations except for those furthest inshore. At these inshore locations, Acartia hudsonica copepodites and adults were usually dominant. Larger copepods such as Calanus finmarchicus, Centropages typicus, and Pseudocalanus spp. were found primarily offshore, and at much lower abundances than O. similis. Rotifers, mainly present from late April to late May, were most abundant inshore. The marine cladoceran Evadne nordmani was sporadically abundant, particularly in mid-June. Microplankton in 20-64 μm size fractions was generally dominated by A. fundyense, non-toxic dinoflagellates, and tintinnids. Microplankton in 64-100 μm size fractions was generally dominated by larger non-toxic dinoflagellates, tintinnids, aloricate ciliates, and copepod nauplii, and in early May, rotifers. Some samples (23%) in the 64-100 μm size fractions contained abundant cells of A. fundyense, presumably due to sieve clogging, but most did not contain A. fundyense cells. This suggests that PSP toxin levels in those samples were due to vectorial intoxication of microzooplankters such as heterotrophic dinoflagellates, tintinnids, aloricate ciliates, rotifers, and copepod nauplii via feeding on A. fundyense cells. Dominant taxa in zooplankton fractions varied

  1. Numerical experiments on the impacts of surface evaporation and fractionation factors on stable isotopes in precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinping; Guan, Huade; Zhang, Xinzhu; Zhang, Wanjun; Yao, Tianci

    2016-06-01

    The isotope enabled atmospheric water balance model is applied to examine the spatial and temporal variations of δ18O in precipitation, amount effect and meteoric water lines (MWL) under four scenarios with different fractionation nature and surface evaporation inputs. The experiments are conducted under the same weather forcing in the framework of the water balance and stable water isotope balance. Globally, the spatial patterns of mean δ18O and global MWLs simulated by four simulation tests are in reasonably good agreement with the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation observations. The results indicate that the assumptions of equilibrium fractionation for simulating spatial distribution in mean annual δ18O and the global MWL, and kinetic fractionation in simulating δ18O seasonality are acceptable. In Changsha, four simulation tests all reproduce the observed seasonal variations of δ18O in precipitation. Compared with equilibrium fractionation, the depleted degree of stable isotopes in precipitation is enhanced under kinetic fractionation, in company with a decrease of isotopic seasonality and inter-event variability. The alteration of stable isotopes in precipitation caused by the seasonal variation of stable isotopes in vapour evaporated from the surface is opposite between cold and warm seasons. Four simulations all produce the amount effect commonly observed in monsoon areas. Under kinetic fractionation, the slope of simulated amount effect is closer to the observed one than other scenarios. The MWL for warm and humid climate in monsoon areas are well simulated too. The slopes and intercepts of the simulated MWLs decrease under kinetic fractionation.

  2. Determination of Mineral-Specific Clumped Isotope Acid Digestion Fractionation Factors Using Heating Experiments and Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, D.; Tang, J.; Mosenfelder, J. L.; Eagle, R.; Tripati, A.

    2014-12-01

    Clumped isotope thermometry involves the determination of formation temperatures of carbonates from the fraction of isotopologues containing multiple rare isotopes (oxygen-18 and carbon-13). At high temperatures, the abundance of these isotopologues should be stochastic. At lower temperatures, there is a tendency for heavy isotopes to form bonds with each other. However, spectroscopic determination of isotope ratios with high precision is difficult in solids, and so 13C-18O bond abundance is not measured in the solid phase. Instead, analysis of carbonates is performed using gas source mass spectrometry, by reacting the carbonate samples with phosphoric acid and measuring the evolved CO2 gas. As an oxygen atom is lost during the conversion of CO32- groups to CO2, this reaction is hypothesized to result in mineral and acid digestion temperature-dependent fractionation. In order to quantify this fractionation between CO32- and CO2, this experiment seeks to determine acid fractionation factors for carbonate samples of varying composition by randomizing samples through intense heating and comparing analyte CO2 measured composition to the expected composition for a stochastically distributed sample. From this analysis, future carbonate measurements can be calibrated to account for acid digestion fractionation.

  3. INTERTIDAL SEDIMENT TEMPERATURE VARIANCE AS A POSSIBLE LIMITING FACTOR FOR EELGRASSES ZOSTERA MARINA AND ZOSTERA JAPONICA IN YAQUINA BAY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eelgrass species Zostera marina and Z. japonica co-occur in most Pacific Northwest estuaries; Z. marina is regarded as a native species, Z. japonica as non-indigenous, introduced in Yaquina Bay in approximately 1975. The mean tidal range is ~2 m, extreme ~3m. The vertical d...

  4. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment cores from San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venkatesan, M.I.; De Leon, R. P.; VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores of known chronology from Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay, CA, were analyzed for a suite of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to reconstruct a historic record of inputs. Total DDTs (DDT = 2,4'- and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the metabolites, 2,4'- and 4,4'-DDE, -DDD) range in concentration from 4-21 ng/g and constitute a major fraction (> 84%) of the total pesticides in the top 70 cm of Richardson Bay sediment. A subsurface maximum corresponds to a peak deposition date of 1969-1974. The first measurable DDT levels are found in sediment deposited in the late 1930's. The higher DDT inventory in the San Pablo relative to the Richardson Bay core probably reflects the greater proximity of San Pablo Bay to agricultural activities in the watershed of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) occur at comparable levels in the two Bays (< 1-34 ng/g). PCBs are first detected in sediment deposited during the 1930's in Richardson Bay, about a decade earlier than the onset of detectable levels of DDTs. PCB inventories in San Pablo Bay are about a factor of four higher in the last four decades than in Richardson Bay, suggesting a distribution of inputs not as strongly weighed towards the upper reaches of the estuary as DDTs. The shallower subsurface maximum in PCBs compared to DDT in the San Pablo Bay core is consistent with the imposition of drastic source control measures four these constituents in 1970 and 1977 respectively. The observed decline in DDT and PCB levels towards the surface of both cores is consistent with a dramatic drop in the input of these pollutants once the effect of sediment resuspension and mixing is taken into account.

  5. A Nonpolar Blueberry Fraction Blunts NADPH Oxidase Activation in Neuronal Cells Exposed to Tumor Necrosis Factor

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Sally J.; Dunlap, Kriya L.; McGill, Colin M.; Kuhn, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are key to the progressive neuronal degeneration common to chronic pathologies, traumatic injuries, and aging processes in the CNS. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) orchestrates cellular stress by stimulating the production and release of neurotoxic mediators including reactive oxygen species (ROS). NADPH oxidases (NOX), ubiquitously expressed in all cells, have recently emerged as pivotal ROS sources in aging and disease. We demonstrated the presence of potent NOX inhibitors in wild Alaska bog blueberries partitioning discretely into a nonpolar fraction with minimal antioxidant capacity and largely devoid of polyphenols. Incubation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with nonpolar blueberry fractions obstructed the coalescing of lipid rafts into large domains disrupting NOX assembly therein and abolishing ROS production characteristic for TNF-α exposure. These findings illuminate nutrition-derived lipid raft modulation as a novel therapeutic approach to blunt inflammatory and oxidative stress in the aging or diseased CNS. PMID:22530077

  6. GALVESTON BAY CCMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Galveston Bay ranks high among the nation's great bay systems, providing huge economic benefits to the region and state. Remarkably, the bay's natural resources are self-renewing as long as the bay remains healthy and productive. However, Galveston Bay, like many other U.S. bays,...

  7. In vivo studies on the binding of heparin and its fractions with platelet factor 4

    SciTech Connect

    Walz, D.A.; Hung, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    PF4 has a half-life in plasma of less than 3 minutes, and its rapid clearance appears to be a function of binding to the vascular endothelium. Once bound to the endothelium, PF4 can be released by heparin in a time-dependent manner; recovery is greater the sooner heparin is administered following PF4 infusion. This heparin-induced release of PF4 can be abolished if the heparin is first complexed with hexadimethrine bromide. Likewise, this heparin-induced release of PF4 is dependent upon the type of heparin used; low molecular weight heparin fractions and fragments do not cause the PF4 rebound seen with intact heparin. Thus, it would appear that low molecular weight forms of heparin are advantageous in that their in vivo administration would not be mediated by such platelet modulators as PF4.

  8. Review of Exculsive B to D(*,**)Lnu Decays: Branching Fractions, Form-Factors And |V(Cb|

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, A.E.; /SLAC

    2007-04-02

    This paper reviews semileptonic decays of B-mesons to states containing charm mesons, i.e., D, D*, D** and possible non-resonant D{sup (*)}{eta}{pi} states as well. The paper covers measurement of branching fractions, form-factors and, most importantly, the magnitude of the CKM matrix element V{sub cb}. I will not attempt a comprehensive review, but will concentrate on reasonably fresh results and consider mostly exclusive measurements. I will also comment on the consistency of the results and what needs to be done to resolve the apparent conflicts.

  9. Digoxin in Heart Failure with a Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Risk Factor or a Risk Marker.

    PubMed

    Konstantinou, Dimitrios M; Karvounis, Haralambos; Giannakoulas, George

    2016-01-01

    Digoxin is one of the oldest compounds used in cardiovascular medicine. Nevertheless, its mechanism of action and most importantly its clinical utility have been the subject of an endless dispute. Positive inotropic and neurohormonal modulation properties are attributed to digoxin, and it was the mainstay of heart failure therapeutics for decades. However, since the institution of β-blockers and aldosterone antagonists as part of modern heart failure medical therapy, digoxin prescription rates have been in free fall. The fact that digoxin is still listed as a valid therapeutic option in both American and European heart failure guidelines has not altered clinicians' attitude towards the drug. Since the publication of original Digitalis Investigation Group trial data, a series of reports based predominately on observational studies and post hoc analyses have raised concerns about the clinical efficacy and long-term safety of digoxin. In the present review, we will attempt a critical appraisal of the available clinical evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of digoxin in heart failure patients with a reduced ejection fraction. The methodological issues, strengths, and limitations of individual studies will be highlighted. PMID:26959501

  10. Equilibrium and kinetic Si isotope fractionation factors and their implications on Si isotope distributions in the Earth's surface environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, M.; Zhang, S.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Several important equilibrium Si isotope fractionation factors among minerals, organic molecules and the H4SiO4 solution are complemented to facilitate explanation of distributions of Si isotope in the Earth's surface environments. The results reveal that heavy Si isotopes will be significantly enriched in the secondary silicate minerals in comparison to aqueous H4SiO4. On the contrary, quadra-coordinated organosilicon complexes are enriched in light silicon isotope relative to the solution. The extent of 28Si-enrichment in hyper-coordinated organosilicon complexes is found the largest. In addition, the large kinetic isotope effect associated with the polymerization of monosilicic acid and dimer is calculated and the result supports previous statement that highly 28Si-enrichment in the formation of amorphous quartz precursor contributes to the discrepancy between theoretical calculations and field observations. With equilibrium Si isotope fractionation factors provided here, Si isotope distributions in many surface systems of the Earth can be explained. For example, the change of bulk soil δ30Si can be predicted as a concave pattern with respect to weathering degree, with the minimum value where allophane completely dissolves and the total amount of sesqui-oxides and poorly crystalline minerals reaches its maximum. When well-crystallized clays start to precipitate from pore solutions under equilibrium conditions, the bulk soil δ30Si will increase again and reach a constant value. Similarly, the precipitation of crystalline smectite and the dissolution of poorly crystalline kaolinite may explain δ30Si variations in the ground water profile. Equilibrium Si isotope fractionations among quadra-coordinated organosilicon complexes and the H4SiO4 solution may also shed the light on the Si isotope distributions in Si-accumulating plants.

  11. Aquatic sediments pollution estimate using the metal fractionation, secondary phase enrichment factor calculation, and used statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Sakan, Sanja; Popović, Aleksandar; Anđelković, Ivan; Đorđević, Dragana

    2016-06-01

    The sequential extraction procedure of the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) was applied for the fractionation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, and V in the Serbian river sediments. The aim of this paper was to describe a new approach in detection of anthropogenic elements in sediments, related to the Serbian river courses in order to assess their metal contamination. For sediment pollution evaluation, the risk assessment code (RAC) and the secondary phase enrichment factor (KSPEF) were used. Metal fractionation showed more easily mobilized forms predominant for copper, zinc, cadmium, manganese, and lead, which can be one of the indicators for anthropogenic source input. Chromium, nickel, iron, and vanadium found in the residual fraction indicate these metals may be an indicator for natural sources input. Based on RAC classification, results of sediments show no risk (Cr and V), low risk (Ni, Pb, and Fe), medium risk (Cu), high risk (Cd and Zn), and very high risk (Mn). The mean values of KSPEF were Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Mn > Pb > Fe > Cr > V, decreasing scale of no to moderately severe enrichment. The sediments were found to be contaminated by heavy metals to various extents, mostly Cd, Cu, and Zn. Research has shown the importance of KSPEF in quantifying degree of metal enrichment in sediments using results of sequential extraction. With the application of this factor, which is not frequently used in the scientific literature, the results obtained with sequential extraction can be used not only for assessment of mobility but also to quantify the metal pollution. PMID:26385383

  12. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Light over James Bay     View Larger Image MISR "First light", 16:40 UTC, 24 February 2000 . This is the first image of Earth's ... the line of flight. At the top of the image, the dark-to-light transition captures the opening of the MISR cover. Progressing southward, ...

  13. Narragansett Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Narragansett Bay, situated on the eastern side of Rhode Island, comprises about 15% of the State’s total area. Ninety-five percent of the Bay’s surface area is in Rhode Island with the remainder in southeastern Massachusetts; 60% of the Bay’s watershed is in Massachusetts. At the...

  14. Evaluation of Potential Protective Factors Against Metabolic Syndrome in Bottlenose Dolphins: Feeding and Activity Patterns of Dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Randall S.; McHugh, Katherine A.; Douglas, David C.; Shippee, Steve; McCabe, Elizabeth Berens; Barros, Nélio B.; Phillips, Goldie T.

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) living in Sarasota Bay, Florida appear to have a lower risk of developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome compared to a group of dolphins managed under human care. Similar to humans, differences in diet and activity cycles between these groups may explain why Sarasota dolphins have lower insulin, glucose, and lipids. To identify potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome, existing and new data were incorporated to describe feeding and activity patterns of the Sarasota Bay wild dolphin community. Sarasota dolphins eat a wide variety of live fish and spend 10–20% of daylight hours foraging and feeding. Feeding occurs throughout the day, with the dolphins eating small proportions of their total daily intake in brief bouts. The natural pattern of wild dolphins is to feed as necessary and possible at any time of the day or night. Wild dolphins rarely eat dead fish or consume large amounts of prey in concentrated time periods. Wild dolphins are active throughout the day and night; they may engage in bouts of each key activity category at any time during daytime. Dive patterns of radio-tagged dolphins varied only slightly with time of day. Travel rates may be slightly lower at night, suggesting a diurnal rhythm, albeit not one involving complete, extended rest. In comparison, the managed dolphins are older; often fed a smaller variety of frozen-thawed fish types; fed fish species not in their natural diet; feedings and engaged activities are often during the day; and they are fed larger but fewer meals. In summary, potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in dolphins may include young age, activity, and small meals fed throughout the day and night, and specific fish nutrients. These protective factors against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are similar to those reported in humans. Further studies may benefit humans and dolphins. PMID:24133483

  15. Evaluation of potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in bottlenose dolphins:feeding and activity patterns of dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Randall S.; McHugh, Katherine A.; Douglas, David C.; Shippee, Steve; McCabe, Elizabeth Berens; Barros, Nélio B.; Phillips, Goldie T.

    2014-01-01

    Free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) living in Sarasota Bay, Florida appear to have a lower risk of developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome compared to a group of dolphins managed under human care. Similar to humans, differences in diet and activity cycles between these groups may explain why Sarasota dolphins have lower insulin, glucose, and lipids. To identify potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome, existing and new data were incorporated to describe feeding and activity patterns of the Sarasota Bay wild dolphin community. Sarasota dolphins eat a wide variety of live fish and spend 10–20% of daylight hours foraging and feeding. Feeding occurs throughout the day, with the dolphins eating small proportions of their total daily intake in brief bouts. The natural pattern of wild dolphins is to feed as necessary and possible at any time of the day or night. Wild dolphins rarely eat dead fish or consume large amounts of prey in concentrated time periods. Wild dolphins are active throughout the day and night; they may engage in bouts of each key activity category at any time during daytime. Dive patterns of radio-tagged dolphins varied only slightly with time of day. Travel rates may be slightly lower at night, suggesting a diurnal rhythm, albeit not one involving complete, extended rest. In comparison, the managed dolphins are older; often fed a smaller variety of frozen-thawed fish types; fed fish species not in their natural diet; feedings and engaged activities are often during the day; and they are fed larger but fewer meals. In summary, potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome in dolphins may include young age, activity, and small meals fed throughout the day and night, and specific fish nutrients. These protective factors against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are similar to those reported in humans. Further studies may benefit humans and dolphins.

  16. First Principles Calculation on Equilibrium Si Isotope Fractionation Factors and its Implementation on Si Isotope Distributions in Earth Surface Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; He, H. T.; Zhu, C.

    2014-12-01

    Several important equilibrium Si isotope fractionation factors are calculated here. We use a so-called volume-variable-cluster-model (VVCM) method for solids and the "water-droplet" method for aqueous species for isotope fractionation calculation at the same quantum chemistry level. The calculation results show that several silicate minerals, such as quartz, feldspar, kaolinite, etc., all enrich heavy Si isotopes relative to aqueous H4SiO4 and can be up to 3.3‰ at 25°C, different from most field observations. Meanwhile stable organosilicon complexes can enrich even lighter Si isotopes than aqueous H4SiO4. For explaining the difference between the calculation results and field observations, we calculate the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with the formation of amorphous silica, and find that amorphous silica will enrich extremely light Si isotopes. From amorphous silica to crystalline quartz, the structural adjustment & transition needs getting rid of small amount of Si to re-organize the structure. Light Si isotopes will be preferentially lost and let the final crystalline quartz with a little bit more heavy Si isotopes. However, such late-stage Si heavy isotope enrichment cannot erase the total isotopic signal, crystalline quartz still inherit much light Si isotopic composition from amorphous quartz. That is the reason for the discrepancy between the calculation results and the field observations, because the formation of amorphous quartz is under a non-equilibrium process but theoretical calculations are for equilibrium isotope fractionations. With accurate equilibrium fractionation factors provided here, Si isotope distributions in earth surface environments including soil, groundwater and plants can be further interpreted. We find that δ30Si variations in soil are mainly driven by secondary minerals precipitation and adsorption. Also, bulk soil δ30Si maybe have a parabolic distribution with soil age, with a minimum value at where allophane is

  17. Histologic findings in free-ranging Sarasota Bay bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) skin: mercury, selenium, and seasonal factors.

    PubMed

    Miller, Debra L; Woshner, Victoria; Styer, Eloise L; Ferguson, Sylvia; Knott, Katrina K; Gray, Matthew J; Wells, Randall S; O'Hara, Todd M

    2011-10-01

    Full-thickness epidermal biopsy samples were collected from free-ranging common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA. Season (summer or winter) of collection, mercury (Hg) concentration, and selenium (Se) concentration were compared to histologic parameters. Epidermal Hg concentration was positively related to age (P<0.001) and negatively related to height of the stratum spinosum (P<0.05). The mitotic index and heights of the stratum externum and intermedium were lower in summer than in winter (P<0.01). Transmission electron microscopic examination revealed variation in the diameters (60-138 nm) and arrangements of collagen fibers, regardless of age or concentrations of Hg and Se. The significance of the variation in height of the stratum spinosum and the perivascular collagen degeneration to dolphin health need further investigation. PMID:22102676

  18. Natural and Anthropogenic Factors Affecting Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Streams Across an Urban Gradient in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cover, M. R.; Taberski, K. M.; Moore, S. M.; Resh, V. H.

    2005-05-01

    The development of biological criteria for streams requires an understanding of how both natural environmental factors and human disturbance affect biological communities. We used biological metrics, species traits, and multivariate ordinations to assess the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic factors on stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities in the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Upstream watershed land use was the dominant factor affecting macroinvertebrate assemblages. Urban sites exhibited uniformly low richness and functional diversity, and were dominated by four taxa: Chironomidae, Baetis sp., Simulium sp., and Oligochaeta. In contrast, the majority of sites draining rural residential land uses were compositionally similar to minimally disturbed conditions, while sites draining agricultural lands reflected an intermediate level of disturbance. Flow intermittency was the most important natural factor affecting the composition of benthic assemblages. Taxa richness was significantly lower in minimally disturbed intermittent streams (32) than perennial streams (46), as a result of the near absence of taxa with aquatic adult life stages and long life cycles, other than the hellgrammite Neohermes filicornis that survives for months in the moist streambed. Although flow intermittency is a critical factor influencing stream communities in mediterranean climates, urban land use has a much greater effect on benthic assemblages.

  19. Restoration Lessons Learned from Bay Scallop Habitat Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat quality and quantity are important factors to consider when restoring bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) populations; however, data linking habitat attributes to bay scallop populations are lacking. This information is essential to guide restoration efforts to reverse sc...

  20. Using Gas Chromatography/Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry to Determine the Fractionation Factor for H2 Production by Hydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hui; Ghandi, H.; Shi, Liang; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ostrom, Nathaniel; Hegg, Eric L.

    2012-01-15

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reversible formation of H2, and they are key enzymes in the biological cycling of H2. H isotopes should be a very useful tool in quantifying proton trafficking in biological H2 production processes, but there are several obstacles that have thus far limited the use of this tool. In this manuscript, we describe a new method that overcomes some of these barriers and is specifically designed to measure isotopic fractionation during enzyme-catalyzed H2 evolution. A key feature of this technique is that purified hydrogenases are employed, allowing precise control over the reaction conditions and therefore a high level of precision. A custom-designed high-throughput gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometer is employed to measure the isotope ratio of the H2. Using this method, we determined that the fractionation factor of H2 production by the [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Desulfivibrio fructosovran is 0.27. This result indicates that, as expected, protons are highly favored over deuterons during H2 evolution. Potential applications of this new method are discussed.

  1. Transcription Factor EB Is Selectively Reduced in the Nuclear Fractions of Alzheimer's and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Brains

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies suggest that autophagy is strongly dysregulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as evidenced by accumulation of numerous autophagosomes, lysosomes with discontinuous membranes, and aggregated proteins in the patients' brains. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) was recently discovered to be a master regulator of lysosome biogenesis and autophagy. To examine whether aberrant autophagy in AD and ALS is due to alterations in TFEB expression, we systematically quantified the levels of TFEB in these brains by immunoblotting. Interestingly, cytoplasmic fractions of AD brains showed increased levels of normalized (to tubulin) TFEB only at Braak stage IV (61%, p < 0.01). Most importantly, normalized (to lamin) TFEB levels in the nuclear fractions were consistently reduced starting from Braak stage IV (52%, p < 0.01), stage V (67%, p < 0.01), and stage VI (85%, p < 0.01) when compared to normal control (NC) brains. In the ALS brains also, nuclear TFEB levels were reduced by 62% (p < 0.001). These data suggest that nuclear TFEB is selectively lost in ALS as well as AD brains, in which TFEB reduction was Braak-stage-dependent. Taken together, the observed reductions in TFEB protein levels may be responsible for the widely reported autophagy defects in these disorders. PMID:27433468

  2. Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carley, Holly

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.

  3. Physical factors determining the fraction of stored energy recoverable from hydrothermal convection systems and conduction-dominated areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel

    1975-01-01

    This report contains background analyses for the estimates of Nathenson and Muffler (1975) of geothermal resources in hydrothermal convection systems and conduction-dominated areas. The first section discusses heat and fluid recharge potential of geothermal reservoirs. The second section analyzes the physical factors that determine the fraction of stored energy obtainable at the surface from a geothermal reservoir. Conversion of heat to electricity and the use of geothermal energy for direct-heating applications are discussed in the last two sections. Nathenson, Manuel, and Muffler, L.J.P., 1975, Geothermal resources in hydrothermal convection systems and conduction dominated areas, in White, D.E., and Williams, D.L., eds., Assessment of the Geothermal Resources of the United States--1975: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 726, p. 104-121, available at http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/cir/cir726

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Population-Based Study in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liang; Guo, Xiaofan; Chang, Ye; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Limin; Li, Tan; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has attracted increasing attention worldwide. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of HFpEF and analyze its correlates in a sample of residents of northeast China; Methods: A population-based study of 2230 participants ≥35 years old was conducted in rural areas of Liaoning Province from January 2012 through August 2013. Information about lifestyle and other potential risk factors was obtained. HFpEF was diagnosed according to the recommendations of European Society of Cardiology; Results: The overall prevalence of HFpEF was 3.5% (1.8% in men and 4.9% in women). The prevalence of HFpEF increased with age in both genders and was greater in women than in men for every age group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that female gender (OR, 3.575; 95% CI, 1.761–7.256), hypertension (OR, 3.711; 95% CI, 2.064–6.674), and history of heart disease (2.086; 95% CI, 1.243–3.498) were associated factors for prevalent HFpEF; Conclusions: In a general population from rural northeast China, we found that female gender, hypertension, and history of heart disease were risk factors for prevalent HFpEF. PMID:27483300

  5. Effects of comprehensive function of factors on retention behavior of microparticles in gravitational field-flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuang; Qiu, Bai-Ling; Zhu, Chen-Qi; Yang, Ya-Ya Gao; Wu, Di; Liang, Qi-Hui; Han, Nan-Yin

    2016-09-15

    Gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) is a useful technique for separation and characterization for micrometer-sized particles. Elution behavior of micrometer-sized particles in GrFFF was researched in this study. Particles in GrFFF channel are subject to hydrodynamic lift forces (HLF), fluid inertial forces and gravity, which drive them to different velocities by carrier flow, resulting in a size-based separation. Effects of ionic strength, flow rate and viscosity as well as methanol were investigated using polystyrene latex beads as model particles. This study is devoted to experimental verification of the effect of every factor and their comprehensive function. All experiments were performed to show isolated influence of every variable factor. The orthogonal design test was used to evaluate various factors comprehensively. Results suggested that retention ratio of particles increases with increasing flow rate or the viscosity of carrier liquid by adjusting external forces acting on particles. In addition, retention ratio increases as ionic strength decreases because of decreased electrostatic repulsion between particles and channel accumulation wall. As far as methanol, there is no general trend due to the change of both density and viscosity. On the basis of orthogonal design test it was found that viscosity of carrier liquid plays a significant role in determining resolution of micrometer-sized particles in GrFFF. PMID:27447927

  6. Attached, unattached fraction of progeny concentrations and equilibrium factor for dose assessments from (222)Rn and (220)Rn.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parminder; Saini, Komal; Mishra, Rosaline; Sahoo, Bijay Kumar; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, measurements of indoor radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) were carried out in 96 dwellings from 22 different villages situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India, by using LR-115 type II-based pinhole twin cup dosimeters and deposition-based progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). The annual average indoor (222)Rn and (220)Rn concentrations observed in these dwellings were 63.82 and 89.59 Bq/m(3), respectively, while the average EEC (attached + unattached) for (222)Rn and (220)Rn was 29.28 and 2.74 Bq/m(3). For (222)Rn (f Rn) and (220)Rn (f Tn), the average values of unattached fraction were 0.11 and 0.09, respectively. The equilibrium factors for radon (F Rn) and thoron (F Tn) varied from 0.12 to 0.77 with an average of 0.50, and from 0.01 to 0.34 with an average of 0.05, respectively. The annual inhalation dose due to mouth and nasal breathing was calculated using dose conversion factors and unattached fractions. The indoor annual effective doses for (222)Rn (AEDR) and (220)Rn (AEDT) were found to be 1.92 and 0.83 mSv a(-1), respectively. The values of (222)Rn/(220)Rn concentrations and annual effective doses obtained in the present study are within the safe limits as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for indoor dwelling exposure conditions. PMID:27289385

  7. Direct measurement of the boron isotope fractionation factor: Reducing the uncertainty in reconstructing ocean paleo-pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nir, Oded; Vengosh, Avner; Harkness, Jennifer S.; Dwyer, Gary S.; Lahav, Ori

    2015-03-01

    The boron isotopic composition of calcium carbonate skeletons is a promising proxy method for reconstructing paleo-ocean pH and atmospheric CO2 from the geological record. Although the boron isotope methodology has been used extensively over the past two decades to determine ancient ocean-pH, the actual value of the boron isotope fractionation factor (εB) between the two main dissolved boron species, 11B(OH)3 and 10B(OH)-4, has remained uncertain. Initially, εB values were theoretically computed from vibrational frequencies of boron species, resulting in a value of ∼ 19 ‰. Later, spectrophotometric pH measurements on artificial seawater suggested a higher value of ∼ 27 ‰. A few independent theoretical models also pointed to a higher εB value. Here we provide, for the first time, an independent empirical fractionation factor (εB = 26.0 ± 1.0 ‰ ; 25 °C), determined by direct measurements of B(OH)3 in seawater and other solutions. Boric acid was isolated by preferential passage through a reverse osmosis membrane under controlled pH conditions. We further demonstrate that applying the Pitzer ion-interaction approach, combined with ion-pairing calculations, results in a more accurate determination of species distribution in aquatic solutions of different chemical composition, relative to the traditional two-species boron-system approach. We show that using the revised approach reduces both the error in simulating ancient atmospheric CO2 (by up to 21%) and the overall uncertainty of applying boron isotopes for paleo-pH reconstruction. Combined, this revised methodology lays the foundation for a more accurate determination of ocean paleo-pH through time.

  8. Endogenous and environmental factors influence the dietary fractionation of 13C and 15N in hissing cockroaches Gromphadorhina portentosa.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D

    2008-01-01

    Since DeNiro and Epstein's discovery that the (13)C and (15)N isotopic signatures of animals approximate those of their respective diets, the measurement of stable isotope signatures has become an important tool for ecologists studying the diets of wild animals. This study used Madagascar hissing cockroaches (Gromphadorhina portentosa) to examine several preexisting hypotheses about the relationship between the isotopic composition of an animal and its diet. Contrary to my predictions, the results revealed that the tissues of adult cockroaches raised for two generations on a diet of known isotopic composition did not demonstrate enrichment of heavy stable isotopes. Moreover, the (15)N signatures of cockroaches were neither influenced by periods of rapid growth (i.e., 300-fold increase in dry body mass over 120 d) nor by imposed periods of starvation lasting up to 80 d. The offspring born to mothers raised on known diets were enriched in (15)N. Diet-switching experiments showed that turnover times of (13)C were highly correlated with age and ranged from 9 to 10 d to 60 to 75 d in subadults and adults, respectively. Adults subjected to diet switches differed from the subadults in that the adults achieved equilibrated isotopic signatures that were shifted approximately 1.0 per thousand toward their respective original diets. Lipid fractions of adult cockroaches averaged 2.9 per thousand more depleted in (13)C than in lipid-free fractions, but no changes in (13)C were observed in aging adults. Exposure to reduced ambient temperature from 33 degrees C to 23 degrees C over 120 d did not influence isotopic signatures of tissues. Overall, the results of this study reveal that different endogenous and exogenous factors can influence the isotopic signatures of cockroaches. These findings reinforce the need to conduct controlled studies to further examine environmental factors that influence the relationships between the isotopic signatures of animals and their diets. PMID

  9. Neglected role of hookah and opium in gastric carcinogenesis: a cohort study on risk factors and attributable fractions.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Alireza; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Boreiri, Majid; Parsaeian, Mahbubeh; Babaei, Masoud; Alimohammadian, Masoomeh; Samadi, Fatemeh; Etemadi, Arash; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Ahmadi, Emad; Delavari, Alireza; Islami, Farhad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Nikmanesh, Arash; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; de Bock, Geertruida H; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A recent study showed an association between hookah/opium use and gastric cancer but no study has investigated the relationship with gastric precancerous lesions. We examined the association between hookah/opium and gastric precancerous lesions and subsequent gastric cancer. In a population-based cohort study, 928 randomly selected, healthy, Helicobacter pylori-infected subjects in Ardabil Province, Iran, were followed for 10 years. The association between baseline precancerous lesions and lifestyle risk factors (including hookah/opium) was analyzed using logistic regression and presented as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We also calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the associations of lifestyle risk factors and endoscopic and histological parameters with incident gastric cancers using Cox regression models. Additionally, the proportion of cancers attributable to modifiable risk factors was calculated. During 9,096 person-years of follow-up, 36 new cases of gastric cancer were observed (incidence rate: 3.96/1,000 persons-years). Opium consumption was strongly associated with baseline antral (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2-9.1) and body intestinal metaplasia (OR: 7.3; 95% CI: 2.5-21.5). Opium (HR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4-7.7), hookah (HR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-7.1) and cigarette use (HR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4-7.5), as well as high salt intake, family history of gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and histological atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia of body were associated with higher risk of gastric cancer. The fraction of cancers attributable jointly to high salt, low fruit intake, smoking (including hookah) and opium was 93% (95% CI: 83-98). Hookah and opium use are risk factors for gastric cancer as well as for precancerous lesions. Hookah, opium, cigarette and high salt intake are important modifiable risk factors in this high-incidence gastric cancer area. PMID:23797606

  10. Simulating speleothem growth in the laboratory: Determination of stable isotope fractionation factors during precipitation of speleothem calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Maximilian; Schöne, Bernd R.; Spötl, Christoph; Scholz, Denis

    2016-04-01

    We present laboratory experiments aiming to understand the processes affecting the δ13C and δ18O values of speleothems during precipitation of calcite from a thin layer of solution. In particular, we determined the precipitation rates and the isotope fractionation factors in dependence of several parameters, such as temperature, cave pCO2 and supersaturation with respect to calcite. The experiments were performed in a climate box in order to simulate cave conditions and to control them during the experiments[1]. In the experiments, a thin film of a CaCO3-CO2-H2O-solution supersaturated with respect to calcite flew down an inclined marble surface or a sand-blasted borosilicate glass plate, and the drip water was sampled at different distances and, thus, residence times on the plate. Subsequently, pH, electrical conductivity and the δ13C and δ18O values of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) as well as the precipitated CaCO3 were determined. In addition, we determined the stable isotope values of the drip water and the atmosphere inside the box during the experiments. This enabled the identification of carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation factors between all carbonate species. The experiments were conducted at 10, 20 and 30 ° C, a pCO2 of 1000 and 3000 ppmV and with a Ca2+ concentration of 2 and 5 mmol/l. We observed an exponential decay of conductivity with increasing distance of flow documenting progressive precipitation of calcite confirming previous observations[2]. The corresponding time constants of precipitation range from 180 to 660 s. Both the δ13C and δ18O values show a progressive increase along the flow path. The enrichment of the δ13C values seems to be strongly influenced by kinetic isotope fractionation, whereas the δ18O values are in the range of isotopic equilibrium. The fractionation between the precipitated CaCO3 and DIC is between -1 and - 6.5 ‰ for carbon isotopes (13ɛ) and between -1.5 and -3 ‰ for oxygen isotopes (18ɛ). The

  11. Austral summer N2O sink and source characteristics and their impact factors in Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Liyang; Chen, Liqi; Zhang, Jiexia; Yan, Jinpei; Li, Yuhong; Wu, Man; Xu, Suqing; Lin, Qi; Pan, Jianming; Zhao, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The ocean, particularly the Southern Ocean, is considered a significant source of atmospheric N2O, which is an ozone-depleting greenhouse gas. However, there are limited data available supporting this conclusion. Thus, this study sampled and analyzed the oceanic N2O in Prydz Bay. The results demonstrated that the distribution of N2O in this embayment differed between the north and south sides of the Antarctic Slope Front (ASF), corresponding to the different hydrographic characteristics on each side. Although the air to sea N2O flux north of the shelf break is ˜-1.20 ± 0.44 μmol m-2 d-1, the source sink characteristics need to be further constrained because the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) may occasionally outcrop over the surface layer. The water masses over the continental shelf south of the shelf break may be a temporary or even a permanent N2O sink when sea ice is absent. The air to sea flux south of the shelf break is ˜-3.65 ± 0.95 μmol m-2 d-1, and the water column is undersaturated with N2O, which may result from the deep convection of N2O-undersaturated surface water during the winter. Evidence also suggests that the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) may provide a pathway for N2O removal from the upper layer at high latitudes.

  12. Stability of reef framework and post settlement mortality as the structuring factor for recovery of Malakal Bay Reef, Palau, Micronesia: 25 years after a severe COTS outbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, Steven

    2008-03-01

    Corals in Malakal Bay reefs were devastated in the 1979 Crown of Thorns Starfish (COTS) outbreak. It has been almost 30 years since the outbreak and coral cover at the study sites have not come close to the cover before the outbreak. A question is asked: what factors may contribute to the slow recovery of these reefs: recruitment or post-settlement mortality? Two habitat types within the reef systems were monitored using coral transplants to determine if corals can survive in these environments and recruitment tiles to see if there are larvae coming into the system. The study revealed that coral survivorship is high in the fore reef areas compared to the reef channel slopes and that larvae is not a limiting factor to natural recovery. Stability of the reef framework, i.e. unstable rubble substrate, and possibly high post settlement mortality, are the structuring factors that determine the recovery process in these reef systems and possibly so for similar habitats in other reef systems throughout Palau.

  13. Temporal trends and bioavailability assessment of heavy metals in the sediments of Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-12-15

    Thirteen sites in Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia were sampled three times over a period of 7 months and assessed for contamination by a range of heavy metals, primarily As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Hg. Fraction analysis, enrichment factors and Principal Components Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) analysis were conducted in order to identify the potential bioavailability of these elements of concern and their sources. Hg and Te were identified as the elements of highest enrichment in Deception Bay while marine sediments, shipping and antifouling agents were identified as the sources of the Weak Acid Extractable Metals (WE-M), with antifouling agents showing long residence time for mercury contamination. This has significant implications for the future of monitoring and regulation of heavy metal contamination within Deception Bay. PMID:25440195

  14. Regulation of adipogenesis by paracrine factors from adipose stromal-vascular fraction - a link to fat depot-specific differences.

    PubMed

    Meissburger, Bettina; Perdikari, Aliki; Moest, Hansjörg; Müller, Sebastian; Geiger, Matthias; Wolfrum, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots have distinct features and contribute differentially to the development of metabolic dysfunction. We show here that adipocyte differentiation in subcutaneous stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) is increased compared to visceral SVF, however this increased differentiation capacity seems not to be due to changes in the number of adipocyte precursor cells. Rather, we demonstrate that secreted heat-sensitive factors from the SVF can inhibit adipocyte differentiation and that this effect is higher in visceral than in subcutaneous SVF, suggesting that visceral SVF is a source of secreted factors that can inhibit adipocyte formation. In order to explore secreted proteins that potentially inhibit differentiation in visceral preadipocytes we analyzed the secretome of both SVFs which led to the identification of 113 secreted proteins with an overlap of 42%. Further expression analysis in both depots revealed 16 candidates that were subsequently analyzed in a differentiation screen using an adenoviral knockdown system. From this analysis we were able to identify two potential inhibitory candidates, namely decorin (Dcn) and Sparc-like 1 (Sparcl1). We could show that ablation of either candidate enhanced adipogenesis in visceral preadipocytes, while treatment of primary cultures with recombinant Sparcl1 and Dcn blocked adipogenesis in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, our data suggests that the differences in adipogenesis between depots might be due to paracrine and autocrine feedback mechanisms which could in turn contribute to metabolic homeostasis. PMID:27317982

  15. Ca isotope stratigraphy across the Cenomanian-Turonian OAE 2: Links between volcanism, seawater geochemistry, and the carbonate fractionation factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Vivier, Alice D. C.; Jacobson, Andrew D.; Lehn, Gregory O.; Selby, David; Hurtgen, Matthew T.; Sageman, Bradley B.

    2015-04-01

    The Ca isotope composition of marine carbonate rocks offers potential to reconstruct drivers of environmental change in the geologic past. This study reports new, high-precision Ca isotope records (δ44/40Ca; 2σSD = ± 0.04 ‰) for three sections spanning a major perturbation to the Cretaceous ocean-climate system known as Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2): central Colorado, USA (Portland #1 core), southeastern France (Pont d'Issole), and Hokkaido, Japan (Oyubari, Yezo Group). In addition, we generated new data for selected samples from Eastbourne, England (English Chalk), where a previous Ca isotope study was completed using different methodology (Blättler et al., 2011). Strata of the Yezo Group contain little carbonate (∼1 wt.% on average) and accordingly did not yield a clear δ44/40Ca signal. The Portland core and the Pont d'Issole section display comparable δ44/40Ca values, which increase by ∼ 0.10- 0.15 ‰ at the onset of OAE 2 and then decrease to near-initial values across the event. The Eastbourne δ44/40Ca values are higher than previously reported. They are also higher than the δ44/40Ca values for the Portland core and the Pont d'Issole section but define a similar pattern. According to a numerical model of the marine Ca cycle, elevated hydrothermal inputs have little impact on seawater δ44/40Ca values. Elevated riverine (chemical weathering) inputs produce a transient negative isotope excursion, which significantly differs from the positive isotope excursions observed in the Portland, Pont d'Issole, and Eastbourne records. A decrease in the magnitude of the carbonate fractionation factor provides the best explanation for a positive shift in δ44/40Ca values, especially given the rapid nature of the excursion. Because a decrease in the fractionation factor corresponds to an increase in the Ca/CO3 ratio of seawater, we tentatively attribute the positive Ca isotope excursion to transient ocean acidification, i.e., a reduction in the concentration of

  16. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with benign or atypical intracranial meningioma: Long-term experience and prognostic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Milker-Zabel, Stefanie . E-mail: stefanie_milker-zabel@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Zabel, Angelika; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Wannenmacher, Michael; Debus, Juergen

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: To analyze our long-term experience and prognostic factors after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in patients with benign or atypical intracranial meningioma. Methods and materials: Between January 1985 and December 2001, 317 patients with a median age of 55.7 years were treated with FSRT for intracranial meningioma. The tumor distribution was World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 1 in 48.3%, WHO Grade 2 in 8.2%, and unknown in 43.5%. Of the 317 patients, 97 underwent RT as their primary treatment, 79 underwent postoperative RT (subtotal resection in 38 and biopsy only in 41), and 141 were treated for recurrent disease. The median target volume was 33.6 cm{sup 3} (range, 1.0-412.6 cm{sup 3}). The median total dose was 57.6 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction five times weekly. Results: The median follow-up was 5.7 years (range, 1.2-14.3 years). The overall local tumor control rate was 93.1% (295 of 317). Of the 317 patients, 72 had a partial response on CT/MRI and 223 (70.4%) remained stable. At a median of 4.5 years after FSRT, 22 patients (6.9%) had local tumor progression on MRI. Local tumor failure was significantly greater in patients with WHO Grade 2 meningioma (p < 0.002) than in patients with WHO Grade 1 or unknown histologic features. Patients treated for recurrent meningioma showed a trend toward decreased progression-free survival compared with patients treated with primary therapy, after biopsy, or after subtotal resection (p < 0.06). Patients with a tumor volume >60 cm{sup 3} had a recurrence rate of 15.5% vs. 4.3% for those with a tumor volume of {<=}60 cm{sup 3} (p < 0.001). In 42.9% of the patients, preexisting neurologic deficits improved. Worsening of preexisting neurologic symptoms occurred in 8.2%. Eight patients developed new clinical symptoms, such as reduced vision, trigeminal neuralgia, and intermittent tinnitus located at the side of the irradiated meningioma after FSRT. Conclusion: These data have demonstrated that FSRT is an

  17. Risk factors for chronic undernutrition among children in India: Estimating relative importance, population attributable risk and fractions.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Daniel J; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Subramanian, S V

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 40% of the world's stunted children live in India and the prevalence of undernutrition has been persistently high in recent decades. Given numerous available interventions for reducing undernutrition in children, it is not clear of the relative importance of each within a multifactorial framework. We assess the simultaneous contribution of 15 known risk factors for child chronic undernutrition in India. Data are from the 3rd Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2005-2006. The study population consisted of children aged 6-59 months [n = 26,842 (stunting/low height-for-age), n = 27,483 (underweight/low weight-for-age)]. Risk factors examined for their association with undernutrition were: vitamin A supplementation, vaccination, use of iodized salt, household air quality, improved sanitary facilities, safe disposal of stools, improved drinking water, prevalence of infectious disease, initiation of breastfeeding, dietary diversity, age at marriage, maternal BMI, height, education, and household wealth. Age/sex-adjusted and multivariable adjusted effect sizes (odds ratios) were calculated for risk factors along with Population Attributable Risks (PAR) and Fractions (PAF) using logistic regression. In the mutually adjusted models, the five most important predictors of childhood stunting/underweight were short maternal stature, mother having no education, households in lowest wealth quintile, poor dietary diversity, and maternal underweight. These five factors had a combined PAR of 67.2% (95% CI: 63.3-70.7) and 69.7% (95% CI: 66.3-72.8) for stunting and underweight, respectively. The remaining factors were associated with a combined PAR of 11.7% (95% CI: 6.0-17.4) and 15.1% (95% CI: 8.9-21.3) for stunting and underweight, respectively. Implementing strategies focused on broader progress on social circumstances and infrastructural domains as well as investments in nutrition specific

  18. Factors controlling the carbon isotope fractionation of tetra- and trichloroethene during reductive dechlorination by Sulfurospirillum ssp. and Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE-S.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Danuta; Siegert, Michael; Imfeld, Gwenaël; Andert, Janet; Beck, Kirsten; Diekert, Gabriele; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nijenhuis, Ivonne

    2007-10-01

    Carbon stable isotope fractionation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) was investigated during reductive dechlorination. Growing cells of Sulfurospirillum multivorans, Sulfurospirillum halorespirans, or Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE-S, the respective crude extracts and the abiotic reaction with cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12)) were used. Fractionation of TCE (alphaC=1.0132-1.0187) by S. multivorans was more than one order of magnitude higher than values previously observed for tetrachloroethene (PCE) (alphaC=1.00042-1.0017). Similar differences in fractionation were observed during reductive dehalogenation by the close relative S. halorespirans with alphaC=1.0046-1.032 and alphaC=1.0187-1.0229 for PCE and TCE respectively. TCE carbon isotope fractionation (alphaC=1.0150) by the purified PCE-reductive dehalogenase from S. multivorans was more than one order of magnitude higher than fractionation of PCE (alphaC=1.0017). Carbon isotope fractionation of TCE by Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE-S (alphaC=1.0109-1.0122) as well as during the abiotic reaction with cyanocobalamin (alphaC=1.0154) was in a similar range to previously reported values for fractionation by mixed microbial cultures. In contrast with previous results with PCE, no effects due to rate limitations, uptake or transport of the substrate to the reactive site could be observed during TCE dechlorination. Our results show that prior to a mechanistic interpretation of stable isotope fractionation factors it has to be carefully verified how other factors such as uptake or transport affect the isotope fractionation during degradation experiments with microbial cultures. PMID:17908097

  19. [Effects of environmental factors on β diversity of zooplankton community in thermal discharge seawaters near Guohua Power Plant in Xiangshan Bay, Zhejiang, China].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi-feng; Dai, Mei-xia; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Lin, Xia; Mao, Shuo-qian; Yan, Xiao-jun

    2015-08-01

    Zooplankton samples were seasonally collected at 10 stations in thermal discharge seawaters near Guohua Power Plant in Xiangshan Bay. The abundance data from these samples were pooled and further combined with field environmental factors, then generalised dissimilarity modelling (GDM) was used to explore the effects of environmental factors on β diversity of zooplankton community. The results showed that altogether 95 species of zooplankton belonging to 14 taxa were found. In these taxa, small zooplankton with 62.6% of abundance was the main taxa, while copepods dominated in adult groups, which abundance accounted for 35.3%. According to Whittaker's definition and additive partition, a diversity accounted for 36.3% and β diversity 63.7%. Environmental factors explained 43.8% of β diversity, and geographical distance between sampling sites had no effect on β diversity. However, there were still 19.9% of β diversity remained to be explained. After GDM fitting, there were nine environmental variables affecting zooplankton β diversity and explaining 68.8% of β diversity. The variables contributing to β diversity from high to low were seasonal water temperature, dissolved oxygen, seawater temperature increment, conductivity, suspended particulate matter, salinity, transparency, water depth and redox potential, respectively. Seasonal water temperature, dissolved oxygen and seawater temperature increment were the most important factors for driving β diversity changes, and accounted for 23.9%, 13.7% and 9.7% of absolute contribution to the interpretable portion of the β diversity, respectively. When seasonal water temperature, dissolved oxygen and seawater temperature increment were below 25 °C, greater than 5 mg · L(-1) and over 1 °C, respectively, β diversity rapidly increased with the increasing variable gradients. Furthermore, other predictors had little effect on β diversity. PMID:26685620

  20. CHESAPEAKE BAY MONITORING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chesapeake Bay Program is the unique regional partnership which has been directing and conducting the restoration of the Chesapeake Bay since the signing of the historic 1983 Chesapeake Bay Agreement. The Chesapeake Bay Program partners include the states of Maryland, Pennsyl...

  1. Mapping the Hydrogen Bond Networks in the Catalytic Subunit of Protein Kinase A Using H/D Fractionation Factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Geoffrey C; Srivastava, Atul K; Kim, Jonggul; Taylor, Susan S; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2015-07-01

    Protein kinase A is a prototypical phosphoryl transferase, sharing its catalytic core (PKA-C) with the entire kinase family. PKA-C substrate recognition, active site organization, and product release depend on the enzyme's conformational transitions from the open to the closed state, which regulate its allosteric cooperativity. Here, we used equilibrium nuclear magnetic resonance hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) fractionation factors (φ) to probe the changes in the strength of hydrogen bonds within the kinase upon binding the nucleotide and a pseudosubstrate peptide (PKI5-24). We found that the φ values decrease upon binding both ligands, suggesting that the overall hydrogen bond networks in both the small and large lobes of PKA-C become stronger. However, we observed several important exceptions, with residues displaying higher φ values upon ligand binding. Notably, the changes in φ values are not localized near the ligand binding pockets; rather, they are radiated throughout the entire enzyme. We conclude that, upon ligand and pseudosubstrate binding, the hydrogen bond networks undergo extensive reorganization, revealing that the open-to-closed transitions require global rearrangements of the internal forces that stabilize the enzyme's fold. PMID:26030372

  2. Source identification of different size fraction of PM10 using factor analysis at residential cum commercial area of Nagpur city.

    PubMed

    Pipalatkar, P P; Gajghate, D G; Khaparde, V V

    2012-02-01

    Particulate size distribution of PM(10) and associated trace metal concentrations has been carried out in residential cum commercial area of Mahal at Nagpur city. Sampling for size fraction of particulate matter was performed during winter season using eight-stage cascade impactor with a pre-separator and toxic metals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The average concentration of PM(10) and fine particulate matter (effective cut of aerodynamic diameter ≤2.2 μm) was found to be 300 and 136.7 μg/m(3), respectively which was exceeding limit of Central Pollution Control Board. Maximum mass concentration of 41 μg/m(3) in size range of 9.0-10.0 μm and minimum mass concentration of 19 μg/m(3) in size range 2.2-3.3 μm was observed. Metals (Sr, Ni and Zn) were found to large proportions in below 0.7 μm particle size and could therefore pass directly into the alveoli region of human respiratory system. Factor analysis results indicated combustion and vehicular emission as the dominant source in fine mode and resuspended dust was dominant in medium mode while crustal along with vehicular source was major in coarse mode of particulate matter. PMID:22033656

  3. Experimental studies of alunite: I. 18O-16O and D-H fractionation factors between alunite and water at 250-450°C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffregen, Roger E.; Rye, Robert O.; Wasserman, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    We have determined oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation factors between alunite and water over a temperature range of 250-450??C by reacting synthetic natroalunite with 0.7 m K2SO4 -0.1 to 0.65 m H2SO4 solutions to produce K-rich alunite. From 88 to 95% alkali and isotope exchange were observed in most of these experiments, and the partial equilibrium method was used to compute equilibrium fractionation factors. Least-squares fits of the data give 103 In ??alunite(so4)-H2O = 3.09 ( 106 T2 (K)) - 2.94 and 103 In ??alunite(OH)-H2O = 2.28 ( 106 T2 (K)) - 3.90. The intramineral 18O- 16O fractionation factor 103 In ??alunite(so4-OH site) is given by the expression 0.8 ( 106 T2 (K)) + 0.96. The alunite-water D-H fractionation factor ranges from -19 at 450??C to -6 at 250??C and does not appear to be strongly dependent on temperature. Runs with alkali exchange in the opposite direction were used to obtain 18O- 16O and D-H fractionation factors between natroalunite (mol% Na = 70-75) and water at 350-450??C. These indicate that mol% Na has negligible effect on the fractionation factors over this temperature range. Measured 18O-16O and D-H fractionation factors between alunite and 1.0 m KCl -0.5 m H2SO4 fluids also agree within 2?? with the values obtained from the K2SO4-H2SO4 fluids. However, experiments with alunite and distilled water at 400??C gave a value of 103 In ??alunite(SO4)-H2O of 0.0, compared with a value of 3.9 obtained at this temperature with K2SO4- and H2SO4-bearing fluids. This suggests that changes in fluid composition can affect alunite-water 18O-16O fractionation factors. Reconnaissance experiments with fine-grained natural natroalunite demonstrate that alunite-water D-H exchange can occur by hydrogen diffusion, although this process is generally not significant in the experiments with coarser grained synthetic alunites. ?? 1994.

  4. Weak acid extractable metals in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia: temporal behaviour, enrichment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-02-15

    Sediment samples were taken from six sampling sites in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia between February and November in 2012. They were analysed for a range of heavy metals including Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ce, Th, U, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb. Fraction analysis, Enrichment Factors and Principal Component Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) were carried out in order to assess metal pollution, potential bioavailability and source apportionment. Cr and Ni exceeded the Australian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines at some sampling sites, while Hg was found to be the most enriched metal. Fraction analysis identified increased weak acid soluble Hg and Cd during the sampling period. Source apportionment via PCA-APCS found four sources of metals pollution, namely, marine sediments, shipping, antifouling coatings and a mixed source. These sources need to be considered in any metal pollution control measure within Bramble Bay. PMID:25537749

  5. Diagnostic, treatment, and demographic factors influencing survival in a population-based study of adult glioma patients in the San Francisco Bay Area1

    PubMed Central

    Wrensch, Margaret; Rice, Terri; Miike, Rei; McMillan, Alex; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Aldape, Kenneth; Prados, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    We compare survival estimates for population-based glioma cases by using two diagnostic coding schemes, (1) the International Classification of Diseases, Oncology, second edition (ICD-O-2) as reported by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and (2) central neuropathology review diagnosis based on the World Health Organization II classification. In addition, among review categories, we estimate survival in relation to several patient demographic and treatment factors. Eligible cases included adults residing in the San Francisco Bay SEER Area with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed glioma during the years 1991–1994 and 1997–1999. The study group included participating subjects for whom subsequent central neuropathology review confirmed glioma. We determined treatments, vital status, and other factors by using registry, interview, medical record, and active follow-up data. Survival differences between anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and astrocytoma were apparent from review diagnoses (median months of survival for AA, 13.0 [95% CI, 9.9–19.5], and astrocytoma, 101.3 [95% CI lower limit, 42.1; upper limit not yet reached]), but not with ICD-O-2 diagnoses reported by SEER (median months of survival for AA, 16.6 [95% CI, 12.0–20.7], and astrocytoma, not otherwise specified, 17.2 [95% CI, 10.6–71.6]). This finding emphasizes the need for improvements in coding for nonglioblastoma astrocytomas to provide better population survival estimates. When review diagnosis was used, younger age and resection (vs. biopsy) were statistically significant for all histology groups analyzed by multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Additional statistically significant variables were as follows: among 517 glioblastoma patients, radiation treatment and being married; among 105 AA patients, inclusion of chemotherapy in the initial treatment; and among 106 patients with nonanaplastic oligodendroglial tumors, college education. Further consideration

  6. Tempered fractional calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  7. Tempered fractional calculus

    SciTech Connect

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  8. Occurrence of organochlorine compounds in Euphausia superba and unhatched eggs of Pygoscelis genus penguins from Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica) and estimation of biomagnification factors.

    PubMed

    Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2010-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides are compounds that do not occur naturally in the environment and are not easily degraded by chemical or microbiological action. In the present work, those compounds were analysed in unhatched penguin eggs and whole krill collected in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica in the austral summers of 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. The compounds found in higher levels (in a wet weight basis) were, in most of the egg samples, the PCBs (2.53-78.7 ng g(-1)), DDTs (2.07-38.0 ng g(-1)) and HCB (4.99-39.1 ng g(-1)) and after Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, the occurrence seemed to be species-specific for the Pygoscelis genus. In all of the cases, the levels found were not higher than the ones in Arctic birds in a similar trophic level. The krill samples analysis allowed estimating the biomagnification factors (which resulted in up to 363 for HCB, one order of magnitude higher than DDTs and chlordanes and two orders of magnitude higher than the other groups) of the compounds found in eggs, whose only source of contamination is the female-offspring transfer. PMID:19917513

  9. Non-O1/Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Carrying Multiple Virulence Factors and V. cholerae O1 in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarelli, Daniela; Chen, Arlene; Hasan, Nur A.; Rashed, Shah M.; Huq, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae inhabits estuarine and coastal waters globally, but its clinical significance has not been sufficiently investigated, despite the fact that it has been associated with septicemia and gastroenteritis. The emergence of virulent non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae is consistent with the recognition of new pathogenic variants worldwide. Oyster, sediment, and water samples were collected during a vibrio surveillance program carried out from 2009 to 2012 in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. V. cholerae O1 was detected by a direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) assay but was not successfully cultured, whereas 395 isolates of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae were confirmed by multiplex PCR and serology. Only a few of the non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae isolates were resistant to ampicillin and/or penicillin. Most of the isolates were sensitive to all antibiotics tested, and 77 to 90% carried the El Tor variant hemolysin gene hlyAET, the actin cross-linking repeats in toxin gene rtxA, the hemagglutinin protease gene hap, and the type 6 secretion system. About 19 to 21% of the isolates carried the neuraminidase-encoding gene nanH and/or the heat-stable toxin (NAG-ST), and only 5% contained a type 3 secretion system. None of the non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae isolates contained Vibrio pathogenicity island-associated genes. However, ctxA, ace, or zot was present in nine isolates. Fifty-five different genotypes showed up to 12 virulence factors, independent of the source of isolation, and represent the first report of both antibiotic susceptibility and virulence associated with non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae from the Chesapeake Bay. Since these results confirm the presence of potentially pathogenic non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae, monitoring for total V. cholerae, regardless of serotype, should be done within the context of public health. PMID:25556194

  10. A SPATIO-TEMPEROL ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATIC FACTORS CONTROLLING THE EXPANSION OF SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA IN WILLAPA BAY, WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Circa 1890, smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, was unintentionally introduced to Willapa Bay, Washington, presumably as discarded packing material for eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica. At present, S. alterniflora covers over 2,000 ha of the littoral flats in Willapa ...

  11. PCDD/F, PCB, HXCBZ, PAH, AND PM EMISSION FACTORS FOR FIREPLACE AND WOODSTOVE COMBUSTION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from residential fireplace and woodstove appliances burning fuels available from the San Francisco Bay area were sampled for polychlornated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), particulate
    matter (P...

  12. Comparison of ejection fraction and Goldman risk factor analysis to dipyridamole-thallium 201 studies in the evaluation of cardiac morbidity after aortic aneurysm surgery

    SciTech Connect

    McEnroe, C.S.; O'Donnell, T.F. Jr.; Yeager, A.; Konstam, M.; Mackey, W.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Associated coronary artery disease is the critical factor that influences early and late mortality after abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. Dipyridamole-thallium 201 scintigraphy, left ventricular ejection fraction, and Goldman risk factor analysis have been suggested as preoperative noninvasive screening methods to detect significant coronary artery disease. In this series of 95 elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs dipyridamole-thallium 201 scintigraphy was highly predictive of the absence of perioperative cardiac morbidity (96% specificity, 44/46 normal scans, no cardiac morbidity), whereas ejection fraction (73% specificity, 31/42 normal ejection fraction, no cardiac morbidity) and Goldman risk factor analysis (84% specificity, 44/51 class I, no cardiac morbidity) were less. Furthermore, thallium redistribution on dipyridamole-thallium 201 scintigraphy leading to coronary angiography identified a significant number of patients with occult coronary artery disease who required preoperative coronary revascularization (8%, 8/95) and might have remained undetected on the basis of left ventricular ejection fraction or Goldman risk factor analysis. Finally, fixed thallium deficit, which some investigators have interpreted as a low probability finding for cardiac morbidity, was associated with a higher than expected incidence of cardiac complications. Forty-six percent (7/15) of all postoperative cardiac complications (three myocardial infarctions, three ischemic events, one death) occurred in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms with fixed deficits. This suggests that patients with fixed deficits on dipyridamole-thallium 201 scintigraphy should be considered for later delayed (4 hours) thallium images or coronary angiography or both.

  13. Isotopic fractionation factor and hydrogenic potential in 2-hydroxy-1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2-penten-4-one

    SciTech Connect

    Kreevoy, M.M.; Ridl, B.A.

    1981-04-02

    The title compound (enol-hexafluoroacetylacetone) has an isotopic fractionation factor of 0.6 +- 0.1. This, and much other information about this compound, can be rationalized if the enolic hydrogen bridges between the two oxygens and is governed by a double minimum potential function with a central maximum of approx. 3000 cm/sup -1/ (8 kcal/mol)(eq 10).

  14. Tsunami Inundation modeling for Tolaga Bay, Tokomaru Bay, Hicks Bay and Te Araroa communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Wang, X.; Power, W. L.

    2012-12-01

    South America events with a flooding area of approximately 10km2. There is great variability among the different bays for some of the tsunami scenarios. For example, during the South America event Tolaga Bay is expected to experience severe flooding that covers an area of nearly 10 km2 while for Hicks Bay and Te Araroa it is about 8 km2 and only about 1km2 for Tokomaru Bay. It is important to note that flooding occurs more than once over the course of the tsunami scenarios and large inundation usually is associated with later arrivals. This is an important observation that is not unique to New Zealand and Gisborne District in particular, although the specifics of which wave is responsible for the largest flooding depends on the source, location of the bay and local bathymetric features among other factors. Probably the most striking event in this study is the distant Peru event because it is apparent that low-lying areas are flooded about 6 times during the 24 hours of the simulation and the 4th wave is the one that causes the greatest inundation. The same is not true over all events and local events will have shorter duration with the time in-between wave arrivals being shorter due to the proximity of the source location.

  15. Ecological risk evaluation of sediment metals in a tropical Euthrophic Bay, Guanabara Bay, Southeast Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ilene Matanó; Cordeiro, Renato Campello; Soares-Gomes, Abílio; Abessa, Denis Moledo S; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2016-08-15

    Surface sediments were collected from Guanabara Bay, at 14 stations distributed in five sectors, over three sampling campaigns. Analyses of metals, grain size fractions and total organic carbon analyses were performed. The geo-accumulation index and the enrichment factor were estimated to assess contamination status based on background values. Additionally, the sediment quality guidelines were applied to evaluate the adverse biological effects. Results show that there was no seasonal variation in sediment quality based on any methodology, and all methods utilized showed that NW sector and HRJ sector were the worst affected and that the NE sector had the best conditions. The sediments of GB are polluted mainly by Cr, Pb and Zn. According to ΣSEM/AVS, these metals are not available to the biota, although toxicity tests dispute this. Among the various methods employed, those using background values for the area seem to best reflect the local historical contamination. PMID:27210562

  16. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS

    PubMed Central

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD; CHEN, JINGHUA

    2014-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series. PMID:26085690

  17. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  18. Chronic sublethal effects of San Francisco Bay sediments on Nereis (neanthes) arenaceodentata: Non treatment factors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.W.; Dillon, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Initial development of a chronic sublethal sediment bioassay with the polychaete Nereis (Neanthes) arenaceodentata is described. The test was initiated with 2 to 3-week-old postemergent juvenile worms and terminated after 21 days. The sublethal test end point was estimated individual somatic growth rate (milligrams dry weight/day). The potential bias due to selected nontreatment factors on polychaete survival and growth was evaluated. For example, grain size had no effect, while the number of worms added to each exposure vessel was critical. Direct transfer from 30 ppt to salinities < or = ppt had a highly significant and adverse effect on survival and growth. Both survival and growth of juvenile worms may be adversely affected if test conditions involve exposures to > or = mg/L ammonia or > or = mg/L hydrogen sulfide.... Chronic, Growth, Neanthes, Sediment, Sublethal.

  19. Controlling factors of Ca isotope fractionation in scleractinian corals evaluated by temperature, pH and light controlled culture experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Mayuri; Gussone, Nikolaus; Koga, Yasuko; Iwase, Akihiro; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the 44Ca/40Ca ratios of Porites australiensis grown under three different culture experiments composed of temperature, pH and light controlled culture experiments are measured. The temperature dependent isotope fractionation of 0.02‰/°C deduced from this study is similar to inorganic aragonite, but the degree of isotope fractionation is about +0.4‰ offset in corals. These observations agree with earlier results on different coral species, suggesting Ca isotope fractionation during Ca transmembrane transport in corals. While in cultured corals a significant temperature dependence of δ44Ca is observed, the relationships between calcium isotope fractionation and pH as well as light intensity are negligible. Therefore variation of δ44Ca in Porites corals is mainly controlled by temperature. A combination of δ44Ca and Sr/Ca of corals in temperature controlled experiments cannot be explained by Rayleigh type fractionation directly from a fluid, which is seawater-like in terms of δ44Ca and Sr/Ca. Through coral-specific biomineralization processes, overall mean δ44Ca of scleractinian corals including previous studies are different from biogenic aragonites secreted by sclerosponges and pteropods, but are comparable with those of bivalves as well as calcitic coccolithophores and foraminifers. These findings are important for better understanding biomineralization in corals and in order to constrain the Ca isotopic composition of oceanic Ca sinks in response to climate changes and associated with shifts of calcite and aragonite seas.

  20. Factors Contributing to High CH4 and CO2 Efflux Rates from Thermokarst Lakes in the Rapidly Warming Hudson Bay Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, A.; Vincent, W. F.; Laurion, I.

    2014-12-01

    Thermokarst lakes and ponds that form on thawing permafrost landscapes have long been recognized as biogeochemical reactors that emit significant amounts of CH4 and CO2. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the exact contribution of these water bodies to the global carbon cycle, in large part because of the paucity of observations from different ecosystem types across the circumpolar North, and the incomplete understanding of factors that control the balance between methane production (methanogenesis) and loss (methanotrophy). The aim of our research was to address these gaps by focusing on thermokarst lakes in subarctic Canada (eastern Hudson Bay), primarily at the southern limit of permafrost that is experiencing rapid warming, but where limnological changes have received little attention to date. Thermokarst lakes were sampled at five geographical locations that differed in their degree of permafrost degradation, as well as in carbon content and lability. All sampled lakes were supersaturated with CH4, with epilimnetic concentrations varying from CO2 undersaturation in turbid mineral (lithalsa) lakes of the continuous and discontinuous permafrost landscapes, to oversaturation by several orders of magnitude of both CO2 and CH4 in the organic-rich (palsa) lakes, especially in the areas of highly degraded permafrost at its southern limit. Concentrations and fluxes of CH4 and CO2 in these palsa lakes were at or above the highest values reported for thermokarst waters elsewhere. In addition, methane oxidation experiments showed high rates of methanotrophy that substantially reduced the net emission of CH4 from both lithalsa and palsa lake types. Our results imply that subarctic thermokarst lakes, especially those at the northward migrating permafrost margin, may be a major source of greenhouse gases as the circumpolar North continues to warm.

  1. Emission factors of SO2, NOx and particles from ships in Neva Bay from ground-based and helicopter-borne measurements and AIS-based modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beecken, J.; Mellqvist, J.; Salo, K.; Ekholm, J.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Litvinenko, V.; Volodin, K.; Frank-Kamenetsky, D. A.

    2015-05-01

    Emission factors of SO2, NOx and size-distributed particle numbers were measured for approximately 300 different ships in the Gulf of Finland and Neva Bay area during two campaigns in August/September 2011 and June/July 2012. The measurements were carried out from a harbor vessel and from an Mi-8 helicopter downwind of passing ships. Other measurements were carried out from shore sites near the island of Kronstadt and along the Neva River in the urban area of Saint Petersburg. Most ships were running at reduced speed (10 kn), i.e., not at their optimal load. Vessels for domestic and international shipping were monitored. It was seen that the distribution of the SO2 emission factors is bi-modal, with averages of 4.6 and 18.2 gSO2 kgfuel-1 for the lower and the higher mode, respectively. The emission factors show compliance with the 1% fuel sulfur content Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA) limit for 90% of the vessels in 2011 and 97% in 2012. The distribution of the NOx emission factor is mono-modal, with an average of 58 gNOx kgfuel-1. The corresponding emission related to the generated power yields an average of 12.1 gNOx kWh-1. The distribution of the emission factors for particulate number shows that nearly 90% of all particles in the 5.6 nm to 10 μm size range were below 70 nm in diameter. The distribution of the corresponding emission factors for the mass indicates two separated main modes, one for particles between 30 and 300 nm and the other for above 2 μm. The average particle emission factors were found to be in the range from 0.7 to 2.7 × 1016 particles kgfuel-1 and 0.2 to 3.4 gPM kgfuel-1, respectively. The NOx and particulate emissions are comparable with other studies. The measured emission factors were compared, for individual ships, to modeled ones using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM) of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. A reasonably good agreement for gaseous sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be seen for ships in

  2. Emission factors of SO2, NOx and particles from ships in Neva Bay from ground-based and helicopter-borne measurements and AIS-based modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beecken, J.; Mellqvist, J.; Salo, K.; Ekholm, J.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Litvinenko, V.; Volodin, K.; Frank-Kamenetsky, D. A.

    2014-10-01

    Emission factors of SO2, NOx and size distributed particle numbers were measured for approximately 300 different ships in the Gulf of Finland and Neva Bay area during two campaigns in August/September 2011 and June/July 2012. The measurements were carried out from a harbor vessel and from an MI-8 helicopter downwind of passing ships. Other measurements were carried out from shore sites near the island of Kronstadt and along the river Neva in the city area of Saint Petersburg. Most ships were running at reduced speed (10 knots), i.e. not at their optimal load. Vessels for domestic and international shipping were monitored. It was seen that the distribution of the SO2 emission factors is bi-modal with averages of 4.6 gSO2 kgfuel-1 and 18.2 gSO2 kgfuel-1 for the lower and the higher mode, respectively. The emission factors show compliance with the 1% fuel sulfur content SECA limit for 90% of the vessels in 2011 and 97% in 2012. The distribution of the NOx emission factor is mono-modal with an average of 58 gNOx kgfuel-1. The corresponding emission related to the generated power yields an average of 12.1 gNOx kWh-1. The distribution of the emission factors for particulate number shows that nearly 90% of all particles in the 5.6 nm to 10 μm size range were below 70 nm in diameter. The distribution of the corresponding emission factors for the mass indicates two separated main modes, one for particles between 30 and 300 nm the other above 2 μm. The average particle emission factors were found to be in the range from 0.7 to 2.7 × 1016 particles kgfuel-1 and 0.2 to 3.4 gPM kgfuel-1, respectively. The NOx and particulate emissions are comparable with other studies. The measured emission factors were compared, for individual ships, to modeled ones using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM) of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. A reasonably good agreement for gaseous sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be seen for ships in international traffic, but

  3. Biochemical assessment of growth factors and circulation of blood components contained in the different fractions obtained by centrifugation of venous blood.

    PubMed

    Corigiano, M; Ciobanu, G; Baldoni, E; Pompa, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a biochemical marker with different elements of a normal blood serum and centrifuged blood serum after a different rotation system. For this technique, we used five fractions of a blood Concentrated Growth Factors system (bCGF) and a particular device for the different rotation program. Blood samples were collected from 10 volunteers aged between 35 and 55 in the Operative Unit of the “Sapienza” University of Rome with only a fraction of different biochemical elements. Through an individual blood phase separator tube of venous blood, active factions of serum and 4 fractions of red buffy coat were taken. The biochemical markers with 14 elements were examined at times: P1-11 minutes, P2-12minutes, P3-15 minutes. Exclusively biological materials which are normally applied in the regeneration techniques for different defects and lesions were used with this technique. After specific rotation programs, a different result was obtained for each cycle: P1, P2, P3. In test tubes obtained by separated blood, we observed a higher concentration of proteins, ions, and other antigens compared to normal blood plasma. Examining the biochemical results of different elements, we observed an increase (P≤0,01). Since each person’s DNA is different, we could not have the same results in 5 fractions of blood concentration, we did, however, find a good increase in only a fraction of proteins, immunoglobulin and different ions. We obtained five fractions after centrifugation, and we had an increase in different biochemical elements compared to normal blood (P≤0,01) which is significant at different times. These biochemical elements were stimulated by different growth factors, which are used by the immune system, and they induced the formation of hard and soft tissues and good regeneration. PMID:25001662

  4. Equilibrium Iron Isotope Fractionation Factors of Minerals: Reevaluation from the Data of Nuclear Inelastic Resonant X-ray Scattering and Mossbauer Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, Dr. V. B.; Clayton, R. N.; Horita, Juske; Mineev, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    We have critically reevaluated equilibrium iron isotope fractionation factors for oxide and sulfide minerals using recently acquired data obtained by Moessbauer spectroscopy and inelastic nuclear resonant X-ray scattering (INRXS) synchrotron radiation. Good agreement was observed in the iron {beta}-factors of metallic iron ({alpha}-Fe) and hematite calculated using both Moessbauer- and INRXS-derived data, which supports the validity and reliability of the calculations. Based on this excellent agreement, we suggest the use of the present data on the iron {beta}-factors of hematite as a reference. The previous Moessbauer-derived iron {beta}-factor for magnetite has been modified significantly based on the Fe-sublattice density of states obtained from the INRXS experiments. This resolves the disagreement between naturally observed iron isotope fractionation factors for mineral pairs involving magnetite and those obtained from the calculated {beta}-factors. The correctness of iron {beta}-factor for pyrite has been corroborated by the good agreement with experimental data of sulfur isotope geothermometers of pyrite-galena and pyrite-sphalerite. A good correlation between the potential energy of the cation site, the oxidation state of iron and the iron {beta}-factor value has been established. Specifically, ferric compounds, which have a higher potential energy of iron than ferrous compounds, have higher {beta}-factors. A similar dependence of b-factors on the oxidation state and potential energy could be extended to other transition metals. Extremely low values of INRXS-derived iron {beta}-factors for troilite and Fe{sub 3}S significantly widen the range of iron b-factors for covalently bonded compounds.

  5. Towards A Modern Calibration Of The 238U/235U Paleoredox Proxy: Apparent Uranium Isotope Fractionation Factor During U(VI)-U(IV) Reduction In The Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolison, J. M.; Stirling, C. H.; Middag, R.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; De Baar, H. J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The isotopic compositions of redox-sensitive metals, including uranium (U), in marine sediments have recently emerged as powerful diagnostic tracers of the redox state of the ancient ocean-atmosphere system. Interpretation of sedimentary isotopic information requires a thorough understating of the environmental controls on isotopic fractionation in modern anoxic environments before being applied to the paleo-record. In this study, the relationship between ocean anoxia and the isotopic fractionation of U was investigated in the water column and sediments of the Black Sea. The Black Sea is the world's largest anoxic basin and significant removal of U from the water column and high U accumulation rates in modern underlying sediments have been documented. Removal of U from the water column occurs during the redox transition of soluble U(VI) to relatively insoluble U(IV). The primary results of this study are two-fold. First, significant 238U/235U fractionation was observed in the water column of the Black Sea, suggesting the reduction of U induces 238U/235U fractionation with the preferential removal of 238U from the aqueous phase. Second, the 238U/235U of underlying sediments is related to the water column through the isotope fractionation factor of the reduction reaction but is influenced by mass transport processes. These results provide important constraints on the use of 238U/235U as a proxy of the redox state of ancient oceans.

  6. A high-resolution peak fractionation approach for streamlined screening of nuclear-factor-E2-related factor-2 activators in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Luo, Li-Ping; Song, Hui-Peng; Hao, Hai-Ping; Zhou, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-24

    Generation of a high-purity fraction library for efficiently screening active compounds from natural products is challenging because of their chemical diversity and complex matrices. In this work, a strategy combining high-resolution peak fractionation (HRPF) with a cell-based assay was proposed for target screening of bioactive constituents from natural products. In this approach, peak fractionation was conducted under chromatographic conditions optimized for high-resolution separation of the natural product extract. The HRPF approach was automatically performed according to the predefinition of certain peaks based on their retention times from a reference chromatographic profile. The corresponding HRPF database was collected with a parallel mass spectrometer to ensure purity and characterize the structures of compounds in the various fractions. Using this approach, a set of 75 peak fractions on the microgram scale was generated from 4mg of the extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza. After screening by an ARE-luciferase reporter gene assay, 20 diterpene quinones were selected and identified, and 16 of these compounds were reported to possess novel Nrf2 activation activity. Compared with conventional fixed-time interval fractionation, the HRPF approach could significantly improve the efficiency of bioactive compound discovery and facilitate the uncovering of minor active components. PMID:24406141

  7. Estimation of EEC, unattached fraction and equilibrium factor for the assessment of radiological dose using pin-hole cup dosimeters and deposition based progeny sensors.

    PubMed

    Bangotra, Pargin; Mehra, Rohit; Kaur, Kirandeep; Kanse, Sandeep; Mishra, Rosaline; Sahoo, B K

    2015-10-01

    High concentration of radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their decay products in environment may increase the risk of radiological exposure to the mankind. The (222)Rn, (220)Rn concentration and their separate attached and unattached progeny concentration in units of EEC have been measured in the dwellings of Muktsar and Mansa districts of Punjab (India), using Pin-hole cup dosimeters and deposition based progeny sensors (DTPS/DRPS). The indoor (222)Rn and (220)Rn concentration was found to vary from 21 Bqm(-3) to 94 Bqm(-3) and 17 Bqm(-3) to 125 Bqm(-3). The average EEC (attached + unattached) of (222)Rn and (220)Rn was 25 Bqm(-3) and 1.8 Bqm(-3). The equilibrium factor for (222)Rn and (220)Rn in studied area was 0.47 ± 0.13 and 0.05 ± 0.03. The equilibrium factor and unattached fraction of (222)Rn and (220)Rn has been calculated separately. Dose conversion factors (DCFs) of different models have been calculated from unattached fraction for the estimation of annual effective dose in the studied area. From the experimental data a correlation relationship has been observed between unattached fraction (f(p)(Rn)) and equilibrium factor (F(Rn)). The present work also aims to evaluate an accurate expression among available expression in literature for the estimation of f(p)(Rn). PMID:26117280

  8. BUZZARDS BAY IR, 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2002 Buzzards Bay Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the Buzzards Bay Project. Major new completed actions during the past two years include: designation of Buzzards Bay as a no discharge area in August 2000; full support by the Massac...

  9. The iron isotope composition of enstatite meteorites: Implications for their origin and the metal/sulfide Fe isotopic fractionation factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Savage, Paul S.; Moynier, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    due to intensive impact-induced shearing stress, or the ultimate destruction of the Shallowater parent body. Analysis of separated enstatite meteorite mineral phases show that the magnetic phase (Fe metal) is systematically enriched in the heavier Fe isotopes when compared to non-magnetic phases (Fe hosted in troilite), which agrees with previous experimental observations and theoretical calculations. The difference between magnetic and non-magnetic phases from enstatite achondrites provides an equilibrium metal-sulfide Fe isotopic fractionation factor of Δ56Femetal-troilite = δ56Femetal - δ56Fetroilite of 0.129 ± 0.060‰ (2 SE) at 1060 ± 80 K, which confirms the predictions of previous theoretical calculations.

  10. Carbon Biogeochemistry in Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth H.; Dehairs, Frank; Gratton, Yves

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its carbon cycle are expected to be disproportionately sensitive to climatic change and, thus the Arctic is thought to be an area where such changes may most easily be detected. In particular the carbon cycle in polar ocean is vulnerable due to the relatively high Revelle factor and correspondingly weaker CO2 buffer capacity. The Arctic ocean is influenced by runoff and precipitation, sea ice formation and melting, and the inflow of saline waters from Bering and Fram Straits as well as the Barents Sea Shelf. Pacific water is recognizable as low(er) salinity water, with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, flowing from the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic via the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. In the Baffin Bay area, at the eastern entrance to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the water masses of three major oceans meet. Atlantic Ocean water traveling into Baffin Bay as the east Greenland current mixes with waters from the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, which enter Baffin Bay via Nares Strait and various outflows of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, before the waters head southward along the western side of Baffin Bay, eventually feeding into the Labrador Current and the North Atlantic Ocean. Altered mixing ratios of these three water masses and freshwater in the Arctic Ocean have been recorded in recent decades. Any climatically driven alterations in the composition of waters leaving Baffin Bay may have implications for anthropogenic CO2 uptake and, hence, acidification, of the subpolar and temperate North Atlantic. We present carbon cycle, Barium and stable oxygen isotope composition data of sea water and related data from two east to west section across Baffin Bay at 75N and 76N as well as from shelf sections long the eastern and western shelves of Baffin Bay. We investigate water mass characteristics and mixing pattern of the above three major water masses in Baffin Bay. The data have been collected in the framework of two

  11. The IKK inhibitor Bay 11-7082 induces cell death independent from inhibition of activation of NFκB transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Rauert-Wunderlich, Hilka; Siegmund, Daniela; Maier, Eduard; Giner, Tina; Bargou, Ralf C; Wajant, Harald; Stühmer, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) displays an NFκB activity-related gene expression signature and about 20% of primary MM samples harbor genetic alterations conducive to intrinsic NFκB signaling activation. The relevance of blocking the classical versus the alternative NFκB signaling pathway and the molecular execution mechanisms involved, however, are still poorly understood. Here, we comparatively tested NFκB activity abrogation through TPCA-1 (an IKK2 inhibitor), BAY 11-7082 (an IKK inhibitor poorly selective for IKK1 and IKK2), and MLN4924 (an NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE)-inhibitor), and analyzed their anti-MM activity. Whereas TPCA-1 interfered selectively with activation of the classical NFκB pathway, the other two compounds inhibited classical and alternative NFκB signaling without significant discrimination. Noteworthy, whereas TPCA-1 and MLN4924 elicited rather mild anti-MM effects with slight to moderate cell death induction after 1 day BAY 11-7082 was uniformly highly toxic to MM cell lines and primary MM cells. Treatment with BAY 11-7082 induced rapid cell swelling and its initial effects were blocked by necrostatin-1 or the ROS scavenger BHA, but a lasting protective effect was not achieved even with additional blockade of caspases. Because MLN4924 inhibits the alternative NFκB pathway downstream of IKK1 at the level of p100 processing, the quite discordant effects between MLN4924 and BAY 11-7082 must thus be due to blockade of IKK1-mediated NFκB-independent necrosis-inhibitory functions or represent an off-target effect of BAY 11-7082. In accordance with the latter, we further observed that concomitant knockdown of IKK1 and IKK2 did not have any major short-term adverse effect on the viability of MM cells. PMID:23527154

  12. The IKK Inhibitor Bay 11-7082 Induces Cell Death Independent from Inhibition of Activation of NFκB Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Rauert-Wunderlich, Hilka; Siegmund, Daniela; Maier, Eduard; Giner, Tina; Bargou, Ralf C.; Wajant, Harald; Stühmer, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) displays an NFκB activity-related gene expression signature and about 20% of primary MM samples harbor genetic alterations conducive to intrinsic NFκB signaling activation. The relevance of blocking the classical versus the alternative NFκB signaling pathway and the molecular execution mechanisms involved, however, are still poorly understood. Here, we comparatively tested NFκB activity abrogation through TPCA-1 (an IKK2 inhibitor), BAY 11-7082 (an IKK inhibitor poorly selective for IKK1 and IKK2), and MLN4924 (an NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE)-inhibitor), and analyzed their anti-MM activity. Whereas TPCA-1 interfered selectively with activation of the classical NFκB pathway, the other two compounds inhibited classical and alternative NFκB signaling without significant discrimination. Noteworthy, whereas TPCA-1 and MLN4924 elicited rather mild anti-MM effects with slight to moderate cell death induction after 1 day BAY 11-7082 was uniformly highly toxic to MM cell lines and primary MM cells. Treatment with BAY 11-7082 induced rapid cell swelling and its initial effects were blocked by necrostatin-1 or the ROS scavenger BHA, but a lasting protective effect was not achieved even with additional blockade of caspases. Because MLN4924 inhibits the alternative NFκB pathway downstream of IKK1 at the level of p100 processing, the quite discordant effects between MLN4924 and BAY 11-7082 must thus be due to blockade of IKK1-mediated NFκB-independent necrosis-inhibitory functions or represent an off-target effect of BAY 11-7082. In accordance with the latter, we further observed that concomitant knockdown of IKK1 and IKK2 did not have any major short-term adverse effect on the viability of MM cells. PMID:23527154

  13. Features of winter sedimentation processes in Curonian Bay of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, V. A.; Emelyanov, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    The concentration distribution was studied for dissolved oxygen, phosphorus forms, and particulate matter in Curonian Bay of the Baltic Sea in poorly known consolidated ice cover conditions during the winter seasons of 2010, 2011, and 2013. The surface and near-bottom waters were sampled at 51 stations. The ice cover exerts no significant effect on the typical seasonal variation of all considered parameters in the basin. The concentrations of mineral and organic phosphorus in the bay appeared to be lower by factors of 2-4 compared to summer values. A two- to threefold decrease in the concentrations of organic phosphorus since 2010 to 2011 and then to 2013 was recorded in the bay, which resulted from a decrease in phosphorus production by phytoplankton. Despite water being isolated from air by ice, the absence of wave mixing, and the decrease in oxygen production owing to the seasonal winter decrease in the intensity photosynthetic processes, no oxygen deficiency was found in the basin. This is because oxygen supplied to the bay by river runoff and production by photosynthesis in the bay exceed the utilization for oxidation of organic matter resulting from low bioproductivity of the waters during winter. The winter decrease in the fraction of biogenic particulate matter is seen as a four- to sevenfold drop in its total concentration in the waters compared to summer seasons. The absence of wave roiling of bottom sediments also caused a decrease in the secondary supply of biogenic particulate matter from sediments into near-bottom waters. No negative trends of geoecological conditions in the bay were revealed by the studied parameters under consolidated ice cover conditions.

  14. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  15. Storage stability of keratinocyte growth factor-2 in lyophilized formulations: effects of formulation physical properties and protein fraction at the solid-air interface.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Dilip; Gonschorek, Christoph; Cicerone, Marcus T; Xu, Yemin; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2014-10-01

    Lyophilized formulations of keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) were prepared with a range of disaccharide (sucrose or trehalose) and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) mass ratios. Protein degradation was assessed as a function of time of storage of the dried formulations at 40, 50 and 60°C. Lyophilized and stored samples were rehydrated, and protein degradation was quantified by measuring loss of monomeric protein with size exclusion chromatography and by determining chemical degradation in the soluble fraction with reverse-phase chromatography. The secondary structure of the protein in the lyophilized formulations was studied with infrared spectroscopy. The magnitudes of degradation were compared the key physical properties of the formulations including retention of protein native secondary structure, glass transition temperature (Tg), inverse mean square displacements 〈u(2)〉(-1) for hydrogen atoms (fast β relaxation), and the relaxation time τ(β), which correlates with relaxation due to fast Johari-Goldstein motions in the glass (Xu et al., 2013) [1]. In addition, specific surface areas of the lyophilized formulations were determined by Brunauer-Emmet-Teller analysis of krypton adsorption isotherms and used to estimate the fraction of the KGF-2 molecules residing at the solid-air interface. KGF-2 degradation rates were highest in formulations wherein the protein's structure was most perturbed, and wherein β relaxations were fastest, but the dominant factor governing KGF-2 degradation in freeze-dried formulations was the fraction of the protein found at the glass solid-air interface. PMID:24859390

  16. Storage Stability of Keratinocyte Growth Factor-2 in Lyophilized Formulations: Effects of Formulation Physical Properties and Protein Fraction at the Solid-Air Interface

    PubMed Central

    Devineni, Dilip; Gonschorek, Christoph; Cicerone, Marcus T; Xu, Yemin; Carpenter, John F.; Randolph, Theodore W.

    2014-01-01

    Lyophilized formulations of keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) were prepared with a range of disaccharide (sucrose or trehalose) and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) mass ratios. Protein degradation was assessed as a function of time of storage of the dried formulations at 40, 50 and 60 °C. Lyophilized and stored samples were rehydrated, and protein degradation was quantified by measuring loss of monomeric protein with size exclusion chromatography and by determining chemical degradation in the soluble fraction with reverse-phase chromatography. The secondary structure of the protein in the lyophilized formulations was studied with infrared spectroscopy. The magnitudes of degradation were compared the key physical properties of the formulations including retention of protein native secondary structure, glass transition temperature (Tg), inverse mean square displacements −1 for hydrogen atoms (fast β relaxation), and the relaxation time τβ, which correlates with relaxation due to fast Johari-Goldstein motions in the glass[1]. In addition, specific surface areas of the lyophilized formulations were determined by Brunauer-Emmet-Teller analysis of krypton adsorption isotherms and used to estimate the fraction of the KGF-2 molecules residing at the solid-air interface. KGF-2 degradation rates were highest in formulations wherein the protein’s structure was most perturbed, and wherein β relaxations were fastest, but the dominant factor governing KGF-2 degradation in freeze-dried formulations was the fraction of the protein found at the glass solid-air interface. PMID:24859390

  17. Gallotannin-rich Caesalpinia spinosa fraction decreases the primary tumor and factors associated with poor prognosis in a murine breast cancer model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several treatment alternatives are available for primary breast cancer, although those for metastatic disease or inflammation associated with tumor progression are ineffective. Therefore, there is a great need for new therapeutic alternatives capable of generating an immune response against residual tumor cells, thus contributing to eradication of micrometastases and cancer stem cells. The use of complex natural products is an excellent therapeutic alternative widely used by Chinese, Hindu, Egyptian, and ancestral Latin-American Indian populations. Methods The present study evaluated cytotoxic, antitumor, and tumor progression activities of a gallotannin-rich fraction derived from Caesalpinia spinosa (P2Et). The parameters evaluated in vitro were mitochondrial membrane depolarization, phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase 3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and clonogenic activity. The parameters evaluated in vivo were tumor growth, leukocyte number, metastatic cell number, and cytokine production by flow cytometry. Results The in vitro results showed that the P2Et fraction induced apoptosis with mitochondrial membrane potential loss, phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase 3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and decreased clonogenic capacity of 4T1 cells. In vivo, the P2Et fraction induced primary tumor reduction in terms of diameter and weight in BALB/c mice transplanted with 4T1 cells and decreased numbers of metastatic cells, mainly in the spleen. Furthermore, decreases in the number of peripheral blood leukocytes (leukemoid reaction) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) serum levels were found, which are events associated with a poor prognosis. The P2Et fraction exerts its activity on the primary tumor, reduces cell migration to distant organs, and decreases IL-6 serum levels, implying tumor microenvironment mechanisms. Conclusions Overall, the P2Et fraction lessens risk factors associated with tumor progression and diminishes primary tumor size, showing

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer With 2 Fractions in 1 Application Under Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia: Incidence and Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Czajka-Pepl, Agnieszka; Scharbert, Gisela; Wetzel, Léonore; Sturdza, Alina; Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the psychological consequences of high-dose-rate brachytherapy with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: In 50 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, validated questionnaires were used for prospective assessment of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD/PTSD) (Impact of Event Scale–Revision), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30/Cervical Cancer 24), physical functioning (World Health Organization performance status), and pain (visual analogue scale), before and during treatment and 1 week and 3 months after treatment. Qualitative interviews were recorded in open format for content analysis. Results: Symptoms of ASD occurred in 30% of patients 1 week after treatment; and of PTSD in 41% 3 months after treatment in association with this specific brachytherapy procedure. Pretreatment predictive variables explain 82% of the variance of PTSD symptoms. Helpful experiences were the support of the treatment team, psychological support, and a positive attitude. Stressful factors were pain, organizational problems during treatment, and immobility between brachytherapy fractions. Conclusions: The specific brachytherapy procedure, as performed in the investigated mono-institutional setting with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia, bears a considerable risk of traumatization. The source of stress seems to be not the brachytherapy application itself but the maintenance of the applicator under epidural anesthesia in the time between fractions. Patients at risk may be identified before treatment, to offer targeted psycho-social support. The patients' open reports regarding helpful experiences are an encouraging feedback for the treatment team; the reported stressful factors

  19. An Appetite for Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Trena L.; Bryan, Tommy; Curry, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how using candy bars as models gives sixth-grade students a taste for learning to represent fractions whose denominators are factors of twelve. Using paper models of the candy bars, students explored and compared fractions. They noticed fewer different representations for one-third than for one-half. The authors conclude…

  20. Λb→Λ ℓ+ℓ- form factors, differential branching fraction, and angular observables from lattice QCD with relativistic b quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Using (2 +1 )-flavor lattice QCD, we compute the 10 form factors describing the Λb→Λ matrix elements of the b →s vector, axial vector, and tensor currents. The calculation is based on gauge field ensembles generated by the RBC and UKQCD Collaborations with a domain-wall action for the u , d , and s quarks and the Iwasaki gauge action. The b quark is implemented using an anisotropic clover action, tuned nonperturbatively to the physical point, and the currents are renormalized with a mostly nonperturbative method. We perform simultaneous chiral, continuum, and kinematic extrapolations of the form factors through modified z expansions. Using our form factor results, we obtain precise predictions for the Λb→Λ (→p+π-)μ+μ- differential branching fraction and angular observables in the Standard Model.

  1. The Magnitude of Mortality from Ischemic Heart Disease Attributed to Occupational Factors in Korea - Attributable Fraction Estimation Using Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jaehyeok; Paek, Domyung; Park, Jungsun

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a major cause of death in Korea and known to result from several occupational factors. This study attempted to estimate the current magnitude of IHD mortality due to occupational factors in Korea. Methods After selecting occupational risk factors by literature investigation, we calculated attributable fractions (AFs) from relative risks and exposure data for each factor. Relative risks were estimated using meta-analysis based on published research. Exposure data were collected from the 2006 Survey of Korean Working Conditions. Finally, we estimated 2006 occupation-related IHD mortality. Results For the factors considered, we estimated the following relative risks: noise 1.06, environmental tobacco smoke 1.19 (men) and 1.22 (women), shift work 1.12, and low job control 1.15 (men) and 1.08 (women). Combined AFs of those factors in the IHD were estimated at 9.29% (0.3-18.51%) in men and 5.78% (-7.05-19.15%) in women. Based on these fractions, Korea's 2006 death toll from occupational IHD between the age of 15 and 69 was calculated at 353 in men (total 3,804) and 72 in women (total 1,246). Conclusion We estimated occupational IHD mortality of Korea with updated data and more relevant evidence. Despite the efforts to obtain reliable estimates, there were many assumptions and limitations that must be overcome. Future research based on more precise design and reliable evidence is required for more accurate estimates. PMID:22953190

  2. Bay of Fundy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active

  3. Tampa Bay: Chapter N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Larry; Spear, Kathryn; Cross, Lindsay; Baumstark, René; Moyer, Ryan; Thatcher, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Tampa Bay is Florida’s largest open-water estuary and encompasses an area of approximately 1036 km2 (400 mi2) (Burgan and Engle, 2006; TBNEP, 2006). The Bay’s watershed drains 5,698 km2 (2,200 mi2) of land and includes freshwater from the Hillsborough River to the north east, the Alafia and Little Manatee rivers to the east, and the Manatee River to the south (Figure 1). Freshwater inflow also enters the bay from the Lake Tarpon Canal, from small tidal tributaries, and from watershed runoff. Outflow travels from the upper bay segments (Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay) into Middle and Lower Tampa Bay. Southwestern portions of the water shed flow through Boca Ciega Bay into the Intracoastal Waterway and through the Southwest Channel and Passage Key Inlet into the Gulf of Mexico. The average depth in most of Tampa Bay is only 3.4 m (11 ft); however, 129 km (80 mi) of shipping channels with a maximum depth of 13.1 m (43 ft) have been dredged over time and are regularly maintained. These channels help to support the three ports within the bay, as well as commercial and recreational boat traffic.

  4. Measurement of the B0 to pi l nu Form Factor Shape and Branching Fraction, and Determination of |Vub| with a Loose Neutrino Reconstruction Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, D

    2006-09-26

    The authors report the results of a study of the exclusive charmless semileptonic B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{ell}{sup +}{nu} decay undertaken with approximately 227 million B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector. The analysis uses events in which the signal B mesons are reconstructed with a novel loose neutrino reconstruction technique. We obtain partial branching fractions in 12 bins of q{sup 2}, the {ell}{sup +}{nu} invariant mass squared, from which we extract the f{sup +}(q{sup 2}) form factor shape and the total branching fraction: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{ell}{sup +}{nu}) = 1.44 {+-} 0.08{sub stat} {+-} 0.10{sub syst} x 10{sup -4}. Based on a recent theoretical calculation of the form factor, we find the magnitude of the CKM matrix element |V{sub ub}| to be (4.1 {+-} 0.2{sub stat} {+-} 0.2{sub syst{sub -0.4}{sup +0.6}}FF) x 10{sup -3}, where the last uncertainty is due to the normalization of the form factor.

  5. Measurement of the B0-->pi(-l)(+nu) form-factor shape and branching fraction, and determination of /Vub/ with a loose neutrino reconstruction technique.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escailier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2007-03-01

    We report the results of a study of the exclusive charmless semileptonic decay, B0-->pi(-l)(+nu), undertaken with approximately 227 x 10(6) BB pairs collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector. The analysis uses events in which the signal B decays are reconstructed with an innovative loose neutrino reconstruction technique. We obtain partial branching fractions in 12 bins of q2, the momentum transfer squared, from which we extract the f + (q2) form-factor shape and the total branching fraction B(B0-->pi(-l)(+nu))=(1.46+/-0.07stat+/-0.08syst) x 10(-4). Based on a recent unquenched lattice QCD calculation of the form factor in the range q2>16 GeV2, we find the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element /Vub/ to be (4.1+/-0.2stat +/- 0.2syst(+0.6)-0.4_{FF}) x 10(-3), where the last uncertainty is due to the normalization of the form factor. PMID:17359148

  6. Adding insult to injury: childhood and adolescent risk factors for psychosis predict lower fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    DeRosse, Pamela; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Peters, Bart D.; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Szeszko, Philip R.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies provide strong support for demographic and environmental risk factors in psychotic disorders, few data examine how these risk factors relate to the putative aberrant neurodevelopment associated with illness. The present study examined how the accumulation of risk factors including low IQ, low parental socioeconomic status, history of adolescent cannabis use and childhood trauma, and high levels of subclinical psychotic-like experiences contributed to aberrant neurodevelopmental outcomes in 112 otherwise healthy adults recruited from the community. Participants were studied with diffusion tensor imaging, and voxel-wise statistical analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) using tract-based spatial statistics was used to examine the relation between cumulative risk (CR) for psychosis and white matter (WM) integrity across the whole brain. Analyses revealed that higher CR was significantly associated with lower FA in a cluster in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that risk factors previously associated with psychotic disorders are associated with WM integrity even in otherwise healthy adults and may provide insight into how previously identified risk factors contribute to the structural brain abnormalities associated with psychotic illness. Prospective longitudinal studies examining the effect of risk factors on the developmental trajectory of brain WM are warranted. PMID:25277095

  7. Adding insult to injury: childhood and adolescent risk factors for psychosis predict lower fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    DeRosse, Pamela; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Peters, Bart D; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Szeszko, Philip R; Malhotra, Anil K

    2014-12-30

    Although epidemiological studies provide strong support for demographic and environmental risk factors in psychotic disorders, few data examine how these risk factors relate to the putative aberrant neurodevelopment associated with illness. The present study examined how the accumulation of risk factors including low IQ, low parental socioeconomic status (SES), history of adolescent cannabis use and childhood trauma, and high levels of subclinical psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) contributed to aberrant neurodevelopmental outcomes in 112 otherwise healthy adults recruited from the community. Participants were studied with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and voxel-wise statistical analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to examine the relation between cumulative risk (CR) for psychosis and white matter (WM) integrity across the whole brain. Analyses revealed that higher CR was significantly associated with lower FA in a cluster in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). These results suggest that risk factors previously associated with psychotic disorders are associated with WM integrity even in otherwise healthy adults and may provide insight into how previously identified risk factors contribute to the structural brain abnormalities associated with psychotic illness. Prospective longitudinal studies examining the effect of risk factors on the developmental trajectory of brain WM are warranted. PMID:25277095

  8. Estimating the avoidable burden of certain modifiable risk factors in osteoporotic hip fracture using Generalized Impact Fraction (GIF) model in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds The number of hip fractures, the most common complication of osteoporosis, has increased rapidly over the past decades. The goal of this study is to estimate the avoidable burden of certain modifiable risk factor of the condition using the Generalized Impact Fraction (GIF) model, which has been suggested and used by epidemiologists to overcome the drawbacks associated with the use of Attributable Fraction index. In addition to preventing a risk factor or the avoidable fraction of burden, this index can also calculate the change in the burden, when a risk factor is altered. Methods International databases were searched through PubMed, CINAHLD, Embase using OVID and Google scholar. National resources were searched through IranDoc, IranMedex, SID and Journal sites. Other resources include abstract books and articles sent to the IOF congress. The following search strategy was used: (“Osteoporotic fracture” OR “Fragility Hip fracture” OR “Calcium” OR “vitamin D” OR “BMI” OR “lean body weight” OR “Physical activity” OR “exercise” OR “Smoke”) AND (“prevalence” OR “incidence” OR “relative risk”) and limited to “humans.” Results With regards to different scenarios already explained in modifying the studied risk factors, the greatest impact in reducing the prevalence of risk factors on osteoporotic hip fractures, was seen in low serum vitamin D levels, low physical activity and low intake of calcium and vitamin D, respectively. According to the fact that interventions for low serum vitamin D and low intake of calcium and vitamin D, are related to each other, it can be concluded that implementing interventions to change these two risk factors, in the easy, moderate and difficult scenarios, would result in approximately a 5%, 11% and 17% decrease in the burden of osteoporotic hip fractures, respectively. The addition of interventions addressing low physical activity in the easy, moderate and difficult scenarios

  9. K, Rb, Sr, Ba, U and Th geochemistry of the Lapland Granulites (Fennoscandia). LILE fractionation controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbey, P.; Cuney, M.

    1982-12-01

    The LILE geochemical patterns of the three main lithological units (graywacke-shale metasedimentary sequence, tholeiitic metaigneous rocks and migmatitic rocks) of the Lapland Granulite belt are described. K, Ba, Sr and Th concentrations in metasediments are nearly similar to average continental crust, whereas Rb and U are unevenly impoverished. In particular graphitic metashales and calcsilicate rocks are not significantly depleted in uranium. Tholeiitic metaigneous rocks comprises metavolcanics which present K/Rb ratios similar to metasediments, and metaplutonics with LILE abundances close to those of the low-K-tholeiites. Migmatites show wide range in LILE content. Metatexites and diatexites have higher K, Rb, Th and U concentrations and similar K/Rb ratios with respect to equivalent unmobilized rocks. Potassic pegmatoïds are strongly enriched K, Rb, Ba and Th but moderately in Sr and U. Plagioclasic pegmatoids and ferromagnesian restites are rich in Sr and poor in other LIL elements. A comparative review of the LILE geochemistry between Lapland granulites and equivalent lithological units taken from non metamorphosed to high grade terrains suggest that fractionation processes are not systematic but controlled by original lithology and mineralogy, mineral — fluid equilibria during progressive (or retrogressive) metamorphism and mineral-melt-fluid equilibria during anatexis. Moreover, statistical analysis on K-Rb distribution patterns in these various rock types shows that there is no metamorphic trend characteristic of granulite facies terrains as previously suggested.

  10. A correction factor to f-chart predictions of active solar fraction in active-passive heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, B. L.; Beckman, W. A.; Duffie, J. A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Klein, S. A.

    1983-11-01

    The extent to which a passive system degrades the performance of an active solar space heating system was investigated, and a correction factor to account for these interactions was developed. The transient system simulation program TRNSYS is used to simulate the hour-by-hour performance of combined active-passive (hybrid) space heating systems in order to compare the active system performance with simplified design method predictions. The TRNSYS simulations were compared to results obtained using the simplified design calculations of the f-Chart method. Comparisons of TRNSYS and f-Chart were used to establish the accuracy of the f-Charts for active systems. A correlation was then developed to correct the monthly loads input into the f-Chart method to account for controller deadbands in both hybrid and active only buildings. A general correction factor was generated to be applied to the f-Chart method to produce more accurate and useful results for hybrid systems.

  11. CASCO BAY PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  12. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  13. The influence of wind-driven currents on the circulation and bay dynamics of a semi-enclosed reefal bay, Wreck Bay, Jamaica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxam, Ava M.; Webber, Dale F.

    2010-05-01

    Investigations into the descriptive hydrodynamics of a semi-enclosed reefal bay showed that inner bay waters re-circled the reef and particular forcing conditions of wind and tide retarded or enhanced this circulation. Fringing reef parabola, partially enclosing bays, are generally accepted as the limit of the bay dynamics. The dynamics displayed at Wreck Bay, on the southeast coast of Jamaica, however, showed the reef as the heart of main circulation and therefore the centre of the functioning bay. Results from field measurements of the spatial and temporal variability in circulation revealed that inner bay water surging from the back-reef exited quickly through a gap in the reef (channel flow, up to 60 cm s -1), diverged on the fore-reef, then either re-entered the back-reef to become closed circum-reef circulation (CRC), or continued along the fore-reef as open CRC. Variation in the wind regime controlled the relative importance of wind or tides to driving circulation and bay emanation. Wind speeds above 5 m s -1 were found to be the dominant forcing factor and, combined with tides, accounted for 60% of the variability in CRC when the sea-breeze developed during early summer and again when the land-breeze strengthened during the winter deployment. Open CRC was extended seawards when channel flow currents displayed occasional surges associated with strong wind-driven currents combined with similar incident wave approach. This led to change in bay dynamics by extreme expansion in bay characteristics. The opposite scenario occurred on rare occasions of low tide with wind calms, when channel flow reversed into the inner bay and flow over the emergent reef was reduced, leading to the most extreme contraction of bay characteristics.

  14. Isotope fractionations factors of N2O production and reduction by denitrification: a. Laboratory incubation studies using N2O reductase inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Well, Reinhard; Weymann, Daniel; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Rohe, Lena; Flessa, Heinz

    2013-04-01

    Isotopologue signatures of N2O such as δ18O, average δ15N (δ15Nbulk) and 15N site preference (SP = difference in δ15N between the central and peripheral N positions of the asymmetric N2O molecule) can be used to constrain the atmospheric N2O budget and to characterize N2O turnover processes. However, the use of this approach to study N2O dynamics in soils requires knowledge of isotopologue fractionation factors (?) for the various partial processes involved, e.g. N2O production by nitrification or denitrification, and N2O reduction by denitrification. Here we present results from laboratory incubations of soils and aquifer material to determine ?gf N2O production (?prod) and N2O reduction to N2 (?red) during denitrification. ?prod for δ18O, δ15Nbulk and SP was obtained by anaerobic incubation of NO3- amended soils when N2O reduction was inhibited by 10 kPa acetylene. ?red of the respective signatures was derived by comparing treatments with and without inhibition of N2O reduction. We investigated samples from 4 mineral soils, one organic soil and from a sandy aquifer. The mineral soils were incubated under unsaturated conditions in closed or open systems, the organic and aquifer samples as homogenized slurries in a closed system. Results of fractionation factors, process rates and incubation conditions will be presented and discussed in view of previous studies and theoretical considerations.

  15. The nuclear fraction of protein kinase CK2 binds to the upstream stimulatory factors (USFs) in the absence of DNA.

    PubMed

    Spohrer, Sarah; Dimova, Elitsa Y; Kietzmann, Thomas; Montenarh, Mathias; Götz, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    The functions of the upstream stimulatory factors USF1 and USF2 are, like those of other transcription factors, regulated by reversible phosphorylation. Besides many other kinases also protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates USF1 but not USF2. In a yeast-two-hybrid screen, however, the non-catalytic CK2β subunit of CK2 was identified as a binding partner of USF2. This surprising observation prompted us to investigate the CK2/USF interaction in more detail in the present study. By using immunofluorescence analyses as well as co-immunoprecipitations we found that USF1 and USF2 bound to CK2α and CK2β exclusively in the nucleus, though CK2β and to a minor amount CK2α were also present in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we found that unlike other substrates the phosphorylation of USF1 required the presence of the regulatory CK2β subunit; the catalytic α-subunit of CK2 alone was not able to phosphorylate USF1. Thus, the correct phosphorylation of USF1 is only guaranteed and strictly controlled in particular by nuclear CK2β. Although the data indicated that a nuclear subfraction of CK2 subunits associated with USF proteins, DNA pull down experiments revealed that the CK2 subunits did not co-localize with DNA bound USF proteins indicating that the USF/CK2 interaction has a pre- or post DNA binding function. PMID:26577526

  16. Developing Oxidized Nitrogen Atmospheric Deposition Source Attribution from CMAQ for Air-Water Trading for Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, R. L.; Napelenok, S. L.; Linker, L. C.; Dudek, M.

    2012-12-01

    the fractional contributions of Bay state NOx emissions to the oxidized nitrogen deposition to the Chesapeake Bay watershed and the Bay. We then present example tables of the fractional contributions of Bay state NOx emissions from mobile, off road, power plant and industrial emissions to key tributaries: the Potomac, Susquehanna and James Rivers. Finally, we go through an example for a mobile source NOx reductions in Pennsylvania to show how the tributary load offset would be calculated using the factors generated by CMAQ DDM-3D.

  17. Fractional oscillator.

    PubMed

    Stanislavsky, A A

    2004-11-01

    We consider a fractional oscillator which is a generalization of the conventional linear oscillator in the framework of fractional calculus. It is interpreted as an ensemble average of ordinary harmonic oscillators governed by a stochastic time arrow. The intrinsic absorption of the fractional oscillator results from the full contribution of the harmonic oscillator ensemble: these oscillators differ a little from each other in frequency so that each response is compensated by an antiphase response of another harmonic oscillator. This allows one to draw a parallel in the dispersion analysis for media described by a fractional oscillator and an ensemble of ordinary harmonic oscillators with damping. The features of this analysis are discussed. PMID:15600586

  18. Benthic fluxes in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammond, Douglas E.; Fuller, C.; Harmon, D.; Hartman, Blayne; Korosec, M.; Miller, L.G.; Rea, R.; Warren, S.; Berelson, W.; Hager, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of benthic fluxes have been made on four occasions between February 1980 and February 1981 at a channel station and a shoal station in South San Francisco Bay, using in situ flux chambers. On each occasion replicate measurements of easily measured substances such as radon, oxygen, ammonia, and silica showed a variability (??1??) of 30% or more over distances of a few meters to tens of meters, presumably due to spatial heterogeneity in the benthic community. Fluxes of radon were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because of greater macrofaunal irrigation at the former, but showed little seasonal variability at either station. At both stations fluxes of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and silica were largest following the spring bloom. Fluxes measured during different seasons ranged over factors of 2-3, 3, 4-5, and 3-10 (respectively), due to variations in phytoplankton productivity and temperature. Fluxes of oxygen and carbon dioxide were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because the net phytoplankton productivity is greater there and the organic matter produced must be rapidly incorporated in the sediment column. Fluxes of silica were greater at the shoal station, probably because of the greater irrigation rates there. N + N (nitrate + nitrite) fluxes were variable in magnitude and in sign. Phosphate fluxes were too small to measure accurately. Alkalinity fluxes were similar at the two stations and are attributed primarily to carbonate dissolution at the shoal station and to sulfate reduction at the channel station. The estimated average fluxes into South Bay, based on results from these two stations over the course of a year, are (in mmol m-2 d-1): O2 = -27 ?? 6; TCO2 = 23 ?? 6; Alkalinity = 9 ?? 2; N + N = -0.3 ?? 0.5; NH3 = 1.4 ?? 0.2; PO4 = 0.1 ?? 0.4; Si = 5.6 ?? 1.1. These fluxes are comparable in magnitude to those in other temperate estuaries with similar productivity, although the seasonal

  19. Fractionation of Nitrous Oxide Isotopomers in the Stratosphere: Enrichment Factors and the Effects of Transport and Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, D. W.; Toon, G. C.; Sen, B.; Blavier, J.

    2002-05-01

    We have measured vertical profiles of the mixing ratios of the four most abundant isotopomers of nitrous oxide, 14N14N16O, 14N15N16O, 15N14N16O, and 14N14N18O, by remote sensing during 11 balloon flights of the JPL MkIV Fourier transform interferometer. The measurements span from the tropopause to around 30 km at northern mid-high latitudes between 1992 and 2000, and include two polar vortex flights in the 1999-2000 winter. We present a flight-by-flight analysis of the vertical profiles and enrichment factors and compare them with other recently published profiles and laboratory measurements. The observed profiles adhere well to a Rayleigh distillation model above 20-24 km, consistent with an irreversible sink process for N2O, but we observe some deviation from strictly Rayleigh behaviour in the profiles in the lower stratosphere. By correlation with profiles of CH4 measured from the same spectra, we find these deviations to be consistent with the effects of atmospheric transport and mixing processes.

  20. Climate and anthropogenic factors influencing an estuarine ecosystem from NW Iberia: new high resolution multiproxy analyses from San Simón Bay (Ría de Vigo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Sobrino, Castor; García-Moreiras, Iria; Castro, Yoel; Martínez Carreño, Natalia; de Blas, Esther; Fernandez Rodríguez, Carlos; Judd, Alan; García-Gil, Soledad

    2014-06-01

    Two sedimentary sequences (coastal and subtidal) were studied in San Simón Bay (Ría de Vigo), situated on the Atlantic coast of NW Iberia. The coastal record is a shallowing upward sequence which evidences a locally-developed low marsh, situated below the current beach, and dated at the second half of the 4th century. During the following decades this low marsh was progressively replaced by an alder swamp which formed on it. This suggests an apparent stabilisation or slow-down of the relative sea-level (RSL), in this site, at the beginning of the Dark Ages (DA). The subtidal sequence studied reflects the main changes in the landscape, the hydrological conditions, climate and RSL affecting this part of NW Iberia during the last 1250 years. Evidence of changing dinocysts content in the sediment reveals that two centennial or decadal-scale episodes existed of shelf marine waters more intensely penetrating inside the bay: between the 15th-18th centuries and at ca 1800-1930 AD. Besides, we related different proxies with the occurrence of four main climatic stages, namely the previously described Dark Ages (DA, ca 350-750 AD), the Mediaeval Climatic Anomaly (MCA, ca 750-1100 AD) and the Little Ice Age (LIA. ca 1500-1930 AD); in addition we propose a regional MCA/LIA transition (ca 1100-1500 AD) that it has not been previously described. Our environmental characterization indicates a persistent North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) negative mode domain in Ría de Vigo during the MCA, but this became weaker during the LIA and, probably, also during the earlier DA. NAO mode become more irregular during the MCA/LIA transition, generally persisting in dominant negative mode except for a phase of minor upwelling intensification, at ca 1150-1350 AD, which mainly affected the external parts of the ria. We postulate that an almost simultaneous phase (ca 1100-1350 AD) of stronger continental contribution in the sediments may be related to increasing storm intensities, probably linked

  1. Florida Bay: A history of recent ecological changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fourqurean, J.W.; Robblee, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Florida Bay is a unique subtropical estuary at the southern tip of the Florida peninsula. Recent ecological changes (seagrass die-off, algal blooms, increased turbidity) to the Florida Bay ecosystem have focused the attention of the public, commercial interests, scientists, and resource managers on the factors influencing the structure and function of Florida Bay. Restoring Florida Bay to some historic condition is the goal of resource managers, but what is not clear is what an anthropogenically-unaltered Florida Bay would look like. While there is general consensus that human activities have contributed to the changes occurring in the Florida Bay ecosystem, a high degree of natural system variability has made elucidation of the links between human activity and Florida Bay dynamics difficult. Paleoecological analyses, examination of long-term datasets, and directed measurements of aspects of the ecology of Florida Bay all contribute to our understanding of the behavior of the bay, and allow quantification of the magnitude of the recent ecological changes with respect to historical variability of the system.

  2. Antibodies to bacterial vaccines demonstrating specificity for human choriogonadotropin (hCG) and immunochemical detection of hCG-like factor in subcellular bacterial fractions.

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, G J; Acevedo, H F; Powell, J E; Stevens, V C

    1986-01-01

    Investigations were done to determine whether vaccines prepared with chemically killed Staphylococcus haemolyticus RU1 and Streptococcus bovis AV46 (bacteria that have been demonstrated to express human choriogonadotropin [hCG]-like material on their surface) elicited antibodies in rabbits with specificity for hCG determinants. In addition, the anatomical locus of the hCG-like factor was determined by separation of bacterial subcellular fractions. The results demonstrated that these bacterial vaccines elicited antibodies immunologically similar to those antibodies produced in response to the whole human trophoblastic hormone, a similarity extending even to cross-reactivity with human luteinizing hormone. The bacterial hCG-like material appeared to be localized in the membranes of the cell wall, and most was present in the soluble membranous and cytoplasmic constituents. Its expression in bacteria was a strain characteristic and not a species characteristic. Images PMID:3721581

  3. Lutzow-Holm Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Lutzow-Holm Bay and the Shirase Glacier, Antarctica ... in the lower right-hand corner of these images, are the primary drainage systems for the Antarctic ice sheet. These two views ...

  4. A HABITAT SUITABILITY INDEX FOR THE BAY SCALLOP ARGOPECTEN IRRADIANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Platform Presentation at a Scientific Meeting. A survey of Lagoon Pond, Martha's Vineyard, MA, USA was conducted in September 2005 to determine the combination of habitat factors most highly correlated with bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) abundance. A stratified random samplin...

  5. Incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Chesapeake Bay

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Tatsuo; Colwell, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    A Bay-wide survey of the distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was carried out in Chesapeake Bay during May 1972, to determine whether the annual cycle of V. parahaemolyticus which was observed to occur in the Rhode River subestuary of Chesapeake Bay took place in other parts of Chesapeake Bay. In an earlier study, April to early June, when the water temperature rises from 14 to 19 C, was found to be a critical period in the annual cycle of the organism in the Rhode River, since this is the time period when the annual cycle is initiated. Results of this study, however, revealed that V. parahaemolyticus could not be found in the water column during May 1972. Neverthless, several samples of sediment and plankton yielded V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Comparison of data with those for the Rhode River area examined in the earlier studies of the annual cycle of V. parahaemolyticus suggests that the time of initiation of the annual cycle of V. parahaemolyticus in the open Bay proper may be influenced by various factors such as temperature and salinity, i.e., deeper water locations may show initiation of the V. parahaemolyticus annual cycle later than shallow areas. Confirmation of the presence of the organism in the samples studied was accomplished using numerical taxonomy with 19 reference strains also included in the analyses. PMID:1164012

  6. Tidal characteristics of Maputo Bay, Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canhanga, Sinibaldo; Dias, João Miguel

    2005-12-01

    The tidal characteristics of Maputo Bay (a bay located in South part of Mozambique) were assessed in this work through the implementation of a numerical model (SIMSYS2D) and exploration of its numerical results, and by the analysis of observed time series of free surface elevations in Maputo Harbor. The calibration of the numerical model was carried out based on time series of tidal currents and free surface elevation, which were collected at Maputo Harbor, Baixo Ribeiro and Portuguese Island. By means of the model results, important harmonic constants of the tidal heights and currents, as well as the form factor, were computed. These results have revealed that there is a phase delay and an increase in amplitude of the major constituents as the tide propagates to the inshore zone. Based on these results, the tidal ellipses in whole Maputo Bay were also computed, which showed the pattern of the tidal currents. The hydrodynamics of the Maputo Bay under extreme tidal conditions were also analyzed (during the largest spring tide and smallest neap tide). The phase difference between tidal heights and currents revealed that there are no maximum fluxes of energy in most of Maputo Bay and that the mean tidal current (residual) may be different from zero in this system.

  7. Incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, T; Colwell, R R

    1975-08-01

    A Bay-wide survey of the distribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was carried out in Chesapeake Bay during May 1972, to determine whether the annual cycle of V. parahaemolyticus which was observed to occur in the Rhode River subestuary of Chesapeake Bay took place in other parts of Chesapeake Bay. In an earlier study, April to early June, when the water temperature rises from 14 to 19 C, was found to be a critical period in the annual cycle of the organism in the Rhode River, since this is the time period when the annual cycle is initiated. Results of this study, however, revealed that V. parahaemolyticus could not be found in the water column during May 1972. Nevertheless, several samples of sediment and plankton yielded V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Comparison of data with those for the Rhode River area examined in the earlier studies of the annual cycle of V. parahaemolyticus suggests that the time of initiation of the annual cycle of V. parahaemolyticus in the open Bay proper may be influenced by various factors such as temperature and salinity, i.e., deeper water locations may show initiation of the V. parahaemolyticus annual cycle later than shallow areas. Confirmation of the presence of the organisms in the samples studied was accomplished using numerical taxonomy with 19 reference strains also included in the analyses. PMID:1164012

  8. A mixed carbonate/clastic example in a restricted bay in a temperate carbonate shelf (Cala Fornells, northern Minorca Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Fornos, J.J.; Forteza, V.; Jaume, C.; Martinez-Taberner, A. )

    1990-05-01

    Cala Fornells is a restricted bay located in the northern section of the island Minorca. Cala Fornells has a surface area of 4 km{sup 2} and a maximum depth of 25 m at the mouth, which connects with the northern Minorca platform. Due to ephemeral streams with very fine textural inflow, the sedimentary facies present in the floor of the bay are primarily controlled by the bioclastic carbonate ecosystem production and the terrigenous input. The distribution of the facies is related to three major factors: (1) bathymetry, which controls the ecosystem distribution (Cymodocea nodosa-Caulerpa prolifera, Posidonia oceanica, and maeerl communities, from shallowest to deepest); (2) hydrodynamic conditions due to northern winds (locally called Tramuntana), which control the grain size distribution; and (3) local ephemeral streams, which control the terrigenous input. In the coarser fractions of the sediment (gravel and sand), the main component in the deepest zones are skeletal fragments of red algae. The shallowest zones contain fragments of the green alga Halimeda tuna, which may represent up to 50% of the total bioclastic fraction. The terrigenous components are mostly shales and only locally do they find a sand fragment of limestone and quartz grains. The organic matter content is very high (over 6% in the finest fractions), whereas in the more hydrodynamic and deeper facies (25 m) where the bioclastic fractions are predominant, the organic carbon content is below 0.5%.

  9. Chesapeake Bay Watershed - Protecting the Chesapeake Bay and its rivers through science, restoration, and partnership

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2012-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, the Nation's largest estuary, has been degraded due to the impact of human-population increase, which has doubled since 1950, resulting in degraded water quality, loss of habitat, and declines in populations of biological communities. Since the mid-1980s, the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP), a multi-agency partnership which includes the Department of Interior (DOI), has worked to restore the Bay ecosystem. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has the critical role of providing unbiased scientific information that is utilized to document and understand ecosystem change to help assess the effectiveness of restoration strategies in the Bay and its watershed. The USGS revised its Chesapeake Bay science plan for 2006-2011 to address the collective needs of the CBP, DOI, and USGS with a mission to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Bay ecosystem. The USGS science themes for this mission are: Causes and consequences of land-use change; Impact of climate change and associated hazards; Factors affecting water quality and quantity; Ability of habitat to support fish and bird populations; and Synthesis and forecasting to improve ecosystem assessment, conservation, and restoration.

  10. Low-molecular-weight fractions of Alcalase hydrolyzed egg ovomucin extract exert anti-inflammatory activity in human dermal fibroblasts through the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-mediated nuclear factor κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohong; Chakrabarti, Subhadeep; Fang, Jun; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Jianping

    2016-07-01

    Ovomucin is a mucin-like protein from egg white with a variety of biological functions. We hypothesized that ovomucin-derived peptides might exert anti-inflammatory activity. The specific objectives were to test the anti-inflammatory activities of different ovomucin hydrolysates and its various fractions in human dermal fibroblasts, and to understand the possible molecular mechanisms. Three ovomucin hydrolysates were prepared and desalted; only the desalted Alcalase hydrolysate showed anti-inflammatory activity. Desalting of ovomucin hydrolysate enriched the proportion of low-molecular-weight (MW) peptides. Indeed, ultrafiltration of this hydrolysate displayed comparable anti-inflammatory activity in dermal fibroblasts, indicating the responsible role of low-MW bioactive peptides in exerting the beneficial biological function. The anti-inflammatory activity of low-MW peptides was regulated through the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-mediated nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells activity. Our study demonstrated that both peptide composition and MW distribution play important roles in anti-inflammatory activity. The low-MW fractions prepared from ovomucin Alcalase hydrolysate may have potential applications for maintenance of dermal health and treatment of skin diseases. PMID:27333955

  11. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  12. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  13. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  14. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  15. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  16. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  17. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  18. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  3. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuttle, W.K.; Fourqurean, J.W.; Cosby, B.J.; Zieman, J.C.; Robblee, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long-term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central

  4. Regional geochemistry of trace elements in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinex, S. A.; Helz, G. R.

    1981-11-01

    The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in 177 surface sediment samples from throughout Chesapeake Bay are reported. Analyses were made of both unfractionated samples and the <63 μm fractions. Analytical uncertainty, always less than ±10%, controlled reproducibility in analyses of the <63 μm fractions, but sampling variance controlled reproducibility in the unfractionated samples, especially when coarse-grained sediments were being analyzed. Sediments in the northernmost part of the bay are enriched relative to average continental crust in all elements except Cr. This reflects the composition of dissolved and suspended material being delivered to that region by the Susquehanna River. The enriched sediments appear not to be transported south of Baltimore in significant quantily. Zinc, cadmium, and lead are enriched relative to average crust throughout the bay and in most other estuaries in the eastern United States.

  5. Reducing methylmercury accumulation in the food webs of San Francisco Bay and its local watersheds.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Looker, R E; Yee, D; Marvin-Di Pasquale, M; Grenier, J L; Austin, C M; McKee, L J; Greenfield, B K; Brodberg, R; Blum, J D

    2012-11-01

    San Francisco Bay (California, USA) and its local watersheds present an interesting case study in estuarine mercury (Hg) contamination. This review focuses on the most promising avenues for attempting to reduce methylmercury (MeHg) contamination in Bay Area aquatic food webs and identifying the scientific information that is most urgently needed to support these efforts. Concern for human exposure to MeHg in the region has led to advisories for consumption of sport fish. Striped bass from the Bay have the highest average Hg concentration measured for this species in USA estuaries, and this degree of contamination has been constant for the past 40 years. Similarly, largemouth bass in some Bay Area reservoirs have some of the highest Hg concentrations observed in the entire US. Bay Area wildlife, particularly birds, face potential impacts to reproduction based on Hg concentrations in the tissues of several Bay species. Source control of Hg is one of the primary possible approaches for reducing MeHg accumulation in Bay Area aquatic food webs. Recent findings (particularly Hg isotope measurements) indicate that the decades-long residence time of particle-associated Hg in the Bay is sufficient to allow significant conversion of even the insoluble forms of Hg into MeHg. Past inputs have been thoroughly mixed throughout this shallow and dynamic estuary. The large pool of Hg already present in the ecosystem dominates the fraction converted to MeHg and accumulating in the food web. Consequently, decreasing external Hg inputs can be expected to reduce MeHg in the food web, but it will likely take many decades to centuries before those reductions are achieved. Extensive efforts to reduce loads from the largest Hg mining source (the historic New Almaden mining district) are underway. Hg is spread widely across the urban landscape, but there are a number of key sources, source areas, and pathways that provide opportunities to capture larger quantities of Hg and reduce loads

  6. Reducing Methylmercury Accumulation in the Food Webs of San Francisco Bay and Its Local Watersheds

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J.A.; Looker, R.E.; Yee, D.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Grenier, J.L.; Austin, C.M.; McKee, L.J.; Greenfield, B.K.; Brodberg, R.; Blum, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    San Francisco Bay (California, USA) and its local watersheds present an interesting case study in estuarine mercury (Hg) contamination. This review focuses on the most promising avenues for attempting to reduce methylmercury (MeHg) contamination in Bay Area aquatic food webs and identifying the scientific information that is most urgently needed to support these efforts. Concern for human exposure to MeHg in the region has led to advisories for consumption of sport fish. Striped bass from the Bay have the highest average Hg concentration measured for this species in USA estuaries, and this degree of contamination has been constant for the past 40 years. Similarly, largemouth bass in some Bay Area reservoirs have some of the highest Hg concentrations observed in the entire US. Bay Area wildlife, particularly birds, face potential impacts to reproduction based on Hg concentrations in the tissues of several Bay species. Source control of Hg is one of the primary possible approaches for reducing MeHg accumulation in Bay Area aquatic food webs. Recent findings (particularly Hg isotope measurements) indicate that the decades-long residence time of particle-associated Hg in the Bay is sufficient to allow significant conversion of even the insoluble forms of Hg into MeHg. Past inputs have been thoroughly mixed throughout this shallow and dynamic estuary. The large pool of Hg already present in the ecosystem dominates the fraction converted to MeHg and accumulating in the food web. Consequently, decreasing external Hg inputs can be expected to reduce MeHg in the food web, but it will likely take many decades to centuries before those reductions are achieved. Extensive efforts to reduce loads from the largest Hg mining source (the historic New Almaden mining district) are underway. Hg is spread widely across the urban landscape, but there are a number of key sources, source areas, and pathways that provide opportunities to capture larger quantities of Hg and reduce loads

  7. Reducing methylmercury accumulation in the food webs of San Francisco Bay and its local watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.A.; Looker, R.E.; Yee, D.; Marvin-Di Pasquale, M.; Austin, C.M.; McKee, L.J.; Greenfield, B.K.; Brodberg, R.; Blum, J.D.

    2012-11-15

    San Francisco Bay (California, USA) and its local watersheds present an interesting case study in estuarine mercury (Hg) contamination. This review focuses on the most promising avenues for attempting to reduce methylmercury (MeHg) contamination in Bay Area aquatic food webs and identifying the scientific information that is most urgently needed to support these efforts. Concern for human exposure to MeHg in the region has led to advisories for consumption of sport fish. Striped bass from the Bay have the highest average Hg concentration measured for this species in USA estuaries, and this degree of contamination has been constant for the past 40 years. Similarly, largemouth bass in some Bay Area reservoirs have some of the highest Hg concentrations observed in the entire US. Bay Area wildlife, particularly birds, face potential impacts to reproduction based on Hg concentrations in the tissues of several Bay species. Source control of Hg is one of the primary possible approaches for reducing MeHg accumulation in Bay Area aquatic food webs. Recent findings (particularly Hg isotope measurements) indicate that the decades-long residence time of particle-associated Hg in the Bay is sufficient to allow significant conversion of even the insoluble forms of Hg into MeHg. Past inputs have been thoroughly mixed throughout this shallow and dynamic estuary. The large pool of Hg already present in the ecosystem dominates the fraction converted to MeHg and accumulating in the food web. Consequently, decreasing external Hg inputs can be expected to reduce MeHg in the food web, but it will likely take many decades to centuries before those reductions are achieved. Extensive efforts to reduce loads from the largest Hg mining source (the historic New Almaden mining district) are underway. Hg is spread widely across the urban landscape, but there are a number of key sources, source areas, and pathways that provide opportunities to capture larger quantities of Hg and reduce loads

  8. Use of affinity-directed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to map the epitopes of a factor VIII inhibitor antibody fraction

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Amy E.; Wang, Wensheng; Hagen, Fred K.; Fay, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Neutralizing factor (F) VIII antibodies develop in ~30% of individuals with hemophilia A and show specificity to multiple sites in the FVIII protein. Methods Reactive epitopes to an immobilized IgG fraction prepared from a high-titer, FVIII inhibitor plasma were determined following immuno-precipitation (IP) of tryptic and chymotryptic peptides derived from digests of the A1 and A2 subunits of FVIIIa and FVIII light chain. Peptides were detected and identified using highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Results Coverage maps of the A1 subunit, A2 subunit and light chain represented 79%, 69% and 90%, respectively, of the protein sequences. Dot blots indicated that the inhibitor IgG reacted with epitopes contained within each subunit of FVIIIa. IP coupled with LC-MS identified 19 peptides representing epitopes from all FVIII A and C domains. The majority of peptides (10) were derived from the A2 domain. Three peptides mapped to the C2 domain, while two mapped to the A1 and A3 domains, and single peptides mapped to the a1 segment and C1 domain. Epitopes were typically defined by peptide sequences of <12 residues. Conclusions IP coupled with LC-MS identified extensive antibody reactivity at high resolution over the entire functional FVIII molecule and yielded sequence lengths of less than 15 residues. A number of the peptides identified mapped to known sequences involved in functionally important protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions. PMID:21668738

  9. Organic matter remineralization predominates phosphorus cycling in the mid-Bay sediments in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sunendra R; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; Burdige, David J; Bowden, Mark E; Sparks, Donald L; Jaisi, Deb P

    2015-05-19

    Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the U.S., suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and nonpoint nutrient sources. Restoration of the Bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs, and complex interaction between imported and regenerated nutrients. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics provides information useful in identifying the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment-water interface as well as helps to better constrain the mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O(P)) in concert with sediment chemistry, X-ray diffraction, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on sediments retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the mesohaline portion of the mid-Bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedbacks on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Authigenic phosphate isotope data suggest that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-Bay sediments. This indicates that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any pore water and/or bottom water because only a fraction of this precipitates as authigenic P. This is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway and recycling of P within the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results have significant implications on the current understanding of sediment P cycling and P exchange across the sediment-water interface in the Bay, particularly in terms of the sources and pathways of P that sustain hypoxia

  10. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  11. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  12. The δ13C evolution of cave drip water along discreet flow paths in a central Texas cave: Quantifying kinetic isotope fractionation factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickler, P. J.; Carlson, P. E.; Banner, J.; Breecker, D.; Stern, L. A.; Baseman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Gaps remain in our understanding of in-cave processes that influence cave water chemistry during speleothem formation. Quantifying environmental controls on the isotopic and chemical evolution of karst groundwater would improve the accuracy of speleothem-based paleoclimate reconstructions. In this study, drip water chemical evolution along flow paths was sampled monthly at two locations in Inner Space Cavern, Texas, over a period of 8 months. In each of the two locations, cave water drips off a stalactite, flows along a flowstone and subsequently drips off a lower stalactite, allowing cave water to be sampled at two points, 1-2 meters apart, along each flow path. The chemical and isotopic evolution of drip water along its flow path shows seasonality, where 1) summer months (high cave-air pCO2) have small variations in δ13C values along the flow paths, high and relatively invariant DIC and Ca values,; and 2) winter months (low cave-air pCO2) generally have large increases in DIC δ13C values along the flow paths, lower DIC and Ca values. The magnitude of the increase in DIC δ13C values along the flow paths, <~1‰ to ~4‰, is controlled by the extent of DIC loss to CO2 degassing and calcite precipitation which is controlled by the pCO2 gradient between drip water and cave air. If the DIC loss is less than 15%, then the evolution of the δ13C value of the DIC reservoir can be modelled using a Rayleigh distillation model and equilibrium fractionation factors between (CO2(g)-HCO3-(aq)) and (CaCO3-HCO3-(aq)). As the loss of the DIC reservoir increases above 15% the DIC δ13C values become progressively higher such that the ɛ (CO2(g)-HCO3-(aq)) values needed to model the observed results change from equilibrium values of ~8‰ to non-equilibrium values up to ~25‰. The variance in magnitude of carbon isotope fractionation during CO2 degassing cannot be attributed to changes in temperature, and thus we infer significant kinetic isotope effects at higher rates of DIC

  13. Usefulness of the Hepatocyte Growth Factor as a Predictor of Mortality in Patients Hospitalized With Acute Heart Failure Regardless of Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Calvo, Juan-Ignacio; Morales-Rull, José-Luis; Gimeno-Orna, José-Antonio; Lasierra-Díaz, Pilar; Josa-Laorden, Claudia; Puente-Lanzarote, Juan-José; Bettencourt, Paulo; Pascual-Figal, Domingo A

    2016-08-15

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plays a role in the improvement of cardiac function and remodeling. Their serum levels are strongly related with mortality in chronic systolic heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to study prognostic value of HGF in acute HF, interaction with ejection fraction, renal function, and natriuretic peptides. We included 373 patients (age 76 ± 10 years, left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] 46 ± 14%, 48% men) consecutively admitted for acute HF. Blood samples were obtained at admission. All patients were followed up until death or close of study (>1 year, median 371 days). HGF concentrations were determined using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (human HGF immunoassay). The predictive power of HGF was estimated by Cox regression with calculation of Harrell C-statistic. HGF had a median of 1,942 pg/ml (interquartile rank 1,354). According to HGF quartiles, mortality rates (per 1,000 patients/year) were 98, 183, 375, and 393, respectively (p <0.001). In Cox regression analysis, HGF (hazard ratio1SD = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.1, p = 0.002) and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP; hazard ratio1SD = 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.6, p = 0.002) were independent predictors of mortality. Interaction between HGF and LVEF, origin, and renal function was nonsignificant. The addition of HGF improved the predictive ability of the models (C-statistic 0.768 vs 0.741, p = 0.016). HGF showed a complementary value over NT-proBNP (p = 0.001): mortality rate was 490 with both above the median versus 72 with both below. In conclusion, in patients with acute HF, serum HGF concentrations are elevated and identify patients at higher risk of mortality, regardless of LVEF, ischemic origin, or renal function. HGF had independent and additive information over NT-proBNP. PMID:27338207

  14. Salinity pathways between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kailasam, Muni

    2016-07-01

    Surface as well as subsurface salinity are highly heterogeneous in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Due to the strong seasonal reversal of currents in the two seas tremendous salt exchange occurred. The present study focuses on the exchange of salt between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal by using remote sensing observations like SMOS and Aquarius. Inflow of high salinity water from the central Arabians Sea into the south Bay of Bengal is significant and occurs during August-September. Freshwater transport out of the Bay of Bengal is southward throughout the year along the along the east coast of the Indian sub-continent. Only a small fraction of low salinity water is advected into the eastern Arabian Sea from the Bay of Bengal. The pathways of salinity between the two seas are also examined using SODA data. It shows that relatively low salinity Bay of Bengal water is transported southward across the equator throughout the year. A considerable southward cross-equatorial exchange of Arabian Sea water occurs during the southwest monsoon season.

  15. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  16. Yaquina Bay Topobathy DEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA contracted with the U.S.ACE to obtain intertidal and subtidal bathymetric soundings of Yaquina Bay between Poole Slough and the South Beach Marina in 2002. These data were compiled with U.S.ACE subtidal soundings from 1999, 1998, 2000 and National Ocean Service soundi...

  17. PECONIC BAY SYSTEM AQUACULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    PECONIC BAY SYSTEM AQUACULTURE This reference document serves as the aquaculture sub-section for Phase II of a four-phase series of economic studies being conducted by Economic Analysis, Inc., for the Peconic Estuary Program. It provides an evaluation of the history, current stat...

  18. Chesapeake Bay Critters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay-Atha, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    When students enter the author's classroom on the first day of school, they are greeted with live crabs scuttling around in large bins. The crabs are her way of grabbing students' attention and launching the unit on the Chesapeake Bay watershed. She chooses to start the year with this unit because, despite the fact that the Potomac River can be…

  19. STOCHASTIC INTEGRATION FOR TEMPERED FRACTIONAL BROWNIAN MOTION

    PubMed Central

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD

    2014-01-01

    Tempered fractional Brownian motion is obtained when the power law kernel in the moving average representation of a fractional Brownian motion is multiplied by an exponential tempering factor. This paper develops the theory of stochastic integrals for tempered fractional Brownian motion. Along the way, we develop some basic results on tempered fractional calculus. PMID:24872598

  20. Volume fraction of ether is a significant factor in controlling conductivity in proton conducting polyether based polymer sol-gel electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Yancey, Benjamin; Jones, Jonathan; Ritchie, Jason E

    2014-11-13

    We have synthesized several copolymers of methyl polyethylene glycol siloxane (MePEG7SiO3)m and methyl polypropylene glycol siloxane (MePPGnSiO3)m as hydrogen ion (H(+)) conducting polymer electrolytes. These copolymers were prepared by a sol-gel polymerization of mixtures of the MePEG and MePPG monomers. We synthesized these H(+) conducting polymer electrolytes in order to study the relationship between observed ionic conductivity and structural properties such as viscosity, fractional free volume, and volume fraction of ether. We found that viscosity increased as the fraction of the smaller comonomer increased. For the MePPG2/MePPG3 copolymer, an increase in fractional free volume increased the fluidity. The heterogeneous copolymers (PEG/PPG copolymers) obeyed the Doolittle equation, while the homogeneous (PEG/PEG and PPG/PPG) copolymers did not. The increase of FFV did not, however, correspond to an increase in conductivity, as would have been predicted by the Forsythe equation. The conductivity data did correspond to a modified Forsythe equation substituting Volume Fraction of Ether (V(f,ether)) for FFV. We conclude that the proton conductivity of MePEG copolymers is more dependent on the volume fraction of ether than on the fractional free volume. PMID:25313939

  1. Modern plasma fractionation.

    PubMed

    Burnouf, Thierry

    2007-04-01

    Protein products fractionated from human plasma are an essential class of therapeutics used, often as the only available option, in the prevention, management, and treatment of life-threatening conditions resulting from trauma, congenital deficiencies, immunologic disorders, or infections. Modern plasma product production technology remains largely based on the ethanol fractionation process, but much has evolved in the last few years to improve product purity, to enhance the recovery of immunoglobulin G, and to isolate new plasma proteins, such as alpha1-protease inhibitor, von Willebrand factor, and protein C. Because of the human origin of the starting material and the pooling of 10,000 to 50,000 donations required for industrial processing, the major risk associated to plasma products is the transmission of blood-borne infectious agents. A complete set of measures--and, most particularly, the use of dedicated viral inactivation and removal treatments--has been implemented throughout the production chain of fractionated plasma products over the last 20 years to ensure optimal safety, in particular, and not exclusively, against HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. In this review, we summarize the practices of the modern plasma fractionation industry from the collection of the raw plasma material to the industrial manufacture of fractionated products. We describe the quality requirements of plasma for fractionation and the various treatments applied for the inactivation and removal of blood-borne infectious agents and provide examples of methods used for the purification of the various classes of plasma protein therapies. We also highlight aspects of the good manufacturing practices and the regulatory environment that govern the whole chain of production. In a regulated and professional environment, fractionated plasma products manufactured by modern processes are certainly among the lowest-risk therapeutic biological products in use today. PMID:17397761

  2. A variational Bayes discrete mixture test for rare variant association.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, Benjamin A; Dai, James Y; Auer, Paul L; Johnsen, Jill M; Ganesh, Santhi K; Smith, Nicholas L; Wilson, James G; Tracy, Russell P; Lange, Leslie A; Jiao, Shuo; Rich, Stephen S; Lettre, Guillaume; Carlson, Christopher S; Jackson, Rebecca D; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Wurfel, Mark M; Nickerson, Deborah A; Tang, Hua; Reiner, Alexander P; Kooperberg, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many statistical methods have been proposed to test for associations between rare genetic variants and complex traits. Most of these methods test for association by aggregating genetic variations within a predefined region, such as a gene. Although there is evidence that "aggregate" tests are more powerful than the single marker test, these tests generally ignore neutral variants and therefore are unable to identify specific variants driving the association with phenotype. We propose a novel aggregate rare-variant test that explicitly models a fraction of variants as neutral, tests associations at the gene-level, and infers the rare-variants driving the association. Simulations show that in the practical scenario where there are many variants within a given region of the genome with only a fraction causal our approach has greater power compared to other popular tests such as the Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT), the Weighted Sum Statistic (WSS), and the collapsing method of Morris and Zeggini (MZ). Our algorithm leverages a fast variational Bayes approximate inference methodology to scale to exome-wide analyses, a significant computational advantage over exact inference model selection methodologies. To demonstrate the efficacy of our methodology we test for associations between von Willebrand Factor (VWF) levels and VWF missense rare-variants imputed from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Exome Sequencing project into 2,487 African Americans within the VWF gene. Our method suggests that a relatively small fraction (~10%) of the imputed rare missense variants within VWF are strongly associated with lower VWF levels in African Americans. PMID:24482836

  3. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Balram, Ajit C; Wurstbauer, U; Wójs, A; Pinczuk, A; Jain, J K

    2015-01-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region. PMID:26608906

  4. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-11-26

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.

  5. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    PubMed Central

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region. PMID:26608906

  6. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.

  7. Long-term morphologic evolution of the Hangzhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, W.; Zhijun, D.; Hualiang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Estuaries are the most productive ecosystems of coastal zones in the world, which are significant to mankind as places of navigation, recreation and commerce as well as extensive and diverse habitats for wildlife. However, most estuary environments in the world had occurred greatly changes in recent decades. These estuaries have suffered from impacts of forcing factors including wave climate, mean sea level change and storm surge, especial to the intensive human activities such as training wall construction, channel dredging, sand mining and dam constructions. Thus, there have been increasing concerns about estuary environment changes under effects of different factors. Riverine loads into the Changjiang Estuary have declined dramatically with the construction of Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003. The morphological evolution of the Hangzhou bay that located the southern proximity of the Yangtze estuary starts to attract increasing attentions due to most material of the Hangzhou bay received from Yangtze estuary. In this paper, historical bathymetric charts were digitized and analyzed within a GIS to provide quantitative estimate of changes in volumes in different regions below 0 m elevation. The results show that Hangzhou bay has experienced a major loss in estuarine volume of about 15% with annual mean sediment deposition rate of 80 million m3/a during the last 75 years. However, there is a large-scale spatial adjustment in Hangzhou bay: Bathymetric changes of the Hangzhou bay can be rapidly shifted within the range of 8-10 classes. Volume of the Jinshanzui upstream of the Hangzhou bay has obviously decreased in the last 75 years, especially during 2003-2008. However, Volume of the southern Hangzhou bay has experienced slowly decrease with minor deposition. The northern Hangzhou bay had largely volume changes with rapidly decrease during 1931-1981, and drastically increase since 2003. Further analysis of the bathymetric data relating to possible factors indicates

  8. Bayes and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes’ theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law. PMID:27398389

  9. Assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediments of the Maluan Bay (China) using geochemical indices and multivariate statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaosheng; Wang, Yushao; Chen, Liuqin; Yan, Changzhou; Yan, Yijun; Chi, Qiaoqiao

    2015-10-15

    Total concentrations and chemical forms of heavy metals in surface sediments of Maluan Bay were determined and multiple geochemical indices and guidelines were applied to assess potential contamination and environmental risks. Metal concentrations exhibited significant spatial variation and the speciation of Cr was presented dominantly in the residual fraction, while Cd was found mostly in the non-residual fraction and thus of high potential bioavailability. Cluster analysis separated four subgroups of sampling sites with different levels of contamination. Further, a multivariate method offered the specific interpretation of possible contaminant sources and/or pathways. Factor scores characterized the sampling locations and elucidated the pollution status, pointing out the impact of multiple "hidden hotspots" of contaminants and providing further evidence of the existence of clear pollution-risk gradients in lagoon areas. The study supports the integrative approach as powerful tool to diagnose the pollution status scientifically for management decisions in coastal sediment of complex environment. PMID:26233304

  10. Diversity of Denitrifying Bacteria in the San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atluri, A.; Lee, J.; Francis, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    We compared the diversity of communities of denitrifying bacteria from the San Francisco Bay to investigate whether environmental factors affect diversity. To do this, we studied the sequence diversity of the marker gene nirK. nirK codes for the enzyme nitrite reductase which helps reduce nitrite to nitric oxide, an important step in denitrification. Sediment samples were collected spatially from five different locations and temporally during the four different seasons along a salinity gradient in the bay. After collecting samples and extracting DNA from them, we used PCR to amplify our gene of interest, created clone libraries for sequencing, and compared phylogenetic trees from the different communities. Based on several phylogenetic analyses on our tree and environments, we saw that denitrifying bacteria from the North and Central Bay form distinct spatial clusters; Central Bay communities are very similar to each other, while communities from the North Bay are more distinct from each other and from communities in the Central Bay. Bacteria from site 8.1M (Carquinez Strait) showed the most cm-scale spatial diversity, and there was the most species richness during the winter. All this suggests that diversity of communities of denitrifying bacteria may be affected by spatial and temporal environmental factors.

  11. Minimum Bayes risk image correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minter, T. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of designing a matched filter for image correlation will be treated as a statistical pattern recognition problem. It is shown that, by minimizing a suitable criterion, a matched filter can be estimated which approximates the optimum Bayes discriminant function in a least-squares sense. It is well known that the use of the Bayes discriminant function in target classification minimizes the Bayes risk, which in turn directly minimizes the probability of a false fix. A fast Fourier implementation of the minimum Bayes risk correlation procedure is described.

  12. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a web-based digital information management system of information for scientists and the public, including a system that supports the work of those officials who must make decisions that affect the state of the bay. The Tampa Bay Study is in its sixth year and will continue through September 2007. This paper presents a non-inclusive summary of key findings associated with the six primary project components listed above. Component 4 (above) is described in detail in the following chapter 13. More information on the Tampa Bay Study is available from our on-line digital information system for the Tampa Bay Study at http://gulfsci.usgs.gov.

  13. Organic Matter Remineralization Predominates Phosphorus Cycling in the Mid-Bay Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Sunendra, Joshi R.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Burdige, David J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Sparks, Donald L.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-05-19

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the US, suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and non–point source nutrient sources. Restoration of the bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs and hydrological conditions, and complex interacting factors including climate forcing. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics enables one to identify the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment- water interface and aid to better constrain mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between the sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Op) in concert with sediment chemistry, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on the sediment retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the meso-haline portion of the mid-bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedback effect on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Isotope data indicate that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-bay sediments. We interpret that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any bottom-water and/or pore-water P derived from other sources or biogeochemical processes and exceeded saturation with respect to authigenic P precipitation. It is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway against remobilization (coupled Fe-P cycling) pathway in the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results are expected to have significant implications for the current understanding of P cycling and benthic-pelagic coupling in the bay, particularly on the

  14. Factors controlling the chemical composition of colloidal and dissolved fractions in soil solutions and the mobility of trace elements in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangloff, Sophie; Stille, Peter; Schmitt, Anne-Désirée; Chabaux, François

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the processes and physico-chemical conditions that affect the composition of the soil solutions of a forest soil and to elucidate their impact on the transport of major and trace elements through the colloidal (0.2 μm to 5 kDa) and dissolved (<5 kDa) fractions in the first meter of soil. All experiments were performed with soil solutions obtained using lysimeter plates situated on an experimental spruce parcel of the Strengbach catchment (Northeastern France). The surface samples filtered at 0.2 μm facilitated the examination of the influence of litter decomposition on the chemical composition of the upper soil solutions. The impact of the soils biogeochemical conditions (pH, moisture, temperature, oxic or anoxic conditions) on litter decomposition was also examined. More particularly, the increase in NH4+ and NO2- compounds in some of the soil solutions points to denitrification processes in an anoxic environment. Thus, under anoxic conditions, the soil solution is enriched in Ca, P, Mn and Zn, whereas under oxic conditions it is enriched in Al and Fe. The physico-chemical conditions are more seasonally dependent in the upper soil horizons than in the deeper ones and have an impact on the variability of the chemical composition of the soil solutions. The colloidal and dissolved fractions of the soil solutions were obtained by tangential flow ultra-filtration. The experimental results reveal that nutrients, such as NO3- and P, are primarily in the dissolved fraction and consequently bioavailable; secondary minerals may be dissolved and/or precipitate in the colloidal fraction, such as pyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3(OH, Cl, F)). The results further indicate that microbial activity influences the composition of the colloidal and dissolved fractions, and possibly enriches the colloidal fraction in Ca, Mn and P, diminishes the concentrations of Pb, V, Cr and Fe in the dissolved fraction, and changes the structure of organic

  15. Bed composition generation for morphodynamic modeling: Case study of San Pablo Bay in California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van der Wegen, M.; Dastgheib, A.; Jaffe, B.E.; Roelvink, D.

    2011-01-01

    Applications of process-based morphodynamic models are often constrained by limited availability of data on bed composition, which may have a considerable impact on the modeled morphodynamic development. One may even distinguish a period of "morphodynamic spin-up" in which the model generates the bed level according to some ill-defined initial bed composition rather than describing the realistic behavior of the system. The present paper proposes a methodology to generate bed composition of multiple sand and/or mud fractions that can act as the initial condition for the process-based numerical model Delft3D. The bed composition generation (BCG) run does not include bed level changes, but does permit the redistribution of multiple sediment fractions over the modeled domain. The model applies the concept of an active layer that may differ in sediment composition above an underlayer with fixed composition. In the case of a BCG run, the bed level is kept constant, whereas the bed composition can change. The approach is applied to San Pablo Bay in California, USA. Model results show that the BCG run reallocates sand and mud fractions over the model domain. Initially, a major sediment reallocation takes place, but development rates decrease in the longer term. Runs that take the outcome of a BCG run as a starting point lead to more gradual morphodynamic development. Sensitivity analysis shows the impact of variations in the morphological factor, the active layer thickness, and wind waves. An important but difficult to characterize criterion for a successful application of a BCG run is that it should not lead to a bed composition that fixes the bed so that it dominates the "natural" morphodynamic development of the system. Future research will focus on a decadal morphodynamic hindcast and comparison with measured bathymetries in San Pablo Bay so that the proposed methodology can be tested and optimized. ?? 2010 The Author(s).

  16. 42. VIEW OF DEMULTIPLEX BAY OF TELEMETRY CHECKOUT SYSTEM. BAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW OF DEMULTIPLEX BAY OF TELEMETRY CHECKOUT SYSTEM. BAY LOCATED CENTRALLY IN TELEMETRY ROOM (ROOM 107) MIDWAY BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH WALLS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. Chemical Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter in Hiroshima Bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Imai, A.

    2001-07-01

    The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and hydrophilic DOC (Hil-DOC) in Hiroshima Bay showed clear seasonal changes (high in summer and low in winter), suggesting the autochthonous production of Hil-DOC. The percentages of hydrophobic DOC (Hob-DOC) fractionated by XAD-8 resin were 33% for the bay waters and 41% for the river waters, whereas those of labile DOC (which decomposed during an incubation period of 100 days) were 20% and 24%, respectively. The increment of DOC to Chlorophyll a was calculated to be (0·014 mgl -1)/(μgl -1). The mixing experiments suggested a negligible deposition of DOC at the estuaries of inflowing rivers. The Hob-DOC went through the bay with negligible changes in concentration in both summer and winter, but its chemical characteristics, e.g. spectrophotometric properties and mean molecular weight, differed from those of riverine origin. In contrast, both labile and refractory components of Hil-DOC were produced mainly in the inner part of the bay during summer, and although a significant percentage of the labile component was subjected to biodegradation during transport to the outer part of the bay, its chemical characteristics did not change dramatically.

  18. Assessment for water quality by artificial neural network in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, artificial neural network such as a self-organizing map (SOM) was used to assess for the effects caused by climate change and human activities on the water quality in Daya Bay, South China Sea. SOM has identified the anthropogenic effects and seasonal characters of water quality. SOM grouped the four seasons as four groups (winter, spring, summer and autumn). The Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to the next April and southwesterly from May to September have also an important influence on the water quality in Daya Bay. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities and hydrodynamics conditions. In spatial characteristics, the water quality in Daya Bay was divided into two groups by chemometrics. The monitoring stations (S3, S8, S10 and S11) were in these area (Dapeng Ao, Aotou Harbor) and northeast parts of Daya Bay, which are areas of human activity. The thermal pollution has been observed near water body in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (S5). The rest of the monitoring sites were in the south, central and eastern parts of Daya Bay, which are areas that experience water exchanges from South China Sea. The results of this study may provide information on the spatial and temporal patterns in Daya Bay. Further research will be carry out more research concerning functional changes in the bay ecology with respect to changes in climatic factor, human activities and bay morphology in Daya Bay. PMID:25847104

  19. A review of circulation and mixing studies of San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Lawrence H.

    1987-01-01

    influenced by delta discharge, and South Bay, a tributary estuary which responds to conditions in Central Bay. In the northern reach net circulation is characterized by the river-induced seaward, flow and a resulting gravitational circulation in the channels, and by a tide- and wind-induced net horizontal circulation. A surface layer of relatively fresh water in Central Bay generated by high delta discharges can induce gravitational circulation in South Bay. During low delta discharges South Bay has nearly the same salinity as Central Bay and is characterized by tide- and wind-induced net horizontal circulation. Several factors control the patterns of circulation and mixing in San Francisco Bay. Viewing circulation and mixing over different time-periods and at different geographic scales causes the influences of different factors to be emphasized. The exchange between the bay and coastal ocean and freshwater inflows determine the year-to-year behavior of San Francisco Bay as a freshwater-saltwater mixing zone. Within the bay, exchanges between the embayments control variations over a season. Circulation and mixing patterns within the embayments and the magnitude of river-induced seaward flow influence the between-bay exchanges. The within-bay patterns are in turn determined by tides, winds, and freshwater inflows. Because freshwater inflow is the only factor that can be managed, a major study focus is estimation of inflow-related effects. Most questions relate to the patterns of freshwater inflow necessary to protect valuable resources whose welfare is dependent on conditions in the bay. Among the important questions being addressed are: --What quantity of freshwater inflow is necessary to prevent salt intrusion into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, and what salinity distributions in the bay would result from various inflow patterns? --What quantity of freshwater inflow is sufficient to flush pollutants through the bay? Knowledge of circul

  20. Stormwater impact in Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro): Evidences of seasonal variability in the dynamic of the sediment heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, E. M.; Baptista Neto, J. A.; Silva, C. G.; McAlister, J. J.; Smith, B. J.; Fernandez, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Guanabara Bay is one of the most prominent coastal bays in Brazil. This environment is an estuary of 91 rivers and channels, surrounded by the metropolis of Rio de Janeiro. The bay receives considerable amounts of contaminants introduced from sewage effluents, industrial discharge, urban and agricultural runoff, atmospheric fallout, and the combined inputs from the rivers, making Guanabara Bay one of the most polluted coastal environments on the Brazilian coastline. The aim of this work is to study the concentration and fractionation of the heavy metals within the sediments of the bay. In order to understand the possible seasonal influence on the heavy metal fractionation, two campaigns were carried out in two different seasons of the year (rainy and dry). Twelve stations, in four different areas, with different oceanographic characteristics, where chosen. To assess the bioavailability of the metals a selective extraction procedure was used to study the geochemical fractionation and bioavailability of Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb. The rainy season was very important with respect to variation in the total concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb and their fractionation within different "operational" phases present in Guanabara Bay sediments. The water-soluble phase showed little importance, with respect to metal adsorption and this would suggest very low mobility of metals in the water column. Nevertheless, the potentially available metals within these sediments showed a high probability for their release and therefore cause contamination of the water column, since different parts of the bay are constantly subjected to dredging projects promoted by the harbor authorities.

  1. Learning on the Big Bay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philp, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    Anne Arundel Community College uses the Chesapeake Bay for a flexible ocean engineering technology program which includes mechanical, electrical, and environmental options for transfer and/or vocational students, and adult education programs covering such subjects as sailing, Bay history, boat building, scuba-diving, and marine biology. (RT)

  2. The Bayes Inference Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are developing a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to provide the means to make inferences about models of physical reality within a Bayesian framework. The construction of complex nonlinear models is achieved by a fully object-oriented design. The models are represented by a data-flow diagram that may be manipulated by the analyst through a graphical programming environment. Maximum a posteriori solutions are achieved using a general, gradient-based optimization algorithm. The application incorporates a new technique of estimating and visualizing the uncertainties in specific aspects of the model.

  3. Tampa Bay environmental atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Kunneke, J.T.; Palik, T.F.

    1984-12-01

    Biological and water resource data for Tampa Bay were compiled and mapped at a scale of 1:24,000. This atlas consists of (1) composited information overlain on 18 biological and 20 water resource base maps and (2) an accompanying map narrative. Subjects mapped on the water resource maps are contours of the mean middepth specific conductivity which can be converted to salinity; bathymetry, sediments, tidal currents, the freshwater/saltwater interface, dredge spoil disposal sites; locations of industrial and municipal point source discharges, tide stations, and water quality sampling stations. The point source discharge locations show permitted capacity and the water quality sampling stations show 5-year averages for chlorophyll, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, and total nitrogen. The subjects shown on the biological resource maps are clam and oyster beds, shellfish harvest areas, colonial bird nesting sites, manatee habitat, seagrass beds and artificial reefs. Spawning seasons, nursery habitats, and adult habitats are identified for major fish species. The atlas will provide useful information for coastal planning and management in Tampa Bay.

  4. 76 FR 54380 - Safety Zone; Suttons Bay Labor Day Fireworks, Suttons Bay, Grand Traverse Bay, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Bay, Grand Traverse Bay, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... rule is effective from 8 until 11 p.m. on September 3, 2011. ADDRESSES: Documents indicated in this... Department, Coast Guard, Sector Sault Sainte Marie, MI, telephone (906) 253-2429, e-mail...

  5. Impact of hydrotalcite deposition on biogeochemical processes in a shallow tropical bay.

    PubMed

    Alongi, Daniel M; McKinnon, A David

    2011-03-01

    The biogeochemistry of a tropical shoal bay (Melville Bay, Australia) impacted by the effluent release, precipitation, and deposition of hydrotalcite from an alumina refinery was studied in both wet and dry seasons. Within the deposition zone, sulfate reduction dominated benthic carbon cycling accounting for ≈100% of total microbial activity, with rates greater than those measured in most other marine sediments. These rapid rates of anoxic metabolism resulted in high rates of sulfide and ammonium production and low C:S ratios, implying significant preservation of S in stable sulfide minerals. Rates of total microbial activity were significantly less in control sediments of equivalent grain size, where sulfate reduction accounted for ≈50% of total benthic metabolism. Rates of planktonic carbon cycling overlying the deposition zone were also greater than those measured in the control areas of southern Melville Bay. At the sediment surface, productive algal and cyanobacterial mats helped stabilize the sediment surface and oxidize sulfide to sulfate to maintain a fully oxygenated water-column overlying the impacted zone. The mats utilized a significant fraction of dissolved inorganic N and P released from the sea bed; some nutrients escaped to the water-column such that benthic regeneration of NH₄+ and PO₄³⁻ accounted for 100% and 42% of phytoplankton requirements for N and P, respectively. These percentages are high compared to other tropical coastal environments and indicate that benthic nutrient recycling may be a significant factor driving water-column production overlying the deposition zone. With regard to remediation, it is recommended that the sea bed not be disturbed as attempts at removal may result in further environmental problems and would require specific assessment of the proposed removal process. PMID:21176952

  6. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  7. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  8. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  9. Chesapeake Bay: Introduction to an Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States. The Bay and its tidal tributaries make up the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. This document, which focuses of various aspects of this ecosystem, is divided into four major parts. The first part traces the geologic history of the Bay, describes the overall physical structure of…

  10. Assessing change of environmental dynamics by legislation in Japan, using red tide occurrence in Ise Bay as an indicator.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chika

    2016-01-30

    Tokyo Bay, Ise Bay, and the Seto Inland Sea are the total pollutant load control target areas in Japan. A significant correlation between the incidence of red tides and water quality has been observed in the Seto Inland Sea (Honjo, 1991). However, while red tides also occur in Ise Bay and Tokyo Bay, similar correlations have not been observed. Hence, it is necessary to understand what factors cause red tides to effectively manage these semi-closed systems. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the dynamics of the Red Tide Index and nitrogen regulation as well as phosphorus regulation, even in Ise Bay where, unlike Tokyo Bay, there are few observation items, by selecting a suitable objective variable. The introduction of a new technique that uses the Red Tide Index has revealed a possibility that the total pollution load control has influenced the dynamics of red tide blooms in Ise Bay. PMID:26337227

  11. Aluminium (Al) fractionation and speciation; getting closer to describing the factors influencing Al(3+) in water impacted by acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Chamier, Jessica; Wicht, Merrill; Cyster, Lilburne; Ndindi, Nosintu P

    2015-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) severely impacts the water chemistry of a receiving resource, changing the occurrence, speciation and toxicity of metals such as Aluminium (Al). The toxicity of Al is determined by its speciation represented by the labile monomer Al fraction or Al(3+). The purpose of the study was to combine fractionation and Visual MINTEQ speciation to calculate the effect of AMD altered water chemistry on Al speciation and Al(3+) concentration. Water in rivers impacted by AMD presented with monomeric Al (Almon) concentrations between 0.35 and 15.37mgL(-)(1) which existed almost exclusively in the toxic labile form (98%). For the reference site, Almon was less than 2% (10μgL(-1)), suggesting significantly lower Al toxicity. Principal component analysis plots illustrated that labile Al was directly related to the total Al and iron concentrations and strongly influenced by parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, sulphate and dissolved organic carbon. Visual MINTEQ modelling was used to determine the primary Al species distribution. The dominant form of Al in AMD impacted water was AlSO4(+), which increased proportionally with the sulphate and Al(3+) concentration. Heavily impacted areas, presented with an average of 1mgmL(-)(1) Al(3+), which poses a potential human health risk. A novel centrifugal ultrafiltration method was investigated as an alternative to determining Almon to simplify the speciation of Al. Monomeric and centrifugal ultrafiltrated (<10kD) Al fractions were significantly similar (p=0.74), suggesting that ultrafiltration may present a time, energy and cost saving alternative to organic extraction of Almon. PMID:25747302

  12. Distribution, enrichment and accumulation of heavy metals in coastal sediments of Salina Cruz Bay, méxico.

    PubMed

    González-Macías, C; Schifter, I; Lluch-Cota, D B; Méndez-Rodríguez, L; Hernández-Vázquez, S

    2006-07-01

    Surface sediment samples collected from the Salina Cruz Bay in the last twenty years, were analyzed for the total available trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, V, and Zn) to evaluate metal contamination due to possible anthropogenic inputs. Normalization of metals to iron and fine-grained fraction (< 63 microm) indicated relatively high enrichment factors for lead during the last two decades. Sediment Quality Guidelines suggest that lead must be considered as a chemical of potential concern in the marine and estuarine ecosystem. Concentration levels of lead ranged from 5-124 microg/g, while Ni and V below 70 and 30 microg/g, respectively. Geoaccumulation and enrichment factors for the rest of elements show comparable values to those reported for sites with similar activities in the world. Spatial distribution suggests that in addition to harbor activities, a transboundary source for Pb must account for the observed trends. PMID:16897543

  13. The Use of a Fractional Factorial Design to Determine the Factors That Impact 1,3-Propanediol Production from Glycerol by Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Shivani; Trager, Jordan; Sitton, Oliver C; Mormile, Melanie R

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, biodiesel, a substitute for fossil fuels, has led to the excessive production of crude glycerol. The resulting crude glycerol can possess a high concentration of salts and an alkaline pH. Moreover, current crude glycerol purification methods are expensive, rendering this former commodity a waste product. However, Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, a haloalkaliphilic bacterium, possesses the metabolic capability to convert glycerol into 1,3-propanediol, a valuable commodity compound, without the need for salt dilution or adjusting pH when grown on this waste. Experiments were performed with different combinations of 24 medium components to determine their impact on the production of 1,3-propanediol by using a fractional factorial design. Tested medium components were selected based on data from the organism's genome. Analysis of HPLC data revealed enhanced production of 1,3-propanediol with additional glycerol, pH, vitamin B12, ammonium ions, sodium sulfide, cysteine, iron, and cobalt. However, other selected components; nitrate ions, phosphate ions, sulfate ions, sodium:potassium ratio, chloride, calcium, magnesium, silicon, manganese, zinc, borate, nickel, molybdenum, tungstate, copper and aluminum, did not enhance 1,3-propanediol production. The use of a fractional factorial design enabled the quick and efficient assessment of the impact of 24 different medium components on 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol from a haloalkaliphilic bacterium. PMID:27556494

  14. Uncertainty analysis of fission fraction for reactor antineutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X. B.; Lu, F.; Wang, L. Z.; Chen, Y. X.; Zhong, W. L.; An, F. P.

    2016-06-01

    Reactor simulation is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. Therefore, how to evaluate the antineutrino flux uncertainty results from reactor simulation is an important question. In this study, a method of the antineutrino flux uncertainty result from reactor simulation was proposed by considering the correlation coefficient. In order to use this method in the Daya Bay antineutrino experiment, the open source code DRAGON was improved and used for obtaining the fission fraction and correlation coefficient. The average fission fraction between DRAGON and SCIENCE code was compared and the difference was less than 5% for all the four isotopes. The uncertainty of fission fraction was evaluated by comparing simulation atomic density of four main isotopes with Takahama-3 experiment measurement. After that, the uncertainty of the antineutrino flux results from reactor simulation was evaluated as 0.6% per core for Daya Bay antineutrino experiment.

  15. Atmospheric deposition fluxes to Monetary Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, E.; Paytan, A.; Ryan, J.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition has been widely recognized as a source of pollutants and nutrients to coastal ecosystems. Specifically, deposition includes nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds, mercury, pesticides, phosphate, trace metals and other toxic compounds that can travel great distances. Sources of these components include both natural (volcanoes, mineral dust, forest fires) and anthropogenic (fossil fuels, chemical byproducts, incineration of waste) sources, which may contribute to harmful health and environmental impacts such as eutrophication, contaminated fish and harmful algal blooms. This study looks at the flux of aerosol deposition (TSP - total suspended particle load) to Monterey Bay, California. Samples are collected on a cascade impactor aerosol sampler (size fractions PM 2.5 and PM 10) every 48 hours continuously. Preliminary results indicate that the TSP for PM 10 ranged from 0.026 to 0.104 mg m-3 of air and for PM 2.5 from 0.014 to 0.046 mg m-3 of air. Using a deposition velocity of 2 cm s-1 for the large fraction (PM10 - PM 2.5) and a deposition velocity of 0.7 cm s-1 for the fine fraction (PM 2.5) deposition rates are 13 and 86 mg m-2 d-1 respectively.

  16. Microcontaminants and reproductive impairment of the Forster's tern on Green Bay, Lake Michigan,1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kubiak, T.J.; Harris, H.J.; Smith, L.M.; Schwartz, T.R.; Stalling, D.L.; Trick, J.A.; Sileo, L.; Docherty, D.E.; Erdman, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    in an egg-exchange experiment, but was sharply decreased in Lake Poygan eggs incubated in Green Bay nests. Nest abandonment and egg disappearance were substantial at Green Bay but nil at Lake Poygan. Thus, not only factors intrinsic to the egg, but also extrinsic factors (parental attentiveness), impaired reproductive outcome at Green Bay. The epidemiological evidence from this study strongly suggested that contaminants were a causal factor. AHH-active PCB congeners (intrinsic effects) and PCBs in general (extrinsic effects) appeared to be the only contaminants at the concentrations measured in eggs, capable of producing the effects that were observed at Green Bay.

  17. Microcontaminants and reproductive impairment of the Forster's tern on Green Bay, Lake Michigan--1983.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, T J; Harris, H J; Smith, L M; Schwartz, T R; Stalling, D L; Trick, J A; Sileo, L; Docherty, D E; Erdman, T C

    1989-09-01

    in an egg-exchange experiment, but was sharply decreased in Lake Poygan eggs incubated in Green Bay nests. Nest abandonment and egg disappearance were substantial at Green Bay but nil at Lake Poygan. Thus, not only factors intrinsic to the egg, but also extrinsic factors (parental attentiveness), impaired reproductive outcome at Green Bay. The epidemiological evidence from this study strongly suggested that contaminants were a causal factor. AHH-active PCB congeners (intrinsic effects) and PCBs in general (extrinsic effects) appeared to be the only contaminants at the concentrations measured in eggs, capable of producing the effects that were observed at Green Bay. PMID:2802675

  18. Spatial and seasonal patterns of ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Haizhou Bay and its adjacent waters of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zengguang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Wan, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Surveys were conducted in five voyages in Haizhou Bay and its adjacent coastal area from March to December 2011 during full moon spring tides. The ichthyoplankton assemblages and the environmental factors that affect their spatial and seasonal patterns were determined. Totally 35 and 12 fish egg and larvae taxa were identified, respectively. Over the past several decades, the egg and larval species composition has significantly changed in Haizhou Bay and its adjacent waters, most likely corresponding with the alteration of fishery resources, which are strongly affected by anthropogenic activities and climate change. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index identified four assemblages: near-shore bay assemblage, middle bay assemblage and two closely related assemblages (near-shore/middle bay assemblage and middle/edge of bay assemblage). The primary species of each assemblage principally reflected the spawning strategies of adult fish. The near-shore bay assemblage generally occurred in near-shore bay, with depths measuring <20 m, and the middle bay assemblage generally occurred in the middle of bay, with depths measuring 20 to 40 m. Spatial and seasonal variations in ichthyoplankton in each assemblage were determined by interactions between biological behavioral traits and oceanographic features, particularly the variation of local conditions within the constraint of a general reproductive strategy. The results of Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated that both fish egg and larval abundance were positively correlated with depth, which is critical to the oceanographic features in Haizhou Bay.

  19. Controls on residence time and exchange in a system of shallow coastal bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safak, I.; Wiberg, P. L.; Richardson, D. L.; Kurum, M. O.

    2015-04-01

    Patterns of transport and residence time influence the morphology, ecology and biogeochemistry of shallow coastal bay systems in important ways. To better understand the factors controlling residence time and exchange in coastal bays, a three-dimensional finite-volume coastal ocean model was set up and validated with field observations of circulation in a system of 14 shallow coastal bays on the Atlantic coast of the USA (Virginia Coast Reserve). Residence times of neutrally buoyant particles as well as exchange among the bays in the system and between the bays and the ocean were examined with Lagrangian particle tracking. There was orders of magnitude variation in the calculated residence time within most of the bays, ranging from hours in the tidally refreshed (repletion) water near the inlets to days-weeks in the remaining (residual) water away from the inlets. Residence time in the repletion waters was most sensitive to the tidal phase (low vs. high) when particles were released whereas residence time in the residual waters was more sensitive to wind forcing. Wind forcing was found to act as a diffuser that shortens particle residence within the bays; its effect was higher away from the inlets and in relatively confined bays. Median residence time in the bays significantly decreased with an increase in the ratio between open water area and total area (open water plus marsh). Exchange among the bays and capture areas of inlets (i.e., exchange between the bays and the ocean) varied considerably but were insensitive to tidal phase of release, wind, and forcing conditions in different years, in contrast to the sensitivity of residence time to these factors. We defined a new quantity, termed shortest-path residence time, calculated as distance from the closest inlet divided by root-mean-square velocity at each point in model domain. A relationship between shortest-path residence time and particle-tracking residence time provides a means of estimating residence time

  20. Fractionation of human bone marrow cell suspensions in nylon fiber columns: an efficient method for the removal of cells that produce colony stimulating factor (CSF).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, R; Gans, P J

    1980-09-01

    In this report, we describe an efficient technique for the extraction of CSF-producing cells from human marrow suspensions. Prior to plating in agar cultures, we incubated buoyant human marrow cells for 45 min in columns packed with nylon fiber or subjected the cells to two one-hour incubations in glass petri dishes. Recoveries of total cells, differential marrow elements, and committed granulocyte-monocyte progenitor cells (CFUc) were similar after each separative procedure. However, spontaneous CFUc proliferation was more effectively eliminated when cells were fractionated in nylon fiber columns. After the removal of cells which were adherent to glass, spontaneous CFUc proliferation in cultures containing no exogenous CSF accounted for 2.1% of total CFUc at a plating concentration of 10(5) cells/ml and 7.8% at a concentration of 3 X 10(5) cells/ml. After the fractionation of marrow cell suspensions in nylon fiber columns, spontaneous CFUc growth was completely obliterated at a plating concentration of 10(5) cells/ml, and at a concentration of 3 X 10(5) cells/ml accounted for only 0.09% of total CFUc. Further experiments were undertaken which demonstrated that buoyant marrow cells after incubation in nylon fiber columns may be employed to assay CSF in extremely dilute concentrations. Because of the simplicity and efficiency of this procedure, nylon fiber chromatography appears to be a highly useful technique for the rapid semi-purification of marrow suspensions for use in the assay of human CSF. PMID:6970676

  1. Eutrophication in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulanowicz, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of using remote sensing to acquire fast reliable data on the nutrient problem in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem are discussed. Pollution effects to phytoplankton blooms during late summer and early fall months are also considered.

  2. Modeling bioaccumulation and biotransformation of PAHs and PCBs by benthic macrofauna from lower Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Dickhut, R.M.; Schaffner, L.C.; Lay, P.; Mitra, S.

    1995-12-31

    The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of selected PAHs and PCBs from sediments spiked with radiolabeled compounds were examined in benthic communities from lower chesapeake Bay during summer and winter. Kinetic models were then used to determine the steady-state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for the parent compounds in various benthic macrofaunal organisms, as well as the BAFs of aqueous soluble metabolites that tended to accumulate in the animals. BAFs for the parent compounds increased with the octanol-water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) of the compound up to a log K{sub ow} of approximately 6. However, in contrast to previous studies, the elimination rate constant was the dominant factor controlling the observed nonequilibrium with respect to bioaccumulation of the organic contaminants. Consequently, BAFs for the parent contaminants were related to the physical-chemical factors regulating passive elimination, as well as metabolic transformation of the parent compound. Aqueous soluble metabolite BAFs were directly related to the physical-chemical factors dictating the rate of formation of the conjugated complexes. Overall, body burdens of organic contaminants were higher in the summer relative to winter, as were the aqueous soluble metabolite fractions of contaminants in the animals, possibly indicating that organism activities as well as lipid pools are higher in summer compared to winter. The results indicate that a variety of physical, chemical, and biological factors interact in the ecosystem to dictate bioaccumulation and biotransformation of organic contaminants.

  3. Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2008-11-15

    The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered.

  4. Oxygen isotope fractionation in double carbonates.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Böttcher, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen isotope fractionations in double carbonates of different crystal structures were calculated by the increment method. Synthesis experiments were performed at 60 °C and 100 °C to determine oxygen and carbon isotope fractionations involving PbMg[CO3]2. The calculations suggest that the double carbonates of calcite structure are systematically enriched in (18)O relative to those of aragonite and mixture structures. Internally consistent oxygen isotope fractionation factors are obtained for these minerals with respect to quartz, calcite and water at a temperature range of 0-1200 °C. The calculated fractionation factors for double carbonate-water systems are generally consistent with the data available from laboratory experiments. The experimentally determined fractionation factors for PbMg[CO3]2, BaMg[CO3]2 and CaMg[CO3]2 against H2O not only fall between fractionation factors involving pure carbonate end-members but are also close to the calculated fractionation factors. In contrast, experimentally determined carbon isotope fractionation factors between PbMg[CO3]2 and CO2 are much closer to theoretical predictions for the cerussite-CO2 system than for the magnesite-CO2 system, similar to the fractionation behavior for BaMg[CO3]2. Therefore, the combined theoretical and experimental results provide insights into the effects of crystal structure and exchange kinetics on oxygen isotope partitioning in double carbonates. PMID:25393769

  5. Modelling Wind Effects on Subtidal Salinity in Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Jones, W. K.; Wu, T. S.

    2002-07-01

    Salinity is an important factor for oyster and estuarine productivity in Apalachicola Bay. Observations of salinity at oyster reefs have indicated a high correlation between subtidal salinity variations and the surface winds along the bay axis in an approximately east-west direction. In this paper, we applied a calibrated hydrodynamic model to examine the surface wind effects on the volume fluxes in the tidal inlets and the subtidal salinity variations in the bay. Model simulations show that, due to the large size of inlets located at the east and west ends of this long estuary, surface winds have significant effects on the volume fluxes in the estuary inlets for the water exchanges between the estuary and ocean. In general, eastward winds cause the inflow from the inlets at the western end and the outflow from inlets at the eastern end of the bay. Winds at 15 mph speed in the east-west direction can induce a 2000 m3 s-1 inflow of saline seawater into the bay from the inlets, a rate which is about 2·6 times that of the annual average freshwater inflow from the river. Due to the varied wind-induced volume fluxes in the inlets and the circulation in the bay, the time series of subtidal salinity at oyster reefs considerably increases during strong east-west wind conditions in comparison to salinity during windless conditions. In order to have a better understanding of the characteristics of the wind-induced subtidal circulation and salinity variations, the researchers also connected model simulations under constant east-west wind conditions. Results show that the volume fluxes are linearly proportional to the east-west wind stresses. Spatial distributions of daily average salinity and currents clearly show the significant effects of winds on the bay.

  6. A HABITAT SUITABILITY INDEX FOR THE BAY SCALLOP ARGOPECTEN IRRADIANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Poster presentation at a scientific meeting. A survey of Lagoon Pond, Martha's Vineyard, MA, USA was conducted in September 2005 to determine the combination of habitat factors most highly correlated with the bay scallop Argopecten irradians) abundance. A stratified random samp...

  7. The phytoplankton component of seston in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wienke, S.M.; Cloern, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Phytoplankton biomass (as carbon) was estimated from chlorophyll a concentrations (Chla) and a mean value for the ratio of phytoplankton carbon to chlorophyll a in San Francisco Bay. The ratio was determined as the slope of a Model II regression of POC' against (Chla), where POC' is total particulate organic carbon minus sediment-associated non-phytoplankton carbon. Samples from 30 fixed sites in the channel and lateral shoals of San Francisco Bay were collected once or twice a month from April to November 1980, and at irregular intervals in South Bay during 1984 and 1985. For all data the calculated mean value of phytoplankton C:Chla was 51 (95% confidence interval = 47-54). No significant differences were found in the C:Chla ratio between shallow and deep sites (where light availability differs) or between northern and southern San Francisco Bay (where phytoplankton community composition differs). Using the mean C:Chla ratio of 51, we calculated that phytoplankton biomass constitutes about one third of seston carbon under most circumstances, but this fraction ranges from about 95% during phytoplankton blooms to less than 20% during spring periods of low phytoplankton biomass and high suspended sediment concentration. ?? 1987.

  8. Sedimentation and bathymetry changes in Suisun Bay: 1867-1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cappiella, Karen; Malzone, Chris; Smith, Richard; Jaffe, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Understanding patterns of historical erosion and deposition in San Francisco Bay is crucial in managing such issues as locating deposits of sediment-associated contaminants, and the restoration of wetland areas. These problems were addressed by quantitatively examining historical hydrographic surveys. The data from five hydrographic surveys, made from 1867 to 1990, were analyzed using surface modeling software to determine long-term changes in the sediment system of Suisun Bay and surrounding areas. A surface grid displaying the bathymetry was created for each survey period, and the bathymetric change between survey periods was computed by differencing these grids. Patterns and volumes of erosion and deposition, sedimentation rates, and shoreline changes were derived from the resulting change grids. Approximately 115 million cubic meters of sediment were deposited in the Suisun Bay area from 1867 to 1887, the majority of which was debris from hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada. Just under two-thirds of the area of the study site was depositional during this time period, while less than one-third of it was erosional. However, over the entire study period, the Suisun Bay area lost sediment, indicating that a large amount of erosion occurred from1887 to 1990. In fact, this area lost sediment during each of the change periods between 1887 and 1990. Because erosion and deposition are processes that may vary over space and time, further analyses of more specific areas were done to examine spatial and temporal patterns. The change in the Suisun Bay area from being a largely depositional environment to an erosional one is the result of a combination of several factors. These factors include the regulation and subsequent cessation of hydraulic mining practices, and the increase in flood control and water distribution projects that have decreased sediment supply to the bay by reducing the frequency and duration of peak flow conditions. Another pattern shown by the

  9. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  10. Possible origin of the high incidence of Clostridium botulinum type E in an inland bay (Green Bay of Lake Michigan).

    PubMed

    Bott, T L; Johnson, J; Foster, E M; Sugiyama, H

    1968-05-01

    Bottom and shoreline sediments of Green Bay, northern Lake Michigan, and rivers of the Green Bay drainage basin, as well as soils of the surrounding land mass, were examined for Clostridium botulinum type E. Detection was based on identification of type E toxin in enrichment cultures and was influenced by many factors. Testing smaller amounts of sample in multiple cultures was more productive than examining large inocula in fewer cultures. Incubation at 30 C was unsatisfactory, but 14 days at 20 C or 7 days at 25 C gave good results. Mild heating (60 C for 30 min) of specimens reduced the incidence of positive findings. Freezing enrichment cultures prior to testing for toxicity eliminated many nonbotulinal toxic substances that killed mice. A control culture inoculated with type E spores was employed to show whether a specimen contained factors which could mask the presence of type E. Samples from 708 stations were tested in 2,446 cultures. Type E was found in nearly all underwater specimens of Green Bay and northern Lake Michigan but was present less frequently in samples taken along their shores. The incidence was still lower in the rivers emptying into Green Bay with the organism being rare on the shores of these rivers and in the soils of the land mass proper. Samples from the upper reaches of the rivers practically never contained type E. Runoff could deposit type E spores in Green Bay, but this is not considered to be the major factor in the high incidence of the organism. Multiplication in the bay itself is indicated. PMID:4870273

  11. Analysis of Trends in Fish Assemblages in Narragansett Bay, RI/MA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine fish are highly valued resources that are affected by several factors, including climate, landscape, pollution, and fishing pressure. Here, we examine patterns of variability in estuarine fish assemblages in Narragansett Bay, an estuary located in Rhode Island and Mass...

  12. Lagrangian particle tracking of a toxic dinoflagellate bloom within the Tampa Bay estuary.

    PubMed

    Havens, Heather; Luther, Mark E; Meyers, Steven D; Heil, Cynthia A

    2010-12-01

    A coastal risk assessment system simulates the basic physical mechanisms underlying contaminant transport in Tampa Bay. This risk assessment system, comprised of a three-dimensional numerical circulation model coupled to a Lagrangian particle tracking model, simulates the transport and dispersion of a toxic dinoflagellate bloom. Instantaneous velocity output from the circulation model drives the movement of particles, each representing a fraction of a K. brevis bloom, within the model grid cells. Hindcast simulations of the spatial distribution of the K. brevis bloom are presented and compared with water sample concentrations collected during the peak of the bloom. Probability calculations, herein called transport quotients, allow for rapid analysis of bay-wide K. brevis transport showing locations most likely to be impacted by the contaminant. Maps constructed from the transport quotients provide managers with a bay-wide snapshot of areas in Tampa Bay most at risk during a hazardous bloom event. PMID:20825953

  13. Modelling residence-time response to freshwater input in Apalachicola Bay, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenrui; Spaulding, M.

    2002-10-01

    Residence time of an estuary can be used to estimate the rate of removal of freshwater and pollutants from river inflow. In this study, a calibrated three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was used to determine residence time in response to the change of freshwater input in Apalachicola Bay. The bay is about 40 km long and 7 km wide, with an average 3 m water depth. Through hydrodynamic model simulations, the spatial and temporal salinity and the total freshwater volume in the bay were calculated. Then the freshwater fraction method was used to estimate the residence time. Results indicate that the residence time in Apalachicola Bay typically ranges between 3 and 10 days for the daily freshwater input ranging from 177 m3/s to 4561 m3/s. Regression analysis of model results shows that an exponential regression equation can be used to correlate the estuarine residence time to changes of freshwater input.

  14. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-11-26

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeemanmore » energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region.« less

  15. Relationships between precipitation and surface water chemistry in three Carolina bays

    SciTech Connect

    Monegue, R.L.; Jagoe, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    Carolina Bays are shallow freshwater wetlands, the only naturally occurring lentic systems on the southeastern coastal plain. Bays are breeding sites for many amphibian species, but data on precipitation/surface water relationships and long-term chemical trends are lacking. Such data are essential to interpret major fluctuations in amphibian populations. Surface water and bulk precipitation were sampled bi-weekly for over two years at three bays along a 25 km transect on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Precipitation chemistry was similar at all sites; average pH was 4.56, and the major ions were H{sup +} (30.8 % of total), and SO{sub 4} (50.3% of total). H{sup +} was positively correlated with SO{sub 4}, suggesting the importance of anthropogenic acids to precipitation chemistry. All three bays, Rainbow Bay (RB), Thunder Bay (TB), and Ellenton Bay (EB), contained soft (specific conductivity 5--90 {micro}S/cm), acidic water (pH 4.0--5.9) with DOM from 4--40 mg/L. The major cation for RB, TB, and EB, respectively, was: Mg (30.8 % of total); Na (27% of total); and Ca (34.2% of total). DOM was the major anion for all bays, and SO{sub 4} represented 13 to 28 % of total anions. H{sup +} was not correlated to DOM or SO, in RB; H{sup +} was positively correlated to DOM and SO{sub 4} in TB, and negatively correlated to DOM and SO{sub 4} in EB. Different biogeochemical processes probably control pH and other chemical variables in each bay. While surface water H{sup +} was not directly correlated with precipitation H{sup +}, NO{sub 3}, or SO{sub 4}, precipitation and shallow groundwater are dominant water sources for these bays. Atmospheric inputs of anthropogenic acids and other chemicals are important factors influencing bay chemistry.

  16. Variability of metals and metallothionein in mussels from San Francisco and Tomales bays

    SciTech Connect

    Knezovich, J.P.; Novacek, J.M.; Harrison, F.L. )

    1988-09-01

    The bay mussel, Mytilus edulis, has been used widely as an indicator of metal contamination in the marine environment. However, factors affecting the variability of metals and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in these organisms are poorly understood and must be defined before metal and MT levels can be used as valid indices of environmental contamination. They authors studied mussels from a relatively pristine environment (Tomales Bay) and a metal-contaminated region of San Francisco Bay. Data obtained from monthly sampling over a two-year period indicated that significant differences in metal and MT concentrations occur seasonally in native populations of mussels and that the dynamics of change are not the same. In mussels transplanted from Tomales Bay to San Francisco Bay, evidence for the induction of MT was obtained and metal and MT levels reflected the change in their environment as well as seasonal changes.

  17. Left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction, and plasma proatrial natriuretic factor (1-98) after withdrawal of enalapril treatment initiated early after myocardial infarction. CONSENSUS II Multi-Echo Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Bonarjee, V. V.; Omland, T.; Nilsen, D. W.; Carstensen, S.; Berning, J.; Edner, M.; Caidahl, K.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess whether the reduction in left ventricular dilatation after acute myocardial infarction obtained by early administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors depends on continuous treatment. DESIGN--Prospective observational and cross sectional study of withdrawal of randomised treatment with enalapril or placebo. PATIENTS--106 patients on 6 months trial treatment after an acute myocardial infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction as assessed by echocardiography and circulating proatrial natriuretic factor (1-98) before and 4-6 weeks after withdrawal of treatment. RESULTS--There were no significant changes (mean (SD)) in left ventricular systolic (0.7 (4.7) ml/m2) and diastolic (0.4 (6.6) ml/m2) volume indices, ejection fraction (-0.9 (6)%), and proatrial natriuretic factor (172 (992) pmol/l) after withdrawal of enalapril. The significantly lower left ventricular volumes observed with 6 months of enalapril therapy after acute myocardial infarction, as compared with placebo, were maintained 6 weeks after drug withdrawal. CONCLUSION--The results show that the benefit of 6 months of enalapril treatment initiated early after myocardial infarction is maintained for at least 6 weeks after drug withdrawal, suggesting that the treatment effect on left ventricular structure is not reversed by changes in loading conditions caused by subsequent drug withdrawal. PMID:7626347

  18. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ASPECTS OF ISOTOPIC FRACTIONATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, James R.

    1986-01-01

    Essential to the interpretation of natural variations of light stable isotope ratios is knowledge of the magnitude and temperature dependence of isotopic fractionation factors between the common minerals and fluids. These fractionation factors are obtained in three ways: (1) Semi-empirical calculations using spectroscopic data and the methods of statistical mechanics. (2) Laboratory calibration studies. (3) Measurements of natural samples whose formation conditions are well-known or highly constrained. In this chapter methods (1) and (2) are evaluated and a review is given of the present state of knowledge of the theory of isotopic fractionation and the fraction that influence the isotopic properties of minerals.

  19. FRACTIONAL INTEGRATION TOOLBOX

    PubMed Central

    Marinov, Toma M.; Ramirez, Nelson; Santamaria, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    The problems formulated in the fractional calculus framework often require numerical fractional integration/differentiation of large data sets. Several existing fractional control toolboxes are capable of performing fractional calculus operations, however, none of them can efficiently perform numerical integration on multiple large data sequences. We developed a Fractional Integration Toolbox (FIT), which efficiently performs fractional numerical integration/differentiation of the Riemann-Liouville type on large data sequences. The toolbox allows parallelization and is designed to be deployed on both CPU and GPU platforms. PMID:24812536

  20. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE...

  1. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  3. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  4. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  5. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  6. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  7. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  8. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  9. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  10. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  11. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  12. 33 CFR 100.911 - Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI. 100.911 Section 100.911 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.911 Bay City Airshow, Bay City, MI....

  13. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Gerold; Greening, Holly; Yates, Kimberly K.

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, is a shallow, subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of seagrasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds. Over the past three decades, nitrogen controls involving sources such as wastewater treatment plants, stormwater conveyance systems, fertilizer manufacturing and shipping operations, and power plants have been undertaken to meet these and other management objectives. Cumulatively, these controls have resulted in a 60% reduction in annual total nitrogen (TN) loads relative to earlier worse-case (latter 1970s) conditions. As a result, annual water-clarity and chlorophyll a targets are currently met in most years, and seagrass cover measured in 2008 was the highest recorded since 1950. Factors that have contributed to the observed improvements in Tampa Bay over the past several decades include the following: (1) Development of numeric, science-based water-quality targets to meet a long-term goal of restoring seagrass acreage to 1950s levels. Empirical and mechanistic models found that annual average chlorophyll a concentrations were a primary manageable factor affecting light attenuation. The models also quantified relationships between TN loads, chlorophyll a concentrations, light attenuation, and fluctuations in seagrass cover. The availability of long-term monitoring data, and a systematic process for using the data to evaluate the effectiveness of management actions, has allowed managers to track progress and

  14. NASA Satellites Aid in Chesapeake Bay Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    By studying the landscape around the Chesapeake Bay, NASA spacecrafts are helping land managers figure out how to battle the harmful pollutants that have added to the destruction of the bay's once ...

  15. Facility Layout Problems Using Bays: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudpour, Hamid; Jaafari, Amir Ardestani; Farahani, Leila Najafabadi

    2010-06-01

    Layout design is one of the most important activities done by industrial Engineers. Most of these problems have NP hard Complexity. In a basic layout design, each cell is represented by a rectilinear, but not necessarily convex polygon. The set of fully packed adjacent polygons is known as a block layout (Asef-Vaziri and Laporte 2007). Block layout is divided by slicing tree and bay layout. In bay layout, departments are located in vertical columns or horizontal rows, bays. Bay layout is used in real worlds especially in concepts such as semiconductor and aisles. There are several reviews in facility layout; however none of them focus on bay layout. The literature analysis given here is not limited to specific considerations about bay layout design. We present a state of art review for bay layout considering some issues such as the used objectives, the techniques of solving and the integration methods in bay.

  16. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS AND OYSTER TISSUES FROM THE CHESAPEAKE BAY. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detailed in the first part of this report is a development and discussion of the methodology used to extract and analyze sediment and oyster tissue samples from Chesapeake Bay for organic compounds. The method includes extraction, fractionation, and subsequent analysis using glas...

  17. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  18. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  19. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  20. 33 CFR 167.100 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. 167.100 Section 167.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: General. The traffic separation scheme in the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA, consists of four parts: Two precautionary areas...

  1. San Francisco Bay Sediment Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This March 3, 2000 image of the San Francisco Bay region shows a 60 by 75 kilometer Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image in band 1 (near infrared, 0.52-0.60 microns). The color coded suspended sediment image was created from band 1 by blacking out the land, and assigning colors to the relative brightnesses in the water. High values were colored white, then red, yellow, green, and blue. Brighter values in band 1 indicate higher sediment load in the water. The highest values are in Suisun and San Pablo Bays, into which the Sacramento River empties, and along the coast of the San Francisco Peninsula. The Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay water are relatively clear. Image courtesy ASTER Science Team

  2. Using Bayes to get the most out of non-significant results

    PubMed Central

    Dienes, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    No scientific conclusion follows automatically from a statistically non-significant result, yet people routinely use non-significant results to guide conclusions about the status of theories (or the effectiveness of practices). To know whether a non-significant result counts against a theory, or if it just indicates data insensitivity, researchers must use one of: power, intervals (such as confidence or credibility intervals), or else an indicator of the relative evidence for one theory over another, such as a Bayes factor. I argue Bayes factors allow theory to be linked to data in a way that overcomes the weaknesses of the other approaches. Specifically, Bayes factors use the data themselves to determine their sensitivity in distinguishing theories (unlike power), and they make use of those aspects of a theory’s predictions that are often easiest to specify (unlike power and intervals, which require specifying the minimal interesting value in order to address theory). Bayes factors provide a coherent approach to determining whether non-significant results support a null hypothesis over a theory, or whether the data are just insensitive. They allow accepting and rejecting the null hypothesis to be put on an equal footing. Concrete examples are provided to indicate the range of application of a simple online Bayes calculator, which reveal both the strengths and weaknesses of Bayes factors. PMID:25120503

  3. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Pathway Inhibition Resolves Tumor Hypoxia and Improves Local Tumor Control After Single-Dose Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Helbig, Linda; Koi, Lydia; Brüchner, Kerstin; Gurtner, Kristin; Hess-Stumpp, Holger; Unterschemmann, Kerstin; Pruschy, Martin; and others

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of BAY-84-7296, a novel orally bioavailable inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) activity, on hypoxia, microenvironment, and radiation response of tumors. Methods and Materials: UT-SCC-5 and UT-SCC-14 human squamous cell carcinomas were transplanted subcutaneously in nude mice. When tumors reached 4 mm in diameter BAY-84-7296 (Bayer Pharma AG) or carrier was daily administered to the animals. At 7 mm tumors were either excised for Western blot and immunohistologic investigations or were irradiated with single doses. After irradiation animals were randomized to receive BAY-84-7296 maintenance or carrier. Local tumor control was evaluated 150 days after irradiation, and the dose to control 50% of tumors (TCD{sub 50}) was calculated. Results: BAY-84-7296 decreased nuclear HIF-1α expression. Daily administration of inhibitor for approximately 2 weeks resulted in a marked decrease of pimonidazole hypoxic fraction in UT-SCC-5 (0.5% vs 21%, P<.0001) and in UT-SCC-14 (0.3% vs 19%, P<.0001). This decrease was accompanied by a significant increase in fraction of perfused vessels in UT-SCC-14 but not in UT-SCC-5. Bromodeoxyuridine and Ki67 labeling indices were significantly reduced only in UT-SCC-5. No significant changes were observed in vascular area or necrosis. BAY-84-7296 before single-dose irradiation significantly decreased TCD{sub 50}, with an enhancement ratio of 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.72) in UT-SCC-5 and of 1.55 (95% CI 1.26-1.94) in UT-SCC-14. BAY-84-7296 maintenance after irradiation did not further decrease TCD{sub 50}. Conclusions: BAY-84-7296 resulted in a marked decrease in tumor hypoxia and substantially reduced radioresistance of tumor cells with the capacity to cause a local recurrence after irradiation. The data suggest that reduction of cellular hypoxia tolerance by BAY-84-7296 may represent the primary biological mechanism underlying the observed enhancement of

  4. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  5. MOBILE BAY AND WATERSHED WATER QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two major products will come out of this project. The first is a compilation of 2001 water quality data for the Mobile bay area. The second is to develop and run a water quality moded for the bay to assist with development of TMDLs for the Bay

  6. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  7. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  8. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay. 117.1101 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1101 Sturgeon Bay. (a) The draw of the Michigan Street Bridge, mile 4.3 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open as follows: (1) From March 15 through...

  9. BAY REGION ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENT (BRACE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) was formed in 1991 to assist the community in developing a comprehensive plan to restore and protect Tampa Bay. The ecological indicator of the health of the Bay is the coverage of seagrasses, historically in decline, which are important to...

  10. Potamocorbula amurensis discovered in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    1989-01-01

    The small Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, is now a major component of benthic communities in most areas of northern San Francisco Bay and some areas of South Bay. Because of its wide tolerance of salinity and other environmental variables and its high abundance in many areas, benthic ecologists believe this recent invasion may represent a major and permanent change in the bay system.

  11. SARASOTA BAY 2000: A DECADE OF PROGRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sarasota Bay 2000: A Decade of Progress is produced by the Sarasota Bay National Estuary Program for the people of Manatee and Sarasota counties. This document presents information on the current condition of Sarasota Bay and the progress made in implementing the Comprehensive Co...

  12. Mobile Bay turbidity plume study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field transmissometer studies on the effect of suspended particulate material upon the appearance of water are reported. Quantitative correlations were developed between remotely sensed image density, optical sea truth data, and actual sediment load. Evaluation of satellite image sea truth data for an offshore plume projects contours of transmissivity for two different tidal phases. Data clearly demonstrate the speed of change and movement of the optical plume for water patterns associated with the mouth of Mobile bay in which relatively clear Gulf of Mexico water enters the bay on the eastern side. Data show that wind stress in excess of 15 knots has a marked impact in producing suspended sediment loads.

  13. South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    View eastward. Elevations in mapped area color coded: purple (approx 15 m below sea level) to red-orange (approx 90 m above sea level). South San Francisco Bay is very shallow, with a mean water depth of 2.7 m (8.9 ft). Trapezoidal depression near San Mateo Bridge is where sediment has been extracted for use in cement production and as bay fill. Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Distance across bottom of image approx 11 km (7 mi); vertical exaggeration 1.5X.

  14. Low calcium carbonate saturation state in an Arctic inland sea having large and varying fluvial inputs: The Hudson Bay system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Starr, Michel; Mei, Zhi-Ping; Granskog, Mats

    2014-09-01

    The Hudson Bay system (HBS) is a shallow inland sea in the Arctic, composed of Hudson Strait, Foxe Basin/Channel, James Bay, and Hudson Bay. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) measurements were used to investigate the state of ocean acidification, specifically calcium carbonate saturation states (Ω) and pH. The freshwater sources were identified from the relationship between oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) and salinity to understand the role of freshwater in ocean acidification. The saturation state of seawater with respect to calcium carbonate (Ω) in surface water (<10 m) of the HBS was strongly influenced by river runoff. Aragonite under-saturation (Ωarg < 1) was observed in the surface water of the south-eastern Hudson Bay, where the river runoff fraction was high (>10%). The watershed characteristics, however, influenced the alkalinity of river runoff in different parts of Hudson Bay, which contributed to Ω variation in the coastal region. In southwestern Hudson Bay where the watershed is dominated by limestone, Ω was higher compared to eastern Hudson Bay, where the watershed consists of an igneous rock formation. In deeper waters, low Ω is caused by remineralization of organic matter. The highest DIC concentrations (>2300 µmol/kg) were observed in the depths of central Hudson Bay with a pHtotal of 7.49 and Ωarg of 0.37. Over 67% and 22% of the bottom water of Hudson Bay was undersaturated with respect to aragonite and calcite respectively, despite Hudson Bay being very shallow (less than 250 m deep). The aragonite saturation horizon in the central Hudson Bay was around 50 m.

  15. DIY Fraction Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Alan; Graham, Louise

    2003-01-01

    Describes a very successful attempt to teach fractions to year 5 pupils based on pupils making their own fraction pack. Children decided for themselves how to make the fractional slices used in the activity using colored cardboard sheets and templates of a paper circle consisting of 24 equal slices. (Author/NB)

  16. A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that

  17. NARRAGANSETT BAY: COMPREHENSIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR NARRAGANSETT BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document sets forth goals and implementation strategies to improve and sustain the health of Narragansett Bay. It is the culmination of six years of research and review of the issues by scientists, planners, interest groups, and legal experts, an endeavor funded by the U.S. ...

  18. Tarpum Bay, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image the features that look like folded material are carbonate sand dunes in the shallow waters of Tarpum Bay, southwest of Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas. The sand making up the dunes comes from the erosion of limestone coral reefs, and has been shaped into dunes by ocean currents.

    This image was acquired on May 12, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the

  19. Fraction from Wax Apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry] Fruit Extract Ameliorates Insulin Resistance via Modulating Insulin Signaling and Inflammation Pathway in Tumor Necrosis Factor α-Treated FL83B Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chang; Chang, Chiao-Li

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with the development of insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, mouse FL83B cells were treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) to induce insulin resistance, and then co-incubated with a fraction from wax apple fruit extract (FWFE). This fraction significantly increased the uptake of the nonradioactive fluorescent indicator 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-NBDG) in insulin resistant cells. Western blot analysis revealed that, compared with the TNF-α-treated control group, FWFE increased the expression of the insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), and increased IR tyrosyl phosporylation, in insulin resistant FL83B cells. However, FWFE decreased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), but not the expression of the intercellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), in the same cells. These results suggest that FWFE might alleviate insulin resistance in TNF-α-treated FL83B cells by activating PI3K-Akt/PKB signaling and inhibiting inflammatory response via suppression of JNK, rather than ERK, activation. PMID:22942720

  20. Stable isotope tracing of anaerobic methane oxidation in the gassy sediments of Eckernfoerde Bay, German Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, C.S.; Albert, D.B.; Alperin, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    Methane concentrations in the pore waters of Eckernfoerde Bay in the German Baltic Sea generally reach gas bubble saturation values within the upper meter of the sediment column. The depth at which saturation occurs is controlled by a balance between rates of methane production, consumption (oxidation), and transport. The relative importance of anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) in controlling dissolved and gas bubble methane distributions in the bay's sediments is indirectly revealed through methane concentration versus depth profiles, depth variations in the stable C and H isotope composition of methane, and the C isotope composition of total dissolved inorganic carbon ({Sigma}CO{sub 2}). Direct radiotracer measurements indicate that AMO rates of over 15 mM/yr are focused at the base of the sulfate reduction zone. Diagenetic equations that describe the depth destructions of the {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D values of methane reproduce isotopic shifts observed throughout the methane oxidation zone and are best fit with kinetic isotope fractionation factors of 1.012 {+-} 0.001 and 1.120 {plus{underscore}minus} 0.020 respectively.

  1. Assessing the trace metal pollution in the sediments of Mahshahr Bay, Persian Gulf, via a novel pollution index.

    PubMed

    Vaezi, A R; Karbassi, A R; Fakhraee, M

    2015-10-01

    Sediment samples were collected from the Petrochemical Special Economic Zone of Mahshahr Bay, Persian Gulf, and analyzed for possible trace metal contamination by means of a chemical partitioning method. The heavy metal contents in the sediments follow the order of Al > Sr > Mn > Zn > Ni > Ba > Cr > Cu > As > Co. The degree of sediment contamination was evaluated using pollution load index (PLI), modified degree of contamination (mC d), geo-accumulation index (I geo), and enrichment factor (EF). All these indices compare present concentrations of metals to their background levels in crust and shale. In a specific area with high geological background like Mahshahr Bay, such a comparison may lead to erroneous conclusions. Due to the remarkable contribution of lithogenous fraction, as the natural component, to the bulk concentration of trace metals in the sediments of such an area, assessment of chemical hazard to the surrounding aquatic environment should not be carried out through traditional approaches. In the present study, anthropogenic portion of the metals was determined through one-step chemical sequential extraction and lithogenous portion substituted for the mean crust and shale levels in the new pollution index (RIAquatic). PLI, mC d, and I geo revealed overall low values, but EF, pollution index (I POLL), and newly developed pollution index were relatively high for all samples. PMID:26342477

  2. Assessment of concentration, bioaccumulation and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zooplankton of Chabahar Bay.

    PubMed

    Ziyaadini, Morteza; Mehdinia, Ali; Khaleghi, Leila; Nassiri, Mahmoud

    2016-06-15

    The amounts and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in the zooplankton community of Chabahar Bay were investigated. The highest amounts of total PAHs (tPAHs) in the water and zooplankton samples were 62.2ngL(-1) and 1478.6ngg(-1) dry weights, in near the Shahid Beheshti Port and desalination, respectively. The greatest amount of BAF (51,780) was obtained in the entry of Bay, and it was related to the phenanthrene accumulation. Using molecular ratio, the results showed that the major input source of PAH compounds in zooplankton of Chabahar Bay was pyrolytic (fuel) source. PMID:26944700

  3. Strategies in the Management of Tenure Fraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weart, Harry W.

    Tenure fraction has become recognized as an important factor to be taken into account in the administration of institutions of higher education, but there is danger that pursuit of lower fractions per se may lead to actions that unnecessarily weaken the institution or its educational programs. With the aid of an extremely simple mathematical model…

  4. MARYLAND COASTAL BAYS IR 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maryland Coastal Bays Program Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the Program through examination of its activities in relation to the CCMP. During the CCMP planning phase the stakeholders prioritized the actions and determined the impl...

  5. OPTICAL HETEROGENEITY IN GREEN BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differences in light penetration and light attenuating components and processes are documented along 112 km of the major (NE/SW) axis of Green Bay (Lake Michigan) during a three-day cruise (May 25-27, 1982). easurements included diffuse attenuation of downwelling irradiance (kd),...

  6. Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services webpage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public website describing research on the large-scale physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of coastal wetlands and estuaries, with emphasis on the Gulf of Mexico. Hyperlinks direct users to mapped ecosystem services of interest and value to Tampa Bay area residents, and i...

  7. The outflow of radionuclides from Novaya Zemlya bays--modeling and monitoring strategies.

    PubMed

    Harms, I H; Povinec, P P

    1999-09-30

    Hydrodynamic model results are used to evaluate possible monitoring strategies for a continuous survey of underwater dump sites. The Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model (HAMSOM) is applied to Abrosimov Bay and forced with realistic, transient wind fields and air temperatures. The three-dimensional circulation model is coupled to a dynamic-thermodynamic ice model that accounts for surface heat fluxes, fractional ice cover and ice thickness. Model results show significant variations in the bay circulation due to a pronounced seasonality in the wind forcing and the ice cover. The circulation is weakest in early summer when wind speeds are low and the ice still covers most parts of the bay. In autumn, circulation and flushing of the bay is most enhanced, due to increasing wind speeds and the absence of an ice cover. Dispersion scenarios were carried out assuming a leakage at dumped objects. During most of the year the obtained tracer concentrations in the bay are higher in the upper layers than close to the bottom, indicating an outflow at the surface and a compensatory inflow below. This general pattern is only reversed during spring and early summer, when the wind directions change. Since ice problems make it almost impossible to monitor surface waters or even the whole water column in a shallow bay, the only way to install a monitoring system, is at the bottom of the bay, as close as possible to dumped objects. Data transmission via satellite or radio could be realized from a small station located on the bay's edge. PMID:10568276

  8. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  9. Biological interference of optical backscatterance sensors in Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    Optical backscatterance (OBS, D&A Instruments, Inc.1 1 Use of brand, firm, or trade names in this paper is for identification purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.) sensors for measuring suspended-solids concentrations have been deployed in Tampa Bay to monitor resuspension of bottom sediments. This paper describes biological factors that affected the OBS sensors deployed in Tampa Bay and discusses deployment strategies that minimize biological interference. Phytoplankton may interfere with the OBS sensors when the suspended-solids concentration is near or below the sensor response threshold. Fish swimming in front of the OBS sensors caused spikes in the OBS sensor output, so the median average was more appropriate than the mean average. An algal slime on the OBS sensors caused excessive backscatterance that dominated the backscatterance from suspended material. Because of the fouling problem, deployments were limited to less than a week, and OBS sensors were cleaned daily, if possible. Calibration of OBS sensors with water samples collected from Tampa Bay was satisfactory when biological interference was not significant. When properly deployed, the OBS sensors can successfully monitor sediment resuspension in Tampa Bay and similar subtropical estuaries. ?? 1993.

  10. FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377

  11. Spatially and Temporally Detailed Modeling of Water Quality in Narragansett Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlestra, L.; Dettmann, E. H.; Abdelrhman, M.

    2014-12-01

    Nutrient loading to Narragansett Bay has led to eutrophication, resulting in hypoxia and anoxia, finfish and shellfish kills, loss of seagrass, and reductions in the recreational and economic value of the Bay. We are developing a model that simulates the effects of external nutrient and hydrologic loading on water quality in Narragansett Bay. Extensive field monitoring programs and process studies by the Narragansett Bay Commission, Federal and State agencies, municipalities, and university groups have been measuring physical parameters, nutrient concentrations and other water quality parameters in the Bay and its tributaries, nutrient inputs from wastewater treatment facilities, and process kinetic parameters. We are using data for existing nutrient concentrations, river flow and wastewater treatment facility effluent flow to estimate nutrient loading for non-sampled days using the U.S. Geological Survey's Load Estimator (LOADEST) software. The time-variable data so generated will be used as input to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's WASPEUTRO model linked with a calibrated three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). The primary objectives of the modeling effort are to simulate the effects of nutrient loading on dissolved oxygen concentrations and chlorophyll-a, an important parameter for water clarity and seagrass viability, to estimate the sensitivity of the Bay to changes in nutrient loading and freshwater inflow, and to explore the potential effects of management actions and other factors such as climate change on these water quality parameters in the Bay.

  12. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The GAS container on the left contains the COLLisions Into Dust Experiment, or COLLIDE, which will study low velocity collisions between space-borne particles in an attempt to better understand planetary ring dynamics. The STS-90 mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  13. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Investigator teams from nine countries will conduct 31 studies in the microgravity environment of space. Other agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  14. Impact of perforation variables on well productivity at Prudhoe Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Twyford, L.R.; Tyler, T.N.

    1984-04-01

    Numerical models and laboratory studies have been performed by other investigators to define the impact of various perforation parameters on well productivity. Field verification of these findings is difficult due to uncontrolled factors such as charge performance, drilling invasion, and reservoir quality. Using information from Prudhoe Bay, a study of perforation parameters affecting well productivity was undertaken in an effort to identify the most significant perforation variables in terms of initial and long term well performance. Findings from the study of field data verifies that perforation penetration is the most significant factor affecting well performance. Wells perforated with deep penetrating casing guns have lower drawdowns and significantly lower decline rates than wells perforated with through tubing guns. The high decline rates at Prudhoe Bay are a result of calcium carbonate scale buildup, which is exacerbated by perforations of poor quality. The data also suggests that O /SUP ./ gun phasing is comparable to other phasing when perforating in deviated, large diameter well bores.

  15. Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkeson, T. D.

    2003-12-01

    The Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) was formed in 1991 to assist in developing a comprehensive plan to restore and protect Tampa Bay in Florida, USA. An ecological indicator of the health of the Bay is the coverage of seagrasses, historically in decline, which are important to the aquatic habitat and food web of the bay. Seagrass decline is linked to excess of plant-stimulating forms of nitrogen to the bay, promoting algae growth, which shades out light needed to sustain seagrasses. One element of the TBEP is a private-local-state, multi-agency Nitrogen Management Consortium that seeks to limit nitrogen loading to the Bay to the 1992-1994 average. Present estimates suggest atmospheric deposition comprises ~ 30% of the nitrogen budget of the Bay. This estimate was based, however, on limited ambient monitoring data and simple models, typical of such national estuary program efforts nationwide. In the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Florida DEP joined with TBEP to increase the intensity, sophistication and spatial scope of monitoring and modeling and provide better information on air quality in the Tampa Bay area. The result will be improved estimates of the effects of local and regional emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) on the Bay and the benefits to be gained from implementation of emissions reduction strategies.

  16. Spin polarization at fractional filling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groshaus, Javier; Plochocka, P.; Rappaport, M.; Bar-Joseph, I.; Dennis, B.; Pfeiffer, L.; West, K.; Pinczuk, A.

    2006-03-01

    We measure the spin polarization of a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in the Quantum Hall regime by photocurrent interband absorption spectroscopy. The sample is a single GaAs quantum well that is placed in a dilution fridge with optical windows at low temperatures down to 70 mK. The 2DES density is tuned by a back-gate. We illuminate with circularly polarized light. This allows us to discriminate optical transitions into each electronic spin level. We show that the spectra consist of many-body electron-hole complexes. The lowest in energy is a singlet trion-like transition T (J.G. Groshaus et.al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 96802, 2004). In the T-absorption process, the photocreated electron- hole pair binds to an electron from the 2DES with spin that is opposite to that of the photocreated one. We model this process taking into account correlations and phase space considerations. Using this model and measurements of the T-absorption, we obtain the spin polarization of the 2DES. We find that at ν=1/3 the 2DES is fully polarized. As ν is increased there is loss of spin polarization. Around ν=2/3 the 2DES is half polarized. At this ν, the 2DES remains half polarized for the relatively wide range of magnetic fields of 2 Tesla. This points to the existence of spatial magnetic domains, as proposed by G. Murthy (Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 350, 2000).

  17. Recent estuarine deposits, Chesapeake Bay and Apalachicola Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, J.F.

    1985-02-01

    Estuarine facies are not easily discernible in the ancient record, because they represent a transition stage between fluvial and marine deposits. Modern estuarine sediments, nevertheless, are widespread because of the ongoing marine transgression. This widespread occurrence indicates that, during a highstand, estuaries are important centers for deposition of sediments shed from the continents. Sedimentologic studies have been made of 2 major estuaries: Chesapeake Bay (the largest US estuary) and Apalachicola Bay (estuary of the largest river in Florida). A detailed sediment budget for the Chesapeake, using radiotracers, clay mineralogy, magnetic stratigraphy, and other methods, demonstrates that the estuary is filling rapidly with sediment. Its remaining sedimentologic lifetime can be measured in centuries. Most of this filling has come at the expense of shoreline erosion. The rate of sedimentation, as measured by C-14, Pb-210, and Cs-137, has accelerated sharply over the past 2 centuries, from a few millimeters per year to present rates of a few centimeters per year. Sediment trapping effectiveness of the Chesapeake is nearly 100%. For Apalachicola Bay, the filling rate has been slower, although it appears to be nearly as efficient in retaining sediment. It has undergone a comparable change in sedimentation rates and sources over the past few centuries, as shown by magnetic stratigraphy and clay mineralogy. Given favorable conditions, such estuaries might be expected to contribute relatively thin but areally extensive bodies of fine-grained sediment to the rock record.

  18. 75 FR 67620 - Temporary Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing temporary security zones on the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay, Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay, CA, in support of increasing the size of security zones currently provided by 33 CFR 165.1183 from 100 yards to 500 yards. These temporary security zones are necessary to effectively protect cruise ships, high interest vessels (HIVs), or tankers, as......

  19. Hydrogen isotopes in individual alkenones from the Chesapeake Bay estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Valérie F.; Sachs, Julian P.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios of individual alkenones from haptophyte algae were measured in suspended particles and surface sediment from the Chesapeake Bay (CB) estuary, eastern USA, in order to determine their relationship to water δD values and salinity. δD values of four alkenones (MeC 37:2, MeC 37:3, EtC 38:2, EtC 38:3) from particles and sediments were between -165‰ and -221‰ and increased linearly ( R2 = 0.7-0.9) with water δD values from the head to the mouth of the Bay. Individual alkenones were depleted in deuterium by 156-188‰ relative to water. The MeC 37 alkenones were consistently enriched by ˜12‰ relative to the EtC 38 alkenones, and the di-unsaturated alkenones of both varieties were consistently enriched by ˜20‰ relative to the tri-unsaturated alkenones. All of the increase in alkenone δD values could be accounted for by the water δD increase. Consequently, no net change in alkenone-water D/ H fractionation occurred as a result of the salinity increase from 10 to 29. This observation is at odds with results from culture studies with alkenone-producing marine coccolithophorids, and from two field studies, one with a dinoflagellate sterol in the CB, and one with a wide variety of lipids in saline ponds on Christmas Island, that indicate a decline in D/ H fractionation with increasing salinity. Why D/ H fractionation in alkenones in the CB showed no dependence on salinity, while D/ H fractionation in CB dinsoterol decreased by 1‰ per unit increase in salinity remains to be determined. Two hypotheses we consider to be valid are that (i) the assemblage of alkenone-producing haptophytes changes along the Bay and each species has a different sensitivity to salinity, such that no apparent trend in αalkenone-water occurs along the salinity gradient, and (ii) greater osmoregulation capacity in coastal haptophytes may result in a diminished sensitivity of alkenone-water D/ H fractionation to salinity changes.

  20. Can Kindergartners Do Fractions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwikla, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics professor Julie Cwikla decided that she needed to investigate young children's understandings and see what precurricular partitioning notions young minds bring to the fraction table. Cwikla realized that only a handful of studies have examined how preschool-age and early elementary school-age students solve fraction problems…

  1. The Future of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman P.

    2007-01-01

    In the 1970s, the movement to the metric system (which has still not completely occurred in the United States) and the advent of hand-held calculators led some to speculate that decimal representation of numbers would render fractions obsolete. This provocative proposition stimulated Zalman Usiskin to write "The Future of Fractions" in 1979. He…

  2. (Carbon isotope fractionation inplants)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  3. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  4. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powars, David S.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Gohn, Gregory S.; Horton, Jr., J. Wright

    2015-01-01

    About 35 million years ago, during late Eocene time, a 2-mile-wide asteroid or comet smashed into Earth in what is now the lower Chesapeake Bay in Virginia. The oceanic impact vaporized, melted, fractured, and (or) displaced the target rocks and sediments and sent billions of tons of water, sediments, and rocks into the air. Glassy particles of solidified melt rock rained down as far away as Texas and the Caribbean. Models suggest that even up to 50 miles away the velocity of the intensely hot air blast was greater than 1,500 miles per hour, and ground shaking was equivalent to an earthquake greater than magnitude 8.0 on the Richter scale. Large tsunamis affected most of the North Atlantic basin. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is among the 20 largest known impact structures on Earth.

  5. Role of synoptic-scale forcing in cyclogenesis over the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akter, Nasreen; Tsuboki, Kazuhisa

    2014-11-01

    The cyclone frequency distribution over the Bay of Bengal during 1990-2009 was distinctly bimodal, with a primary post-monsoon peak and a secondary pre-monsoon peak, despite the very high convective available potential energy (CAPE) during the pre-monsoon. The location of the monsoon trough over the bay is a primary factor in tropical cyclogenesis. Because the trough was in the northernmost bay during the pre-monsoon season, cyclogenesis was inactive in the southern bay, where a strong southwesterly wind shear was found. In this season, moreover, a hot, dry air mass extending vertically from 950 to 600 hPa was advected from northwestern India toward the bay. Moist, warm southwesterly winds penetrating below the deep, dry air mass caused a prominent dryline to form aloft on the northwestern side of the bay. The synoptic-scale hot, dry air forcing to the bay suppressed the active convection necessary for cyclogenesis. The strength of the stable environmental layer, represented by convective inhibition (CIN), was extremely large, and acted as a cap over the northern and northwestern bay. Conversely, during the post-monsoon, there were no horizontal temperature or moisture gradients, and CAPE and CIN were fairly modest. The entire bay was covered by a very deep, moist layer from the surface to 700 hPa transported from the east. The monsoon trough position and the environmental CIN in combination can explain the lower frequency of cyclogenesis during the pre-monsoon compared with the post-monsoon season.

  6. Terra Nova Bay Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In Terra Nova Bay, off the Scott Coast of Victoria Land, Antarctica, a large pocket of open water persists throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere winter, even while most of the rest of the Antarctic coastline is firmly embraced by the frozen Southern Ocean. This pocket of open water--a polynya--results from exceptionally strong winds that blow downslope from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. These fierce katabatic winds drive the sea ice eastward. Since the dominant ice drift pattern in the area is northward, the Drygalski Ice Tongue prevents the bay from being re-populated with sea ice. This image of the Terra Nova Bay polynya was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite on October 16, 2007. Sea ice sits over the Ross Sea like a cracked and crumbling windshield. Blue-tinged glaciers flow down from the Trans-Antarctic Mountains. Although glaciers can appear blue because of melt water, they can also get that tint when the wind scours and polishes the ice surface. Given the strength of the katabatic winds along this part of the Antarctic coast, it is likely that the blue color of these glaciers is a result of their having been swept clean of snow. The large image has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel.

  7. Lithospheric architecture beneath Hudson Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, Robert W.; Miller, Meghan S.; Darbyshire, Fiona A.

    2015-07-01

    Hudson Bay overlies some of the thickest Precambrian lithosphere on Earth, whose internal structures contain important clues to the earliest workings of plate formation. The terminal collision, the Trans-Hudson Orogen, brought together the Western Churchill craton to the northwest and the Superior craton to the southeast. These two Archean cratons along with the Paleo-Proterozoic Trans-Hudson internides, form the core of the North American craton. We use S to P converted wave imaging and absolute shear velocity information from a joint inversion of P to S receiver functions, new ambient noise derived phase velocities, and teleseismic phase velocities to investigate this region and determine both the thickness of the lithosphere and the presence of internal discontinuities. The lithosphere under central Hudson Bay approaches ˜350 km thick but is thinner (˜200-250 km) around the periphery of the Bay. Furthermore, the amplitude of the LAB conversion from the S receiver functions is unusually large for a craton, suggesting a large thermal contrast across the LAB, which we interpret as direct evidence of the thermal insulation effect of continents on the asthenosphere. Within the lithosphere, midlithospheric discontinuities, significantly shallower than the base of the lithosphere, are often imaged, suggesting the mechanisms that form these layers are common. Lacking time-history information, we infer that these discontinuities reflect reactivation of formation structures during deformation of the craton.

  8. The influence of climate, nutrient loading and predation on spatial and temporal changes in fish assemblages in Narragansett Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine fish are a highly valued resources that are affected by several factors, including climate, trophic interactions, pollution, and fishing pressure. Here, we examine the spatial and temporal patterns in estuarine fish assemblage in Narragansett Bay, an estuary located in...

  9. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Sister Bay near Sister Bay, WI. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31,...

  10. Virioplankton distribution and activity in a tropical eutrophicated bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettarel, Yvan; Arfi, Robert; Bouvier, Thierry; Bouvy, Marc; Briand, Enora; Colombet, Jonathan; Corbin, Daniel; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2008-11-01

    The study of lysogeny in aquatic systems is an often overlooked aspect of microbial ecology, especially in tropical environments. Herein, the fraction of lysogenized cells (FLC) was detected in the surface waters of 20 coastal stations distributed from the eutrophicated shoreline to seaward waters of Hann Bay (Senegal). Concurrently, viral lytic infection rates were extrapolated from the frequency of visibly infected bacterial cells (FVIC), as determined from transmission electron microscopy observations. The experimental induction of prophage was observed in less than 3% of indigenous marine bacteria, suggesting that lysogenic stages of infection are rare in Hann Bay. Similarly, only 0.5-4.7% of bacteria showed visible signs of lytic infection. However, the positive correlation between the fraction of lysogenic and lytic cells ( r = 0.67, p < 0.05, n = 20) may actually indicate that the coexistence of both lifestyles may be due to the massive and rapid induction of lysogens, potentially from the high levels of local UV radiation. Overall, we suggest that the determination of FVIC and FLC to examine the predominance of one type of cycle versus the other may be a source of misinterpretation in some particular aquatic environments.

  11. Interactions between finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, E Brian

    2014-11-15

    Interactions between open-net pen finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay in Nova Scotia, Canada, were investigated using fishermen's participatory research in annual lobster trap surveys over seven years. Fishermen recorded lobster catches during the last two weeks of May from 2007 to 2013. Catches for each trap haul were recorded separately for ovigerous and market-sized lobsters. Catch trends within the bay were compared to regional trends. Results of correlation analyses indicated that ovigerous catch trends were strongly affected by the fish farm's feeding/fallow periods. There was no significant correlation between trends for bay and LFA lobster landings. Patterns of lobster catch per unit effort extending over considerable distance in Port Mouton Bay appear to be influenced by proximity to the fish farm regardless of year-to-year variation in water temperatures and weather conditions. Odours and habitat changes surrounding open-net pen finfish operations are potential factors affecting lobster displacement. PMID:25242235

  12. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen.

  13. 76 FR 38020 - Safety Zone; Bay Point Fireworks, Bay Point Marina; Marblehead, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Point Fireworks, Bay Point Marina.... This Zone is intended to restrict vessels from portions of Lake Erie for the Bay Point Fireworks. This... fireworks displays. DATES: This regulation is effective from 10 p.m. on July 2, 2011 through 10:20 p.m....

  14. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay... of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...

  15. 78 FR 29289 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA... Big Bay Boom Fireworks display from 8:45 p.m. to 10 p.m. on July 4, 2013. These proposed safety zones... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A....

  16. 78 FR 39610 - Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Bay Boom, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA... Fourth of July Big Bay Boom Fireworks display on the evening of July 4, 2013. These temporary safety... as being available in the docket, go to http://www.regulations.gov , type the docket number in...

  17. EMPACT PROJECT FOR NARRAGANSETT BAY / MOUNT HOPE BAY,PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND / FALL RIVER, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will provide the public with timely information about water quality in the Narragansett Bay and its tributaries and the effects of natural and man-made influences on the Bay. This project will extend the water quality study of Narragansett Bay into the urban estua...

  18. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  19. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with these areas in 33 CFR Part 207. ... Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel...

  20. Substructure view of the Young's Bay Bridge, view looking east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Substructure view of the Young's Bay Bridge, view looking east, north side of the bascule trusswork - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  1. General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking southeast, north side of structure - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  2. General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking east - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  3. General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of Old Young's Bay Bridge, view looking northwest - Old Young's Bay Bridge, Spanning Young's Bay at Milepoint 6.89 on Warrenton-Astoria Highway (Highway No. 9), Astoria, Clatsop County, OR

  4. Role of remote sensing in Bay measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mugler, J. P., Jr.; Godfrey, J. P.; Hickman, G. D.; Hovis, W. G.; Pearson, A. O.; Weaver, K. N.

    1978-01-01

    Remote measurements of a number of surface or near surface parameters for baseline definition and specialized studies, remote measurements of episodic events, and remote measurements of the Bay lithosphere are considered in terms of characterizing and understanding the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay. Geologic processes and features best suited for information enhancement by remote sensing methods are identified. These include: (1) rates of sedimentation in the Bay; (2) rates of erosion of Bay shorelines; (3) spatial distribution and geometry of aquifers; (4) mapping of Karst terrain (sinkholes); and (5) mapping of fracture patterns. Recommendations for studying problem areas identified are given.

  5. Real World: NASA and the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn how NASA uses Earth observing satellites to monitor conditions in the Chesapeake Bay over time. Information about pollution, eutrophication, land cover and watershed runoff helps water manage...

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  7. Fractional calculus in bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Magin, Richard L

    2004-01-01

    Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

  8. Multiple daily fractionation schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Peschel, R.E.; Fischer, J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Although conventional fractionation schedules have been satisfactory for the treatment of some tumors, there is reason to believe that the results of radiation therapy could be improved in some cases by appropriate alterations in treatment schedules. The pharmacological characteristics of some of the electron affinic radiation sensitizers have provided added incentive to investigate newer fractionation schemes, particularly ones which deliver the majority of the radiation dose in short periods of time. This editorial discusses three papers describing preliminary clinical studies using multi-daily fractionated (MDF) radiation therapy. Two of these studies also make use of the radiation sensitizer misonidazole. (KRM)

  9. Entropy analysis of SPM patterns: case study of Liverpool Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivtsov, V.; Mikkelsen, O. A.; Jones, S. E.

    2012-06-01

    In Liverpool Bay (UK), suspended particulate matter (SPM) monitoring data and tidal data collected in the period September 2004 to February 2006 were analyzed by means of entropy analysis and factor analysis in order to identify the meteorological and oceanographic variables of importance for the characterisation of the shape of SPM size spectra. Entropy analysis of in situ particle size spectra revealed five basic types, each attributable to different sets of environmental conditions. The results of correlation analysis showed that changes in the position of the main modal are significantly related to several environmental variables. One important class of these relationships is represented by wave-related variables (e.g. wave energy, maximum orbital velocity). Another important class of correlations (e.g. with salinity, density, water depth) can be associated with the inshore-offshore gradient in depth and physicochemical conditions existing in the bay. The strongest correlations, however, were with the air and water temperatures. Factor analysis (with Varimax rotation) of the overall dataset extracted four factors, together explaining over 70% of variance. Factor 1 explains >21% of the total variance, and appears to be related to wave activity. Factor 2, explaining 18.5% of the total variance, appears to be related to tidal currents. Factor 3 explains 16.4% of the total variance observed, and appears to be related to temperature-modulated seasonal differences in oceanographic conditions. Factor 4 explains 15.2% of the total variance observed, and represents the inshore-offshore gradient in depth and physicochemical conditions. These findings are a step towards a better characterisation of floc size and, therefore, more precise calculations of sedimentation and transport rates needed for an improved understanding of ecosystem functioning in Liverpool Bay and, for that matter, other similar settings.

  10. Detecting the spatial and temporal variability of chlorophylla concentration and total suspended solids in Apalachicola Bay, Florida using MODIS imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Hongfang; Hladik, C.M.; Huang, W.; Milla, K.; Edmiston, L.; Harwell, M.A.; Schalles, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Apalachicola Bay, Florida, accounts for 90% of Florida's and 10% of the nation's eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) harvesting. Chlorophyll-a concentration and total suspended solids (TSS) are two important water quality variables, among other environmental factors such as salinity, for eastern oyster production in Apalachicola Bay. In this research, we developed regression models of the relationships between the reflectance of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra 250 m data and the two water quality variables based on the Bay-wide field data collected during 14-17 October 2002, a relatively dry period, and 3-5 April 2006, a relatively wet period, respectively. Then we selected the best regression models (highest coefficient of determination, R2) to derive Bay-wide maps of chlorophylla concentration and TSS for the two periods. The MODIS-derived maps revealed large spatial and temporal variations in chlorophylla concentration and TSS across the entire Apalachicola Bay. ?? 2010 Taylor & Francis.

  11. Iron isotope fractionation in subterranean estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouxel, Olivier; Sholkovitz, Edward; Charette, Matthew; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2008-07-01

    Dissolved Fe concentrations in subterranean estuaries, like their river-seawater counterparts, are strongly controlled by non-conservative behavior during mixing of groundwater and seawater in coastal aquifers. Previous studies at a subterranean estuary of Waquoit Bay on Cape Cod, USA demonstrate extensive precipitation of groundwater-borne dissolved ferrous iron and subsequent accumulation of iron oxides onto subsurface sands. Waquoit Bay is thus an excellent natural laboratory to assess the mechanisms of Fe-isotope fractionation in redox-stratified environments and determine potential Fe-isotope signatures of groundwater sources to coastal seawater. Here, we report Fe isotope compositions of iron-coated sands and porewaters beneath the intertidal zone of Waquoit Bay. The distribution of pore water Fe shows two distinct sources of Fe: one residing in the upward rising plume of Fe-rich groundwater and the second in the salt-wedge zone of pore water. The groundwater source has high Fe(II) concentration consistent with anoxic conditions and yield δ56Fe values between 0.3 and -1.3‰. In contrast, sediment porewaters occurring in the mixing zone of the subterranean estuary have very low δ56Fe values down to -5‰. These low δ56Fe values reflect Fe-redox cycling and result from the preferential retention of heavy Fe-isotopes onto newly formed Fe-oxyhydroxides. Analysis of Fe-oxides precipitated onto subsurface sands in two cores from the subterranean estuary revealed strong δ56Fe and Fe concentration gradients over less than 2m, yielding an overall range of δ56Fe values between -2 and 1.5‰. The relationship between Fe concentration and δ56Fe of Fe-rich sands can be modeled by the progressive precipitation of Fe-oxides along fluid flow through the subterranean estuary. These results demonstrate that large-scale Fe isotope fractionation (up to 5‰) can occur in subterranean estuaries, which could lead to coastal seawater characterized by very low δ56Fe values

  12. Modeling spatial and temporal variation of suitable nursery habitats for Atlantic sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklitschek, Edwin J.; Secor, David H.

    2005-07-01

    For rare and endangered species, bioenergetics modeling can represent a valuable approach for understanding issues of habitat value and connectivity among potential habitats within nurseries in restoration programs. We used multivariable bioenergetics and survival models for Atlantic sturgeon to generate spatially explicit maps of potential production in the Chesapeake Bay. For the period 1993-2002, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality effects (temperature, dissolved oxygen [DO] and salinity) on potential production were evaluated. In addition, two forecasted scenarios were modeled: one implementing newly revised U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DO-criteria for the Chesapeake Bay, and the other assuming a bay-wide increase of 1 °C due to an underlying trend in regional climate. Atlantic sturgeon's low (survival/growth) tolerance to temperatures >28 °C was a critical constraint during their first 1-2 summers of life. Hatched in freshwater (spring to mid-summer), young-of-the-year were predicted to occupy cooler (deeper) areas as temperature approached sub-lethal levels. While most thermal refuges were located down-estuary, a large fraction of potential refuges were unsuitable due to persistent hypoxia and/or salinity levels beyond the limited osmoregulatory capabilities of early juvenile Atlantic sturgeon. As a result, suitable summer habitats for juvenile Atlantic sturgeons in the Chesapeake Bay were predicted to be spatially restricted and variable between years, ranging from 0 to 35% of the modeled bay surface area. In critical (drought) years, almost no summer habitat was predicted to be available for juvenile Atlantic sturgeon. Value and size of nursery habitat was highly sensitive to climatic oscillations and anthropogenic interventions affecting freshwater inflow, water temperature and/or DO. Achieving EPA DO-criteria for the Chesapeake Bay was predicted to increase total suitable habitat by 13% for an average year, while increasing

  13. FCC main fractionator revamps

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, S.W.; Martin, G.R.; Sloley, A.W. )

    1993-03-01

    Structured packing use in fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) main fractionators significantly impacts unit pressure profile. Unit pressure balance links the FCC main fractionator, reactor, regenerator, air compressor and wet gas compressor. Unit pressure balance should be viewed as a design variable when evaluating FCC unit revamps. Depending upon limitations of the particular FCC unit, capacity increases of 12.5% to 22.5% have been achieved without modifications to major rotating equipment, by revamping FCC main fractionators with structured packing. An examination of three FCC main fractionator revamps show improvements to pressure profiles and unit capacity. The three revamps described included a wet gas compressor volume limit; an air blower limitation; and a wet gas compressor motor limitation.

  14. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  15. Sources of mercury to San Francisco Bay surface sediment as revealed by mercury stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, Gretchen E.; Blum, Joel D.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark

    2011-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations and isotopic compositions were examined in shallow-water surface sediment (0-2 cm) from San Francisco (SF) Bay to determine the extent to which historic Hg mining contributes to current Hg contamination in SF Bay, and to assess the use of Hg isotopes to trace sources of contamination in estuaries. Inter-tidal and wetland sediment had total Hg (Hg T) concentrations ranging from 161 to 1529 ng/g with no simple gradients of spatial variation. In contrast, inter-tidal and wetland sediment displayed a geographic gradient of δ 202Hg values, ranging from -0.30‰ in the southern-most part of SF Bay (draining the New Almaden Hg District) to -0.99‰ in the northern-most part of SF Bay near the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Similar to SF Bay inter-tidal sediment, surface sediment from the Alviso Slough channel draining into South SF Bay had a δ 202Hg value of -0.29‰, while surface sediment from the Cosumnes River and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta draining into north SF Bay had lower average δ 202Hg values of -0.90‰ and -0.75‰, respectively. This isotopic trend suggests that Hg-contaminated sediment from the New Almaden Hg District mixes with Hg-contaminated sediment from a low δ 202Hg source north of SF Bay. Tailings and thermally decomposed ore (calcine) from the New Idria Hg mine in the California Coast Range had average δ 202Hg values of -0.37 and +0.03‰, respectively, showing that Hg calcination fractionates Hg isotopes resulting in Hg contamination from Hg(II) mine waste products with higher δ 202Hg values than metallic Hg(0) produced from Hg mines. Thus, there is evidence for at least two distinct isotopic signals for Hg contamination in SF Bay: Hg associated with calcine waste materials at Hg mines in the Coast Range, such as New Almaden and New Idria; and Hg(0) produced from these mines and used in placer gold mines and/or in other industrial processes in the Sierra Nevada region and SF Bay area.

  16. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  1. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments or... published at 74 FR 32428 on July 8, 2009, is adopted as a final rule with the following changes: PART 100... Coast Guard is establishing a permanent special local regulation on Great South Bay, NY between...

  2. Symmetric continued fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Panprasitwech, Oranit; Laohakosol, Vichian; Chaichana, Tuangrat

    2010-11-11

    Explicit formulae for continued fractions with symmetric patterns in their partial quotients are constructed in the field of formal power series. Similar to the work of Cohn in 1996, which generalized the so-called folding lemma to {kappa}-fold symmetry, the notion of {kappa}-duplicating symmetric continued fractions is investigated using a modification of the 1995 technique due to Clemens, Merrill and Roeder.

  3. Systems Performance Analyses of Alaska Wind-Diesel Projects; Toksook Bay, Alaska (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a systems performance analysis of the wind-diesel project in Toksook Bay, Alaska. Data provided for this project include community load data, average wind turbine output, average diesel plant output, thermal load data, average net capacity factor, optimal net capacity factor based on Alaska Energy Authority wind data, average net wind penetration, estimated fuel savings, and wind system availability.

  4. Levi-Civita cylinders with fractional angular deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

    2011-05-01

    The angular deficit factor in the Levi-Civita vacuum metric has been parametrized using a Riemann-Liouville fractional integral. This introduces a new parameter into the general relativistic cylinder description, the fractional index α. When the fractional index is continued into the negative α region, new behavior is found in the Gott-Hiscock cylinder and in an Israel shell.

  5. 76 FR 2085 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System; North Inlet-Winyah Bay, SC and San Francisco Bay, CA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... support of the Bay's growing population: Climate change, species interactions, water quality, and habitat...- Winyah Bay such as impacts from coastal and watershed development, climate events on coastal...

  6. Development of a Hydrodynamic and Transport model of Bellingham Bay in Support of Nearshore Habitat Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang

    2010-04-22

    root mean square error values for surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity time series are 0.11 m, 0.10 m/s, 1.28oC, and 1.91 ppt, respectively. The model was able to reproduce the salinity and temperature stratifications inside Bellingham Bay. Wetting and drying processes in tidal flats in Bellingham Bay, Samish Bay, and Padilla Bay were also successfully simulated. Both model results and observed data indicated that water surface elevations inside Bellingham Bay are highly correlated to tides. Circulation inside the bay is weak and complex and is affected by various forcing mechanisms, including tides, winds, freshwater inflows, and other local forcing factors. The Bellingham Bay model solution was successfully linked to the NOAA oil spill trajectory simulation model “General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME).” Overall, the Bellingham Bay model has been calibrated reasonably well and can be used to provide detailed hydrodynamic information in the bay and adjacent water bodies. While there is room for further improvement with more available data, the calibrated hydrodynamic model provides useful hydrodynamic information in Bellingham Bay and can be used to support sediment transport and water quality modeling as well as assist in the design of nearshore restoration scenarios.

  7. soil organic matter fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osat, Maryam; Heidari, Ahmad

    2010-05-01

    Carbon is essential for plant growth, due to its effects on other soil properties like aggregation. Knowledge of dynamics of organic matter in different locations in the soil matrix can provide valuable information which affects carbon sequestration and soil the other soil properties. Extraction of soil organic matter (SOM) fractions has been a long standing approach to elucidating the roles of soil organic matter in soil processes. Several kind fractionation methods are used and all provide information on soil organic matter function. Physical fractionation capture the effects on SOM dynamics of the spatial arrangement of primary and secondary organomineral particles in soil while chemical fractionation can not consider the spatial arrangement but their organic fractions are suitable for advanced chemical characterization. Three method of physical separation of soil have been used, sieving, sedimentation and densitometry. The distribution of organic matter within physical fractions of the soil can be assessed by sieving. Sieving separates soil particles based strictly on size. The study area is located on north central Iran, between 35° 41'- 36° 01' N and 50° 42'- 51° 14' E. Mean annual precipitation about 243.8 mm and mean annual air temperature is about 14.95 °C. The soil moisture and temperature regime vary between aridic-thermic in lower altitudes to xeric-mesic in upper altitudes. More than 36 surface soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected according to land-use map units. After preliminary analyzing of samples 10 samples were selected for further analyses in five size fractions and three different time intervals in September, January and April 2008. Fractionation carried out by dry sieving in five classes, 1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm, 270 μm-0.5mm, 53-270 μm and <53 μm. Organic matter and C/N ratio were determined for all fractions at different time intervals. Chemical fractionation of organic matter also carried out according to Tan (2003), also Mineralogical

  8. Bay Area Fatherhood Initiatives: Portraits and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadsden, Vivian L.; Rethemeyer, R. Karl

    In the past decade, the nature of fathers' involvement with their children and families has become an important topic, with government agencies and nonprofit groups developing programs to help men manage the challenges of fatherhood. This report presents the first set of findings from the Bay Area Fathering Indicators Data System (BAyFIDS)…

  9. JUVENILE BAY SCALLOP (ARGOPECTEN IRRADIANS) HABITAT PREFERENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat quality and quantity are known to be important for maintaining populations of bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), but data linking habitat attributes to bay scallop populations are lacking. This information is essential to understand the role of habitat alteration in th...

  10. Technology evaluation: BAY-50-4798, Bayer.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Gunther

    2004-04-01

    Bayer is developing an IL-2-selective recombinant cytokine, BAY-50-4798, as a potential adjunct to standard chemotherapy in the treatment of various cancers, and for the potential treatment of HIV infection. BAY-50-4798 is currently undergoing phase II clinical trials. PMID:15195935

  11. Turning the tide: Saving the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, T.; Eichbaum, W.

    1991-07-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is one of the most productive and important ecosystems on earth, and as such is a model for other estuaries facing the demands of commerce, tourism, transportation, recreation, and other uses. This book presents a comprehensive look at two decades of efforts to save the bay, outlining which methods have worked and which have not.

  12. 33 CFR 117.597 - Dorchester Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dorchester Bay. 117.597 Section 117.597 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.597 Dorchester Bay. The draw of the of the William T. Morrisey Boulevard...

  13. MORRO BAY CCMP, TURNING THE TIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Morro Bay National Estuary Program (MBNEP) is a three-year cooperative effort that involved the active participation of diverse environmental, social and economic interests, to promote effective management of the Morro Bay Estuary and to restore and maintain its water quality...

  14. 33 CFR 80.503 - Delaware Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delaware Bay. 80.503 Section 80.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.503 Delaware Bay. A line drawn from Cape...

  15. PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION IN SAGINAW BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This summarizes studies conducted during 1980 to assess the effects of reductions in phosphorus loading to Saginaw Bay on phytoplankton in the bay and the adjacent waters of Lake Huron. Quantitative estimates of phytoplankton abundance were developed from an array of stations sam...

  16. Modeling equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbar, A.; Jarzecki, A.; Spiro, T.

    2003-04-01

    Research into the stable isotope biogeochemistry of Fe and other transition metals has been driven primarily by analytical innovations which have revealed significant isotope effects in nature and the laboratory. Further development of these new isotope systems requires complementary theoretical research to guide analytical efforts. The results of the first such studies show some discrepancies with experiments. For example, Johnson et al. (2002) report an experimentally-determined 56Fe/54Fe equilibrium fractionation factor between Fe(II) and Fe(III) aquo complexes of ˜1.0025. This effect is ˜50% smaller than predicted theoretically by Schauble et al. (2001). It is important to resolve such discrepancies. Equilibrium isotope fractionation factors can be predicted from vibrational spectroscopic data of isotopically-substituted complexes, or from theoretical predictions of some or all of these frequencies obtained using force field models. The pioneering work of Schauble et al. (2001) utilized a modified Urey-Bradley force field (MUBFF) model. This approach is limiting in at least three ways: First, it is not ab initio, requiring as input some measured vibrational frequencies. Such data are not always available, or may have significant uncertainties. Second, the MUBFF does not include potentially important effects of solvent interaction. Third, because it makes certain assumptions about molecular symmetry, the MUBFF-based approach is not able to model the spectra of mixed-ligand complexes. To address these limitations, we are evaluating the use of density functional theory (DFT) as an ab initio method to predict vibrational frequencies of isotopically-substituted complexes and, hence, equilibrium fractionation factors. In a preliminary examination of the frequency shift upon isotope substitution of the bending and asymmetric stretching modes of the tetrahedral FeCl_42- complex, we find substantial differences between MUBFF and DFT predictions. Results for other Fe

  17. A discrete fractional random transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Zhao, Haifa; Liu, Shutian

    2005-11-01

    We propose a discrete fractional random transform based on a generalization of the discrete fractional Fourier transform with an intrinsic randomness. Such discrete fractional random transform inheres excellent mathematical properties of the fractional Fourier transform along with some fantastic features of its own. As a primary application, the discrete fractional random transform has been used for image encryption and decryption.

  18. Impact of continental outflow on chemistry of atmospheric aerosols over tropical Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, B.; Kumar, A.; Sarin, M. M.; Sudheer, A. K.

    2011-07-01

    The continental outflow from Indo-Gangetic Plain and south-east Asia dominates the widespread dispersal of pollutants over tropical Bay of Bengal (BoB) during the late NE-monsoon (January-March). It is thus pertinent to assess the impact on marine atmospheric boundary layer of BoB. The chemical data, based on analyses of size-segregated (PM2.5 and PM10) aerosols, suggest the dominance of nss-SO42- (range: 1.3 to 28 μg m-3) in PM2.5. Almost all SO42- is of anthropogenic origin and accounts for as much as 65 % of the water-soluble inorganic constituents. The impact of anthropogenic sources is further evident from the widespread depletion of chloride (range: 40 to 100 %) compared to sea-salt composition. The carbonaceous species (EC and OC) contribute nearly 25 % to PM2.5; and significant linear relationship with K+ suggests biomass burning as their dominant source (biofuels and agricultural waste). The enhancement in the fractional solubility of aerosol Fe, as assessed in PM2.5, re-emphasizes the impact of combustion sources (biomass and fossil-fuel) and chemical processing (of dust) during the long-range transport. The high enrichment factors of heavy metals (Pb and Cd) further demonstrate the influence of pollution sources on the chemistry of MABL. The downwind transport of pollutants and exchange across air-sea interface can, thus, have profound impact on the ocean surface biogeochemistry.

  19. Electrochemically controlled iron isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Jay R.; Young, Edward D.; Kavner, Abby

    2010-02-01

    Variations in the stable isotope abundances of transition metals have been observed in the geologic record and trying to understand and reconstruct the physical/environmental conditions that produced these signatures is an area of active research. It is clear that changes in oxidation state lead to large fractionations of the stable isotopes of many transition metals such as iron, suggesting that transition metal stable isotope signatures could be used as a paleo-redox proxy. However, the factors contributing to these observed stable isotope variations are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the kinetics of iron redox electrochemistry generates isotope fractionation. Through a combination of electrodeposition experiments and modeling of electrochemical processes including mass-transport, we show that electron transfer reactions are the cause of a large isotope separation, while mass transport-limited supply of reactant to the electrode attenuates the observed isotopic fractionation. Furthermore, the stable isotope composition of electroplated transition metals can be tuned in the laboratory by controlling parameters such as solution chemistry, reaction overpotential, and solution convection. These methods are potentially useful for generating isotopically-marked metal surfaces for tracking and forensic purposes. In addition, our studies will help interpret stable isotope data in terms of identifying underlying electron transfer processes in laboratory and natural samples.

  20. Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:22849436

  1. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, R.L.; Roster, D.L.; King, K.A.; Keldsen, T.J.; Marois, K.C.; Wainwright, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California's San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p'-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time, At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  2. Nitrate export from forested watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Region, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Bricker, O.P.; Kuebler, A.; Rice, K.C.; Anderson, R.T.; Kennedy, M.M.

    1994-12-31

    Current levels of nitrogen inputs to the Chesapeake Bay exceed the ecological demand, resulting in eutrophication and algal blooms which degrade water quality. The Chesapeake Bay receives nitrogen compounds from a variety of sources. Previously, much attention had been focused on point source contributions such as sewage treatment plants and industrial discharges. More recently, however, inputs from atmospheric deposition and non-point sources have been considered. Land use practices vary widely within the Chesapeake Bay watershed, however, the largest portion is forested. Given that forested watersheds occupy a large area of the Chesapeake Bay drainage system, export of nitrogen from forested watersheds could potentially play an important role in the nitrogen balance. Here, examine the nitrate input/output budgets for eight forested headwater watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay drainage, several of which have a 10-year record of chemical data. The authors explore annual and seasonal input/output budgets for these watersheds and, at several sites, define the variability in nitrate export during episodic events Seasonal and episodic information on nitrate export may be useful to watershed managers in designing and applying techniques for minimizing nitrate export from these systems. Comparison of the behavior of nitrate in these systems, and with forested watersheds in other regions across a deposition gradient, will help to elucidate the factors that control nitrate export from forested watersheds. This information will better define the expected nitrate exports from forested watersheds and contribute to improving the confidence limits of models of nutrient loading to the Chesapeake Bay.

  3. Study on the calculation models of bus delay at bays using queueing theory and Markov chain.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feng; Sun, Li; Sun, Shao-Wei; Wang, Dian-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays. PMID:25759720

  4. Effects of waves on coastal water dispersion in a small estuarine bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.; Jouon, A.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional wave-current model is used to investigate wave-induced circulations in a small estuarine bay and its impact on freshwater exchanges with the inner shelf, related to stratified river plume dispersion. Modeled salinity fields exhibit a lower salinity surface layer due to river outflows, with typical depth of 1 m inside the bay. The asymmetric wave forcing on the bay circulation, related to the local bathymetry, significantly impacts the river plumes. It is found that the transport initiated in the surf zone by the longshore current can oppose and thus reduce the primary outflow of freshwater through the bay inlets. Using the model to examine a high river runoff event occurring during a high-energy wave episode, waves are found to induce a 24 h delay in freshwater evacuation. At the end of the runoff event, waves have reduced the freshwater flux to the ocean by a factor 5, and the total freshwater volume inside the bay is increased by 40%. According to the model, and for this event, the effect of the surf zone current on the bay flushing is larger than that of the wind. The freshwater balance is sensitive to incident wave conditions. Maximum freshwater retention is found for intermediate offshore wave heights 1 m < Hs < 2 m. For higher-energy waves, the increase in the longshore current reduces the retention, which is two times lower for Hs = 4 m than for Hs = 2 m.

  5. Integrated analysis of ecosystem interactions with land use Change: The Chesapeake Bay watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, Scott J.; Jantz, Claire A.; Prince, Stephen D.; Smith, Andrew J.; Varlyguin, Dmitry; Wright, Robb K.

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States, encompassed by a watershed extending 168,000 km2 over portions of six states and Washington, D.C. Restoration of the Bay has been the focus of a two-decade regional partnership of local, state and federal agencies, including a network of scientists, politicians and activists interacting through various committees, working groups, and advisory panels. The effectiveness of the restoration effort has been mixed, with both notable successes and failures. The overall health of the Bay has not declined since the restoration was initiated in 1983, but many of the advances have been offset by the pressure of increasing population and exurban sprawl across the watershed. The needs of the Chesapeake Bay Program are many, but the greatest is accurate information on land cover and land use change, primarily to assess the implications for water quality, examine various restoration scenarios, and calibrate spatial models of the urbanization process. We report here on a number of new land cover and land use data products, and associated applications to assist vulnerability assessment, integrated ecosystem analysis, and ultimately Bay restoration. We provide brief overviews of applications to model new residential development, assess losses and vulnerability of resource lands, and identify the factors that disrupt the health of streams in small watersheds. These data products and approaches are being applied by a number of agencies involved with the restoration effort, including the Chesapeake Bay Program's activities focused on living resources, water quality, and sound land use.

  6. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hothem, R.L.; Marois, K.C.; Wainwright, S.E.; Roster, D.L.; King, K.A.; Keldsen, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California`s San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p{prime}-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time. At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  7. Study on the Calculation Models of Bus Delay at Bays Using Queueing Theory and Markov Chain

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Sun, Shao-wei; Wang, Dian-hai

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays. PMID:25759720

  8. Possible Origin of the High Incidence of Clostridium botulinum Type E in an Inland Bay (Green Bay of Lake Michigan)1

    PubMed Central

    Bott, Thomas L.; Johnson, Jodie; Foster, E. M.; Sugiyama, H.

    1968-01-01

    Bottom and shoreline sediments of Green Bay, northern Lake Michigan, and rivers of the Green Bay drainage basin, as well as soils of the surrounding land mass, were examined for Clostridium botulinum type E. Detection was based on identification of type E toxin in enrichment cultures and was influenced by many factors. Testing smaller amounts of sample in multiple cultures was more productive than examining large inocula in fewer cultures. Incubation at 30 C was unsatisfactory, but 14 days at 20 C or 7 days at 25 C gave good results. Mild heating (60 C for 30 min) of specimens reduced the incidence of positive findings. Freezing enrichment cultures prior to testing for toxicity eliminated many nonbotulinal toxic substances that killed mice. A control culture inoculated with type E spores was employed to show whether a specimen contained factors which could mask the presence of type E. Samples from 708 stations were tested in 2,446 cultures. Type E was found in nearly all underwater specimens of Green Bay and northern Lake Michigan but was present less frequently in samples taken along their shores. The incidence was still lower in the rivers emptying into Green Bay with the organism being rare on the shores of these rivers and in the soils of the land mass proper. Samples from the upper reaches of the rivers practically never contained type E. Runoff could deposit type E spores in Green Bay, but this is not considered to be the major factor in the high incidence of the organism. Multiplication in the bay itself is indicated. PMID:4870273

  9. Differential Association of the Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor (NHERF) Family of Adaptor Proteins with the Raft-and the Non-Raft Brush Border Membrane Fractions of NHE3

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Ayesha; Luo, Min; Yu, Qin; Riederer, Brigitte; Xia, Weiliang; Chen, Mingmin; Lissner, Simone; Gessner, Johannes E.; Donowitz, Mark; Yun, C. Chris; deJonge, Hugo; Lamprecht, Georg; Seidler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Trafficking, brush border membrane (BBM) retention, and signal-specific regulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3 is regulated by the Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor (NHERF) family of PDZ-adaptor proteins, which enable the formation of multiprotein complexes. It is unclear, however, what determines signal specificity of these NHERFs. Thus, we studied the association of NHE3, NHERF1 (EBP50), NHERF2 (E3KARP), and NHERF3 (PDZK1) with lipid rafts in murine small intestinal BBM. Methods Detergent resistant membranes (“lipid rafts”) were isolated by floatation of Triton X-incubated small intestinal BBM from a variety of knockout mouse strains in an Optiprep step gradient. Acid-activated NHE3 activity was measured fluorometrically in BCECF-loaded microdissected villi, or by assessment of CO2/HCO3− mediated increase in fluid absorption in perfused jejunal loops of anethetized mice. Results NHE3 was found to partially associate with lipid rafts in the native BBM, and NHE3 raft association had an impact on NHE3 transport activity and regulation in vivo. NHERF1, 2 and 3 were differentially distributed to rafts and non-rafts, with NHERF2 being most raft-associated and NHERF3 entirely non-raft associated. NHERF2 expression enhanced the localization of NHE3 to membrane rafts. The use of acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mice, which have altered membrane lipid as well as lipid raft composition, allowed us to test the validity of the lipid raft concept in vivo. Conclusions The differential association of the NHERFs with the raft-associated and the non-raft fraction of NHE3 in the brush border membrane is one component of the differential and signal-specific NHE3 regulation by the different NHERFs. PMID:24297041

  10. S saturation history of Nain Plutonic Suite mafic intrusions: origin of the Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightfoot, Peter C.; Keays, Reid R.; Evans-Lamswood, Dawn; Wheeler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The Voisey's Bay deposit is hosted in a 1.34-Ga intrusion composed of troctolite, olivine gabbro, and ferrogabbro. The sulfide mineralization is associated with magmatic breccias that are enveloped by weakly mineralized olivine gabbros and troctolites, and also occurs as veins along structures in adjacent paragneiss. A dyke is connected to the base of the north wall of the Eastern Deeps Intrusion, and the entry point of this dyke into the chamber is the locus of the Eastern Deeps nickel sulfide deposit. A detailed exploration in the area between the Eastern Deeps and the Ovoid has shown that these intrusions and ore deposits are connected by a splayed dyke. The Eastern Deeps Deposit is surrounded by a halo of moderately to weakly mineralized variable-textured troctolite (VTT) that reaches a maximum thickness above the axis of the Eastern Deeps Deposit along the northern wall of the Eastern Deeps Intrusion. The massive sulfides and breccia sulfides are petrologically and chemically different when compared to the disseminated sulfides in the VTT, and there is a marked break in Ni tenor of sulfide between the two. Sulfides hosted in the dyke tend to have low metal tenors ([Ni]100 = 2.5-3.5%), sulfides in Eastern Deeps massive and breccia ores have intermediate Ni tenors ([Ni]100 = 3.5-4%), and disseminated sulfides in overlying rocks have high Ni tenors ([Ni]100 = 4-8%). Four principal processes control the compositions of the Voisey's Bay sulfides. Coarse-grained loop-textured ores consisting of pyrrhotite crystals separated by chalcopyrite and pentlandite exhibit a two orders of magnitude variation in the Pd/Ir ratio which is due to mineralogical variations where pentlandite is enriched in Pd and Ir is dispersed throughout the mineral assemblage. A decrease in Ir and Rh from the margin of the Ovoid toward cubanite-rich parts at the central part of the Ovoid is consistent with fractionation of the sulfide from the margins toward the center of the Ovoid. The Ovoid

  11. Benthic trophic network in the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer (northwest Mediterranean, France): An assessment based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, Antoine; Riera, Pascal; Amouroux, Jean-Michel; Bodiou, Jean-Yves; Grémare, Antoine

    2007-03-01

    The benthic trophic network in the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer was studied through the carbon and nitrogen isotopic characterization of a large set of soft-bottom macrobenthic invertebrates, fishes and potential food sources. Continental inputs as well as seagrass meadows did not contribute significantly to this benthic trophic network as indicated by: (1) the difference between their δ 13C signatures (respectively -28.4‰ and -9.5‰) and those of sampled animals (between -21.0‰ and -14.6‰); and (2) their low inputs to the bay. Benthic primary consumers fed mostly on surface sediment organic matter (SSOM), which tightly interacts with suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) and sedimenting organic matter (STOM) due to sediment resuspension. Our results also suggest the occurrence of a transfer between marine SPOM and some invertebrates (e.g. Veretillum cynomorium) and fishes (e.g. Boops boops and Spicara melanurus) through zooplankton. Moreover, the different types of primary consumers (i.e., suspension-feeders, interface-feeders, surface deposit-feeders and subsurface deposit-feeders) preferentially used distinct fractions of the heterogeneous SPOM-STOM-SSOM pool. These differences were mostly related with feeding depth and resulted in distinct isotopic signatures. Differences in the stable isotopic ratios of suspension and interface-feeders could also partly reflect the use of microphytobenthos by the later. Assuming a 15N-enrichment factor of 3.4‰ between the lower and upper ranges of two successive trophic levels, we estimated that the benthic food web of the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer was composed of 4 trophic levels. The comparison with our δ 13C values suggests that the whole trophic food chain is affected by continental inputs at the immediate vicinity of the Rhône River mouth even though these effects are maximal for deposit-feeding and carnivorous polychaetes.

  12. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  13. Multipartite Fully Entangled Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianwei

    2016-06-01

    Fully entangled fraction is a definition for bipartite states, which is tightly related to bipartite maximally entangled states, and has clear experimental and theoretical significance. In this work, we generalize it to multipartite case, we call the generalized version multipartite fully entangled fraction (MFEF). MFEF measures the closeness of a state to GHZ states. The analytical expressions of MFEF are very difficult to obtain except for very special states, however, we show that, the MFEF of any state is determined by a system of finite-order polynomial equations. Therefore, the MFEF can be efficiently numerically computed.

  14. Release Fraction Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Glissmeyer, John A.

    2004-01-01

    This document presents results of experiments conducted to measure release fractions during certain tank retrieval processes. The tests were performed in a 1/4 scale model of a waste storage tank. The retrieval processes simulated were: (1) Discharging liquid or slurry from the mouth of a vertically oriented two-in. Schedule 40 pipe. The discharging material was in free-fall from the mouth of the pipe near the top of the tank into a liquid or slurry pool at the bottom of the tank. (2) The jet from a 9/16-in.-diameter nozzle transferring liquid or slurry waste from one side of the tank to the other. The discharging liquid was aimed at the opposite side of the tank from the nozzle and either impacted the tank wall or fell into a liquid or slurry pool in the bottom of the tank. (3) A high pressure fan jet of liquid striking a steel plate or simulated waste from a stand-off distance of a few inches. For each process, a water-soluble fluorescent dye was added to the liquid fraction as a tracer. Kaolin clay was used to represent the solids. The tank was covered and there was no forced ventilation in the tank during the tests. Six air samples were collected during each test. The air samples were collected at fixed positions in the tank. The air sample filters were dried and weighed to determine the solids collection. The fluorescent dye was then leached from each filter and quantified with a fluorometer to determine the collection of liquid. Samples of the slurry and liquid simulants were also collected to determine the quantities of simulant used in each test. To calculate the release fraction, the quantity collected on each air sample was adjusted for the fraction of the tank volume sampled and divided by the quantity of material exposed in the simulation. The method was not as sensitive for the solids content as it was for the liquid content, but in those instances where a solids release fraction was determined, it was in relatively good agreement with that of the

  15. Water resources planning for rivers draining into Mobile Bay. Part 2: Non-conservative species transport models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    April, G. C.; Liu, H. A.

    1975-01-01

    Total coliform group bacteria were selected to expand the mathematical modeling capabilities of the hydrodynamic and salinity models to understand their relationship to commercial fishing ventures within bay waters and to gain a clear insight into the effect that rivers draining into the bay have on water quality conditions. Parametric observations revealed that temperature factors and river flow rate have a pronounced effect on the concentration profiles, while wind conditions showed only slight effects. An examination of coliform group loading concentrations at constant river flow rates and temperature shows these loading changes have an appreciable influence on total coliform distribution within Mobile Bay.

  16. Structure, age and origin of the bay-mouth shoal deposits, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Berquist, C.R., Jr.; Hobbs, C. H., III

    1988-01-01

    The mouth of Chesapeake Bay contains a distinctive shoal complex and related deposits that result from the complex interaction of three different processes: (1) progradation of a barrier spit at the southern end of the Delmarva Peninsula, (2) strong, reversing tidal currents that transport and rework sediment brought to the bay mouth from the north, and (3) landward (bayward) net non-tidal circulation and sediment transport. Together, these processes play a major role in changing the configuration of the estuary and filling it with sediment. The deposits at the mouth of the bay hold keys both to the evolution of the bay during the Holocene transgression and to the history of previous generations of the bay. The deposit associated with the shoals at the mouth of the bay, the bay-mouth sand, is a distinct stratigraphic unit composed mostly of uniform, gray, fine sand. The position and internal structure of the unit shows that it is related to near-present sea level, and thus is less than a few thousand years old. The processes affecting the upper surface of the deposit and the patterns of erosion and deposition at this surface are complex, but the geometry and structure of the deposit indicate that it is a coherent unit that is prograding bayward and tending to fill the estuary. The source of the bay-mouth sand is primarily outside the bay in the nearshore zone of the Delmarva Peninsula and on the inner continental shelf. The internal structure of the deposit, its surface morphology, its heavy-mineral composition, bottom-current studies, comparative bathymetry, and sediment budgets all suggest that sand is brought to the bay mouth by southerly longshore drift along the Delmarva Peninsula and then swept into the bay. In addition to building the southward- and bayward-prograding bay-mouth sand, these processes result in sand deposition tens of kilometers into the bay. ?? 1988.

  17. Spatial distribution of the crab larvae (Decapoda: Anomura et Brachyura) in Possyet Bay (Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan) in 2000-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryeva, N. I.

    2009-10-01

    The analysis of the data obtained during the plankton surveys in Possyet Bay (Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan) in 2000-2001 is presented. The larvae of eight crab species were registered in the plankton: the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815), the snow (opilio) crab Chionoecetes opilio (Fabricius, 1780), the Arctic lyre crab Hyas coarctatus ursinus (Leach, 1815), the kelp crab Pugettia quadridens (de Haan, 1839), the helmet crab Telmessus cheiragonus (Tilesius, 1815), the Japanese swimming crab Charybdis japonica (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861), the pea crab Pinnixa rathbuni (Sakai, 1934), and the porcelain crab Pachycheles stevensii (Stimpson, 1858). These species belonged to six families: Lithodidae, Atelecyclidae, Majidae, Portunidae, Porcellanidae, and Pinnotheridae. The role of the variability of some of the hydrological factors in the meroplankton larvae development was studied. In May, the crab larvae were found mostly in the open part of the bay. In June, they were transported by the current to the northern part of the bay. In July, they spread uniformly in all the bay areas; however, patchiness was observed. The maximal population density of the crab larvae was registered for July and varied from 6.8 to 23.3 ind. m-3. The crab larvae appeared in the plankton in 2000 and 2001 earlier than for the average season.

  18. Chesapeake Bay subsidence monitored as wetlands loss continues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerem, R. S.; van Dam, T. M.; Schenewerk, M. S.

    Fragile wetland ecosystems, which support an abundance of wildlife, are being lost around the Chesapeake Bay at an alarming rate due to an increase in sea level. For example, one third of the total area of the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (Figure 1) (approximately 20 km2) was lost between 1938 and 1979 [Leatherman, 1992]. Approximately 4,100 km2 of the perimeter of the Chesapeake Bay are covered by wetlands of which 58% forested wetlands and 28% are salt marshes. It is likely that many factors are responsible for the wetlands loss, some that have global implications, and some that reflect local phenomena.Understanding the mechanisms responsible for wetlands deterioration and loss, however, has been impeded by the lack of adequate data including quantitative monitoring of the types and distribution of flora, Tthe boundaries of specific habitat types, and data on the spatial variations in sea level and land subsidence. This article focuses on the latter problem, which is to determine the relative roles of sea level rise and land subsidence in the region. Over the past four years, a small network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers have been installed near tide gauges in the Chesapeake Bay to help determine the cause of relative sea level rise in this region. These receivers are just beginning to yield results.

  19. Microbial diversity in restored wetlands of San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Theroux, Susanna; Hartman, Wyatt; He, Shaomei; Tringe, Susannah

    2013-12-09

    Wetland ecosystems may serve as either a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases. This delicate carbon balance is influenced by the activity of belowground microbial communities that return carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Wetland restoration efforts in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region may help to reverse land subsidence and possibly increase carbon storage in soils. However, the effects of wetland restoration on microbial communities, which mediate soil metabolic activity and carbon cycling, are poorly studied. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors which shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities in a suite of restored and historic wetlands in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with greenhouse gas monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of the wetland soil microbial communities along biogeochemical and wetland age gradients. Our results show relationships among geochemical gradients, availability of electron acceptors, and microbial community composition. Our study provides the first genomic glimpse into microbial populations in natural and restored wetlands of the San Francisco Bay-Delta region and provides a valuable benchmark for future studies.

  20. SARASOTA BAY NATIONAL ESTUARY PROGRAM, A FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sarasota Bay: Framework for Action was produced by the Sarasota Bay National Estuary Program to characterize the condition of Sarasota Bay and present preliminary options for Bay improvement. The publication is a precursor to the CCMP. Past destruction of sea grasses and mangrove...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1150 - Arcata-Humboldt Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arcata-Humboldt Bay, CA. 80.1150... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1150 Arcata-Humboldt Bay, CA. A line drawn from Humboldt Bay Entrance Light 4 to Humboldt Bay Entrance Light 3....

  2. The organic fraction of bubble-generated, accumulation mode Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modini, R. L.; Harris, B.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies have detected a dominant accumulation mode (~100 nm) in the Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA) number distribution. There is evidence to suggest that particles in this mode are composed primarily of organics. To investigate this hypothesis we conducted experiments on NaCl, artificial SSA and natural SSA particles with a Volatility-Hygroscopicity-Tandem-Differential-Mobility-Analyser (VH-TDMA). NaCl particles were atomiser generated and a bubble generator was constructed to produce artificial and natural SSA particles. Natural seawater samples for use in the bubble generator were collected from biologically active, terrestrially-affected coastal water in Moreton Bay, Australia. Differences in the VH-TDMA-measured volatility curves of artificial and natural SSA particles were used to investigate and quantify the organic fraction of natural SSA particles. Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF) data, also obtained by the VH-TDMA, were used to confirm the conclusions drawn from the volatility data. Both datasets indicated that the organic fraction of our natural SSA particles evaporated in the VH-TDMA over the temperature range 170-200 °C. The organic volume fraction for 71-77 nm natural SSA particles was 8±6%. Organic volume fraction did not vary significantly with varying water residence time (40 s to 24 h) in the bubble generator or SSA particle diameter in the range 38-173 nm. At room temperature we measured shape- and Kelvin-corrected HGF at 90% RH of 2.46±0.02 for NaCl, 2.35±0.02 for artifical SSA and 2.26±0.02 for natural SSA particles. Overall, these results suggest that the natural accumulation mode SSA particles produced in these experiments contained only a minor organic fraction, which had little effect on hygroscopic growth. Our measurement of 8±6% is an order of magnitude below two previous measurements of the organic fraction in SSA particles of comparable sizes. We stress that our results were obtained using coastal seawater and they can't necessarily

  3. The organic fraction of bubble-generated, accumulation mode Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modini, R. L.; Harris, B.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have detected a dominant accumulation mode (~100 nm) in the Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA) number distribution. There is evidence to suggest that particles in this mode are composed primarily of organics. To investigate this hypothesis we conducted experiments on NaCl, artificial SSA and natural SSA particles with a Volatility-Hygroscopicity-Tandem-Differential-Mobility-Analyser (VH-TDMA). NaCl particles were atomiser generated and a bubble generator was constructed to produce artificial and natural SSA particles. Natural seawater samples for use in the bubble generator were collected from biologically active, terrestrially-affected coastal water in Moreton Bay, Australia. Differences in the VH-TDMA-measured volatility curves of artificial and natural SSA particles were used to investigate and quantify the organic fraction of natural SSA particles. Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF) data, also obtained by the VH-TDMA, were used to confirm the conclusions drawn from the volatility data. Both datasets indicated that the organic fraction of our natural SSA particles evaporated in the VH-TDMA over the temperature range 170-200°C. The organic volume fraction for 71-77 nm natural SSA particles was 8±6%. Organic volume fraction did not vary significantly with varying water residence time (40 s0 to 24 h) in the bubble generator or SSA particle diameter in the range 38-173 nm. At room temperature we measured shape- and Kelvin-corrected HGF at 90% RH of 2.46±0.02 for NaCl, 2.35±0.02 for artifical SSA and 2.26±0.02 for natural SSA particles. Overall, these results suggest that the natural accumulation mode SSA particles produced in these experiments contained only a minor organic fraction, which had little effect on hygroscopic growth. Our measurement of 8±6% is an order of magnitude below two previous measurements of the organic fraction in SSA particles of comparable sizes. Further studies with a variety of different seawaters are required to better quantify how

  4. Atmospheric deposition of organochlorine contaminants to Galveston Bay, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, June-Soo; Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen

    Atmospheric monitoring of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides (e.g., HCHs, chlordanes, and DDTs) in Galveston Bay was conducted at Seabrook, Texas. Air and wet deposition samples were collected from 2 February 1995 and continued through 6 August 1996. Vapor total PCB ( tPCB) concentrations in air ranged from 0.21 to 4.78 ng m -3 with a dominance of tri-chlorinated PCBs. Dissolved tPCBs in rain ranged from 0.08 to 3.34 ng l -1, with tetra-chlorinated PCBs predominating. The predominant isomers found in air and rain were α- and γ-HCH, α- and γ-chlordanes, 4,4'-DDT, and dieldrin. The concentrations of PCBs and pesticides in the air and rain revealed no clear seasonal trend. Elevated levels of PCBs in the air occurred when temperatures were high and wind came from urban and industrialized areas (S, SW, NW, and W of the site). Concentrations of HCHs were elevated in April, May, and October, perhaps due to local and/or regional applications of γ-HCH (lindane). Other pesticides showed no notable temporal variation. When winds originated from the Gulf of Mexico (southeasterly), lower concentrations of organochlorines were detected in the air. The direct deposition rate (wet+dry) of PCBs to Galveston Bay (6.40 μg m -2 yr -1) was significantly higher than that of pesticides by a factor of 5-10. The net flux from gas exchange estimated for PCBs was from Galveston Bay water to the atmosphere (78 μg m -2 yr -1). Gas exchange of PCBs from bay water to the atmosphere was the dominant flux.

  5. Sweet Work with Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinogradova, Natalya; Blaine, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Almost everyone loves chocolate. However, the same cannot be said about fractions, which are loved by markedly fewer. Middle school students tend to view them with wary respect, but little affection. The authors attempt to sweeten the subject by describing a type of game involving division of chocolate bars. The activity they describe provides a…

  6. Momentum fractionation on superstrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2016-05-01

    Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.

  7. Fraction collector for electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1977-01-01

    Rotating-tube electrophoresis apparatus employs rotating jet of eluting buffer to reduce effects of convection during separation. Designed for separation of microorganisms and biological species, system combines gravity/gradient compensating of lumen with buffer flush at fraction outlet to increase separation efficiency.

  8. Fractionation of Soil Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding of the qualitative and quantitative information provided by soil phosphorus (P) fractionation methods is important for addressing agronomic and water quality problems, as well as evaluating P biogeochemistry in extreme environments. This chapter provides a schematic overview of and ...

  9. Field-Flow Fractionation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Karin D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a technique for separating samples that range over 15 orders of magnitude in molecular weight. Discusses theory, apparatus, and sample preparation techniques. Lists several types of field-flow fractionation (FFF) and their uses: sedimentation FFF, thermal FFF, flow FFF, electrical FFF, and steric FFF. (ML)

  10. Fractional statistics and confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaete, P.; Wotzasek, C.

    2005-02-01

    It is shown that a pointlike composite having charge and magnetic moment displays a confining potential for the static interaction while simultaneously obeying fractional statistics in a pure gauge theory in three dimensions, without a Chern-Simons term. This result is distinct from the Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory that shows a screening nature for the potential.

  11. 10. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM WITHIN SOUTHWEST BAY, LOOKING THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW TO NORTHEAST FROM WITHIN SOUTHWEST BAY, LOOKING THROUGH CENTER BAY AND INTO NORTHEAST BAY. NOTE TRAVELING BRIDGE CRANE OVERHEAD AND SWINGING BOOM CRANES ATTACHED TO COLUMNS ON RIGHT AND LEFT. NOTE ALSO THE DIFFERENCE IN TRUSSES SUPPORTING CRANEWAY TRACKS FOR SIDE BAYS AND CENTER BAY. TRUSSES SUPPORTING CRANEWAY TRACKS IN SIDE BAYS (CENTER FOREGROUND AND FAR BACKGROUND) ARE HOWE TRUSSES WITH WOOD DIAGONALS AND STEEL VERTICALS. TRUSSES SUPPORTING CRANEWAY TRACKS IN CENTER BAY (MID BACKGROUND) ARE PRATT TRUSSES WITH WOOD VERTICALS AND DIAGONALS. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  12. 77 FR 38005 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Biloxi Bay Fireworks; Biloxi Bay; Biloxi, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Biloxi Bay Fireworks; Biloxi Bay; Biloxi, MS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. ] SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Biloxi Bay Fireworks event in Biloxi Bay,...

  13. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  14. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  15. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  16. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  17. 33 CFR 167.101 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. 167.101 Section 167.101 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. (a) A...

  18. 33 CFR 167.101 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. 167.101 Section 167.101 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. (a) A...

  19. 33 CFR 167.101 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. 167.101 Section 167.101 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. (a) A...

  20. 33 CFR 167.101 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. 167.101 Section 167.101 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Precautionary areas. (a) A...

  1. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  2. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  3. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  4. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  5. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  6. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block...

  7. 76 FR 37641 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Half Moon Bay, off of Pillar Point Harbor beach, Half Moon Bay, CA in support of the Independence Day...

  8. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen. Color infrared photography is very useful for haze penetration and greater definition of the imagery as well as vegetation detection, depicted as shades of red.

  9. A pollution history of Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, E.D.; Hodge, V.; Koide, M.; Griffin, J.; Gamble, E.; Bricker, O.P.; Matisoff, G.; Holdren, G.R., Jr.; Braun, R.

    1978-01-01

    Present day anthropogenic fluxes of some heavy metals to central Chesapeake Bay appear to be intermediate to those of the southern California coastal region and those of Narragansett Bay. The natural fluxes, however, are in general higher. On the bases of Pb-210 and Pu-239 + 240 geochronologies and of the time changes in interstitial water compositions, there is a mixing of the upper 30 or so centimeters of the sediments in the mid-Chesapeake Bay area through bioturbation by burrowing mollusks and polychaetes. Coal, coke and charcoal levels reach one percent or more by dry weight in the deposits, primarily as a consequence of coal mining operations. ?? 1978.

  10. Potential risk to wood storks (Mycteria americana) from mercury in Carolina Bay fish.

    PubMed

    Brant, Heather A; Jagoe, Charles H; Snodgras, Joel W; Bryan, A Lawrence; Gariboldi, Joan C

    2002-01-01

    Carolina bays are freshwater wetlands that serve as important feeding habitats for the endangered wood stork (Mycteria americana). Water levels in these bays fluctuate greatly and tend to be acidic and rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), factors that favor mercury (Hg) methylation and bioaccumulation in fish. To assess potential risks to wood storks consuming mercury contaminated fish in bays, we sampled fish from 10 bays on the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, an area with documented use by wood storks. Whole body mercury concentrations in 258 fishes of three species (Erimyzon sucetta, Acantharchuspomotis and Esox americanus) commonly consumed by wood storks were determined. Risk factors for nestlings and free-ranging adults were calculated using published no and lowest observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC and LOAEC) values for birds. Fish from higher trophic levels and those from wetlands with relatively shallow maximum depths and fluctuating water levels were more likely to exceed NOAEC and LOAEC values. Calculation of exposure rates of nestling wood storks indicated they are at highest risk during the first 10 days of the nestling period. These calculations suggest that there is potential concern for wood storks foraging in relatively shallow bays with fluctuating water levels, even though there is no obvious local source of mercury to these wetlands. PMID:12395855

  11. Quantifying the Distribution and Influence of Non-Uniform Bed Properties on Spatial Patterns of Turbidity in Shallow Coastal Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiberg, P.; Carr, J. A.; Safak, I.; Anutaliya, A.

    2014-12-01

    Increases in turbidity in shallow coastal bays typically occur in response to resuspension of bed sediment driven by the interaction between wind-generated waves and the bay bottom. The mass and grain size of resuspended sediment at any location in a bay are strongly controlled by local bed properties. This suggests that spatial variations in bed properties, such as grain size, porosity and erodibility, should be reflected in spatial patterns of turbidity. Unfortunately, knowledge of bed properties in coastal bays is typically sparse at best. In this study we address two related questions: 1) how best to estimate the spatial distribution of bed properties in shallow coastal bays; and 2) how does the spatial distribution of bed properties affect the spatial pattern of wave-driven turbidity? We explored these questions using field observations and the Delft3D coastal hydrodynamic and sediment transport model for a system of shallow coastal bays on Virginia's Atlantic coast. This system comprises bays of varying geometry with similar wind and tidal forcing. We found a strong relationship between water residence time and measured grain size. We leveraged the relationships between residence time and grain size fractions to map the spatial distribution of grain size throughout the system based on a recent mapping of residence times for the Virginia coastal bays. This spatially varying map of grain size was used as the initial bed conditions for 2-month-long runs of Delft3D forced with measured wind and tides. The resulting patterns of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and turbidity differ dramatically from those obtained from simulations with an initially spatially homogeneous bed, with high wave-driven SSC near the mainland in the non-uniform case but high SSC near the inlets for the uniform case. The pre- and post-simulation bed properties are compared to each other and with measured bed properties to investigate how close the residence-time generated bed is to

  12. Stable-isotope analysis of canvasback winter diet in upper Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Macko, S.A.; Walker, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    A major decline in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Chesapeake Bay has altered the diet of wintering Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from historically plant to a combination of benthic animal foods, especially the ubiquitous Baltic clam (Macoma balthica), supplemented with anthropogenic corn (Zea mays). Because the isotopic signature of corn is readily discriminated from bay benthos, but not SAV, we used stable-isotope methodology to investigate the corn-SAV component of the winter diet of Canvasbacks. Feeding trials with penned Canvasbacks were conducted to establish turnover rates and fractionation end-point loci of *13C and *15N signatures of whole blood for individual ducks fed ad libitum diets of (1) Baltic clams, (2) Baltic clams and corn, and (3) tubers of wild celery (Vallisneria americana). Turnover time constants averaged 4.5 weeks, indicating that signatures of wild ducks would be representative of bay diets by late February. Isotopic signatures of wild Canvasbacks sampled in February fell on a continuum between end-point loci for the Baltic clam and the combination Baltic clam and corn diet. Although that finding verifies a clear dependence on corn-SAV for wintering Canvasbacks, it also reveals that not enough corn-SAV is available to establish ad libitum consumption for the 15,000+ Canvasbacks wintering in the upper bay. On the basis of mean *13C signature of bay Canvasbacks (n=59) and ingestion rates from feeding trials, we estimated that 258 kg corn per day would account for the observed *13C enrichment and supply 18% of daily energetic needs for 15,000 Canvasbacks. That level of corn availability is so realistic that we conclude that SAV is likely of little dietary importance to Canvasbacks in that portion of the bay.

  13. Paleoseismicity on the Dense Network of Holocene Submarine Faults in Beppu Bay, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, K.; Matsuoka, H.; Okamura, M.; Chida, N.

    2003-12-01

    Beppu Bay, approximately 30 km by 15 km in size, contains a complex network of Holocene submarine faults whose total length amounts to 230km. They are normal dip-slip fault with left-lateral strike-slip component. The maximum vertical offset accumulated in the past 7,300 years exceeds 20 m. A detailed study on paleoseismicity on one of the faults shows a feature of the time-predictable recurrence, i.e., the larger the vertical offset, the longer the following inter-event time. Branching features can be often recognized near the end of fault and the consistency in branching direction of neighboring faults suggest repeated rupture propagation in the same direction. A detailed examination of high-resolution seismic profiling of branch indicates a repeat of branching and a slow transition of rupture from an old branch to a new one. The central Beppu-Bay fault running WNW to ESE in the center of the bay forms the northern boundary of the major graben structure of the bay. The Asamigawa fault in the west of the bay, running parallel to the central Beppu-Bay fault, has been considered as the southern boundary, but its eastern continuation was not clear. Recent seismic profiling carried out by Chida et al. (2003) showed an existence of Holocene normal fault beneath the city of Oita whose population is 440,000 and interpreted it as a part of the southern boundary. Our high-resolution shallow-water profiling survey revealed the submarine portion of the southern boundary fault, filling a gap between two subaerial faults. We continuously sample marine sediments down to a subbottom depth of 20m by piston coring and correlate specific features of sediment, 20 volcanic ash layers, a few features of magnetic susceptibility and coarse fraction together with C-14 ages of echinoids, pelecypods, and plant remains on the both sides of a targe fault to estimate the date and vertical offset of paleoearthquakes.

  14. The land-sourced pollution in the Jiaozhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhenhui; Yang, Dongfang; Qin, Jie; Xiang, Lihong; Zhang, Ke

    2008-05-01

    In recent years, natural environment of the Jiaozhou Bay has been changed largely by fast developing industry and agriculture of the cities around, from which wastewaters were generated. The size of the bay has been continuously shrunk with reduced river flows, resulting in serious contamination to the marine lives in the bay. After analyzing the basic historical data, the authors put forward a suggestion of how to protect the bay ecology for sustaining the resources in the Jiaozhou Bay.

  15. The fractional Fourier transform and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Swarztrauber, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the 'fractional Fourier transform', which admits computation by an algorithm that has complexity proportional to the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Whereas the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is based on integral roots of unity e exp -2(pi)i/n, the fractional Fourier transform is based on fractional roots of unity e exp -2(pi)i(alpha), where alpha is arbitrary. The fractional Fourier transform and the corresponding fast algorithm are useful for such applications as computing DFTs of sequences with prime lengths, computing DFTs of sparse sequences, analyzing sequences with noninteger periodicities, performing high-resolution trigonometric interpolation, detecting lines in noisy images, and detecting signals with linearly drifting frequencies. In many cases, the resulting algorithms are faster by arbitrarily large factors than conventional techniques.

  16. Fractionalized Majorana modes in ultracold bosonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Ganeshan, Sriram; Clarke, David; Gorshkov, Alexey; Sau, Jay Deep

    2015-03-01

    Fractionalized Majorana fermions, also known as parafermions, are exotic topologically protected modes that go beyond the simplest non-Abelian anyons, Majorana fermions. They commute up to a nontrivial phase factor in contrast to the minus sign for fermions. These modes are proposed to emerge in devices fabricated from a fractional quantum Hall system and a superconductor. With recent advances towards the realization of fractional quantum Hall states of bosonic ultracold atoms, we propose a realization of parafermions in a system consisting of two Bose-Einstein-condensate trenches within a bosonic fractional quantum Hall state. We show that parafermionic zero modes emerge at the endpoints of the trench and give rise to a topologically protected degeneracy. We also discuss methods for preparing and detecting these modes. University of Maryland for start-up support, and NSF PFC at the JQI.

  17. Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

  18. The Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Michael John; O'Neill, Clare K.; Palmer, Matthew R.

    2010-05-01

    A pre-operational Coastal Observatory has been functioning since August 2002 in Liverpool Bay, Irish Sea. Its rationale is to develop the science underpinning the ecosystem based approach to marine management, including distinguishing between natural and man-made variability, with particular emphasis on eutrophication and predicting responses of a coastal sea to climate change. Liverpool Bay has strong tidal mixing, receives fresh water principally from the Dee, Mersey and Ribble estuaries, each with different catchment influences, and has enhanced levels of nutrients. Horizontal and vertical density gradients are variable both in space and time. The challenge is to understand and model accurately this variable region which is turbulent, turbid, receives enhanced nutrients and is productive. The Observatory has three components, for each of which the goal is some (near) real-time operation - measurements; coupled 3-D hydrodynamic, wave and ecological models; a data management and web-based data delivery system which provides free access to the data, http://cobs.pol.ac.uk. The integrated measurements are designed to test numerical models and have as a major objective obtaining multi-year records, covering tidal, event (storm / calm / bloom), seasonal and interannual time scales. The four main strands on different complementary space or time scales are:- a) fixed point time series (in situ and shore-based); very good temporal and very poor spatial resolution. These include tide gauges; a meteorological station on Hilbre Island at the mouth of the Dee; two in situ sites, one by the Mersey Bar, measuring waves and the vertical structure of current, temperature and salinity. A CEFAS SmartBuoy whose measurements include surface nutrients is deployed at the Mersey Bar site. b) regular (nine times per year) spatial water column surveys on a 9 km grid; good vertical resolution for some variables, limited spatial coverage and resolution, and limited temporal resolution. The

  19. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  20. An Introduction to Continued Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles G.

    Provided is an introduction to the properties of continued fractions for the intellectually curious high school student. Among the topics included are (1) Expansion of Rational Numbers into Simple Continued Fractions, (2) Convergents, (3) Continued Fractions and Linear Diophantine Equations of the Type am + bn = c, (4) Continued Fractions and…

  1. Goal Sketches in Fraction Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sophian, Catherine; Madrid, Samara

    2003-01-01

    To examine how conceptual knowledge about fraction magnitudes changes as students' learning progresses, 5th and 7th-grade students were asked to solve fraction magnitude problems that entailed finding a fraction between two given fractions and then to evaluate solutions for similar problems that were modeled for them. When the given fractions…

  2. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics in the Ebro Delta (Alfacs Bay, NW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Sofia; Garcés, Esther; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Vaqué, Dolors; Camp, Jordi

    2009-08-01

    Samples were collected during one annual cycle (April 2007-March 2008) at Alfacs Bay (NW Mediterranean Sea) central station in order to assess the influence of organic nutrients in the growth of the microalgae assemblage, with special reference to Pseudo-nitzschia spp. This potentially toxic diatom forms natural and recurrent blooms in the study area. To assess further the relationship between Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and nutrients an enrichment experiment with high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMWDOM) was performed with field samples obtained during a Pseudo-nitzschia spp. bloom. HMWDOM was extracted from water collected at Alfacs Bay. Five bioassays were prepared: N + P (seawater with addition of nitrate and phosphate), DOM (addition of HMWDOM), (-N + P) + DOM (nitrogen deficient, with addition of phosphate and HMWDOM), (N + P) + DOM (addition of nitrate, phosphate and HMWDOM), seawater control (without added nutrients), and B + DOM (control of bacteria, without microalgae). The experiment was run in batch mode over 4 days. Results from the field study revealed that the concentrations of organic nutrients mostly surpassed the inorganic pool. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. was the most frequent and abundant taxa of the microalgae community. The micro-planktonic assemblage was arranged according to a seasonal factor (ANOSIM and cluster analysis). DON, nitrate and silicate were the most important abiotic parameters contributing to the dissimilarities between seasons (SIMPER analysis) and thereby potentially influencing the seasonal distribution of microalgae in the representative station. In the experimental investigation, Pseudo-nitzschia cells increased by the end of the experiment in the DOM bioassay but no respective increase was observed for chlorophyll a. This could point to an acquisition of nutrients through the DOM fraction that would conjointly reduce the need of chlorophyll a. The data obtained suggest that organic nutrients may exert an important role

  3. BAY 11-7082 Is a Broad-Spectrum Inhibitor with Anti-Inflammatory Activity against Multiple Targets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehwi; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Eunji; Cho, Jae Youl

    2012-01-01

    BAY 11-7082 (BAY) is an inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) that has pharmacological activities that include anticancer, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, BAY-pharmacological target pathways were further characterized to determine how this compound simultaneously suppresses various responses. Primary and cancerous (RAW264.7 cells) macrophages were activated by lipopolysaccharide, a ligand of toll-like receptor 4. As reported previously, BAY strongly suppressed the production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and tumor necrosis factor-α and reduced the translocation of p65, major subunit of nuclear factor-κB, and its upstream signaling events such as phosphorylation of IκBα, IKK, and Akt. In addition, BAY also suppressed the translocation and activation of activator protein-1, interferon regulatory factor-3, and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 by inhibiting the phosphorylation or activation of extracellular signal-related kinase, p38, TANK-binding protein, and Janus kinase-2. These data strongly suggest that BAY is an inhibitor with multiple targets and could serve as a lead compound in developing strong anti-inflammatory drugs with multiple targets in inflammatory responses. PMID:22745523

  4. Testing fractional action cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchigolev, V. K.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests, which gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.

  5. New Dry Fractionation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes new fractionation methods that are used to create dust that is respirable for testing the effects of inhalation of lunar dust in preparation for future manned lunar exploration. Because lunar dust is a very limited commodity, a method that does not result in loss of the material had to be developed. The dust separation system that is described incorporates some traditional methods, while preventing the dust from being contaminated or changed in reactivity properties while also limiting losses.

  6. Fractional Galilean symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseiny, Ali; Rouhani, Shahin

    2016-09-01

    We generalize the differential representation of the operators of the Galilean algebras to include fractional derivatives. As a result a whole new class of scale invariant Galilean algebras are obtained. The first member of this class has dynamical index z = 2 similar to the Schrödinger algebra. The second member of the class has dynamical index z = 3 / 2, which happens to be the dynamical index Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation.

  7. Oxygen isotope fractionation in divalent metal carbonates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.; Clayton, R.N.; Mayeda, T.K.

    1969-01-01

    Equilibrium fractionation factors for the distribution of 18O between alkaline-earth carbonates and water have been measured over the temperature range 0-500??C. The fractionation factors ?? can be represented by the equations CaCO3-H2O, 1000 ln??=2.78(106 T-2)-3.39, SrCO3-H 2O, 1000 ln??=2.69(106 T-2)-3.74, BaCO3-H2O, 1000 ln??=2.57(106 T -2)-4.73. Measurements on MnCO3, CdCO3, and PbCO3 were made at isolated temperatures. A statistical-mechanical calculation of the isotopic partition function ratios gives reasonably good agreement with experiment. Both cationic size and mass are important in isotopic fractionation, the former predominantly in its effect on the internal vibrations of the anion, the latter in its effect on the lattice vibrations.

  8. Photolytic Fractionation of Stratospheric Nitrous Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, G. A.; Liang, M.; Morgan, C. G.

    2002-05-01

    The isotopically light N2O produced by microbial activity is known to be balanced by the return of heavy stratospheric nitrous oxide. Present atmospheric models predict fractionation factors approximately half those observed, however, leaving open the possibility that unknown processes generate substantial quantities of isotopically enriched nitrous oxide. Here we present a rigorous Born-Oppenheimer analysis of the wavelength-dependent N2O photolytic fractionation and incorporate the resulting fractionation factors into two-dimensional simulations of the stratosphere. Excellent agreement is found between predictions and laboratory/stratospheric measurements, and implies that our understanding of the photochemical cycling of this important trace gas is sufficiently complete to permit quantitative determinations of the natural and anthropogenic sources of N2O using their isotopic signatures.

  9. Model Fractional Chern Insulators.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Jörg; Liu, Zhao; Bergholtz, Emil J

    2016-05-27

    We devise local lattice models whose ground states are model fractional Chern insulators-Abelian and non-Abelian topologically ordered states characterized by exact ground state degeneracies at any finite size and infinite entanglement gaps. Most saliently, we construct exact parent Hamiltonians for two distinct families of bosonic lattice generalizations of the Z_{k} parafermion quantum Hall states: (i) color-entangled fractional Chern insulators at band filling fractions ν=k/(C+1) and (ii) nematic states at ν=k/2, where C is the Chern number of the lowest band. In spite of a fluctuating Berry curvature, our construction is partially frustration free: the ground states reside entirely within the lowest band and exactly minimize a local (k+1) body repulsion term by term. In addition to providing the first known models hosting intriguing states such as higher Chern number generalizations of the Fibonacci anyon quantum Hall states, the remarkable stability and finite-size properties make our models particularly well suited for the study of novel phenomena involving, e.g., twist defects and proximity induced superconductivity, as well as being a guide for designing experiments. PMID:27284668

  10. Model Fractional Chern Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrmann, Jörg; Liu, Zhao; Bergholtz, Emil J.

    2016-05-01

    We devise local lattice models whose ground states are model fractional Chern insulators—Abelian and non-Abelian topologically ordered states characterized by exact ground state degeneracies at any finite size and infinite entanglement gaps. Most saliently, we construct exact parent Hamiltonians for two distinct families of bosonic lattice generalizations of the Zk parafermion quantum Hall states: (i) color-entangled fractional Chern insulators at band filling fractions ν =k /(C +1 ) and (ii) nematic states at ν =k /2 , where C is the Chern number of the lowest band. In spite of a fluctuating Berry curvature, our construction is partially frustration free: the ground states reside entirely within the lowest band and exactly minimize a local (k +1 ) body repulsion term by term. In addition to providing the first known models hosting intriguing states such as higher Chern number generalizations of the Fibonacci anyon quantum Hall states, the remarkable stability and finite-size properties make our models particularly well suited for the study of novel phenomena involving, e.g., twist defects and proximity induced superconductivity, as well as being a guide for designing experiments.

  11. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  12. 33 CFR 117.1101 - Sturgeon Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... intended passage. (b) The draw of the Maple-Oregon Bridge, mile 4.17 at Sturgeon Bay, shall open on signal... the Maple-Oregon Street drawbridge, shall open simultaneously for larger commercial vessels, as...

  13. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  14. The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe

    2010-02-01

    The 3x3 PMNS leptonic mixing matrix relates the mass and flavor eigenstates of the 3 known neutrinos. The θ13 mixing angle is the last unknown mixing angle in the PMNS matrix, the parameters of which must be determined experimentally. The Daya Bay experiment will search for the ``disappearance'' of reactor anti-neutrinos from the Daya Bay and Ling Ao Nuclear Power Plants located in Daya Bay, Guangdong, China using multiple identical detectors at different baselines. The disappearance probability of reactor anti-neutrinos at short baselines of 1-2km is directly proportional to 2̂(2 θ13). The goal of the Daya Bay experiment is to reach a sensitivity of 2̂(2 θ13) = 0.01 at the 90 % C.L. The status and prospects of the experiment will be presented. )

  15. The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishai, Mary

    2007-04-01

    The 3x3 PMNS leptonic mixing matrix relates the mass and flavor eigenstates of the 3 known neutrinos. The θ13 mixing angle is the last unknown mixing angle in the PMNS matrix, the parameters of which must be determined experimentally. The goal of the Daya Bay experiment is to measure θ13 with a sensitivity in 2circ(2θ13) of 0.01. The Daya Bay experiment will search for the `disappearance' of reactor electron anti-neutrinos from the Daya Bay and Ling Ao Nuclear Power Plants located in Daya Bay, Guangdong, China using multiple identical detectors at different baselines. The status and prospects of the experiment will be presented.

  16. Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

  17. Improving measurement of Chesapeake Bay's dead zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-09-01

    In the 1930s, researchers first noticed that the Chesapeake Bay had a dead zone, an expanse of water with drastically reduced concentrations of oxygen. In the 1980s, hypoxia—low-oxygen conditions—gave way in some places to anoxia—a near-total depletion of dissolved oxygen. A lack of oxygen makes the water inhospitable for many marine organisms, and the Chesapeake Bay is the focus of major ecosystem rehabilitation efforts.

  18. Shifts in Cyanobacterial Strain Dominance during the Onset of Harmful Algal Blooms in Florida Bay, USA.

    PubMed

    Berry, Dianna L; Goleski, Jennifer A; Koch, Florian; Wall, Charles C; Peterson, Bradley J; Anderson, O Roger; Gobler, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Cyanobacteria are fundamental components of aquatic phytoplankton communities and some taxa can cause harmful blooms in coastal ecosystems. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are typically comprised of multiple strains of a single genus or species that cannot be resolved microscopically. Florida Bay, USA, has experienced harmful cyanobacterial blooms that have been associated with the loss of eelgrass, spiny lobsters, and general food web disruption for more than two decades. To identify the strain or strains of cyanobacteria forming blooms in Florida Bay, samples were collected across the system over an annual cycle and analyzed via DNA sequencing using cyanobacterial-specific 16S rRNA gene primers, flow cytometry, and scanning electron microscopy. Analyses demonstrated that the onset of blooms in Florida Bay was coincident with a transformation of the cyanobacterial populations. When blooms were absent, the cyanobacterial population in Florida Bay was dominated by phycoerythrin-containing Synechococcus cells that were most similar to strains within Clade III. As blooms developed, the cyanobacterial community transitioned to dominance by phycocyanin-containing Synechococcus cells that were coated with mucilage, chain-forming, and genetically most similar to the coastal strains within Clade VIII. Clade VIII strains of Synechococcus are known to grow rapidly, utilize organic nutrients, and resist top-down control by protozoan grazers and viruses, all characteristics consistent with observations of cyanobacterial blooms in Florida Bay. Further, the strains of Synechococcus blooming in this system are genetically distinct from the species previously thought to cause blooms in Florida Bay, Synechococcus elongatus. Collectively, this study identified the causative organism of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in Florida Bay, demonstrates the dynamic nature of cyanobacterial stains within genera in an estuary, and affirms factors promoting Synechococcus blooms. PMID:25661475

  19. Deriving Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining the water quality conditions necessary to protect the aquatic living resources of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries has required a foundation of quantifiable water quality criteria. Quantitative criteria serve as a critical basis for assessing the attainment of designated uses and measuring progress toward meeting water quality goals of the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership. In 1987, the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership committed to defining the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources. Under section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act, States and authorized tribes have the primary responsibility for adopting water quality standards into law or regulation. The Chesapeake Bay Program partnership worked with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop and publish a guidance framework of ambient water quality criteria with designated uses and assessment procedures for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, and chlorophyll a for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries in 2003. This article reviews the derivation of the water quality criteria, criteria assessment protocols, designated use boundaries, and their refinements published in six addendum documents since 2003 and successfully adopted into each jurisdiction's water quality standards used in developing the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load.

  20. Holocene sedimentation in Richardson Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, Cathy L.

    1983-01-01

    Examination of foraminifers, diatoms, ostracodes, clay mineralogy, and sediment-size variation from 9 borehole sites along the salt-marsh margins of Richardson Bay reveals a record of gradual infilling of fine-grained estuarine sediments. Over the past 10,000 years this area was transformed from a V-shaped Pleistocene stream valley to a flat-floored arm of the San Francisco Bay estuary. A radiocarbon date obtained from a basal peat overlying nonmarine alluvial sand near the town of Mill Valley indicates that stable salt-marsh vegetation was present in the northwestern arm of Richardson Bay 4600?165 years ago and agrees within error limits with a Holocene sea-level curve developed by Atwater, Hedel, and Helley in 1977 for southern San Francisco Bay. The average sedimentation rate over the last 4600 years is estimated to be 0.2 cm/yr for the inner part of the bay. Comparison of early maps with updated versions as well as studies of marsh plant zonations in disturbed and nondisturbed areas shows that almost half of the marsh in Richardson Bay has been leveed or filled since 1899.

  1. Toxic phytoplankton in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodgers, Kristine M.; Garrison, David L.; Cloern, James E.

    1996-01-01

    The Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) was conceived and designed to document the changing distribution and effects of trace substances in San Francisco Bay, with focus on toxic contaminants that have become enriched by human inputs. However, coastal ecosystems like San Francisco Bay also have potential sources of naturally-produced toxic substances that can disrupt food webs and, under extreme circumstances, become threats to public health. The most prevalent source of natural toxins is from blooms of algal species that can synthesize metabolites that are toxic to invertebrates or vertebrates. Although San Francisco Bay is nutrient-rich, it has so far apparently been immune from the epidemic of harmful algal blooms in the world’s nutrient-enriched coastal waters. This absence of acute harmful blooms does not imply that San Francisco Bay has unique features that preclude toxic blooms. No sampling program has been implemented to document the occurrence of toxin-producing algae in San Francisco Bay, so it is difficult to judge the likelihood of such events in the future. This issue is directly relevant to the goals of RMP because harmful species of phytoplankton have the potential to disrupt ecosystem processes that support animal populations, cause severe illness or death in humans, and confound the outcomes of toxicity bioassays such as those included in the RMP. Our purpose here is to utilize existing data on the phytoplankton community of San Francisco Bay to provide a provisional statement about the occurrence, distribution, and potential threats of harmful algae in this Estuary.

  2. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION OF CARBON IN THE PENSACOLA BAY SYSTEM (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon cycling is an important process in estuarine ecosystems, but is highly variable among systems. Precipitation is one of the driving factors of this cycle. Seasonal carbon concentrations were measured from 1997 through 1998 in Pensacola Bay and Santa Rosa Sound, Florida, loc...

  3. Contribution of Cultural Eutrophication to Marsh Loss in Jamaica Bay (NY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Loss of salt marsh area in the Jamaica Bay Estuary (NY) has accelerated in recent years, with loss rates as high as 45 acres per year. A contributing factor to this acceleration is likely cultural eutrophication due to over 6 decades of sewage effluent inputs. We examined marsh...

  4. Biofuels and the bay: Characterizing health and ecosystem impacts in the Chesapeake

    EPA Science Inventory

    The global climate crisis has stimulated the search for alternative fuels. Biofuels have been the focus of a recent report by the Chesapeake Bay Commission that evaluated alternative fuel development efforts in the local area. Already under stress from anthropomorphic factors,...

  5. Predicting thermal regimes of stream networks across the Chesapeake Bay Watershed: Natural and anthropogenic influences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal regimes are a critical factor in models predicting joint effects of watershed management activities and climate change on fish habitat suitability. We have compiled a database of lotic temperature time series across the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (725 station-year combinat...

  6. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIATION OF CARBON IN THE PENSACOLA BAY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon cycling is an important process in estuarine ecosystems, but is highly variable among systems. Precipitation is one of the driving factors of this cycle. Seasonal carbon concentrations were measured from 1997 through 1999 in Pensacola Bay and Santa Rosa Sound, Florida, loc...

  7. Resolving polychlorinated biphenyl source fingerprints in suspended particulate matter of San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.W.; Jarman, W.M.; Bacon, C.E.; Davis, J.A.; Ehrlich, R.; Risebrough, R.W.

    2000-02-15

    The presence of PCB contamination in San Francisco Bay has been documented, but the number of sources, their chemical composition, and their geographic-temporal distribution are poorly understood. A self-training pattern recognition technique, polytopic vector analysis is used to determine those parameters from PCBs absorbed on the particulate fraction of surface waters. Five chemical fingerprints (end-members) were resolved. Four were consistent with published Aroclor patterns. Aroclor 1260 was observed throughout the estuary, in all cruises, with highest proportions observed in Coyote Creek, a tributary of the South Bay. A pattern that matches typical Aroclor 1254 was observed in all cruises but was in generally higher abundance in spring 1995. A second Aroclor 1254 pattern, consistent with an atypical Aroclor 1254 batch described in the literature, was observed in moderate proportions in the three 1996 cruises. Aroclor 1248 was present in significant proportions in only one cruise (cruise 12: July 1996) but was the dominant fingerprint in the Central Bay samples collected at that time. End-member 5 did not match published Aroclor source patterns. Its composition exhibits high proportions of the metabolism-resistant congeners PCB-138 and PCB-153. The source of this pattern is not known, but the authors hypothesize that it may be due to sewage inputs in the Bay or from atmospheric inputs.

  8. Mercury Isotopic Composition of Young-of-Year Fish in San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, G. E.; Blum, J. D.; Slotton, D. G.; Greenfield, B. K.

    2009-12-01

    Variations in the stable isotopic composition of mercury (Hg) can provide information about sources and biogeochemical transformations of Hg in the environment. Mass-dependent fractionation of Hg isotopes, reported as δ202Hg relative to NIST 3133, has been observed during multiple processes including volatilization, diffusion, reduction and de-methylation. Large mass-independent fractionation of Hg (>0.2‰) reported as Δ199Hg, has been observed only during photochemical reduction of Hg and MeHg. In this study we analyzed the Hg isotopic composition of sediments and young (<4 months) fish from localized polyhaline habitats throughout San Francisco Bay to investigate sources of Hg to the aquatic food web and Hg cycling. Mississippi silverside have δ202Hg values ranging from -0.25 to +0.60‰, with regional variation among South and Lower South Bay (+0.10 to +0.60‰), San Pablo Bay (-0.25 to -0.03‰), and Suisun Bay (+0.13 to +0.42‰). Fish δ202Hg values roughly correlate with sediment δ202Hg values from the same sites. We suggest that each of the Guadalupe, Petaluma, and Sacaramento-San Joaquin river systems supply a distinct source of Hg to San Francisco Bay, likely associated with contaminated sediment. Mississippi silverside have Δ199Hg values ranging +0.46 to +1.55‰. Unlike the δ202Hg values, fish Δ199Hg values do not vary in a regular pattern throughout the Bay. Rather, fish from approximately one-third of sites analyzed exhibit relatively elevated Δ199Hg (> 0.8‰), possibly associated with high water clarity. In all fish analyzed, the ratio of Δ199Hg to Δ201Hg values have a narrow range of 1.19 to 1.40 (avg = 1.26 ± 0.06). These ratios in fish are consistent with laboratory studies of photochemical MeHg degradation, which yielded Δ199Hg: Δ201Hg ratios of ~1.3 (Bergquist and Blum, 2007). We suggest that Δ199Hg in fish varies with the extent of photochemical MeHg degradation prior to food web uptake. Bergquist, B. A. and Blum, J. D., 2007

  9. Evaluation of 1991-1992 Brood Overwinter-Reared Coho Released from Net Pens in Youngs Bay, Oregon : Final Completion Report Youngs Bay Terminal Fishery Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Paul S.

    1997-01-01

    Funding from Bonneville Power Administration was provided to the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Clatsop County Economic Development Council`s Fisheries Project to identify and develop terminal fishing opportunities. The 1991 and 1992 brood fingerling coho from Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife hatcheries were successfully reared during the winter period to smolt stage in Youngs Bay utilizing floating net pens. Based on coded-wire-tag recoveries during 1991--93 from 2-week net-pen acclimation releases, total accountability of coho adults averaged 40,540 fish, with the Youngs Bay commercial harvest accounting for 39%. With reduced ocean harvest impacts during 1994 and 1995, 92% of 51,640 coho in 1994 and 68% of 23,599 coho in 1995 (based on coded-wire-tag recoveries) were accounted for in the Youngs Bay commercial fishery for combined 2-week and overwinter acclimation net-pen releases. Overwinter net-pen acclimation coho accounted for 35,063 and 15,775 coho adults in 1994 and 1995 with 93% and 68% accountable in the Youngs Bay commercial harvest. Based on coded-wire-tag recoveries, less than 1% of the adults resulting from releases at Youngs Bay net pens strayed to hatcheries, while none were recovered on spawning ground surveys during 1991--95. The highest survival rates were observed for 1991 and 1992 brood overwinter coho released in early May. Time of release, not rearing strategy, appears to be the determining factor affecting survival in Youngs Bay.

  10. Nonparametric Bayes analysis of social science data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunihama, Tsuyoshi

    Social science data often contain complex characteristics that standard statistical methods fail to capture. Social surveys assign many questions to respondents, which often consist of mixed-scale variables. Each of the variables can follow a complex distribution outside parametric families and associations among variables may have more complicated structures than standard linear dependence. Therefore, it is not straightforward to develop a statistical model which can approximate structures well in the social science data. In addition, many social surveys have collected data over time and therefore we need to incorporate dynamic dependence into the models. Also, it is standard to observe massive number of missing values in the social science data. To address these challenging problems, this thesis develops flexible nonparametric Bayesian methods for the analysis of social science data. Chapter 1 briefly explains backgrounds and motivations of the projects in the following chapters. Chapter 2 develops a nonparametric Bayesian modeling of temporal dependence in large sparse contingency tables, relying on a probabilistic factorization of the joint pmf. Chapter 3 proposes nonparametric Bayes inference on conditional independence with conditional mutual information used as a measure of the strength of conditional dependence. Chapter 4 proposes a novel Bayesian density estimation method in social surveys with complex designs where there is a gap between sample and population. We correct for the bias by adjusting mixture weights in Bayesian mixture models. Chapter 5 develops a nonparametric model for mixed-scale longitudinal surveys, in which various types of variables can be induced through latent continuous variables and dynamic latent factors lead to flexibly time-varying associations among variables.

  11. Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in San Francisco and Monterey Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, D. P.

    2002-12-01

    a 10 station north-south transect is sampled. Samples also are fractioned into cellular and extracellular AP activity by filtration (0.2mm). Although the areas studied are not considered P-limited, AP activities for both bays were detected. These activities vary spatially and seasonally, indicating varying levels of P-stress. AP activities determined in this study will be compared to inorganic phosphate, organic phosphate, phytoplankton species abundances and chl a concentrations, as well as other ancillary parameters collected by Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) and U.S. Geological Survey time series. The final aspect of this study is a comparison of the two assays used to determine AP activity. The first is a colorimetric method using p-nitrophenylphosphate as a substrate, while the second is a fluorometric assay, using methylumbelliferyl phosphate as the substrate. This study will demonstrate that while there are advantages and disadvantages to each assay method, they provide results that are in concordance.

  12. Distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in relation to summer hypoxia in Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Jun; Kudoh, Takaya; Takatsuji, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Kasai, Akihide

    2010-02-01

    Biological and physical surveys were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and the distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in Hiroshima Bay, western Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Moon jellyfish and ichthyoplankton were collected at 13 stations in Hiroshima Bay during monthly surveys from July to September in 2006 and 2007. Surface temperature in 2006 was significantly lower during the August and September cruises and surface salinity was lower during all cruises than in 2007. Moon jellyfish was the most dominant gelatinous plankton collected, accounting for 89.7% in wet weight. Mean moon jellyfish abundance in 2006 was higher than that in 2007 from July through September, with significant inter-year differences for July and September. Variability in precipitation and nutritional input from the Ohta River, northernmost part of Hiroshima Bay, were suggested as possible factors affecting the inter-annual variability in moon jellyfish abundance in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay. Moon jellyfish were more abundant in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay, where the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was lower, while low in the central part of the bay. Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus eggs were most dominant (58.1% in number) among the ichthyoplankton and were abundant in the central area of Hiroshima Bay. Explanatory analysis was conducted to detect possible effects of environmental conditions on the abundance of moon jellyfish and Japanese anchovy eggs during the summer months in Hiroshima Bay. Of the environmental conditions tested (temperature, salinity and DO of surface and bottom layers at each sampling station), bottom DO had the most significant effect on the moon jellyfish abundance: there was a negative correlation between the bottom DO and the moon jellyfish abundance in Hiroshima Bay during summer.

  13. Characterization and closure of the Met Lab Carolina Bay at the Savannah River site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Jerome, K.M.; Frazier, W.L.; Haselow, L.A.; Voss, L.

    1993-07-01

    The Met Lab Carolina Bay is subject to Subtitle C of RCRA and CERCLA requirements. Located in the northwestern section of the Savannah River Site, the Met Lab Carolina Bay is a marshy, oval-shaped natural depression covering approximately six acres. The Carolina Bay received wastes from three sources: the Met Lab Basin A-007 drainage outfall, the A-Area coal-fire power plant A-008 drainage outfall and the A/M-Area vehicle maintenance parking lot stormwater runoff A-009 outfall. Two characterization efforts conducted in 1988/89 and 1991 indicate the presence of metals in the sediments and soils of the bay. The greatest concentrations of the metals and organics being in the north-central portion of the bay. The metals and organics were primarily associated with surface sediments and the organic-rich soil layer to a depth of about two feet. Conclusions from the Human Health Baseline Risk indicate the future on-unit resident exposure to sediments and soil poses an unacceptable level of risk to human health. However, the assumptions built into the calculations lead to conservative human health risk findings. A qualitative Ecological Risk Assessment was performed on the Carolina Bay. This ecological assessment, based on historical and existing sampling data, was found to be insufficient to make a definitive decision on the contaminants` effects on the ecology of the bay. The proposed action for the Carolina Bay is to conduct an ecological characterization. It appears that the ecological risks will be in the driving factor in determining the remedial action for the Met Lab Carolina Bay.

  14. Talus Lex: Regulatory Approaches to Reducing Mercury Concentrations in San Francisco Bay Fish.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Saba, D. E.; Flegal, D. R.; Ganguli, P. M.; Whyte, D. C.; Mumley, D. E.; Mason, D. P.

    2001-12-01

    The history of mercury in California is recorded in the sediments of San Francisco Bay. The Bay is downstream of 40 percent of the land area of California. Its watershed receives 80 percent of the rainfall in the State, because it rains more in the north. Three billion kilograms of sediments are annually flushed from the Central Valley watershed and deposited in San Francisco Bay. Because mercury preferentially binds to sediments, we calculate mercury loads to the Bay by considering how various sources affect mercury concentrations in Bay sediments. During and after the Gold Rush, over seventy thousand tons of mercury was produced in Coast Range cinnabar mines. Much of this mercury was used as quicksilver to extract gold from placer formations in the Sierra foothills, and later in the production of munitions, electronics, health care and commercial products. Today, we can see the legacy of mining sources, from both remote and local watersheds, superimposed on air deposition, the climate and geography of California, heavily managed water supply and flood control projects, wetland restoration and rehabilitation, urbanization, wastewaster discharge and water reclamation. We already regulate wastewater and urban runoff through issuance of permits and waste discharge requirements. We can regulate mercury inputs from inoperative mines by demonstrating the link between mercury-polluted sediments and violation of existing numeric water quality objectives. We can use the same approach to regulate the disposal of mercury-containing electronic devices. But to reduce mercury levels in fish, we will also have to consider controllable water quality factors that promote mercury methylation in the aquatic ecosystem. Some of these water quality factors are already subject to regulation. For example, we can show that mercury methylation in the northern reach of the Bay increases when dissolved oxygen drops below 6 mg/L; current regulations require dissolved oxygen concentrations of

  15. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study - Characterization of Tidal Wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIvor, Carole

    2005-01-01

    Tidal wetlands in Tampa Bay, Florida, consist of mangrove forests and salt marshes. Wetlands buffer storm surges, provide fish and wildlife habitat, and enhance water quality through the removal of water-borne nutrients and contaminants. Substantial areas of both mangroves and salt marshes have been lost to agricultural, residential, and industrial development in this urban estuary. Wetlands researchers are characterizing the biological components of tidal wetlands and examining the physical factors such as salinity, tidal flushing, and sediment deposition that control the composition of tidal wetland habitats. Wetlands restoration is a priority of resource managers in Tampa Bay. Baseline studies such as these are needed for successful restoration planning and evaluation.

  16. Solvent Fractionation of Lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2014-01-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. The major issues for the commercial production of value added high performance lignin products are lignin s physical and chemical heterogenities. To overcome these problems, a variety of procedures have been developed to produce pure lignin suitable for high performace applications such as lignin-derived carbon materials. However, most of the isolation procedures affect lignin s properties and structure. In this chapter, a short review of the effect of solvent fractionation on lignin s properties and structure is presented.

  17. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  18. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Anderson, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynscronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board.

  19. 33 CFR 100.112 - Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI. 100.112 Section 100.112 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.112 Swim the...

  20. 33 CFR 100.112 - Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI. 100.112 Section 100.112 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.112 Swim the...