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Sample records for fracture surgeryhow big

  1. Bone fractures among postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer treated with 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial

    PubMed Central

    Rabaglio, M.; Sun, Z.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Hawle, H.; Thürlimann, B.; Mouridsen, H.; Campone, M.; Forbes, J. F.; Paridaens, R. J.; Colleoni, M.; Pienkowski, T.; Nogaret, J.-M.; Láng, I.; Smith, I.; Gelber, R. D.; Goldhirsch, A.; Coates, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To compare the incidence and timing of bone fractures in postmenopausal women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen or letrozole for endocrine-responsive early breast cancer in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial. Methods: We evaluated 4895 patients allocated to 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial who received at least some study medication (median follow-up 60.3 months). Bone fracture information (grade, cause, site) was collected every 6 months during trial treatment. Results: The incidence of bone fractures was higher among patients treated with letrozole [228 of 2448 women (9.3%)] versus tamoxifen [160 of 2447 women (6.5%)]. The wrist was the most common site of fracture in both treatment groups. Statistically significant risk factors for bone fractures during treatment included age, smoking history, osteoporosis at baseline, previous bone fracture, and previous hormone replacement therapy. Conclusions: Consistent with other trials comparing aromatase inhibitors to tamoxifen, letrozole was associated with an increase in bone fractures. Benefits of superior disease control associated with letrozole and lower incidence of fracture with tamoxifen should be considered with the risk profile for individual patients. PMID:19474112

  2. Ductile fracture propagation in gas pipelines - results of full scale burst tests of big diameter pipes

    SciTech Connect

    de Vito, A.; Morini, A.; Pozzi, A.; Bonomo, F.; Bramante, M.

    1981-01-01

    Full-scale burst tests have been conducted at Perdasdefogu station of 48- and 56-in. diameter pipes of grade X70 and X80; hoop stresses were between 317 and 385 N/sq mm and thicknesses between 17 and 20 m. Two types of materials have been examined and other aspects have been considered. Particular efforts have been devoted to deformation measured by strain gages. From results obtained, examined also using a new formula as a prevision arrest criterion, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) behavior of Q.T. materials is not properly covered by current design criteria, related limit cv energy values predicting arrest appear in fact unsafe for Q.T. steels; (2) frozen backfill might play an important role in containing fracture; and (3) simple mechanical devices can act, if properly designed, as very efficient crack-arrestors. 10 references.

  3. Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael C.

    1963-01-01

    Recent studies on the epidemiology and repair of fractures are reviewed. The type and severity of the fracture bears a relation to the age, sex and occupation of the patient. Bone tissue after fracture shows a process of inflammation and repair common to all members of the connective tissue family, but it repairs with specific tissue. Cartilage forms when the oxygen supply is outgrown. After a fracture, the vascular bed enlarges. The major blood supply to healing tissue is from medullary vessels and destruction of them will cause necrosis of the inner two-thirds of the cortex. Callus rapidly mineralizes, but full mineralization is achieved slowly; increased mineral metabolism lasts several years after fracture. PMID:13952119

  4. Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... commonly happen because of car accidents, falls, or sports injuries. Other causes are low bone density and osteoporosis, which cause weakening of the bones. Overuse can cause stress fractures, which are very small cracks in the ...

  5. Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    A fracture is a break, usually in a bone. If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open ... falls, or sports injuries. Other causes are low bone density and osteoporosis, which cause weakening of the ...

  6. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  7. Stress fractures in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hulkko, A; Orava, S

    1987-06-01

    During the 14-year period of 1971-1985, 368 stress fractures in 324 athletes were treated. The series contained 268 fractures in males and 100 fractures in females; 32 fractures occurred in children (less than 16 years), 117 in adolescents (16-19 years), and 219 in adults. Forty-six fractures were incurred by athletes at an international level, 274 by athletes at a national or district level and 48 by recreational athletes. Of the total cases, 72% occurred to runners and a further 12% to athletes in other sports after running exercises. The distribution of the stress fractures by site was: tibia 182, metatarsal bones 73, fibula 44, big toe sesamoid bones 15, femoral shaft 14, femoral neck 9, tarsal navicular 9, pelvis 7, olecranon 5 and other bones 10. Of the total fractures, 342 were treated conservatively and 26 fractures required surgical treatment. The operative indication was dislocation in 5 cases and delayed union/nonunion in 21 cases. The sites most often affected by delayed union were: anterior midtibia, sesamoid bones of the big toe, base of the fifth metatarsal, olecranon, and tarsal navicular. The athletes at an international level experienced the greatest risk of multiple separate fractures, protracted healing, or fractures requiring surgery. PMID:3623785

  8. Nose fracture

    MedlinePlus

    Fracture of the nose; Broken nose; Nasal fracture; Nasal bone fracture; Nasal septal fracture ... A fractured nose is the most common fracture of the face. It ... with other fractures of the face. Sometimes a blunt injury can ...

  9. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  10. Big bluestem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is a warm season grass native to North America, accounting for 40% of the herbaceous biomass of the tall grass prairie, and a candidate for bioenergy feedstock production. The goal of this study was to measure among and within population genetic variation of natura...

  11. Big Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  12. Big Opportunities and Big Concerns of Big Data in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yinying

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…

  13. Nose fracture

    MedlinePlus

    Fracture of the nose; Broken nose; Nasal fracture; Nasal bone fracture; Nasal septal fracture ... A fractured nose is the most common fracture of the face. It usually occurs after an injury and often occurs with ...

  14. Skull fracture

    MedlinePlus

    Basilar skull fracture; Depressed skull fracture; Linear skull fracture ... Skull fractures may occur with head injuries . The skull provides good protection for the brain. However, a severe impact ...

  15. Big Bang, Big Data, Big Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conference website: http://www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/APC/Conferences/Workshop_Big3/Home.html Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation have transformed modern cosmology propelling it into high-precision, data-driven science it is today. CMB data analysis has been a cornerstone of this transformation and it continues in this role preparing currently to meet its possibly ultimate challenge as posed by ever-growing in size and complexity forthcoming data sets required by new science goals posed for the field. These include providing key pieces of information about the very early Universe: Gaussianity of the initial conditions, the presence of the primordial gravity waves, as well as constraints on the large-scale structure formation and possibly properties of dark energy. The sophistication of the involved data models is matched by precision levels, which have to be attained to deliver robust detections and result in firm conclusions. The overall challenge is indeed breathtaking and, without a doubt, the success will be only possible if the data analysis effort becomes truly interdisciplinary and capitalizes on the latest advances in statistics, applied mathematics, and computer science - all of which constitute veritable foundations of the contemporary data analysis work.

  16. Five Big Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Designing quality continuing professional development (CPD) for those teaching mathematics in primary schools is a challenge. If the CPD is to be built on the scaffold of five big ideas in mathematics, what might be these five big ideas? Might it just be a case of, if you tell me your five big ideas, then I'll tell you mine? Here, there is…

  17. Mapping the fracture properties of engineering materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, Mike

    2013-09-01

    Among Alan Cottrell's many extraordinary talents was that of an inspirational teacher. He had a masterful ability to explain the underlying physics of the Science of Materials and at the same time to simplify and to present the big picture. His teaching-texts live on, still among the clearest and most insightful expositions of the subject. This paper surveys part of one of the fields to which he contributed so much - Fracture - with education and the big picture in mind.

  18. Dual of big bang and big crunch

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Dongsu

    2007-01-15

    Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by the procedure of double analytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are nonsingular as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological singularities simply signal the failure of the supergravity description of the full type IIB superstring theory.

  19. Elbow Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... and held together with pins and wires or plates and screws. Fractures of the distal humerus (see ... doctor. These fractures usually require surgical repair with plates and/or screw, unless they are stable. SIGNS ...

  20. Implementing Big History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welter, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)

  1. Big Ideas in Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how she was able to discover some big ideas about art education. She relates how she found great ideas to improve her teaching from the book "Rethinking Curriculum in Art." She also shares how she designed a "Big Idea" unit in her class.

  2. Olecranon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Brolin, Tyler J; Throckmorton, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Olecranon fractures are common upper extremity injuries, with all but nondisplaced fractures treated surgically. There has been a recent shift in the surgical management of these fractures from tension band wiring to locking plate fixation and intramedullary nailing; however, this comes with increased implant cost. Although most patients can expect good outcomes after these various techniques, there is little information to guide a surgeon's treatment plan. This article reviews the epidemiology, classification, treatment, and outcomes of olecranon fractures. PMID:26498547

  3. Big data for health.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled. PMID:26173222

  4. Big data, big knowledge: big data for personalized healthcare.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod

    2015-07-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority. PMID:26218867

  5. Sports fractures.

    PubMed Central

    DeCoster, T. A.; Stevens, M. A.; Albright, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Fractures occur in athletes and dramatically influence performance during competitive and recreational activities. Fractures occur in athletes as the result of repetitive stress, acute sports-related trauma and trauma outside of athletics. The literature provides general guidelines for treatment as well as a variety of statistics on the epidemiology of fractures by sport and level of participation. Athletes are healthy and motivated patients, and have high expectations regarding their level of function. These qualities make them good surgical candidates. Although closed treatment methods are appropriate for most sports fractures, an aggressive approach to more complicated fractures employing current techniques may optimize their subsequent performance. PMID:7719781

  6. Big Data in industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latinović, T. S.; Preradović, D. M.; Barz, C. R.; Latinović, M. T.; Petrica, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2016-08-01

    The amount of data at the global level has grown exponentially. Along with this phenomena, we have a need for a new unit of measure like exabyte, zettabyte, and yottabyte as the last unit measures the amount of data. The growth of data gives a situation where the classic systems for the collection, storage, processing, and visualization of data losing the battle with a large amount, speed, and variety of data that is generated continuously. Many of data that is created by the Internet of Things, IoT (cameras, satellites, cars, GPS navigation, etc.). It is our challenge to come up with new technologies and tools for the management and exploitation of these large amounts of data. Big Data is a hot topic in recent years in IT circles. However, Big Data is recognized in the business world, and increasingly in the public administration. This paper proposes an ontology of big data analytics and examines how to enhance business intelligence through big data analytics as a service by presenting a big data analytics services-oriented architecture. This paper also discusses the interrelationship between business intelligence and big data analytics. The proposed approach in this paper might facilitate the research and development of business analytics, big data analytics, and business intelligence as well as intelligent agents.

  7. BigDog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.

    2006-05-01

    BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

  8. The Big Bang Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-09-30

    The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.

  9. The Big Bang Singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  10. Hip fracture - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - discharge

  11. How Big Are "Martin's Big Words"? Thinking Big about the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." tells of King's childhood determination to use "big words" through biographical information and quotations. In this lesson, students in grades 3 to 5 explore information on Dr. King to think about his "big" words, then they write about their own "big" words and dreams. During the one…

  12. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-08-27

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  13. Big data in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fabricio F

    2014-04-01

    The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as 'big data', provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care. Recent advances in information technology (IT) applied to biomedicine are changing the landscape of privacy and personal information, with patients getting more control of their health information. Conceivably, big data analytics is already impacting health decisions and patient care; however, specific challenges need to be addressed to integrate current discoveries into medical practice. In this article, I will discuss the major breakthroughs achieved in combining omics and clinical health data in terms of their application to personalized medicine. I will also review the challenges associated with using big data in biomedicine and translational science. PMID:24183925

  14. Bayesian big bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

    2011-09-01

    We show that the flow of particles corresponding to Bayes' rule has a number of striking similarities with the big bang, including cosmic inflation and cosmic acceleration. We derive a PDE for this flow using a log-homotopy from the prior probability density to the posteriori probability density. We solve this PDE using the gradient of the solution to Poisson's equation, which is computed using an exact Green's function and the standard Monte Carlo approximation of integrals. The resulting flow is analogous to Coulomb's law in electromagnetics. We have used no physics per se to derive this flow, but rather we have only used Bayes' rule and the definition of normalized probability and a loghomotopy parameter that could be interpreted as time. The details of this big bang resemble very recent theories much more closely than the so-called new inflation models, which postulate enormous inflation immediately after the big bang.

  15. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  16. Complications of hip fractures: A review.

    PubMed

    Carpintero, Pedro; Caeiro, Jose Ramón; Carpintero, Rocío; Morales, Angela; Silva, Samuel; Mesa, Manuel

    2014-09-18

    Nowadays, fracture surgery represents a big part of the orthopedic surgeon workload, and usually has associated major clinical and social cost implications. These fractures have several complications. Some of these are medical, and other related to the surgical treatment itself. Medical complications may affect around 20% of patients with hip fracture. Cognitive and neurological alterations, cardiopulmonary affections (alone or combined), venous thromboembolism, gastrointestinal tract bleeding, urinary tract complications, perioperative anemia, electrolytic and metabolic disorders, and pressure scars are the most important medical complications after hip surgery in terms of frequency, increase of length of stay and perioperative mortality. Complications arising from hip fracture surgery are fairly common, and vary depending on whether the fracture is intracapsular or extracapsular. The main problems in intracapsular fractures are biological: vascularization of the femoral head, and lack of periosteum -a major contributor to fracture healing- in the femoral neck. In extracapsular fractures, by contrast, the problem is mechanical, and relates to load-bearing. Early surgical fixation, the role of anti-thromboembolic and anti-infective prophylaxis, good pain control at the perioperative, detection and management of delirium, correct urinary tract management, avoidance of malnutrition, vitamin D supplementation, osteoporosis treatment and advancement of early mobilization to improve functional recovery and falls prevention are basic recommendations for an optimal maintenance of hip fractured patients. PMID:25232517

  17. A Big Bang Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  18. Big-City Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to implementing innovative classroom technology programs, urban school districts face significant challenges stemming from their big-city status. These range from large bureaucracies, to scalability, to how to meet the needs of a more diverse group of students. Because of their size, urban districts tend to have greater distance…

  19. Big Enough for Everyone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coote, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The UK's coalition government wants to build a "Big Society." The Prime Minister says "we are all in this together" and building it is the responsibility of every citizen as well as every government department. The broad vision is welcome, but everything depends on how the vision is translated into policy and practice. The government aims to put…

  20. The big bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    Our universe was born billions of years ago in a hot, violent explosion of elementary particles and radiation - the big bang. What do we know about this ultimate moment of creation, and how do we know it? Drawing upon the latest theories and technology, this new edition of The big bang, is a sweeping, lucid account of the event that set the universe in motion. Joseph Silk begins his story with the first microseconds of the big bang, on through the evolution of stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, quasars, and into the distant future of our universe. He also explores the fascinating evidence for the big bang model and recounts the history of cosmological speculation. Revised and updated, this new edition features all the most recent astronomical advances, including: Photos and measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE), and Infrared Space Observatory; the latest estimates of the age of the universe; new ideas in string and superstring theory; recent experiments on neutrino detection; new theories about the presence of dark matter in galaxies; new developments in the theory of the formation and evolution of galaxies; the latest ideas about black holes, worm holes, quantum foam, and multiple universes.

  1. Thinking Big, Aiming High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2010-01-01

    What do teachers, providers and policymakers need to do in order to support disabled learners to "think big and aim high"? That was the question put to delegates at NIACE's annual disability conference. Some clear themes emerged, with delegates raising concerns about funding, teacher training, partnership-working and employment for disabled…

  2. The Big Empty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Richard; Smith, Shelley; Tisdale, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Discusses "The Big Empty" or, the Great Basin. Suggests that it is not empty but rather a great ecosystem rich in plants, animals, and minerals. Presents information and activities to guide students in exploring the Great Basin in order to understand the ways in which such an arid and seemingly harsh environment can support so many living things.…

  3. A Sobering Big Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineburg, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Since Susan Adler, Alberta Dougan, and Jesus Garcia like "big ideas," the author offers one to ponder: young people in this country can not read with comprehension. The saddest thing about this crisis is that it is no secret. The 2001 results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for reading, published in every major newspaper,…

  4. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  5. Big Bang Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The theory which asserts that the universe originated a finite time ago by expanding from an infinitely compressed state. According to this model, space, time and matter originated together, and the universe has been expanding ever since. Key stages in the history of the Big Bang universe are summarized below....

  6. The Big Sky inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  7. Fracture Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... to hold the fracture in the correct position. • Fiberglass casting is lighter and stronger and the exterior ... with your physician if this occurs. • When a fiberglass cast is used in conjunction with a GORE- ...

  8. Business and Science - Big Data, Big Picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, A.

    2013-12-01

    Data Science is more than the creation, manipulation, and transformation of data. It is more than Big Data. The business world seems to have a hold on the term 'data science' and, for now, they define what it means. But business is very different than science. In this talk, I address how large datasets, Big Data, and data science are conceptually different in business and science worlds. I focus on the types of questions each realm asks, the data needed, and the consequences of findings. Gone are the days of datasets being created or collected to serve only one purpose or project. The trick with data reuse is to become familiar enough with a dataset to be able to combine it with other data and extract accurate results. As a Data Curator for the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS), my specialty is communication. Our team enables Arctic sciences by ensuring datasets are well documented and can be understood by reusers. Previously, I served as a data community liaison for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Again, my specialty was communicating complex instructions and ideas to a broad audience of data users. Before entering the science world, I was an entrepreneur. I have a bachelor's degree in economics and a master's degree in environmental social science. I am currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Geography. Because my background has embraced both the business and science worlds, I would like to share my perspectives on data, data reuse, data documentation, and the presentation or communication of findings. My experiences show that each can inform and support the other.

  9. Big Data and Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…

  10. Big3. Editorial

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Christoph U.; Séroussi, Brigitte; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To provide an editorial introduction into the 2014 IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics with an overview of the content, the new publishing scheme, and upcoming 25th anniversary. Methods A brief overview of the 2014 special topic, Big Data - Smart Health Strategies, and an outline of the novel publishing model is provided in conjunction with a call for proposals to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Yearbook. Results ‘Big Data’ has become the latest buzzword in informatics and promise new approaches and interventions that can improve health, well-being, and quality of life. This edition of the Yearbook acknowledges the fact that we just started to explore the opportunities that ‘Big Data’ will bring. However, it will become apparent to the reader that its pervasive nature has invaded all aspects of biomedical informatics – some to a higher degree than others. It was our goal to provide a comprehensive view at the state of ‘Big Data’ today, explore its strengths and weaknesses, as well as its risks, discuss emerging trends, tools, and applications, and stimulate the development of the field through the aggregation of excellent survey papers and working group contributions to the topic. Conclusions For the first time in history will the IMIA Yearbook be published in an open access online format allowing a broader readership especially in resource poor countries. For the first time, thanks to the online format, will the IMIA Yearbook be published twice in the year, with two different tracks of papers. We anticipate that the important role of the IMIA yearbook will further increase with these changes just in time for its 25th anniversary in 2016. PMID:24853037

  11. Small turbines, big unknown

    SciTech Connect

    Gipe, P.

    1995-07-01

    While financial markets focus on the wheeling and dealing of the big wind companies, the small wind turbine industry quietly keeps churning out its smaller but effective machines. Some, the micro turbines, are so small they can be carried by hand. Though worldwide sales of small wind turbines fall far short of even one large windpower plant, figures reach $8 million to $10 million annually and could be as much as twice that if batteries and engineering services are included.

  12. The Next Big Idea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract George S. Eisenbarth will remain in our memories as a brilliant scientist and great collaborator. His quest to discover the cause and prevention of type 1 (autoimmune) diabetes started from building predictive models based on immunogenetic markers. Despite his tremendous contributions to our understanding of the natural history of pre-type 1 diabetes and potential mechanisms, George left us with several big questions to answer before his quest is completed. PMID:23786296

  13. Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is located at the end of a causeway in a mountain lake more than 2 km above sea level. The site has more than 300 sunny days a year and a natural inversion caused by the lake which makes for very clean images. BBSO is the only university observatory in the US making high-resolution observations of the Sun. Its daily images are posted at http://www.bbso.njit.e...

  14. DARPA's Big Mechanism program.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul R

    2015-07-01

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers. PMID:26178259

  15. DARPA's Big Mechanism program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Paul R.

    2015-07-01

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  16. A holographic big bang?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshordi, N.; Mann, R. B.; Pourhasan, R.

    2015-11-01

    We present a cosmological model in which the Universe emerges out of the collapse of a five-dimensional (5D) star as a spherical three-brane. The initial singularity of the big bang becomes hidden behind a causal horizon. Near scale-invariant primordial curvature perturbations can be induced on the brane via a thermal atmosphere that is in equilibrium with the brane, circumventing the need for a separate inflationary process and providing an important test of the model.

  17. Big Bang Circus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosini, C.

    2011-06-01

    Big Bang Circus is an opera I composed in 2001 and which was premiered at the Venice Biennale Contemporary Music Festival in 2002. A chamber group, four singers and a ringmaster stage the story of the Universe confronting and interweaving two threads: how early man imagined it and how scientists described it. Surprisingly enough fancy, myths and scientific explanations often end up using the same images, metaphors and sometimes even words: a strong tension, a drumskin starting to vibrate, a shout…

  18. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Big Sky Carbon Atlas is an online geoportal designed for you to discover, interpret, and access geospatial data and maps relevant to decision support and education on carbon sequestration in the Big Sky Region. In serving as the public face of the Partnership's spatial Data Libraries, the Atlas provides a gateway to geographic information characterizing CO2 sources, potential geologic sinks, terrestrial carbon fluxes, civil and energy infrastructure, energy use, and related themes. In addition to directly serving the BSCSP and its stakeholders, the Atlas feeds regional data to the NatCarb Portal, contributing to a national perspective on carbon sequestration. Established components of the Atlas include a gallery of thematic maps and an interactive map that allows you to: • Navigate and explore regional characterization data through a user-friendly interface • Print your map views or publish them as PDFs • Identify technical references relevant to specific areas of interest • Calculate straight-line or pipeline-constrained distances from point sources of CO2 to potential geologic sink features • Download regional data layers (feature under development) (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  19. Big Data Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Dagliati, Arianna; Sacchi, Lucia; Segagni, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The so-called big data revolution provides substantial opportunities to diabetes management. At least 3 important directions are currently of great interest. First, the integration of different sources of information, from primary and secondary care to administrative information, may allow depicting a novel view of patient’s care processes and of single patient’s behaviors, taking into account the multifaceted nature of chronic care. Second, the availability of novel diabetes technologies, able to gather large amounts of real-time data, requires the implementation of distributed platforms for data analysis and decision support. Finally, the inclusion of geographical and environmental information into such complex IT systems may further increase the capability of interpreting the data gathered and extract new knowledge from them. This article reviews the main concepts and definitions related to big data, it presents some efforts in health care, and discusses the potential role of big data in diabetes care. Finally, as an example, it describes the research efforts carried on in the MOSAIC project, funded by the European Commission. PMID:25910540

  20. Pediatric Thighbone (Femur) Fracture

    MedlinePlus

    ... fractures in infants under 1 year old is child abuse. Child abuse is also a leading cause of thighbone fracture ... contact sports • Being in a motor vehicle accident • Child abuse Types of Femur Fractures (Classification) Femur fractures vary ...

  1. Hydraulic fracturing-1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers on hydraulic fracturing. Topics covered include: An overview of recent advances in hydraulic fracturing technology; Containment of massive hydraulic fracture; and Fracturing with a high-strength proppant.

  2. The trashing of Big Green

    SciTech Connect

    Felten, E.

    1990-11-26

    The Big Green initiative on California's ballot lost by a margin of 2-to-1. Green measures lost in five other states, shocking ecology-minded groups. According to the postmortem by environmentalists, Big Green was a victim of poor timing and big spending by the opposition. Now its supporters plan to break up the bill and try to pass some provisions in the Legislature.

  3. How Big is Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  4. The dropped big toe.

    PubMed

    Satku, K; Wee, J T; Kumar, V P; Ong, B; Pho, R W

    1992-03-01

    Surgical procedures for exposure of the upper third of the fibula have been known to cause weakness of the long extensor of the big toe post-operatively. The authors present three representative cases of surgically induced dropped big toe. From cadaveric dissection, an anatomic basis was found for this phenomenon. The tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles have their origin at the proximal end of the leg and receive their first motor innervation from a branch that arises from the common peroneal or deep peroneal nerve at about the level of the neck of the fibula. However, the extensor hallucis longus muscle originates in the middle one-third of the leg and the nerves innervating this muscle run a long course in close proximity to the fibula for up to ten centimeters from a level below the neck of the fibula before entering the muscle. Surgical intervention in the proximal one-third of the fibula just distal to the origin of the first motor branch to the tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles carries a risk of injury to the nerves innervating the extensor hallucis longus. PMID:1519891

  5. Big Sisters: An Experimental Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidl, Fredrick W.

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the effects of participation in a Big Sisters' Program. The first part consisted of interviews (N=20) with pairs of Big Sisters-Little Sisters. The second part evaluated program effectiveness experimentally. Findings indicated positive relationships between pairs, and improved behavior of experimental girls versus controls. (RC)

  6. Think Big, Bigger ... and Smaller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbett, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    One important principle of social psychology, writes Nisbett, is that some big-seeming interventions have little or no effect. This article discusses a number of cases from the field of education that confirm this principle. For example, Head Start seems like a big intervention, but research has indicated that its effects on academic achievement…

  7. The International Big History Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big History" is a…

  8. The Big Read: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  9. Whole Language Using Big Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Sarah

    Designed as thematic units around Wright Company Big Books, the lessons in this guide demonstrate ways that Big Books can be used in a whole language first grade program. Each lesson indicates skill focus, needed materials, procedures, and additional thoughts or suggestions about the lesson. Units consist of: "Bedtime" (five lessons); "Monsters…

  10. The Rise of Big Data in Neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2016-02-01

    In some fields, Big Data has been instrumental in analyzing, predicting, and influencing human behavior. However, Big Data approaches have so far been less central in speech-language pathology. This article introduces the concept of Big Data and provides examples of Big Data initiatives pertaining to adult neurorehabilitation. It also discusses the potential theoretical and clinical contributions that Big Data can make. The article also recognizes some impediments in building and using Big Data for scientific and clinical inquiry. PMID:26882360

  11. Big-bounce genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changhong; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the possibility of using dark matter particle's mass and its interaction cross section as a smoking gun signal of the existence of a big bounce at the early stage in the evolution of our currently observed universe. A model independent study of dark matter production in the pre-bounce contraction and the post-bounce expansion epochs of the bounce universe reveals a new venue for achieving the observed relic abundance of our present universe, in which a significantly smaller amount of dark matter with a smaller cross section—as compared to the prediction of standard cosmology—is produced and the information about the bounce universe evolution is preserved by the out-of-thermal-equilibrium process. Once the value of dark matter mass and interaction cross section are obtained by direct detection in laboratories, this alternative route becomes a signature prediction of the bounce universe scenario.

  12. Big cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2005-01-01

    Advances in population and quantitative genomics, aided by the computational algorithms that employ genetic theory and practice, are now being applied to biological questions that surround free-ranging species not traditionally suitable for genetic enquiry. Here we review how applications of molecular genetic tools have been used to describe the natural history, present status, and future disposition of wild cat species. Insight into phylogenetic hierarchy, demographic contractions, geographic population substructure, behavioral ecology, and infectious diseases have revealed strategies for survival and adaptation of these fascinating predators. Conservation, stabilization, and management of the big cats are important areas that derive benefit from the genome resources expanded and applied to highly successful species, imperiled by an expanding human population. PMID:16124868

  13. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bedford, J.; Ward, J.; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodriguez-Gomez, D.

    2007-04-15

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null cosmologies with a big bang in terms of matrix string theory put forward by Craps, Sethi, and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a universe including both big bang and big crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using matrix string theory. We provide a simple theory capable of describing the complete evolution of this closed universe.

  14. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, J.; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodríguez-Gómez, D.; Ward, J.

    2007-04-01

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null cosmologies with a big bang in terms of matrix string theory put forward by Craps, Sethi, and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a universe including both big bang and big crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using matrix string theory. We provide a simple theory capable of describing the complete evolution of this closed universe.

  15. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare ... the radius bone, just below your elbow. A fracture is a break in your bone. The most common cause of a radial head fracture is falling with an outstretched arm.

  16. Hand fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000552.htm Hand fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... need to be repaired with surgery. Types of hand fractures Your fracture may be in one of ...

  17. Homogeneous and isotropic big rips?

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the way big rips are approached in a fully inhomogeneous description of the space-time geometry. If the pressure and energy densities are connected by a (supernegative) barotropic index, the spatial gradients and the anisotropic expansion decay as the big rip is approached. This behavior is contrasted with the usual big-bang singularities. A similar analysis is performed in the case of sudden (quiescent) singularities and it is argued that the spatial gradients may well be non-negligible in the vicinity of pressure singularities.

  18. The challenges of big data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. PMID:27147249

  19. Big Data and Ambulatory Care

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Jane Hyatt; Gray, Elizabeth Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Big data is heralded as having the potential to revolutionize health care by making large amounts of data available to support care delivery, population health, and patient engagement. Critics argue that big data's transformative potential is inhibited by privacy requirements that restrict health information exchange. However, there are a variety of permissible activities involving use and disclosure of patient information that support care delivery and management. This article presents an overview of the legal framework governing health information, dispels misconceptions about privacy regulations, and highlights how ambulatory care providers in particular can maximize the utility of big data to improve care. PMID:25401945

  20. The challenges of big data.

    PubMed

    Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-05-01

    The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. PMID:27147249

  1. Rate Change Big Bang Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Ken

    2013-04-01

    The Rate Change Big Bang Theory redefines the birth of the universe with a dramatic shift in energy direction and a new vision of the first moments. With rate change graph technology (RCGT) we can look back 13.7 billion years and experience every step of the big bang through geometrical intersection technology. The analysis of the Big Bang includes a visualization of the first objects, their properties, the astounding event that created space and time as well as a solution to the mystery of anti-matter.

  2. Fractured Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03084 Fractured Surface

    These fractures and graben are part of Gordii Fossae, a large region that has undergone stresses which have cracked the surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 16.6S, Longitude 234.3E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Big climate data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudelsee, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    The Big Data era has begun also in the climate sciences, not only in economics or molecular biology. We measure climate at increasing spatial resolution by means of satellites and look farther back in time at increasing temporal resolution by means of natural archives and proxy data. We use powerful supercomputers to run climate models. The model output of the calculations made for the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report amounts to ~650 TB. The 'scientific evolution' of grid computing has started, and the 'scientific revolution' of quantum computing is being prepared. This will increase computing power, and data amount, by several orders of magnitude in the future. However, more data does not automatically mean more knowledge. We need statisticians, who are at the core of transforming data into knowledge. Statisticians notably also explore the limits of our knowledge (uncertainties, that is, confidence intervals and P-values). Mudelsee (2014 Climate Time Series Analysis: Classical Statistical and Bootstrap Methods. Second edition. Springer, Cham, xxxii + 454 pp.) coined the term 'optimal estimation'. Consider the hyperspace of climate estimation. It has many, but not infinite, dimensions. It consists of the three subspaces Monte Carlo design, method and measure. The Monte Carlo design describes the data generating process. The method subspace describes the estimation and confidence interval construction. The measure subspace describes how to detect the optimal estimation method for the Monte Carlo experiment. The envisaged large increase in computing power may bring the following idea of optimal climate estimation into existence. Given a data sample, some prior information (e.g. measurement standard errors) and a set of questions (parameters to be estimated), the first task is simple: perform an initial estimation on basis of existing knowledge and experience with such types of estimation problems. The second task requires the computing power: explore the hyperspace to

  4. Big bang darkleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krnjaic, Gordan; Sigurdson, Kris

    2015-12-01

    In a popular class of models, dark matter comprises an asymmetric population of composite particles with short range interactions arising from a confined nonabelian gauge group. We show that coupling this sector to a well-motivated light mediator particle yields efficient darkleosynthesis, a dark-sector version of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), in generic regions of parameter space. Dark matter self-interaction bounds typically require the confinement scale to be above ΛQCD, which generically yields large (≫MeV /dark-nucleon) binding energies. These bounds further suggest the mediator is relatively weakly coupled, so repulsive forces between dark-sector nuclei are much weaker than Coulomb repulsion between standard-model nuclei, which results in an exponential barrier-tunneling enhancement over standard BBN. Thus, darklei are easier to make and harder to break than visible species with comparable mass numbers. This process can efficiently yield a dominant population of states with masses significantly greater than the confinement scale and, in contrast to dark matter that is a fundamental particle, may allow the dominant form of dark matter to have high spin (S ≫ 3 / 2), whose discovery would be smoking gun evidence for dark nuclei.

  5. Big Spherules near 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This frame from the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows spherules up to about 5 millimeters (one-fifth of an inch) in diameter. The camera took this image during the 924th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Aug. 30, 2006), when the rover was about 200 meters (650 feet) north of 'Victoria Crater.'

    Opportunity discovered spherules like these, nicknamed 'blueberries,' at its landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' and investigations determined them to be iron-rich concretions that formed inside deposits soaked with groundwater. However, such concretions were much smaller or absent at the ground surface along much of the rover's trek of more than 5 kilometers (3 miles) southward to Victoria. The big ones showed up again when Opportunity got to the ring, or annulus, of material excavated and thrown outward by the impact that created Victoria Crater. Researchers hypothesize that some layer beneath the surface in Victoria's vicinity was once soaked with water long enough to form the concretions, that the crater-forming impact dispersed some material from that layer, and that Opportunity might encounter that layer in place if the rover drives down into the crater.

  6. The BigBOSS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS will obtain observational constraints that will bear on three of the four 'science frontier' questions identified by the Astro2010 Cosmology and Fundamental Phyics Panel of the Decadal Survey: Why is the universe accelerating; what is dark matter and what are the properties of neutrinos? Indeed, the BigBOSS project was recommended for substantial immediate R and D support the PASAG report. The second highest ground-based priority from the Astro2010 Decadal Survey was the creation of a funding line within the NSF to support a 'Mid-Scale Innovations' program, and it used BigBOSS as a 'compelling' example for support. This choice was the result of the Decadal Survey's Program Priorization panels reviewing 29 mid-scale projects and recommending BigBOSS 'very highly'.

  7. Challenges of Big Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-06-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions. PMID:25419469

  8. Challenges of Big Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-01-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions. PMID:25419469

  9. Fracture channel waves

    SciTech Connect

    Nihei, K.T.; Yi, W.; Myer, L.R.; Cook, N.G.; Schoenberg, M.

    1999-03-01

    The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A{sub 0} mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

  10. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process. PMID:27068058

  11. [Big data in official statistics].

    PubMed

    Zwick, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The concept of "big data" stands to change the face of official statistics over the coming years, having an impact on almost all aspects of data production. The tasks of future statisticians will not necessarily be to produce new data, but rather to identify and make use of existing data to adequately describe social and economic phenomena. Until big data can be used correctly in official statistics, a lot of questions need to be answered and problems solved: the quality of data, data protection, privacy, and the sustainable availability are some of the more pressing issues to be addressed. The essential skills of official statisticians will undoubtedly change, and this implies a number of challenges to be faced by statistical education systems, in universities, and inside the statistical offices. The national statistical offices of the European Union have concluded a concrete strategy for exploring the possibilities of big data for official statistics, by means of the Big Data Roadmap and Action Plan 1.0. This is an important first step and will have a significant influence on implementing the concept of big data inside the statistical offices of Germany. PMID:26077871

  12. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  13. Paratrooper's Ankle Fracture: Posterior Malleolar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Young, Ki Won; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Seuk; Cho, Hun Ki; Lee, Kyung Tai

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed the frequency and types of ankle fractures that frequently occur during parachute landings of special operation unit personnel and analyzed the causes. Methods Fifty-six members of the special force brigade of the military who had sustained ankle fractures during parachute landings between January 2005 and April 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The injury sites and fracture sites were identified and the fracture types were categorized by the Lauge-Hansen and Weber classifications. Follow-up surveys were performed with respect to the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, patient satisfaction, and return to preinjury activity. Results The patients were all males with a mean age of 23.6 years. There were 28 right and 28 left ankle fractures. Twenty-two patients had simple fractures and 34 patients had comminuted fractures. The average number of injury and fractures sites per person was 2.07 (116 injuries including a syndesmosis injury and a deltoid injury) and 1.75 (98 fracture sites), respectively. Twenty-three cases (41.07%) were accompanied by posterior malleolar fractures. Fifty-five patients underwent surgery; of these, 30 had plate internal fixations. Weber type A, B, and C fractures were found in 4, 38, and 14 cases, respectively. Based on the Lauge-Hansen classification, supination-external rotation injuries were found in 20 cases, supination-adduction injuries in 22 cases, pronation-external rotation injuries in 11 cases, tibiofibular fractures in 2 cases, and simple medial malleolar fractures in 2 cases. The mean follow-up period was 23.8 months, and the average follow-up American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score was 85.42. Forty-five patients (80.36%) reported excellent or good satisfaction with the outcome. Conclusions Posterior malleolar fractures occurred in 41.07% of ankle fractures sustained in parachute landings. Because most of the ankle fractures in parachute injuries were

  14. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S. M. Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A.; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined. PMID:26229957

  15. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Zachary D.; Lee, Skylar Y.; Faghri, Faraz; Campbell, Roy H.; Zhai, Chengxiang; Efron, Miles J.; Iyer, Ravishankar; Schatz, Michael C.; Sinha, Saurabh; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a “four-headed beast”—it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the “genomical” challenges of the next decade. PMID:26151137

  16. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Zachary D; Lee, Skylar Y; Faghri, Faraz; Campbell, Roy H; Zhai, Chengxiang; Efron, Miles J; Iyer, Ravishankar; Schatz, Michael C; Sinha, Saurabh; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-07-01

    Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a "four-headed beast"--it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the "genomical" challenges of the next decade. PMID:26151137

  17. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined. PMID:26229957

  18. [Big Data- challenges and risks].

    PubMed

    Krauß, Manuela; Tóth, Tamás; Hanika, Heinrich; Kozlovszky, Miklós; Dinya, Elek

    2015-12-01

    The term "Big Data" is commonly used to describe the growing mass of information being created recently. New conclusions can be drawn and new services can be developed by the connection, processing and analysis of these information. This affects all aspects of life, including health and medicine. The authors review the application areas of Big Data, and present examples from health and other areas. However, there are several preconditions of the effective use of the opportunities: proper infrastructure, well defined regulatory environment with particular emphasis on data protection and privacy. These issues and the current actions for solution are also presented. PMID:26614539

  19. Little Science to Big Science: Big Scientists to Little Scientists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Hisham B. Ghassib's essay entitled "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?" Professor Ghassib's (2010) essay presents a provocative portrait of how the little science of the Babylonians, Greeks, and Arabs became the Big Science of the modern industrial…

  20. Epidemiology of fragility fractures.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan M; Mendelson, Daniel Ari

    2014-05-01

    As the world population of older adults-in particular those over age 85-increases, the incidence of fragility fractures will also increase. It is predicted that the worldwide incidence of hip fractures will grow to 6.3 million yearly by 2050. Fractures result in significant financial and personal costs. Older adults who sustain fractures are at risk for functional decline and mortality, both as a function of fractures and their complications and of the frailty of the patients who sustain fractures. Identifying individuals at high risk provides an opportunity for both primary and secondary prevention. PMID:24721358

  1. Tick-Borne Diseases: The Big Two

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: Ticks and Diseases Tick-borne Diseases: The Big Two Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of ... to Remove a Tick / Tick-borne Diseases: The Big Two Spring / Summer 2010 Issue: Volume 5 Number ...

  2. Do Big Bottles Kickstart Infant Weight Issues?

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159241.html Do Big Bottles Kickstart Infant Weight Issues? Smaller baby bottles ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Feeding babies formula from a big bottle might put them at higher risk for ...

  3. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  4. The Case for "Big History."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    1991-01-01

    Urges an approach to the teaching of history that takes the largest possible perspective, crossing time as well as space. Discusses the problems and advantages of such an approach. Describes a course on "big" history that begins with time, creation myths, and astronomy, and moves on to paleontology and evolution. (DK)

  5. Fossils of big bang turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, C. H.

    2004-12-01

    A model is proposed connecting turbulence, fossil turbulence, and the big bang origin of the universe. While details are incomplete, the model is consistent with our knowledge of these processes and is supported by observations. Turbulence arises in a hot-big-bang quantum-gravitational-dynamics scenario at Planck scales. Chaotic, eddy-like-motions produce an exothermic Planck particle cascade from 10-35 m at 1032 K to 108 larger, 104 cooler, quark-gluon scales. A Planck-Kerr instability gives high-Reynolds-number (Re 106) turbulent combustion, space-time-energy-entropy and turbulent mixing. Batchelor-Obukhov-Corrsin turbulent-temperature fluctuations are preserved as the first fossil-turbulence by inflation stretching the patterns beyond the horizon ct of causal connection faster than light speed c in time t 10-33 seconds. Fossil-big-bang-temperature-turbulence re-enters the horizon and imprints nucleosynthesis of H-He densities that seed fragmentation by gravity at 1012 s in the low Reynolds number plasma before its transition to gas at t 1013 s and T 3000 K. Multi-scaling coefficients of the cosmic-microwave-background (CMB) temperature anisotropies closely match those for high Reynolds number turbulence, Bershadskii and Sreenivasan 2002, 2003. CMB spectra support the interpretation that big-bang-turbulence-fossils triggered fragmentation of the viscous plasma at supercluster to galaxy mass scales from 1046 to 1042 kg, Gibson 1996, 2000, 2004ab.

  6. Big6 Turbotools and Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    The different tools that are helpful during the Synthesis stage, their role in boosting students abilities in Synthesis and the way in which it can be customized to meet the needs of each group of students are discussed. Big6 TurboTools offers several tools to help complete the task. In Synthesis stage, these same tools along with Turbo Report and…

  7. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-07

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  8. 1976 Big Thompson flood, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, R. D., (compiler); Vandas, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the early evening of July 31, 1976, a large stationary thunderstorm released as much as 7.5 inches of rainfall in about an hour (about 12 inches in a few hours) in the upper reaches of the Big Thompson River drainage. This large amount of rainfall in such a short period of time produced a flash flood that caught residents and tourists by surprise. The immense volume of water that churned down the narrow Big Thompson Canyon scoured the river channel and destroyed everything in its path, including 418 homes, 52 businesses, numerous bridges, paved and unpaved roads, power and telephone lines, and many other structures. The tragedy claimed the lives of 144 people. Scores of other people narrowly escaped with their lives. The Big Thompson flood ranks among the deadliest of Colorado's recorded floods. It is one of several destructive floods in the United States that has shown the necessity of conducting research to determine the causes and effects of floods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research and operates a Nationwide streamgage network to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson Flood. Such research and streamgage information are part of an ongoing USGS effort to reduce flood hazards and to increase public awareness.

  9. China: Big Changes Coming Soon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowen, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    Big changes are ahead for China, probably abrupt ones. The economy has grown so rapidly for many years, over 30 years at an average of nine percent a year, that its size makes it a major player in trade and finance and increasingly in political and military matters. This growth is not only of great importance internationally, it is already having…

  10. The BigBoss Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; Bebek, C.; Becerril, S.; Blanton, M.; Bolton, A.; Bromley, B.; Cahn, R.; Carton, P.-H.; Cervanted-Cota, J.L.; Chu, Y.; Cortes, M.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna / /IAC, Mexico / / /Madrid, IFT /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. / / /New York U. /Valencia U.

    2012-06-07

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy redshifts are obtained to measure the BAO feature, trace the matter power spectrum at smaller scales, and detect redshift space distortions. BigBOSS will provide additional constraints on early dark energy and on the curvature of the universe by measuring the Ly-alpha forest in the spectra of over 600,000 2.2 < z < 3.5 quasars. BigBOSS galaxy BAO measurements combined with an analysis of the broadband power, including the Ly-alpha forest in BigBOSS quasar spectra, achieves a FOM of 395 with Planck plus Stage III priors. This FOM is based on conservative assumptions for the analysis of broad band power (k{sub max} = 0.15), and could grow to over 600 if current work allows us to push the analysis to higher wave numbers (k{sub max} = 0.3). BigBOSS will also place constraints on theories of modified gravity and inflation, and will measure the sum of neutrino masses to 0.024 eV accuracy.

  11. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN... comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge...: r3planning@fws.gov . Include ``Big Stone Draft CCP/ EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax:...

  12. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:27559194

  13. A survey of big data research

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hua; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Chanpaul Jin; Daneshmand, Mahmoud; Wang, Chonggang; Wang, Honggang

    2015-01-01

    Big data create values for business and research, but pose significant challenges in terms of networking, storage, management, analytics and ethics. Multidisciplinary collaborations from engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and social scientists are needed to tackle, discover and understand big data. This survey presents an overview of big data initiatives, technologies and research in industries and academia, and discusses challenges and potential solutions. PMID:26504265

  14. Big Sagebrush Seed Bank Densities Following Wildfires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) is a critical shrub to such sagebrush obligate species as sage grouse, (Centocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush do not sprout after wildfires wildfires and big sagebrush seed is generally sho...

  15. Big City Education: Its Challenge to Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskew, Laurence D.

    This chapter traces the migration from farms to cities and the later movement from cities to suburbs and discusses the impact of the resulting big city environment on the governance of big city education. The author (1) suggests how local, State, and Federal governments can improve big city education; (2) discusses ways of planning for the future…

  16. A SWOT Analysis of Big Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; Dileepan, Parthasarati; Wheatley, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    This is the decade of data analytics and big data, but not everyone agrees with the definition of big data. Some researchers see it as the future of data analysis, while others consider it as hype and foresee its demise in the near future. No matter how it is defined, big data for the time being is having its glory moment. The most important…

  17. Judging Big Deals: Challenges, Outcomes, and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of an analysis of five Big Deal electronic journal packages to which Hofstra University's Axinn Library subscribes. COUNTER usage reports were used to judge the value of each Big Deal. Limitations of usage statistics are also discussed. In the end, the author concludes that four of the five Big Deals are good…

  18. Infant skull fracture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Skull fractures may occur with head injuries. Although the skull is both tough and resilient and provides excellent ... or blow can result in fracture of the skull and may be accompanied by injury to the ...

  19. Fractures in anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Siyi

    Rocks may be composed of layers and contain fracture sets that cause the hydraulic, mechanical and seismic properties of a rock to be anisotropic. Coexisting fractures and layers in rock give rise to competing mechanisms of anisotropy. For example: (1) at low fracture stiffness, apparent shear-wave anisotropy induced by matrix layering can be masked or enhanced by the presence of a fracture, depending on the fracture orientation with respect to layering, and (2) compressional-wave guided modes generated by parallel fractures can also mask the presence of matrix layerings for particular fracture orientations and fracture specific stiffness. This report focuses on two anisotropic sources that are widely encountered in rock engineering: fractures (mechanical discontinuity) and matrix layering (impedance discontinuity), by investigating: (1) matrix property characterization, i.e., to determine elastic constants in anisotropic solids, (2) interface wave behavior in single-fractured anisotropic media, (3) compressional wave guided modes in parallel-fractured anisotropic media (single fracture orientation) and (4) the elastic response of orthogonal fracture networks. Elastic constants of a medium are required to understand and quantify wave propagation in anisotropic media but are affected by fractures and matrix properties. Experimental observations and analytical analysis demonstrate that behaviors of both fracture interface waves and compressional-wave guided modes for fractures in anisotropic media, are affected by fracture specific stiffness (controlled by external stresses), signal frequency and relative orientation between layerings in the matrix and fractures. A fractured layered medium exhibits: (1) fracture-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are weakly coupled; (2) isotropic behavior when fractures delay waves that are usually fast in a layered medium; and (3) matrix-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are closed and no longer delay the signal. The

  20. Bone fracture repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100077.htm Bone fracture repair - series To use the sharing features on ... to slide 4 out of 4 Indications Overview Fractures of the bones are classified in a number ...

  1. Forearm Fractures in Children

    MedlinePlus

    .org Forearm Fractures in Children The forearm is the part of the arm between the wrist and the elbow. It is ... two bones: the radius and the ulna. Forearm fractures are common in childhood, accounting for more than ...

  2. Nasal fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000554.htm Nasal fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on this ... that gives your nose its shape. A nasal fracture occurs when the bony part of your nose ...

  3. Nasal fracture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A nasal fracture is a break in the bone over the ridge of the nose. It usually results from a blunt ... and is one of the most common facial fracture. Symptoms of a broken nose include pain, blood ...

  4. Hip fracture surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... neck fracture repair; Trochanteric fracture repair; Hip pinning surgery; Osteoarthritis-hip ... You may receive general anesthesia before this surgery. This means ... spinal anesthesia. With this kind of anesthesia, medicine is ...

  5. Pediatric Open Fractures.

    PubMed

    Trionfo, Arianna; Cavanaugh, Priscilla K; Herman, Martin J

    2016-07-01

    Open fractures in children are rare and are typically associated with better prognoses compared with their adult equivalents. Regardless, open fractures pose a challenge because of the risk of healing complications and infection, leading to significant morbidity even in the pediatric population. Therefore, the management of pediatric open fractures requires special consideration. This article comprehensively reviews the initial evaluation, classification, treatment, outcomes, and controversies of open fractures in children. PMID:27241379

  6. Waterflood-induced fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Dikken, B.J.; Niko, H.

    1987-01-01

    Fracturing occurs quite often in water injection wells, with sometimes unforeseen consequences on waterflood sweep efficiency. One of the causes of fracturing is often the cooling of hot formations by cold injection water. A special version of a thermal reservoir simulator for prototype applications has thus been constructed that is capable of dealing with propagating waterflood-induces hydraulic fractures. With this simulator, fracture propagation and the effect of growing fractures on the sweep efficiency are studied. Infinite fracture conductivity is assumed. The limitation to a very high leak-off fractures justifies disregarding the changes in fracture volume. Fracture growth is calculated using the concept of a critical stress intensity factor. Both poro- and thermo-elastic changes in the horizontal stresses are calculated numerically and their influence on the fracture initiation/propagation is continuously taken into account. In addition, a model of fracture wall impairment because of filter-cake build-up due to poor quality injection water is included. Results are presented for both thermal and isothermal situations. It is observed in isothermal cases that the voidage replacement ratio (volume balance during injection) determined to a great extent the length to which the fracture eventually may grow.

  7. Fractured tooth (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A tooth can be chipped or fractured during an accident or a bad fall. A tooth that is chipped or not badly fractured can usually be handled on a nonemergency basis. A tooth that is badly fractured may have exposed nerve ...

  8. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-13

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  9. Solution of a braneworld big crunch/big bang cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, Paul L.; Turok, Neil; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2007-11-15

    We solve for the cosmological perturbations in a five-dimensional background consisting of two separating or colliding boundary branes, as an expansion in the collision speed V divided by the speed of light c. Our solution permits a detailed check of the validity of four-dimensional effective theory in the vicinity of the event corresponding to the big crunch/big bang singularity. We show that the four-dimensional description fails at the first nontrivial order in (V/c){sup 2}. At this order, there is nontrivial mixing of the two relevant four-dimensional perturbation modes (the growing and decaying modes) as the boundary branes move from the narrowly separated limit described by Kaluza-Klein theory to the well-separated limit where gravity is confined to the positive-tension brane. We comment on the cosmological significance of the result and compute other quantities of interest in five-dimensional cosmological scenarios.

  10. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2012-08-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  11. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  12. Big Data in Medicine is Driving Big Changes

    PubMed Central

    Verspoor, K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarise current research that takes advantage of “Big Data” in health and biomedical informatics applications. Methods Survey of trends in this work, and exploration of literature describing how large-scale structured and unstructured data sources are being used to support applications from clinical decision making and health policy, to drug design and pharmacovigilance, and further to systems biology and genetics. Results The survey highlights ongoing development of powerful new methods for turning that large-scale, and often complex, data into information that provides new insights into human health, in a range of different areas. Consideration of this body of work identifies several important paradigm shifts that are facilitated by Big Data resources and methods: in clinical and translational research, from hypothesis-driven research to data-driven research, and in medicine, from evidence-based practice to practice-based evidence. Conclusions The increasing scale and availability of large quantities of health data require strategies for data management, data linkage, and data integration beyond the limits of many existing information systems, and substantial effort is underway to meet those needs. As our ability to make sense of that data improves, the value of the data will continue to increase. Health systems, genetics and genomics, population and public health; all areas of biomedicine stand to benefit from Big Data and the associated technologies. PMID:25123716

  13. Talus fractures: surgical principles.

    PubMed

    Rush, Shannon M; Jennings, Meagan; Hamilton, Graham A

    2009-01-01

    Surgical treatment of talus fractures can challenge even the most skilled foot and ankle surgeon. Complicated fracture patterns combined with joint dislocation of variable degrees require accurate assessment, sound understanding of principles of fracture care, and broad command of internal fixation techniques needed for successful surgical care. Elimination of unnecessary soft tissue dissection, a low threshold for surgical reduction, liberal use of malleolar osteotomy to expose body fracture, and detailed attention to fracture reduction and joint alignment are critical to the success of treatment. Even with the best surgical care complications are common and seem to correlate with injury severity and open injuries. PMID:19121756

  14. Epidemiology of clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Postacchini, Franco; Gumina, Stefano; De Santis, Pierfrancesco; Albo, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    An epidemiologic study of 535 isolated clavicle fractures treated in a hospital of a large metropolis during an 11-year period was performed. Data regarding patient's age and sex, side involved, mechanism of injury, and season in which the fracture occurred were obtained from the clinical records. Radiographic classification was performed with the Allman system. Clavicle fractures represented 2.6% of all fractures and 44% of those in the shoulder girdle. Most patients were men (68%), and the left side was involved in 61% of cases. Fractures of the middle third of the clavicle, which were the most common (81%), were displaced in 48% of cases and comminuted in 19%. Fractures of the medial third were the least common (2%). The prevalence of midclavicular fractures was found to decrease progressively with age, starting from the first decade of life when they represented 88.2% of all clavicle fractures and were undisplaced in 55.5% of cases. In adults, the incidence of displaced fractures, independent of location, was higher than that of undisplaced fractures. Traffic accidents were the most common cause of the injury. In the period under study, the incidence of fractures showed no significant change over time and no seasonal variation. PMID:12378163

  15. Big data and ophthalmic research.

    PubMed

    Clark, Antony; Ng, Jonathon Q; Morlet, Nigel; Semmens, James B

    2016-01-01

    Large population-based health administrative databases, clinical registries, and data linkage systems are a rapidly expanding resource for health research. Ophthalmic research has benefited from the use of these databases in expanding the breadth of knowledge in areas such as disease surveillance, disease etiology, health services utilization, and health outcomes. Furthermore, the quantity of data available for research has increased exponentially in recent times, particularly as e-health initiatives come online in health systems across the globe. We review some big data concepts, the databases and data linkage systems used in eye research-including their advantages and limitations, the types of studies previously undertaken, and the future direction for big data in eye research. PMID:26844660

  16. Mechanics of Hydraulic Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detournay, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fractures represent a particular class of tensile fractures that propagate in solid media under pre-existing compressive stresses as a result of internal pressurization by an injected viscous fluid. The main application of engineered hydraulic fractures is the stimulation of oil and gas wells to increase production. Several physical processes affect the propagation of these fractures, including the flow of viscous fluid, creation of solid surfaces, and leak-off of fracturing fluid. The interplay and the competition between these processes lead to multiple length scales and timescales in the system, which reveal the shifting influence of the far-field stress, viscous dissipation, fracture energy, and leak-off as the fracture propagates.

  17. District Bets Big on Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The big clock in Dowan McNair-Lee's 8th grade classroom in the Stuart-Hobson Middle School is silent, but she can hear the minutes ticking away nonetheless. On this day, like any other, the clock is a constant reminder of how little time she has to prepare her students--for spring tests, and for high school and all that lies beyond it. The…

  18. Genesis of the big bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpher, Ralph A.; Herman, Robert

    The authors of this volume have been intimately connected with the conception of the big bang model since 1947. Following the late George Gamov's ideas in 1942 and more particularly in 1946 that the early universe was an appropriate site for the synthesis of the elements, they became deeply involved in the question of cosmic nucleosynthesis and particularly the synthesis of the light elements. In the course of this work they developed a general relativistic model of the expanding universe with physics folded in, which led in a progressive, logical sequence to our prediction of the existence of a present cosmic background radiation some seventeen years before the observation of such radiation was reported by Penzias and Wilson. In addition, they carried out with James W. Follin, Jr., a detailed study of the physics of what was then considered to be the very early universe, starting a few seconds after the big bang, which still provides a methodology for studies of light element nucleosynthesis. Because of their involvement, they bring a personal perspective to the subject. They present a picture of what is now believed to be the state of knowledge about the evolution of the expanding universe and delineate the story of the development of the big bang model as they have seen and lived it from their own unique vantage point.

  19. Big data: the management revolution.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Andrew; Brynjolfsson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    Big data, the authors write, is far more powerful than the analytics of the past. Executives can measure and therefore manage more precisely than ever before. They can make better predictions and smarter decisions. They can target more-effective interventions in areas that so far have been dominated by gut and intuition rather than by data and rigor. The differences between big data and analytics are a matter of volume, velocity, and variety: More data now cross the internet every second than were stored in the entire internet 20 years ago. Nearly real-time information makes it possible for a company to be much more agile than its competitors. And that information can come from social networks, images, sensors, the web, or other unstructured sources. The managerial challenges, however, are very real. Senior decision makers have to learn to ask the right questions and embrace evidence-based decision making. Organizations must hire scientists who can find patterns in very large data sets and translate them into useful business information. IT departments have to work hard to integrate all the relevant internal and external sources of data. The authors offer two success stories to illustrate how companies are using big data: PASSUR Aerospace enables airlines to match their actual and estimated arrival times. Sears Holdings directly analyzes its incoming store data to make promotions much more precise and faster. PMID:23074865

  20. EHR Big Data Deep Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Lenert, L.; Lopez-Campos, G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives Given the quickening speed of discovery of variant disease drivers from combined patient genotype and phenotype data, the objective is to provide methodology using big data technology to support the definition of deep phenotypes in medical records. Methods As the vast stores of genomic information increase with next generation sequencing, the importance of deep phenotyping increases. The growth of genomic data and adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR) in medicine provides a unique opportunity to integrate phenotype and genotype data into medical records. The method by which collections of clinical findings and other health related data are leveraged to form meaningful phenotypes is an active area of research. Longitudinal data stored in EHRs provide a wealth of information that can be used to construct phenotypes of patients. We focus on a practical problem around data integration for deep phenotype identification within EHR data. The use of big data approaches are described that enable scalable markup of EHR events that can be used for semantic and temporal similarity analysis to support the identification of phenotype and genotype relationships. Conclusions Stead and colleagues’ 2005 concept of using light standards to increase the productivity of software systems by riding on the wave of hardware/processing power is described as a harbinger for designing future healthcare systems. The big data solution, using flexible markup, provides a route to improved utilization of processing power for organizing patient records in genotype and phenotype research. PMID:25123744

  1. Modeling of Interaction of Hydraulic Fractures in Complex Fracture Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresse, O. 2; Wu, R.; Weng, X.; Gu, H.; Cohen, C.

    2011-12-01

    A recently developed unconventional fracture model (UFM) is able to simulate complex fracture network propagation in a formation with pre-existing natural fractures. Multiple fracture branches can propagate at the same time and intersect/cross each other. Each open fracture exerts additional stresses on the surrounding rock and adjacent fractures, which is often referred to as "stress shadow" effect. The stress shadow can cause significant restriction of fracture width, leading to greater risk of proppant screenout. It can also alter the fracture propagation path and drastically affect fracture network patterns. It is hence critical to properly model the fracture interaction in a complex fracture model. A method for computing the stress shadow in a complex hydraulic fracture network is presented. The method is based on an enhanced 2D Displacement Discontinuity Method (DDM) with correction for finite fracture height. The computed stress field is compared to 3D numerical simulation in a few simple examples and shows the method provides a good approximation for the 3D fracture problem. This stress shadow calculation is incorporated in the UFM. The results for simple cases of two fractures are presented that show the fractures can either attract or expel each other depending on their initial relative positions, and compares favorably with an independent 2D non-planar hydraulic fracture model. Additional examples of both planar and complex fractures propagating from multiple perforation clusters are presented, showing that fracture interaction controls the fracture dimension and propagation pattern. In a formation with no or small stress anisotropy, fracture interaction can lead to dramatic divergence of the fractures as they tend to repel each other. However, when stress anisotropy is large, the fracture propagation direction is dominated by the stress field and fracture turning due to fracture interaction is limited. However, stress shadowing still has a strong effect

  2. Fracture corridors in carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelée, Sébastien; Lamarche, Juliette; Gauthier, Bertrand D. M.

    2015-04-01

    Among fractures, Fracture Corridors (FC) are anomalous structures made of highly persistent fracture clusters having a strong effect on multi-phase fluid flow in the subsurface. While mechanical and geological conditions for diffuse fracture systems are well constrained, FC genetic conditions remain a matter of questioning. FC can be localized in larger structures such as folds and fault zones but recent studies suggest that a large amount of fractures and FC also arise as distributed in the host rock and formed in tabular layers during burial with early rock mechanical differentiation. In addition, while the mechanical stratigraphy is of prime importance for fracture stratigraphy, it is still unknown which factor prevails on FC genesis among the local versus regional stress-state, the host rock mechanical stratigraphy or the sedimentary facies. We present a study of fractures in a 400×300 m wide quarry (Calvisson, SE France) dug in homogeneous marly limestones of Hauterivian age. The quarry exhibits diffuse fractures as well as 16 FC. The aim of this study is to reveal the genetics factor for FC development, their global geometry and internal morphologic variations, but also to clear the impact of fracture corridors on diffuse fracture. For that, we measured >2500 fractures (strike, dip, spacing, filling, aperture, etc.) and studied microstructures in 80 thin sections. We calculated fracture density and acquired LiDAR data with >90 million points with a resolution of 4 to 15mm. Diffuse fractures are organized as two perpendicular sets, a main set NE-SW-trending and minor set NW-SE-trending. The FC have the same trend, but the NW-SE trend prevail on the NE-SW one. The LiDAR acquisition allows to visualize the 3D lateral continuity with corridors with a minimal extension of 30m. We distinguish 4 internal morphologic types in FC, depending on fracture morphology, occurrence of breccia and number of zones. The types may occur in a single FC with a lateral transition

  3. Turning big bang into big bounce. I. Classical dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dzierzak, Piotr; Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Piechocki, Wlodzimierz

    2009-11-15

    The big bounce (BB) transition within a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model is analyzed in the setting of loop geometry underlying the loop cosmology. We solve the constraint of the theory at the classical level to identify physical phase space and find the Lie algebra of the Dirac observables. We express energy density of matter and geometrical functions in terms of the observables. It is the modification of classical theory by the loop geometry that is responsible for BB. The classical energy scale specific to BB depends on a parameter that should be fixed either by cosmological data or determined theoretically at quantum level, otherwise the energy scale stays unknown.

  4. [Trochanteric femoral fractures].

    PubMed

    Douša, P; Čech, O; Weissinger, M; Džupa, V

    2013-01-01

    At the present time proximal femoral fractures account for 30% of all fractures referred to hospitals for treatment. Our population is ageing, the proportion of patients with post-menopausal or senile osteoporosis is increasing and therefore the number of proximal femoral fractures requiring urgent treatment is growing too. In the age category of 50 years and older, the incidence of these fractures has increased exponentially. Our department serves as a trauma centre for half of Prague and part of the Central Bohemia Region with a population of 1 150 000. Prague in particular has a high number of elderly citizens. Our experience is based on extensive clinical data obtained from the Register of Proximal Femoral Fractures established in 1997. During 14 years, 4280 patients, 3112 women and 1168 men, were admitted to our department for treatment of proximal femoral fractures. All patients were followed up until healing or development of complications. In the group under study, 82% were patients older than 70 years; 72% of those requiring surgery were in their seventies and eighties. Men were significantly younger than women (p<0.001) and represented 30% of the group. The fractures were 2.3-times more frequent in women than in men. In the category under 60 years, men significantly outnumbered women (p<0.001). The patients with pertrochanteric fractures were, on the average, eight years older than the patients with intertrochanteric fractures, which is a significant difference (p<0.001). The mortality rate within a year of injury was about 30%. Trochanteric fractures accounted for 54.7% and femoral neck fractures for 45.3% of all fractures. The inter-annual increase was 5.9%, with more trochanteric than femoral neck fractures. There was a non-significant decrease in intertrochanteric (AO 31-A3) fractures. On the other hand, the number of pertrochanteric (AO 31-A1+2) fractures increased significantly (p<0.001). A total of 1 394 fractures were treated with a proximal

  5. Growth, children, and fractures.

    PubMed

    Jones, Graeme

    2004-09-01

    Fractures in childhood have long been considered an unavoidable consequence of growth. Studies in recent years have documented the epidemiology of these very common fractures and have also documented considerable variation by fracture type and from country to country. There have also been a number of studies aimed at identifying risk factors particularly for the most common distal forearm fracture. These studies have consistently associated bone mineral density with these fractures. Other possible risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, sports, cola beverages, calcium intake, risk taking, and coordination. While prospective studies are required to confirm these risk factors, accumulating evidence now suggests that a substantial proportion of fractures in children are preventable. PMID:16036086

  6. Fracture tooth fragment reattachment

    PubMed Central

    Maitin, Nitin; Maitin, Shipra Nangalia; Rastogi, Khushboo; Bhushan, Rajarshi

    2013-01-01

    Coronal fractures of the anterior teeth are a common form of dental trauma and its sequelae may impair the establishment and accomplishment of an adequate treatment plan. Among the various treatment options, reattachment of a crown fragment is a conservative treatment that should be considered for crown fractures of anterior teeth. This clinical case reports the management of two coronal tooth fracture cases that were successfully treated using tooth fragment reattachment using glass-fibre-reinforced composite post. PMID:23853012

  7. Big Machines and Big Science: 80 Years of Accelerators at Stanford

    SciTech Connect

    Loew, Gregory

    2008-12-16

    Longtime SLAC physicist Greg Loew will present a trip through SLAC's origins, highlighting its scientific achievements, and provide a glimpse of the lab's future in 'Big Machines and Big Science: 80 Years of Accelerators at Stanford.'

  8. Native perennial forb variation between mountain big sagebrush and Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) occupies large portions of the western United States and provides valuable wildlife habitat. However, information is lacking quantifying differences in native perennial forb characteristics between mountain big sagebrush (A. tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb....

  9. Pathological fractures in children

    PubMed Central

    De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated. PMID:23610658

  10. Fracture detection logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Benzing, William M.

    1992-06-09

    A method and apparatus by which fractured rock formations are identified and their orientation may be determined includes two orthogonal motion sensors which are used in conjunction with a downhole orbital vibrator. The downhole vibrator includes a device for orienting the sensors. The output of the sensors is displayed as a lissajou figure. The shape of the figure changes when a subsurface fracture is encountered in the borehole. The apparatus and method identifies fractures rock formations and enables the azimuthal orientation of the fractures to be determined.

  11. Capitellar and Trochlear Fractures.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael J; Athwal, George S; King, Graham J W; Faber, Kenneth J

    2015-11-01

    Fractures of the capitellum and trochlea account for a small proportion of elbow trauma. Clinicians need to be vigilant in their assessment as they are commonly associated with other injuries about the elbow. To optimize outcomes, the goals of management include a stable, anatomic reduction and early range of motion. Closed reduction of noncomminuted fractures may be successful but requires close follow-up. Open reduction and internal fixation is the preferred management of displaced capitellum-trochlear fractures. Elbow stiffness is the most commonly reported complication in operatively treated fractures. Arthroscopic-assisted reduction and internal fixation and arthroplasty are evolving management options. PMID:26498550

  12. Big.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Nancy; Everhart, Harry

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on the different types of data projectors, to help librarians make a smart selection for their library. Describes multimedia projectors; document cameras; large-screen televisions, monitors, and flat panels; electronic whiteboards, and identifies uses, manufacturers, and prices. Notes three important ways that data projectors…

  13. Big bang nucleosynthesis: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.

    2013-07-23

    An update on the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is presented. With the value of the baryon-tophoton ratio determined to high precision by WMAP, standard BBN is a parameter-free theory. In this context, the theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, {sup 4}He, and {sup 7}Li is discussed and compared to their observational determination. While concordance for D and {sup 4}He is satisfactory, the prediction for {sup 7}Li exceeds the observational determination by a factor of about four. Possible solutions to this problem are discussed.

  14. Fitting ERGMs on big networks.

    PubMed

    An, Weihua

    2016-09-01

    The exponential random graph model (ERGM) has become a valuable tool for modeling social networks. In particular, ERGM provides great flexibility to account for both covariates effects on tie formations and endogenous network formation processes. However, there are both conceptual and computational issues for fitting ERGMs on big networks. This paper describes a framework and a series of methods (based on existent algorithms) to address these issues. It also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of the methods and the conditions to which they are most applicable. Selected methods are illustrated through examples. PMID:27480375

  15. Big bang theory under fire.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, W. C.

    The very old big bang (BB) problems (of the singularity, smoothness, horizon, and flatness) and the failed solutions of inflation theory; newer BB problems relating to missing mass (as required for a flat inflationary universe), the age of the universe, radiation from the "decoupling" ("smearing" of blackbody spectrum), a contrived BB chronology, the abundances of light elements, and redshift anomalies; and problems, newer yet regarding inconsistencies of redshift interpretation, curved space, inflation theory, the decelerating expansion of a BB universe, and some additional logical inconsistencies of BB theory are presented.

  16. The LHC's Next Big Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-03-01

    When the sun rose over America on July 4, 2012, the world of science had radically changed. The Higgs boson had been discovered. Mind you, the press releases were more cautious than that, with "a new particle consistent with being the Higgs boson" being the carefully constructed phrase of the day. But, make no mistake, champagne corks were popped and backs were slapped. The data had spoken and a party was in order. Even if the observation turned out to be something other than the Higgs boson, the first big discovery from data taken at the Large Hadron Collider had been made.

  17. Pterygoid Plate Fractures: Not Limited to Le Fort Fractures.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravi K; Alsheik, Nila H; Afifi, Ahmed M; Gentry, Lindell R

    2015-09-01

    Pterygoid plate fractures are often described in the setting of Le Fort fractures. The goal of this study was to define other craniofacial fracture patterns causing injury to the pterygoid plates. A retrospective review of computed tomography (CT) scans obtained on craniofacial trauma patients over a 5-year period revealed 209 patients with pterygoid plate fractures. Pterygoid plate fractures in 78 patients (37.3%) were unrelated to Le Fort fractures. Common causes included sphenotemporal buttress fractures in 26 patients (33.3%), temporal bone fractures in 18 patients (23.1%), zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures in 17 patients (21.8%), and displaced mandible fractures in 14 patients (17.9%). These findings indicate that approximately one third of pterygoid plate fractures do not result from Le Fort pattern injuries and that the craniofacial surgeon should have a broad differential for causes of pterygoid plate fractures when reviewing trauma imaging. PMID:26147022

  18. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Zongtao Li, Ying Zheng, Xibin Liu, Yan Dai, Jiting Kang, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  19. Urgent Call for Nursing Big Data.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Connie W

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this panel is to expand internationally a National Action Plan for sharable and comparable nursing data for quality improvement and big data science. There is an urgent need to assure that nursing has sharable and comparable data for quality improvement and big data science. A national collaborative - Nursing Knowledge and Big Data Science includes multi-stakeholder groups focused on a National Action Plan toward implementing and using sharable and comparable nursing big data. Panelists will share accomplishments and future plans with an eye toward international collaboration. This presentation is suitable for any audience attending the NI2016 conference. PMID:27332330

  20. Big data: an introduction for librarians.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    Modern life produces data at an astounding rate and shows no signs of slowing. This has lead to new advances in data storage and analysis and the concept of "big data," that is, massive data sets that can yield surprising insights when analyzed. This column will briefly describe what big data is and why it is important. It will also briefly explore the possibilities and problems of big data and the implications it has for librarians. A list of big data projects and resources is also included. PMID:25023020

  1. Comparative Validity of Brief to Medium-Length Big Five and Big Six Personality Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Saucier, Gerard; Eigenhuis, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five inventories when conducting a study and are…

  2. Untapped Potential: Fulfilling the Promise of Big Brothers Big Sisters and the Bigs and Littles They Represent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, John M.; Moore, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    American children represent a great untapped potential in our country. For many young people, choices are limited and the goal of a productive adulthood is a remote one. This report paints a picture of who these children are, shares their insights and reflections about the barriers they face, and offers ways forward for Big Brothers Big Sisters as…

  3. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  4. Astronomical surveys and big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.

    Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from γ -rays to radio waves, are reviewed, including such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in γ -ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and POSS II-based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC) in the optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range, and many others, as well as the most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc.), proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia), variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS), and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA). An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era, with Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics playing an important role in using and analyzing big data for new discoveries.

  5. Evidence of big bang turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2002-11-01

    Chaotic, eddy-like motions dominated by inertial-vortex forces begin at Planck scales in a hot big-bang-turbulence (BBT) cosmological model where this version of the quantum-gravitational-dynamics epoch produces not only the first space-time-energy of the universe but the first high Reynolds number turbulence and turbulent mixing with Kolmogorov and Batchelor-Obukhov-Corrsin velocity and temperature gradient spectra. Strong-force-freeze-out and inflation produced the first fossil-temperature-turbulence by stretching the fluctuations beyond the horizon scale ct of causal connection for light speed c and time t. Recent Cosmic Background Imager spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies at high wavenumbers support the prediction that fossil BBT fluctuation patterns imprinted by nucleosynthesis on light element densities and the associated Sachs-Wolfe temperature fluctuations should not decay by thermal diffusion as expected if the CMB anisotropies were acoustic as commonly assumed. Extended Self Similarity coefficients of the CMB anisotropies exactly match those of high Reynolds number turbulence (Bershadskii and Sreenivasan 2002), supporting the conclusion that fossil big-bang-turbulence seeded nucleosynthesis of light elements and the first hydro-gravitational structure formation.

  6. Some mismatches occurred when simulating fractured reservoirs as homogeneous porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Mario Cesar Suarez Arriaga; Fernando Samaniego V.; Fernando Rodriguez

    1996-01-24

    The understanding of transport processes that occur in naturally fractured geothermal systems is far from being complete. Often, evaluation and numerical simulations of fractured geothermal reservoirs, are carried out by assuming equivalent porous media and homogeneous petrophysical properties within big matrix blocks. The purpose of this paper, is to present a comparison between results obtained from numerical studies of a naturally fractured reservoir treated as a simple porous medium and the simulation of some real aspects of the fractured reservoir. A general conclusion outlines the great practical importance of considering even approximately, the true nature of such systems. Our results show that the homogeneous simplified evaluation of the energy resource in a fractured system, could result in unrealistic estimates of the reservoir capacity to generate electricity.

  7. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2015-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures. PMID:27026999

  8. Rib fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    A rib fracture is a crack or break in one or more of your rib bones. Your ribs are the round, flat bones in your chest ... A rib fracture can be very painful because your ribs move when you breathe, cough, and move your upper ...

  9. Dynamic fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, A. S.; Ramulu, M.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic fracture and crack propagation concepts for ductile materials are reviewed. The equations for calculating dynamic stress integrity and the dynamic energy release rate in order to study dynamic crack propagation are provided. The stress intensity factor versus crack velocity relation is investigated. The uses of optical experimental techniques and finite element methods for fracture analyses are described. The fracture criteria for a rapidly propagating crack under mixed mode conditions are discussed; crack extension and fracture criteria under combined tension and shear loading are based on maximum circumferential stress or energy criteria such as strain energy density. The development and use of a Dugdale model and finite element models to represent crack and fracture dynamics are examined.

  10. Transphyseal Distal Humerus Fracture.

    PubMed

    Abzug, Joshua; Ho, Christine Ann; Ritzman, Todd F; Brighton, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Transphyseal distal humerus fractures typically occur in children younger than 3 years secondary to birth trauma, nonaccidental trauma, or a fall from a small height. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of a transphyseal distal humerus fracture is crucial for a successful outcome. Recognizing that the forearm is not aligned with the humerus on plain radiographs may aid in the diagnosis of a transphyseal distal humerus fracture. Surgical management is most commonly performed with the aid of an arthrogram. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning techniques similar to those used for supracondylar humerus fractures are employed. Cubitus varus caused by a malunion, osteonecrosis of the medial condyle, or growth arrest is the most common complication encountered in the treatment of transphyseal distal humerus fractures. A corrective lateral closing wedge osteotomy can be performed to restore a nearly normal carrying angle. PMID:27049206

  11. Apparent capitellar fractures.

    PubMed

    Ring, David

    2007-11-01

    Isolated capitellar fractures are rare but are identified as such, even when they are more complex, because the displaced capitellar fracture is usually the most obvious and identifiable radiographic finding and because teaching has traditionally underemphasized the involvement of the trochlea in such fractures. The author prefers the term 'apparent capitellar fractures' and draws on his experience to explain why he favors three-dimensional CT for depicting fracture detail. This article discusses treatment options, emphasizing open reduction and internal fixation to restore the native elbow. Operative techniques, including extensile lateral exposure and olecranon osteotomy; fixation techniques; and elbow arthroplasty, are described. Complications, such as ulnar neuropathy and infection, are also covered. PMID:18054674

  12. An embedding for the big bang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesson, Paul S.

    1994-01-01

    A cosmological model is given that has good physical properties for the early and late universe but is a hypersurface in a flat five-dimensional manifold. The big bang can therefore be regarded as an effect of a choice of coordinates in a truncated higher-dimensional geometry. Thus the big bang is in some sense a geometrical illusion.

  13. What is beyond the big five?

    PubMed

    Saucier, G; Goldberg, L R

    1998-08-01

    Previous investigators have proposed that various kinds of person-descriptive content--such as differences in attitudes or values, in sheer evaluation, in attractiveness, or in height and girth--are not adequately captured by the Big Five Model. We report on a rather exhaustive search for reliable sources of Big Five-independent variation in data from person-descriptive adjectives. Fifty-three candidate clusters were developed in a college sample using diverse approaches and sources. In a nonstudent adult sample, clusters were evaluated with respect to a minimax criterion: minimum multiple correlation with factors from Big Five markers and maximum reliability. The most clearly Big Five-independent clusters referred to Height, Girth, Religiousness, Employment Status, Youthfulness and Negative Valence (or low-base-rate attributes). Clusters referring to Fashionableness, Sensuality/Seductiveness, Beauty, Masculinity, Frugality, Humor, Wealth, Prejudice, Folksiness, Cunning, and Luck appeared to be potentially beyond the Big Five, although each of these clusters demonstrated Big Five multiple correlations of .30 to .45, and at least one correlation of .20 and over with a Big Five factor. Of all these content areas, Religiousness, Negative Valence, and the various aspects of Attractiveness were found to be represented by a substantial number of distinct, common adjectives. Results suggest directions for supplementing the Big Five when one wishes to extend variable selection outside the domain of personality traits as conventionally defined. PMID:9728415

  14. Structuring the Curriculum around Big Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleman, Janet; Knighton, Barbara; Brophy, Jere

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an inside look at Barbara Knighton's classroom teaching. She uses big ideas to guide her planning and instruction and gives other teachers suggestions for adopting the big idea approach and ways for making the approach easier. This article also represents a "small slice" of a dozen years of collaborative research,…

  15. Big system: Interactive graphics for the engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quenneville, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The BCS Interactive Graphics System (BIG System) approach to graphics was presented, along with several significant engineering applications. The BIG System precompiler, the graphics support library, and the function requirements of graphics applications are discussed. It was concluded that graphics standardization and a device independent code can be developed to assure maximum graphic terminal transferability.

  16. Efficiency, Corporate Power, and the Bigness Complex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Walter; Brock, James W.

    1990-01-01

    Concludes that (1) the current infatuation with corporate bigness is void of credible empirical support; (2) disproportionate corporate size and industry concentration are incompatible with and destructive to good economic performance; and (3) structurally oriented antitrust policy must be revitalized to combat the burdens of corporate bigness.…

  17. A New Look at Big History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkey, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The article sets out a "big history" which resonates with the priorities of our own time. A globalizing world calls for new spacial scales to underpin what the history curriculum addresses, "big history" calls for new temporal scales, while concern over climate change calls for a new look at subject boundaries. The article…

  18. In Search of the Big Bubble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew; Wentzky, Bethany

    2011-01-01

    Freely rising air bubbles in water sometimes assume the shape of a spherical cap, a shape also known as the "big bubble". Is it possible to find some objective function involving a combination of a bubble's attributes for which the big bubble is the optimal shape? Following the basic idea of the definite integral, we define a bubble's surface as…

  19. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. Big sagebrush transplanting success in crested wheatgrass stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of formerly big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate ssp. wyomingensis)/bunchgrass communities to annual grass dominance, primarily cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), in Wyoming big sagebrush ecosystems has sparked the increasing demand to establish big sagebrush on disturbed rangelands. The e...

  1. Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga Road. Note gate for road to Tamarack Campground - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  2. View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. Bridal Veil Falls at center distance. Looking east - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  3. Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Stephen J; Westreich, Daniel J; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M

    2015-01-01

    Big Data has increasingly been promoted as a revolutionary development in the future of science, including epidemiology. However, the definition and implications of Big Data for epidemiology remain unclear. We here provide a working definition of Big Data predicated on the so-called ‘3 Vs’: variety, volume, and velocity. From this definition, we argue that Big Data has evolutionary and revolutionary implications for identifying and intervening on the determinants of population health. We suggest that as more sources of diverse data become publicly available, the ability to combine and refine these data to yield valid answers to epidemiologic questions will be invaluable. We conclude that, while epidemiology as practiced today will continue to be practiced in the Big Data future, a component of our field’s future value lies in integrating subject matter knowledge with increased technical savvy. Our training programs and our visions for future public health interventions should reflect this future. PMID:25756221

  4. Was the Big Bang hot?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for verifying the spectrum defined by Woody and Richards (WR, 1981), which serves as a base for dust-distorted models of the 3 K background, are discussed. WR detected a sharp deviation from the Planck curve in the 3 K background. The absolute intensity of the background may be determined by the frequency dependence of the dipole anisotropy of the background or the frequency dependence effect in galactic clusters. Both methods involve the Doppler shift; analytical formulae are defined for characterization of the dipole anisotropy. The measurement of the 30-300 GHz spectra of cold galactic dust may reveal the presence of significant amounts of needle-shaped grains, which would in turn support a theory of a cold Big Bang.

  5. Exploring Relationships in Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahabal, A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Crichton, D. J.; Cinquini, L.; Kelly, S.; Colbert, M. A.; Kincaid, H.

    2015-12-01

    Big Data are characterized by several different 'V's. Volume, Veracity, Volatility, Value and so on. For many datasets inflated Volumes through redundant features often make the data more noisy and difficult to extract Value out of. This is especially true if one is comparing/combining different datasets, and the metadata are diverse. We have been exploring ways to exploit such datasets through a variety of statistical machinery, and visualization. We show how we have applied it to time-series from large astronomical sky-surveys. This was done in the Virtual Observatory framework. More recently we have been doing similar work for a completely different domain viz. biology/cancer. The methodology reuse involves application to diverse datasets gathered through the various centers associated with the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) for cancer, an initiative of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Application to Geo datasets is a natural extension.

  6. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-04-28

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

  7. Big Bang nucleosynthesis in crisis\\?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, N.; Scherrer, R. J.; Steigman, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, T. P.; Bludman, S.; Langacker, P.

    1995-11-01

    A new evaluation of the constraint on the number of light neutrino species (Nν) from big bang nucleosynthesis suggests a discrepancy between the predicted light element abundances and those inferred from observations, unless the inferred primordial 4He abundance has been underestimated by 0.014+/-0.004 (1σ) or less than 10% (95% C.L.) of 3He survives stellar processing. With the quoted systematic errors in the observed abundances and a conservative chemical evolution parametrization, the best fit to the combined data is Nν=2.1+/-0.3 (1σ) and the upper limit is Nν<2.6 (95% C.L.). The data are inconsistent with the standard model (Nν=3) at the 98.6% C.L.

  8. Evidence of the big fix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2014-06-01

    We give an evidence of the Big Fix. The theory of wormholes and multiverse suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the total entropy at the late stage of the universe is maximized, which we call the maximum entropy principle. In this paper, we discuss how it can be confirmed by the experimental data, and we show that it is indeed true for the Higgs vacuum expectation value vh. We assume that the baryon number is produced by the sphaleron process, and that the current quark masses, the gauge couplings and the Higgs self-coupling are fixed when we vary vh. It turns out that the existence of the atomic nuclei plays a crucial role to maximize the entropy. This is reminiscent of the anthropic principle, however it is required by the fundamental law in our case.

  9. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-06-03

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

  10. Microsystems - The next big thing

    SciTech Connect

    STINNETT,REGAN W.

    2000-05-11

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a big name for tiny devices that will soon make big changes in everyday life and the workplace. These and other types of Microsystems range in size from a few millimeters to a few microns, much smaller than a human hair. These Microsystems have the capability to enable new ways to solve problems in commercial applications ranging from automotive, aerospace, telecommunications, manufacturing equipment, medical diagnostics to robotics, and in national security applications such as nuclear weapons safety and security, battlefield intelligence, and protection against chemical and biological weapons. This broad range of applications of Microsystems reflects the broad capabilities of future Microsystems to provide the ability to sense, think, act, and communicate, all in a single integrated package. Microsystems have been called the next silicon revolution, but like many revolutions, they incorporate more elements than their predecessors. Microsystems do include MEMS components fabricated from polycrystalline silicon processed using techniques similar to those used in the manufacture of integrated electrical circuits. They also include optoelectronic components made from gallium arsenide and other semiconducting compounds from the III-V groups of the periodic table. Microsystems components are also being made from pure metals and metal alloys using the LIGA process, which utilizes lithography, etching, and casting at the micron scale. Generically, Microsystems are micron scale, integrated systems that have the potential to combine the ability to sense light, heat, pressure, acceleration, vibration, and chemicals with the ability to process the collected data using CMOS circuitry, execute an electrical, mechanical, or photonic response, and communicate either optically or with microwaves.

  11. Fracture mechanics: 26. volume

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, W.G.; Underwood, J.H.; Newman, J.C. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    The original objective of these symposia was to promote technical interchange between researchers from the US and worldwide in the field of fracture. This objective was recently expanded to promote technical interchange between researchers in the field of fatigue and fracture. The symposium began with the Swedlow Memorial Lecture entitled ``Patterns and Perspectives in Applied Fracture Mechanics.`` The remaining 42 papers are divided into the following topical sections: Constraint crack initiation; Constraint crack growth; Weldments; Engineered materials; Subcritical crack growth; Dynamic loading; and Applications. Papers within the scope of the Energy Data Base have been processed separately.

  12. Mechanical Coal-Face Fracturer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Radial points on proposed drill bit take advantage of natural fracture planes of coal. Radial fracture points retracted during drilling and impacted by piston to fracture coal once drilling halts. Group of bits attached to array of pneumatic drivers to fracture large areas of coal face.

  13. [Big data in medicine and healthcare].

    PubMed

    Rüping, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Healthcare is one of the business fields with the highest Big Data potential. According to the prevailing definition, Big Data refers to the fact that data today is often too large and heterogeneous and changes too quickly to be stored, processed, and transformed into value by previous technologies. The technological trends drive Big Data: business processes are more and more executed electronically, consumers produce more and more data themselves - e.g. in social networks - and finally ever increasing digitalization. Currently, several new trends towards new data sources and innovative data analysis appear in medicine and healthcare. From the research perspective, omics-research is one clear Big Data topic. In practice, the electronic health records, free open data and the "quantified self" offer new perspectives for data analytics. Regarding analytics, significant advances have been made in the information extraction from text data, which unlocks a lot of data from clinical documentation for analytics purposes. At the same time, medicine and healthcare is lagging behind in the adoption of Big Data approaches. This can be traced to particular problems regarding data complexity and organizational, legal, and ethical challenges. The growing uptake of Big Data in general and first best-practice examples in medicine and healthcare in particular, indicate that innovative solutions will be coming. This paper gives an overview of the potentials of Big Data in medicine and healthcare. PMID:26063521

  14. Big questions, big science: meeting the challenges of global ecology.

    PubMed

    Schimel, David; Keller, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Ecologists are increasingly tackling questions that require significant infrastucture, large experiments, networks of observations, and complex data and computation. Key hypotheses in ecology increasingly require more investment, and larger data sets to be tested than can be collected by a single investigator's or s group of investigator's labs, sustained for longer than a typical grant. Large-scale projects are expensive, so their scientific return on the investment has to justify the opportunity cost-the science foregone because resources were expended on a large project rather than supporting a number of individual projects. In addition, their management must be accountable and efficient in the use of significant resources, requiring the use of formal systems engineering and project management to mitigate risk of failure. Mapping the scientific method into formal project management requires both scientists able to work in the context, and a project implementation team sensitive to the unique requirements of ecology. Sponsoring agencies, under pressure from external and internal forces, experience many pressures that push them towards counterproductive project management but a scientific community aware and experienced in large project science can mitigate these tendencies. For big ecology to result in great science, ecologists must become informed, aware and engaged in the advocacy and governance of large ecological projects. PMID:25680334

  15. Femur fracture repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... McCormack RG, Lopez CA. Commonly encountered fractures in sports medicine. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  16. Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... McCormack RG, Lopez CA. Commonly encountered fractures in sports medicine. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2014:chap. ...

  17. Clavicle Fracture (Broken Collarbone)

    MedlinePlus

    ... place and the fragments are severely out of alignment. A large bump over the fracture site may ... bone fragments are first repositioned into their normal alignment, and then held in place with special screws ...

  18. Sprains, Strains and Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... are useful for finding soft issue injuries (including torn ligaments) and stress fractures. Treatment will depend on ... weeks. Professional athletes may undergo surgery to repair torn ligaments. Oral anti-inflammatory medication, such as ibuprofen, ...

  19. Lisfranc (Midfoot) Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... broken or ligaments that support the midfoot are torn. The severity of the injury can vary from ... bones are broken (fractured) or the ligaments are torn (ruptured). Injuries can vary, from a simple injury ...

  20. Ankle fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000548.htm Ankle fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on this ... Sit with your foot elevated higher than your knee at least 4 times a day Apply an ...

  1. Fractures in medieval Scotland.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, W J

    2001-04-01

    The prevalence of fractures in medieval Scotland is assessed, particular attention being given to excavations of cemeteries beside three Carmelite cemeteries, at Aberdeen, Perth and Linlithgow, and another one at Whithorn Abbey. In the friaries the prevalence of fractures was 7.6% and in Whithorn it was 5.0%. These figures are comparable with an estimated prevalence of 7.2% for individuals between 0 and 65 years in present day Scotland. Males were more at risk of fractures than females, but a small group from both genders had been struck on the head by weapons. A study from a rural cemetery in England indicates that both male and female peasants had a much higher risk of fractures than their urban counterparts. PMID:11394343

  2. Suspensions in hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, S.N.

    1996-12-31

    Suspensions or slurries are widely used in well stimulation and hydraulic fracturing processes to enhance the production of oil and gas from the underground hydrocarbon-bearing formation. The success of these processes depends significantly upon having a thorough understanding of the behavior of suspensions used. Therefore, the characterization of suspensions under realistic conditions, for their rheological and hydraulic properties, is very important. This chapter deals with the state-of-the-art hydraulic fracturing suspension technology. Specifically it deals with various types of suspensions used in well stimulation and fracturing processes, their rheological characterization and hydraulic properties, behavior of suspensions in horizontal wells, review of proppant settling velocity and proppant transport in the fracture, and presently available measurement techniques for suspensions and their merits. Future industry needs for better understanding of the complex behavior of suspensions are also addressed. 74 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Processing Solutions for Big Data in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillatre, L.; Lepiller, D.

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives a simple introduction to processing solutions applied to massive amounts of data. It proposes a general presentation of the Big Data paradigm. The Hadoop framework, which is considered as the pioneering processing solution for Big Data, is described together with YARN, the integrated Hadoop tool for resource allocation. This paper also presents the main tools for the management of both the storage (NoSQL solutions) and computing capacities (MapReduce parallel processing schema) of a cluster of machines. Finally, more recent processing solutions like Spark are discussed. Big Data frameworks are now able to run complex applications while keeping the programming simple and greatly improving the computing speed.

  4. Big data and the electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Peters, Steve G; Buntrock, James D

    2014-01-01

    The electronic medical record has evolved from a digital representation of individual patient results and documents to information of large scale and complexity. Big Data refers to new technologies providing management and processing capabilities, targeting massive and disparate data sets. For an individual patient, techniques such as Natural Language Processing allow the integration and analysis of textual reports with structured results. For groups of patients, Big Data offers the promise of large-scale analysis of outcomes, patterns, temporal trends, and correlations. The evolution of Big Data analytics moves us from description and reporting to forecasting, predictive modeling, and decision optimization. PMID:24887521

  5. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-01-04

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the first performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first Partnership meeting the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Complementary to the efforts on evaluation of sources and sinks is the development of the Big Sky Partnership Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (BSP-CC) and a GIS Road Map for the Partnership. These efforts will put in place a map-based integrated information management system for our Partnership, with transferability to the national carbon sequestration effort. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but other policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best

  6. Dynamic fracture toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, A. S.; Ramulu, M.; Dadkhah, M. S.; Yang, K.-H.; Kang, B. S. J.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic fracture toughness versus crack velocity relations of Homalite-100, polycarbonate, hardened 4340 steel and reaction bonded silicon nitride are reviewed and discrepancies with published data and their probable causes are discussed. Data scatter in published data are attributed in part to the observed fluctuations in crack velocities. The results reaffirmed our previous conclusion that the dynamic fracture toughness versus crack velocity relation is specimen dependent and that the dynamic arrest stress intensity factor is not a unique material property.

  7. Relative permeability through fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Diomampo, Gracel, P.

    2001-08-01

    The mechanism of two-phase flow through fractures is of importance in understanding many geologic processes. Currently, two-phase flow through fractures is still poorly understood. In this study, nitrogen-water experiments were done on both smooth and rough parallel plates to determine the governing flow mechanism for fractures and the appropriate methodology for data analysis. The experiments were done using a glass plate to allow visualization of flow. Digital video recording allowed instantaneous measurement of pressure, flow rate and saturation. Saturation was computed using image analysis techniques. The experiments showed that gas and liquid phases flow through fractures in nonuniform separate channels. The localized channels change with time as each phase path undergoes continues breaking and reforming due to invasion of the other phase. The stability of the phase paths is dependent on liquid and gas flow rate ratio. This mechanism holds true for over a range of saturation for both smooth and rough fractures. In imbibition for rough-walled fractures, another mechanism similar to wave-like flow in pipes was also observed. The data from the experiments were analyzed using Darcy's law and using the concept of friction factor and equivalent Reynold's number for two-phase flow. For both smooth- and rough-walled fractures a clear relationship between relative permeability and saturation was seen. The calculated relative permeability curves follow Corey-type behavior and can be modeled using Honarpour expressions. The sum of the relative permeabilities is not equal one, indicating phase interference. The equivalent homogeneous single-phase approach did not give satisfactory representation of flow through fractures. The graphs of experimentally derived friction factor with the modified Reynolds number do not reveal a distinctive linear relationship.

  8. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is

  9. NOAA Big Data Partnership RFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    In February 2014, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued a Big Data Request for Information (RFI) from industry and other organizations (e.g., non-profits, research laboratories, and universities) to assess capability and interest in establishing partnerships to position a copy of NOAA's vast data holdings in the Cloud, co-located with easy and affordable access to analytical capabilities. This RFI was motivated by a number of concerns. First, NOAA's data facilities do not necessarily have sufficient network infrastructure to transmit all available observations and numerical model outputs to all potential users, or sufficient infrastructure to support simultaneous computation by many users. Second, the available data are distributed across multiple services and data facilities, making it difficult to find and integrate data for cross-domain analysis and decision-making. Third, large datasets require users to have substantial network, storage, and computing capabilities of their own in order to fully interact with and exploit the latent value of the data. Finally, there may be commercial opportunities for value-added products and services derived from our data. Putting a working copy of data in the Cloud outside of NOAA's internal networks and infrastructures should reduce demands and risks on our systems, and should enable users to interact with multiple datasets and create new lines of business (much like the industries built on government-furnished weather or GPS data). The NOAA Big Data RFI therefore solicited information on technical and business approaches regarding possible partnership(s) that -- at no net cost to the government and minimum impact on existing data facilities -- would unleash the commercial potential of its environmental observations and model outputs. NOAA would retain the master archival copy of its data. Commercial partners would not be permitted to charge fees for access to the NOAA data they receive, but

  10. Hybrid fracture and the transition from extension fracture to shear fracture.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Jonathan M; Chester, Frederick M

    2004-03-01

    Fracture is a fundamental mechanism of material failure. Two basic types of brittle fractures are commonly observed in rock deformation experiments--extension (opening mode) fractures and shear fractures. For nearly half a century it has been hypothesized that extension and shear fractures represent end-members of a continuous spectrum of brittle fracture types. However, observations of transitional fractures that display both opening and shear modes (hybrids) in naturally deformed rock have often remained ambiguous, and a clear demonstration of hybrid fracture formation has not been provided by experiments. Here we present the results of triaxial extension experiments on Carrara marble that show a continuous transition from extension fracture to shear fracture with an increase in compressive stress. Hybrid fractures form under mixed tensile and compressive stress states at acute angles to the maximum principal compressive stress. Fracture angles are greater than those observed for extension fractures and less than those observed for shear fractures. Fracture surfaces also display a progressive change from an extension to shear fracture morphology. PMID:14999279

  11. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  12. Treatment of Thoracolumbar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Guk; Shin, Dong-Eun

    2015-01-01

    The most common fractures of the spine are associated with the thoracolumbar junction. The goals of treatment of thoracolumbar fracture are leading to early mobilization and rehabilitation by restoring mechanical stability of fracture and inducing neurologic recovery, thereby enabling patients to return to the workplace. However, it is still debatable about the treatment methods. Neurologic injury should be identified by thorough physical examination for motor and sensory nerve system in order to determine the appropriate treatment. The mechanical stability of fracture also should be evaluated by plain radiographs and computed tomography. In some cases, magnetic resonance imaging is required to evaluate soft tissue injury involving neurologic structure or posterior ligament complex. Based on these physical examinations and imaging studies, fracture stability is evaluated and it is determined whether to use the conservative or operative treatment. The development of instruments have led to more interests on the operative treatment which saves mobile segments without fusion and on instrumentation through minimal invasive approach in recent years. It is still controversial for the use of these treatments because there have not been verified evidences yet. However, the morbidity of patients can be decreased and good clinical and radiologic outcomes can be achieved if the recent operative treatments are used carefully considering the fracture pattern and the injury severity. PMID:25705347

  13. Intramedullary fixation of forearm fractures with new locked nail

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Himanshu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of availability of interlocked nails made plate osteosynthesis the first choice of treatment of forearm fractures inspite of more surgical exposure, periosteal stripping and big skin incision subsequent scar along with higher risk of refracture on implant removal. We hereby report the first 12 cases with 19 forearm bone fractures internally fixed by indegenous interlocked nail. Materials and Methods: Existing square nails were modified to have a broad proximal end of 5.5 mm with a hole for locking screw of 2.5 mm. The nail has a distal hole of 1/1.2/1.5 mm in 2.5/3/3.5 mm diameter nail, respectively. A new method of distal locking with a clip made of k wire is designed. The clip after insertion into the bone and hole in nail and opposite cortex snuggly fits the bone providing a secure locking system. Twelve skeletally mature patients, mean age 32 years (range 24-45 years) with 19 diaphyseal fractures of the forearm were treated with this indigenously made new nail. The patient were evaluated for fracture union, functional recovery and complications. The functional outcome was assessed by disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (DASH score). Results: Time to radiographic union ranged between 12 and 28 weeks, with a 100% union rate. Complications were minimal, with mild infection in open fracture (n=1) and delayed union (n=1) in patient with comminuted fracture of the ulna only. The clinical results were excellent. The DASH score ranged between 0 and 36 points. Conclusion: This new interlocking nail may be considered as an alternative to plate osteosynthesis for fractures of the forearm in adults. The advantages are benefit of closed reduction, smaller residual scar, reduced cost and early union with allowance of immediate movements. PMID:21886921

  14. Big-bang nucleosynthesis revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.; Steigman, Gary; Walker, Terry P.

    1989-01-01

    The homogeneous big-bang nucleosynthesis yields of D, He-3, He-4, and Li-7 are computed taking into account recent measurements of the neutron mean-life as well as updates of several nuclear reaction rates which primarily affect the production of Li-7. The extraction of primordial abundances from observation and the likelihood that the primordial mass fraction of He-4, Y(sub p) is less than or equal to 0.24 are discussed. Using the primordial abundances of D + He-3 and Li-7 we limit the baryon-to-photon ratio (eta in units of 10 exp -10) 2.6 less than or equal to eta(sub 10) less than or equal to 4.3; which we use to argue that baryons contribute between 0.02 and 0.11 to the critical energy density of the universe. An upper limit to Y(sub p) of 0.24 constrains the number of light neutrinos to N(sub nu) less than or equal to 3.4, in excellent agreement with the LEP and SLC collider results. We turn this argument around to show that the collider limit of 3 neutrino species can be used to bound the primordial abundance of He-4: 0.235 less than or equal to Y(sub p) less than or equal to 0.245.

  15. The NOAA Big Data Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2015-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a Big Data producer, generating tens of terabytes per day from hundreds of sensors on satellites, radars, aircraft, ships, and buoys, and from numerical models. These data are of critical importance and value for NOAA's mission to understand and predict changes in climate, weather, oceans, and coasts. In order to facilitate extracting additional value from this information, NOAA has established Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) with five Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) providers — Amazon, Google, IBM, Microsoft, Open Cloud Consortium — to determine whether hosting NOAA data in publicly-accessible Clouds alongside on-demand computational capability stimulates the creation of new value-added products and services and lines of business based on the data, and if the revenue generated by these new applications can support the costs of data transmission and hosting. Each IaaS provider is the anchor of a "Data Alliance" which organizations or entrepreneurs can join to develop and test new business or research avenues. This presentation will report on progress and lessons learned during the first 6 months of the 3-year CRADAs.

  16. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  17. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for

  18. Heat Waves Pose Big Health Threats

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159744.html Heat Waves Pose Big Health Threats Kids, elderly among those at greatest risk, ... Illness Seniors' Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Safety Heat Illness Seniors' Health About ...

  19. Cosmic relics from the big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.J.

    1988-12-01

    A brief introduction to the big bang picture of the early universe is given. Dark matter is discussed; particularly its implications for elementary particle physics. A classification scheme for dark matter relics is given. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Do Big Bottles Kickstart Infant Weight Issues?

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby bottles might help prevent early obesity in formula-fed infants, study suggests To use the sharing ... TUESDAY, June 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Feeding babies formula from a big bottle might put them at ...

  1. Quantum nature of the big bang.

    PubMed

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Pawlowski, Tomasz; Singh, Parampreet

    2006-04-14

    Some long-standing issues concerning the quantum nature of the big bang are resolved in the context of homogeneous isotropic models with a scalar field. Specifically, the known results on the resolution of the big-bang singularity in loop quantum cosmology are significantly extended as follows: (i) the scalar field is shown to serve as an internal clock, thereby providing a detailed realization of the "emergent time" idea; (ii) the physical Hilbert space, Dirac observables, and semiclassical states are constructed rigorously; (iii) the Hamiltonian constraint is solved numerically to show that the big bang is replaced by a big bounce. Thanks to the nonperturbative, background independent methods, unlike in other approaches the quantum evolution is deterministic across the deep Planck regime. PMID:16712061

  2. The caBIG terminology review process.

    PubMed

    Cimino, James J; Hayamizu, Terry F; Bodenreider, Olivier; Davis, Brian; Stafford, Grace A; Ringwald, Martin

    2009-06-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing an integrated biomedical informatics infrastructure, the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG), to support collaboration within the cancer research community. A key part of the caBIG architecture is the establishment of terminology standards for representing data. In order to evaluate the suitability of existing controlled terminologies, the caBIG Vocabulary and Data Elements Workspace (VCDE WS) working group has developed a set of criteria that serve to assess a terminology's structure, content, documentation, and editorial process. This paper describes the evolution of these criteria and the results of their use in evaluating four standard terminologies: the Gene Ontology (GO), the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt), the Common Terminology for Adverse Events (known as CTCAE), and the laboratory portion of the Logical Objects, Identifiers, Names and Codes (LOINC). The resulting caBIG criteria are presented as a matrix that may be applicable to any terminology standardization effort. PMID:19154797

  3. Big data in nephrology: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Ketchersid, Terry

    2013-01-01

    The phrase 'big data' has arrived in today's lexicon with great fanfare and some degree of hyperbole. Generally speaking, big data refer to data sets that are too complex to be successfully interrogated using standard statistical software. A wide variety of business sectors has utilized big data to garner competitive advantage within their respective markets. Medicine and nephrology, in particular, have been late to this table. This is beginning to change, however, as data scientists begin to work with these large data sets, developing predictive models that permit us to peer into the future. Coupled with an expanding understanding of genomics, predictive models constructed with the assistance of big data may soon provide us with a powerful tool to use as we provide care to patients with renal disease. PMID:24496185

  4. 76 FR 7837 - Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 4, 2011, Big Rivers Electric Corporation (Big Rivers) filed a notice of cancellation of its Second Revised and Restated Open Access Transmission Tariff. Big Rivers also requests waiver of the...

  5. 3. OVERVIEW CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BIG CREEK NO. 3 COMPLEX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERVIEW CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BIG CREEK NO. 3 COMPLEX SHOWING SWITCHRACKS AND SUPPORT BUILDINGS TO PHOTO RIGHT OF POWERHOUSE, SAN JOAQUIN RIVER FLOWING IN PHOTO CENTER TO LOWER RIGHT, AND PENSTOCKS AND STANDPIPES IN BACKGROUND ABOVE POWERHOUSE. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  6. 2. CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPH OF BIG CREEK POWERHOUSE NO. 3 TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPH OF BIG CREEK POWERHOUSE NO. 3 TAKEN FROM SAME ANGLE AS CA-167-X-1. THREE ORIGINAL PENSTOCKS PLUS FOURTH AND FIFTH PENSTOCKS (VISIBLE TO LEFT OF ORIGINAL THREE), AND THREE ORIGINAL STANDPIPES COUPLED TO FOURTH STANDPIPE SHOWN BEHIND AND ABOVE POWERHOUSE BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 3 Penstock Standpipes, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  7. COBE looks back to the Big Bang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of NASA-Goddard's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), the first NASA satellite designed to observe the primeval explosion of the universe. The spacecraft carries three extremely sensitive IR and microwave instruments designed to measure the faint residual radiation from the Big Bang and to search for the formation of the first galaxies. COBE's far IR absolute spectrophotometer has shown that the Big Bang radiation has a blackbody spectrum, proving that there was no large energy release after the explosion.

  8. Dark energy, wormholes, and the big rip

    SciTech Connect

    Faraoni, V.; Israel, W.

    2005-03-15

    The time evolution of a wormhole in a Friedmann universe approaching the big rip is studied. The wormhole is modeled by a thin spherical shell accreting the superquintessence fluid--two different models are presented. Contrary to recent claims that the wormhole overtakes the expansion of the universe and engulfs it before the big rip is reached, it is found that the wormhole becomes asymptotically comoving with the cosmic fluid and the future evolution of the universe is fully causal.

  9. Data Confidentiality Challenges in Big Data Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Jian; Zhao, Dongfang

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we address the problem of data confidentiality in big data analytics. In many fields, much useful patterns can be extracted by applying machine learning techniques to big data. However, data confidentiality must be protected. In many scenarios, data confidentiality could well be a prerequisite for data to be shared. We present a scheme to provide provable secure data confidentiality and discuss various techniques to optimize performance of such a system.

  10. Quality of Big Data in Healthcare

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Ramachandran, Natarajan; Ferrell, Regina Kay

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in Big Data Analytics and in particular Health information technology is towards building sophisticated models, methods and tools for business, operational and clinical intelligence, but the critical issue of data quality required for these models is not getting the attention it deserves. The objective of the paper is to highlight the issues of data quality in the context of Big Data Healthcare Analytics.

  11. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  12. Seismic evaluation of the Devonian Ohio Shale in the Big Ugly area, southwestern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Li; Wilson, T. )

    1991-08-01

    The Devonian Ohio Shale was studied in the Big Ugly area of southwestern West Virginia by reprocessing and interpreting existing seismic and geologic data. These data suggest the presence of detached structures above three decollement zones and cross-strike discontinuities associated with the Alleghanian deformation west of Mann Mountain anticline. A basement growth structure, the Griffithsville basement high, localized detached structures along its southeast flank. High producing trends of gas from the Devonian Ohio Shale occur either near northwest-trending cross-strike structural discontinuities or in the northeast-trending detached structures where fracture density should be increased.

  13. Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nawsher; Yaqoob, Ibrar; Hashem, Ibrahim Abaker Targio; Inayat, Zakira; Mahmoud Ali, Waleed Kamaleldin; Alam, Muhammad; Shiraz, Muhammad; Gani, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data. PMID:25136682

  14. Big data: survey, technologies, opportunities, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nawsher; Yaqoob, Ibrar; Hashem, Ibrahim Abaker Targio; Inayat, Zakira; Ali, Waleed Kamaleldin Mahmoud; Alam, Muhammad; Shiraz, Muhammad; Gani, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data. PMID:25136682

  15. Development of a completion design to control screenouts caused by multiple near-wellbore fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Stadulis, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses possible explanations, based upon previous studies, for the hypothesis that multiple fractures at the borehole wall may be a common feature of the hydraulic fracturing process. It then uses field examples to show how the authors concluded that a type of low-concentration screenout common to three fields in Texas and Oklahoma was caused by multiple fractures. Next, it shows how they developed a completion that controls loss of the pad and slurry to multiple fractures. Finally, it discusses some of the implications of their experience for completion design in general. Since the symptoms of the low-concentration screenout have been documented in the literature by other authors and appear to be quite common, their design techniques should be effective in other areas as well. The completion design combines unoriented, zero-degree-phased, big-hole perforations shot at low density; and small, high-concentration proppant slugs with clean spacer stages pumped very early in the treatment. These strategies were chosen (1) to limit the number of separate fractures that initiate from individual perforations, and (2) to screen out narrow fractures early in the treatment so that more width is developed in the remaining fracture(s). They have used these techniques to increase overall sand/fluid ratios (including the pad) from about 2.3 ppg (lbm added per gal fluid) to over 8 ppg, on modestly-sized treatments up to 200,000 lbm.

  16. 78 FR 3911 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN... (CCP) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone.../FONSI on the planning Web site at http://www.fws.gov/midwest/planning/BigStoneNWR/index.html . A...

  17. Fracture behavior across interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, E. S.; Evans, J. P.; Jeppson, T. N.

    2011-12-01

    Faults and fracture networks at depth are important fluid pathways, especially in fine-grained, low permeability seal lithologies. Discontinues in sealing lithologies can create seal bypass systems, leading to the failure of CO2 geosequestration sites or hydrocarbon traps. We characterize the occurrence of and changes in discontinuity patterns and the associated changes in elastic moduli across sedimentologic interfaces to document the importance of these discontinuities for fluid management in the subsurface and potential for re-activation in high-pressure injection scenarios. We evaluate well-exposed, fine-grained, low-permeability Mesozoic and Paleozoic units that are seals of potential CO2 repositories on the Colorado Plateau and show evidence for open fractures and fluid flow in the subsurface. Field observations document changes in fracture distributions across lithologic boundaries allowing us to identify mechano-stratigraphic units and focus on the effect of lithologic interfaces on fracture distribution. An interface marks the boundary between facies in a seal and in this study the fractures are shown to deflect or arrest at the interface. In outcrop fracture intensity varies in from 1 to 18 fractures per meter and fracture apertures range from mm to cm. The mineralized fractures often have associated alteration halos along their boundaries; their general orientation follows that of discontinuities within the underlying reservoir facies or adjacent faults. The recognition of these changes in fracture distribution is important for forward modeling of fluid flow and risk management. Studying the occurrence of and changes in fracture patterns from outcrops and scaling it up for use in modeling at a field scale is difficult due to the lack of direct correlation between outcrop observations and subsurface data. Due to the size and amount of data needed to model fluid flow at the field scale the meso-scale (cm to m) variability of rock properties is often

  18. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  19. Boosting Big National Lab Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin

    2013-02-21

    Introduction: Big data. Love it or hate it, solving the world’s most intractable problems requires the ability to make sense of huge and complex sets of data and do it quickly. Speeding up the process – from hours to minutes or from weeks to days – is key to our success. One major source of such big data are physical experiments. As many will know, these physical experiments are commonly used to solve challenges in fields such as energy security, manufacturing, medicine, pharmacology, environmental protection and national security. Experiments use different instruments and sensor types to research for example the validity of new drugs, the base cause for diseases, more efficient energy sources, new materials for every day goods, effective methods for environmental cleanup, the optimal ingredients composition for chocolate or determine how to preserve valuable antics. This is done by experimentally determining the structure, properties and processes that govern biological systems, chemical processes and materials. The speed and quality at which we can acquire new insights from experiments directly influences the rate of scientific progress, industrial innovation and competitiveness. And gaining new groundbreaking insights, faster, is key to the economic success of our nations. Recent years have seen incredible advances in sensor technologies, from house size detector systems in large experiments such as the Large Hadron Collider and the ‘Eye of Gaia’ billion pixel camera detector to high throughput genome sequencing. These developments have led to an exponential increase in data volumes, rates and variety produced by instruments used for experimental work. This increase is coinciding with a need to analyze the experimental results at the time they are collected. This speed is required to optimize the data taking and quality, and also to enable new adaptive experiments, where the sample is manipulated as it is observed, e.g. a substance is injected into a

  20. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  1. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-30

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement

  2. Big bang nucleosynthesis: Present status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyburt, Richard H.; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Yeh, Tsung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) describes the production of the lightest nuclides via a dynamic interplay among the four fundamental forces during the first seconds of cosmic time. A brief overview of the essentials of this physics is given, and new calculations presented of light-element abundances through 6Li and 7Li, with updated nuclear reactions and uncertainties including those in the neutron lifetime. Fits are provided for these results as a function of baryon density and of the number of neutrino flavors Nν. Recent developments are reviewed in BBN, particularly new, precision Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements that now probe the baryon density, helium content, and the effective number of degrees of freedom Neff. These measurements allow for a tight test of BBN and cosmology using CMB data alone. Our likelihood analysis convolves the 2015 Planck data chains with our BBN output and observational data. Adding astronomical measurements of light elements strengthens the power of BBN. A new determination of the primordial helium abundance is included in our likelihood analysis. New D/H observations are now more precise than the corresponding theoretical predictions and are consistent with the standard model and the Planck baryon density. Moreover, D/H now provides a tight measurement of Nν when combined with the CMB baryon density and provides a 2 σ upper limit Nν<3.2 . The new precision of the CMB and D/H observations together leaves D/H predictions as the largest source of uncertainties. Future improvement in BBN calculations will therefore rely on improved nuclear cross-section data. In contrast with D/H and 4He, 7Li predictions continue to disagree with observations, perhaps pointing to new physics. This paper concludes with a look at future directions including key nuclear reactions, astronomical observations, and theoretical issues.

  3. Computed tomography of facial fractures.

    PubMed

    Furlow, Bryant

    2014-01-01

    Facial skeletal fractures are common, potentially serious, and frequently associated with other life-threatening conditions, such as traumatic brain injuries. Facial fractures can be simple or complex and sometimes involve serious complications. Computed tomography has revolutionized the rapid and precise assessment of craniofacial and neck fractures in patients with severe facial trauma. This article introduces readers to the epidemiology, skeletal anatomy and biomechanics, complications, and diagnostic imaging of facial fractures. In addition, this article describes efforts to develop and validate a quantitative scoring system for facial fracture severity and reviews treatment strategies for facial skeletal fractures. PMID:24806070

  4. Fracture-Flow-Enhanced Solute Diffusion into Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Ye, Ming; Sudicky, E.A.

    2007-12-15

    We propose a new conceptual model of fracture-flow-enhanced matrix diffusion, which correlates with fracture-flow velocity, i.e., matrix diffusion enhancement induced by rapid fluid flow within fractures. According to the boundary-layer or film theory, fracture flow enhanced matrix diffusion may dominate mass-transfer processes at fracture-matrix interfaces, because rapid flow along fractures results in large velocity and concentration gradients at and near fracture-matrix interfaces, enhancing matrix diffusion at matrix surfaces. In this paper, we present a new formulation of the conceptual model for enhanced fracture-matrix diffusion, and its implementation is discussed using existing analytical solutions and numerical models. In addition, we use the enhanced matrix diffusion concept to analyze laboratory experimental results from nonreactive and reactive tracer breakthrough tests, in an effort to validate the new conceptual model.

  5. TIBIAL PLATEAU FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Mauricio Kfuri; Fogagnolo, Fabrício; Bitar, Rogério Carneiro; Freitas, Rafael Lara; Salim, Rodrigo; Jansen Paccola, Cleber Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are joint lesions that require anatomical reduction of joint surface and functional restoration of mechanical axis of a lower limb. Patient profile, soft tissue conditions, presence of associated injuries and the available infrastructure for the treatment all contribute to the decision making about the best treatment for these fractures. High-energy fractures are usually approached in a staged manner respecting the principle of damage control, and are primarily targeted to maintain limb alignment while the resolution unfavorable soft tissue conditions is pending. Low-energy trauma can be managed on a singlestage basis, provided soft tissues are not an adverse factor, with open reduction and internal fixation. Stable fixation and early painless joint movement are related to a better prognosis. New developments as locked plates, bone replacements, intraoperative 3D imaging are promising and will certainly contribute for less invasive procedures and better outcomes. PMID:27077054

  6. Talar neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Berlet, G C; Lee, T H; Massa, E G

    2001-01-01

    Clinical management of talar neck fractures is complex and fraught with complications. As Gaius Julius Caesar stated: "The die is cast"; often the outcome of a talar neck fracture is determined at the time of injury. The authors believe, however, that better results can be achieved by following some simple guidelines. The authors advocate prompt and precise anatomic surgical reduction, preferring the medial approach with secondary anterolateral approach. Preservation of blood supply can be achieved by a thorough understanding of vascular pathways and efforts to stay within appropriate surgical intervals. The authors advocate bone grafting of medial neck comminution (if present) to prevent varus malalignment and rigid internal fixation to allow for joint mobilization postoperatively. These guidelines may seem simple, but when dealing with the complexity of talar neck fractures, the foot and ankle surgeon needs to focus and rely on easily grasped concepts to reduce poor outcomes. PMID:11465133

  7. DEM Particle Fracture Model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Boning; Herbold, Eric B.; Homel, Michael A.; Regueiro, Richard A.

    2015-12-01

    An adaptive particle fracture model in poly-ellipsoidal Discrete Element Method is developed. The poly-ellipsoidal particle will break into several sub-poly-ellipsoids by Hoek-Brown fracture criterion based on continuum stress and the maximum tensile stress in contacts. Also Weibull theory is introduced to consider the statistics and size effects on particle strength. Finally, high strain-rate split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment of silica sand is simulated using this newly developed model. Comparisons with experiments show that our particle fracture model can capture the mechanical behavior of this experiment very well, both in stress-strain response and particle size redistribution. The effects of density and packings o the samples are also studied in numerical examples.

  8. Fracking, fracture, and permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, D. L.; Norris, J.; Rundle, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Injections of large volumes of water into tight shale reservoirs allows the extraction of oil and gas not previously accessible. This large volume 'super' fracking induces damage that allows the oil and/or gas to flow to an extraction well. The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for understanding super fracking. We assume that water is injected from a small spherical cavity into a homogeneous elastic medium. The high pressure of the injected water generates hoop stresses that reactivate natural fractures in the tight shales. These fractures migrate outward as water is added creating a spherical shell of damaged rock. The porosity associated with these fractures is equal to the water volume injected. We obtain an analytic expression for this volume. We apply our model to a typical tight shale reservoir and show that the predicted water volumes are in good agreement with the volumes used in super fracking.

  9. Geometrically Frustrated Fracture Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Noah; Koning, Vinzenz; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Irvine, William T. M.

    2015-03-01

    When a flat elastic sheet is forced to conform to a surface with Gaussian curvature, stresses arise in the sheet. The mismatch between initial and final metrics gives rise to new fracture behavior which cannot be achieved by boundary loading alone. Using experiments of PDMS sheets frustrated on 3D-printed surfaces and a linearized analytical model, we demonstrate the ability of curvature to govern the sheets' fracture phenomenology. In this talk, we first show that curvature can both stimulate and suppress fracture initiation, depending on the position and orientation of the initial slit. Secondly, we show that curvature can steer the path of a crack as it propagates through the material. Lastly, the curvature can arrest cracks which would otherwise continue to propagate.

  10. Big Data in Caenorhabditis elegans: quo vadis?

    PubMed Central

    Hutter, Harald; Moerman, Donald

    2015-01-01

    A clear definition of what constitutes “Big Data” is difficult to identify, but we find it most useful to define Big Data as a data collection that is complete. By this criterion, researchers on Caenorhabditis elegans have a long history of collecting Big Data, since the organism was selected with the idea of obtaining a complete biological description and understanding of development. The complete wiring diagram of the nervous system, the complete cell lineage, and the complete genome sequence provide a framework to phrase and test hypotheses. Given this history, it might be surprising that the number of “complete” data sets for this organism is actually rather small—not because of lack of effort, but because most types of biological experiments are not currently amenable to complete large-scale data collection. Many are also not inherently limited, so that it becomes difficult to even define completeness. At present, we only have partial data on mutated genes and their phenotypes, gene expression, and protein–protein interaction—important data for many biological questions. Big Data can point toward unexpected correlations, and these unexpected correlations can lead to novel investigations; however, Big Data cannot establish causation. As a result, there is much excitement about Big Data, but there is also a discussion on just what Big Data contributes to solving a biological problem. Because of its relative simplicity, C. elegans is an ideal test bed to explore this issue and at the same time determine what is necessary to build a multicellular organism from a single cell. PMID:26543198

  11. Making a Difference in Schools: The Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Carla; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Kauh, Tina J.; Feldman, Amy F.; McMaken, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    School-based mentoring is one of the fastest growing forms of mentoring in the US today; yet, few studies have rigorously examined its impacts. This landmark random assignment impact study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring is the first national study of this program model. It involves 10 agencies, 71 schools and 1,139 9- to…

  12. Making a Difference. An Impact Study of Big Brothers/Big Sisters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Joseph P.; And Others

    This report provides reliable evidence that mentoring programs can positively affect young people. The evidence is derived from research conducted at local affiliates of Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America (BB/BSA), the oldest, best-known, and arguably most sophisticated of the country's mentoring programs. Public/Private Ventures, Inc. conducted…

  13. Serving, Learning and Mentoring through the Big Brothers Big Sisters Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivukamaran, Thillainatarajan; Holland, Glenda; Clark, Leonard J.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the collaborative partnership between a Big Brothers Big Sisters organization, an elementary school and the College of Education at a public university. The partnership utilized a mentoring system consisting of elementary students, college students, elementary teachers and university faculty. Benefits of the various…

  14. Enhancement of β-catenin activity by BIG1 plus BIG2 via Arf activation and cAMP signals.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Chun; Le, Kang; Kato, Jiro; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha

    2016-05-24

    Multifunctional β-catenin, with critical roles in both cell-cell adhesion and Wnt-signaling pathways, was among HeLa cell proteins coimmunoprecipitated by antibodies against brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factors 1 and 2 (BIG1 or BIG2) that activate ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) by accelerating the replacement of bound GDP with GTP. BIG proteins also contain A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) sequences that can act as scaffolds for multimolecular assemblies that facilitate and limit cAMP signaling temporally and spatially. Direct interaction of BIG1 N-terminal sequence with β-catenin was confirmed using yeast two-hybrid assays and in vitro synthesized proteins. Depletion of BIG1 and/or BIG2 or overexpression of guanine nucleotide-exchange factor inactive mutant, but not wild-type, proteins interfered with β-catenin trafficking, leading to accumulation at perinuclear Golgi structures. Both phospholipase D activity and vesicular trafficking were required for effects of BIG1 and BIG2 on β-catenin activation. Levels of PKA-phosphorylated β-catenin S675 and β-catenin association with PKA, BIG1, and BIG2 were also diminished after BIG1/BIG2 depletion. Inferring a requirement for BIG1 and/or BIG2 AKAP sequence in PKA modification of β-catenin and its effect on transcription activation, we confirmed dependence of S675 phosphorylation and transcription coactivator function on BIG2 AKAP-C sequence. PMID:27162341

  15. Fractured Petroleum Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, Dr. Abbas

    2000-01-18

    In this report the results of experiments of water injection in fractured porous media comprising a number of water-wet matrix blocks are reported for the first time. The blocks experience an advancing fracture-water level (FWL). Immersion-type experiments are performed for comparison; the dominant recovery mechanism changed from co-current to counter-current imbibition when the boundary conditions changed from advancing FWL to immersion-type. Single block experiments of co-current and counter-current imbibition was performed and co-current imbibition leads to more efficient recovery was found.

  16. Fractures of the coracoid process.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K; Yoshida, A; Takahashi, M; Ui, M

    1997-01-01

    We reviewed 67 consecutive patients with fractures of the coracoid process, classifying them by the relationship between the fracture site and the coracoclavicular ligament. The 53 type-I fractures were behind the attachment of this ligament, and the 11 type-II fractures were anterior to it. The relationship of three fractures was uncertain. Type-I fractures were associated with a wide variety of shoulder injuries and consequent dissociation between the scapula and the clavicle. Treatment was usually by open reduction and fixation for type-I fractures and conservative methods for type-II. At follow-up of the 45 available patients, 87% had excellent results, with no significant differences between the operative and non-operative groups or between the type-I and type-II fractures. We consider that operative treatment should be reserved for patients with multiple shoulder injuries with severe disruption of the scapuloclavicular connection. PMID:9020438

  17. Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2008-01-01

    A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells and the built-up composite structure global fracture are enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads.

  18. Compression fractures of the back

    MedlinePlus

    Compression fractures of the back are broken vertebrae. Vertebrae are the bones of the spine. ... bone from elsewhere Tumors that start in the spine, such as multiple myeloma Having many fractures of ...

  19. Bone fracture repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... main treatment options for bone fractures are: Casting Open reduction, and internal fixation- this involves a surgery to repair the fracture-frequently, metal rods, screws or plates are used to repair the bone, and remain ...

  20. Fracture After Total Hip Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... er Total Hip Replacement cont. • Dislocation • Limb length inequality • Poor fracture healing • Repeat fracture • Lack of in- ... Surgeons (AAOS). To learn more about your orthopaedic health, please visit orthoinfo.org. Page ( 5 ) AAOS does ...

  1. Distal Radius Fracture (Broken Wrist)

    MedlinePlus

    ... choice depends on many factors, such as the nature of the fracture, your age and activity level, ... causing the cast to loosen. Depending on the nature of the fracture, your doctor may closely monitor ...

  2. Multiple mandibular fractures. Treatment outlines.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giovanni; Franco, Elena; Clauser, Luigi C

    2016-02-01

    Multiple mandibular comminuted fractures usually occur in high energy traumas. The authors describe the management and treatment of multiple mandibular fractures in a young patient after a suicide attempt. PMID:26862697

  3. Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain More than 40 million people in the United States have osteoporosis (a decrease in the amount ...

  4. Ankle Fractures Often Not Diagnosed

    MedlinePlus

    ... News, Videos & Podcasts » Articles » Text Size Print Bookmark Ankle Fractures Often Not Diagnosed Long-term Complications Result from Poor Recovery Mistaking an ankle fracture for an ankle sprain has serious consequences ...

  5. Stress fractures in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Orava, S; Jormakka, E; Hulkko, A

    1981-01-01

    In a series of 16 cases of stress fractures in 15-year-old and younger athletes 8 fractures occurred in boys and 8 in girls. There were no differences between the sexes in the athletes' training habits. Ten of the fractures were located at the tibia, seven at its upper third and three at the lower part of the bone. Three fractures were found in the fibula, in the metatarsal bones two stress fractures and in the femur one stress fracture. Most stress fractures were caused by endurance type sports. The daily training distances were not particularly high at the time of the onset of the symptoms. In most cases the diagnosis was based on a radiological evaluation. A sufficiently long pause from all athletic activity was enough treatment. Stress fractures in children are very uncommon. PMID:7295000

  6. Correlation of Hip Fracture with Other Fracture Types: Toward a Rational Composite Hip Fracture Endpoint

    PubMed Central

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; Pieper, Carl F.; Grubber, Janet; Van Scoyoc, Lynn; Schnell, Merritt L; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Pearson, Megan; Lafleur, Joanne; Lyles, Kenneth W.; Adler, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose With ethical requirements to the enrollment of lower risk subjects, osteoporosis trials are underpowered to detect reduction in hip fractures. Different skeletal sites have different levels of fracture risk and response to treatment. We sought to identify fracture sites which cluster with hip fracture at higher than expected frequency; if these sites respond to treatment similarly, then a composite fracture endpoint could provide a better estimate of hip fracture reduction. Methods Cohort study using Veterans Affairs and Medicare administrative data. Male Veterans (n=5,036,536) aged 50-99 years receiving VA primary care between1999-2009 were included. Fractures were ascertained using ICD9 and CPT codes and classified by skeletal site. Pearson correlation coefficients, logistic regression and kappa statistics, were used to describe the correlation between each fracture type and hip fracture within individuals, without regards to the timing of the events. Results 595,579 (11.8%) men suffered 1 or more fractures and 179,597 (3.6%) suffered 2 or more fractures during the time under study. Of those with one or more fractures, rib was the most common site (29%), followed by spine (22%), hip (21%) and femur (20%). The fracture types most highly correlated with hip fracture were pelvic/acetabular (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.25, p<0.0001), femur (0.15, p<0.0001), and shoulder (0.11, p<0.0001). Conclusions Pelvic, acetabular, femur, and shoulder fractures cluster with hip fractures within individuals at greater than expected frequency. If we observe similar treatment risk reductions within that cluster, subsequent trials could consider use of a composite endpoint to better estimate hip fracture risk. PMID:26151123

  7. The Confluence of Exascale and Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosanjh, Sudip

    2014-04-01

    Exascale computing has rightly received considerable attention within the high performance computing community. In many fields, scientific progress requires a thousand-fold increase in supercomputing performance over the next decade. Science needs include performing single simulations that span a large portion of an exascale system, as well high throughput computing. The big data problem has also received considerable attention, but is sometimes viewed as being orthogonal to exascale computing. This talk focuses on the confluence of exascale and big data. Exascale and big data face many similar technical challenges including increasing power/energy constraints, the growing mismatch between computing and data movement speeds, an explosion in concurrency and the reduced reliability of large computing systems. Even though exascale and data intensive systems might have different system-level architectures, the fundamental building blocks will be similar. Analyzing all the information produced by exascale simulations will also generate a big data problem. And finally, many experimental facilities are being inundated with large quantities of data as sensors and sequencers improve at rates that surpass Moore's Law. It is becoming increasingly difficult to analyze all of the data from a single experiment and it is often impossible to make comparisons across data sets. It will only be possible to accelerate scientific discovery if we bring together the high performance computing and big data communities.

  8. Volume and Value of Big Healthcare Data

    PubMed Central

    Dinov, Ivo D.

    2016-01-01

    Modern scientific inquiries require significant data-driven evidence and trans-disciplinary expertise to extract valuable information and gain actionable knowledge about natural processes. Effective evidence-based decisions require collection, processing and interpretation of vast amounts of complex data. The Moore's and Kryder's laws of exponential increase of computational power and information storage, respectively, dictate the need rapid trans-disciplinary advances, technological innovation and effective mechanisms for managing and interrogating Big Healthcare Data. In this article, we review important aspects of Big Data analytics and discuss important questions like: What are the challenges and opportunities associated with this biomedical, social, and healthcare data avalanche? Are there innovative statistical computing strategies to represent, model, analyze and interpret Big heterogeneous data? We present the foundation of a new compressive big data analytics (CBDA) framework for representation, modeling and inference of large, complex and heterogeneous datasets. Finally, we consider specific directions likely to impact the process of extracting information from Big healthcare data, translating that information to knowledge, and deriving appropriate actions. PMID:26998309

  9. Numerical Modeling of Fracture Propagation in Naturally Fractured Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Prodanovic, M.; Olson, J. E.; Schultz, R.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing consists of injecting fluid at high pressure and high flowrate to the wellbore for the purpose of enhancing production by generating a complex fracture network. Both tensile failure and shear failure occur during the hydraulic fracturing treatment. The shear event can be caused by slip on existing weak planes such as faults or natural fractures. From core observation, partially cemented and fully cemented opening mode natural fractures, often with considerable thickness are widely present. Hydraulic fractures can propagate either within the natural fracture (tensile failure) or along the interface between the natural fracture and the rock matrix (tensile/shear failure), depending on the relative strength of cement and rock matrix materials, the bonding strength of interface, as well as the presence of any heterogeneities. In this study, we evaluate the fracture propagation both experimentally and numerically. We embed one or multiple inclusions of different mechanical properties within synthetic hydrostone samples in order to mimic cemented natural fractures and rock. A semi-circular bending test is performed for each set of properties. A finite element model built with ABAQUS is used to mimic the semi-circular bending test and study the fracture propagation path, as well as the matrix-inclusion bonding interface status. Mechanical properties required for the numerical model are measured experimentally. The results indicate that the match between experiment and modeling fracture path are extremely sensitive to the chosen interface (bonding) model and related parameters. The semi-circular bending test is dry and easily conducted, providing a good platform for validating numerical approaches. A validated numerical model will enable us to add pressurized fluid within the crack and simulate hydraulic fracture-natural fracture interaction in the reservoir conditions, ultimately providing insights into the extent of the fracture network.

  10. Statistical Physics of Fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Alava, Mikko; Nukala, Phani K; Zapperi, Stefano

    2006-05-01

    Disorder and long-range interactions are two of the key components that make material failure an interesting playfield for the application of statistical mechanics. The cornerstone in this respect has been lattice models of the fracture in which a network of elastic beams, bonds, or electrical fuses with random failure thresholds are subject to an increasing external load. These models describe on a qualitative level the failure processes of real, brittle, or quasi-brittle materials. This has been particularly important in solving the classical engineering problems of material strength: the size dependence of maximum stress and its sample-to-sample statistical fluctuations. At the same time, lattice models pose many new fundamental questions in statistical physics, such as the relation between fracture and phase transitions. Experimental results point out to the existence of an intriguing crackling noise in the acoustic emission and of self-affine fractals in the crack surface morphology. Recent advances in computer power have enabled considerable progress in the understanding of such models. Among these partly still controversial issues, are the scaling and size-effects in material strength and accumulated damage, the statistics of avalanches or bursts of microfailures, and the morphology of the crack surface. Here we present an overview of the results obtained with lattice models for fracture, highlighting the relations with statistical physics theories and more conventional fracture mechanics approaches.

  11. Fracture design modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Crichlow, H.B.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1980-02-07

    A design tool is discussed whereby the various components that enter the design process of a hydraulic fracturing job are combined to provide a realistic appraisal of a stimulation job in the field. An interactive computer model is used to solve the problem numerically to obtain the effects of various parameters on the overall behavior of the system.

  12. Tibia (Shinbone) Shaft Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... fractures in patients who are less healthy. • Early motion. Many doctors encourage leg motion early in the recovery period. For example, if ... will help you restore normal muscle strength, joint motion, and flexibility. AAOS does not endorse any treatments, ...

  13. Fracturing rigid materials.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhaosheng; Hong, Jeong-Mo; Teran, Joseph; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to fracturing (and denting) brittle materials. To avoid the computational burden imposed by the stringent time step restrictions of explicit methods or with solving nonlinear systems of equations for implicit methods, we treat the material as a fully rigid body in the limit of infinite stiffness. In addition to a triangulated surface mesh and level set volume for collisions, each rigid body is outfitted with a tetrahedral mesh upon which finite element analysis can be carried out to provide a stress map for fracture criteria. We demonstrate that the commonly used stress criteria can lead to arbitrary fracture (especially for stiff materials) and instead propose the notion of a time averaged stress directly into the FEM analysis. When objects fracture, the virtual node algorithm provides new triangle and tetrahedral meshes in a straightforward and robust fashion. Although each new rigid body can be rasterized to obtain a new level set, small shards can be difficult to accurately resolve. Therefore, we propose a novel collision handling technique for treating both rigid bodies and rigid body thin shells represented by only a triangle mesh. PMID:17218752

  14. Fracture mechanics principles.

    PubMed

    Mecholsky, J J

    1995-03-01

    The principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) were developed in the 1950s by George Irwin (1957). This work was based on previous investigations of Griffith (1920) and Orowan (1944). Irwin (1957) demonstrated that a crack shape in a particular location with respect to the loading geometry had a stress intensity associated with it. He also demonstrated the equivalence between the stress intensity concept and the familiar Griffith criterion of failure. More importantly, he described the systematic and controlled evaluation of the toughness of a material. Toughness is defined as the resistance of a material to rapid crack propagation and can be characterized by one parameter, Kic. In contrast, the strength of a material is dependent on the size of the initiating crack present in that particular sample or component. The fracture toughness of a material is generally independent of the size of the initiating crack. The strength of any product is limited by the size of the cracks or defects during processing, production and handling. Thus, the application of fracture mechanics principles to dental biomaterials is invaluable in new material development, production control and failure analysis. This paper describes the most useful equations of fracture mechanics to be used in the failure analysis of dental biomaterials. PMID:8621030

  15. Increasing Metal Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.; Wood, W. H.; Sandefur, P. G. J.

    1982-01-01

    In technique developed at Langley Research Center several thin sheets of metal are diffusion-brazed together in vacuum furnace to create thick piece of metal that retains much of fracture toughness of its thin components. Technique is expected to make many of high-strength stainless steels, not currently suitable, usable at cryogenic temperatures.

  16. Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock

    SciTech Connect

    Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert

    2007-09-01

    One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

  17. The caBIG Terminology Review Process

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J.; Hayamizu, Terry F.; Bodenreider, Olivier; Davis, Brian; Stafford, Grace A.; Ringwald, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing an integrated biomedical informatics infrastructure, the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®), to support collaboration within the cancer research community. A key part of the caBIG architecture is the establishment of terminology standards for representing data. In order to evaluate the suitability of existing controlled terminologies, the caBIG Vocabulary and Data Elements Workspace (VCDE WS) working group has developed a set of criteria that serve to assess a terminology's structure, content, documentation, and editorial process. This paper describes the evolution of these criteria and the results of their use in evaluating four standard terminologies: the Gene Ontology (GO), the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt), the Common Terminology for Adverse Events (known as CTCAE), and the laboratory portion of the Logical Objects, Identifiers, Names and Codes (LOINC). The resulting caBIG criteria are presented as a matrix that may be applicable to any terminology standardization effort. PMID:19154797

  18. Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D.

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

  19. Big Science and the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudice, Gian Francesco

    2012-03-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the particle accelerator operating at CERN, is probably the most complex and ambitious scientific project ever accomplished by humanity. The sheer size of the enterprise, in terms of financial and human resources, naturally raises the question whether society should support such costly basic-research programs. I address this question by first reviewing the process that led to the emergence of Big Science and the role of large projects in the development of science and technology. I then compare the methodologies of Small and Big Science, emphasizing their mutual linkage. Finally, after examining the cost of Big Science projects, I highlight several general aspects of their beneficial implications for society.

  20. Implications of Big Data for cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Dolinski, Kara; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2015-01-01

    Big Data” has surpassed “systems biology” and “omics” as the hottest buzzword in the biological sciences, but is there any substance behind the hype? Certainly, we have learned about various aspects of cell and molecular biology from the many individual high-throughput data sets that have been published in the past 15–20 years. These data, although useful as individual data sets, can provide much more knowledge when interrogated with Big Data approaches, such as applying integrative methods that leverage the heterogeneous data compendia in their entirety. Here we discuss the benefits and challenges of such Big Data approaches in biology and how cell and molecular biologists can best take advantage of them. PMID:26174066

  1. Fracture of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chin-Purcell, M V; Lewis, J L

    1996-11-01

    Crack formation and propagation is a significant element of the degeneration process in articular cartilage. In order to understand this process, and separate the relative importance of structural overload and material failure, methods for measuring the fracture toughness of cartilage are needed. In this paper, two such methods are described and used to measure fracture properties of cartilage from the canine patella. A modified single edge notch (MSEN) specimen was used to measure J, and a trouser tear test was used to measure T, both measures of fracture toughness with units of kN/m. A pseudo-elastic modulus was also obtained from the MSEN test. Several potential error sources were examined, and results for the MSEN test compared with another method for measuring the fracture parameter for urethane rubber. Good agreement was found. The two test methods were used to measure properties of cartilage from the patellae of 12 canines: 4-9 specimens from each of 12 patellae, with 5 right-left pairs were tested. Values of J ranged from 0.14-1.2 kN/m. J values correlated with T and were an average of 1.7 times larger than T. A variety of failure responses was seen in the MSEN tests, consequently a grade of 0 to 3 was assigned to each test, where 0 represented a brittle-like crack with minimal opening and 3 represented plastic flow with no crack formation. The initial cracks in 12/82 specimens did not propagate and were assigned to grade 3. The method for reducing data in the MSEN test assumed pseudo-elastic response and could not be used for the grade 3 specimens. Stiffness did not correlate with J. Neither J nor T was statistically different between right-left pairs, but varied between animals. The test methods appear useful for providing a quantitative measure of fracture toughness for cartilage and other soft materials. PMID:8950659

  2. Development of a completion design to control screenouts caused by multiple near-wellborne fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Stadulis, J.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper discusses possible explanations, based upon previous studies, for the hypothesis that multiple fractures at the borehole wall may be a common feature of the hydraulic fracturing process. It then uses field examples to show how we concluded that a type of low-concentration screenout common to three fields in Texas and Oklahoma was caused by multiple fractures. Next, it shows how we developed a completion that controls loss of the pad and slurry to multiple fractures. Finally, it discusses some of the implications of our experience for completion design in general. Since the symptoms of the low-concentration screenout have been documented in the literature by other authors and appear to be quite common, our design techniques should be effective in other areas as well. The completion design combines unoriented, zero-degree-phased, big-hole perforations shot at low density- and small, high-concentration proppant slugs with clean spacer stages pumped very early in the treatment. These strategies were chosen (1) to limit the number of separate fractures that initiate from individual perforations, and (2) to screen out narrow fractures early in the treatment (so that more width is developed in the remaining fractures). We have used these techniques to increase overall sand/fluid ratios (including the pad) from about 2.3 ppg (lbm added per gal fluid) to over 8 ppg, on modestly-sized treatments up to 200,000 lbm.

  3. Energy scale of the Big Bounce

    SciTech Connect

    Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Piechocki, Wlodzimierz

    2009-09-15

    We examine the nature of the cosmological Big Bounce transition within the loop geometry underlying loop quantum cosmology at classical and quantum levels. Our canonical quantization method is an alternative to the standard loop quantum cosmology. An evolution parameter we use has a clear interpretation. Our method opens the door for analyses of spectra of physical observables like the energy density and the volume operator. We find that one cannot determine the energy scale specific to the Big Bounce by making use of the loop geometry without an extra input from observational cosmology.

  4. How quantum is the big bang?

    PubMed

    Bojowald, Martin

    2008-06-01

    When quantum gravity is used to discuss the big bang singularity, the most important, though rarely addressed, question is what role genuine quantum degrees of freedom play. Here, complete effective equations are derived for isotropic models with an interacting scalar to all orders in the expansions involved. The resulting coupling terms show that quantum fluctuations do not affect the bounce much. Quantum correlations, however, do have an important role and could even eliminate the bounce. How quantum gravity regularizes the big bang depends crucially on properties of the quantum state. PMID:18643411

  5. Effective dynamics of the matrix big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Craps, Ben; Rajaraman, Arvind; Sethi, Savdeep

    2006-05-15

    We study the leading quantum effects in the recently introduced matrix big bang model. This amounts to a study of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory compactified on the Milne orbifold. We find a one-loop potential that is attractive near the big bang. Surprisingly, the potential decays very rapidly at late times where it appears to be generated by D-brane effects. Usually, general covariance constrains the form of any effective action generated by renormalization group flow. However, the form of our one-loop potential seems to violate these constraints in a manner that suggests a connection between the cosmological singularity and long wavelength, late time physics.

  6. Livermore Big Trees Park: 1998 Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Queen, D; Gallegos, G; Surano, K

    2002-04-18

    This report is an in-depth study of results from environmental sampling conducted in 1998 by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Big Trees Park in the city of Livermore. The purpose of the sampling was to determine the extent and origin of plutonium found in soil at concentrations above fallout-background levels in the park. This report describes the sampling that was conducted, the chemical and radio-chemical analyses of the samples, the quality control assessments and statistical analyses of the analytical results, and LLNL's interpretations of the results. It includes a number of data analyses not presented in LLNL's previous reports on Big Trees Park.

  7. [Biobank in the age of big data].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianhai; Ji, Jiafu

    2015-01-01

    In big data era, researchers pay more attention to the correlation between biological information of patient samples and related clinical information of diseases. The large volume correlation analysis will help predict the initiation, development and outcome for specific diseases. Disease-related biobank is the core facility bridging the gap between the clinical information and biological information of the disease. The volume, diversity, and especially the quality, and standardization of sample and sample-related information will influence the outcome of big data prediction. Therefore, the establishment of quality management system, and implement of standard inspection and test method are very urgent for continuous improvement of biobanks. PMID:25656021

  8. Harnessing the Heart of Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Scruggs, Sarah B.; Watson, Karol; Su, Andrew I.; Hermjakob, Henning; Yates, John R.; Lindsey, Merry L.; Ping, Peipei

    2015-01-01

    The exponential increase in Big Data generation combined with limited capitalization on the wealth of information embedded within Big Data have prompted us to revisit our scientific discovery paradigms. A successful transition into this digital era of medicine holds great promise for advancing fundamental knowledge in biology, innovating human health and driving personalized medicine, however, this will require a drastic shift of research culture in how we conceptualize science and use data. An e-transformation will require global adoption and synergism among computational science, biomedical research and clinical domains. PMID:25814682

  9. Management of mandibular angle fracture.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Daniel Cameron; Abubaker, A Omar

    2013-11-01

    Fractures through the angle of the mandible are one of the most common facial fractures. The management of such fractures has been controversial, however. This controversy is related to the anatomic relations and complex biomechanical aspects of the mandibular angle. The debate has become even more heated since the evolution of rigid fixation and the ability to provide adequate stability of the fractured segments. This article provides an overview of the special anatomic and biomechanical features of the mandibular angle and their impact on the management of these fractures. PMID:24183373

  10. [Pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture].

    PubMed

    Iwata, Ken; Mashiba, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated microdamage accumulation in the fracture sites in the patients of subtrochanteric atypical femoral fracture with long term bisphosphonate therapy and of incomplete shaft fracture of lateral femoral bowing without bisphosphonate therapy. Based on these findings, pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture is revealed stress fracture caused by accumulation of microdamages between distal to the lesser trochanter and proximal to the supracondylar flare in the femur in association with severely suppressed bone turnover and/or abnormal lower limb alignment, that causes stress concentration on the lateral side cortex of the femur. PMID:26728533

  11. Comparative validity of brief to medium-length Big Five and Big Six Personality Questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Saucier, Gerard; Eigenhuis, Annemarie

    2011-12-01

    A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five inventories when conducting a study and are faced with a variety of options as to inventory length. Furthermore, a 6-factor model has been proposed to extend and update the Big Five model, in part by adding a dimension of Honesty/Humility or Honesty/Propriety. In this study, 3 popular brief to medium-length Big Five measures (NEO Five Factor Inventory, Big Five Inventory [BFI], and International Personality Item Pool), and 3 six-factor measures (HEXACO Personality Inventory, Questionnaire Big Six Scales, and a 6-factor version of the BFI) were placed in competition to best predict important student life outcomes. The effect of test length was investigated by comparing brief versions of most measures (subsets of items) with original versions. Personality questionnaires were administered to undergraduate students (N = 227). Participants' college transcripts and student conduct records were obtained 6-9 months after data was collected. Six-factor inventories demonstrated better predictive ability for life outcomes than did some Big Five inventories. Additional behavioral observations made on participants, including their Facebook profiles and cell-phone text usage, were predicted similarly by Big Five and 6-factor measures. A brief version of the BFI performed surprisingly well; across inventory platforms, increasing test length had little effect on predictive validity. Comparative validity of the models and measures in terms of outcome prediction and parsimony is discussed. PMID:21859221

  12. Transport in fractured porous solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattisson, Charlotte; Knackstedt, Mark A.; Senden, Tim J.

    Laboratory measurements are made of the permeability and the resistivity of sintered porous media with disordered fractures over a wide range of matrix porosity. We discuss the preparation and characterisation of the samples. Approximating the topology of a rough fracture by a single discrete fracture can introduce large errors in the prediction of the permeability. We test the validity of empirical expressions relating permeability, resistivity and porosity for fractured samples. Resistivity correlations with porosity are independent of the presence of fractures. In contrast, permeability correlations show a strong dependence. Attempts to decouple the permeability of the fractured sample as a parallel sum of matrix and fracture permeability leads to large errors. The results indicate that transport in a medium with two distinct families of pathways cannot be described by a single-valued transport coefficient.

  13. Linear elastic fracture mechanics primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Christopher D.

    1992-07-01

    This primer is intended to remove the blackbox perception of fracture mechanics computer software by structural engineers. The fundamental concepts of linear elastic fracture mechanics are presented with emphasis on the practical application of fracture mechanics to real problems. Numerous rules of thumb are provided. Recommended texts for additional reading, and a discussion of the significance of fracture mechanics in structural design are given. Griffith's criterion for crack extension, Irwin's elastic stress field near the crack tip, and the influence of small-scale plasticity are discussed. Common stress intensities factor solutions and methods for determining them are included. Fracture toughness and subcritical crack growth are discussed. The application of fracture mechanics to damage tolerance and fracture control is discussed. Several example problems and a practice set of problems are given.

  14. Linear elastic fracture mechanics primer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Christopher D.

    1992-01-01

    This primer is intended to remove the blackbox perception of fracture mechanics computer software by structural engineers. The fundamental concepts of linear elastic fracture mechanics are presented with emphasis on the practical application of fracture mechanics to real problems. Numerous rules of thumb are provided. Recommended texts for additional reading, and a discussion of the significance of fracture mechanics in structural design are given. Griffith's criterion for crack extension, Irwin's elastic stress field near the crack tip, and the influence of small-scale plasticity are discussed. Common stress intensities factor solutions and methods for determining them are included. Fracture toughness and subcritical crack growth are discussed. The application of fracture mechanics to damage tolerance and fracture control is discussed. Several example problems and a practice set of problems are given.

  15. Fracture mechanics validity limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.; Ernst, Hugo A.

    1994-01-01

    Fracture behavior is characteristics of a dramatic loss of strength compared to elastic deformation behavior. Fracture parameters have been developed and exhibit a range within which each is valid for predicting growth. Each is limited by the assumptions made in its development: all are defined within a specific context. For example, the stress intensity parameters, K, and the crack driving force, G, are derived using an assumption of linear elasticity. To use K or G, the zone of plasticity must be small as compared to the physical dimensions of the object being loaded. This insures an elastic response, and in this context, K and G will work well. Rice's J-integral has been used beyond the limits imposed on K and G. J requires an assumption of nonlinear elasticity, which is not characteristic of real material behavior, but is thought to be a reasonable approximation if unloading is kept to a minimum. As well, the constraint cannot change dramatically (typically, the crack extension is limited to ten-percent of the initial remaining ligament length). Rice, et al investigated the properties required of J-type parameters, J(sub x), and showed that the time rate, dJ(sub x)/dt, must not be a function of the crack extension rate, da/dt. Ernst devised the modified-J parameter, J(sub M), that meets this criterion. J(sub M) correlates fracture data to much higher crack growth than does J. Ultimately, a limit of the validity of J(sub M) is anticipated, and this has been estimated to be at a crack extension of about 40-percent of the initial remaining ligament length. None of the various parameters can be expected to describe fracture in an environment of gross plasticity, in which case the process is better described by deformation parameters, e.g., stress and strain. In the current study, various schemes to identify the onset of the plasticity-dominated behavior, i.e., the end of fracture mechanics validity, are presented. Each validity limit parameter is developed in

  16. An occult acetabular fracture preceding a femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Lasanianos, Nikolaos; Kanakaris, Nikolaos; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2009-08-01

    This article describes the case of a 69-year-old patient with an occult acetabular fracture complicated by an ipsilateral femoral neck fracture occurring within 2 months. The acetabular fracture remained undiagnosed at examination due to insufficient clinical and radiographic data interpretation. The patient was assured of early mobilization that led to a fall and subsequent hip fracture. We focus on the potential reasons for the nondiagnosis of the acetabular fracture. Acetabular fractures in the elderly may occur after low-energy injuries. The lack of history of violent injury may lead to an incorrect diagnosis. Plain anteroposterior (AP) pelvis radiographs alone may prove an insufficient tool, especially in the hands of inexperienced personnel. As is characteristic, a retrospective review of the AP pelvis radiograph obtained after the first fall in our case revealed the undisplaced fracture of the anterior column that was missed initially. Combined fractures of the hip and the acetabulum are rarely described in the literature and are usually addressed by total hip arthroplasty (THA) alone. Similar fracture patterns that develop in 2 stages (2 injuries), as the 1 presented herein, are even more rare. The uniqueness of this combined fracture required a unique surgical treatment. The senior surgeon (P.V.G.) addressed the acetabular fracture separately to graft the anterior column fracture and facilitate union, as it was already 8 weeks old and the second fall had generated a further gap between the fragments. Stable fixation was felt appropriate prior to the THA. Thus, a double surgical approach was used. Six weeks postoperatively, the patient was able to perform full weight-bearing mobilization without an antalgic gait pattern. At 6-month follow-up, radiographs showed the metalwork to be in place with no displacement, and the fracture had progressed to union. PMID:19708620

  17. What's the Big Sweat about Dehydration? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? Read This ... What's the Big Sweat About Dehydration? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's the Big Sweat About Dehydration? Print A ...

  18. Health Before a Stroke Is Big Predictor of Second Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159881.html Health Before a Stroke Is Big Predictor of Second Attack Getting hypertension, cholesterol under ... the researchers explained. The findings weren't a big surprise to the study authors. "We found in ...

  19. Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241-mile transmission corridor extending between the Big Creek Hydroelectric System in the Sierra National Forest in Fresno County and the Eagle Rock Substation in Los Angeles, California, Visalia, Tulare County, CA

  20. AirMSPI PODEX BigSur Terrain Images

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-13

    ... from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Big Sur target (Big Sur, California) 02/03/2013 Terrain-projected   Select ...   Version number   For more information, see the Data Product Specifications (DPS)   ...

  1. "Small Steps, Big Rewards": Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Small Steps, Big Rewards": Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Past Issues / Fall ... These are the plain facts in "Small Steps. Big Rewards: Prevent Type 2 Diabetes," an education campaign ...

  2. Black Hole Blows Big Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    astronomers understand the similarity between small black holes formed from exploded stars and the supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Very powerful jets have been seen from supermassive black holes, but are thought to be less frequent in the smaller microquasar variety. The new discovery suggests that many of them may simply have gone unnoticed so far. The gas-blowing black hole is located 12 million light-years away, in the outskirts of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 (eso0914b). From the size and expansion velocity of the bubble the astronomers have found that the jet activity must have been ongoing for at least 200 000 years. Note: [1] Astronomers do not have yet any means of measuring the size of the black hole itself. The smallest stellar black hole discovered so far has a radius of about 15 km. An average stellar black hole of about 10 solar masses has a radius of about 30 km, while a "big" stellar black hole may have a radius of up to 300 km. This is still much smaller than the jets, which extend out to 1000 light-years, or about 9000 million million km! More Information: This result appears in a paper published in this week's issue of the journal Nature (A 300 parsec long jet-inflated bubble around a powerful microquasar in the galaxy NGC 7793, by Manfred W. Pakull, Roberto Soria and Christian Motch). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates

  3. Black Hole Blows Big Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    astronomers understand the similarity between small black holes formed from exploded stars and the supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Very powerful jets have been seen from supermassive black holes, but are thought to be less frequent in the smaller microquasar variety. The new discovery suggests that many of them may simply have gone unnoticed so far. The gas-blowing black hole is located 12 million light-years away, in the outskirts of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 (eso0914b). From the size and expansion velocity of the bubble the astronomers have found that the jet activity must have been ongoing for at least 200 000 years. Notes [1] Astronomers do not have yet any means of measuring the size of the black hole itself. The smallest stellar black hole discovered so far has a radius of about 15 km. An average stellar black hole of about 10 solar masses has a radius of about 30 km, while a "big" stellar black hole may have a radius of up to 300 km. This is still much smaller than the jets, which extend out to several hundreds light years on each side of the black hole, or about several thousand million million km! More information This result appears in a paper published in this week's issue of the journal Nature (A 300 parsec long jet-inflated bubble around a powerful microquasar in the galaxy NGC 7793, by Manfred W. Pakull, Roberto Soria and Christian Motch). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising

  4. Black Hole Blows Big Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    astronomers understand the similarity between small black holes formed from exploded stars and the supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Very powerful jets have been seen from supermassive black holes, but are thought to be less frequent in the smaller microquasar variety. The new discovery suggests that many of them may simply have gone unnoticed so far. The gas-blowing black hole is located 12 million light-years away, in the outskirts of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 (eso0914b). From the size and expansion velocity of the bubble the astronomers have found that the jet activity must have been ongoing for at least 200 000 years. Note: [1] Astronomers do not have yet any means of measuring the size of the black hole itself. The smallest stellar black hole discovered so far has a radius of about 15 km. An average stellar black hole of about 10 solar masses has a radius of about 30 km, while a "big" stellar black hole may have a radius of up to 300 km. This is still much smaller than the jets, which extend out to 1000 light-years, or about 9000 million million km! More Information: This result appears in a paper published in this week's issue of the journal Nature (A 300 parsec long jet-inflated bubble around a powerful microquasar in the galaxy NGC 7793, by Manfred W. Pakull, Roberto Soria and Christian Motch). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates

  5. Black Hole Blows Big Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    astronomers understand the similarity between small black holes formed from exploded stars and the supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Very powerful jets have been seen from supermassive black holes, but are thought to be less frequent in the smaller microquasar variety. The new discovery suggests that many of them may simply have gone unnoticed so far. The gas-blowing black hole is located 12 million light-years away, in the outskirts of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 (eso0914b). From the size and expansion velocity of the bubble the astronomers have found that the jet activity must have been ongoing for at least 200 000 years. Notes [1] Astronomers do not have yet any means of measuring the size of the black hole itself. The smallest stellar black hole discovered so far has a radius of about 15 km. An average stellar black hole of about 10 solar masses has a radius of about 30 km, while a "big" stellar black hole may have a radius of up to 300 km. This is still much smaller than the jets, which extend out to several hundreds light years on each side of the black hole, or about several thousand million million km! More information This result appears in a paper published in this week's issue of the journal Nature (A 300 parsec long jet-inflated bubble around a powerful microquasar in the galaxy NGC 7793, by Manfred W. Pakull, Roberto Soria and Christian Motch). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising

  6. A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvao, Cecilia; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a parallel between…

  7. Big Island Demonstration Project - Black Liquor

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-01

    Black liquor is a papermaking byproduct that also serves as a fuel for pulp and paper mills. This project involves the design, construction, and operation of a black liquor gasifier that will be integrated into Georgia-Pacific's Big Island facility in Virginia, a mill that has been in operation for more than 100 years.

  8. Big Broadband Connectivity in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windhausen, John, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The economic and social future of the United States depends on answering the growing demand for very high-speed broadband connectivity, a capability termed "big broadband." Failure to take on the challenge could lead to a decline in global competitiveness and an inability to educate students. (Contains 20 notes.)

  9. Big-Time Sports in American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    For almost a century, big-time college sports has been a wildly popular but consistently problematic part of American higher education. The challenges it poses to traditional academic values have been recognized from the start, but they have grown more ominous in recent decades, as cable television has become ubiquitous, commercial opportunities…

  10. Big-Time Fundraising for Today's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    In this enlightening book, nationally recognized author and fundraising consultant Stanley Levenson shows school leaders how to move away from labor-intensive, nickel-and-dime bake sales and car washes, and into the world of big-time fundraising. Following the model used by colleges and universities, the author presents a wealth of practical…

  11. Big Bubbles in Boiling Liquids: Students' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costu, Bayram

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elicit students' conceptions about big bubbles in boiling liquids (water, ethanol and aqueous CuSO[subscript 4] solution). The study is based on twenty-four students at different ages and grades. The clinical interviews technique was conducted to solicit students' conceptions and the interviews were analyzed to…

  12. Science Literacy Circles: Big Ideas about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devick-Fry, Jane; LeSage, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Science literacy circles incorporate the organization of both science notebooks and literature circles to help K-8 students internalize big ideas about science. Using science literacy circles gives students opportunities to engage in critical thinking as they inductively develop understanding about science concepts. (Contains 1 table and 7…

  13. More on Sports and the Big6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents strategies for relating the Big6 information problem-solving process to sports to gain students' attention, sustain it, and make instruction relevant to their interests. Lectures by coaches, computer-based sports games, sports information sources, the use of technology in sports, and judging sports events are discussed. (LRW)

  14. Marketing Your Library with the Big Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    2012-01-01

    The Big Read was developed by the National Endowment for the Arts to revitalize the role of culture in American society and encourage the reading of landmark literature. Each year since 2007, the DeKalb Public Library, Northern Illinois University, and Kishwaukee Community College have partnered to foster literacy in the community. This article…

  15. Challenges of Big Data in Educational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David C.; Webb, Mary; Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses four measurement challenges of data science or "big data" in educational assessments that are enabled by technology: 1. Dealing with change over time via time-based data. 2. How a digital performance space's relationships interact with learner actions, communications and products. 3. How layers of…

  16. Big physics quartet win government backing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Four major physics-based projects are among 10 to have been selected by Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for funding in the coming decade as part of its “roadmap” of big-science projects.

  17. UV - BIG BEND NATIONAL PARK TX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 130 is located in Big Bend NP, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, Inc. of...

  18. Pelvic and acetabular fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Mears, D.C.; Rubash, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    This treatise focuses primarily on the clinical aspects of diagnosis and treatments of pelvic and acetabular fractures. However, considerable attention is also paid to the radiographic diagnosis of trauma and postoperative effects. The book begins with a succinct review of pelvic and acetabular anatomy and pelvic biomechanics. It continues with a radiographic classification of pelvic injury, which will represent the major source of the book's interest for radiologists. The remainder of the book is concerned with clinical management of pelvic and acetabular trauma, including preoperative planning, surgical approaches, techniques of reduction, internal fixation, eternal fixation, post-operative care, and late problems. Even throughout this later portion of the book there are extensive illustrations, including plain radiographs, computed tomographic (CT) scans, reconstructed three-dimensional CT scans, and schematic diagrams of diverse pelvic and acetabular fractures and the elementary surgical techniques for their repair.

  19. Vertebral fracture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, Paola C.; Tankó, László B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2007-03-01

    A novel method for classification and quantification of vertebral fractures from X-ray images is presented. Using pairwise conditional shape models trained on a set of healthy spines, the most likely unfractured shape is estimated for each of the vertebrae in the image. The difference between the true shape and the reconstructed normal shape is an indicator for the shape abnormality. A statistical classification scheme with the two shapes as features is applied to detect, classify, and grade various types of deformities. In contrast with the current (semi-)quantitative grading strategies this method takes the full shape into account, it uses a patient-specific reference by combining population-based information on biological variation in vertebra shape and vertebra interrelations, and it provides a continuous measure of deformity. Good agreement with manual classification and grading is demonstrated on 204 lateral spine radiographs with in total 89 fractures.

  20. HUMERAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Benegas, Eduardo; Ferreira Neto, Arnaldo Amado; Neto, Raul Bolliger; Santis Prada, Flavia de; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Marchitto, Gustavo Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Humeral shaft fractures (HSFs) represent 3% of the fractures of the locomotor apparatus, and the middle third of the shaft is the section most affected. In the majority of cases, it is treated using nonsurgical methods, but surgical indications in HSF cases are increasingly being adopted. The diversity of opinions makes it difficult to reach a consensus regarding the types of osteosynthesis, surgical technique and quantity and quality of synthesis materials that should be used. It would appear that specialists are far from reaching a consensus regarding the best method for surgical treatment of HSFs. We believe that less invasive methods, which favor relative stability, are the most appropriate methods, since the most feared complications are less frequent. PMID:27019833

  1. Probability of Hertzian fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer-Cripps, A. C.; Collins, R. E.

    1994-04-01

    The indentation strength of brittle solids is traditionally characterized by Auerbach's law, which predicts a linear relationship between the load required to initiate a Hertzian cone crack and the radius of a spherical indentor. This paper reviews both the energy balance and flaw statistical explanations of Auerbach's law. It is shown that Auerbach's law in the strictest sense only applies to well-abraded specimens. A novel application of Weibull statistics is presented which allows the distribution of fracture loads to be predicted for any specimen surface condition for a given indentor size. The indentation strength of a brittle solid, for both spherical and cylindrical indentors, is shown to be influenced by both its surface flaw statistics and the degree of interfacial friction. It is observed that the indentation strength of soda-lime glass is increased by a factor of about three times that expected for frictionless contact, and that for a fully bonded indentor, conical fractures cannot occur.

  2. 1. OVERVIEW OF EXTREME EAST END OF BIG CREEK TOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW OF EXTREME EAST END OF BIG CREEK TOWN ACROSS POWERHOUSE NO. 2 FOREBAY (POWERHOUSE NO. 1 AFTERBAY). TOWER CARRYING TRANSMISSION LINES FROM POWERHOUSE NO. 1 IS AT PHOTO CENTER. BEHIND TOWER IS BUILDING 103. TO PHOTO LEFT OF BUILDING 103 IS BUILDING 105. VIEW TO NORTH. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  3. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Brett Anthony

    2015-11-01

    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  4. Melt fracture revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, J. M.

    2003-07-16

    In a previous paper the author and Demay advanced a model to explain the melt fracture instability observed when molten linear polymer melts are extruded in a capillary rheometer operating under the controlled condition that the inlet flow rate was held constant. The model postulated that the melts were a slightly compressible viscous fluid and allowed for slipping of the melt at the wall. The novel feature of that model was the use of an empirical switch law which governed the amount of wall slip. The model successfully accounted for the oscillatory behavior of the exit flow rate, typically referred to as the melt fracture instability, but did not simultaneously yield the fine scale spatial oscillations in the melt typically referred to as shark skin. In this note a new model is advanced which simultaneously explains the melt fracture instability and shark skin phenomena. The model postulates that the polymer is a slightly compressible linearly viscous fluid but assumes no slip boundary conditions at the capillary wall. In simple shear the shear stress {tau}and strain rate d are assumed to be related by d = F{tau} where F ranges between F{sub 2} and F{sub 1} > F{sub 2}. A strain rate dependent yield function is introduced and this function governs whether F evolves towards F{sub 2} or F{sub 1}. This model accounts for the empirical observation that at high shears polymers align and slide more easily than at low shears and explains both the melt fracture and shark skin phenomena.

  5. Rehabilitation in extremity fractures.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, E

    1975-03-01

    General principles in the rehabilitation of a patient with an extremity fracture include: treat the patient, not the x-ray; move all joints not immobilized; prevent disuse atrophy; use gravity to assist in mobilizing a joint; stabilize proximal joints to avoid reverse action of biarticular muscles; permit early protected weight bearing until adequate joint mobility is achieved; appropriately instruct the patient in a home program, and avoid all stretching. PMID:1114932

  6. Fractured Craters on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Two highly fractured craters are visible in this high resolution image of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. The two craters in the center of the image lie in the ancient dark terrain of Marius Regio, at 40 degrees latitude and 201 degrees longitude, at the border of a region of bright grooved terrain known as Byblus Sulcus (the eastern portion of which is visible on the left of this image). Pervasive fracturing has occurred in this area that has completely disrupted these craters and destroyed their southern and western walls. Such intense fracturing has occurred over much of Ganymede's surface and has commonly destroyed older features. The image covers an area approximately 26 kilometers (16 miles) by 18 kilometers (11 miles) across at a resolution of 86 meters (287 feet) per picture element. The image was taken on September 6, 1996 by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  7. Big Ideas in Primary Mathematics: Issues and Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This article is located within the literature arguing for attention to Big Ideas in teaching and learning mathematics for understanding. The focus is on surveying the literature of Big Ideas and clarifying what might constitute Big Ideas in the primary Mathematics Curriculum based on both theoretical and pragmatic considerations. This is…

  8. 76 FR 26240 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming..., 2011, and will begin at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County Weed...

  9. 78 FR 33326 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming... at 3:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at Big Horn County Weed and Pest Building,...

  10. 75 FR 141 - Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing December 23, 2009. Take... Granting Petition for Declaratory Order and Granting Waivers,'' Big Rivers Elec. Corp., 128 FERC ] 61,264 (2009) (September 17 Order), Big Rivers Electric Corporation filed revised tariff sheets to its...

  11. 75 FR 49886 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in..., 2010, and will begin at 9 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County...

  12. 76 FR 47141 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ] ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming..., 2011 and will begin at 3 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County Weed and...

  13. 76 FR 7810 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Lovell, Wyoming..., 2011, and will begin at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn Federal...

  14. 77 FR 49779 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming... 11, 2012 and will begin at 3 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County Weed...

  15. 75 FR 71069 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming... December 1, 2010, and will begin at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County...

  16. View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old Wawona Road near location of photograph HAER CA-148-17. Note road cuts, alignment, and tunnels. Devils Dance Floor at left distance. Looking northwest - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  17. 9. View from middle adit Wawona Tunnel of Big Oak ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View from middle adit Wawona Tunnel of Big Oak Flat Road with retaining walls at lower left and center left with east portal of tunnel #1. - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  18. Clarity and causality needed in claims about Big Gods.

    PubMed

    Watts, Joseph; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2016-01-01

    We welcome Norenzayan et al.'s claim that the prosocial effects of beliefs in supernatural agents extend beyond Big Gods. To date, however, supporting evidence has focused on the Abrahamic Big God, making generalisations difficult. We discuss a recent study that highlights the need for clarity about the causal path by which supernatural beliefs affect the evolution of big societies. PMID:26948745

  19. 11. VIEW OF UPSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF UPSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF THE ARCH WALLS, TAKEN ON SEPTEMBER 11, 1928 (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN). PICTURE WAS DEVELOPED FROM COPY NEGATIVES WHICH WERE TAKEN ON 6/5/1973 BY PHOTOGRAPHER GATSON OF L.A. COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Periprosthetic Femur Fracture Occuring after Contralateral Neglected Femoral Neck Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cankaya, Deniz; Toprak, Ali; IKilic, Enver; Bingol, Olgun; Tabak, Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Periprosthetic fractures of the femur are uncommon, but at times may lead to complications especially in elderly patients. As treatment of these fractures is difficult, prevention by identifying the risk factors is the best way to overcome these complex problems. Case Report: A periprosthetic right femur fracture associated with a neglected left femoral neck fracture in the contralateral femur in a 78-year-old elder woman patient is reported in the present article. We discuss the prevention of periprosthetic fractures after hip arthroplasty and address the risk factors associated with this complication. Conclusion: The present case emphasizes the importance of investigating and treating the cause of sudden onset of restriction on full weight-bearing in the contralateral limb, to prevent periprosthetic femoral fracture after hip arthroplasty in elderly patients. PMID:27299115

  1. Big data - a 21st century science Maginot Line? No-boundary thinking: shifting from the big data paradigm.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiuzhen; Jennings, Steven F; Bruce, Barry; Buchan, Alison; Cai, Liming; Chen, Pengyin; Cramer, Carole L; Guan, Weihua; Hilgert, Uwe Kk; Jiang, Hongmei; Li, Zenglu; McClure, Gail; McMullen, Donald F; Nanduri, Bindu; Perkins, Andy; Rekepalli, Bhanu; Salem, Saeed; Specker, Jennifer; Walker, Karl; Wunsch, Donald; Xiong, Donghai; Zhang, Shuzhong; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Zhongming; Moore, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    Whether your interests lie in scientific arenas, the corporate world, or in government, you have certainly heard the praises of big data: Big data will give you new insights, allow you to become more efficient, and/or will solve your problems. While big data has had some outstanding successes, many are now beginning to see that it is not the Silver Bullet that it has been touted to be. Here our main concern is the overall impact of big data; the current manifestation of big data is constructing a Maginot Line in science in the 21st century. Big data is not "lots of data" as a phenomena anymore; The big data paradigm is putting the spirit of the Maginot Line into lots of data. Big data overall is disconnecting researchers and science challenges. We propose No-Boundary Thinking (NBT), applying no-boundary thinking in problem defining to address science challenges. PMID:25670967

  2. Fracture Networks in Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vevatne, Jonas; Rimstad, Eivind; Hansen, Alex; Korsnes, Reinert; Hope, Sigmund

    2014-04-01

    Fracturing and refreezing of sea ice in the Kara sea are investigated using complex networkanalysis. By going to the dual network, where the fractures are nodes and their intersectionslinks, we gain access to topological features which are easy to measure and hence comparewith modeled networks. Resulting network reveal statistical properties of the fracturing process.The dual networks have a broad degree distribution, with a scale-free tail, high clusteringand efficiency. The degree-degree correlation profile shows disassortative behavior, indicatingpreferential growth. This implies that long, dominating fractures appear earlier than shorterfractures, and that the short fractures which are created later tend to connect to the longfractures.The knowledge of the fracturing process is used to construct growing fracture network (GFN)model which provides insight into the generation of fracture networks. The GFN model isprimarily based on the observation that fractures in sea ice are likely to end when hitting existingfractures. Based on an investigation of which fractures survive over time, a simple model forrefreezing is also added to the GFN model, and the model is analyzed and compared to the realnetworks.

  3. Permeability of naturally fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Teufel, L.W. )

    1991-03-01

    Hydraulic fracture stress data collected from carbonate and clastic reservoirs show that the minimum horizontal in situ stress decreases with reservoir depletion and pore pressure drawdown. The reduction in minimum horizontal stress is, in part, a poro-elastic effect that is linear with pore pressure drawdown and can be approximated by an unlaxial compaction model. The observed change in horizontal stress is equal to 40% to 80% of the net change in pore pressure. This type of stress behavior has important implications for reservoir management of naturally fractured reservoirs, because conductivity of fractures is highly stress sensitive. Laboratory studies clearly demonstrate that with increasing effective normal stress fracture apertures close and conductivity decreases. Accordingly, in sharp contrast to the standard procedure, predictions of changes in fracture permeability during reservoir depletion should not be made simply as a function of pore pressure drawdown, but more importantly should be based on how the effective in situ stresses change during drawdown and the orientation of natural fractures relative to the in situ stress field. The increase in the effective overburden stress will be the largest and equal to the magnitude of the pore pressure decline because the overburden stress is constant and does not change with drawdown. However, the increase in the effective minimum horizontal stress will be much smaller. Accordingly, for a reservoir with several sets of fractures with similar morphology, the reduction in fracture conductivity during drawdown will be greatest for horizontal fractures and least for vertical fractures aligned with the maximum horizontal stress direction.

  4. Fractures of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative. PMID:24270959

  5. Procedure for estimating fracture energy from fracture surface roughness

    DOEpatents

    Williford, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    The fracture energy of a material is determined by first measuring the length of a profile of a section through a fractured surface of the material taken on a plane perpendicular to the mean plane of that surface, then determining the fractal dimensionality of the surface. From this, the yield strength of the material, and the Young's Modulus of that material, the fracture energy is calculated.

  6. Evaluation of five fracture models in Taylor impact fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Xin-Ke; Wei, Gang; Guo, Zitao

    2012-03-01

    Taylor impact test presented in a previous study on a commercial high strength and super hard aluminum alloy 7A04-T6 are numerically evaluated using the finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit. In the present study, the influence of fracture criterion in numerical simulations of the deformation and fracture behavior of Taylor rod has been studied. Included in the paper are a modified version of Johnson-Cook, the Cockcroft-Latham(C-L), the constant fracture strain, the maximum shear stress and the maximum principle stress fracture models. Model constants for each criterion are calibrated from material tests. The modified version of Johnson-Cook fracture criterion with the stress triaxiality cut off idea is found to give good prediction of the Taylor impact fracture behavior. However, this study will also show that the C-L fracture criterion where only one simple material test is required for calibration is found to give reasonable predictions. Unfortunately, the other three criteria are not able to repeat the experimentally obtained fracture behavior. The study indicates that the stress triaxiality cut off idea is necessary to predict the Taylor impact fracture.

  7. Evaluation of Five Fracture Models in Taylor Impact Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Xinke; Wei, Gang; Guo, Zitao

    2011-06-01

    Taylor impact test presented in a previous study on a commercial high strength and super hard aluminum alloy 7A04-T6 are numerically evaluated using the finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit. In the present study, the influence of fracture criterion in numerical simulations of the deformation and fracture behavior of Taylor rod has been studied. Included in the paper are a modified version of Johnson-Cook, the Cockcroft-Latham(C-L), the constant fracture strain, the maximum shear stress and the maximum principle stress fracture models. Model constants for each criterion are calibrated from material tests. The modified version of Johnson-Cook fracture criterion with the stress triaxiality cut off idea is found to give good prediction of the Taylor impact fracture behavior. However, this study will also show that the C-L fracture criterion where only one simple material test is required for calibration, is found to give reasonable predictions. Unfortunately, the other three criteria are not able to repeat the experimentally obtained fracture behavior. The study indicates that the stress triaxiality cut off idea is necessary to predict the Taylor impact fracture. The National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.: 11072072).

  8. Occult Intertrochanteric Fracture Mimicking the Fracture of Greater Trochanter

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Phil Hyun; Kang, Suk; Kim, Jong Pil; Kim, Young Sung; Back, In Hwa; Eom, Kyeong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Occult intertrochanteric fractures are misdiagnosed as isolated greater trochanteric fractures in some cases. We investigated the utility of three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and outcome management of occult intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods This study involved 23 cases of greater trochanteric fractures as diagnosed using plain radiographs from January 2004 to July 2013. Until January 2008, 9 cases were examined with 3D-CT only, while 14 cases were screened with both 3D-CT and MRI scans. We analyzed diagnostic accuracy and treatment results following 3D-CT and MRI scanning. Results Nine cases that underwent 3D-CT only were diagnosed with isolated greater trochanteric fractures without occult intertrochanteric fractures. Of these, a patient with displacement received surgical treatment. Of the 14 patients screened using both CT and MRI, 13 were diagnosed with occult intertrochanteric fractures. Of these, 11 were treated with surgical intervention and 2 with conservative management. Conclusion Three-dimensional CT has very low diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing occult intertrochanteric fractures. For this reason, MRI is recommended to confirm a suspected occult intertrochanteric fracture and to determine the most appropriate mode of treatment.

  9. Mortality after hip fracture with vertebral compression fracture is poor.

    PubMed

    Imai, Norio; Endo, Naoto; Hoshino, Tadashi; Suda, Ken; Miyasaka, Dai; Ito, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing elderly population, the prevalence of osteoporotic hip fractures in Japanese patients continues to rise. It is well established that patients with either hip fracture or both symptomatic and asymptomatic morphometric vertebral compression fracture (VCF) have a poor health prognosis compared with the general population. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate vertebral fracture rates among patients with hip fracture and their influence on mortality. We examined 182 cases of osteoporotic hip fracture in patients admitted to our institution between January 2009 and May 2011. The average age at the time of fracture was 85 years. Radiographs of the lumbar spine were obtained from all of the participants and the lateral spinal radiographs were examined for evidence of VCF. The patients were classified into two groups, those with VCF and those without. A VCF was identified in approximately 78 % of the patients. The mortality rate 1 year after the hip fracture was approximately 22 % and it was significantly higher in patients with VCF. Through multivariate statistics we found that VCF, post-operative complication, loss of ambulation after operation and medication for osteoporosis were statistically significant. In other words, VCF, post-operative complication and loss of ambulation were considered to be poor prognostic factors and medication for osteoporosis was likely to improve the prognosis. We concluded that the risk of mortality after hip fracture is significantly greater in patients who also have VCF compared to patients without VCF, and that medication for osteoporosis is likely to improve prognosis. PMID:25501699

  10. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  11. [Histologic finding of fracture healing using external fixation and its clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Stürmer, K M

    1984-06-01

    The histology of bone healing under external fixation of fractures is studied in 2 human bone specimen and in the sheep's tibia. Primary bone healing occurs under absolute stable fixation. The regular course shows secundary bone healing by endosteal and periosteal callus formation, caused by motion in the fracture gap. Nonunion results, if motion is not big enough to induce callus formation and if motion is too big to allow primary bone healing. So one of the main problems in external fixation of fractures is to find out the adequate dose of stability and motion in the fracture gap. External fixation does not disturb the vascular supply of bone. Intramedullary vessels, that are cut during the osteotomy of the sheep's tibia, are perfectly regenerated 4-5 weeks later. In the surroundings of the Schanz' screws, cortical remodelling is the biomechanical response of bone to strees, which is generated by external fixation. This cortical remodelling can reduce compression, originally applied to the bone. The indication and the timing for a change to internal fixation is discussed. PMID:6474602

  12. High School Students as Mentors: Findings from the Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Carla; Kauh, Tina J.; Cooney, Siobhan M.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; McMaken, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    High schools have recently become a popular source of mentors for school-based mentoring (SBM) programs. The high school Bigs program of Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, for example, currently involves close to 50,000 high-school-aged mentors across the country. While the use of these young mentors has several potential advantages, their age…

  13. SETI as a part of Big History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2014-08-01

    Big History is an emerging academic discipline which examines history scientifically from the Big Bang to the present. It uses a multidisciplinary approach based on combining numerous disciplines from science and the humanities, and explores human existence in the context of this bigger picture. It is taught at some universities. In a series of recent papers ([11] through [15] and [17] through [18]) and in a book [16], we developed a new mathematical model embracing Darwinian Evolution (RNA to Humans, see, in particular, [17] and Human History (Aztecs to USA, see [16]) and then we extrapolated even that into the future up to ten million years (see 18), the minimum time requested for a civilization to expand to the whole Milky Way (Fermi paradox). In this paper, we further extend that model in the past so as to let it start at the Big Bang (13.8 billion years ago) thus merging Big History, Evolution on Earth and SETI (the modern Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence) into a single body of knowledge of a statistical type. Our idea is that the Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM), so far used as the key stochastic process of financial mathematics (Black-Sholes models and related 1997 Nobel Prize in Economics!) may be successfully applied to the whole of Big History. In particular, in this paper we derive Big History Theory based on GBMs: just as the GBM is the “movie” unfolding in time, so the Statistical Drake Equation is its “still picture”, static in time, and the GBM is the time-extension of the Drake Equation. Darwinian Evolution on Earth may be easily described as an increasing GBM in the number of living species on Earth over the last 3.5 billion years. The first of them was RNA 3.5 billion years ago, and now 50

  14. Resistivity logging of fractured basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Stefansson, V.; Axelsson, G.; Sigurdsson, O.

    1982-01-01

    A lumped double porosity model was studied in order to estimate the effect of fractures on resistivity - porosity relations. It is found that the relationship between resistivity and porosity for fractured rock is in general not simple and depends both on the amounts of matrix porosity as well as the fracture orientation. However, when fractures dominate over matrix porosity the exponent is close to 1.0. Resistivity-porosity relations have been determined for large amounts of basaltic formations in Iceland. An exponent close to 1.0 is found in all cases investigated. This is interpreted as fractures constitute a considerable part of the porosity of the basalts. In the IRDP-hole in Eastern Iceland it is found that the ratio of fracture porosity to total porosity decreases with depth.

  15. Fracture healing: mechanisms and interventions

    PubMed Central

    Einhorn, Thomas A.; Gerstenfeld, Louis C.

    2015-01-01

    Fractures are the most common large-organ, traumatic injuries to humans. The repair of bone fractures is a postnatal regenerative process that recapitulates many of the ontological events of embryonic skeletal development. Although fracture repair usually restores the damaged skeletal organ to its pre-injury cellular composition, structure and biomechanical function, about 10% of fractures will not heal normally. This article reviews the developmental progression of fracture healing at the tissue, cellular and molecular levels. Innate and adaptive immune processes are discussed as a component of the injury response, as are environmental factors, such as the extent of injury to the bone and surrounding tissue, fixation and the contribution of vascular tissues. We also present strategies for fracture treatment that have been tested in animal models and in clinical trials or case series. The biophysical and biological basis of the molecular actions of various therapeutic approaches, including recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins and parathyroid hormone therapy, are also discussed. PMID:25266456

  16. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    PubMed

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process. PMID:27070765

  17. Big data are coming to psychiatry: a general introduction.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Bauer, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Big data are coming to the study of bipolar disorder and all of psychiatry. Data are coming from providers and payers (including EMR, imaging, insurance claims and pharmacy data), from omics (genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data), and from patients and non-providers (data from smart phone and Internet activities, sensors and monitoring tools). Analysis of the big data will provide unprecedented opportunities for exploration, descriptive observation, hypothesis generation, and prediction, and the results of big data studies will be incorporated into clinical practice. Technical challenges remain in the quality, analysis and management of big data. This paper discusses some of the fundamental opportunities and challenges of big data for psychiatry. PMID:26440506

  18. Big Data - What is it and why it matters.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Andy; Grant, Maria J

    2016-06-01

    Big data, like MOOCs, altmetrics and open access, is a term that has been commonplace in the library community for some time yet, despite its prevalence, many in the library and information sector remain unsure of the relationship between big data and their roles. This editorial explores what big data could mean for the day-to-day practice of health library and information workers, presenting examples of big data in action, considering the ethics of accessing big data sets and the potential for new roles for library and information workers. PMID:27168254

  19. The human cost of fracture.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Julie A; Sanders, Kerrie M; Hoekstra, Frouckje M; Henry, Margaret J; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A

    2005-12-01

    In this population-based, observational study, we document the personal burden of fracture and utilization of community and health services for women during the 12-month period following a fracture. Participants were 598 women (aged 35-92 years) with incident fracture in the years 1994-1996 who were enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Almost all hip fracture cases and 27% of nonhip fracture cases were hospitalized. Homes were modified in 14% of cases, and 32% of the women purchased or hired equipment to assist with activities of daily living. Three-quarters of women with hip, pelvis, or lower limb fractures were confined to the home, had to walk with a walking aid, or could walk only short distances for several weeks. After a year, nearly one-half had not regained prefracture mobility. One-seventh of women with upper-limb fractures did not venture outside the home for at least 6 weeks. Nearly half of all fracture cases needed help with personal care and housework during the first 6 weeks. After 6 months, 3.4% of all patients and 19.6% of hip, 12.8% of humeral, and 4.7% of spine fracture patients required assistance with bathing and showering. After a year, more than half of the hip fracture cases remained restricted regarding housework, gardening, and transport. These findings have important implications for rehabilitation therapy. A fracture, regardless of site, had a major impact on a woman's lifestyle and well-being. Most women were restricted in their activities of daily living and suffered loss of confidence and independence. Short-term morbidity was common for all fractures, with varying degrees of prolonged morbidity often extending to at least a year postfracture. PMID:16228106

  20. Method for fracturing subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, S. W.; Conway, M. W.

    1985-11-19

    The present invention relates to a thermally stable crosslinked gel fracturing fluid for use in the treatment of subterranean formations penetrated by a well bore. The fracturing fluid comprises an aqueous liquid, a gelling agent comprising a selected modified cellulose ether, a crosslinking agent and any additional additives that may be present. The fracturing fluid is thermally stable under shear at temperatures in excess of about 200/sup 0/ F.

  1. Periprosthetic fractures in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Van Flandern, Geoffrey J

    2005-09-01

    Periprosthetic fractures can be discussed in many formats. In this article, epidemiology, classification, and treatment are divided into the following three categories of periprosthetic fracture: intraoperative fractures detected at the time of surgery; intraoperative fractures undetected at the time of surgery, but detected postoperatively; and postoperative fractures occurring late after the arthroplasty procedure. PMID:16190043

  2. Seismic determination of saturation in fractured reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.L.; Wiggins, M.L.; Gupta, A.

    2002-01-01

    Detecting the saturation of a fractured reservoir using shear waves is possible when the fractures have a geometry that induces a component of movement perpendicular to the fractures. When such geometry is present, vertically traveling shear waves can be used to examine the saturation of the fractured reservoir. Tilted, corrugated, and saw-tooth fracture models are potential examples.

  3. Unusual presentation of a femoral stress fracture

    PubMed Central

    Ejnisman, Leandro; Wajnsztejn, Andre; Queiroz, Roberto Dantas; Ejnisman, Benno

    2013-01-01

    Stress fractures are common injuries in sports medicine. Among these fractures, femoral neck stress fractures frequently have a benign course, especially when it happens in the medial aspect of the neck. This case report describes a stress fracture of the medial aspect of the femoral neck that developed a complete fracture and underwent surgical fixation. PMID:23283621

  4. [Cervical fractures in autopsy records].

    PubMed

    Pankowski, Rafał; Wilmanowska, Anita; Gos, Tomasz; Smoczyński, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed the autopsy records of 1872 cases of death because of politrauma, gunshot wounds and suicidal hanging. The analysis included causes and frequency of cervical spine fractures, their most common localisation, architecture of bone destruction and their influence on cervical cord. The most common cause of cervical spine injury was motor vehicle accidents. We examined 82 specimens with traumatic fractures of cervical spine obtained from accident victims. About half of the injuries occurred in upper cervical spine. The most common fracture localisation was C2 with dens fracture as the most frequent injury. The most common spinal cord lesion was complete rupture mainly at the upper cervical spine level. PMID:14564791

  5. Fracture mechanics: Perspectives and directions

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, R.P.; Gangloff, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The present work includes twelve invited review papers with comprehensive descriptions of the challenges in six topical areas: analytical fracture mechanics, nonlinear and time-dependent fracture mechanics, microstructure and micromechanical modeling, fatigue crack propagation, environmentally assisted cracking, and fracture mechanics of nonmetals and new frontiers. Specific challenge areas include the analytical front, advanced heterogeneous materials, subcritical crack growth for both fatigue and sustained-load crack growth in deleterious environments at elevated temperatures, and problems of education. The book demonstrates that the existing fracture mechanics foundation is well positioned to meet these challenges over the next decades.

  6. BTEX biodegradation in fractured shale

    SciTech Connect

    O`Cleirigh, D.; Coryea, H.; Christopher, M.; Vaughn, C.

    1997-12-31

    A petroleum hydrocarbon groundwater plume was identified at a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) facility in Oklahoma. The affected area had an average BTEX concentration of 3.8 mg/L. Previous aquifer tests indicated preferential groundwater flow paths resulting from natural fractures present in the aquifer formation (primarily shale). A pneumatic fracturing pilot study was performed to evaluate the technology`s effectiveness in creating a more isotropic aquifer. As part of the study, pre-fracture/post-fracture pump tests were performed. Pre-fracture and post-fracture graphs confirmed the study`s hypothesis that pneumatic fracturing would eliminate preferential flow paths and increase groundwater yield. Based on the successful pneumatic fracturing test, an area within the petroleum hydrocarbon plume was fractured and a pilot-scale biodegradation system was operated for four months. The remediation system provided groundwater circulation amended with nutrients and oxygen. Results of the study indicated a significant decrease in BTEX concentrations between the injection well and the observation wells. By Day 113, the benzene concentration (0.044 mg/L) at one of the observation wells was less than the desired state cleanup goal of 0.05 mg/L.

  7. Postpartal sacral fracture without osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Rousière, M; Kahan, A; Job-Deslandre, C

    2001-02-01

    Stress fractures of the sacrum during pregnancy or the postpartum seem uncommon. We report a new case of nontrauma-related postpartal sacral fracture. Only four similar cases have been reported to date. The patient was 36 years of age and her fracture was diagnosed four weeks after her first delivery. Vitamin D levels were low, but there was no osteomalacia. Other standard laboratory tests were normal, as were absorptiometry measurements at the lumbar spine and femur. Rheumatologists should consider sacral fracture in pregnant or nursing patients with buttock pain. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic investigation of choice. PMID:11235785

  8. Solution structure of leptospiral LigA4 Big domain.

    PubMed

    Mei, Song; Zhang, Jiahai; Zhang, Xuecheng; Tu, Xiaoming

    2015-11-13

    Pathogenic Leptospiraspecies express immunoglobulin-like proteins which serve as adhesins to bind to the extracellular matrices of host cells. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein A (LigA), a surface exposed protein containing tandem repeats of bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, has been proved to be involved in the interaction of pathogenic Leptospira with mammalian host. In this study, the solution structure of the fourth Big domain of LigA (LigA4 Big domain) from Leptospira interrogans was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structure of LigA4 Big domain displays a similar bacterial immunoglobulin-like fold compared with other Big domains, implying some common structural aspects of Big domain family. On the other hand, it displays some structural characteristics significantly different from classic Ig-like domain. Furthermore, Stains-all assay and NMR chemical shift perturbation revealed the Ca(2+) binding property of LigA4 Big domain. PMID:26449456

  9. The big data-big model (BDBM) challenges in ecological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The field of ecology has become a big-data science in the past decades due to development of new sensors used in numerous studies in the ecological community. Many sensor networks have been established to collect data. For example, satellites, such as Terra and OCO-2 among others, have collected data relevant on global carbon cycle. Thousands of field manipulative experiments have been conducted to examine feedback of terrestrial carbon cycle to global changes. Networks of observations, such as FLUXNET, have measured land processes. In particular, the implementation of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), which is designed to network different kinds of sensors at many locations over the nation, will generate large volumes of ecological data every day. The raw data from sensors from those networks offer an unprecedented opportunity for accelerating advances in our knowledge of ecological processes, educating teachers and students, supporting decision-making, testing ecological theory, and forecasting changes in ecosystem services. Currently, ecologists do not have the infrastructure in place to synthesize massive yet heterogeneous data into resources for decision support. It is urgent to develop an ecological forecasting system that can make the best use of multiple sources of data to assess long-term biosphere change and anticipate future states of ecosystem services at regional and continental scales. Forecasting relies on big models that describe major processes that underlie complex system dynamics. Ecological system models, despite great simplification of the real systems, are still complex in order to address real-world problems. For example, Community Land Model (CLM) incorporates thousands of processes related to energy balance, hydrology, and biogeochemistry. Integration of massive data from multiple big data sources with complex models has to tackle Big Data-Big Model (BDBM) challenges. Those challenges include interoperability of multiple

  10. Fracturing Experiment 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Donald W.; Keppler, H.; Kuriyagawa, Michio; Murphy, Hugh D.; Walter, Fritz

    1982-09-27

    Experiment 2016 was conducted on June 20 and 21, 1982. This experiment represented our third attempt at a fracture connection between the bottom of hole EE-2, and the openhole section of EE-3. The primary objective of Experiment 2016 was to hydraulically connect holes EE-2 and EE-3, utilizing a greater amount of injected fluid--1.3 million gallons were pumped into EE-2--and somewhat higher injection rates up to 35 BPM (as compared to 30 BPM during Expt. 2012).

  11. [Rehabilitation after periprosthetic fractures].

    PubMed

    Schmitt-Sody, M; Valle, C

    2016-03-01

    Periprosthetic fractures of the upper and lower extremities not only represent a challenge for surgeons but also for the rehabilitation team. The sometimes multimorbid patients have often undergone several surgical operations and need special planning and cooperation between an interdisciplinary team in order to achieve the best possible functional result and social reintegration. A structured rehabilitation planning after surgical treatment is a prerequisite for the patient to return to life as normal as possible. The aim is always rapid mobilization to achieve independence in activities of daily living. Special attention should be paid to postoperative immobilization and weight bearing. PMID:26923872

  12. The good body: when big is better.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, C M

    1991-09-01

    An important cultural question is, "What is a 'good'--desirable, beautiful, impressive--body?" The answers are legion; here I examine why bigger bodies represent survival skill, and how this power symbolism is embodied by behaviors that guide larger persons toward the top of the social hierarchy. bigness is a complex concept comprising tallness, boniness, muscularity and fattiness. Data show that most people worldwide want to be big--both tall and fat. Those who achieve the ideal are disproportionately among the society's most socially powerful. In the food-secure West, fascination with power and the body has not waned, but has been redefined such that thinness is desired. This apparent anomaly is resolved by realizing that thinness in the midst of abundance--as long as one is also tall and muscular--still projects the traditional message of power, and brings such social boons as upward mobility. PMID:1961102

  13. Risk externalities and too big to fail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleb, Nassim N.; Tapiero, Charles S.

    2010-09-01

    This paper establishes the case for a fallacy of economies of scale in large aggregate institutions and the effects of scale risks. The problem of rogue trading and excessive risk taking is taken as a case example. Assuming (conservatively) that a firm exposure and losses are limited to its capital while external losses are unbounded, we establish a condition for a firm not to be allowed to be too big to fail. In such a case, the expected external losses second derivative with respect to the firm capital at risk is positive. Examples and analytical results are obtained based on simplifying assumptions and focusing exclusively on the risk externalities that firms too big to fail can have.

  14. Big bang nucleosynthesis - Theories and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesgaard, A. M.; Steigman, G.

    The evidence in support of the nearly universally accepted hot big bang model of cosmology is almost exclusively related to the blackbody spectrum of the microwave background. Primordial nucleosynthesis provides a unique opportunity to test the assumptions of the 'standard' model. The present review provides a summary of the predictions of the standard model, taking into account also a critical evaluation of the implications of the current observational data. The standard hot big bang model is discussed, taking into account the epoch of nucleosynthesis, the primordial abundances, uncertainties in the predicted abundances, and possible variations on the theme of the standard model. The observed abundances are considered, giving attention to destruction and production during galactic evolution, deuterium, He-3, He-4, lithium, and an abundance summary. Predicted and observed abundances are compared, and cosmological constraints are examined.

  15. 'Big Crater' in 360-degree panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crater dubbed 'Big Crater', approximately 2200 meters (7200 feet)away was imaged by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) as part of a 360-degree color panorama, taken over sols 8, 9 and 10. 'Big Crater' is actually a relatively small Martian crater to the southeast of the Mars Pathfinder landing site. It is 1500 meters (4900 feet) in diameter, or about the same size as Meteor Crater in Arizona.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  16. Permeability damage to natural fractures caused by fracturing fluid polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, B.L.; Sattler, A.R.; Maloney, D.R.; Raible, C.J.

    1988-04-01

    Formation damage studies using artificially fractured, low-permeability sandstone cores indicate that viscosified fracturing fluids can severely restrict gas flow through these types of narrow fractures. These studies were performed in support of the Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment (MWX). Extensive geological and production evaluations at the MWX site indicate that the presence of a natural fracture system is largely responsible for unstimulated gas production. The laboratory formation damage studies were designed to examine changes in cracked core permeability to gas caused by fracturing fluid residues introduced into such narrow fractures during fluid leakoff. Polysaccharide polymers caused significant reduction (up to 95%) to gas flow through cracked cores. Polymer fracturing fluid gels used in this study included hydroxypropyl guar, hydroxyethyl cellulose, and xanthan gum. In contrast, polyacrylamide gels caused little or no reduction in gas flow through cracked cores after liquid cleanup. Other components of fracturing fluids (surfactants, breakers, etc.) caused less damage to gas flows. Other factors affecting gas flow through cracked cores were investigated, including the effects of net confining stress and non-Darcy flow parameters. Results are related to some of the problems observed during the stimulation program conducted for the MWX. 24 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Livermore Big Trees Park: 1998 summary results

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G; MacQueen, D; Surano, K

    1999-08-13

    This report summarizes work conducted in 1998 by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to determine the extent and origin of plutonium at concentrations above background levels at Big Trees Park in the city of Livermore. This summary includes the project background and sections that explain the sampling, radiochemical and data analysis, and data interpretation. This report is a summary report only and is not intended as a rigorous technical or statistical analysis of the data.

  18. Dark radiation emerging after big bang nucleosynthesis?

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Willy; Meyers, Joel

    2011-03-15

    We show how recent data from observations of the cosmic microwave background may suggest the presence of additional radiation density which appeared after big bang nucleosynthesis. We propose a general scheme by which this radiation could be produced from the decay of nonrelativistic matter, we place constraints on the properties of such matter, and we give specific examples of scenarios in which this general scheme may be realized.

  19. Big Data Challenges for Large Radio Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Wagstaff, Kiri; Thompson, David; D'Addario, Larry; Navarro, Robert; Mattmann, Chris; Majid, Walid; Lazio, Joseph; Preston, Robert; Rebbapragada, Umaa

    2012-01-01

    Future large radio astronomy arrays, particularly the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be able to generate data at rates far higher than can be analyzed or stored affordably with current practices. This is, by definition, a "big data" problem, and requires an end-to-end solution if future radio arrays are to reach their full scientific potential. Similar data processing, transport, storage, and management challenges face next-generation facilities in many other fields.

  20. Big bang models in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craps, Ben

    2006-11-01

    These proceedings are based on lectures delivered at the 'RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories', CERN, 16 20 January 2006. The school was mainly aimed at PhD students and young postdocs. The lectures start with a brief introduction to spacetime singularities and the string theory resolution of certain static singularities. Then they discuss attempts to resolve cosmological singularities in string theory, mainly focusing on two specific examples: the Milne orbifold and the matrix big bang.

  1. Can big business save health care?

    PubMed

    Dunn, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Corporate America has decided to stop bellyaching about the cost and quality of the health care it helps buy for its employees. Now it's taking concrete action. Large employers such as Wal-Mart, Oracle, Cisco, BP America and many, many others are pressuring providers to meet performance standards, adopt information technology and transform the efficiency of their operations. Big Business wants value for its buck, and it's now putting money where its mouth is. PMID:17302135

  2. Funding big research with small money.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Joanne V; Koithan, Mary; Unruh, Lynn; Lundmark, Vicki

    2014-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that maybe successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives.With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools,and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives.In this article, the guest authors introduce crowd sourcing asa strategy for funding big research with small money. PMID:24853791

  3. Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.

  4. Sequential hydraulic fracturing of a subsurface formation

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, T.C. Jr.; Hale, M.W.; Sellers, J.R.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes a method for propagating a vertical hydraulic fracture in an earth formation surrounding a borehole wherein the original in-situ stresses favor a horizontal fracture. It comprises: pumping a first fracturing fluid into the formation at a first depth within the borehole so that a first fracturing pressure is applied to the formation by the first fracturing fluid to propagate a horizontal fracture as favored by the original in-situ stresses of the formation. The propagation of the horizontal fracture altering the original in-situ stresses in the formation; injecting a propping material into the horizontal fracture while maintaining the first fracturing pressure in the horizontal fracture in sufficient amount to prevent relaxation of the altered in-situ stresses in the formation after the pumping of the first fracturing fluid is terminated and the first fracturing pressure is removed; terminating the pumping of the first fracturing fluid into the horizontal fracture to remove the first fracturing pressure from the formation, pumping a second fracturing into the formation at a second depth within the borehole within the field of the altered in-situ stresses,; and terminating the pumping of the second fracturing fluid to the vertical fracture to remove the second fracturing pressure from the formation.

  5. Gravity-Driven Hydraulic Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Garagash, D.; Murdoch, L. C.; Robinowitz, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is motived by a new method for disposing of nuclear waste by injecting it as a dense slurry into a hydraulic fracture that grows downward to great enough depth to permanently isolate the waste. Disposing of nuclear waste using gravity-driven hydraulic fractures is mechanically similar to the upward growth of dikes filled with low density magma. A fundamental question in both applications is how the injected fluid controls the propagation dynamics and fracture geometry (depth and breadth) in three dimensions. Analog experiments in gelatin [e.g., Heimpel and Olson, 1994; Taisne and Tait, 2009] show that fracture breadth (the short horizontal dimension) remains nearly stationary when the process in the fracture "head" (where breadth is controlled) is dominated by solid toughness, whereas viscous fluid dissipation is dominant in the fracture tail. We model propagation of the resulting gravity-driven (buoyant or sinking), finger-like fracture of stationary breadth with slowly varying opening along the crack length. The elastic response to fluid loading in a horizontal cross-section is local and can be treated similar to the classical Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) model of hydraulic fracturing. The propagation condition for a finger-like crack is based on balancing the global energy release rate due to a unit crack extension with the rock fracture toughness. It allows us to relate the net fluid pressure at the tip to the fracture breadth and rock toughness. Unlike the PKN fracture, where breadth is known a priori, the final breadth of a finger-like fracture is a result of processes in the fracture head. Because the head is much more open than the tail, viscous pressure drop in the head can be neglected leading to a 3D analog of Weertman's hydrostatic pulse. This requires relaxing the local elasticity assumption of the PKN model in the fracture head. As a result, we resolve the breadth, and then match the viscosity-dominated tail with the 3-D, toughness

  6. Adapting bioinformatics curricula for big data.

    PubMed

    Greene, Anna C; Giffin, Kristine A; Greene, Casey S; Moore, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    Modern technologies are capable of generating enormous amounts of data that measure complex biological systems. Computational biologists and bioinformatics scientists are increasingly being asked to use these data to reveal key systems-level properties. We review the extent to which curricula are changing in the era of big data. We identify key competencies that scientists dealing with big data are expected to possess across fields, and we use this information to propose courses to meet these growing needs. While bioinformatics programs have traditionally trained students in data-intensive science, we identify areas of particular biological, computational and statistical emphasis important for this era that can be incorporated into existing curricula. For each area, we propose a course structured around these topics, which can be adapted in whole or in parts into existing curricula. In summary, specific challenges associated with big data provide an important opportunity to update existing curricula, but we do not foresee a wholesale redesign of bioinformatics training programs. PMID:25829469

  7. Navigating a Sea of Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkade, D.; Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Shepherd, A.; Allison, M. D.; Rauch, S.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Oceanographic research is evolving rapidly. New technologies, strategies, and related infrastructures have catalyzed a change in the nature of oceanographic data. Heterogeneous and complex data types can be produced and transferred at great speeds. This shift in volume, variety, and velocity of data produced has led to increased challenges in managing these Big Data. In addition, distributed research communities have greater needs for data quality control, discovery and public accessibility, and seamless integration for interdisciplinary study. Organizations charged with curating oceanographic data must also evolve to meet these needs and challenges, by employing new technologies and strategies. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created in 2006, to fulfill the data management needs of investigators funded by the NSF Ocean Sciences Biological and Chemical Sections and Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms and Ecosystems Program. Since its inception, the Office has had to modify internal systems and operations to address Big Data challenges to meet the needs of the ever-evolving oceanographic research community. Some enhancements include automated procedures replacing labor-intensive manual tasks, adoption of metadata standards facilitating machine client access, a geospatial interface and the use of Semantic Web technologies to increase data discovery and interoperability. This presentation will highlight some of the BCO-DMO advances that enable us to successfully fulfill our mission in a Big Data world.

  8. Bohmian quantization of the big rip

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto-Neto, Nelson; Pantoja, Diego Moraes

    2009-10-15

    It is shown in this paper that minisuperspace quantization of homogeneous and isotropic geometries with phantom scalar fields, when examined in the light of the Bohm-de Broglie interpretation of quantum mechanics, does not eliminate, in general, the classical big rip singularity present in the classical model. For some values of the Hamilton-Jacobi separation constant present in a class of quantum state solutions of the Wheeler-De Witt equation, the big rip can be either completely eliminated or may still constitute a future attractor for all expanding solutions. This is contrary to the conclusion presented in [M. P. Dabrowski, C. Kiefer, and B. Sandhofer, Phys. Rev. D 74, 044022 (2006).], using a different interpretation of the wave function, where the big rip singularity is completely eliminated ('smoothed out') through quantization, independently of such a separation constant and for all members of the above mentioned class of solutions. This is an example of the very peculiar situation where different interpretations of the same quantum state of a system are predicting different physical facts, instead of just giving different descriptions of the same observable facts: in fact, there is nothing more observable than the fate of the whole Universe.

  9. Adapting bioinformatics curricula for big data

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Anna C.; Giffin, Kristine A.; Greene, Casey S.

    2016-01-01

    Modern technologies are capable of generating enormous amounts of data that measure complex biological systems. Computational biologists and bioinformatics scientists are increasingly being asked to use these data to reveal key systems-level properties. We review the extent to which curricula are changing in the era of big data. We identify key competencies that scientists dealing with big data are expected to possess across fields, and we use this information to propose courses to meet these growing needs. While bioinformatics programs have traditionally trained students in data-intensive science, we identify areas of particular biological, computational and statistical emphasis important for this era that can be incorporated into existing curricula. For each area, we propose a course structured around these topics, which can be adapted in whole or in parts into existing curricula. In summary, specific challenges associated with big data provide an important opportunity to update existing curricula, but we do not foresee a wholesale redesign of bioinformatics training programs. PMID:25829469

  10. Bohmian quantization of the big rip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto-Neto, Nelson; Pantoja, Diego Moraes

    2009-10-01

    It is shown in this paper that minisuperspace quantization of homogeneous and isotropic geometries with phantom scalar fields, when examined in the light of the Bohm-de Broglie interpretation of quantum mechanics, does not eliminate, in general, the classical big rip singularity present in the classical model. For some values of the Hamilton-Jacobi separation constant present in a class of quantum state solutions of the Wheeler-De Witt equation, the big rip can be either completely eliminated or may still constitute a future attractor for all expanding solutions. This is contrary to the conclusion presented in [M. P. Dabrowski, C. Kiefer, and B. Sandhofer, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 74, 044022 (2006).10.1103/PhysRevD.74.044022], using a different interpretation of the wave function, where the big rip singularity is completely eliminated (“smoothed out”) through quantization, independently of such a separation constant and for all members of the above mentioned class of solutions. This is an example of the very peculiar situation where different interpretations of the same quantum state of a system are predicting different physical facts, instead of just giving different descriptions of the same observable facts: in fact, there is nothing more observable than the fate of the whole Universe.

  11. Buckling analysis of Big Dee Vacuum Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Lightner, S.; Gallix, R.

    1983-12-01

    A simplified three-dimensional shell buckling analysis of the GA Technologies Inc., Big Dee Vacuum Vessel (V/V) was performed using the finite element program TRICO. A coarse-mesh linear elastic model, which accommodated the support boundary conditions, was used to determine the buckling mode shape under a uniform external pressure. Using this buckling mode shape, refined models were used to calculate the linear buckling load (P/sub crit/) more accurately. Several different designs of the Big Dee V/V were considered in this analysis. The supports for the V/V were equally-spaced radial pins at the outer diameter of the mid-plane. For all the cases considered, the buckling mode was axisymmetric in the toroidal direction. Therefore, it was possible to use only a small angular sector of a toric shell for the refined analysis. P/sub crit/ for the Big Dee is about 60 atm for a uniform external pressure. Also investigated in this analysis were the effects of geometrical imperfections and non-uniform pressure distributions.

  12. Osteoporosis, Fractures, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that osteoporosis and diabetes are prevalent diseases with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of bone fractures. In type 1 diabetes, the risk is increased by ∼6 times and is due to low bone mass. Despite increased bone mineral density (BMD), in patients with type 2 diabetes the risk is increased (which is about twice the risk in the general population) due to the inferior quality of bone. Bone fragility in type 2 diabetes, which is not reflected by bone mineral density, depends on bone quality deterioration rather than bone mass reduction. Thus, surrogate markers and examination methods are needed to replace the insensitivity of BMD in assessing fracture risks of T2DM patients. One of these methods can be trabecular bone score. The aim of the paper is to present the present state of scientific knowledge about the osteoporosis risk in diabetic patient. The review also discusses the possibility of problematic using the study conclusions in real clinical practice. PMID:25050121

  13. Fracture detection and mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.E.; Iovenitti, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    Because the costs of drilling, completing, and testing a well can be extremely high, it is important to develop better tools and methods for locating high permeability zones prior to drilling, and to develop better tools and methods for identifying and characterizing major fracture zones during the drilling and well testing stages. At the recommendation of the LBL Industry Review Panel on Geothermal Reservoir Technology, we organized and convened a one-day workshop this past July to discuss various aspects of DOE's current and planned activities in fracture detection, to review the geothermal industry's near-term and long-term research needs, to determine the priority of those needs, to disseminate to industry the status of research in progress, and to discuss the possibility of future joint research between industry and DOE. In this paper we present a brief overview of the workshop from the perspective of those who participated in it and provided us with written comments to a questionnaire that was distributed.

  14. Fracture Detection and Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Norman E.; Iovenitti, Joseph L.

    1986-01-21

    Because the costs of drilling, completing, and testing a well can be extremely high, it is important to develop better tools and methods for locating high permeability zones prior to drilling, and to develop better tools and methods for identifying and characterizing major fracture zones during the drilling and well testing stages. At the recommendation of the LBL Industry Review Panel on Geothermal Reservoir Technology, we organized and convened a one-day workshop this past July to discuss various aspects of DOE's current and planned activities in fracture detection, to review the geothermal industry's near-term and long-term research needs, to determine the priority of those needs, to disseminate to industry the status of research in progress, and to discuss the possibility of future joint research between industry and DOE. In this paper we present a brief overview of the workshop from the perspective of those who participated in it and provided us with written comments to a questionnaire that was distributed.

  15. Fracture toughness of anisotropic graphites

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.R.; Kehne, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Fracture toughness measurements have been made at 0, 30, 45, 60, and 90/sup 0/ from the extrusion axis on a reasonably anisotropic graphite, grade AGOT. It was found that the fracture toughness did not vary appreciably with orientation. An observed variation in strength was found to be the result of defect orientation.

  16. Electrothermal fracturing of tensile specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blinn, H. O.; Hanks, J. G.; Perkins, H. P.

    1970-01-01

    Pulling device consisting of structural tube, connecting rod, spring-loaded nuts, loading rod, heating element, and three bulkheads fractures tensile specimens. Alternate heating and cooling increases tensile loading by increments until fracturing occurs. Load cell or strain gage, applied to pulling rod, determines forces applied.

  17. Fracture mechanisms and fracture control in composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wone-Chul

    Four basic failure modes--delamination, delamination buckling of composite sandwich panels, first-ply failure in cross-ply laminates, and compression failure--are analyzed using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and the J-integral method. Structural failures, including those at the micromechanical level, are investigated with the aid of the models developed, and the critical strains for crack propagation for each mode are obtained. In the structural fracture analyses area, the fracture control schemes for delamination in a composite rib stiffener and delamination buckling in composite sandwich panels subjected to in-plane compression are determined. The critical fracture strains were predicted with the aid of LEFM for delamination and the J-integral method for delamination buckling. The use of toughened matrix systems has been recommended for improved damage tolerant design for delamination crack propagation. An experimental study was conducted to determine the onset of delamination buckling in composite sandwich panel containing flaws. The critical fracture loads computed using the proposed theoretical model and a numerical computational scheme closely followed the experimental measurements made on sandwich panel specimens of graphite/epoxy faceskins and aluminum honeycomb core with varying faceskin thicknesses and core sizes. Micromechanical models of fracture in composites are explored to predict transverse cracking of cross-ply laminates and compression fracture of unidirectional composites. A modified shear lag model which takes into account the important role of interlaminar shear zones between the 0 degree and 90 degree piles in cross-ply laminate is proposed and criteria for transverse cracking have been developed. For compressive failure of unidirectional composites, pre-existing defects play an important role. Using anisotropic elasticity, the stress state around a defect under a remotely applied compressive load is obtained. The experimentally

  18. Method of evaluating subsurface fracturing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Soliman, M.Y.

    1989-06-06

    This patent describes a method of determining parameters of a subsurface operation fracturing an earth formation, comprising: fracturing the formation with a fracturing fluid; determining a first pressure decline value representative of the observed pressure decline of the fractured formation over a time interval. The first pressure decline value functionally related to the properties of the fracturing fluid during the fracturing of the formation; determining a second pressure decline value representative of the pressure decline which should have been observed if the fracturing fluid was incompressible; and determining the parameters of the fracturing operation in response to the pressure decline value.

  19. Hydraulic fracturing of a shallow subsurface formation

    SciTech Connect

    Uhri, D.C.

    1987-12-22

    A method for propagating a vertical hydraulic fracture in an earth formation surrounding a borehole where the original in-situ stresses favor a horizontal fracture is described comprising the steps of: (a) firstly supplying fracturing fluid to the formation at a first depth within the borehole to propagate a horizontal fracture favored by the original in-situ stresses of the formation, and (b) secondly supplying fracturing fluid to the formation at a second depth within the borehole, while maintaining pressure in the horizontal fracture, to propagate a vertical fracture as favored by the in-situ stresses as altered by the propagating of the horizontal fracture.

  20. Management of atrophic mandible fractures.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Matthew J; Haug, Richard H; Christensen, Bryan S; Aldridge, Eron

    2009-05-01

    Traumatic facial fractures that were once rarely encountered now present with increasing frequency in the elderly population. Included in this group of fractures are those of the atrophic edentulous mandible. As patients age and become edentulous, atrophy of the mandibular alveolar ridges and adjacent basal bone reduces bony surface area, bone density, and blood supply, making the mandible more brittle and increasing the likelihood of mandibular fracture during a traumatic event. Surgical treatment of these fractures has become more predictable and less morbid. However, because these fractures present so infrequently, many surgeons lack the relevant experience in handling them, and thus find the reduction and fixation of such injuries difficult. A number of techniques have been employed to treat this injury. This article reviews the more common modalities and presents updates on accepted surgical treatments. PMID:19348982

  1. Atypical fractures, a biased perspective.

    PubMed

    Aspenberg, Per

    2016-01-01

    When stress fractures started to show up in the femurs of elderly ladies, it was soon evident that bisphosphonate use lay behind, and the absolute risk increase due to bisphosphonate use was reasonably well estimated already in 2008. Thereafter followed a period of confusion: the term atypical fracture was introduced, with a definition so vague that the true stress fractures tended to disappear in a cloud of ambiguity. This cast doubt on the association with bisphosphonates. The association was then re-established by large epidemiological studies based on radiographic adjudication. Atypical fractures are largely caused by bisphosphonates. With a correct indication, bisphosphonates prevent many more fractures than they cause, at least during the first years of use. With an incorrect indication they are likely to cause more harm than good. PMID:26768286

  2. Fracture technology for brittle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.

    1988-01-01

    Ceramics materials have the potential for use in high-temperature, fuel-efficient engines. However, because these materials are brittle, their fracture characteristics must be well documented prior to their application. Thus Lewis is working to understand the fracture and strength properties of brittle ceramic and ceramic matrix materials. An understanding of fracture properties aids both designers who are attempting to design high-temperature structures and materials scientists who seek to design more temperature-resistant materials. Both analytical and experimental approaches to fracture analysis are being taken. Methods for testing fracture toughness, crack growth resistance, and strength are being developed. The failure mechanisms at both room and elevated temperatures are also being investigated. Such investigations aid materials scientists in developing better high-temperature materials. Of concern is the anisotropy of ceramic materials and the experimental verification of ceramic design codes that will allow brittle material behavior to be accurately predicted at high temperature.

  3. Distal clavicle fractures in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Labronici, Pedro José; da Silva, Ricardo Rodrigues; Franco, Marcos Vinícius Viana; Labronici, Gustavo José; Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Franco, José Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze fractures of the distal clavicle region in pediatric patients. Methods Ten patients between the ages of five to eleven years (mean of 7.3 years) were observed. Nine patients were treated conservatively and one surgically. All the fractures were classified using the Nenopoulos classification system. Results All the fractures consolidated without complications. Conservative treatment was used for nine patients, of whom three were in group IIIB, three IIb, two IIa and one IV. The only patient who was treated surgically was a female patient of eleven years of age with a group IV fracture. Conclusion The treatment indication for distal fractures of the clavicle in children should be based on the patient's age and the displacement of the fragments. PMID:26962489

  4. Test-Free Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Computational simulation results can give the prediction of damage growth and progression and fracture toughness of composite structures. The experimental data from literature provide environmental effects on the fracture behavior of metallic or fiber composite structures. However, the traditional experimental methods to analyze the influence of the imposed conditions are expensive and time consuming. This research used the CODSTRAN code to model the temperature effects, scaling effects and the loading effects of fiberbraided composite specimens with and without fiber-optic sensors on the damage initiation and energy release rates. The load-displacement relationship and fracture toughness assessment approach is compared with the test results from literature and it is verified that the computational simulation, with the use of established material modeling and finite element modules, adequately tracks the changes of fracture toughness and subsequent fracture propagation for any fiberbraided composite structure due to the change of fiber orientations, presence of large diameter optical fibers, and any loading conditions.

  5. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  6. Fracture behavior of human molars.

    PubMed

    Keown, Amanda J; Lee, James J-W; Bush, Mark B

    2012-12-01

    Despite the durability of human teeth, which are able to withstand repeated loading while maintaining form and function, they are still susceptible to fracture. We focus here on longitudinal fracture in molar teeth-channel-like cracks that run along the enamel sidewall of the tooth between the gum line (cemento-enamel junction-CEJ) and the occlusal surface. Such fractures can often be painful and necessitate costly restorative work. The following study describes fracture experiments made on molar teeth of humans in which the molars are placed under axial compressive load using a hard indenting plate in order to induce longitudinal cracks in the enamel. Observed damage modes include fractures originating in the occlusal region ('radial-median cracks') and fractures emanating from the margin of the enamel in the region of the CEJ ('margin cracks'), as well as 'spalling' of enamel (the linking of longitudinal cracks). The loading conditions that govern fracture behavior in enamel are reported and observations made of the evolution of fracture as the load is increased. Relatively low loads were required to induce observable crack initiation-approximately 100 N for radial-median cracks and 200 N for margin cracks-both of which are less than the reported maximum biting force on a single molar tooth of several hundred Newtons. Unstable crack growth was observed to take place soon after and occurred at loads lower than those calculated by the current fracture models. Multiple cracks were observed on a single cusp, their interactions influencing crack growth behavior. The majority of the teeth tested in this study were noted to exhibit margin cracks prior to compression testing, which were apparently formed during the functional lifetime of the tooth. Such teeth were still able to withstand additional loading prior to catastrophic fracture, highlighting the remarkable damage containment capabilities of the natural tooth structure. PMID:22956116

  7. Probabilistic fracture finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Lua, Y. J.

    1991-01-01

    The Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics (PFM) is a promising method for estimating the fatigue life and inspection cycles for mechanical and structural components. The Probability Finite Element Method (PFEM), which is based on second moment analysis, has proved to be a promising, practical approach to handle problems with uncertainties. As the PFEM provides a powerful computational tool to determine first and second moment of random parameters, the second moment reliability method can be easily combined with PFEM to obtain measures of the reliability of the structural system. The method is also being applied to fatigue crack growth. Uncertainties in the material properties of advanced materials such as polycrystalline alloys, ceramics, and composites are commonly observed from experimental tests. This is mainly attributed to intrinsic microcracks, which are randomly distributed as a result of the applied load and the residual stress.

  8. Data management by using R: big data clinical research series

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) system has been widely used in clinical practice. Instead of traditional record system by hand writing and recording, the EMR makes big data clinical research feasible. The most important feature of big data research is its real-world setting. Furthermore, big data research can provide all aspects of information related to healthcare. However, big data research requires some skills on data management, which however, is always lacking in the curriculum of medical education. This greatly hinders doctors from testing their clinical hypothesis by using EMR. To make ends meet, a series of articles introducing data management techniques are put forward to guide clinicians to big data clinical research. The present educational article firstly introduces some basic knowledge on R language, followed by some data management skills on creating new variables, recoding variables and renaming variables. These are very basic skills and may be used in every project of big data research. PMID:26697463

  9. Personality and job performance: the Big Five revisited.

    PubMed

    Hurtz, G M; Donovan, J J

    2000-12-01

    Prior meta-analyses investigating the relation between the Big 5 personality dimensions and job performance have all contained a threat to construct validity, in that much of the data included within these analyses was not derived from actual Big 5 measures. In addition, these reviews did not address the relations between the Big 5 and contextual performance. Therefore, the present study sought to provide a meta-analytic estimate of the criterion-related validity of explicit Big 5 measures for predicting job performance and contextual performance. The results for job performance closely paralleled 2 of the previous meta-analyses, whereas analyses with contextual performance showed more complex relations among the Big 5 and performance. A more critical interpretation of the Big 5-performance relationship is presented, and suggestions for future research aimed at enhancing the validity of personality predictors are provided. PMID:11125652

  10. Early history of scapular fractures.

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, Jan; Kozánek, Michal; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2016-01-01

    The first to use the term Scapula was Vesalius (1514-1564) and thus it has remained ever since. Probably the oldest injured scapula, from 250 million years ago, was described by Chinese authors of a skeletal examination of a fossilised remains of a dinosaur Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis. In humans, the oldest known scapular fractures date back to the prehistoric and early historic times. In ancient times, a fracture of acromion was described in the treatises of Hippocrates. Early modern history of the treatment of scapular fractures is closely interlinked with the history of the French surgery. The first to point out the existence of these fractures were Petit, Du Verney and Desault in the 18th century. The first study devoted solely to scapular fractures was published by Traugott Karl August Vogt in 1799. Thomas Callaway published in 1849 an extensive dissertation on injuries to the shoulder girdle, in which he discussed a number of cases known at that time. The first radiograph of a scapular fracture was published by Petty in 1907. Mayo Robson (1884), Lambotte (1913) and Lane (1914) were pioneers in the surgical treatment of these fractures, followed in 1923 by the French surgeons Lenormat, Dujarrier and Basset. The first internal fixation of the glenoid fossa, including a radiograph, was published by Fischer in 1939. PMID:26133287

  11. Fracture toughness anisotropy in shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Michael R.; Meredith, Philip G.; Brantut, Nicolas; Crawford, Brian R.

    2016-03-01

    The use of hydraulic fracturing to recover shale gas has focused attention on the fundamental fracture properties of gas-bearing shales, but there remains a paucity of available experimental data on their mechanical and physical properties. Such shales are strongly anisotropic, so that their fracture propagation trajectories depend on the interaction between their anisotropic mechanical properties and the anisotropic in situ stress field in the shallow crust. Here we report fracture toughness measurements on Mancos shale determined in all three principal fracture orientations: Divider, Short Transverse, and Arrester, using a modified short-rod methodology. Experimental results for a range of other sedimentary and carbonate rocks are also reported for comparison purposes. Significant anisotropy is observed in shale fracture toughness measurements at ambient conditions, with values, as high as 0.72 MPa m1/2 where the crack plane is normal to the bedding, and values as low as 0.21 MPa m1/2 where the crack plane is parallel to the bedding. For cracks propagating nonparallel to bedding, we observe a tendency for deviation toward the bedding-parallel orientation. Applying a maximum energy release rate criterion, we determined the conditions under which such deviations are more or less likely to occur under more generalized mixed-mode loading conditions. We find for Mancos shale that the fracture should deviate toward the plane with lowest toughness regardless of the loading conditions.

  12. String Theoretic Toy Models of the Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelson, Jeremy

    2006-03-01

    Recently, examples of toy cosmologies have been found that are exact solutions of String Theory. These solutions have the feature that the theoretical framework permits reliable calculation arbitrarily close to the big bang singularity. Thus one can understand both the big bang, and late time physics. I will describe these toy cosmologies, and how they fit into String Theory's chains of equivalences between gravitational and nongravitational theories. These equivalences are the means by which one theoretically probes the big bang.

  13. Big Impacts and Transient Oceans on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K. J.; Korycansky, D. G.; Nixon, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the thermal consequences of very big impacts on Titan [1]. Titan's thick atmosphere and volatile-rich surface cause it to respond to big impacts in a somewhat Earth-like manner. Here we construct a simple globally-averaged model that tracks the flow of energy through the environment in the weeks, years, and millenia after a big comet strikes Titan. The model Titan is endowed with 1.4 bars of N2 and 0.07 bars of CH4, methane lakes, a water ice crust, and enough methane underground to saturate the regolith to the surface. We assume that half of the impact energy is immediately available to the atmosphere and surface while the other half is buried at the site of the crater and is unavailable on time scales of interest. The atmosphere and surface are treated as isothermal. We make the simplifying assumptions that the crust is everywhere as methane saturated as it was at the Huygens landing site, that the concentration of methane in the regolith is the same as it is at the surface, and that the crust is made of water ice. Heat flow into and out of the crust is approximated by step-functions. If the impact is great enough, ice melts. The meltwater oceans cool to the atmosphere conductively through an ice lid while at the base melting their way into the interior, driven down in part through Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities between the dense water and the warm ice. Topography, CO2, and hydrocarbons other than methane are ignored. Methane and ethane clathrate hydrates are discussed quantitatively but not fully incorporated into the model.

  14. Observational hints on the Big Bounce

    SciTech Connect

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Kurek, Aleksandra; Szydłowski, Marek; Kamionka, Michał E-mail: kamionka@astro.uni.wroc.pl E-mail: uoszydlo@cyf-kr.edu.pl

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we study possible observational consequences of the bouncing cosmology. We consider a model where a phase of inflation is preceded by a cosmic bounce. While we consider in this paper only that the bounce is due to loop quantum gravity, most of the results presented here can be applied for different bouncing cosmologies. We concentrate on the scenario where the scalar field, as the result of contraction of the universe, is driven from the bottom of the potential well. The field is amplified, and finally the phase of the standard slow-roll inflation is realized. Such an evolution modifies the standard inflationary spectrum of perturbations by the additional oscillations and damping on the large scales. We extract the parameters of the model from the observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation. In particular, the value of inflaton mass is equal to m = (1.7±0.6)·10{sup 13} GeV. In our considerations we base on the seven years of observations made by the WMAP satellite. We propose the new observational consistency check for the phase of slow-roll inflation. We investigate the conditions which have to be fulfilled to make the observations of the Big Bounce effects possible. We translate them to the requirements on the parameters of the model and then put the observational constraints on the model. Based on assumption usually made in loop quantum cosmology, the Barbero-Immirzi parameter was shown to be constrained by γ < 1100 from the cosmological observations. We have compared the Big Bounce model with the standard Big Bang scenario and showed that the present observational data is not informative enough to distinguish these models.

  15. Big Data Analytics for Prostate Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Coates, James; Souhami, Luis; El Naqa, Issam

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a first-line treatment option for localized prostate cancer and radiation-induced normal tissue damage are often the main limiting factor for modern radiotherapy regimens. Conversely, under-dosing of target volumes in an attempt to spare adjacent healthy tissues limits the likelihood of achieving local, long-term control. Thus, the ability to generate personalized data-driven risk profiles for radiotherapy outcomes would provide valuable prognostic information to help guide both clinicians and patients alike. Big data applied to radiation oncology promises to deliver better understanding of outcomes by harvesting and integrating heterogeneous data types, including patient-specific clinical parameters, treatment-related dose–volume metrics, and biological risk factors. When taken together, such variables make up the basis for a multi-dimensional space (the “RadoncSpace”) in which the presented modeling techniques search in order to identify significant predictors. Herein, we review outcome modeling and big data-mining techniques for both tumor control and radiotherapy-induced normal tissue effects. We apply many of the presented modeling approaches onto a cohort of hypofractionated prostate cancer patients taking into account different data types and a large heterogeneous mix of physical and biological parameters. Cross-validation techniques are also reviewed for the refinement of the proposed framework architecture and checking individual model performance. We conclude by considering advanced modeling techniques that borrow concepts from big data analytics, such as machine learning and artificial intelligence, before discussing the potential future impact of systems radiobiology approaches. PMID:27379211

  16. Big Data Analytics for Prostate Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Coates, James; Souhami, Luis; El Naqa, Issam

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a first-line treatment option for localized prostate cancer and radiation-induced normal tissue damage are often the main limiting factor for modern radiotherapy regimens. Conversely, under-dosing of target volumes in an attempt to spare adjacent healthy tissues limits the likelihood of achieving local, long-term control. Thus, the ability to generate personalized data-driven risk profiles for radiotherapy outcomes would provide valuable prognostic information to help guide both clinicians and patients alike. Big data applied to radiation oncology promises to deliver better understanding of outcomes by harvesting and integrating heterogeneous data types, including patient-specific clinical parameters, treatment-related dose-volume metrics, and biological risk factors. When taken together, such variables make up the basis for a multi-dimensional space (the "RadoncSpace") in which the presented modeling techniques search in order to identify significant predictors. Herein, we review outcome modeling and big data-mining techniques for both tumor control and radiotherapy-induced normal tissue effects. We apply many of the presented modeling approaches onto a cohort of hypofractionated prostate cancer patients taking into account different data types and a large heterogeneous mix of physical and biological parameters. Cross-validation techniques are also reviewed for the refinement of the proposed framework architecture and checking individual model performance. We conclude by considering advanced modeling techniques that borrow concepts from big data analytics, such as machine learning and artificial intelligence, before discussing the potential future impact of systems radiobiology approaches. PMID:27379211

  17. Fracture healing in osteoporotic bone.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wing Hoi; Miclau, Theodore; Chow, Simon Kwoon-Ho; Yang, Frank F; Alt, Volker

    2016-06-01

    As the world population rises, osteoporotic fracture is an emerging global threat to the well-being of elderly patients. The process of fracture healing by intramembranous ossification or/and endochondral ossification involve many well-orchestrated events including the signaling, recruitment and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during the early phase; formation of a hard callus and extracellular matrix, angiogenesis and revascularization during the mid-phase; and finally callus remodeling at the late phase of fracture healing. Through clinical and animal research, many of these factors are shown to be impaired in osteoporotic bone. Animal studies related to post-menopausal estrogen deficient osteoporosis (type I) have shown healing to be prolonged with decreased levels of MSCs and decreased levels of angiogenesis. Moreover, the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) was shown to be delayed in ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic fracture. This might be related to the observed difference in mechanical sensitivity between normal and osteoporotic bones, which requires further experiments to elucidate. In mice fracture models related to senile osteoporosis (type II), it was observed that chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation were impaired; and that transplantation of juvenile bone marrow would result in enhanced callus formation. Other factors related to angiogenesis and vasculogenesis have also been noted to be impaired in aged models, affecting the degradation of cartilaginous matrixes and vascular invasion; the result is changes in matrix composition and growth factors concentrations that ultimately impairs healing during age-related osteoporosis. Most osteoporotic related fractures occur at metaphyseal sites clinically, and reports have indicated that differences exist between diaphyseal and metaphyseal fractures. An animal model that satisfies three main criteria (metaphyseal region, plate fixation, osteoporosis) is suggested for future research for

  18. Stress fractures and bone pain

    SciTech Connect

    Groshar, D.; Even-Sapir, E.; Lam, M.; Israel, O.; Front, D.

    1984-01-01

    Stress fractures result from an unusual repetitive physical activity causing absorption of bone in excess of repair and bone formation. This leads to the weakening of the bone and subsequently to a fracture. It is a benign condition that if recognized in time does not need any treatment besides rest. However, if diagnosis is not made and physical activity continues it may result in severe injury to the bone and a frank fracture may result. Pain is the typical clinical feature and bone scintigraphy, being more sensitive than radiography, is done to establish early diagnosis. The presence of asymptomatic sites of abnormal bone uptake typical of stress fracture in which pain appeared only about 2 weeks after scintigraphy, drew the authors' attention to the question of how close is the relationship between stress fractures and bone pain. Sixty-four military recruits diagnosed as suffering from stress fracture were investigated in order to correlate sites with abnormal uptake of Tc-99m MDP on bone scintigraphy with sites of local pain. In 37 (58%) subjects multiple sites of abnormal uptake were recognised. Of 123 sites of abnormal uptake, 31 (25%) were asymptomatic. In three patients bone pain appeared at the site of the abnormal uptake two weeks after scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy appears to be more sensitive than bone pain in the diagnosis of stress fractures. The osteoblastic activity which manifests itself by abnormal uptake appears in some cases earlier than the pain caused by the fracture. Present findings may suggest that under certain circumstances, in a population prone to stress fracture, bone scan should be considered as a screening method.

  19. Nuclear Receptors, RXR, and the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ronald M; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-03-27

    Isolation of genes encoding the receptors for steroids, retinoids, vitamin D, and thyroid hormone and their structural and functional analysis revealed an evolutionarily conserved template for nuclear hormone receptors. This discovery sparked identification of numerous genes encoding related proteins, termed orphan receptors. Characterization of these orphan receptors and, in particular, of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) positioned nuclear receptors at the epicenter of the "Big Bang" of molecular endocrinology. This Review provides a personal perspective on nuclear receptors and explores their integrated and coordinated signaling networks that are essential for multicellular life, highlighting the RXR heterodimer and its associated ligands and transcriptional mechanism. PMID:24679540

  20. Probing the Big Bang with LEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that LEP probes the Big Bang in two significant ways: (1) nucleosynthesis, and (2) dark matter constraints. In the first case, LEP verifies the cosmological standard model prediction on the number of neutrino types, thus strengthening the conclusion that the cosmological baryon density is approximately 6 percent of the critical value. In the second case, LEP shows that the remaining non-baryonic cosmological matter must be somewhat more massive and/or more weakly interacting than the favorite non-baryonic dark matter candidates of a few years ago.

  1. np -> d gamma for big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiunn-Wei Chen; Martin J. Savage

    1999-12-01

    The cross section from np -> dy is calculated at energies relevant to big-bang nucleosynthesis using the recently developed effective field theory that describes the two nucleon sector. The E1 amplitude is computed up to N{sup 3}LO and depends only upon nucleon-nucleon phase shift data. In contrast, the M1 contribution is determined by the cross section for cold neutron capture. The uncertainty in the calculation for nucleon energies up to E{approx}1 MeV is estimated to be <= 4%.

  2. The Next Big Thing - Eric Haseltine

    ScienceCinema

    Eric Haseltine

    2010-01-08

    Eric Haseltine, Haseltine Partners president and former chief of Walt Disney Imagineering, presented "The Next Big Thing," on Sept. 11, at the ORNL. He described the four "early warning signs" that a scientific breakthrough is imminent, and then suggested practical ways to turn these insights into breakthrough innovations. Haseltine is former director of research at the National Security Agency and associate director for science and technology for the director of National Intelligence, former executive vice president of Walt Disney Imagineering and director of engineering for Hughes Aircraft. He has 15 patents in optics, special effects and electronic media, and more than 100 publications in science and technical journals, the web and Discover Magazine.

  3. Pre - big bang inflation requires fine tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Michael S.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    1997-10-01

    The pre-big-bang cosmology inspired by superstring theories has been suggested as an alternative to slow-roll inflation. We analyze, in both the Jordan and Einstein frames, the effect of spatial curvature on this scenario and show that too much curvature --- of either sign --- reduces the duration of the inflationary era to such an extent that the flatness and horizon problems are not solved. Hence, a fine-tuning of initial conditions is required to obtain enough inflation to solve the cosmological problems.

  4. The Next Big Thing - Eric Haseltine

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Haseltine

    2009-09-16

    Eric Haseltine, Haseltine Partners president and former chief of Walt Disney Imagineering, presented "The Next Big Thing," on Sept. 11, at the ORNL. He described the four "early warning signs" that a scientific breakthrough is imminent, and then suggested practical ways to turn these insights into breakthrough innovations. Haseltine is former director of research at the National Security Agency and associate director for science and technology for the director of National Intelligence, former executive vice president of Walt Disney Imagineering and director of engineering for Hughes Aircraft. He has 15 patents in optics, special effects and electronic media, and more than 100 publications in science and technical journals, the web and Discover Magazine.

  5. Probing the Big Bang with LEP

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1990-06-01

    It is shown that LEP probes the Big Bang in two significant ways: (1) nucleosynthesis and (2) dark matter constraints. In the first case, LEP verifies the cosmological standard model prediction on the number of neutrino types, thus strengthening the conclusion that the cosmological baryon density is {approximately}6% of the critical value. In the second case, LEP shows that the remaining non-baryonic cosmological matter must be somewhat more massive and/or more weakly interacting that the favorite non-baryonic dark matter candidates of a few years ago. 59 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Nuclear Receptors, RXR & the Big Bang

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Ronald M.; Mangelsdorf, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Isolation of genes encoding the receptors for steroids, retinoids, vitamin D and thyroid hormone, and their structural and functional analysis revealed an evolutionarily conserved template for nuclear hormone receptors. This discovery sparked identification of numerous genes encoding related proteins, termed orphan receptors. Characterization of these orphan receptors, and in particular of the retinoid X receptor (RXR), positioned nuclear receptors at the epicenter of the “Big Bang” of molecular endocrinology. This review provides a personal perspective on nuclear receptors and explores their integrated and coordinated signaling networks that are essential for multi-cellular life, highlighting the RXR heterodimer and its associated ligands and transcriptional mechanism. PMID:24679540

  7. Synoptic Observing at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Naqvi, M.; Deng, N.; Tritschler, A.; Marquette, W. H.

    2007-05-01

    Synoptic solar observations in the chromospheric absorption lines Ca II K and Hα have a long tradition at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The advent of the New Solar Telescope (NST) will shift the focus of BBSO's synoptic observing program toward high-resolution observations. We present an overview of the telescopes and instrumentation and show some of the most recent results. This includes Ca II K data to track solar irradiance variations, Hα full-disk data to monitor eruptive events, Dopplergrams from two-dimensional spectroscopy, as well as image restorations of diffraction-limited quality.

  8. Ocean Networks Canada's "Big Data" Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Owens, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates two large undersea observatories that collect, archive, and deliver data in real time over the Internet. These data contribute to our understanding of the complex changes taking place on our ocean planet. Ocean Networks Canada's VENUS was the world's first cabled seafloor observatory to enable researchers anywhere to connect in real time to undersea experiments and observations. Its NEPTUNE observatory is the largest cabled ocean observatory, spanning a wide range of ocean environments. Most recently, we installed a new small observatory in the Arctic. Together, these observatories deliver "Big Data" across many disciplines in a cohesive manner using the Oceans 2.0 data management and archiving system that provides national and international users with open access to real-time and archived data while also supporting a collaborative work environment. Ocean Networks Canada operates these observatories to support science, innovation, and learning in four priority areas: study of the impact of climate change on the ocean; the exploration and understanding the unique life forms in the extreme environments of the deep ocean and below the seafloor; the exchange of heat, fluids, and gases that move throughout the ocean and atmosphere; and the dynamics of earthquakes, tsunamis, and undersea landslides. To date, the Ocean Networks Canada archive contains over 130 TB (collected over 7 years) and the current rate of data acquisition is ~50 TB per year. This data set is complex and diverse. Making these "Big Data" accessible and attractive to users is our priority. In this presentation, we share our experience as a "Big Data" institution where we deliver simple and multi-dimensional calibrated data cubes to a diverse pool of users. Ocean Networks Canada also conducts extensive user testing. Test results guide future tool design and development of "Big Data" products. We strive to bridge the gap between the raw, archived data and the needs and

  9. The New Big Science at the NSLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The term ``New Big Science'' refers to a phase shift in the kind of large-scale science that was carried out throughout the U.S. National Laboratory system, when large-scale materials science accelerators rather than high-energy physics accelerators became marquee projects at most major basic research laboratories in the post-Cold War era, accompanied by important changes in the character and culture of the research ecosystem at these laboratories. This talk explores some aspects of this phase shift at BNL's National Synchrotron Light Source.

  10. The Big Bang and Cosmic Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guth, Alan H.

    2014-03-01

    A summary is given of the key developments of cosmology in the 20th century, from the work of Albert Einstein to the emergence of the generally accepted hot big bang model. The successes of this model are reviewed, but emphasis is placed on the questions that the model leaves unanswered. The remainder of the paper describes the inflationary universe model, which provides plausible answers to a number of these questions. It also offers a possible explanation for the origin of essentially all the matter and energy in the observed universe.

  11. 'Big data' in pharmaceutical science: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Dossetter, Al G; Ecker, Gerhard; Laverty, Hugh; Overington, John

    2014-05-01

    Future Medicinal Chemistry invited a selection of experts to express their views on the current impact of big data in drug discovery and design, as well as speculate on future developments in the field. The topics discussed include the challenges of implementing big data technologies, maintaining the quality and privacy of data sets, and how the industry will need to adapt to welcome the big data era. Their enlightening responses provide a snapshot of the many and varied contributions being made by big data to the advancement of pharmaceutical science. PMID:24962278

  12. Nonlinear fracture mechanics. Volume 1. Time-dependent fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, A.; Landes, J.D.; Bassani, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on time-dependent fracture in nonlinear fracture mechanics are presented. Individual subjects considered include: numerical study of non-steady-state creep at stationary crack tips, crack growth in small-scale creep, growth of macroscopic cracks by void coalescence under extensive creeping conditions, creep embrittlement susceptibility and creep crack growth behavior in low-alloy steels, and experimental determination of the high-temperature crack growth behavior of Incoloy 800H. Also discussed are: three-dimensional transient analysis of a dynamically loaded three-point-bend ductile fracture specimen, experimental study of the validity of a Delta J criterion for fatigue crack growth, combined-mode low-cycle fatigue crack growth under torsional loading, fatigue crack-tip mechanics in 7075-T6 aluminum alloy from high-sensitivity displacement field measurements, and nonlinear fracture of concrete and ceramics.

  13. Hyperthyroidism Presenting With Pathologic Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Sarezky, Margaret D.; Corwin, Daniel J.; Harrison, Victor S.; Jacobstein, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that thyroid hormone directly stimulates bone resorption in in vitro organ culture, and in adults excess thyroid hormone is associated with decreased bone mineral density. There are limited data in children regarding the effect of hyperthyroidism on bone metabolism and even fewer instances in the literature of hyperthyroidism presenting with bone demineralization and fracture. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy with undiagnosed hyperthyroidism presenting with fractures and osteoporosis. This case emphasizes the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis when a patient presents with a pathologic fracture. PMID:26746406

  14. Insufficiency fracture after radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dongryul

    2014-01-01

    Insufficiency fracture occurs when normal or physiological stress applied to weakened bone with demineralization and decreased elastic resistance. Recently, many studies reported the development of IF after radiation therapy (RT) in gynecological cancer, prostate cancer, anal cancer and rectal cancer. The RT-induced insufficiency fracture is a common complication during the follow-up using modern imaging studies. The clinical suspicion and knowledge the characteristic imaging patterns of insufficiency fracture is essential to differentiate it from metastatic bone lesions, because it sometimes cause severe pain, and it may be confused with bone metastasis. PMID:25568849

  15. Contemporary management of subtrochanteric fractures.

    PubMed

    Joglekar, Siddharth B; Lindvall, Eric M; Martirosian, Armen

    2015-01-01

    Cephalomedullary interlocking nails that allow for trochanteric entry and minimally invasive fixation have revolutionized the contemporary management of subtrochanteric fractures with improved union rates and decreased incidence of fixation failure. The most successful alternative to intramedullary fixation remains the angled blade plate. Despite biomechanical superiority of contemporary intramedullary implants to previous intramedullary devices, the importance of achieving and maintaining satisfactory fracture reduction prior to and during hardware insertion cannot be overemphasized. In comminuted and more challenging fractures, additional techniques, such as limited open reduction with clamps and/or cables, can allow for canal restoration and more anatomic reductions prior to and/or during nail insertion. PMID:25435032

  16. Big science and big administration. Confronting the governance, financial and legal challenges of FuturICT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, J.; Scott, M.; McCarthy, J. B.; Tan, K. T.; Argyrakis, P.; Bishop, S.; Conte, R.; Havlin, S.; San Miguel, M.; Stauffacher, D.

    2012-11-01

    This paper considers the issues around managing large scientific projects, and draws conclusions for the governance and management of FuturICT, based on previous experience of Big Science projects, such as CERN and ATLAS. We also consider the legal and ethical issues of the FuturICT project as the funding instrument moves from the Seventh Framework Programme to Horizon 2020.

  17. Making big sense from big data in toxicology by read-across.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Modern information technologies have made big data available in safety sciences, i.e., extremely large data sets that may be analyzed only computationally to reveal patterns, trends and associations. This happens by (1) compilation of large sets of existing data, e.g., as a result of the European REACH regulation, (2) the use of omics technologies and (3) systematic robotized testing in a high-throughput manner. All three approaches and some other high-content technologies leave us with big data--the challenge is now to make big sense of these data. Read-across, i.e., the local similarity-based intrapolation of properties, is gaining momentum with increasing data availability and consensus on how to process and report it. It is predominantly applied to in vivo test data as a gap-filling approach, but can similarly complement other incomplete datasets. Big data are first of all repositories for finding similar substances and ensure that the available data is fully exploited. High-content and high-throughput approaches similarly require focusing on clusters, in this case formed by underlying mechanisms such as pathways of toxicity. The closely connected properties, i.e., structural and biological similarity, create the confidence needed for predictions of toxic properties. Here, a new web-based tool under development called REACH-across, which aims to support and automate structure-based read-across, is presented among others. PMID:27032088

  18. Revisiting the Big Six and the Big Five among Hong Kong University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2008-01-01

    The present study replicated investigation of the link between Holland's six career interest types and Costa and McCrae's big five personality traits in a Chinese context. A sample of 79 university students from Hong Kong evaluated their own abilities and responded to the Short-Version Self-Directed Search (SVSDS) and the NEO Five-Factor…

  19. Studying Cryogenic Fracturing Process and Fracture Morphology using Transparent Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, M.; Yin, X.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Wu, Y. S.; Alqahtani, N.; Patterson, T.; Yao, B.; Miskimins, J.

    2014-12-01

    Cryogenic fracturing exploits thermal gradient and resulting local tensile stress to initiate fractures / cracks on a surface exposed to cryogenic fluids. This study investigates the development and morphology of cracks generated from cryogenic thermal shock in a borehole geometry. The study evaluates cryogenic thermal shock under no external confining stress to specimens. To better understand this process in a geometry relevant to applications, a borehole was drilled through transparent acrylic specimens representing a wellbore. This borehole was partially cased with stainless steel tubing set by a high yield epoxy. Liquid nitrogen was injected into the wellbore through a stainless steel tube. The pressure was low (< 10 psia) and the fractures were initiated by the thermal shock; these initiated fractures allowed further penetration of the cryogen, which helped to propagate fractures throughout the specimen. A major advantage of performing this experiment in a transparent cryogenic specimen is the ability to observe fracture proliferation through time. It is observed that fracture growth was characterized by abrupt starts and stops, which suggest that the tensile stress generated inside the borehole must reach a certain threshold for fracture initiation and growth. Two distinctive patterns in crack development were observed: one is horizontal-planar-radial pattern created by longitudinal thermal contraction, and another is vertical cracks by circumferential contraction. The horizontal cracks appeared to be spaced by a certain length, known as the exclusion distance, which exists because a set of cracks cannot be created closer than a certain length due to limited amount of thermal contraction. The vertical tension cracks tend to initiate between the horizontal radial cracks and bridge them, as it may be energy-efficient to start from and propagate to existing defects.

  20. Teaching Information & Technology Skills: The Big6[TM] in Elementary Schools. Professional Growth Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Michael B.; Berkowitz, Robert E.

    This book about using the Big6 information problem solving process model in elementary schools is organized into two parts. Providing an overview of the Big6 approach, Part 1 includes the following chapters: "Introduction: The Need," including the information problem, the Big6 and other process models, and teaching/learning the Big6; "The Big6…

  1. Review of Talus Fractures and Surgical Timing.

    PubMed

    Grear, Benjamin J

    2016-07-01

    This review article provides an overview of talus fractures. Special attention is given to the clinical literature that evaluates the timing of surgical management for displaced talus fractures. Several series support delayed definitive fixation for talus fractures, suggesting displaced fractures do not necessitate emergent surgical fixation. PMID:27241385

  2. Changing the personality of a face: Perceived Big Two and Big Five personality factors modeled in real photographs.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mirella; Vetter, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    General, spontaneous evaluations of strangers based on their faces have been shown to reflect judgments of these persons' intention and ability to harm. These evaluations can be mapped onto a 2D space defined by the dimensions trustworthiness (intention) and dominance (ability). Here we go beyond general evaluations and focus on more specific personality judgments derived from the Big Two and Big Five personality concepts. In particular, we investigate whether Big Two/Big Five personality judgments can be mapped onto the 2D space defined by the dimensions trustworthiness and dominance. Results indicate that judgments of the Big Two personality dimensions almost perfectly map onto the 2D space. In contrast, at least 3 of the Big Five dimensions (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness) go beyond the 2D space, indicating that additional dimensions are necessary to describe more specific face-based personality judgments accurately. Building on this evidence, we model the Big Two/Big Five personality dimensions in real facial photographs. Results from 2 validation studies show that the Big Two/Big Five are perceived reliably across different samples of faces and participants. Moreover, results reveal that participants differentiate reliably between the different Big Two/Big Five dimensions. Importantly, this high level of agreement and differentiation in personality judgments from faces likely creates a subjective reality which may have serious consequences for those being perceived-notably, these consequences ensue because the subjective reality is socially shared, irrespective of the judgments' validity. The methodological approach introduced here might prove useful in various psychological disciplines. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348599

  3. Gravitational waves from the big bounce

    SciTech Connect

    Mielczarek, Jakub

    2008-11-15

    In this paper we investigate gravitational wave production during the big bounce phase, inspired by loop quantum cosmology. We consider the influence of the holonomy corrections to the equation for tensor modes. We show that they act like additional effective graviton mass, suppressing gravitational wave creation. However, such effects can be treated perturbatively. We investigate a simplified model without holonomy corrections to the equation for modes and find its exact analytical solution. Assuming the form for matter {rho}{proportional_to}a{sup -2} we calculate the full spectrum of the gravitational waves from the big bounce phase. The spectrum obtained decreases to zero for the low energy modes. On the basis of this observation we infer that this effect can lead to low cosmic microwave background (CMB) multipole suppression and gives a potential way for testing loop quantum cosmology models. We also consider a scenario with a post-bounce inflationary phase. The power spectrum obtained gives a qualitative explanation of the CMB spectra, including low multipole suppression.

  4. Big Data Issues under the Copernicus Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Braucks, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Copernicus Programme of Earth observation satellites (http://copernicus.eu) will be affected by a growing volume of data and information. The first satellite (Sentinel 1A) has just been launched. Seven additional satellites are to be launched by the end of the decade. These will produce 8 TB of data per day, i.e. considerably more than can be downloaded via normal Internet connections.There is no definitive answer to the many challenges of big data but there are gradual solutions for Copernicus in view of the progressive roll out of the space infrastructure and the thematic services which the European Commission will develop. This presentation will present several approaches to the big data issue. It will start from the needs of the Copernicus users, which are far from being homogeneous. As their needs are different, the European Commission and ESA will have to propose different solutions to fulfil these needs, taking into account the present and future state of technology. The presentation will discuss these solutions, both with regard to a better use of the network and with regard to hosted processing.

  5. Data, Big Data, and Metadata in Anesthesiology.

    PubMed

    Levin, Matthew A; Wanderer, Jonathan P; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has seen an explosion in the growth of digital data. Since 2005, the total amount of digital data created or replicated on all platforms and devices has been doubling every 2 years, from an estimated 132 exabytes (132 billion gigabytes) in 2005 to 4.4 zettabytes (4.4 trillion gigabytes) in 2013, and a projected 44 zettabytes (44 trillion gigabytes) in 2020. This growth has been driven in large part by the rise of social media along with more powerful and connected mobile devices, with an estimated 75% of information in the digital universe generated by individuals rather than entities. Transactions and communications including payments, instant messages, Web searches, social media updates, and online posts are all becoming part of a vast pool of data that live "in the cloud" on clusters of servers located in remote data centers. The amount of accumulating data has become so large that it has given rise to the term Big Data. In many ways, Big Data is just a buzzword, a phrase that is often misunderstood and misused to describe any sort of data, no matter the size or complexity. However, there is truth to the assertion that some data sets truly require new management and analysis techniques. PMID:26579664

  6. [Algorithms, machine intelligence, big data : general considerations].

    PubMed

    Radermacher, F J

    2015-08-01

    We are experiencing astonishing developments in the areas of big data and artificial intelligence. They follow a pattern that we have now been observing for decades: according to Moore's Law,the performance and efficiency in the area of elementary arithmetic operations increases a thousand-fold every 20 years. Although we have not achieved the status where in the singular sense machines have become as "intelligent" as people, machines are becoming increasingly better. The Internet of Things has again helped to massively increase the efficiency of machines. Big data and suitable analytics do the same. If we let these processes simply continue, our civilization may be endangerd in many instances. If the "containment" of these processes succeeds in the context of a reasonable political global governance, a worldwide eco-social market economy, andan economy of green and inclusive markets, many desirable developments that are advantageous for our future may result. Then, at some point in time, the constant need for more and faster innovation may even stop. However, this is anything but certain. We are facing huge challenges. PMID:26141245

  7. The Reliability of Big "Patient Satisfaction" Data.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ajit; Greco, Michael; Powell, Helen; Coleman, Louise

    2013-09-01

    Big data in healthcare can bring significant clinical and cost benefits. Of equal but often overlooked importance is the role of patient satisfaction data in improving the quality of healthcare service and treatment, where satisfaction is measured through feedback by patients on their meetings with medical specialists and experts. One of the major problems in analyzing patient feedback data is the nonstandard research designs often used for gathering such data: the designs can be uncrossed, unbalanced, and fully nested. Traditional measures of data reliability are more difficult to calculate for such data. Also, patient data can contain significant proportions of missing values that further complicate the calculation of reliability. This paper describes a reliability approach that is robust in the face of nonstandard research designs and missing values for use with large-scale patient survey data. The dataset contains nearly 85,000 patient responses to over 2,000 healthcare practitioners in five different subtypes over a 15-year period in the United Kingdom. Reliability measures are calculated to provide benchmarks involving minimum numbers of patients and practitioners for deeper drill-down analysis. The paper concludes with a demonstration of how regression models generated from big patient feedback data can be assessed in terms of reliability at the total data level as well as drill-down levels. PMID:27442196

  8. Big Bang Cosmic Titanic: Cause for Concern?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentry, Robert

    2013-04-01

    This abstract alerts physicists to a situation that, unless soon addressed, may yet affect PRL integrity. I refer to Stanley Brown's and DAE Robert Caldwell's rejection of PRL submission LJ12135, A Cosmic Titanic: Big Bang Cosmology Unravels Upon Discovery of Serious Flaws in Its Foundational Expansion Redshift Assumption, by their claim that BB is an established theory while ignoring our paper's Titanic, namely, that BB's foundational spacetime expansion redshifts assumption has now been proven to be irrefutably false because it is contradicted by our seminal discovery that GPS operation unequivocally proves that GR effects do not produce in-flight photon wavelength changes demanded by this central assumption. This discovery causes the big bang to collapse as quickly as did Ptolemaic cosmology when Copernicus discovered its foundational assumption was heliocentric, not geocentric. Additional evidence that something is amiss in PRL's treatment of LJ12135 comes from both Brown and EiC Gene Spouse agreeing to meet at my exhibit during last year's Atlanta APS to discuss this cover-up issue. Sprouse kept his commitment; Brown didn't. Question: If Brown could have refuted my claim of a cover-up, why didn't he come to present it before Gene Sprouse? I am appealing LJ12135's rejection.

  9. Rasdaman for Big Spatial Raster Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, F.; Huang, Q.; Scheele, C. J.; Yang, C. P.; Yu, M.; Liu, K.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial raster data have grown exponentially over the past decade. Recent advancements on data acquisition technology, such as remote sensing, have allowed us to collect massive observation data of various spatial resolution and domain coverage. The volume, velocity, and variety of such spatial data, along with the computational intensive nature of spatial queries, pose grand challenge to the storage technologies for effective big data management. While high performance computing platforms (e.g., cloud computing) can be used to solve the computing-intensive issues in big data analysis, data has to be managed in a way that is suitable for distributed parallel processing. Recently, rasdaman (raster data manager) has emerged as a scalable and cost-effective database solution to store and retrieve massive multi-dimensional arrays, such as sensor, image, and statistics data. Within this paper, the pros and cons of using rasdaman to manage and query spatial raster data will be examined and compared with other common approaches, including file-based systems, relational databases (e.g., PostgreSQL/PostGIS), and NoSQL databases (e.g., MongoDB and Hive). Earth Observing System (EOS) data collected from NASA's Atmospheric Scientific Data Center (ASDC) will be used and stored in these selected database systems, and a set of spatial and non-spatial queries will be designed to benchmark their performance on retrieving large-scale, multi-dimensional arrays of EOS data. Lessons learnt from using rasdaman will be discussed as well.

  10. Bilateral calcaneal stress fractures in two cats.

    PubMed

    Cantatore, M; Clements, D N

    2015-06-01

    Two cats that developed bilateral calcaneal stress fractures are reported. One cat developed lameness associated with incomplete fractures at the base of both calcanei, both of which progressed to acute, complete fractures 2 months later. The second cat presented with acute complete calcaneal fracture, with evidence of remodelling of the contralateral calcaneus, which subsequently fractured two years later. The calcaneal fractures were successfully stabilised with lateral bone plates in each case. Stress fractures were suspected because of the bilateral nature, the simple and similar configuration, the consistent location of the fractures, the absence of other signs of trauma in both cases and the suspected insidious onset of the lameness. The feline calcaneus is susceptible to stress fracture, and cats presenting with calcaneal fractures without evidence of trauma should be evaluated for concurrent skeletal pathology. PMID:25929309

  11. Femur Shaft Fractures (Broken Thighbone)

    MedlinePlus

    ... takes a lot of force to break it. Car crashes, for example, are the number one cause of ... sha fracture is a motor vehicle or motorcycle crash. Being hit by a car as a pedestrian is another common cause, as ...

  12. (Fracture mechanics of porous materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.J.

    1989-09-15

    The primary subject of this trip was the development of a boundary element/finite element analysis system for computational fracture mechanics. The procedures for merging the ORNL/Cornell University boundary element fracture code with the finite element program SESAM were agreed upon, and are currently being implemented. The adopted algorithm relies on the superelement capabilities of the SESAM code. Discussions were held with scientists at the Bergen Scientific Centre on the modeling of fractured rock. A project to develop realistic computer models of naturally occurring fracture patterns is being carried out by a geologist and a physicist; it is expected that these models can be employed in future environmental modeling work. 6 refs.

  13. Computed tomography of calcaneal fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Heger, L.; Wulff, K.; Seddiqi, M.S.A.

    1985-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of 25 fractured calcanei was performed to investigate the potential of CT in evaluating the pattern and biomechanics of these fractures. The characteristic findings of typical fractures are presented, including the number and type of principal fragments, size and dislocation of the sustentacular fragment, and involvement of the anterior and posterior facets of the subtalar joint. In 17 cases, the calcaneus consisted of four or more fragments. Furthermore, in 17 cases the sustentacular fragment included all or part of the posterior facet joint. In 18 of the 25 cases, the sustentacular fragment was displaced. It is concluded that well performed CT is an invaluable adjunct in understanding the fracture mechanism and in detecting pain-provoking impingement between the fibular malleolus and the tuberosity fragment.

  14. Microstructural effects in foam fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Peter; Davis, Stephen; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2015-11-01

    We examine the fracture of a quasi two-dimensional aqueous foam under an applied driving pressure, using a network modelling approach developed for metallic foams by Stewart & Davis (J. Rheol., vol. 56, 2012, p. 543). In agreement with experiments, we observe two distinct mechanisms of failure analogous to those observed in a crystalline solid: a slow ductile mode when the driving pressure is applied slowly, where the void propagates as bubbles interchange neighbours through the T1 process, and a rapid brittle mode for faster application of pressures, where the void advances by successive rupture of liquid films driven by Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The simulations allow detailed insight into the mechanics of the fracturing medium and the role of its microstructure. In particular, we examine the stress distribution around the crack tip and investigate how brittle fracture localizes into a single line of breakages. We also confirm that pre-existing microstructural defects can alter the course of fracture.

  15. Bone fractures: assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Lim, L; Sirichai, P

    2016-03-01

    Severe dental traumatic injuries often involve the supporting bone and soft tissues. This article outlines the current concepts in the management of dentoalveolar fractures for the general dental practitioner with case reports to illustrate management principles and techniques. PMID:26923449

  16. Colles wrist fracture – aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colles wrist fracture is caused by a forceful injury to the wrist. This may occur due to: Car accident Contact sports Falling while skiing, riding a bike, or other activity Falling on an outstretched arm ( ...

  17. COMPARISON OF FRACTURED BEDROCK REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report compares the technologies/approaches used at 7 Superfund sites to treat contaminated groundwater in fractured bedrock. The comparison shows how well each technology/approach met the stated goal, problems encountered, and lessons learned.

  18. Hydrostructural Characterization of Fracture Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, T. W.; Hermanson, J.

    2007-12-01

    Over the past 30 years, research in underground laboratories for radioactive waste has led to the development of integrated site investigation and modeling methods for fracture networks. These activities began with the Stripa Project in central Sweden from 1977 to 1992 and have continued worldwide. Experiments on the scale of 100- 200 meter blocks have demonstrated the effectiveness of integrating testing during drilling, pressure monitoring, geologic description, flow logging, pressure transient testing, and groundwater chemistry to define fracture network geometries, particularly with respect to the identification of major features, background fractures, and compartmentalization. Major features are those large fractures or fracture zones that control the flow at the scale of interest, and must be simulated as deterministic features. Background fractures are defined stochastically, and provide connectivity between deterministic features. Based on the experience of block-scale investigations, it is possible to develop a clear picture of hydraulic networks using an integrated structural geologic, hydraulic, and hydrochemical approach. Although fracture network characterization requires a good geologic description of fractures and fracture zones from core and image logging, not all geologic features are water-conducting. Identifying water-conducting fractures begins with measurements of flow during drilling and flow logging immediately afterwards to identify significant conducting features. Major flow features must be hydraulically isolated using multiple point piezometer systems, if subsequent investigation methods are to be successful. Once installed, the pressure responses in the piezometers to subsequent drilling provide key information on connectivity and compartmentalization. Generally with three holes are sufficient to develop initial conceptual models of the major, controlling features. Subsequent boreholes test these geometric hypotheses and provide bases

  19. Management principles of osteoporotic fractures.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Michael J; Collinge, Cory

    2016-06-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are difficult to manage. They pose a number of difficulties to the surgeon arising from the underlying poor bone stock compromising the intention to achieve optimum fixation. Moreover, the frail elderly patients present with a variety of medical co-morbidities increasing the risk of developing perioperative complications. Despite these recognized challenges, there are currently a number of improving technologies and strategies at the surgeon's disposal to provide more confidence with fracture fixation and maximize the chance of success. PMID:27338225

  20. Flow upscaling in propped fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Lukasz; Dabrowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Proppants in combination with hydraulic fracturing are widely used to maintain the production of oil or gas from low permeability formations (i.e. shale rocks). There are also examples of proppants use in geothermal reservoirs. Flow patterns in propped fracture control transport processes and give information about fracture/matrix exchange surface. Our main motivation is to understand flow behavior in such structures using direct numerical simulations and to find a good upscaling technique to be able to investigate models on reservoir scale. We study fracture made of two parallel plane walls, where void space between them is filled with partial monolayer of proppant. As the fracture is affected by closing pressure, the proppant grains are squeezed between two opposite fracture walls which can change the grain shapes or embed the grains into impermeable rock matrix. To take this effect into account and simplify the geometry, the grains are approximated as cylinders. Imposed macroscopic pressure gradient invokes flow in such medium. As the flow is considered in the low Reynolds number regime, a stationary velocity flow field is obtained by solving the Stokes equations in 3D by means of finite element method. Void space between the grains is accurately discretized by using tetrahedral mesh. To reduce computational effort, the Stokes equation is reduced over the fracture aperture to 2D Stokes-Brinkman equation, which is further numerically solved and compared against numerical solution in 3D. Systematic flow calculations using 2D Stokes-Brinkman equation are performed for periodic domain and no slip boundary condition on the grain surface. Results are discussed in terms of effective properties as a function of geometrical parameters of the medium, such as proppant packing fraction and proppant grain diameter to fracture aperture ratio.

  1. [Scaphoid fracture in motocross riders].

    PubMed

    Knobloch, K; Krämer, R; Redeker, J; Spies, M; Vogt, P M

    2009-12-01

    Motocross racing is a demanding motorcycling discipline with significant physiological and psychological demands. Upper extremity injuries are frequently encountered. Interestingly, motocross riders present with a significantly stronger left arm, even if the left hand is not dominant. This difference is attributed to the use of the clutch lever with the left hand, which is more frequent in motocross than in Enduro or desert rally. The wrist has been reported to be involved especially among motocross racers in contrast to road racing. Besides wrist fractures, scaphoid fractures have been previously without a detailed analysis of the injury mechanism. We report on three patients suffering scaphoid fractures caused by extreme hyperextension of the wrist during landing after a motocross jump. Two patients presented late three months following the initial trauma (both Herbert type C fractures), while one motocross athlete with a B 2-type scaphoid fracture was admitted to wrist surgery within a week. The B 2-type fracture was treated with open reduction and Herbert-screw fixation, while the C-type fractures were treated by Herbert-screw fixation in addition to a cortico-cancellous bone graft. Within ten weeks after the surgery the patients were back in sport at their given preoperative level. Hyperextension rather than wrist flexion appears as the predominant mechanism of wrist injuries in motocross riders. A more axial impact on the wrist is more likely to produce a radial fracture during the landing phase. Preventive strategies are internal muscular wrist stabilisation using eccentric training and external stabilisation by rigid gloves allowing only limited hyperextension. PMID:20108186

  2. Distal radius fractures: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Schneppendahl, Johannes; Windolf, Joachim; Kaufmann, Robert A

    2012-08-01

    Despite the frequency of distal radius fractures, the optimal treatment remains without consensus opinion. A trend toward increased distal radius fracture open reduction and internal fixation has been identified, with biomechanical and clinical studies suggesting treatment advantages of certain fixation methods over others. Well-controlled patient trials are still missing to lend objective findings to management algorithms. This article reviews the literature over the past 5 years to guide our management regarding this common upper-extremity injury. PMID:22763062

  3. Fracturing fluid characterization facility (FFCF)

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.D.; Roegiers, J.C.; Fagan, J.

    1993-12-31

    The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility project has as its main focus the design, fabrication, and construction of a high pressure simulator (HPS) and a low pressure simulator (LPS) to be used to experimentally investigate the rheological properties and transport characteristics of proppant laden fracturing fluids. A discussion of each apparatus is provided as well as the auxiliary equipment, and data acquisition and control systems associated with the simulators.

  4. Seismic characteristics of tensile fracture growth induced by hydraulic fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Van der Baan, M.; Boroumand, N.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a process of injecting high-pressure slurry into a rockmass to enhance its permeability. Variants of this process are used for unconventional oil and gas development, engineered geothermal systems and block-cave mining; similar processes occur within volcanic systems. Opening of hydraulic fractures is well documented by mineback trials and tiltmeter monitoring and is a physical requirement to accommodate the volume of injected fluid. Numerous microseismic monitoring investigations acquired in the audio-frequency band are interpreted to show a prevalence of shear-dominated failure mechanisms surrounding the tensile fracture. Moreover, the radiated seismic energy in the audio-frequency band appears to be a miniscule fraction (<< 1%) of the net injected energy, i.e., the integral of the product of fluid pressure and injection rate. We use a simple penny-shaped crack model as a predictive framework to describe seismic characteristics of tensile opening during hydraulic fracturing. This model provides a useful scaling relation that links seismic moment to effective fluid pressure within the crack. Based on downhole recordings corrected for attenuation, a significant fraction of observed microseismic events are characterized by S/P amplitude ratio < 5. Despite the relatively small aperture of the monitoring arrays, which precludes both full moment-tensor analysis and definitive identification of nodal planes or axes, this ratio provides a strong indication that observed microseismic source mechanisms have a component of tensile failure. In addition, we find some instances of periodic spectral notches that can be explained by an opening/closing failure mechanism, in which fracture propagation outpaces fluid velocity within the crack. Finally, aseismic growth of tensile fractures may be indicative of a scenario in which injected energy is consumed to create new fracture surfaces. Taken together, our observations and modeling provide evidence that

  5. [Talus fractures--fractures of the most important tarsal bone].

    PubMed

    Klaue, K

    2004-07-01

    The talus is the key bone of the foot due to its location between the ankle and the subtalar joints. Through the flexion and extension of the ankle joint, the talus is the "propulsive bone" situated at the root of the first ray and the hallux. Through the subtalar and talo-navicular joints, the talus allows the foot to be "suspended" using a fancy spring mechanism involving ligaments and tendons. The talus thus transmits forces through two important joints without any direct muscular constraint. The talo-calcaneo-navicular joint may be called the "coxa pedis" due to the anatomical and functional similitudes with the coxofemoral joint ("coxa pelvis"). Fractures of the talus are rare. Talus fractures can be classified in "central" and "peripheral" fractures. Central fractures occur through a strong axial blow provided that the ankle and coxa pedis are locked by extrinsic muscular contraction. Peripheral fractures instead occur in an extreme position of the ankle or the coxa pedis, with a subluxation or complete dislocation of one or more of those joints. Central fractures produce a bony solution of continuity in between at least two of the ankle, subtalar and talo-navicular joints. Peripheral fractures mostly do implement joint surfaces which are sheared off. Aim of treating talus fractures is precise and stable reduction of the fragments because most often, the fractures cross the articular layers. The surgical approaches are critical, especially in displaced central fractures, because the reduction may require visual control all around the bone. There are three approaches which might be used as single approaches or combined simultaneously: the anteromedial approach along the subtalar joint from the navicular to the retro-malleolar region, the anterolateral approach centered on the sinus tarsi (Ollier) and the postero-lateral approach (Gallie). In many cases, a joint distraction device may help visualization of the different joint spaces as well as assist reduction

  6. Fracturing And Liquid CONvection

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-29

    FALCON has been developed to enable simulation of the tightly coupled fluid-rock behavior in hydrothermal and engineered geothermal system (EGS) reservoirs, targeting the dynamics of fracture stimulation, fluid flow, rock deformation, and heat transport in a single integrated code, with the ultimate goal of providing a tool that can be used to test the viability of EGS in the United States and worldwide. Reliable reservoir performance predictions of EGS systems require accurate and robust modeling for the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes. Conventionally, these types of problems are solved using operator-splitting methods, usually by coupling a subsurface flow and heat transport simulator with a solid mechanics simulator via input files. FALCON eliminates the need for using operator-splitting methods to simulate these systems, and the scalability of the underlying MOOSE architecture allows for simulating these tightly coupled processes at the reservoir scale, allowing for examination of the system as a whole (something the operator-splitting methodologies generally cannot do).

  7. Fracturing And Liquid CONvection

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-02-29

    FALCON has been developed to enable simulation of the tightly coupled fluid-rock behavior in hydrothermal and engineered geothermal system (EGS) reservoirs, targeting the dynamics of fracture stimulation, fluid flow, rock deformation, and heat transport in a single integrated code, with the ultimate goal of providing a tool that can be used to test the viability of EGS in the United States and worldwide. Reliable reservoir performance predictions of EGS systems require accurate and robust modelingmore » for the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes. Conventionally, these types of problems are solved using operator-splitting methods, usually by coupling a subsurface flow and heat transport simulator with a solid mechanics simulator via input files. FALCON eliminates the need for using operator-splitting methods to simulate these systems, and the scalability of the underlying MOOSE architecture allows for simulating these tightly coupled processes at the reservoir scale, allowing for examination of the system as a whole (something the operator-splitting methodologies generally cannot do).« less

  8. Fracture, failure, and fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dienes, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Though continuum descriptions of material behavior are useful for many kinds of problems, particularly those involving plastic flow, a more general approach is required when the failure is likely to involve growth and coalescence of a large number of fractures, as in fragmentation. Failures of this kind appear frequently in rapid dynamic processes such as those resulting from impacts and explosions, particularly in the formation of spall fragments. In the first part of this paper an approach to formulating constitutive relations that accounts for the opening, shear and growth of an ensemble of cracks is discussed. The approach also accounts for plastic flow accompanying fragmentation. The resulting constitutive relations have been incorporated into a Lagrangean computer program. In the second part of this paper a theoretical approach to coalescence is described. The simplest formulation makes use of a linear Liouville equation, with crack growth limited by the mean free path of cracks, assumed constant. This approach allows for an anisotropic distribution of cracks. An alternative approach is also described in which the decrease of the mean free path with increasing crack size is accounted for, but the crack distribution is assumed isotropic. A reduction of the governing Liouville equation to an ordinary differential equation of third order is possible, and the result can be used to determine how mean-free-path decreases with increasing crack size.

  9. Osteoporosis and fragility fractures.

    PubMed

    Sànchez-Riera, Lídia; Wilson, Nicholas; Kamalaraj, Narainraj; Nolla, Joan M; Kok, Cindy; Li, Yang; Macara, Monique; Norman, Rosana; Chen, Jian Sheng; Smith, Emma U R; Sambrook, Philip N; Hernández, Carmen Santos; Woolf, Anthony; March, Lyn

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of osteoporosis is expected to increase with the ageing of the world's population. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors and health burden of osteoporosis. In the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2005, osteoporosis is studied as a risk factor for fracture by considering the bone-mineral-density (BMD) measurement as the continuous exposure variable. We have performed a systematic review seeking population-based studies with BMD data measured by dual-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The femoral neck was selected as the unique location and all values were converted into Hologic(®) to enable inclusion of worldwide data for analysis. Provisional results on mean BMD values for different world regions are shown in age breakdowns for males and females 50 years or over, as well as mean T-scores using the young, white, female reference of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III. Results show remarkable geographical differences and a time trend towards improvement of the BMD values in Asian and European populations. PMID:21665127

  10. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  11. Toward a manifesto for the 'public understanding of big data'.

    PubMed

    Michael, Mike; Lupton, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we sketch a 'manifesto' for the 'public understanding of big data'. On the one hand, this entails such public understanding of science and public engagement with science and technology-tinged questions as follows: How, when and where are people exposed to, or do they engage with, big data? Who are regarded as big data's trustworthy sources, or credible commentators and critics? What are the mechanisms by which big data systems are opened to public scrutiny? On the other hand, big data generate many challenges for public understanding of science and public engagement with science and technology: How do we address publics that are simultaneously the informant, the informed and the information of big data? What counts as understanding of, or engagement with, big data, when big data themselves are multiplying, fluid and recursive? As part of our manifesto, we propose a range of empirical, conceptual and methodological exhortations. We also provide Appendix 1 that outlines three novel methods for addressing some of the issues raised in the article. PMID:26468128

  12. 33 CFR 117.677 - Big Sunflower River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Sunflower River. 117.677 Section 117.677 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Mississippi § 117.677 Big Sunflower River. The draw...

  13. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the season... maintained at all times for the navigation of steamboats, flatboats, and other small craft. (b) A...

  14. 33 CFR 117.677 - Big Sunflower River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Sunflower River. 117.677 Section 117.677 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Mississippi § 117.677 Big Sunflower River. The draw...

  15. 33 CFR 117.267 - Big Carlos Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Carlos Pass. 117.267 Section 117.267 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.267 Big Carlos Pass. The draw of...

  16. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the season... maintained at all times for the navigation of steamboats, flatboats, and other small craft. (b) A...

  17. 33 CFR 117.267 - Big Carlos Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Big Carlos Pass. 117.267 Section 117.267 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.267 Big Carlos Pass. The draw of...

  18. 33 CFR 117.267 - Big Carlos Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Carlos Pass. 117.267 Section 117.267 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.267 Big Carlos Pass. The draw of...

  19. 33 CFR 117.267 - Big Carlos Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Carlos Pass. 117.267 Section 117.267 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.267 Big Carlos Pass. The draw of...

  20. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the season... maintained at all times for the navigation of steamboats, flatboats, and other small craft. (b) A...

  1. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the season... maintained at all times for the navigation of steamboats, flatboats, and other small craft. (b) A...

  2. 78 FR 52523 - Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on August 16, 2013, Big Rivers Electric Corporation filed its proposed revenue requirements for reactive...

  3. 33 CFR 117.677 - Big Sunflower River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Sunflower River. 117.677 Section 117.677 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Mississippi § 117.677 Big Sunflower River. The draw...

  4. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  5. 33 CFR 117.267 - Big Carlos Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Carlos Pass. 117.267 Section 117.267 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.267 Big Carlos Pass. The draw of...

  6. 33 CFR 117.677 - Big Sunflower River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Big Sunflower River. 117.677 Section 117.677 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Mississippi § 117.677 Big Sunflower River. The draw...

  7. 33 CFR 207.370 - Big Fork River, Minn.; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Fork River, Minn.; logging..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.370 Big Fork River, Minn.; logging. (a) During the season... maintained at all times for the navigation of steamboats, flatboats, and other small craft. (b) A...

  8. 33 CFR 117.677 - Big Sunflower River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Sunflower River. 117.677 Section 117.677 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Mississippi § 117.677 Big Sunflower River. The draw...

  9. Bioprospecting for podophyllotoxin in the Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate variations in podophyllotoxin concentrations in Juniperus species found in the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming. It was found that Juniperus species in the Big Horn Mountains included three species; J. communis L. (common juniper), J. horizontalis Moench. (c...

  10. Deal or No Deal? Evaluating Big Deals and Their Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blecic, Deborah D.; Wiberley, Stephen E., Jr.; Fiscella, Joan B.; Bahnmaier-Blaszczak, Sara; Lowery, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents methods to develop metrics that compare Big Deal journal packages and the journals within those packages. Deal-level metrics guide selection of a Big Deal for termination. Journal-level metrics guide selection of individual subscriptions from journals previously provided by a terminated deal. The paper argues that, while the…

  11. Literature, Community and Cooperation: The Big Read at Regent University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillery, Leanne B.; Henkel, Harold L.

    2010-01-01

    This article recounts the experience of the Regent University Library in planning and implementing a festival of Tolstoy and Russian culture as part of the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) Big Read initiative. The NEA launched the Big Read in 2006 to counter the alarming decline of literary reading documented in its 2002 report Reading at…

  12. Semantic Web technologies for the big data in life sciences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongyan; Yamaguchi, Atsuko

    2014-08-01

    The life sciences field is entering an era of big data with the breakthroughs of science and technology. More and more big data-related projects and activities are being performed in the world. Life sciences data generated by new technologies are continuing to grow in not only size but also variety and complexity, with great speed. To ensure that big data has a major influence in the life sciences, comprehensive data analysis across multiple data sources and even across disciplines is indispensable. The increasing volume of data and the heterogeneous, complex varieties of data are two principal issues mainly discussed in life science informatics. The ever-evolving next-generation Web, characterized as the Semantic Web, is an extension of the current Web, aiming to provide information for not only humans but also computers to semantically process large-scale data. The paper presents a survey of big data in life sciences, big data related projects and Semantic Web technologies. The paper introduces the main Semantic Web technologies and their current situation, and provides a detailed analysis of how Semantic Web technologies address the heterogeneous variety of life sciences big data. The paper helps to understand the role of Semantic Web technologies in the big data era and how they provide a promising solution for the big data in life sciences. PMID:25224624

  13. 3. BIG HOUSE (left) AND CORN CRIB (right) IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BIG HOUSE (left) AND CORN CRIB (right) IN THE BACKGROUND. See also individual HABS documentation: Walker Family Farm, Big House (HABS No. TN-121 A), and Walker Family Farm, Corn Crib (HABS No. TN-121 C). - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. "Big Society" in the UK: A Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Alongside the UK Coalition Government's historic public spending cuts, the "Big Society" has become a major narrative in UK political discourse. This article reviews key features of Big Society policies against their aims of rebalancing the economy and mending "Broken Britain", with particular reference to their implications for children and young…

  15. A proposed framework of big data readiness in public sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Raja Haslinda Raja Mohd; Mohamad, Rosli; Sudin, Suhizaz

    2016-08-01

    Growing interest over big data mainly linked to its great potential to unveil unforeseen pattern or profiles that support organisation's key business decisions. Following private sector moves to embrace big data, the government sector has now getting into the bandwagon. Big data has been considered as one of the potential tools to enhance service delivery of the public sector within its financial resources constraints. Malaysian government, particularly, has considered big data as one of the main national agenda. Regardless of government commitment to promote big data amongst government agencies, degrees of readiness of the government agencies as well as their employees are crucial in ensuring successful deployment of big data. This paper, therefore, proposes a conceptual framework to investigate perceived readiness of big data potentials amongst Malaysian government agencies. Perceived readiness of 28 ministries and their respective employees will be assessed using both qualitative (interview) and quantitative (survey) approaches. The outcome of the study is expected to offer meaningful insight on factors affecting change readiness among public agencies on big data potentials and the expected outcome from greater/lower change readiness among the public sectors.

  16. Why would anyone want to believe in Big Gods?

    PubMed

    Brazil, Inti A; Farias, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We suggest an alternative explanation for the emergence of Big Gods that places less emphasis on the role of cognitive tendencies and selection of prosocial cultural variants. Instead, we argue that the fundamental motivation to reduce uncertainty and increase long-term predictability provides a better account for the rise of Big moralizing Gods in a complex and heavily regulated social environment. PMID:26948752

  17. The Big Picture College: A Model High School Program Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scurry, Jamie E.; Littky, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The Providence-based Big Picture Company has transformed the American high school experience for low-income, urban students. Now it is ready to take on a new challenge: redesigning the American college. In this article, the authors discuss how the Big Picture College will build a curriculum that emphasizes students' interests, integrates…

  18. 76 FR 59394 - Big Eddy-Knight Transmission Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Big Eddy-Knight Transmission Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration...: This notice announces the availability of the ROD to implement the Big Eddy-Knight Transmission Project... Transmission Project will accommodate long-term firm transmission requests that BPA has received by...

  19. Big Earth Data Initiative: Metadata Improvement: Case Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozimor, John; Habermann, Ted; Farley, John

    2016-01-01

    Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) The Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) invests in standardizing and optimizing the collection, management and delivery of U.S. Government's civil Earth observation data to improve discovery, access use, and understanding of Earth observations by the broader user community. Complete and consistent standard metadata helps address all three goals.

  20. The Role of Big Data in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovadia, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Big Data is an increasingly popular term across scholarly and popular literature but lacks a formal definition (Lohr 2012). This is beneficial in that it keeps the term flexible. For librarians, Big Data represents a few important ideas. One idea is the idea of balancing accessibility with privacy. Librarians tend to want information to be as open…