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Sample records for fragments production due

  1. Comparison of calculations of fragment production

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    This note compares estimates of fragment production rates in debris collisions through calculations performed with consistent debris distribution functions implicit in integrated collision frequencies provided by Attachment A. Differences between estimates of fragment production rates in space debris collisions are shown to be due primarily to different choices of the exponent in the fragment production function and the distinction between catastrophic and all collisions. Sensitivity to the fragment production parameter over the range of values consistent with experimental data is discussed.

  2. Comparison of calculations of fragment production rates

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-08-01

    Differences between NASA and DoD estimates of fragment production rates in space debris collisions are shown to be due primarily to different choices of the exponent in the debris distribution. The sensitivity to this parameter over the range of values consistent with experimental data is discussed.

  3. Asymmetry effects in fragment production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Varinderjit

    2016-05-01

    The production of different fragments has been studied by taking into account the mass asymmetry of the reaction and employing the momentum dependent interactions. Two different set of asymmetric reactions have been analyzed while keeping Atotal fixed using soft momentum dependent equation of state. Our results indicate that the impact of momentum dependent interactions is different in lighter projectile systems as compared to heavier ones. The comparative analysis of IQMD simulations with the experimental data in case of heavier projectile and lighter target system for the reaction of 197Au+27Al (η = 0.7) at E = 600 MeV/nucleon shows that with the inclusion of MDI we are able, upto some extent, to reproduce the experimental universality of rise and fall of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs).

  4. Late corneal edema due to retained foldable lens fragment.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Nikhil S

    2009-01-01

    Late onset of corneal edema after cataract surgery is an unusual complication. We report a case of corneal edema presenting one month after cataract surgery. During implantation of the foldable lens, one haptic of the intraocular lens fractured at the optic haptic junction. This caused lens decentration, necessitating an intraocular lens exchange ten days later. The patient was recovering well but presented again two weeks later with a drop in vision due to corneal edema. A retained haptic of the intraocular lens was seen in the inferior anterior chamber angle. After surgical removal of the retained haptic the corneal edema fully resolved. Retained intraocular lens fragments can cause corneal endothelial damage, which may be reversible with an early diagnosis and intervention. PMID:19384021

  5. Production of antibody fragments in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Tomohisa; Sonoda, Hiroyuki; Kumada, Yoichi; Yamaji, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a host widely used in the industrial production of recombinant proteins. However, the expression of heterologous proteins in E. coli often encounters the formation of inclusion bodies, which are insoluble and nonfunctional protein aggregates. For the successful production of antibody fragments, which includes single-chain variable fragments (scFvs), we describe here the modification of linker, signal, and Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences, the coexpression of cytoplasmic and periplasmic chaperones, and a method for fed-batch cultivation with exponential feed. PMID:22907360

  6. Production of recombinant antibody fragments in Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Eva; Hust, Michael; Roth, Andreas; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Schirrmann, Thomas; Jahn, Dieter; Dübel, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background Recombinant antibodies are essential reagents for research, diagnostics and therapy. The well established production host Escherichia coli relies on the secretion into the periplasmic space for antibody synthesis. Due to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, only a fraction of this material reaches the medium. Recently, the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium was shown to efficiently secrete recombinant proteins into the growth medium. Here we evaluated B. megaterium for the recombinant production of antibody fragments. Results The lysozyme specific single chain Fv (scFv) fragment D1.3 was succesfully produced using B. megaterium. The impact of culture medium composition, gene expression time and culture temperatures on the production of functional scFv protein was systematically analyzed. A production and secretion at 41°C for 24 h using TB medium was optimal for this individual scFv. Interestingly, these parameters were very different to the optimal conditions for the expression of other proteins in B. megaterium. Per L culture supernatant, more than 400 μg of recombinant His6-tagged antibody fragment were purified by one step affinity chromatography. The material produced by B. megaterium showed an increased specific activity compared to material produced in E. coli. Conclusion High yields of functional scFv antibody fragments can be produced and secreted into the culture medium by B. megaterium, making this production system a reasonable alternative to E. coli. PMID:17224052

  7. Energy production using fission fragment rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapline, G.; Matsuda, Y.

    1991-08-01

    Fission fragment rockets are nuclear reactors with a core consisting of thin fibers in a vacuum, and which use magnetic fields to extract the fission fragments from the reactor core. As an alternative to ordinary nuclear reactors, fission fragment rockets would have the following advantages: approximately twice the efficiency if the fission fragment energy can be directly converted into electricity; reduction of the buildup of a fission fragment inventory in the reactor could avoid a Chernobyl type disaster; and collection of the fission fragments outside the reactor could simplify the waste disposal problem.

  8. {J}/{ψ} production via fragmentation at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, R. M.; Roy, D. P.; Sridhar, K.

    1996-02-01

    We compute the contributions to large- p T{J}/{ψ} production at DHEA coming from fragmentation of gluons and charm quarks. We find that the charm quark fragmentation contribution dominates over the direct production of {J}/{ψ} via photongluon fusion at large- p T, while the gluon fragmentation is negligibly small over the whole range of pT. An experimental study of pT distributions of {J}/{ψ} at HERA will providea direct probe of the charm quark fragmentation functions.

  9. Fragmentation production of charmed hadrons in electron-positron annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Novoselov, A. A.

    2010-10-15

    Processes involving the production of D* mesons and {Lambda}{sub c} baryons in electron-positron annihilation at the energies of 10.58 and 91.18 GeV are considered. At the energy of 10.58 GeV, the production of pairs of B mesons that is followed by their decay to charmed particles is analyzed along with direct charm production. The violation of scaling in the respective fragmentation functions is taken into account in the next-to-leading-logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD. The required nonperturbative fragmentation functions are extracted numerically from experimental data obtained at B factories and are approximated by simple analytic expressions. It is shown that the difference in the nonperturbative fragmentation functions for transitions to mesons and baryons can readily be explained on the basis of the quark-counting rules.

  10. Product State and Speed Distributions in Photochemical Triple Fragmentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, M. S.; De Wit, G.; Heazlewood, B. R.; Nauta, K.; Kable, S. H.; Jordan, M. J. T.; Reid, S. A.; Maccarone, A. T.

    2012-06-01

    The clearest dynamical signature of a roaming reaction is a very cold distribution of energy into the rotational and translational degrees of freedom of the roaming donor fragment (e.g. CO) and an exceptionally hot vibrational distribution in the roaming acceptor fragment (e.g. H_2, CH_4). These signatures were initially identified in joint experimental/theoretical investigations of roaming in H_2CO and CH_3CHO and are now being used to infer the presence of roaming mechanisms in other photodissociating molecules. In this seminar we present a phase space theory (PST) model of triple fragmentation (3F) and show that the dynamical signature of triple fragmentation is very similar to that of the roaming donor fragment. The 3F-PST model assumes that the initial two-body fragmentation (2F) step occurs via a barrierless bond cleavage process (which is true for many many closed shell systems), and calculates the 2F-PST distribution of energy in each fragment. The 2F-PST model is benchmarked against H_2CO → H + HCO, CH_3CHO → HCO + CH_3, CH_3CHO → H + CH_3CO, and CH_3OCHO → H + CH_3OCO and shown to provide a good representation of the available experimental data. Every fragment with sufficient internal energy to undergo subsequent spontaneous dissociation is allowed to dissociate and the 3F-PST distribution of energy into secondary products is calculated. Using CH_3CHO → HCO + CH_3 → H + CO + CH_3 as an example, we calculate that the energy disposal into the product rotational and translational degrees of freedom of the secondary fragments is very low. In the case of the CO fragment this is similar to the dynamical signature for production of CO via a roaming mechanism. We compare the 3F-PST model with published experimental data for photodissociation of several molecules at energies above the 3F threshold, and demonstrate that, in some cases, 3F provides an alternative explanation for the observed product state distribution.

  11. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Erika A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody–drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products. PMID:26833854

  12. Double Parton Fragmentation Function and its Evolution in Quarkonium Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    We summarize the results of a recent study on a new perturbative QCD factorization formalism for the production of heavy quarkonia of large transverse momentum pT at collider energies. Such a new factorization formalism includes both the leading power (LP) and next-to-leading power (NLP) contributions to the cross section in the mQ2/p_T^2 expansion for heavy quark mass mQ. For the NLP contribution, the so-called double parton fragmentation functions are involved, whose evolution equations have been derived. We estimate fragmentation functions in the non-relativistic QCD formalism, and found that their contribution reproduce the bulk of the large enhancement found in explicit NLO calculations in the color singlet model. Heavy quarkonia produced from NLP channels prefer longitudinal polarization, in contrast to the single parton fragmentation function. This might shed some light on the heavy quarkonium polarization puzzle.

  13. Production of fragments and hyperfragments in antiproton-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhao-Qing

    2016-04-01

    The formation mechanism of fragments with strangeness in collisions of antiprotons on nuclei has been investigated within the Lanzhou quantum molecular dynamics (LQMD) transport model. Production of strange particles in the antiproton-induced nuclear reactions is modeled within the LQMD model, in which all possible reaction channels such as elastic scattering, annihilation, charge exchange, and inelastic scattering in antibaryon-baryon, baryon-baryon, and meson-baryon collisions have been included. A coalescence approach is developed for constructing hyperfragments in phase space. The hyperfragments are formed within the narrower rapidities. It has the advantage of producing heavier hyperfragments and hypernuclides with strangeness s =-2 (double-Λ fragments) and s =1 (Λ ¯ fragments) in antiproton-induced reactions.

  14. Heat production due to intracellular killing activity.

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, H; Masuda, S; Miyamae, T; Yamamura, M

    1990-09-01

    Using Saccharomyces ceravisiae, Candida albicans and Stapylococcus aureus, heat production during phagocytosis was measured in U937 cells which are capable of differentiating to monocytic phagocytes. No increase in heat production of non-differentiated U937 was observed since they were not phagocytic cells. However after differentiation to monocytic phagocytes by lymphokine, U937 cells produced a remarkable amount of heat during phagocytosis. Although Ehrlich ascites tumor cells sensitized with antibody were capable of engulfing S. aureus, no increase in heat nor in superoxide anion production during phagocytosis was detected. It was also found that no heat increase occurred in neutrophils from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). It can thus be concluded that the heat production during phagocytosis is due to the intercellular killing process of phagocytic cells. PMID:2131646

  15. Production of lunar fragmental material by meteoroid impact.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    The rate of production of new fragmental lunar surface material is derived theoretically on the hypothesis that such material is excavated from a bedrock layer by meteoroid impacts. An overlaying regolith effectively shields the bedrock layer from small impacts, reducing the production rate of centimeter-sized and smaller blocks by a large factor. Logarithmic production rate curves for centimeter to motor-sized blocks are nonlinear for any regolith from centimeters to tens of meters in thickness, with small blocks relatively much less frequent for thicker (older) regoliths, suggesting the possibility of a statistical reverse bedding. Modest variations in the exponents of scaling laws for crater depth-diameter ratio and maximum block-diameter to crater diameter ratio are shown to have significant effects on the production rates. The production rate increases slowly with increasing size of the largest crater affecting the region.

  16. Production of Energetic Light Fragments in Spallation Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashnik, Stepan G.; Kerby, Leslie M.; Gudima, Konstantin K.; Sierk, Arnold J.

    2014-03-01

    Different reaction mechanisms contribute to the production of light fragments (LF) from nuclear reactions. Available models cannot accurately predict emission of LF from arbitrary reactions. However, the emission of LF is important formany applications, such as cosmic-ray-induced single event upsets, radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and heavy-ion beams, to name just a few. The cascade-exciton model (CEM) and the Los Alamos version of the quark-gluon string model (LAQGSM), as implemented in the CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators used in the Los Alamos Monte Carlo transport code MCNP6, describe quite well the spectra of fragments with sizes up to 4He across a broad range of target masses and incident energies. However, they do not predict high-energy tails for LF heavier than 4He. The standard versions of CEM and LAQGSM do not account for preequilibrium emission of LF larger than 4He. The aim of our work is to extend the preequilibrium model to include such processes. We do this by including the emission of fragments heavier than 4He at the preequilibrium stage, and using an improved version of the Fermi Break-up model, providing improved agreement with various experimental data.

  17. West Germany's first North Sea production due

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1986-05-01

    Deutsche Texaco A.G. will be the first operator on behalf of itself and Wintershall A.G. to produce oil from the German sector of the North Sea, with its first oil due end of 1986 from the Mittelplate pilot project. Texaco also was the first to produce oil from the Baltic Sea when Schwedeneck-See field, near Kiel Bay, went on production last year. The pilot project at Mittelplate will yield more data on the reservoirs confirmed by four wells drilled in 1980-1981, and will be carried out in spite of adverse operating conditions. Problems facing Texaco engineers in their project design include: A mud-flat location dry at low tide but submerged at high tide. Efforts to convince environmental groups that no permanent harm would result from company activities. Shipment of low-gravity crude containing asphaltenes. Logistics of transporting equipment and supplies on a schedule dictated by tides.

  18. Modelling evolving fault zones: Fragmentation processes, products and potential implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, K.; Abe, S.

    2011-12-01

    Exhumed fault rocks display a wide variety of textural fabrics whose signatures may provide clues to the deformation processes operating during a fault's life. In an active fault, the products of intense fracturing or the development of strong fabrics can themselves be game changers in terms of macroscopic mechanical behaviour. Here we investigate the fragmentation processes operating in evolving faults during shear and the signatures they leave behind, using a numerical model. We consider: (i) what drives the production and evolution of granular debris commonly found along faults; (ii) the nature of the fragmentation products; and (iii) the potential influence of these features on subsequent sliding. Our discrete element (DEM) 3D fault gouge fragmentation models consist of aggregate grains, composed of several thousand spherical particles stuck together with breakable elastic bonds. The aggregate grains are confined between rough fault walls that can themselves potentially breakup leading to fault roughness evolution. During shear, under a given normal stress, the aggregate gouge grains can fragment and evolve in a somewhat natural way. The grain breakage in our models appears to be driven by two distinct comminution mechanisms: grain splitting and grain abrasion. The relative importance of these mechanisms changes with the applied normal stress, the accumulated slip and the boundary roughness in the model. Grain splitting contributes significantly to comminution at higher normal stresses, particularly during the initial stages of simulations. Conversely, grain abrasion prevails at lower normal stresses and is the main comminution mechanism operating in the later stages of all simulations. In terms of fragmentation products, the different mechanisms generate distinct grain size distributions. Grain splitting rapidly generates a power law size distribution, whereas grain abrasion (acting alone) tends to produce a bimodal size distribution (lacking intermediate

  19. Extensive Recombination Due to Heteroduplexes Generates Large Amounts of Artificial Gene Fragments during PCR

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Song, Hongshuo; Liu, Donglai; Zuo, Tao; Lu, Fengmin; Zhuang, Hui; Gao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Artificial recombinants can be generated during PCR when more than two genetically distinct templates coexist in a single PCR reaction. These recombinant amplicons can lead to the false interpretation of genetic diversity and incorrect identification of biological phenotypes that do not exist in vivo. We investigated how recombination between 2 or 35 genetically distinct HIV-1 genomes was affected by different PCR conditions using the parallel allele-specific sequencing (PASS) assay and the next generation sequencing method. In a standard PCR condition, about 40% of amplicons in a PCR reaction were recombinants. The high recombination frequency could be significantly reduced if the number of amplicons in a PCR reaction was below a threshold of 1013–1014 using low thermal cycles, fewer input templates, and longer extension time. Heteroduplexes (each DNA strand from a distinct template) were present at a large proportion in the PCR products when more thermal cycles, more templates, and shorter extension time were used. Importantly, the majority of recombinants were identified in heteroduplexes, indicating that the recombinants were mainly generated through heteroduplexes. Since prematurely terminated extension fragments can form heteroduplexes by annealing to different templates during PCR amplification, recombination has a better chance to occur with samples containing different genomes when the number of amplicons accumulate over the threshold. New technologies are warranted to accurately characterize complex quasispecies gene populations. PMID:25211143

  20. Large-scale production of palindrome DNA fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.L.; Gewiess, A.; Harp, J.M.

    1995-10-10

    Our structural studies of nucleosomes necessitated the production of over 100 mg of a 146-bp perfect palindrome DNA for use in the reconstitution of perfectly symmetrical nucleosome core particles for detailed X-ray crystallographic analysis. The propagation of palindromic DNA sequences by bacterial culture is hindered by the instability of these sequences during bacterial replication and recombination. While the loss of some palindrome sequences can be elminated by the use of sbcB or sbcC mutants of Escherichia coli, not all palindrome-containing plasmids are faithfully maintained by these strains. The production of large quantities of palindrome DNA can therefore be extremely difficult. After trying several approaches, we were able to develop a reliable procedure for production of large quantities of palindrome DNA that involves production of plasmid containing multiple copies of the repeating unit of the palindrome which are isolated by restriction digestion and ligated in vitro to form the palindrome DNA. The procedure has resulted in the production of over 20 mg of a 146-bp DNA fragment in 2 weeks.

  1. DRAGON: Monte Carlo generator of particle production from a fragmented fireball in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomášik, Boris

    2009-09-01

    within the statistical approach. Momentum spectra integrated over many events can be interpreted as produced from an expanding and locally thermalised fireball. The present Monte Carlo model unifies these approaches: fireball decays into fragments of some characteristic size. The fragments recede from each other as given by the pre-existing expansion of the fireball. They subsequently emit stable and unstable hadrons with momenta generated according to thermal distribution. Resonances then decay and their daughters acquire momenta as dictated by decay kinematics. Solution method: The Monte Carlo generator repeats a loop in which it generates individual events. First, sizes of fragments are generated. Then the fragments are placed within the decaying fireball and their velocities are determined from the one-to-one correspondence between the position and the expansion velocity in the blast wave model. Since hadrons may be emitted from fragments as well as from the remaining bulk fireball, first those from the bulk are generated according to the blast wave model. Then, hadron production from the fragments is treated. Each hadron is generated in the rest frame of the fragment and then boosted to the global frame. Finally, after all directly produced hadrons are generated, resonance decay channels are chosen and the momenta and positions of final state hadrons are determined. Running time: Generation of 100 events can take anything between 2 hours to a couple of days. This depends mainly on the size and density of fragments. Simulations with small fragments may be very slow. At the beginning of a run there is a period of up to 1 hour in which the program calculates thermal weights due to statistical model. This period is long if many species are included in the simulation.

  2. LISE++: Exotic beam production with fragment separators and their design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, O. B.; Bazin, D.

    2016-06-01

    Since the LISE++ code presentation at the EMIS 2007 conference (Tarasov and Bazin, 2008), important improvements have been made in the analytical and Monte Carlo calculations of transmission, and accuracy of reaction product distributions. In this paper new features of the code in ion-beam optics, creation of new LISE++ blocks, and development of some reaction models will be discussed. Large progress has been done in ion-beam optics with the introduction of "elemental" blocks, that allows optical matrices calculation within LISE++. New type of configurations based on these blocks allow a detailed analysis of the transmission, useful for fragment separator design, and can be used for optics optimization based on user constraints.

  3. Thermokarst rates intensify due to climate change and forest fragmentation in an Alaskan boreal forest lowland.

    PubMed

    Lara, Mark J; Genet, Hélène; McGuire, Anthony D; Euskirchen, Eugénie S; Zhang, Yujin; Brown, Dana R N; Jorgenson, Mark T; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Breen, Amy; Bolton, William R

    2016-02-01

    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse-scar bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice-rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5 °C of thawing. Increased permafrost thaw in lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998, and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30 × 30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, while gradient boosting/regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950 and 2009, landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² or ~7% of birch forests to wetlands, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights that the vulnerability and resilience of

  4. Alternative downstream processes for production of antibodies and antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Ejima, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    Protein-A or Protein-L affinity chromatography and virus inactivation are key processes for the manufacturing of therapeutic antibodies and antibody fragments. These two processes often involve exposure of therapeutic proteins to denaturing low pH conditions. Antibodies have been shown to undergo conformational changes at low pH, which can lead to irreversible damages on the final product. Here, we review alternative downstream approaches that can reduce the degree of low pH exposure and consequently damaged product. We and others have been developing technologies that minimize or eliminate such low pH processes. We here cover facilitated elution of antibodies using arginine in Protein-A and Protein-G affinity chromatography, a more positively charged amidated Protein-A, two Protein-A mimetics (MEP and Mabsorbent), mixed-mode and steric exclusion chromatography, and finally enhanced virus inactivation by solvents containing arginine. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Recent advances in molecular engineering of antibody. PMID:24859179

  5. Computational Hydrocode Study of Target Damage due to Fragment-Blast Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch-Aguilar, T; Najjar, F; Szymanski, E

    2011-03-24

    A target's terminal ballistic effects involving explosively generated fragments, along with the original blast, are of critical importance for many different security and safety related applications. Personnel safety and protective building design are but a few of the practical disciplines that can gain from improved understanding combined loading effects. Traditionally, any engineering level analysis or design effort involving explosions would divide the target damage analysis into two correspondingly critical areas: blast wave and fragment related impact effects. The hypothesis of this paper lies in the supposition that a linear combination of a blast-fragment loading, coupled with an accurate target response description, can lead to a non-linear target damage effect. This non-linear target response could then stand as the basis of defining what a synergistic or combined frag-blast loading might actually look like. The table below, taken from Walters, et. al. categorizes some of the critical parameters driving any combined target damage effect and drives the evaluation of results. Based on table 1 it becomes clear that any combined frag-blast analysis would need to account for the target response matching similar ranges for the mechanics described above. Of interest are the critical times upon which a blast event or fragment impact loading occurs relative to the target's modal response. A blast, for the purposes of this paper is defined as the sudden release of chemical energy from a given material (henceforth referred to as an energetic material) onto its surrounding medium. During the coupling mechanism a discrete or discontinuous shockwave is generated. This shockwave travels outward from the source transferring energy and momentum to any surrounding objects including personnel and engineering structures. From an engineering perspective blast effects are typically characterized by way of physical characteristics such as Peak Pressure (PP), Time of Arrival (TOA

  6. Predictable allele frequency changes due to habitat fragmentation in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Toby; Nieminen, Marko; Sirén, Jukka; Wong, Swee Chong; Hanski, Ilkka

    2016-03-01

    Describing the evolutionary dynamics of now extinct populations is challenging, as their genetic composition before extinction is generally unknown. The Glanville fritillary butterfly has a large extant metapopulation in the Åland Islands in Finland, but declined to extinction in the nearby fragmented southwestern (SW) Finnish archipelago in the 20th century. We genotyped museum samples for 222 SNPs across the genome, including SNPs from candidate genes and neutral regions. SW Finnish populations had significantly reduced genetic diversity before extinction, and their allele frequencies gradually diverged from those in contemporary Åland populations over 80 y. We identified 15 outlier loci among candidate SNPs, mostly related to flight, in which allele frequencies have changed more than the neutral expectation. At outlier loci, allele frequencies in SW Finland shifted in the same direction as newly established populations deviated from old local populations in contemporary Åland. Moreover, outlier allele frequencies in SW Finland resemble those in fragmented landscapes as opposed to continuous landscapes in the Baltic region. These results indicate selection for genotypes associated with good colonization capacity in the highly fragmented landscape before the extinction of the populations. Evolutionary response to habitat fragmentation may have enhanced the viability of the populations, but it did not save the species from regional extinction in the face of severe habitat loss and fragmentation. These results highlight a potentially common situation in changing environments: evolutionary changes are not strong enough to fully compensate for the direct adverse effects of environmental change and thereby rescue populations from extinction. PMID:26903642

  7. Predictable allele frequency changes due to habitat fragmentation in the Glanville fritillary butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Fountain, Toby; Nieminen, Marko; Sirén, Jukka; Wong, Swee Chong; Hanski, Ilkka

    2016-01-01

    Describing the evolutionary dynamics of now extinct populations is challenging, as their genetic composition before extinction is generally unknown. The Glanville fritillary butterfly has a large extant metapopulation in the Åland Islands in Finland, but declined to extinction in the nearby fragmented southwestern (SW) Finnish archipelago in the 20th century. We genotyped museum samples for 222 SNPs across the genome, including SNPs from candidate genes and neutral regions. SW Finnish populations had significantly reduced genetic diversity before extinction, and their allele frequencies gradually diverged from those in contemporary Åland populations over 80 y. We identified 15 outlier loci among candidate SNPs, mostly related to flight, in which allele frequencies have changed more than the neutral expectation. At outlier loci, allele frequencies in SW Finland shifted in the same direction as newly established populations deviated from old local populations in contemporary Åland. Moreover, outlier allele frequencies in SW Finland resemble those in fragmented landscapes as opposed to continuous landscapes in the Baltic region. These results indicate selection for genotypes associated with good colonization capacity in the highly fragmented landscape before the extinction of the populations. Evolutionary response to habitat fragmentation may have enhanced the viability of the populations, but it did not save the species from regional extinction in the face of severe habitat loss and fragmentation. These results highlight a potentially common situation in changing environments: evolutionary changes are not strong enough to fully compensate for the direct adverse effects of environmental change and thereby rescue populations from extinction. PMID:26903642

  8. Recombinant Kinase Production and Fragment Screening by NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Han, Byeonggu; Ahn, Hee-Chul

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has rapidly evolved and several drugs or drug candidates developed by FBDD approach are clinically in use or in clinical trials. For example, vemurafenib, a V600E mutated BRAF inhibitor, was developed by utilizing FBDD approach and approved by FDA in 2011. In FBDD, screening of fragments is the starting step for identification of hits and lead generation. Fragment screening usually relies on biophysical techniques by which the protein-bound small molecules can be detected. NMR spectroscopy has been extensively used to study the molecular interaction between the protein and the ligand, and has many advantages in fragment screening over other biophysical techniques. This chapter describes the practical aspects of fragment screening by saturation transfer difference NMR. PMID:26501900

  9. Fractures Due to Gunshot Wounds: Do Retained Bullet Fragments Affect Union?

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, John T.; Connolly, Keith; Haidukewych, George; Koval, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Background Many types of projectiles, including modern hollow point bullets, fragment into smaller pieces upon impact, particularly when striking bone. This study was performed to examine the effect on time to union with retained bullet material near a fracture site in cases of gunshot injury. Methods All gunshot injuries operatively treated with internal fixation at a Level 1 Trauma Center between March 2008 and August 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Retained bullet load near the fracture site was calculated based on percentage of material retained compared to the cortical diameter of the involved bone. Analyses were performed to assess the effect of the lead-cortical ratio and amount of comminution on time to fracture union. Results Thirty-two patients (34 fractures) met the inclusion criteria, with an equal number of comminuted (17) and non-comminuted fractures (17). Seventeen of 34 fractures (50%) united within 4 months, 16/34 (47%) developed a delayed union, and 1/34 (3%) developed a nonunion requiring revision surgery. Sixteen of 17 fractures (94%) that united by 4 months had a cumulative amount of bullet fragmentation retained near the fracture site of less than 20% of the cortical diameter. Nine out of 10 fractures (90%) with retained fragments near the fracture site was equal to or exceeding 20% of the cortical diameter had delayed or nonunion. Fracture comminution had no effect on time to union. Conclusions The quantity of retained bullet material near the fracture site was more predictive of the rate of fracture union than was comminution. Fractures with bullet fragmentation equal to or exceeding 20% of the cortical width demonstrated a significantly higher rate of delayed union/nonunion compared to those fractures with less retained bullet material, which may indicate a local cytotoxic effect from lead on bone healing. These findings may influence decisions on timing of secondary surgeries. Level of Evidence Level III PMID:26361445

  10. Flow regulation and river fragmentation in large basins due to global dam development (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grill, G. O.; Lehner, B.

    2013-12-01

    Dam construction has recently received new interest as an alternative and renewable source of energy, especially in developing countries, and as a means to provide water security in regions with naturally variable water flows. On the other hand, the negative effects from increased fragmentation of the world's large rivers through hydropower and irrigation dams is a matter of great concern for ecologists and conservationists. The main negative effects of dams result from their role as a barrier for migratory fish species, as well as the alteration of the natural flow regime owing to artificial water release schedules. While the trade-offs between these antagonistic effects are usually assessed locally by conducting environmental impact assessments at and in the vicinity of the construction site, the cumulative effects of multiple dams located in the same basin are generally neglected in such plans. To address the cumulative effects at the scale of large river networks, we developed a new impact assessment approach by combining state-of-the-art global scale hydrographic (HydroSHEDS) and hydrological models (WaterGAP) with a river routing scheme (HydroROUT). This combination enables modelers to simulate scenarios for historic, current and future conditions that allow for comparisons between the large river basins of the world. We derive indices that can describe the relative impact of individual and multiple dams regarding flow alteration and habitat fragmentation at a global scale. Our model also allows for the application of tailor-made weighting schemes to include information of eco-hydrological classifications, as well as species richness and diversity. Furthermore, we include natural barriers such as waterfalls, and examine their effect on river network connectivity. Results for the Greater Mekong Region show that ecosystem connectivity and flow alteration are most strongly affected by dams located at the mainstream rivers, particularly for basins where the main

  11. Protein fibrillation due to elongation and fragmentation of initially appeared fibrils: A simple kinetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashchiev, Dimo

    2013-09-01

    The assembly of various proteins into fibrillar aggregates is an important phenomenon with wide implications ranging from human disease to nanoscience. Employing a new model, we analyze the kinetics of protein fibrillation in the case when the process occurs by elongation of initially appeared fibrils which multiply solely by fragmentation, because fibril nucleation is negligible. Owing to its simplicity, our model leads to mathematically friendly and physically clear formulas for the time dependence of the fibrillation degree and for a number of experimental observables such as the maximum fibrillation rate, the fibrillation lag time, and the half-fibrillation time. These formulas provide a mechanistic insight into the kinetics of fragmentation-affected fibrillation of proteins. We confront theory with experiment and find that our model allows a good global description of a large dataset [W.-F. Xue, S. W. Homans, and S. E. Radford, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 8926 (2008)], 10.1073/pnas.0711664105 for the fibrillation kinetics of beta-2 microglobulin. Our analysis leads to new methods for experimental determination of the fibril solubility, elongation rate constant, and nucleation rate from data for the time course of protein fibrillation.

  12. Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

  13. Dendrite fragmentation in alloy solidification due to sidearm pinch-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann-Heyme, H.; Eckert, K.; Beckermann, C.

    2015-12-01

    Dendrite sidebranch detachment is an important fragmentation mechanism during the solidification of alloys. The detachment occurs at the junction between a sidearm and its parent stem. While this pinching process is driven by capillarity, the presence of solidification opposes the instability. Using a simple numerical model of a single sidearm, we are able to capture the essential dynamics of dendrite sidebranch development and the resulting morphological transitions. While shortly before pinch-off the neck itself obeys well-known universal scaling relations, the overall evolution of the sidearm shape sensitively depends on its initial geometry and the rate of solidification. It is found that pinch-off only occurs over limited ranges of geometrical parameters and cooling rates and is generally bounded by sidearm retraction and coalescence regimes. Simple scaling relations are identified that provide the bounds for the pinch-off regime. Pinching at the branching point is shown to be faster than the Rayleigh-Plateau instability of an infinitely long cylinder.

  14. Dendrite fragmentation in alloy solidification due to sidearm pinch-off.

    PubMed

    Neumann-Heyme, H; Eckert, K; Beckermann, C

    2015-12-01

    Dendrite sidebranch detachment is an important fragmentation mechanism during the solidification of alloys. The detachment occurs at the junction between a sidearm and its parent stem. While this pinching process is driven by capillarity, the presence of solidification opposes the instability. Using a simple numerical model of a single sidearm, we are able to capture the essential dynamics of dendrite sidebranch development and the resulting morphological transitions. While shortly before pinch-off the neck itself obeys well-known universal scaling relations, the overall evolution of the sidearm shape sensitively depends on its initial geometry and the rate of solidification. It is found that pinch-off only occurs over limited ranges of geometrical parameters and cooling rates and is generally bounded by sidearm retraction and coalescence regimes. Simple scaling relations are identified that provide the bounds for the pinch-off regime. Pinching at the branching point is shown to be faster than the Rayleigh-Plateau instability of an infinitely long cylinder. PMID:26764615

  15. Jet production and fragmentation properties in deep inelastic muon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneodo, M.; Arvidson, A.; Aubert, J. J.; Badelek, B.; Beaufays, J.; Bee, C. P.; Benchouk, C.; Berghoff, G.; Bird, I.; Blum, D.; Böhm, E.; de Bouard, X.; Brasse, F. W.; Braun, H.; Broll, C.; Brown, S.; Brück, H.; Calen, H.; Chima, J. S.; Ciborowski, J.; Clifft, R.; Coignet, G.; Combley, F.; Conrad, J.; Coughlan, J.; D'Agostini, G.; Dahlgren, S.; Dengler, F.; Derado, I.; Dreyer, T.; Drees, J.; Drobnitzki, M.; Düren, M.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, A.; Edwards, M.; Ernst, T.; Eszes, G.; Favier, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Flauger, W.; Foster, J.; Ftàčnik, J.; Gabathuler, E.; Gajewski, J.; Gamet, R.; Gayler, J.; Geddes, N.; Grafström, P.; Grard, F.; Haas, J.; Hagberg, E.; Hasert, F. J.; Hayman, P.; Heusse, P.; Jaffre, M.; Jacholkowska, A.; Janata, F.; Jancso, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kabuss, E. M.; Kellner, G.; Korbel, V.; Krüger, A.; Krüger, J.; Kullander, S.; Landgraf, U.; Lanske, D.; Loken, J.; Long, K.; Maire, M.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Maselli, S.; Mohr, W.; Montanet, F.; Montgomery, H. E.; Nagy, E.; Nassalski, J.; Norton, P. R.; Oakham, F. G.; Osborne, A. M.; Pascaud, C.; Pawlik, B.; Payre, P.; Peroni, C.; Peschel, H.; Pessard, H.; Pettingale, J.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pietrzyk, U.; Pönsgen, B.; Pötsch, M.; Renton, P.; Ribarics, P.; Rith, K.; Rondio, E.; Sandacz, A.; Scheer, M.; Schlabböhmer, A.; Schiemann, H.; Schmitz, N.; Schneegans, M.; Scholz, M.; Schröder, T.; Schultze, K.; Sloan, T.; Stier, H. E.; Studt, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Thénard, J. M.; Thompson, J. C.; de La Torre, A.; Toth, J.; Urban, L.; Urban, L.; Wallucks, W.; Whalley, M.; Wheeler, S.; Williams, W. S. C.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Windmolders, R.; Wolf, G.; Ziemons, K.

    1987-12-01

    Results are presented from a study of deep inelastic 280 GeV muon-nucleon interactions on the transverse momenta and jet properties of the final state hadrons. The results are analysed in a way which attempts to separate the contributions of hard and soft QCD effects from those that arise from the fragmentation process. The fragmentation models with which the data are compared are the Lund string model, the independent jet model, the QCD parton shower model including soft gluon interference effects, and the firestring model. The discrimination between these models is discussed. Various methods of analysis of the data in terms of hard QCD processes are presented. From a study of the properties of the jet profiles a value of α s , to leading order, is determined using the Lund string model, namely α s =0.29±0.01 (stat.) ±0.02 (syst.), for Q 2˜20 GeV2.

  16. The production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, Vivi; Lokman, Christien; van den Hondel, Cees AMJJ; Punt, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    In this review we will focus on the current status and views concerning the production of antibody fragments and antibody fusion proteins by yeasts and filamentous fungi. We will focus on single-chain antibody fragment production (scFv and VHH) by these lower eukaryotes and the possible applications of these proteins. Also the coupling of fragments to relevant enzymes or other components will be discussed. As an example of the fusion protein strategy, the 'magic bullet' approach for industrial applications, will be highlighted. PMID:12605725

  17. Influence of different liquid-drop-based bindings on lighter mass fragments and entropy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rohit; Shivani; Gautam, Sakshi

    2016-04-01

    We study the production of lighter fragments and associated phenomena within the Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) model. The Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) method is used to identify the pre-clusters. The final stable fragments were identified by imposing binding energy criteria on the fragments formed using the MST method. The effect of different binding energy criteria was investigated by employing various liquid-drop-based binding energy formulae. Though light clusters show significant effect of different binding energies, their associated phenomenon, i.e. entropy production is insensitive towards different binding energy criteria.

  18. How are particle production, nucleon emission and target fragment evaporation processes interrelated in hadron-nucleus collisions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Relations between particle production, nucleon emission, and fragment evaporation processes were searched for in hadron-nucleus collisions. It was stated that: (1) the nucleon emission and target fragment evaporation proceed independently of the particle production process; and (2) relation between multiplicities of the emitted protons and of the evaporated charged fragments is expressed by simple formula.

  19. Fungal morphology and fragmentation behavior in a fed-batch Aspergillus oryzae fermentation at the production scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Z J; Shukla, V; Fordyce, A P; Pedersen, A G; Wenger, K S; Marten, M R

    2000-11-01

    It is well known that high-viscosity fermentation broth can lead to mixing and oxygen mass transfer limitations. The seemingly obvious solution for this problem is to increase agitation intensity. In some processes, this has been shown to damage mycelia, affect morphology, and decrease product expression. However, in other processes increased agitation shows no effect on productivity. While a number of studies discuss morphology and fragmentation at the laboratory and pilot scale, there are relatively few publications available for production-scale fungal fermentations. The goal of this study was to assess morphology and fragmentation behavior in large-scale, fed-batch, fungal fermentations used for the production of protein. To accomplish this, a recombinant strain of Aspergillus oryzae was grown in 80 m(3) fermentors at two different gassed, impeller power-levels (one 50% greater than the other). Impeller power is reported as energy dissipation/circulation function (EDCF) and was found to have average values of 29.3 +/- 1.0 and 22.0 +/- 0.3 kW m(-3) s(-1) at high and low power levels, respectively. In all batches, biomass concentration profiles were similar and specific growth rate was < 0.03 h(-1). Morphological data show hyphal fragmentation occurred by both shaving-off of external clump hyphae and breakage of free hyphae. The fragmentation rate constant (k(frag)), determined using a first-order model, was 5.90 and 5.80 h(-1) for high and low power batches, respectively. At the end of each batch, clumps accounted for only 25% of fungal biomass, most of which existed as small, sparsely branched, free hyphal elements. In all batches, fragmentation was found to dominate fungal growth and branching. We speculate that this behavior was due to slow growth of the culture during this fed-batch process. PMID:10992234

  20. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O`Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-07-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) has been developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E-2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E-v measurement.

  1. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O׳Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-04-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Finally, individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). These mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.

  2. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; et al

    2015-04-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Finally,more » individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). These mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.« less

  3. Production of Mass-Separated Fission Fragment Beams at ALTO

    SciTech Connect

    Lebois, M.; Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Curaudeau, J. M.; Ducourtieux, M.; Essabaa, S.; Franchoo, S.; Gales, S.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Ibrahim, F.; Lau, C.; Lesrel, J.; Mueller, A.; Raynaud, M.; Roussiere, B.; Said, A.; Verney, D.; Vogel, C.

    2007-05-22

    Yields of neutron-rich isotopes produced by the photofission were measured at the ISOL ALTO facility. The identification was achieved by a combined measurement of {beta} and {gamma}-rays. Production rates for Xe, Kr, Sn, In and I isotopes are presented here. In parallel, empirical estimations for the yields based on the PARRNe experimental data and the results provided by a very recent FLUKA simulation are presented.

  4. Intolerance to topical products may be due to dermographism.

    PubMed

    Watsky, Kalman L; McGovern, Thomas

    2003-03-01

    Patients with reactions to topical products may be eliciting a physical urticaria, dermographism, by rubbing. These reactions may be misinterpreted as allergic, and three cases demonstrating this phenomenon were reviewed. All patients with reactions to topical products due to dermographism improved with counseling and antihistamine therapy. Repeat open application testing confirmed the safety of previously suspect medications in two of the three cases, preventing unnecessary changes in the medication regimens and inaccurate diagnoses of medication allergy. We observe that intolerance to topical medications due to dermographism can usually be managed without extensive testing or treatment. PMID:14744421

  5. The development of radioimmunoassays for fibrinogen degradation products: fragments D and E.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Y B; Martin, M J; Landon, J; Chard, T

    1975-01-01

    Fibrinogen degradation products, fragment D (FgD) and fragment E (FgE) have been measured in human serum by specific radioimmunoassays. In addition, the appearance of a neoantigenic determinant on FgD, revealed when fibrinogen is degraded by plasmin has been utilized to develop a specific radioimmunoassay for FgD in plasma (FgDneo). The reagents and conditions used in each assay are described in detail. The mean specific activity was 144 muCi/mug for 125I-labelled FgE and 82 muCi/mug for 125I-labelled FgD. Separation of antibody bound and free antigen was achieved using second antibody. The detection limits of the FgE, FgD and FgDneo assays were 0.8, 1.0 and 6.2 ng/ml respectively. The specificity of each assay with respect to fibrinogen and its degradation fragments has been assessed. Fibrinogen and fragment X cross-reacted markedly in both the FgE and FgD assays, whereas the cross-reaction of fibrinogen was abolished in the FgDneo assay, while the cross-reaction of fragment X was 10%, indicating gradual emergence of the neoantigenic site during digestion of fibriogen. The sensitivity, precision, and specificity of the radioimmunoassay systems described have major advantages over the existing procedures for the measurement of fibrinogen degradation products. PMID:1201195

  6. Neutron spectra due (13)N production in a PET cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Benavente, J A; Vega-Carrillo, H R; Lacerda, M A S; Fonseca, T C F; Faria, F P; da Silva, T A

    2015-05-01

    Monte Carlo and experimental methods have been used to characterize the neutron radiation field around PET (Positron Emission Tomography) cyclotrons. In this work, the Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to estimate the neutron spectra, the neutron fluence rates and the ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) in seven locations around a PET cyclotron during (13)N production. In order to validate these calculations, H*(10) was measured in three sites and were compared with the calculated doses. All the spectra have two peaks, one above 0.1MeV due to the evaporation neutrons and another in the thermal region due to the room-return effects. Despite the relatively large difference between the measured and calculated H*(10) for one point, the agreement was considered good, compared with that obtained for (18)F production in a previous work. PMID:25699664

  7. Early trends in landcover change and forest fragmentation due to shale-gas development in Pennsylvania: a potential outcome for the Northcentral Appalachians.

    PubMed

    Drohan, P J; Brittingham, M; Bishop, J; Yoder, K

    2012-05-01

    Worldwide shale-gas development has the potential to cause substantial landscape disturbance. The northeastern U.S., specifically the Allegheny Plateau in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky, is experiencing rapid exploration. Using Pennsylvania as a proxy for regional development across the Plateau, we examine land cover change due to shale-gas exploration, with emphasis on forest fragmentation. Pennsylvania's shale-gas development is greatest on private land, and is dominated by pads with 1-2 wells; less than 10 % of pads have five wells or more. Approximately 45-62 % of pads occur on agricultural land and 38-54 % in forest land (many in core forest on private land). Development of permits granted as of June 3, 2011, would convert at least 644-1072 ha of agricultural land and 536-894 ha of forest land. Agricultural land conversion suggests that drilling is somewhat competing with food production. Accounting for existing pads and development of all permits would result in at least 649 km of new road, which, along with pipelines, would fragment forest cover. The Susquehanna River basin (feeding the Chesapeake Bay), is most developed, with 885 pads (26 % in core forest); permit data suggests the basin will experience continued heavy development. The intensity of core forest disturbance, where many headwater streams occur, suggests that such streams should become a focus of aquatic monitoring. Given the intense development on private lands, we believe a regional strategy is needed to help guide infrastructure development, so that habitat loss, farmland conversion, and the risk to waterways are better managed. PMID:22447181

  8. Early Trends in Landcover Change and Forest Fragmentation Due to Shale-Gas Development in Pennsylvania: A Potential Outcome for the Northcentral Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drohan, P. J.; Brittingham, M.; Bishop, J.; Yoder, K.

    2012-05-01

    Worldwide shale-gas development has the potential to cause substantial landscape disturbance. The northeastern U.S., specifically the Allegheny Plateau in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky, is experiencing rapid exploration. Using Pennsylvania as a proxy for regional development across the Plateau, we examine land cover change due to shale-gas exploration, with emphasis on forest fragmentation. Pennsylvania's shale-gas development is greatest on private land, and is dominated by pads with 1-2 wells; less than 10 % of pads have five wells or more. Approximately 45-62 % of pads occur on agricultural land and 38-54 % in forest land (many in core forest on private land). Development of permits granted as of June 3, 2011, would convert at least 644-1072 ha of agricultural land and 536-894 ha of forest land. Agricultural land conversion suggests that drilling is somewhat competing with food production. Accounting for existing pads and development of all permits would result in at least 649 km of new road, which, along with pipelines, would fragment forest cover. The Susquehanna River basin (feeding the Chesapeake Bay), is most developed, with 885 pads (26 % in core forest); permit data suggests the basin will experience continued heavy development. The intensity of core forest disturbance, where many headwater streams occur, suggests that such streams should become a focus of aquatic monitoring. Given the intense development on private lands, we believe a regional strategy is needed to help guide infrastructure development, so that habitat loss, farmland conversion, and the risk to waterways are better managed.

  9. Cell-free DNA Fragmentation Patterns in Amniotic Fluid Identify Genetic Abnormalities and Changes due to Storage

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Inga; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lapaire, Olav; Johnson, Kirby L.; Bianchi, Diana W.; Terrin, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has become a promising biomarker in prenatal diagnosis. However, despite extensive studies in different body fluids, cfDNA predictive value is uncertain owing to the confounding factors that can affect its levels, such as gestational age, maternal weight, smoking status, and medications. Residual fresh and archived amniotic fluid (AF) supernatants were obtained from gravid women (mean gestational age 17 wk) carrying euploid (N = 36) and aneuploid (N = 29) fetuses, to characterize cfDNA-fragmentation patterns with regard to aneuploidy and storage time (−80°C). AF cfDNA was characterized by the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, gel electrophoresis, and pattern recognition of the DNA fragmentation. The distributions of cfDNA fragment lengths were compared using 6 measures that defined the locations and slopes for the first and last peaks, after elimination of the confounding variables. This method allowed for the unique classification of euploid and aneuploid cfDNA samples in AF, which had been matched for storage time. In addition, we showed that archived euploid AF samples gradually lose long cfDNA fragments: this loss accurately distinguishes them from the fresh samples. We present preliminary data using cfDNA-fragmentation patterns, to uniquely distinguish between AF samples of pregnant women with regard to aneuploidy and storage time, independent of gestational age and initial DNA amount. In addition to potential applications in prenatal diagnosis, these data suggest that archived AF samples consist of large amounts of short cfDNA fragments, which are undetectable using standard real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification. PMID:18382362

  10. Optical model methods of predicting nuclide production cross sections from heavy ion fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Ramsey, C. R.; Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Norbury, J. W.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Quantum mechanical optical potential methods for calculating inclusive isotope and element production cross sections from the fragmenting of heavy nuclei by intermediate- and high-energy protons and heavy ions are presented based upon a modified abrasion-ablation-FSI (frictional spectator interaction) collision model. The abrasion stage is treated as a quantum mechanical knockout process that leaves the residual prefragment in an excited state. Prefragment excitation energies are estimated using a combined liquid drop and FSI method. In ablation the prefragment deexcites by particle and photon emission to produce the final fragment. Contributions from electromagnetic dissociation to single nucleon removal cross sections are incorporated using a Weiszacker-Williams theory that includes electric dipole and electric quadrupole interactions. Estimates of elemental and isotopic production cross sections are in good agreement with published cross section measurements for a variety of projectile-target-beam energy combinations.

  11. Dissociation of CH4 by electron impact: Production of metastable hydrogen and carbon fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, T. G.; Carnahan, B. L.; Zipf, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    Metastable fragments produced by electron impact excitation of CH4 have been investigated for incident electron energies from threshold to 300 eV. Only metastable hydrogen and carbon atoms were observed. Onset energies for the production of metastable hydrogen atoms were observed at electron impact energies of 22.0 + or - .5 eV, 25.5 + or - .6 eV, 36.7 + or - .6 eV and 66 + or - 3 eV, and at 26.6 + or - .6 eV for the production of metastable carbon atoms. Most of the fragments appear to have been formed in high-lying Rydberg states. The total metastable hydrogen cross section reaches a maximum value of approximately 1 X 10 to the minus 18th power sq cm at 100 eV. At the same energy, the metastable carbon cross section is 2 x 10 to the minus 19th power sq cm.

  12. ESA DUE GlobVapour water vapor products: Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Nadine; Schröder, Marc; Lindstrot, Ramus; Preusker, Rene; Stengel, Martin; ESA DUE GlobVapour Consortium

    2013-05-01

    The main objective of the European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) GlobVapour project was the development of multi-annual global water vapor data sets. Since water vapour is a key climate variable it is important to have a good understanding of its behavior in the climate system. The ESA DUE GlobVapour project provides water vapor data, including error estimates, based on carefully calibrated and inter-calibrated satellite radiances in response to user requirements for long time series satellite observations. ESA DUE GlobVapour total columnar water vapor (TCWV) products derived from GOME/SCIA/GOME-2 (1996-2008) and SSM/I+MERIS (2003-2008) have been validated for the mentioned period, using satellite-based (AIRS, ATOVS) and ground-based measurements (radiosondes and microwave radiometer). The validation results are discussed in the following. The technical specifications on bias (1 kg/m2 for SSMI+MERIS and 2 kg/m2 for GOME/SCIA/GOME-2) are generally met. For more information, documents and data download follow the link: www.globvapour.info.

  13. ESA DUE GlobVapour water vapor products: Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Nadine; Schroeder, Marc; Stengel, Martin; Lindstrot, Ramus; Preusker, Rene; Collaboration: ESA DUE GlobVapour Consortium

    2013-05-10

    The main objective of the European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) GlobVapour project was the development of multi-annual global water vapor data sets. Since water vapour is a key climate variable it is important to have a good understanding of its behavior in the climate system. The ESA DUE GlobVapour project provides water vapor data, including error estimates, based on carefully calibrated and inter-calibrated satellite radiances in response to user requirements for long time series satellite observations. ESA DUE GlobVapour total columnar water vapor (TCWV) products derived from GOME/SCIA/GOME-2 (1996-2008) and SSM/I+MERIS (2003-2008) have been validated for the mentioned period, using satellite-based (AIRS, ATOVS) and ground-based measurements (radiosondes and microwave radiometer). The validation results are discussed in the following. The technical specifications on bias (1 kg/m{sup 2} for SSMI+MERIS and 2 kg/m{sup 2} for GOME/SCIA/GOME-2) are generally met. For more information, documents and data download follow the link: www.globvapour.info.

  14. Earth's 2006 Encounter with Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann: Products of Nucleus Fragmentation Seen in Closeup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    The large numbers of nucleus fragments observed are a spectacular illustration of the process of cascading fragmentation in progress, a concept introduced to interpret the properties of the Kreutz system of sungrazers and comet D/1993 F2. The objective is to describe the fragmentation sequence and hierarchy of comet 73P, the nature of the fragmentation process and observed events, and the expected future evolution of this comet. The orbital arc populated by the fragments refers to an interval of 3.74 days in the perihelion time. This result suggests that they all could be products (but not necessarily first-generation fragments) of two 1995 events, in early September (involving an enormous outburst) and at the beginning of November. The interval of perihelion times is equivalent to a range of about 2.5 m/s in separation velocity or 0.00012 the Sun's attraction in nongravitational deceleration. Their combined effect suggests minor orbital momentum changes acquired during fragmentation and decelerations compatible with survival over two revolutions about the Sun. Fragment B is a likely first-generation product of one of the 1995 events. From the behavior of the primary fragment C, 73P is not a dying comet, even though fragment B and others were episodically breaking up into many pieces. Each episode began with the sudden appearance of a starlike nucleus condensation and a rapidly expanding outburst, followed by a development of jets, and a gradual tailward extension of the fading condensation, until the discrete masses embedded in it could be resolved. In April-May, this debris traveled first to the southwest, but models show their eventual motion toward the projected orbit. Fainter fragments were imaged over limited time, apparently because of their erratic activity (interspersed with periods of dormancy) rather than improptu disintegration. A dust trail joining the fragments and reminiscent of comet 141P/Machholz suggests that cascading fragmentation exerts itself

  15. Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

    2014-10-01

    As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be

  16. On the relationship between microbubble fragmentation, deflation, and broadband superharmonic signal production

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Brooks D.; Rojas, Juan D.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic angiography imaging of microbubble contrast agents utilizes the superharmonic energy produced from excited microbubbles, and enables high-contrast, high-resolution imaging. However, the exact mechanism by which broadband harmonic energy is produced is not fully understood. In order to elucidate the role of microbubble shell fragmentation in superharmonic signal production, simultaneous optical and acoustic measurements were performed on individual microbubbles at transmit frequencies from 1.75 to 3.75 MHz and pressures near the shell fragmentation threshold for microbubbles of varying diameter. High-amplitude, broadband superharmonic signals were produced with shell fragmentation, while weaker signals (approximately 25% of peak amplitude) were observed in the presence of shrinking bubbles. Furthermore, when imaging populations of stationary microbubbles with a dual-frequency ultrasound imaging system, a sharper decline in image intensity with respect to frame number was observed for 1 μm bubbles than for 4 μm bubbles. Finally, in a study of two rodents, increasing frame rate from 4 to 7 Hz resulted in a decrease in mean steady-state image intensity of 27% at 1000 kPa and 29% at 1300 kPa. While the existence of superharmonic signals when bubbles shrink has the potential to prolong the imaging efficacy of microbubbles, parameters such as frame rate and peak pressure must be balanced with expected re-perfusion rate in order to maintain adequate contrast during in vivo imaging. PMID:25766572

  17. Twist-3 fragmentation effects for ALT in light hadron production from proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Y.; Pitonyak, D.; Takagi, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2016-01-01

    We compute the contribution from the twist-3 fragmentation function for light hadron production in collisions between transversely and longitudinally polarized protons, i.e., p↑ p → → h X, which can cause a double-spin asymmetry (DSA) ALT. This is a naïve T-even twist-3 observable that we analyze in collinear factorization using both Feynman gauge and lightcone gauge as well as give a general proof of color gauge invariance. So far only twist-3 effects in the transversely polarized proton have been studied for ALT in p↑ p → → h X. However, there are indications that the naïve T-odd transverse single-spin asymmetry (SSA) AN in p↑ p → h X is dominated not by such distribution effects but rather by a fragmentation mechanism. Therefore, one may expect similarly that the fragmentation contribution is important for ALT. Given possible plans at RHIC to measure this observable, it is timely to provide a calculation of this term.

  18. Integration of Molecular Networking and In-Silico MS/MS Fragmentation for Natural Products Dereplication.

    PubMed

    Allard, Pierre-Marie; Péresse, Tiphaine; Bisson, Jonathan; Gindro, Katia; Marcourt, Laurence; Pham, Van Cuong; Roussi, Fanny; Litaudon, Marc; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2016-03-15

    Dereplication represents a key step for rapidly identifying known secondary metabolites in complex biological matrices. In this context, liquid-chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) is increasingly used and, via untargeted data-dependent MS/MS experiments, massive amounts of detailed information on the chemical composition of crude extracts can be generated. An efficient exploitation of such data sets requires automated data treatment and access to dedicated fragmentation databases. Various novel bioinformatics approaches such as molecular networking (MN) and in-silico fragmentation tools have emerged recently and provide new perspective for early metabolite identification in natural products (NPs) research. Here we propose an innovative dereplication strategy based on the combination of MN with an extensive in-silico MS/MS fragmentation database of NPs. Using two case studies, we demonstrate that this combined approach offers a powerful tool to navigate through the chemistry of complex NPs extracts, dereplicate metabolites, and annotate analogues of database entries. PMID:26882108

  19. Impact Fragmentation and Crushing of Concrete and Other Solids Due to Kinetic Energy of High Shear Strain Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazant, Zdenek; Kirane, Kedar

    While numerous studies have dealt with dynamic crack propagation, they have not led to a macroscopic continuum model usable in FE analysis. Recent work on such a model is reviewed. The key idea is that comminution under high-rate shear is driven by the release local kinetic (rather than strain) energy of the shear strain rate field in forming finite-size fragments. At strain rates >103/s, this energy exceeds the maximum possible elastic strain energy by orders of magnitude. It is found that the particle size scales as the -2/3 power of the shear strain rate and as the 2/3 power of interface fracture energy, and the released and dissipated kinetic energy as the 2/3 power of the shear strain rate. These results explain the long debated phenomenon of ``dynamic overstress''. In FE simulations, this kinetic energy of strain rate field can be dissipated either by equivalent viscosity or by the work of increased strength limits. In simulating the impact of missiles into concrete walls, both approaches give nearly equivalent results. A dimensionless indicator of the comminution intensity is also formulated. The theory was inspired by noting that the local kinetic energy of shear strain rate plays a role analogous to the local kinetic energy of eddies in turbulent flow.

  20. Production of stabilized scFv antibody fragments in the E. coli bacterial cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Vaks, Lilach; Benhar, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Parallel to full-length IgG format the development of recombinant technologies provided the production of smaller recombinant antibody variants. The single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody is a minimal form of functional antibody comprised of the variable domains of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains connected by a flexible linker. In most cases, scFvs are expressed in the bacterium E. coli. The production of soluble scFvs under the reducing conditions of the E. coli bacterial cytoplasm is inefficient because of the inability of the disulfide bonds to form. Hence, scFvs are either secreted to the periplasm as soluble proteins or expressed in the cytoplasm as insoluble inclusion bodies and recovered by refolding. The cytoplasmic expression of scFvs as a C-terminal fusion to maltose-binding protein (MBP) provided the high-level production of stable, soluble, and functional fusion protein. The below protocol provides the detailed description of MBP-scFv production in E. coli utilizing two expression systems: pMalc-TNN and pMalc-NHNN. Although the MBP tag does not disrupt the most of antibody activities, the MBP-TNN-scFv product can be cleaved by TEV protease in order to obtain untagged scFv. PMID:24037842

  1. Production, purification and biological characterization of mono-PEGylated anti-IL-17A antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Koussoroplis, Salome-Juliette; Heywood, Sam; Uyttenhove, Catherine; Barilly, Céline; Van Snick, Jacques; Vanbever, Rita

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to maximize the yield of the production of mono-PEGylated anti-interleukin-17A (anti-IL-17A) antibody fragments using large (≥ 20 kDa) polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains. Particular attention was paid to selectively yield mono-PEGylated species to maintain the maximum possible functionality and to simplify the purification. Neutralization of IL-17A by antibody constructs might find application for the treatment of bronchial hyperreactivity. Amino-directed and sulfhydryl-directed PEGylation of the native antibody fragments were compared. The former was selected as it produced the most interesting construct in terms of yield and preservation of biological activity. In particular, the F(ab')2-PEG conjugate with one 40 kDa branched PEG prepared in this study was produced at a 42% yield. The conjugate presented only a slight decrease in its binding activity and in its in vitro inhibitory potency offering interesting perspectives for in vivo studies. PMID:23850622

  2. Loss of work productivity due to illness and medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, I M; Bailit, H L; Berndt, E R; Finkelstein, S N

    1999-11-01

    We examined the effects on work productivity of treatment with antihistamines in a retrospective study using linked health claims data and daily work output records for a sample of nearly 6000 claims processors at a large insurance company, between 1993 and 1995. We explained the variation in work output depending on the subjects' demographic characteristics, their jobs, and whether they were treated with "sedating" versus "nonsedating" antihistamines for nasal allergies. Differences of up to 13% in productivity were found after the subjects took sedating or nonsedating antihistamines. The observed effect suggests substantial indirect economic costs, which up to now have been largely overlooked because work productivity has proved difficult to measure objectively. PMID:10570499

  3. Intensification of tropical Pacific biological productivity due to volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikamoto, Megumi O.; Timmermann, Axel; Yoshimori, Masakazu; Lehner, Flavio; Laurian, Audine; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Mouchet, Anne; Joos, Fortunat; Raible, Christoph C.; Cobb, Kim M.

    2016-02-01

    Major volcanic eruptions generate widespread ocean cooling, which reduces upper ocean stratification. This effect has the potential to increase nutrient delivery into the euphotic zone and boost biological productivity. Using externally forced last millennium simulations of three climate/Earth System models (Model for Interdisciplinary Research On Climate (MIROC), Community Earth System Model (CESM), and LOch-Vecode-Ecbilt-CLio-agIsm Model (LOVECLIM)), we test the hypothesis that large volcanic eruptions intensify nutrient-driven export production. It is found that strong volcanic radiative forcing enhances the likelihood of eastern Pacific El Niño-like warming in CESM and LOVECLIM. This leads to an initial reduction of nutrients and export production in the eastern equatorial Pacific. However, this initial response reverses after about 3 years in association with La Niña cooling. The resulting delayed enhancement of biological production resembles the multiyear response in MIROC. The model simulations show that volcanic impacts on tropical Pacific dynamics and biogeochemistry persist for several years, thus providing a new source for potential multiyear ecosystem predictability.

  4. Flare fragmentation and type III productivity in the 1980 June 27 flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, M. J.; Schwartz, R. A.; Benz, A. O.; Lin, R. P.; Pelling, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the solar flare on June 27, 1980 were presented, 16:14-16:33 UT, which was observed by a balloon-borne 300 sq cm phoswich hard X-ray detector and by the IKARUS radio spectrometer. This flare shows intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission and an extreme productivity of (at least 754) type III bursts at 200-400 MHz. A linear correlation was found between the type III burst rate and the HXR fluence. The occurrence of about 10 type III bursts/second, and also the even higher rate of millisecond spikes, suggests a high degree of fragmentation in the acceleration region. This high quantization of injected beams, assuming the thick-target model, shows up in a linear relationship between hard X-ray fluence and the type III rate, but not as fine structures in the HXR time profile. The generation of a superhot isothermal HXR component in the decay phase of the flare coincides with the fade-out of type III production.

  5. Instability of the Contained Mode Due to Fusion Product Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riconda, C.; Coppi, B.; Penn, G.

    1996-11-01

    We study a model(C. Riconda, G. Penn, B. Coppi, 1996 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference, PPPL (Princeton University). Paper#2C39 ) that explains the main characteristics of enhanced ion cyclotron emission in fusing plasmas. In particular, the radiation peaks occur at harmonics of the α (or D) cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma column(JET Team, Phys. of Fluids \\underbar B5) (1993) 3 . In this model, the radiation results from the excitation of radially ``contained''(B. Coppi, Phys. Lett. A \\underbar 172) (1993) 439 modes, treated in a cylindrical approximation, which are driven unstable by the fusion products. The growth rate is evaluated using a full toroidal calculation for particle dymanics, and depends linearly on the α-particle density. The ``contained'' modes of this model are sharply localized in radius, compared to the radial excursion of the trapped particle orbits. In the limit where the growth rate is larger than the orbital frequency, this allows the calculation of the growth rate in the WKB approximation, where all quantities are evaluated at the mode layer and radial derivatives are neglected. We show the dependence of the growth rate on Larmor radius, toroidal effects (including drifts), and anisotropy in velocity space.

  6. Lowest cost due to highest productivity and highest quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenk, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Since global purchasing in the automotive industry has been taken up all around the world there is one main key factor that makes a TB-supplier today successful: Producing highest quality at lowest cost. The fact that Tailored Blanks, which today may reach up to 1/3 of a car body weight, are purchased on the free market but from different steel suppliers, especially in Europe and NAFTA, the philosophy on OEM side has been changing gradually towards tough evaluation criteria. "No risk at the stamping side" calls for top quality Tailored- or Tubular Blank products. Outsourcing Tailored Blanks has been starting in Japan but up to now without any quality request from the OEM side like ISO 13919-1B (welding quality standard in Europe and USA). Increased competition will automatically push the quality level and the ongoing approach to combine high strength steel with Tailored- and Tubular Blanks will ask for even more reliable system concepts which enables to weld narrow seams at highest speed. Beside producing quality, which is the key to reduce one of the most important cost driver "material scrap," in-line quality systems with true and reliable evaluation is going to be a "must" on all weld systems. Traceability of all process related data submitted to interfaces according to customer request in combination with ghost-shift-operation of TB systems are tomorrow's state-of-the-art solutions of Tailored Blank-facilities.

  7. Extraction and recovery of pectic fragments from citrus processing waste for co-production with ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steam treatment of citrus processing waste (CPW) at 160°C followed by a rapid decompression (steam explosion) at either pH 2.8 or 4.5 provides an efficient and rapid fragmentation of protopectin in CPW and renders a large fraction of fragmented pectins, arabinans, galactans and arabinogalactans solu...

  8. Our Fragile, Fragmented Physician Workforce: How to Keep Today's Physicians Engaged and Productive.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Kurt; Miller, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Due to a variety of impingements on their clinical decision-making and overall practice autonomy, many physicians are expressing frustration with the current medical practice environment and are disengaging from patient care roles as a result. In this article, we trace the causes of physician dissatisfaction and the ways in which physicians are seeking alternative practice styles. We then outline steps medical practices can take to keep physicians engaged in patient care and productive in their practices. PMID:26665476

  9. 30 CFR 210.103 - When are my production reports due?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When are my production reports due? 210.103 Section 210.103 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT FORMS AND REPORTS Production Reports-Oil and Gas § 210.103 When are my production reports due?...

  10. 30 CFR 1210.103 - When are my production reports due?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue FORMS AND REPORTS Production Reports-Oil and Gas § 1210.103 When are my production reports due? (a) The ONRR must receive your completed Forms MMS-4054 and MMS-4058 by the 15th day... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When are my production reports due?...

  11. The Effect of Erosion Rate on Hillslope Rock Fragment Production: Implications for Supply of Bedload Material to Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. A.; Attal, M.; Sklar, L. S.; Riebe, C. S.; Hurst, M. D.; Mudd, S. M.; Yoo, K.

    2009-12-01

    The size distribution, abundance and durability of coarse sediment supplied by hillslopes to channels fundamentally influences channel morphodynamics, including the rate of river incision into bedrock. However, little is known about how hillslope boundary conditions such as erosion rate, climate and lithology, affect the production of bedload-sized rock fragments (> 2mm) on soil-mantled hillslopes. We hypothesize that more rapidly eroding hillslopes should produce larger, more abundant and more durable rock fragments, all else equal, because soils should be thinner, residence times shorter, and soil-producing disturbances such as tree throw more likely to transport unweathered bedrock to the surface. Here we present measurements of soil grain size distributions from three climatically distinct sites in northern California, where erosion rates vary widely within each site. Two of our sites are in granitic terrain in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Fort Sage and Feather River), where rates of erosion and chemical weathering are constrained from previous measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides exposure ages and insoluble element enrichment. At the third site (Butano Ridge), an asymmetrical ridge underlain by massive sandstone in the Santa Cruz Mountains, we infer variable erosion rates from analysis of topographic curvature and hillslope gradient using a high-resolution LiDAR-derived DEM. We focus on the creep-dominated portion of the landscape to avoid sampling in landscape scars where the size distribution may not reflect long-term average production patterns. Bulk soil samples are taken from pits excavated to below the soil saprolite-bedrock boundary. We then sieve to obtain the full grain-size distribution in the soil column above the saprolite. We are also using laboratory tumbling mills to characterize rock fragment durability and assess the potential for fragment survival as bedload, once delivered to the channel. We find that rock fragment abundance generally

  12. Determination of the cross sections for the production of fragments from relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions. I. Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.R.; Binns, W.R.; Garrard, T.L.; Israel, M.H.; Klarmann, J.; Stone, E.C.; Waddington, C.J. Department of Physics, Washington, University, St. Louis, MO McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO George W. Downs Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA )

    1990-12-01

    Relativistic iron, lanthanum, holmium, and gold projectile nuclei with several different energies have been fragmented in targets of polyethylene, carbon, aluminum, copper, and lead. Our detectors cleanly resolve the individual charges of the heaviest of these fragments and provide some limited information on the masses. We have measured 1256 elemental partial cross sections for the production of fragments from interactions in these target materials. Values have been derived for another 417 cross sections in a hydrogen medium. These cross sections depend on the energy and mass of the projectile nuclei as well as on the nature of the target. Total charge-changing cross sections were also found, but only in a composite target, and have been shown to be weakly dependent on energy. The mean mass losses observed for fragments that have lost a few protons show that typically many neutrons are lost with each proton, producing fragment nuclei that must be highly proton rich, and consequently very unstable. The cross sections for charge pickup on heavy targets show a rapid increase with decreasing energy, particularly for the heaviest targets. The systematics of the dependencies of the partial cross sections will be discussed in a companion paper.

  13. Isotopic production cross sections and recoil velocities of spallation-fission fragments in the reaction {sup 238}U(1A GeV)+d

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, J.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Armbruster, P.; Enqvist, T.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Bernas, M.; Mustapha, B.; Rejmund, F.; Stephan, C.; Taieeb, J.; Tassan-Got, L.; Boudard, A.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Volant, C.; Wlazlo, W.

    2007-01-15

    Fission fragments of 1A GeV{sup 238}U nuclei interacting with a deuterium target have been investigated with the Fragment Separator (FRS) at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) by measuring their isotopic production cross sections and velocities. Results, along with those obtained recently for spallation-evaporation fragments, provide a comprehensive analysis of the spallation nuclear productions in this reaction. Details about the experimental performance, data reduction and results are presented.

  14. DRAGON: Monte Carlo Generator of Particle Production from a Fragmented Fireball in Ultrarelativistic Nuclear Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasik, Boris

    2010-11-01

    A Monte Carlo generator of the final state of hadrons emitted from an ultrarelativistic nuclear collision is introduced. An important feature of the generator is a possible fragmentation of the fireball and emission of the hadrons from fragments. Phase space distribution of the fragments is based on the blast wave model extended to azimuthally non-symmetric fireballs. Parameters of the model can be tuned and this allows to generate final states from various kinds of fireballs. A facultative output in the OSCAR1999A format allows for a comprehensive analysis of phase-space distributions and/or use as an input for an afterburner. DRAGON's purpose is to produce artificial data sets which resemble those coming from real nuclear collisions provided fragmentation occurs at hadronisation and hadrons are emitted from fragments without any further scattering. Its name, DRAGON, stands for DRoplet and hAdron GeneratOr for Nuclear collisions. In a way, the model is similar to THERMINATOR, with the crucial difference that emission from fragments is included.

  15. Dissociation and Re-Aggregation of Multicell-Ensheathed Fragments Responsible for Rapid Production of Massive Clumps of Leptothrix Sheaths.

    PubMed

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; McFarlane, Ian R; Tamura, Katsunori; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Species of the Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix produce tremendous amounts of microtubular, Fe/Mn-encrusted sheaths within a few days in outwells of groundwater that can rapidly clog water systems. To understand this mode of rapid sheath production and define the timescales involved, behaviors of sheath-forming Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 were examined using time-lapse video at the initial stage of sheath formation. OUMS1 formed clumps of tangled sheaths. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of a thin layer of bacterial exopolymer fibrils around catenulate cells (corresponding to the immature sheath). In time-lapse videos, numerous sheath filaments that extended from the periphery of sheath clumps repeatedly fragmented at the apex of the same fragment, the fragments then aggregated and again elongated, eventually forming a large sheath clump comprising tangled sheaths within two days. In this study, we found that fast microscopic fragmentation, dissociation, re-aggregation and re-elongation events are the basis of the rapid, massive production of Leptothrix sheaths typically observed at macroscopic scales. PMID:27490579

  16. 30 CFR 202.550 - How do I determine the royalty due on gas production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... value, the royalty due is the unit value of production for royalty purposes, determined under 30 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine the royalty due on gas production? 202.550 Section 202.550 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  17. Production and characterization of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) for the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON)is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi that infest cereal grains worldwide. A hybridoma cell line producing a monoclonal antibody (Mab) recognizing DON was used as the starting point in the development of a recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody. The scFv wa...

  18. Comparison of the serum fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products with cytokeratin 19 fragment as biomarkers in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    So, Hee Jin; Hong, Seok-Il; Lee, Jin Kyung; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Kang, Sun Jung; Hong, Young Jun

    2014-09-01

    Lung cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related mortality. The identification of early diagnostic biomarkers improved outcomes for lung cancer patients. Serum fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) levels are elevated in numerous malignancies due to hemostatic alterations. The serum FDP levels were compared to the levels of cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen (CYFRA 21-1), another well-established biomarker. The serum samples from 193 lung cancer patients, 84 healthy controls and 106 patients with benign respiratory diseases were obtained. The serum FDP level was measured using the DR-70 immunoassay and the CYFRA 21-1 level was measured by electrochemiluminescence using the Roche Analytics E170. Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to assess the predictive sensitivity and specificity. The mean serum FDP level in lung cancer patients (35.01±229.02 μg/ml) was significantly higher compared to the 190 non-cancerous subjects (0.60±0.75 μg/ml; P=0.039). The mean serum CYFRA 21-1 level in lung cancer patients (4.50±6.67 ng/ml) was also significantly higher compared to the non-cancerous subjects (1.40±0.83 ng/ml; P<0.05). FDP exhibited clinical sensitivity and specificity of 86 and 75%, respectively, at an optimal cut-off at 0.67 μg/ml. CYFRA 21-1 exhibited clinical sensitivity and specificity of 77 and 74%, respectively, at a cut-off of 1.65 ng/ml. The serum FDP area under the curve (0.87) was slightly higher compared to CYFRA 21-1 (0.83). Therefore, it is apparent that serum FDP is comparable to CYFRA 21-1 as a lung cancer biomarker and can be used for clinical practice. PMID:25054020

  19. 30 CFR 1210.103 - When are my production reports due?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When are my production reports due? 1210.103 Section 1210.103 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE FORMS AND REPORTS Production Reports-Oil and Gas § 1210.103 When are my production...

  20. Cell-free production of Gaussia princeps luciferase – antibody fragment bioconjugates for ex vivo detection of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kedar G.; Ng, Patrick P.; Kuo, Chiung-Chi; Levy, Shoshana; Levy, Ronald; Swartz, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Antibody fragments (scFvs) fused to luciferase reporter proteins have been used as highly sensitive optical imaging probes. Gaussia princeps luciferase (GLuc) is an attractive choice for a reporter protein because it is small and bright and does not require ATP to stimulate bioluminescence-producing reactions. Both GLuc and scFv proteins contain multiple disulfide bonds, and consequently the production of active and properly folded GLuc–scFv fusions is challenging. We therefore produced both proteins individually in active form, followed by covalent coupling to produce the intended conjugate. We used an Escherichia coli-based cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) platform to produce GLuc and scFv proteins containing non-natural amino acids (nnAAs) for subsequent conjugation by azide–alkyne click chemistry. GLuc mutants with exposed alkyne reactive groups were produced by global replacement of methionine residues in CFPS. Antibody fragment scFvs contained a single exposed azide group using a scheme for site-specific incorporation of tyrosine analogs. Incorporation of tyrosine analogs at specific sites in proteins was performed using an engineered orthogonal tRNA–tRNA synthetase pair from an archaebacterium. The unique azide and alkyne side chains in GLuc and the antibody fragment scFv facilitated conjugation by click chemistry. GLuc–scFv conjugates were shown to differentiate between cells expressing a surface target of the scFv and cells that did not carry this marker. PMID:19852937

  1. Accumulation of small fragments of DNA in isolated HeLa cell nuclei due to transient incorporation of dUMP.

    PubMed

    Wist, E; Unhjem, O; Krokan, H

    1978-09-27

    [3H]dUMP was incorporated into DNA of isolated S-phase HeLa S3 cell nuclei during DNA synthesis. The incorporated radioactivity was made acid soluble during a chase with excess TTP. A partially purified DNA polymerase alpha incorporated [3H]dUMP into activated salmon sperm DNA. The incorporation rate was equal to the incorporation of [3H]TMP, and the radioactivity incorporated was not made acid soluble during a chase. The nuclei thus have the ability to remove misincorporated uracil. From cytosol we have partially purified an enzyme (80 times purification) that splits the N-glycosidic bond between uracil and deoxyribose in dUMP-containing DNA. This uracil-N-glycosidase has a molecular weight of about 50 000. It does not accept dUTP or RNA as substrates. Pulse labelling of isolated nuclei with radioactive deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in the presence of dUTP lead to a large accumulation of label in small DNA fragments. The size of these fragments was about 80 nucleotides in a 60 s pulse and no increase in size was observed with increasing pulse length. The corresponding value for control experiments with no dUTP, was 200 nucleotides and the fragments increased in size with increasing pulse length. About 90% of the radioactivity was found in the small fragments after a 3 min pulse when the concentration of dUTP in the test mixture was 100 micrometer and no exogenous TTP was present. In control experiments with no dUTP present, only 14% of the radioactivity was found in small DNA pieces. When test mixture containing dUTP was preincubated with cytosol for 60 s before adding the isolated nuclei, the small fragments increased in size to that of DNA fragments found in control incubations; also the relative amount of label bound to the fragments returned to the levels found in the controls. Increasing the TTP concentration from 5 micrometer to 1.88 mM in the absence of exogenous dUTP had no effect on the size of the DNA fragments. PMID:708736

  2. Stimulation of fibrinogen synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes by fibrinogen degradation product fragment D.

    PubMed Central

    LaDuca, F M; Tinsley, L A; Dang, C V; Bell, W R

    1989-01-01

    The direct stimulation of fibrinogen biosynthesis by fibrinogen degradation produces (FDPs) was studied in rat hepatocyte cultures. Pure rat FDP fragment D (FDP-D) (Mr 90,000) and FDP fragment E (FDP-E) (Mr 40,000) and mixtures of the two (FDP-DE) were added to rat hepatocytes cultured in serum-free hormonally defined medium. Hydrocortisone (20 microM) significantly increased synthesis of fibrinogen, as determined by incorporation of [35S]methionine. FDP-D and FDP-E did not increase fibrinogen synthesis in the presence of hydrocortisone. However, hepatocytes cultured without hydrocortisone displayed increased fibrinogen synthesis (2.0- to 2.8-fold) with FDP-D (2.6-6.7 microM) but not with FDP-E (5.7 microM). At these FDP concentrations the synthesis of albumin, haptoglobin, and transferrin was not increased. FDP-D-induced fibrinogen synthesis was inhibited (greater than 90%) by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, indicating that the increase in [35S]methionine incorporation was from de novo protein synthesis. The role of FDP-D was further substantiated by showing that FDP-D, but not FDP-E, bound to the hepatocytes. These data indicate that FDP-D, but not FDP-E, directly and specifically stimulates fibrinogen synthesis in rat hepatocytes; this stimulation does not require any additional serum or protein cofactors. Images PMID:2813424

  3. Single cell analysis applied to antibody fragment production with Bacillus megaterium: development of advanced physiology and bioprocess state estimation tools

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Single cell analysis for bioprocess monitoring is an important tool to gain deeper insights into particular cell behavior and population dynamics of production processes and can be very useful for discrimination of the real bottleneck between product biosynthesis and secretion, respectively. Results Here different dyes for viability estimation considering membrane potential (DiOC2(3), DiBAC4(3), DiOC6(3)) and cell integrity (DiBAC4(3)/PI, Syto9/PI) were successfully evaluated for Bacillus megaterium cell characterization. It was possible to establish an appropriate assay to measure the production intensities of single cells revealing certain product secretion dynamics. Methods were tested regarding their sensitivity by evaluating fluorescence surface density and fluorescent specific concentration in relation to the electronic cell volume. The assays established were applied at different stages of a bioprocess where the antibody fragment D1.3 scFv production and secretion by B. megaterium was studied. Conclusions It was possible to distinguish between live, metabolic active, depolarized, dormant, and dead cells and to discriminate between high and low productive cells. The methods were shown to be suitable tools for process monitoring at single cell level allowing a better process understanding, increasing robustness and forming a firm basis for physiology-based analysis and optimization with the general application for bioprocess development. PMID:21496219

  4. Hazard map of agricultural products due to typhoons-an example of Bok-choy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yong-Jun; Ma, Kuo-Chen; Lai, Jihn-Sung; Chang, Tsang-Jung; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2015-04-01

    The torrential rain and strong wind brought by typhoons usually cause huge damages to agricultural products. This study aims at hazard map of agricultural products due to typhoons. The factors affecting the hazard of agricultural products due to typhoons include the duration of flooding, flooding depth, wind speed, and rainfall intensity. High rainfall intensity and high wind speed may knock down the leaves or fruits of the plants. The long-duration of flooding or high flooding depth may chock the plant or rotten the roots. In order to get the information needed for making hazard map due to assumed scenarios, an overland flow simulations is performed for getting the duration of flooding and maximum flooding in the study area. The data of wind speed is obtained from metrological stations. Four levels of hazard are defined due to the characteristic of the chosen agricultural products- Bok-choy (such average height of mature Bok-choy). The final goal of this study is to establish a real-time hazard evaluation system for the specific agricultural products.

  5. Antithrombin III and fibrinogen degradation product (fragment E) in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Chan, V; Yeung, C K; Chan, T K

    1982-06-01

    Plasma antithrombin III (AtIII), serum fragment E (FgE) and urine AtIII and FgE were measured in 25 diabetic patients with proteinuria above 1 g per day and compared to that in 25 patients with non-diabetic nephropathy, matched for the degree of proteinuria. Plasma AtIII concentrations were normal in both groups but FgE concentrations were increased. The level of plasma AtIII was directly related to HbA1 concentrations in the diabetics. For the same degree of proteinuria, the diabetic patients lost more AtIII and FgE in the urine. Urine AtIII was found to be mostly bound to activated procoagulants. Both urine AtIII and urine FgE correlated inversely with creatinine clearance. It was concluded that intraglomerular thrombosis probably contributes to the deteriorating renal function in diabetic nephropathy and is reflected in the concentrations of urine AtIII and FgE. PMID:7085916

  6. Antithrombin III and fibrinogen degradation product (fragment E) in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, V; Yeung, C K; Chan, T K

    1982-01-01

    Plasma antithrombin III (AtIII), serum fragment E (FgE) and urine AtIII and FgE were measured in 25 diabetic patients with proteinuria above 1 g per day and compared to that in 25 patients with non-diabetic nephropathy, matched for the degree of proteinuria. Plasma AtIII concentrations were normal in both groups but FgE concentrations were increased. The level of plasma AtIII was directly related to HbA1 concentrations in the diabetics. For the same degree of proteinuria, the diabetic patients lost more AtIII and FgE in the urine. Urine AtIII was found to be mostly bound to activated procoagulants. Both urine AtIII and urine FgE correlated inversely with creatinine clearance. It was concluded that intraglomerular thrombosis probably contributes to the deteriorating renal function in diabetic nephropathy and is reflected in the concentrations of urine AtIII and FgE. Images PMID:7085916

  7. Influence of coalescence parameters on the production of protons and Helium-3 fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, QingFeng; Wang, YongJia; Wang, XiaoBao; Shen, CaiWan

    2016-07-01

    The time evolution of protons and 3He fragments from Au+Au/Pb+Pb reactions at 0.25, 2, and 20 GeV/nucleon is investigated with the potential version of the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model combined with the traditional coalescence afterburner. In the coalescence process, the relative distance R 0 and relative momentum P 0 are surveyed in the range of 3-4 fm and 0.25-0.35 GeV/c, respectively. For both clusters, a strong reversed correlation between R 0 and P 0 is seen and it is time-dependent as well. For protons, the accepted ( R 0, P 0) bands lie in the time interval 30-60 fm/c, while for 3He, a longer time evolution (at about 60-90 fm/c) is needed. Otherwise, much smaller R 0 and P 0 values should be chosen. If we further look at the rapidity distributions from both central and semi-central collisions, it is found that the accepted [ t cut, ( R 0, P 0)] assemble can provide consistent results for proton yield and collective flows especially at mid-rapdities, while for 3He, the consistency is destroyed at both middle and projectile-target rapidities.

  8. Phase analysis in single-chain variable fragment production by recombinant Pichia pastoris based on proteomics combined with multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Yuya; Kumada, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Michimasa

    2015-08-01

    The proteomics technique, which consists of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF), gel image analysis, and multivariate statistics, was applied to the phase analysis of a fed-batch culture for the production of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of an anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) antibody by Pichia pastoris. The time courses of the fed-batch culture were separated into three distinct phases: the growth phase of the batch process, the growth phase of the fed-batch process, and the production phase of the fed-batch process. Multivariate statistical analysis using 2-DE gel image analysis data clearly showed the change in the culture phase and provided information concerning the protein expression, which suggested a metabolic change related to cell growth and production during the fed-batch culture. Furthermore, specific proteins, such as alcohol oxidase, which is strongly related to scFv expression, and proteinase A, which could biodegrade scFv in the latter phases of production, were identified via the PMF method. The proteomics technique provided valuable information about the effect of the methanol concentration on scFv production. PMID:25636980

  9. Sea spray production by bag breakup mode of fragmentation of the air-water interface at strong and hurricane wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2016-04-01

    Sea sprays is a typical element of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) of large importance for marine meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and climate studies. They are considered as a crucial factor in the development of hurricanes and severe extratropical storms, since they can significantly enhance exchange of mass, heat and momentum between the ocean and the atmosphere. This exchange is directly provided by spume droplets with the sizes from 10 microns to a few millimeters mechanically torn off the crests of a breaking waves and fall down to the ocean due to gravity. The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Experimental core of our work comprise laboratory experiments employing high-speed video-filming, which have made it possible to disclose how water surface looks like at extremely strong winds and how exactly droplets are torn off wave crests. We classified events responsible for spume droplet, including bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" or liquid filaments (Koa, 1981) and "bag breakup", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film, "bags". The process is similar to "bag-breakup" mode of fragmentation of liquid droplets and jets in gaseous flows. Basing on statistical analysis of results of these experiments we show that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism On the base of general principles

  10. TEMPERATURE-HUMIDITY INDICES AS INDICATORS OF MILK PRODUCTION LOSSES DUE TO HEAT STRESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meteorological data (1993 to 2004) from two public weather stations in Phoenix, AZ and Athens, GA were analyzed with test day milk yield data from herds nearby the weather stations to identify the most appropriate temperature humidity index (THI) to measure losses in milk production due to heat stre...

  11. Productivity of the spruce grouse in fragmented habitat at the edge of its range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitcomb, S.D.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Servello, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    We measured productivity of the Spruce Grouse (Dendragapusc anadensicsa nadensis) in patchy black spruce (Picea mariana) habitat along the southeastern limit of its range in mid-coastal Maine. We captured grouse and attached necklace-mounted radio transmitters to hens prior to nesting. Of 19 females monitored, only 26% raised chicks to the late brood-rearing period. Predation was high on hens (37%) and five were killed before hatching eggs. Six (55%) entire broods were lost and only 30% of chicks survived to late summer. Production ( No. of chicks/female), an index of productivity, was < 1 and lower in Maine and Minnesota study areas in black spruce than areas dominated by jack pine (Pinus banksiana) or a mixture of jack pine and spruce with dense undergrowth. Where Spruce Grouse breed in patchy black spruce communities, immigration from neighboring populations or inter-patch movement by local individuals may be required to maintain viable populations.

  12. Chemically Modified N-Acylated Hyaluronan Fragments Modulate Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by Stimulated Human Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Babasola, Oladunni; Rees-Milton, Karen J.; Bebe, Siziwe; Wang, Jiaxi; Anastassiades, Tassos P.

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular mass hyaluronans are known to induce inflammation. To determine the role of the acetyl groups of low molecular mass hyaluronan in stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, partial N-deacetylation was carried out by hydrazinolysis. This resulted in 19.7 ± 3.5% free NH2 functional groups, which were then acylated by reacting with an acyl anhydride, including acetic anhydride. Hydrazinolysis resulted in bond cleavage of the hyaluronan chain causing a reduction of the molecular mass to 30–214 kDa. The total NH2 and N-acetyl moieties in the reacetylated hyaluronan were 0% and 98.7 ± 1.5% respectively, whereas for butyrylated hyaluronan, the total NH2, N-acetyl, and N-butyryl moieties were 0, 82.2 ± 4.6, and 22.7 ± 3.8%, respectively, based on 1H NMR. We studied the effect of these polymers on cytokine production by cultured human macrophages (THP-1 cells). The reacetylated hyaluronan stimulated proinflammatory cytokine production to levels similar to LPS, whereas partially deacetylated hyaluronan had no stimulatory effect, indicating the critical role of the N-acetyl groups in the stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. Butyrylated hyaluronan significantly reduced the stimulatory effect on cytokine production by the reacetylated hyaluronan or LPS but had no stimulatory effect of its own. The other partially N-acylated hyaluronan derivatives tested showed smaller stimulatory effects than reacetylated hyaluronan. Antibody and antagonist experiments suggest that the acetylated and partially butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronans exert their effects through the TLR-4 receptor system. Selectively N-butyrylated lower molecular mass hyaluronan shows promise as an example of a novel semisynthetic anti-inflammatory molecule. PMID:25053413

  13. Universality of fragment shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-03-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism.

  14. Universality of fragment shapes

    PubMed Central

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism. PMID:25772300

  15. Universality of fragment shapes.

    PubMed

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism. PMID:25772300

  16. UNUSUAL WATER PRODUCTION ACTIVITY OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON): OUTBURSTS AND CONTINUOUS FRAGMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Combi, M. R.; Fougere, N.; Mäkinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quémerais, E.

    2014-06-10

    The Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observer (SOHO) satellite observed the hydrogen coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) for most of the last month of its activity from 2013 October 24 to November 24, ending just 4 days before perihelion and its final disruption. The water production rate of the comet was determined from these observations. SOHO has been operating in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point since its launch in late 1995. Most water vapor produced by comets is ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates were calculated from 22 images over most of the last month of the pre-perihelion apparition. The water production rate increased very slowly on average from October 24.9 until November 12.9, staying between 1.8 and 3.4 × 10{sup 28} s{sup –1}, after which it increased dramatically, reaching 1.6 to 2 × 10{sup 30} s{sup –1} from November 21.6 to 23.6. It was not detected after perihelion on December 3.7 when it should have been visible. We examine the active surface area necessary to explain the water production rate and its variation and are able to place constraints on the physical size of the original nucleus necessary to account for the large amount of activity from November 12.9 and until just before perihelion.

  17. Role of angular momentum in the production of complex fragments in fusion and quasifission reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.

    2011-05-15

    The influence of angular momentum on the competition between complete fusion followed by the decay of compound nucleus and quasifission channels is treated within the dinuclear system model. The charge distributions of the products in the reactions {sup 28}Si+{sup 96}Zr, {sup 4}He+{sup 130}Te, and {sup 40}Ca+{sup 82}Kr are predicted at bombarding energies above the Coulomb barrier. The results of calculations for the reactions {sup 93}Nb+{sup 9}Be,{sup 12}C,{sup 27}Al; {sup 84}Kr+{sup 27}Al; {sup 86}Kr+{sup 63}Cu; {sup 139}La+{sup 12}C,{sup 27}Al; and {sup 45}Sc+{sup 65}Cu are compared with the available experimental data.

  18. Assembly of highly standardized gene fragments for high-level production of porphyrins in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten T; Madsen, Karina M; Seppälä, Susanna; Christensen, Ulla; Riisberg, Lone; Harrison, Scott J; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Nørholm, Morten H H

    2015-03-20

    Standardization of molecular cloning greatly facilitates advanced DNA engineering, parts sharing, and collaborative efforts such as the iGEM competition. All of these attributes facilitate exploitation of the wealth of genetic information made available by genome and RNA sequencing. Standardization also comes at the cost of reduced flexibility. We addressed this paradox by formulating a set of design principles aimed at maximizing standardization while maintaining high flexibility in choice of cloning technique and minimizing the impact of standard sequences. The design principles were applied to formulate a molecular cloning pipeline and iteratively assemble and optimize a six-gene pathway for protoporphyrin IX synthesis in Escherichia coli. State of the art production levels were achieved through two simple cycles of engineering and screening. The principles defined here are generally applicable and simplifies the experimental design of projects aimed at biosynthetic pathway construction or engineering. PMID:24905856

  19. Production and Purification of a Novel Anti-TNF-α Single Chain Fragment Variable Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Ali Akbar; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Dastmalchi, Siavoush

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: TNF-α is an inflammatory cytokine with a key role in initiation of inflammatory responses. Anti-TNF-α antibodies are being used in clinic for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment due to their high specificity. The objective of the current study was to express and purify an anti-TNF-α scFv antibody identified by phage display technology. Methods: The DNA coding sequence of the identified scFv was cloned into pET28a vector and the corresponding protein was expressed as 6×His tagged using E.coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS expression system followed by affinity purification on Ni-Sepharose affinity column. Results: The J44 scFv antibody was cloned into the expression vector and successfully expressed and purified. The purity of the scFv fraction was confirmed using SDS-PAGE analysis. Western blotting technique was used to detect expression of 6×His tagged protein. Conclusion: In the current study an anti-TNF-α scFv antibody was successfully expressed in bacterial expression system and purified on affinity column. The purified protein can be used in different in vitro and in vivo experiments in order to elucidate its functionality. PMID:26793614

  20. Entropy Production of Entirely Diffusional Laplacian Transfer and the Possible Role of Fragmentation of the Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamanos, K.; Mistakidis, S. I.; Massart, T. J.; Mistakidis, I. S.

    2015-06-01

    The entropy production and the variational functional of a Laplacian diffusional field around the first four fractal iterations of a linear self-similar tree (von Koch curve) is studied analytically and detailed predictions are stated. In a next stage, these predictions are confronted with results from numerical resolution of the Laplace equation by means of Finite Elements computations. After a brief review of the existing results, the range of distances near the geometric irregularity, the so-called "Near Field", a situation never studied in the past, is treated exhaustively. We notice here that in the Near Field, the usual notion of the active zone approximation introduced by Sapoval et al. [M. Filoche and B. Sapoval, Transfer across random versus deterministic fractal interfaces, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(25) (2000) 5776;1 B. Sapoval, M. Filoche, K. Karamanos and R. Brizzi, Can one hear the shape of an electrode? I. Numerical study of the active zone in Laplacian transfer, Eur. Phys. J. B. Condens. Matter Complex Syst. 9(4) (1999) 739-753.]2 is strictly inapplicable. The basic new result is that the validity of the active-zone approximation based on irreversible thermodynamics is confirmed in this limit, and this implies a new interpretation of this notion for Laplacian diffusional fields.

  1. Improved ethanol production from biomass by a rumen metagenomic DNA fragment expressed in Escherichia coli MS04 during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Loaces, Inés; Amarelle, Vanesa; Muñoz-Gutierrez, Iván; Fabiano, Elena; Martinez, Alfredo; Noya, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    With the aim of improving current ethanologenic Escherichia coli strains, we screened a metagenomic library from bovine ruminal fluid for cellulolytic enzymes. We isolated one fosmid, termed Csd4, which was able to confer to E. coli the ability to grow on complex cellulosic material as the sole carbon source such as avicel, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, pretreated sugarcane bagasse, and xylan. Glucanolytic activity obtained from E. coli transformed with Csd4 was maximal at 24 h of incubation and was inhibited when glucose or xylose were present in the media. The 34,406-bp DNA fragment of Csd4 was completely sequenced, and a putative endoglucanase, a xylosidase/arabinosidase, and a laccase gene were identified. Comparison analysis revealed that Csd4 derived from an organism closely related to Prevotella ruminicola, but no homologies were found with any of the genomes already sequenced. Csd4 was introduced into the ethanologenic E. coli MS04 strain and ethanol production from CMC, avicel, sugarcane bagasse, or filter paper was observed. Exogenously expressed β-glucosidase had a positie effect on cell growth in agreement with the fact that no putative β-glucosidase was found in Csd4. Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse was improved threefold by Csd4 after saccharification by commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulases underlining the ability of Csd4 to act as a saccharification enhancer to reduce the enzymatic load and time required for cellulose deconstruction. PMID:26175105

  2. Changes in recovery due to drug product matrix ageing as a source of mass imbalances.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Katharina; Oberdieck, Ulrich; Backensfeld, Thomas; Weitschies, Werner

    2013-02-23

    An important quality feature of stability testing of drug products is mass balance. Besides several known or anticipated causes for mass imbalances, a further potential cause that has not yet been systematically assessed might be incomplete recovery due to the influence of matrix ageing. The genotoxic degradation product 4-chloroaniline (PCA) and the unstable drug substance estradiol (E2) that is known to be difficult to extract from matrices in low-dose solid formulations were chosen as examples. A marketed product containing E2 as well as two marketed products that potentially contain PCA were investigated together with experimental formulations containing E2 or PCA that were produced for this study. To accelerate drug product matrix ageing, samples were stored at different conditions for defined storage periods. PCA and E2 recovery was determined at all sampling time points, respectively. In comparison to unstressed samples, significant changes in recovery were observed in 67% of the formulations investigated. Consequently, the outlined procedure can be regarded as a promising approach to reveal potential reasons for mass imbalance. PMID:23245242

  3. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production.

    PubMed

    Pahlow, M; van Oel, P R; Mekonnen, M M; Hoekstra, A Y

    2015-12-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive and negative implications of such a development. The use of feed with a large proportion of terrestrial feed may reduce the pressure on fisheries to provide feed for fish, but at the same time it may significantly increase the pressure on freshwater resources, due to water consumption and pollution in crop production for aquafeed. Here the green, blue and gray water footprint of cultured fish and crustaceans related to the production of commercial feed for the year 2008 has been determined for the major farmed species, representing 88% of total fed production. The green, blue and gray production-weighted average feed water footprints of fish and crustaceans fed commercial aquafeed are estimated at 1629 m3/t, 179 m3/t and 166 m3/t, respectively. The estimated global total water footprint of commercial aquafeed was 31-35 km3 in 2008. The top five contributors to the total water footprint of commercial feed are Nile tilapia, Grass carp, Whiteleg shrimp, Common carp and Atlantic salmon, which together have a water footprint of 18.2 km3. An analysis of alternative diets revealed that the replacement of fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients may further increase pressure on freshwater resources. At the same time economic consumptive water productivity may be reduced, especially for carnivorous species. The results of the present study show that, for the aquaculture sector to grow sustainably, freshwater consumption and pollution due to aquafeed need to be taken into account. PMID:26258557

  4. Fragmentation Pathways in the Uracil Radical Cation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Congyi; Matsika, Spiridoula; Kotur, Marija; Weinacht, Thomas C.

    2012-08-24

    We investigate pathways for fragmentation in the uracil radical cation using ab initio electronic structure calculations. We focus on the main fragments produced in pump–probe dissociative ionization experiments. These are fragments with mass to charge ratios (m/z) of 69, 28, 41, and 42. Barriers to dissociation along the ground ionic surface are reported, which provide an estimate of the energetic requirements for the production of the main fragments. Finally, direct and sequential fragmentation mechanisms have been analyzed, and it is concluded that sequential fragmentation after production of fragment with m/z 69 is the dominant mechanism for the production of the smaller fragments.

  5. Progress towards the production of the 236gNp standard sources and competing fission fragment production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larijani, C.; Pickford, O. L.; Collins, S. M.; Ivanov, P.; Jerome, S. M.; Keightley, J. D.; Pearce, A. K.; Regan, P. H.

    2015-11-01

    The isobaric distribution of fission residues produced following the bombardment of a natural uranium target with a beam of 25 MeV protons has been evaluated. Decay analysis of thirteen isobarically distinct fission residues were carried out using high-resolution γ-spectrometry at the UK National Physical Laboratory. Stoichiometric abundances were calculated via the determination of absolute activity concentrations associated with the longest-lived members of each isobaric chain. This technique was validated by computational modelling of likely sequential decay processes through an isobaric decay chain. The results were largely in agreement with previously published values for neutron bombardments on 238U at energies of 14 MeV. Higher yields of products with mass numbers A~110-130 were found, consistent with the increasing yield of these radionuclides as the bombarding energy is increased.

  6. Temporal stability in forest productivity increases with tree diversity due to asynchrony in species dynamics.

    PubMed

    Morin, Xavier; Fahse, Lorenz; de Mazancourt, Claire; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Bugmann, Harald

    2014-12-01

    Theory predicts a positive relationship between biodiversity and stability in ecosystem properties, while diversity is expected to have a negative impact on stability at the species level. We used virtual experiments based on a dynamic simulation model to test for the diversity-stability relationship and its underlying mechanisms in Central European forests. First our results show that variability in productivity between stands differing in species composition decreases as species richness and functional diversity increase. Second we show temporal stability increases with increasing diversity due to compensatory dynamics across species, supporting the biodiversity insurance hypothesis. We demonstrate that this pattern is mainly driven by the asynchrony of species responses to small disturbances rather than to environmental fluctuations, and is only weakly affected by the net biodiversity effect on productivity. Furthermore, our results suggest that compensatory dynamics between species may enhance ecosystem stability through an optimisation of canopy occupancy by coexisting species. PMID:25212251

  7. SimPLE.ca: Simulator of Productivity Loss due to Erosion for Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, Eric; Greer, Ken J.; Black, Malcolm; Townley-Smith, Lawrence; Malhi, S. S.; Izaurralde, R Cesar; Larney, F. J.

    2008-05-01

    Robust and practical estimates of the impact of soil erosion on crop productivity are essential for developing and implementing appropriate solutions for soil erosion on agricultural land. The objective of this study was to develop a simple model which captured the most important relationships between topsoil erosion and productivity loss for major agricultural regions of Canada. The model was developed for spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). Using annual time steps, maximum crop yields were reduced by soil erosion due to losses in available water-holding capacity, N-mineralization potential and available P. Using minimal input data, the model accounted for 56% of the variation in relative yields (fraction of non-eroded controls) determined in field studies using desurfacing or comparison plot methods.

  8. Anethole induces apoptotic cell death accompanied by reactive oxygen species production and DNA fragmentation in Aspergillus fumigatus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Tatsumi, Miki; Ogita, Akira; Kubo, Isao; Tanaka, Toshio

    2014-02-01

    trans-Anethole (anethole), a major component of anise oil, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum, and antimicrobial activity that is weaker than that of other antibiotics on the market. When combined with polygodial, nagilactone E, and n-dodecanol, anethole has been shown to possess significant synergistic antifungal activity against a budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a human opportunistic pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. However, the antifungal mechanism of anethole has not been completely determined. We found that anethole stimulated cell death of a human opportunistic pathogenic fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus, in addition to S. cerevisiae. The anethole-induced cell death was accompanied by reactive oxygen species production, metacaspase activation, and DNA fragmentation. Several mutants of S. cerevisiae, in which genes related to the apoptosis-initiating execution signals from mitochondria were deleted, were resistant to anethole. These results suggest that anethole-induced cell death could be explained by oxidative stress-dependent apoptosis via typical mitochondrial death cascades in fungi, including A. fumigatus and S. cerevisiae. PMID:24393541

  9. Quantifying the climate impacts of albedo changes due to biofuel production: a comparison with biogeochemical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caiazzo, Fabio; Malina, Robert; Staples, Mark D.; Wolfe, Philip J.; Yim, Steve H. L.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2014-01-01

    Lifecycle analysis is a tool widely used to evaluate the climate impact of greenhouse gas emissions attributable to the production and use of biofuels. In this paper we employ an augmented lifecycle framework that includes climate impacts from changes in surface albedo due to land use change. We consider eleven land-use change scenarios for the cultivation of biomass for middle distillate fuel production, and compare our results to previous estimates of lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for the same set of land-use change scenarios in terms of CO2e per unit of fuel energy. We find that two of the land-use change scenarios considered demonstrate a warming effect due to changes in surface albedo, compared to conventional fuel, the largest of which is for replacement of desert land with salicornia cultivation. This corresponds to 222 gCO2e/MJ, equivalent to 3890% and 247% of the lifecycle GHG emissions of fuels derived from salicornia and crude oil, respectively. Nine of the land-use change scenarios considered demonstrate a cooling effect, the largest of which is for the replacement of tropical rainforests with soybean cultivation. This corresponds to - 161 gCO2e/MJ, or - 28% and - 178% of the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of fuels derived from soybean and crude oil, respectively. These results indicate that changes in surface albedo have the potential to dominate the climate impact of biofuels, and we conclude that accounting for changes in surface albedo is necessary for a complete assessment of the aggregate climate impacts of biofuel production and use.

  10. State-selective enhanced production of positive ions and excited neutral fragments of gaseous CH2Cl2 following Cl 2p core-level photoexcitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, K. T.; Chen, J. M.; Lee, J. M.; Haw, S. C.; Chen, S. A.; Liang, Y. C.; Chen, S. W.

    2010-09-01

    Following photoexcitation of Cl2p electrons to various resonances, the dissociation dynamics of ionic and excited neutral fragments of gaseous CH2Cl2 was investigated by combined measurements of photon-induced ionic dissociation, x-ray absorption, and uv-visible dispersed fluorescence. The Cl2p core-to-Rydberg excitations near the ionization threshold produce a notable enhancement of excited neutral fragments (C* and CH*), which is attributed to the contribution from a shake-modified resonant Auger decay and postcollision interaction. The excitation Cl2p→10a1* induces an enhanced yield of CH2+, possibly originating from fast dissociation via a strongly repulsive surface. The experimental results provide insight into the dissociation dynamics of ionic and excited neutral fragment production following core-level excitation.

  11. Fragmentation reactions using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: an important tool for the structural elucidation and characterization of synthetic and natural products.

    PubMed

    Demarque, Daniel P; Crotti, Antonio E M; Vessecchi, Ricardo; Lopes, João L C; Lopes, Norberto P

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, the number of studies reporting the use of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in combination with collision cells (or other activation methods) to promote fragmentation of synthetic and natural products for structural elucidation purposes has considerably increased. However, the lack of a systematic compilation of the gas-phase fragmentation reactions subjected to ESI-MS/MS conditions still represents a challenge and has led to many misunderstood results in the literature. This review article exploits the most common fragmentation reactions for ions generated by ESI in positive and negative modes using collision cells in an effort to stimulate the use of this technique by non-specialists, undergraduate students and researchers in related areas. PMID:26673733

  12. Validation of models for predicting formaldehyde concentrations in residences due to pressed wood products. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Grot, R.A.; Silberstein, S.; Ishiguro, K.

    1985-09-01

    The interim report describes procedures and presents results of the first phase of a laboratory project undertaken at the National Bureau of Standards for the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). The purpose of the project is to assess the accuracy of emission and indoor-air-quality models to be used by CPSC in predicting formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations in residences due to pressed-wood products made with urea-formaldehyde bonding resins, namely particleboard underlayment, hardwood-plywood paneling and medium-density fiberboard (MDF). In phase I, these products were characterized in medium-size dynamic measuring chambers by measuring their HCHO surface emission rates over a range of HCHO concentrations, at 23C and 50% RH. They were then installed in a two-room prototype house and the equilibrium HCHO concentrations were monitored as a function of air exchange rate. Excellent agreement was obtained between measured HCHO concentrations and those predicted by a mass-balance indoor air quality model. In the next phase, the study will be repeated at various different temperatures and relative humidities so that models predicting HCHO surface emission rate as a function of temperature and humidity can be tested.

  13. Validation of models for predicting formaldehyde concentrations in residences due to pressed-wood products

    SciTech Connect

    Silberstein, S.; Grot, R.A.; Ishiguro, K.; Mulligan, J.L.

    1988-11-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project to assess the accuracy of emission and indoor air quality models to be used in predicting formaldehyde concentrations in residences due to pressed-wood products make with urea-formaldehyde bonding resins. The products tested were particle board underlayment, hardwood-plywood paneling and medium-density fiberboard (mdf). The products were initially characterized in chambers by measuring their formaldehyde surface emission rates over a range of formaldehyde concentrations, air exchange rates and two combinations of temperature and relative humidity. They were then installed in a two-room prototype house in three different combinations (underlayment flooring only; underlayment flooring and paneling; and underlayment flooring, paneling, and mdf). The equilibrium formaldehyde concentrations were monitored as a function of air exchange rate. Particle board underlayment and mdf, but not paneling, behaved as the emission model predicted over a large concentration range, under both sets of temperature and relative humidity. Good agreement was also obtained between measured formaldehyde concentrations and those predicted by a mass-balance indoor air quality model.

  14. Production of new neutron-rich isotopes of heavy elements in fragmentation reactions of {sup 238}U projectiles at 1A GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez-Pol, H.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Pereira, J.; Audouin, L.; Enqvist, T.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Yordanov, O.; Junghans, A. R.; Jurado, B.; Rejmund, F.

    2010-10-15

    The production of heavy neutron-rich nuclei has been investigated using cold-fragmentation reactions of {sup 238}U projectiles at relativistic energies. The experiment performed at the high-resolving-power magnetic spectrometer Fragment Separator at GSI made it possible to identify 40 new heavy neutron-rich nuclei: {sup 205}Pt, {sup 207-210}Au, {sup 211-216}Hg, {sup 214-217}Tl, {sup 215-220}Pb, {sup 219-224}Bi, {sup 223-227}Po, {sup 225-229}At, {sup 230,231}Rn, and {sup 233}Fr. The production cross sections of these nuclei were also determined and used to benchmark reaction codes that predict the production of nuclei far from stability.

  15. Uncertainty in techno-economic estimates of cellulosic ethanol production due to experimental measurement uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuels remains a major financial and technical challenge at the industrial scale. A critical tool in biofuels process development is the techno-economic (TE) model, which calculates biofuel production costs using a process model and an economic model. The process model solves mass and energy balances for each unit, and the economic model estimates capital and operating costs from the process model based on economic assumptions. The process model inputs include experimental data on the feedstock composition and intermediate product yields for each unit. These experimental yield data are calculated from primary measurements. Uncertainty in these primary measurements is propagated to the calculated yields, to the process model, and ultimately to the economic model. Thus, outputs of the TE model have a minimum uncertainty associated with the uncertainty in the primary measurements. Results We calculate the uncertainty in the Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP) estimate for lignocellulosic ethanol production via a biochemical conversion process: dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and co-fermentation of the resulting sugars to ethanol. We perform a sensitivity analysis on the TE model and identify the feedstock composition and conversion yields from three unit operations (xylose from pretreatment, glucose from enzymatic hydrolysis, and ethanol from fermentation) as the most important variables. The uncertainty in the pretreatment xylose yield arises from multiple measurements, whereas the glucose and ethanol yields from enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, respectively, are dominated by a single measurement: the fraction of insoluble solids (fIS) in the biomass slurries. Conclusions We calculate a $0.15/gal uncertainty in MESP from the TE model due to uncertainties in primary measurements. This result sets a lower bound on the error bars of the TE model predictions

  16. Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH production by a nasal paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Serra, F; Duarte, S; Abreu, S; Marques, C; Cassis, J; Saraiva, M

    2013-01-01

    Summary Ectopic secretion of ACTH is an infrequent cause of Cushing's syndrome. We report a case of ectopic ACTH syndrome caused by a nasal paraganglioma, a 68-year-old female with clinical features of Cushing's syndrome, serious hypokalaemia and a right paranasal sinus' lesion. Cranial magnetic resonance image showed a 46-mm mass on the right paranasal sinuses. Endocrinological investigation confirmed the diagnosis of ectopic ACTH production. Resection of the tumour normalised ACTH and cortisol secretion. The tumour was found to be a paraganglioma through microscopic analysis. On follow-up 3 months later, the patient showed nearly complete clinical recovery. Ectopic ACTH syndrome due to nasal paraganglioma is extremely uncommon, as only two other cases have been discussed in the literature. Learning points Ectopic Cushing's syndrome accounts for 10% of Cushing's syndrome etiologies.Most paraganglioma of the head and neck are not hormonally active.Nasal paraganglioma, especially ACTH producing, is a very rare tumour. PMID:24616770

  17. Generalization of a Result Involving Product of Generalized Hypergeometric Series due to Ramanujan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhawat, Nidhi; Prakash, Om

    The aim of this research paper is to obtain a generalization of the following result involving product of generalized hypergeometric series due to Ramanujan. \\[ {_0F_1}\\left[ {^{-}_{\\rho} ; x} \\right] \\times {_0F_1}\\left[{^{-}_{\\rho} ; - x} \\right] = {_0F_3}\\left[{{_\\rho} , {_{1 \\over 2}}{_\\rho},{^{-}} {_{1 \\over 2}}{_{\\rho + {1 \\over 2}} ; - {{x^2 } \\over 4}} \\right] \\] The results are derived with the help of generalized Kummer’s summation theorem, which recently added in the literature. A few very interesting contiguous results obtained earlier by Kim & Rathie follow special cases of our main findings. The results derived in this paper are simple, interesting, easily established and useful from application point of view.

  18. Meltwater production due to strain heating in Storglaciären, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Andy; Blatter, Heinz

    2005-12-01

    Storglaciären, northern Sweden, is temperate in most parts except for a cold surface layer in the ablation zone. One of four possible sources for liquid water in temperate ice is melting due to strain heating. Velocity fields are calculated with an ice flow model, so that calculated and observed surface velocities agree. Meltwater accumulation is computed by integrating strain heating along trajectories starting at the surface in the accumulation area and ending at the cold-temperate transition surface in the ablation zone. The distribution of moisture content due to strain heating alone is mapped in a longitudinal section of Storglaciären. Values reach more than 10 g of water per kilogram ice-water mixture in the lowest parts of the temperate domain. For this moisture content the rate factor is more than 3 times higher than for water-free ice, and therefore water production by strain heating is important for the modeling of temperate and polythermal glaciers.

  19. Magma Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnermann, Helge M.

    2015-05-01

    Magma fragmentation is the breakup of a continuous volume of molten rock into discrete pieces, called pyroclasts. Because magma contains bubbles of compressible magmatic volatiles, decompression of low-viscosity magma leads to rapid expansion. The magma is torn into fragments, as it is stretched into hydrodynamically unstable sheets and filaments. If the magma is highly viscous, resistance to bubble growth will instead lead to excess gas pressure and the magma will deform viscoelastically by fracturing like a glassy solid, resulting in the formation of a violently expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. In either case, fragmentation represents the conversion of potential energy into the surface energy of the newly created fragments and the kinetic energy of the expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. If magma comes into contact with external water, the conversion of thermal energy will vaporize water and quench magma at the melt-water interface, thus creating dynamic stresses that cause fragmentation and the release of kinetic energy. Lastly, shear deformation of highly viscous magma may cause brittle fractures and release seismic energy.

  20. [Fragment of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Improves Memory State in a Model of Alzheimer's Disease].

    PubMed

    Volpina, O M; Koroev, D O; Volkova, T D; Kamynina, A V; Filatova, M P; Zaporozhskayva, Y V; Samokhin, A N; Aleksandrova, I J; Bobkova, N V

    2015-01-01

    A number of synthetic peptides corresponding to potentially important regions in the sequence of the four membrane proteins known as beta-amyloid cell receptors have been investigated on their ability to improve memory state in experimental model of Alzheimer's disease. Nine fragments repeating all the exposed nonstructural regions of the RAGE protein according to X-ray data, have been synthesized. The activity of these peptides and synthesized earlier immunoprotective fragments of other three proteins (acetylcholine receptor alpha7-type, prion protein and neurotrophin receptor p75) has been investigated under intranasal administration, without immune response to the peptide. Only one fragment RAGE (60-76) was shown to have a therapeutic activity improving the memory state of bulbectomized mice and leads to decreasing in the level of brain beta-amyloid. PMID:27125025

  1. Production of Secondary Radioactive Beams of He and Li Neutron-Rich Isotopes in the Fragmentation Reaction {sup 15}N(47 MeV/A)+{sup 9}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Milewska, Aleksandra

    2007-11-26

    Yields of neutron-rich isotopes of He and Li produced in the reaction {sup 15}N(47 MeV/A)+{sup 9}Be have been measured. The experiment was carried out at the fragment separator COMBAS of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR (Dubna). Ion beams accelerated with the U-400M cyclotron and thick target were used. The products were identified according to their magnetic rigidities and time of flight (TOF) via the separator. The path length of TOF was 7,5 m. As a result of fragmentation, beams of four isotopes of Lithium and two isotopes of Helium were obtained. The inclusive velocities of reaction products were obtained and isotopes yields were calculated.

  2. Comment on {open_quotes}QCD fragmentation functions for B{sub c} and B{sub c}{sup {asterisk}} production{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, C.; Binger, M.; Amiri, F.

    1998-06-01

    For the inclusive production process of heavy pseudoscalar and vector mesons in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation, we have improved the analytic calculation of the fragmentation function of heavy quarks up to {tau}{sup 2}ln({tau}{sup 2}) where {tau}{sup 2}=4m{sup 2}/s, m is the meson mass, and s is the square of the total c.m. energy. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Dynamic Modelling of Fault Slip Induced by Stress Waves due to Stope Production Blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainoki, Atsushi; Mitri, Hani S.

    2016-01-01

    Seismic events can take place due to the interaction of stress waves induced by stope production blasts with faults located in close proximity to stopes. The occurrence of such seismic events needs to be controlled to ensure the safety of the mine operators and the underground mine workings. This paper presents the results of a dynamic numerical modelling study of fault slip induced by stress waves resulting from stope production blasts. First, the calibration of a numerical model having a single blast hole is performed using a charge weight scaling law to determine blast pressure and damping coefficient of the rockmass. Subsequently, a numerical model of a typical Canadian metal mine encompassing a fault parallel to a tabular ore deposit is constructed, and the simulation of stope extraction sequence is carried out with static analyses until the fault exhibits slip burst conditions. At that point, the dynamic analysis begins by applying the calibrated blast pressure to the stope wall in the form of velocities generated by the blast holes. It is shown from the results obtained from the dynamic analysis that the stress waves reflected on the fault create a drop of normal stresses acting on the fault, which produces a reduction in shear stresses while resulting in fault slip. The influence of blast sequences on the behaviour of the fault is also examined assuming several types of blast sequences. Comparison of the blast sequence simulation results indicates that performing simultaneous blasts symmetrically induces the same level of seismic events as separate blasts, although seismic energy is more rapidly released when blasts are performed symmetrically. On the other hand when nine blast holes are blasted simultaneously, a large seismic event is induced, compared to the other two blasts. It is concluded that the separate blasts might be employed under the adopted geological conditions. The developed methodology and procedure to arrive at an ideal blast sequence can

  4. The uncertainties of the net primary production due to regional and seasonal temperature changes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guodong

    2015-04-01

    A kind of temperature change scenario is supplied by the approach of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation related to parameter (CNOP-P) to estimate the variation of the net primary production (NPP)in North-South transect of eastern China within a state-of-the-art Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamical global vegetation model (LPJ DGVM). There are two traits for the kind of temperature change scenario. Firstly, the kind of temperature change scenario considers the regional and seasonal differences in North-South transect of eastern China. The character of the temperature change is similar to the observation data due to the observational constraint. Secondly, the kind of temperature change scenario causes the maximal possible impact on the simulated NPP to discuss the maximal uncertainty in the simulated NPP to the temperature change in North-South transect of eastern China. Other two kinds of temperature change scenarios are also applied to explain the above two traits and to analyze variations due to different kinds of temperature change scenarios. It is shown that the kind of temperature change scenario resulted of the CNOP-P approach, which is called as the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario, exhibits the regional and seasonal temperature differences in North-South transect of eastern China. The NPP decreases by 1.84% in northern China, and respectively increases by 4.09% and 18.99% in northeastern and southern China as the results of the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario, though the NPP increases in small part of northern China and decreases in part of northeastern China. The variations in the NPP caused by the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario are different to those by the other two types of temperature change scenarios in northern, northeastern China and southern China. The impact of the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario on the NPP is intenser than that of the other two types of temperature change scenarios. The seasonal analyses demonstrate

  5. SKI2 mediates degradation of RISC 5′-cleavage fragments and prevents secondary siRNA production from miRNA targets in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Branscheid, Anja; Marchais, Antonin; Schott, Gregory; Lange, Heike; Gagliardi, Dominique; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Voinnet, Olivier; Brodersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs are fundamental in eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene regulation. In plants, an important element of post-transcriptional control is effected by 20–24 nt microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) bound to the ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) protein in an RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). AGO1 may cleave target mRNAs with small RNA complementarity, but the fate of the resulting cleavage fragments remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that SKI2, SKI3 and SKI8, subunits of a cytoplasmic cofactor of the RNA exosome, are required for degradation of RISC 5′, but not 3′-cleavage fragments in Arabidopsis. In the absence of SKI2 activity, many miRNA targets produce siRNAs via the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) pathway. These siRNAs are low-abundant, and map close to the cleavage site. In most cases, siRNAs were produced 5′ to the cleavage site, but several examples of 3′-spreading were also identified. These observations suggest that siRNAs do not simply derive from RDR6 action on stable 5′-cleavage fragments and hence that SKI2 has a direct role in limiting secondary siRNA production in addition to its function in mediating degradation of 5′-cleavage fragments. PMID:26464441

  6. Production in yeast of pseudotype virus-like particles harboring functionally active antibody fragments neutralizing the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recombinant antibodies can be produced in different formats and different expression systems. Single chain variable fragments (scFvs) represent an attractive alternative to full-length antibodies and they can be easily produced in bacteria or yeast. However, the scFvs exhibit monovalent antigen-binding properties and short serum half-lives. The stability and avidity of the scFvs can be improved by their multimerization or fusion with IgG Fc domain. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possibilities to produce in yeast high-affinity scFv-Fc proteins neutralizing the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin (VLY), the main virulence factor of Gardnerella vaginalis. Results The scFv protein derived from hybridoma cell line producing high-affinity neutralizing antibodies against VLY was fused with human IgG1 Fc domain. Four different variants of anti-VLY scFv-Fc fusion proteins were constructed and produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-tagged scFv-Fc and hexahistidine-tagged scFv-Fc proteins were found predominantly as insoluble aggregates and therefore were not suitable for further purification and activity testing. The addition of yeast α-factor signal sequence did not support secretion of anti-VLY scFv-Fc but increased the amount of its intracellular soluble form. However, the purified protein showed a weak VLY-neutralizing capability. In contrast, the fusion of anti-VLY scFv-Fc molecules with hamster polyomavirus-derived VP2 protein and its co-expression with VP1 protein resulted in an effective production of pseudotype virus-like particles (VLPs) that exhibited strong VLY-binding activity. Recombinant scFv-Fc molecules displayed on the surface of VLPs neutralized VLY-mediated lysis of human erythrocytes and HeLa cells with high potency comparable to that of full-length antibody. Conclusions Recombinant scFv-Fc proteins were expressed in yeast with low efficiency. New approach to display the scFv-Fc molecules on the surface of

  7. In situ inhibition of primary production due to ultraviolet radiation in Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Helbling, E.W.; Villafane, V.E.; Holm-Hansen, O.

    1994-12-31

    Inhibition of photosynthesis due to ultra radiation (UVR) in antarctic phytoplankton has been documented by many authors. Most of these studies have used temperature-controlled incubators in which phytoplankton are exposed to either solar radiation or to UV-visible radiation provided by lamps. Although such experiments are invaluable for determining the effects of solar radiation on the metabolic activity of phytoplankton, they suffer from the fact that the cells will not be exposed to the same spectral irradiance that they would experience at various depths in the water column. The use of in situ incubations of natural phytoplankton assemblages provides the most direct and most realistic procedure to determine the effect of solar UVR on rates of primary production. In this paper, preliminary data obtained from such in situ incubations carried out from October through December 1993 at Palmer Station (64.7{degrees}S 64.1{degrees}W) on Anvers Island, Antarctica is reported. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Determination of the cross sections for the production of fragments from relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions. II. Parametric fits

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.R.; Binns, W.R.; Garrard, T.L.; Israel, M.H.; Klarmann, J.; Stone, E.C.; Waddington, C.J. Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO )

    1990-12-01

    Measurements of the partial charge-changing cross sections for the fragmentation of relativistic iron, lanthanum, holmium, and gold nuclei of several different energies incident on targets of polyethylene, carbon, aluminum, and copper have been reported in an accompanying paper. This paper describes the systematics of the variations of these cross sections with energy, projectile, target, and fragment. We have been able to generate a seven-parameter global fit to 795 measured cross sections for the heavy targets which fits the data with a standard deviation of 7%. We have also generated a similar global fit to 303 measured cross sections for a hydrogen target which fits the data with a standard deviation of 10%. These representations imply that the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation is only accurate to some 20--30 %. Weak factorization can apply, but fits that are marginally better, and more physically plausible, can be obtained without factorization. We have identified, and discussed, a number of caveats to the applicability of these fits outside, and inside, the range of energies and masses covered. Excessively large cross sections for the loss of a single proton from the projectile nuclei suggest electromagnetic dissociation. The cross sections for fragments that experience large charge changes appear to become independent of the size of the charge change. Very heavy projectiles have a significant probability of experiencing fission.

  9. Forest Fragmentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes forest fragmentation in the contiguous United States circa 2001. This information provides a broad, recent picture of the spatial pattern of the nation’s forests and the extent to which they are being broken into smaller patches and pierced or interspe...

  10. Can Wet Rocky Granular Flows Become Debris Flows Due to Fine Sediment Production by Abrasion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabnia, O.; Sklar, L. S.; Bianchi, G.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Debris flows are rapid mass movements in which elevated pore pressures are sustained by a viscous fluid matrix with high concentrations of fine sediments. Debris flows may form from coarse-grained wet granular flows as fine sediments are entrained from hillslope and channel material. Here we investigate whether abrasion of the rocks within a granular flow can produce sufficient fine sediments to create debris flows. To test this hypothesis experimentally, we used a set of 4 rotating drums ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 m diameter. Each drum has vanes along the boundary ensure shearing within the flow. Shear rate was varied by changing drum rotational velocity to maintain a constant Froude Number across drums. Initial runs used angular clasts of granodiorite with a tensile strength of 7.6 MPa, with well-sorted coarse particle size distributions linearly scaled with drum radius. The fluid was initially clear water, which rapidly acquired fine-grained wear products. After each 250 m tangential distance, we measured the particle size distributions, and then returned all water and sediment to the drums for subsequent runs. We calculate particle wear rates using statistics of size and mass distributions, and by fitting the Sternberg equation to the rate of mass loss from the size fraction > 2mm. Abundant fine sediments were produced in the experiments, but very little change in the median grain size was detected. This appears to be due to clast rounding, as evidenced by a decrease in the number of stable equilibrium resting points. We find that the growth in the fine sediment concentration in the fluid scales with unit drum power. This relationship can be used to estimate fine sediment production rates in the field. We explore this approach at Inyo Creek, a steep catchment in the Sierra Nevada, California. There, a significant debris flow occurred in July 2013, which originated as a coarse-grained wet granular flow. We use surveys to estimate flow depth and velocity where super

  11. In situ measurement of the particle size distribution of the fragmentation product of laser-shock-melted aluminum using in-line picosecond holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying-Hua; Zhao, Yu; Li, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Zu-Gen; Ye, Xiang-Ping; Zhong, Jie; Cai, Ling-Cang; Zhang, Lin

    2016-02-01

    The dynamic fragmentation of shock-melted metal is a topic of increasing interest in shock physics. However, high-quality experimental studies of the phenomenon are limited, and data that are essential for developing predictive models of the phenomenon, such as the mass and particle sizes distributions, are quite sparse. In-line holography is an effective non-contact technique for measuring particle size distribution, but critical technical requirements, in particular, particle density limits, complicate its application to the subject phenomenon. These challenges have been reasonably overcome in the present study, allowing for successful in situ measurements of the size distribution of the fragmentation product from laser-shock-melted aluminum. In this letter, we report on our experiments and present the measured data.

  12. 76 FR 13431 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... Indian Leases'' (64 FR 43506). The gas valuation regulations apply to all gas production from Indian... 30 CFR, chapter XII (75 FR 61051), effective October 1, 2010.) If additional royalties are due based... Indian Gas Production in Designated Areas Not Associated With an Index Zone AGENCY: Office of...

  13. Virtual fragment preparation for computational fragment-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Ludington, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) has become an important component of the drug discovery process. The use of fragments can accelerate both the search for a hit molecule and the development of that hit into a lead molecule for clinical testing. In addition to experimental methodologies for FBDD such as NMR and X-ray Crystallography screens, computational techniques are playing an increasingly important role. The success of the computational simulations is due in large part to how the database of virtual fragments is prepared. In order to prepare the fragments appropriately it is necessary to understand how FBDD differs from other approaches and the issues inherent in building up molecules from smaller fragment pieces. The ultimate goal of these calculations is to link two or more simulated fragments into a molecule that has an experimental binding affinity consistent with the additive predicted binding affinities of the virtual fragments. Computationally predicting binding affinities is a complex process, with many opportunities for introducing error. Therefore, care should be taken with the fragment preparation procedure to avoid introducing additional inaccuracies.This chapter is focused on the preparation process used to create a virtual fragment database. Several key issues of fragment preparation which affect the accuracy of binding affinity predictions are discussed. The first issue is the selection of the two-dimensional atomic structure of the virtual fragment. Although the particular usage of the fragment can affect this choice (i.e., whether the fragment will be used for calibration, binding site characterization, hit identification, or lead optimization), general factors such as synthetic accessibility, size, and flexibility are major considerations in selecting the 2D structure. Other aspects of preparing the virtual fragments for simulation are the generation of three-dimensional conformations and the assignment of the associated atomic point charges

  14. 30 CFR 1202.550 - How do I determine the royalty due on gas production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... purposes, determined under 30 CFR part 1206, multiplied by the volume of production multiplied by the... production? 1202.550 Section 1202.550 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue ROYALTIES Gas Production From Indian Leases §...

  15. Production, characterisation and immunogenicity of a plant-made Plasmodium antigen--the 19 kDa C-terminal fragment of Plasmodium yoelii merozoite surface protein 1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Charles; Wang, Lina; Webster, Diane E; Campbell, Alison E; Coppel, Ross L

    2012-04-01

    Development of a safe, effective and affordable malaria vaccine is central to global disease control efforts. One of the most highly regarded proteins for inclusion in an asexual blood stage subunit vaccine is the 19-kDa C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1(19)). As production of vaccine antigens in plants can potentially overcome cost and delivery hurdles, we set out to produce MSP1(19) in plants, characterise the protein and test its immunogenicity using a mouse model. Plasmodium yoelii MSP1(19) (PyMSP1(19)) was produced in Nicotiana benthamiana using the MagnICON® deconstructed TMV-based viral vector. PyMSP1(19) yield of at least 23% total soluble protein (TSP;3-4 mg/g Fwt) were achieved using a codon-optimised construct that was targeted to the apoplast. Freeze-dried leaf powder contained at least 20 mg PyMSP1(19) per gram dry weight and the protein retained immunogenicity in this form for more than 2 years. Characterisation studies, including SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry and circular dichroism, indicated that the plant-expressed PyMSP1(19) was similar to its Escherichia coli- and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-expressed counterparts. Purified plant-made PyMSP1(19) induced strong immune responses following intraperitoneal immunisation, although titres were lower than those induced by an equivalent dose of purified E. coli-expressed PyMSP1(19). The reason for this is uncertain but may be due to differences in the oligomerisation profile of the vaccines. The plant-made PyMSP1(19) vaccine was also found to be orally immunogenic when delivered alone or following immunisation with a PyMSP1(19) DNA vaccine. This study adds to an increasing body of research supporting the feasibility of plants as both a factory for the production of malaria antigens, and as a safe and affordable platform for oral delivery of a temperature-stable malaria vaccine. PMID:22170105

  16. Resolvin D1, Protectin D1, and Related Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Products: Analysis via Electrospray/Low Energy Tandem Mass Spectrometry based on Spectra and Fragmentation Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Song; Lu, Yan; Yang, Rong; Gotlinger, Katherine H.; Petasis, Nicos P.; Serhan, Charles N.

    2009-01-01

    Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and Protectin D1 (Neuroprotectin D1, PD1/NPD1) are newly identified anti-inflammatory lipid mediators biosynthesized from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this report, the spectra-structure correlations and fragmentation mechanisms were studied using electrospray low-energy collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for biogenic RvD1 and PD1, as well as mono-hydroxy-DHA and related hydroperoxy-DHA. The loss of H2O and CO2 in the spectra indicates the number of functional group(s). Chain-cut ions are the signature of the positions and numbers of functional groups and double-bonds. The observed chain-cut ion is equivalent to a hypothetical homolytic-segment (cc, cm, mc, or mm) with addition or extraction of up to 2 protons (H). The α-cleavage ions are equivalent to: [cc + H], with H from the hydroxyl through a β-ene or γ-ene rearrangement; [cm - 2H], with 2H from hydroxyls of PD1 through a γ-ene rearrangement, or one H from the hydroxyl and the other H from the α-carbon of mono-HDHA through an α-H-β-ene rearrangement; [mc – H], with H from hydroxyl through a β-ene or γ-ene rearrangement, or from the α-carbon through an α-H-β-ene rearrangement; or [mm] through charge-direct fragmentations. The β-ene or γ-ene facilitates the H shift to γ position and α-cleavage. Deuterium labeling confirmed the assignment of MS/MS ions and the fragmentation mechanisms. Based on the MS/MS spectra and fragmentation mechanisms, we identified RvD1, PD1, and mono-hydroxy-DHA products in human neutrophils and blood, trout head-kidney, and stroke-injury murine brain-tissues. PMID:17055291

  17. Structural elucidation of monoterpene oxidation products by ion trap fragmentation using on-line atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode.

    PubMed

    Warscheid, B; Hoffmann, T

    2001-01-01

    Based on ion trap mass spectrometry, an on-line method is described which provides valuable information on the molecular composition of structurally complex organic aerosols. The investigated aerosols were generated from the gas-phase ozonolysis of various C(10)H(16)-terpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, sabinene, limonene), and directly introduced into the ion source of the mass spectrometer. Negative ion chemical ionisation at atmospheric pressure (APCI(-)) enabled the detection of multifunctional carboxylic acid products by combining inherent sensitivity and molecular weight information. Sequential low-energy collision-induced product ion fragmentation experiments (MS(n)) were performed in order to elucidate characteristic decomposition pathways of the compounds. Dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids and hydroxyketocarboxylic acid products could be clearly distinguished by multistage on-line MS. Furthermore, sabinonic acid and two C(9)-ether compounds were tentatively identified for the first time by applying on-line APCI(-)-MS(n). PMID:11746892

  18. Data of rational process optimization for the production of a full IgG and its Fab fragment from hybridoma cells.

    PubMed

    Röhm, Martina; Handl, Alina; König, Maria; Mavoungou, Chrystelle; Handrick, René; Schindowski, Katharina

    2016-09-01

    This data article focuses on the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and their fragments Fab and F(ab')2. Here, we present the data of an optimization protocol to improve the product yield of a hybridoma cell process using a Design of Experiment (DoE) strategy. Furthermore, the data of the evaluated conditions were used to test feeding strategies in shake flasks. They were verified in controlled 2 L fed-batch bioreactor processes. Supplementing the culture medium with human insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and Pluronic F-68, as well as a nutrient rich additive for fed-batch, resulted in improved cell growth correlating with a 7 day elongated process time and a 4.5 fold higher product titer. Finally, a rapid Fab generation protocol and the respective data are presented using different papain digestion and a camelid anti-kappa light chain VHH affinity ligand. PMID:27366780

  19. Vagal hyperactivity due to ventromedial hypothalamic lesions increases adiponectin production and release.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoko; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Noriko; Kubota, Naoto; Kubota, Tetsuya; Senoo, Akira; Kageyama, Haruaki; Osaka, Toshimasa; Hirako, Satoshi; Kim, Hyoun-Ju; Matsumoto, Akiyo; Shioda, Seiji; Mori, Masatomo; Kadowaki, Takashi; Inoue, Shuji

    2014-05-01

    In obese humans and animals, adiponectin production and release in adipose tissue are downregulated by feedback inhibition, resulting in decreased serum adiponectin. We investigated adiponectin production and release in ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH)-lesioned animals. VMH-lesioned mice showed significant increases in food intake and body weight gain, with hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia at 1 and 4 weeks after VMH-lesioning. Serum adiponectin was elevated in VMH-lesioned mice at 1 and 4 weeks, despite adipocyte hypertrophy in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and increased body fat. Adiponectin production and mRNA were also increased in both adipose tissues in VMH-lesioned mice at 1 week. These results were replicated in VMH-lesioned rats at 1 week. Daily atropine administration for 5 days or subdiaphragmatic vagotomy completely reversed the body weight gain and eliminated the increased adiponectin production and release in these rats, with reversal to a normal serum adiponectin level. Parasympathetic nerve activation by carbachol infusion for 5 days in rats increased serum adiponectin, with increased adiponectin production in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues without changes of body weight. These results demonstrate that activation of the parasympathetic nerve by VMH lesions stimulates production of adiponectin in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues and adiponectin release, resulting in elevated serum adiponectin. PMID:24487025

  20. Oxidative Stress in the Developing Rat Brain due to Production of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Jiří; Vytášek, Richard; Uhlík, Jiří; Vajner, Luděk

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress after birth led us to localize reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) production in the developing rat brain. Brains were assessed a day prenatally and on postnatal days 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 30, and 60. Oxidation of dihydroethidium detected superoxide; 6-carboxy-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate revealed hydrogen peroxide; immunohistochemical proof of nitrotyrosine and carboxyethyllysine detected peroxynitrite formation and lipid peroxidation, respectively. Blue autofluorescence detected protein oxidation. The foetuses showed moderate RONS production, which changed cyclically during further development. The periods and sites of peak production of individual RONS differed, suggesting independent generation. On day 1, neuronal/glial RONS production decreased indicating that increased oxygen concentration after birth did not cause oxidative stress. Dramatic changes in the amount and the sites of RONS production occurred on day 4. Nitrotyrosine detection reached its maximum. Day 14 represented other vast alterations in RONS generation. Superoxide production in arachnoidal membrane reached its peak. From this day on, the internal elastic laminae of blood vessels revealed the blue autofluorescence. The adult animals produced moderate levels of superoxide; all other markers reached their minimum. There was a strong correlation between detection of nitrotyrosine and carboxyethyllysine probably caused by lipid peroxidation initiated with RONS. PMID:27190574

  1. Distribution of Fusion Products and Their Transport Due to Contained Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, G.; Riconda, C.; Coppi, B.

    1997-11-01

    The influence of the interaction of the fusion products with a class of high-frequency radially localized modes, or ``contained modes'', on the fusion products distribution function is considered and compared with slowing down against electrons. In contrast to low-frequency modes, the interaction with the contained mode does not conserve the magnetic moment of the particles. A quasi-stationary distribution function for the fusion products, neglecting plasma fluctuations and the slowing down of alpha particles on electrons, is described. This model yields information about the velocity-space anisotropy of the fusion products and first-orbit losses onto the plasma chamber. The contained modes have been proposed(B. Coppi, G. Penn, C. Riconda, MIT RLE Report PTP-96/02 (1996)) as a mechanism for experimentally observed enhanced emission at harmonics of the cyclotron frequency of the fusion products.(JET Team, Phys. of Fluids) B5 (1993) 3^,(G.A. Cottrell, V.P. Bhatnagar et al., Nucl. Fusion) 33 (1993) 1365 The possibility to excite these contained modes by an external source is discussed. We point out that contained modes can be exploited for the direct transfer of energy to the fusing nuclei from those energetic fusion products that have a resonant interaction with the modes.

  2. Production of fine structures in type III solar radio bursts due to turbulent density profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Cairns, Iver H.; Li, Bo

    2014-07-20

    Magnetic reconnection events in the corona release energetic electron beams along open field lines, and the beams generate radio emission at multiples of the electron plasma frequency f{sub p} to produce type III solar radio bursts. Type III bursts often exhibit irregularities in the form of flux modulations with frequency and/or local temporal advances and delays, and a type IIIb burst represents the extreme case where a type III burst is fragmented into a chain of narrowband features called striae. Remote and in situ spacecraft measurements have shown that density turbulence is ubiquitous in the corona and solar wind, and often exhibits a Kolmogorov power spectrum. In this work, we numerically investigate the effects of one-dimensional macroscopic density turbulence (along the beam direction) on the behavior of type III bursts, and find that this turbulence produces stria-like fine structures in the dynamic spectra of both f{sub p} and 2 f{sub p} radiation. Spectral and temporal fine structures in the predicted type III emission are produced by variations in the scattering path lengths and group speeds of radio emission, and in the locations and sizes of emitting volumes. Moderate turbulence levels yield flux enhancements with much broader half-power bandwidths in f{sub p} than 2 f{sub p} emission, possibly explaining the often observed type IIIb-III harmonic pairs as being where intensifications in 2 f{sub p} radiation are not resolved observationally. Larger turbulence levels producing trough-peak regions in the plasma density profile may lead to broader, resolvable intensifications in 2 f{sub p} radiation, which may account for the type IIIb-IIIb pairs that are sometimes observed.

  3. Perturbative fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Pirner, H.-J.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Tarasov, A. V.

    2008-03-01

    The Berger model of perturbative fragmentation of quarks to pions is improved by providing an absolute normalization and keeping all terms in a (1-z) expansion, which makes the calculation valid at all values of fractional pion momentum z. We also replace the nonrelativistic wave function of a loosely bound pion by the more realistic procedure of projecting to the light-cone pion wave function, which in turn is taken from well known models. The full calculation does not confirm the (1-z){sup 2} behavior of the fragmentation function (FF) predicted in [E. L. Berger, Z. Phys. C 4, 289 (1980); Phys. Lett. 89B, 241 (1980] for z>0.5, and only works at very large z>0.95, where it is in reasonable agreement with phenomenological FFs. Otherwise, we observe quite a different z-dependence which grossly underestimates data at smaller z. The disagreement is reduced after the addition of pions from decays of light vector mesons, but still remains considerable. The process dependent higher twist terms are also calculated exactly and found to be important at large z and/or p{sub T}.

  4. Potential restrictions for CO2 sequestration sites due to shale and tight gas production.

    PubMed

    Elliot, T R; Celia, M A

    2012-04-01

    Carbon capture and geological sequestration is the only available technology that both allows continued use of fossil fuels in the power sector and reduces significantly the associated CO(2) emissions. Geological sequestration requires a deep permeable geological formation into which captured CO(2)can be injected, and an overlying impermeable formation, called a caprock, that keeps the buoyant CO(2) within the injection formation. Shale formations typically have very low permeability and are considered to be good caprock formations. Production of natural gas from shale and other tight formations involves fracturing the shale with the explicit objective to greatly increase the permeability of the shale. As such, shale gas production is in direct conflict with the use of shale formations as a caprock barrier to CO(2) migration. We have examined the locations in the United States where deep saline aquifers, suitable for CO(2) sequestration, exist, as well as the locations of gas production from shale and other tight formations. While estimated sequestration capacity for CO(2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers is large, up to 80% of that capacity has areal overlap with potential shale-gas production regions and, therefore, could be adversely affected by shale and tight gas production. Analysis of stationary sources of CO(2) shows a similar effect: about two-thirds of the total emissions from these sources are located within 20 miles of a deep saline aquifer, but shale and tight gas production could affect up to 85% of these sources. These analyses indicate that colocation of deep saline aquifers with shale and tight gas production could significantly affect the sequestration capacity for CCS operations. This suggests that a more comprehensive management strategy for subsurface resource utilization should be developed. PMID:22352312

  5. Possible Increase in Nitric Oxide Production by Lightning Discharges Due to Catalytic Effects of Ice Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Harold; Beasley, William

    2011-01-01

    We address the question of whether ice crystals with habits typically encountered by lightning discharges may serve as catalysts for the production of NOx by lightning. If so, and if the effect is sufficiently large, it would need to be taken into account in estimates of global NOx production by lightning. In this study, we make a series of plausible assumptions about the temperatures and concentrations of reactant species in the environment of discharges and we postulate a mechanism by which ice crystals could adsorb nitrogen atoms. We then compare production rates between uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions at 2000 K, 3000 K, and 4000 K, temperatures observed in lightning channels during the cool-down period after a return stroke. Catalyzed NO production rates are greater at 2000 K, whereas uncatalyzed production occurs most rapidly at 4000 K. The channel temperature stays around 2000 K for a longer period of time than at 4000 K. The longer residence time at 2000 K is sufficient to allow fresh reactants to participate in the mix in. Therefore, our results suggest that nearly three times as much NO per flash is produced by ice-catalyzed reactions as compared with uncatalyzed reactions.

  6. Dynamical regimes due to technological change in a microeconomical model of production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, K.

    2012-09-01

    We develop a microeconomical model to investigate the impact of technological change onto production decisions of suppliers—modeling an effective feedback mechanism of the market. An important property—the time horizon of production planning—is related to the Kolmogorov entropy of the one-dimensional maps describing price dynamics. We simulate this price dynamics in an ensemble representing the whole macroeconomy. We show how this model can be used to support ongoing research in economic growth and incorporate the obtained microeconomic findings into the discussion about appropriate macroeconomic quantities such as the production function—thus effectively underpinning macroeconomics with microeconomical dynamics. From there we can show that the model exhibits different dynamical regimes (suggesting "phase transitions") with respect to an order parameter. The non-linear feedback under technological change was found to be the crucial mechanism. The implications of the obtained regimes are finally discussed.

  7. Dynamical regimes due to technological change in a microeconomical model of production.

    PubMed

    Hamacher, K

    2012-09-01

    We develop a microeconomical model to investigate the impact of technological change onto production decisions of suppliers-modeling an effective feedback mechanism of the market. An important property-the time horizon of production planning-is related to the Kolmogorov entropy of the one-dimensional maps describing price dynamics. We simulate this price dynamics in an ensemble representing the whole macroeconomy. We show how this model can be used to support ongoing research in economic growth and incorporate the obtained microeconomic findings into the discussion about appropriate macroeconomic quantities such as the production function-thus effectively underpinning macroeconomics with microeconomical dynamics. From there we can show that the model exhibits different dynamical regimes (suggesting "phase transitions") with respect to an order parameter. The non-linear feedback under technological change was found to be the crucial mechanism. The implications of the obtained regimes are finally discussed. PMID:23020488

  8. Low-energy mass-selected ion beam production of fragments produced from hexamethyldisilane for SiC film formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Satoru; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Kiuchi, Masato

    2016-03-01

    We have proposed an experimental methodology which makes it possible to deposit silicon carbide (SiC) films on Si substrates with a low-energy mass-selected ion beam system using hexamethyldisilane (HMD) as a gas source. In this study, one of the fragment ions produced from HMD, SiCH4+, was mass-selected. The ion energy was approximately 100 eV. Then, the SiCH4+ ions were irradiated to a Si(100) substrate. When the temperature of the Si substrate was set at 800 °C during the ion irradiation, the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy of the substrate following the completion of ion irradiation experiment demonstrated the occurrence of 3C-SiC deposition.

  9. Cross sections for the production of fragments with Z greater than or equal to 8 by fragmentation of Z greater than or equal to 9 and less than or equal to 26 nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, W.; Drechsel, H.; Brechtmann, C.; Beer, J.

    1985-01-01

    Charge changing nuclear collisions in plastic nuclear track detectors were studied using a new experimental technique of automatic track measurement for etched tracks in plastic detectors. Partial cross sections for the production of fragments of charge Z approximately 8 were measured for projectile nuclei of charge 9 approximately Z approximately 26 in the detector material CR39 and in silver. for this purpose three independent experiments were performed using Bevalac beams. The first one was an exposure of a stack of CR39 plastic plates to 1.8 GeV/nucl. Ar-40 nuclei. The second one was an exposure of another CR39 stack of 1.7 GeV/nucl. Fe-56 projectiles. In the third experiment a mixed stack of CR39 plates and silver foils was irradiated with 1.7 GeV/nucl. Fe-56 nuclei. Thus the measurement of nuclear cross sections in a light target (CR39 = C12H18O7) and as well in a heavy target (silver) was possible.

  10. Production and characterization of a biotinylated single-chain variable fragment antibody for detection of parathion-methyl.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huimin; Zhao, Fengchun; Han, Xiao; Yang, Zhengyou

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we reported the development of a biotinylated single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA) for parathion-methyl (PM) detection. Firstly, a phage display library was generated using a pre-immunized BALB/C mouse against a specific hapten of PM. After four rounds of panning, the scFv gene fragments were transferred into a secreted expression vector. Then, the scFv antibodies were secreted expressed and screened by IC-ELISA against PM. The selected scFv antibody was fused with a biotin acceptor domain (BAD) and inserted into pET-28a(+) vector for high-level expression in Escherichia coli BL2 (DE3). After optimizing expression conditions, the scFv-BAD antibody was expressed as a soluble protein and biotinylated in vitro by the E. coli biotin ligase (BirA). Subsequently, the biotinylated scFv-BAD antibody was purified with a high yield of 59.2 ± 3.7 mg/L of culture, and was characterized by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Finally, based on the biotinylated scFv-BAD, a sensitive IC-ELISA for detection of PM was developed, and the 50% inhibition value (IC50) of PM was determined as 14.5 ng/mL, with a limit of detection (LOD, IC10) of 0.9 ng/mL. Cross-reactivity (CR) studies revealed that the scFv antibody showed desirable specificity for PM. PMID:27181246

  11. The economic burden of lost productivity due to migraine headache: a specific worksite analysis.

    PubMed

    Burton, Wayne N; Conti, Daniel J; Chen, Chin-Yu; Schultz, Alyssa B; Edington, Dee W

    2002-06-01

    Large, epidemiologic survey studies have established that migraine headaches affect approximately 6% of men and 18% of women in the United States and that the condition peaks during the prime working years (25 to 55 years of age). The consequent economic burden experienced by employers is substantial. The majority of this economic burden is realized by employers in terms of lost productivity, a combination of costs attributable to absenteeism and to lost productivity while on the job ("presenteeism"). Although large survey studies have produced estimates of national prevalence and have suggested substantial national costs, specific employers are rarely able to apply these projections to their specific workforce. Using demographic and payroll data available from a large financial services corporation with over 80,000 employees, this study used established prevalence data to estimate corporate costs stemming from migraine-related absenteeism and reduced on-the-job productivity to total at least $21.5 M and $24.4 M. In addition, a comparison of predicted prevalence and cost impact was conducted using a simpler and less costly health risk appraisal. This assessment proved to be a reliable tool in assessing prevalence of migraineurs in this corporation's workforce. Its use with a sample of 19,853 employees at this corporation produced prevalence rates of 7.7% of men and 23.4% of women, estimates closely comparable to those of national surveys. Suggestions are made regarding a corporate response to the substantial costs of lost productivity associated with migraine headache. PMID:12085478

  12. Genome changes due to forty years of artificial selection associated with divergent dairy production and reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial selection in dairy cattle since 1964 has achieved steady increase in milk production that was accompanied by unintended declines in fertility. Direct comparison of 45,878 SNPs between a group of Holstein cattle unselected since 1964 and the contemporary Holsteins was conducted to identify...

  13. Changes in the TRMM Version-5 and Version-6 Precipitation Radar Products Due to Orbit Boost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The performance of the version-5 and version-6 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) products before and after the satellite orbit boost is assessed through a series of comparisons with Weather Surveillance Radar (WSR)-88D ground-based radar in Melbourne, Florida. Analysis of the comparisons of radar reflectivity near the storm top from the ground radar and both versions of the PR indicates that the PR bias relative to the WSR radar at Melbourne is on the order of 1dB for both pre- and post-boost periods, indicating that the PR products maintain accurate calibration after the orbit boost. Comparisons with the WSR-88D near-surface reflectivity factors indicate that both versions of the PR products accurately correct for attenuation in stratiform rain. However, in convective rain, both versions exhibit negative biases in the near-surface radar reflectivity with version-6 products having larger negative biases than version-5. Rain rate comparisons between the ground and space radars show similar characteristics

  14. Pea (Pisum sativum) Seed Production as an Assay for Reproductive Effects Due to Herbicides.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Even though herbicide drift can affect plant reproduction, current plant testing protocols emphasize effects on vegetative growth. In this study, we determined whether a short–growing season plant can indicate potential effects of herbicides on seed production. Pea (Pisum sativum...

  15. Variable effects of dispersal on productivity of bacterial communities due to changes in functional trait composition.

    PubMed

    Severin, Ina; Östman, Örjan; Lindström, Eva S

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown variable relationships between dispersal rate and ecosystem functioning, but the reasons for and mechanisms behind variable dispersal rate-functioning patterns are currently unknown. In this study we used six bacterial lake water communities in a laboratory experiment in order to investigate how dispersal among communities influences community productivity by evaluating three different mechanisms: 1) changes in taxonomic diversity, 2) changes in phylogenetic diversity or 3) changes in the composition of functional traits. The experiment was conducted in two phases; (A) a dialysis bag experiment where the dispersal rate among six communities was manipulated and the subsequent change in bacterial diversity and growth rate was recorded, and (B) a regrowth experiment where we manipulated available resources to study how well a taxon grows on certain organic carbon resources, i.e. their functional traits. From experiment (B) we could thus estimate changes in functional traits in communities in experiment (A). Bacterial production was affected by dispersal, but not consistently among lakes. Neither change in taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity with dispersal could explain the observed dispersal-productivity relationships. Instead, changes in trait composition with dispersal, especially the communities' ability to use p-coumaric acid, an aromatic compound, could explain the observed dispersal-productivity relationships. Changes in this trait caused by dispersal seemed especially important for bacterial productivity in waters with a high aromaticity of the organic matter pool. We conclude that the effect of dispersal on bacterial communities can affect ecosystem functioning in different ways, through changes in functional key-traits which are important for the local environment. PMID:24324633

  16. Variable Effects of Dispersal on Productivity of Bacterial Communities Due to Changes in Functional Trait Composition

    PubMed Central

    Severin, Ina; Östman, Örjan; Lindström, Eva S.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown variable relationships between dispersal rate and ecosystem functioning, but the reasons for and mechanisms behind variable dispersal rate – functioning patterns are currently unknown. In this study we used six bacterial lake water communities in a laboratory experiment in order to investigate how dispersal among communities influences community productivity by evaluating three different mechanisms: 1) changes in taxonomic diversity, 2) changes in phylogenetic diversity or 3) changes in the composition of functional traits. The experiment was conducted in two phases; (A) a dialysis bag experiment where the dispersal rate among six communities was manipulated and the subsequent change in bacterial diversity and growth rate was recorded, and (B) a regrowth experiment where we manipulated available resources to study how well a taxon grows on certain organic carbon resources, i.e. their functional traits. From experiment (B) we could thus estimate changes in functional traits in communities in experiment (A). Bacterial production was affected by dispersal, but not consistently among lakes. Neither change in taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity with dispersal could explain the observed dispersal – productivity relationships. Instead, changes in trait composition with dispersal, especially the communities’ ability to use p-coumaric acid, an aromatic compound, could explain the observed dispersal – productivity relationships. Changes in this trait caused by dispersal seemed especially important for bacterial productivity in waters with a high aromaticity of the organic matter pool. We conclude that the effect of dispersal on bacterial communities can affect ecosystem functioning in different ways, through changes in functional key-traits which are important for the local environment. PMID:24324633

  17. Changes in thermodynamic conditions of the Ahuachapán reservoir due to production and injection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steingrimsson, B.; Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Truesdell, A.; Cuellar, G.; Escobar, C.; Quintanilla, A.

    1991-01-01

    Since large-scale exploitation of the Ahuachapán reservoir began in 1975 large changes in the reservoir thermodynamic conditions have occurred. Drawdown of up to 15 bars and significant temperature changes have been observed in the wellfield. Temperatures have declined due to boiling in the reservoir in response to the pressure drawdown; localized and minor cooling due to reinjection of spent geothermal fluids have also been observed. There are indications of cold fluid influx deep into the reservoir from the west and north. Reservoir temperatures show that a significant amount of hot fluid recharge comes to the wellfield from the southeast, and temperatures also indicate that the recharge rate has increased with time as pressure declines in the reservoir. Chemical analyses of the produced fluids show that most wells are fed by a mixture of geothermal fluids and cooler, less-saline waters. The cold water inflow has increased due to exploitation, as demonstrated by decreased salinity of the produced fluids.

  18. Outbreak of Salmonella Livingstone infection in Norway and Sweden due to contaminated processed fish products.

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, P. J.; De Jong, B.; Heir, E.; Hasseltvedt, V.; Kapperud, G.; Styrmo, K.; Gondrosen, B.; Lassen, J.; Andersson, Y.; Aavitsland, P.

    2004-01-01

    In Europe, the number of reported sporadic human cases of Salmonella Livingstone infection is low, and outbreaks are rare. We report the largest S. Livingstone outbreak described in the literature having an identified source of infection. In February 2001, an increased incidence of infection caused by S. Livingstone was observed in Norway and Sweden. By July 2001, 44 cases were notified in Norway and 16 in Sweden. The median age was 63 years, and 40 were women. There were three deaths, and 22 patients were hospitalized. Based on standardized questionnaires and retrospective studies of S. Livingstone strains in Norway and Sweden, food items with egg powder were suspected, and S. Livingstone was subsequently recovered from a processed fish product at the retail level. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis documented that isolates from the fish product belonged to the same clone as the outbreak strain. PMID:15473152

  19. Pea (Pisum sativum) seed production as an assay for reproductive effects due to herbicides.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2009-09-01

    Even though herbicide drift can affect plant reproduction, current plant testing protocols emphasize effects on vegetative growth. In this study, we determined whether a short-growing season plant can indicate potential effects of herbicides on seed production. Pea (Pisum sativum cv. Dakota) plants were grown in mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plants were treated with a variety of herbicides (dicamba, clopyralid, glufosinate, glyphosate, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, primisulfuron, or sulfometuron) at below standard field application rates applied at a vegetative stage of growth (approximately 14 d after emergence) or at flowering (approximately 20 d after emergence). Pea seed production was greatly reduced by sulfometuron at the minimum concentration used (0.001 x field application rate), with an effective concentration producing a 25% reduction in seed dry weight of 0.00007 x field application rate. Primisulfuron and glyphosate had a 25% reduction in seed dry weight for seed dry weight of 0.0035 and 0.0096 x field application rate, respectively. Clopyralid and dicamba reduced pea seed dry weight at a 25% reduction in seed dry weight of approximately 0.07 x field application rate. Glufosinate only reduced pea seed weight in one experiment, with a 25% reduction in seed dry weight of 0.07 and 0.008 x field application rate at vegetative growth and flowering stages, respectively. Pea seed dry weight was not affected by 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid. Plant developmental stage had no consistent effect on herbicide responses. Reduced seed production occurred with some herbicides (especially acetolactate synthase inhibitors), which caused little or no reduction in plant height or shoot biomass and little visible injury. Thus, pea may be a model species to indicate seed reproductive responses to herbicides, with seed production obtained by extending plant growth for usually only 7 d longer than the period usually used in the vegetative vigor

  20. Lung edema due to hydrogen peroxide is independent of cyclooxygenase products

    SciTech Connect

    Burghuber, O.; Mathias, M.M.; McMurtry, I.F.; Reeves, J.T.; Voelkel, N.F.

    1984-01-01

    Active oxygen species can cause lung injury. Although a direct action on endothelial cells is proposed, the possibility exists that they might cause injury via mediators. We considered that active oxygen species would stimulate the generation of cyclooxygenase metabolites, which then alter pulmonary vasoreactivity and cause edema. We chemically produced hydrogen peroxide by adding glucose oxidase to a plasma- and cell-free, but ..beta..-D-glucose-containing, solution, which perfused isolated rat lungs. Addition of glucose oxidase to the perfusate caused a marked decrease in pulmonary vasoreactivity, accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of prostacyclin, thromboxane A/sub 2/, and prostaglandin F/sub 2..cap alpha../. Pretreatment with catalase, a specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, preserved pulomonary vasoreactivity, inhibited the increase of the concentration of the measured prostaglandins, and prevented edema formation. Indomethacin effectively blocked lung prostaglandin production but neither prevented the decrease in vasoreactivity nor inhibited edema formation. From these data we conclude the hydrogen peroxide impaired pulmonary vasoreactivity and subsequently caused edema. Depsite the fact that hydrogen peroxide stimulated lung prostaglandin production, cyclooxygenase-derived products neither caused the decrease in vasoreactivity nor the development of edema.

  1. Lung edema due to hydrogen peroxide is independent of cyclooxygenase products.

    PubMed

    Burghuber, O; Mathias, M M; McMurtry, I F; Reeves, J T; Voelkel, N F

    1984-04-01

    Active oxygen species can cause lung injury. Although a direct action on endothelial cells is proposed, the possibility exists that they might cause injury via mediators. We considered that active oxygen species would stimulate the generation of cyclooxygenase metabolites, which then alter pulmonary vasoreactivity and cause edema. We chemically produced hydrogen peroxide by adding glucose oxidase to a plasma- and cell-free, but beta-D-glucose-containing, solution, which perfused isolated rat lungs. Addition of glucose oxidase to the perfusate caused a marked decrease in pulmonary vasoreactivity, accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of prostacyclin, thromboxane A2, and prostaglandin F2 alpha. Pretreatment with catalase, a specific scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, preserved pulmonary vasoreactivity, inhibited the increase of the concentration of the measured prostaglandins, and prevented edema formation. Indomethacin effectively blocked lung prostaglandin production but neither prevented the decrease in vasoreactivity nor inhibited edema formation. From these data we conclude that hydrogen peroxide impaired pulmonary vasoreactivity and subsequently caused edema. Despite the fact that hydrogen peroxide stimulated lung prostaglandin production, cyclooxygenase-derived products neither caused the decrease in vasoreactivity nor the development of edema. PMID:6427146

  2. Effect of endurance training on excessive CO2 expiration due to lactate production in exercise.

    PubMed

    Hirakoba, K; Maruyama, A; Inaki, M; Misaka, K

    1992-01-01

    We attempted to determine the change in total excess volume of CO2 output (CO2 excess) due to bicarbonate buffering of lactic acid produced in exercise due to endurance training for approximately 2 months and to assess the relationship between the changes of CO2 excess and distance-running performance. Six male endurance runners, aged 19-22 years, were subjects. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), oxygen uptake (VO2) at anaerobic threshold (AT), CO2 excess and blood lactate concentration were measured during incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer and 12-min exhausting running performance (12-min ERP) was also measured on the track before and after endurance training. The absolute magnitudes in the improvement due to training for CO2 excess per unit of body mass per unit of blood lactate accumulation (delta la-) in exercise (CO2 excess.mass-1.delta la-), 12-min ERP, VO2 at AT (AT-VO2) and VO2max on average were 0.8 ml.kg-1.l-1.mmol-1, 97.8 m, 4.4 ml.kg-1. min-1 and 7.3 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively. The percentage change in CO2 excess.mass-1.delta la- (15.7%) was almost same as those of VO2max (13.7%) and AT-VO2 (13.2%). It was found to be a high correlation between the absolute amount of change in CO2 excess.mass-1.delta la-, and the absolute amount of change in AT-VO2 (r = 0.94, P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1735416

  3. ESA DUE GlobTemperature project: Infrared-based LST Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermida, Sofia; Pires, Ana; Ghent, Darren; Trigo, Isabel; DaCamara, Carlos; Remedios, John

    2016-04-01

    One of the purposes of the GlobTemperature project is to provide a product of global Land Surface Temperature (LST) based on Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low Earth polar Orbit (LEO) satellite data. The objective is to use existing LST products, which are obtained from different sensors/platforms, combining them into a harmonized product for a reference view angle. In a first approach, only infra-red based retrievals are considered, and LEO LSTs will be used as a common denominator among geostationary sensors. LST data is provided by a wide range of sensors to optimize spatial coverage, namely: (i) 2 LEO sensors - the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) series of instruments on-board ESA's Envisat, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on-board NASA's TERRA and AQUA; and (ii) 3 GEO sensors - the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on-board EUMETSAT's Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), the Japanese Meteorological Imager (JAMI) on-board the Japanese Meteorological Association (JMA) Multifunction Transport SATellite (MTSAT-2), and NASA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). The merged LST product is generated in two steps: 1) calibration between each LEO and each GEO that consists in the removal of systematic differences (associated to sensor type and LST algorithms, including calibration, atmospheric and surface emissivity corrections, amongst others) represented by linear regressions; 2) angular correction that consists in bringing all LST data to reference (nadir) view. Angular effects on LST are estimated by means of a kernel model of the surface thermal emission, which describes the angular dependence of LST as function of viewing and illumination geometry. The model is adjusted to MODIS and SEVIRI/MSG LST estimates and validated against LST retrievals from those sensors obtained for other years (not used in the calibration). It is shown that the model leads to a reduction of LST

  4. Monitoring the Perturbation of Soil and Groundwater Microbial Communities Due to Pig Production Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Yannarell, Anthony C.; Dai, Qinghua; Ekizoglu, Melike

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if biotic contaminants originating from pig production farms are disseminated into soil and groundwater microbial communities. A spatial and temporal sampling of soil and groundwater in proximity to pig production farms was conducted, and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was utilized to determine the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (i.e., tetQ and tetZ) and integrase genes (i.e., intI1 and intI2). We observed that the abundances of tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in the soils increased at least 6-fold after manure application, and their abundances remained elevated above the background for up to 16 months. Q-PCR further determined total abundances of up to 5.88 × 109 copies/ng DNA for tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in some of the groundwater wells that were situated next to the manure lagoon and in the facility well used to supply water for one of the farms. We further utilized 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing to assess the microbial communities, and our comparative analyses suggest that most of the soil samples collected before and after manure application did not change significantly, sharing a high Bray-Curtis similarity of 78.5%. In contrast, an increase in Bacteroidetes and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations was observed in the groundwaters collected from lagoon-associated groundwater wells. Genera associated with opportunistic human and animal pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, Yersinia, and Coxiella, were detected in some of the manure-treated soils and affected groundwater wells. Feces-associated bacteria such as Streptococcus, Erysipelothrix, and Bacteroides were detected in the manure, soil, and groundwater ecosystems, suggesting a perturbation of the soil and groundwater environments by invader species from pig production activities. PMID:23396341

  5. Modelling of labour productivity loss due to climate change: HEAT-SHIELD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Daanen, Hein

    2016-04-01

    Climate change will bring higher heat levels (temperature and humidity combined) to large parts of the world. When these levels reach above thresholds well defined by human physiology, the ability to maintain physical activity levels decrease and labour productivity is reduced. This impact is of particular importance in work situations in areas with long high intensity hot seasons, but also affects cooler areas during heat waves. Our modelling of labour productivity loss includes climate model data of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Inter-comparison Project (ISI-MIP), calculations of heat stress indexes during different months, estimations of work capacity loss and its annual impacts in different parts of the world. Different climate models will be compared for the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and the outcomes of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) agreements. The validation includes comparisons of modelling outputs with actual field studies using historical heat data. These modelling approaches are a first stage contribution to the European Commission funded HEAT-SHIELD project.

  6. Potential hypersensitivity due to the food or food additive content of medicinal products in Spain.

    PubMed

    Audicana Berasategui, M T; Barasona Villarejo, M J; Corominas Sánchez, M; De Barrio Fernández, M; García Avilés, M C; García Robaina, J C; Gastaminza Lasarte, G; Laguna Martínez, J J; Lobera Labairu, T; López San Martín, M; Martín Lázaro, J; Moreno Rodilla, E; Ortega Rodríguez, N; Torres Jaén, M J

    2011-01-01

    The Drug Allergy Committee of the Spanish Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology reviewed the allergenic potential of several substances of food origin that are found in the composition of some drugs. Despite recent legislation on labeling, many labels do not clearly state whether the drug contains raw material (active ingredients, excipient, or other manufacturing intermediate) with an origin in any of the substances in the list of the 14 groups of food allergens that are subject to mandatory declaration. The objective of legislation is that the drug package, the Summary of Product Characteristics, and the patient information leaflet clearly state the food content in order to improve the safety of allergic patients. Therefore, any food or allergen derivative that must be declared should be clearly stated on the drug label. Of all the evaluated products, egg and milk derivatives are the most frequently discussed in literature reviews. The natural or synthetic origin of potentially allergenic substances such as lysozyme, casein, lactose, albumin, phosphatide, and aromatic essences should be clearly stated. Providing this information has 2 clear advantages. First, allergic reactions to drugs in patients with food allergy could be avoided (if the substances have a natural origin). Second, prescription would improve by not restricting drugs containing synthetic substances (which do not usually induce allergic reactions). PMID:22312932

  7. Enhanced Southern Ocean marine productivity due to fertilization by giant icebergs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duprat, Luis P. A. M.; Bigg, Grant R.; Wilton, David J.

    2016-03-01

    Primary productivity is enhanced within a few kilometres of icebergs in the Weddell Sea owing to the input of terrigeneous nutrients and trace elements during iceberg melting. However, the influence of giant icebergs, over 18 km in length, on marine primary production in the Southern Ocean is less well studied. Here we present an analysis of 175 satellite images of open ocean colour before and after the passage of 17 giant icebergs between 2003 and 2013. We detect substantially enhanced chlorophyll levels, typically over a radius of at least 4-10 times the iceberg's length, that can persist for more than a month following passage of a giant iceberg. This area of influence is more than an order of magnitude larger than that found for sub-kilometre scale icebergs or in ship-based surveys of giant icebergs. Assuming that carbon export increases by a factor of 5-10 over the area of influence, we estimate that up to a fifth of the Southern Ocean's downward carbon flux originates with giant iceberg fertilization. We suggest that, if giant iceberg calving increases this century as expected, this negative feedback on the carbon cycle may become more important.

  8. Atmospheric odd oxygen production due to the photodissociation of ordinary and isotopic molecular oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.; Frederick, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations are performed to determine the contributions of the Schumann-Runge bands of ordinary and isotopic oxygen to the photodissociation of these molecules at different altitudes. The contributions to the dissociation rates of the satellite lines and of the first and higher vibrational states of the initial molecular states are found to be insignificant. At 70 km, (O-16)(O-18) is found to produce 10 times as much odd oxygen as would be produced if the isotope did not have selective absorption, and 6 percent of the odd oxygen produced is due to this isotope. It is noted that the excess odd oxygen produced is not enough to explain the excess quantity of ozone observed in the atmosphere, which cannot be accounted for in photochemical models. Comparison with previous results is made.

  9. Gas production due to alpha particle degradation of polyethylene and polyvinylchloride

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T.; Hoh, J.; Emery, J.; Okajima, S.; Krause, T.

    1998-07-01

    Alpha particle degradation experiments were performed on polyethylene (PE) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) plastic samples typical of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) transuranic (TRU) waste. This was done to evaluate the effects of sealing TRU waste during shipment. Experiments were conducted at three temperatures using low dose rates. Predominant products from both plastics were hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and various organic species, with the addition of hydrochloric acid from PVC. In all experiments, the total pressure decreased. Irradiation at 30 and 60 C and at various dose rates caused small changes for both plastics, but at 100 C coupled thermal-radiolytic effects included discoloration of the material as well as large differences in the gas phase composition.

  10. Enhanced Xylitol Production by Mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus 36907-FMEL1 Due to Improved Xylose Reductase Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Seong; Park, Jae-Bum; Jang, Seung-Won; Ha, Suk-Jin

    2015-08-01

    A directed evolution and random mutagenesis were carried out with thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907 for efficient xylitol production. The final selected strain, K. marxianus 36907-FMEL1, exhibited 120 and 39 % improvements of xylitol concentration and xylitol yield, respectively, as compared to the parental strain, K. marxianus ATCC 36907. According to enzymatic assays for xylose reductase (XR) activities, XR activity from K. marxianus 36907-FMEL1 was around twofold higher than that from the parental strain. Interestingly, the ratios of NADH-linked and NADPH-linked XR activities were highly changed from 1.92 to 1.30 when K. marxianus ATCC 36907 and K. marxianus 36907-FMEL1 were compared. As results of KmXYL1 genes sequencing, it was found that cysteine was substituted to tyrosine at position 36 after strain development which might cause enhanced XR activity from K. marxianus 36907-FMEL1. PMID:26043853

  11. Engineered bacterial polyester hydrolases efficiently degrade polyethylene terephthalate due to relieved product inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ren; Oeser, Thorsten; Schmidt, Juliane; Meier, René; Barth, Markus; Then, Johannes; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies on the enzymatic degradation of synthetic polyesters have shown the potential of polyester hydrolases from thermophilic actinomycetes for modifying or degrading polyethylene terephthalate (PET). TfCut2 from Thermobifida fusca KW3 and LC-cutinase (LCC) isolated from a compost metagenome are remarkably active polyester hydrolases with high sequence and structural similarity. Both enzymes exhibit an exposed active site in a substrate binding groove located at the protein surface. By exchanging selected amino acid residues of TfCut2 involved in substrate binding with those present in LCC, enzyme variants with increased PET hydrolytic activity at 65°C were obtained. The highest activity in hydrolyzing PET films and fibers were detected with the single variant G62A and the double variant G62A/I213S. Both variants caused a weight loss of PET films of more than 42% after 50 h of hydrolysis, corresponding to a 2.7-fold increase compared to the wild type enzyme. Kinetic analysis based on the released PET hydrolysis products confirmed the superior hydrolytic activity of G62A with a fourfold higher hydrolysis rate constant and a 1.5-fold lower substrate binding constant than those of the wild type enzyme. Mono-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate is a strong inhibitor of TfCut2. A determination of the Rosetta binding energy suggested a reduced interaction of G62A with 2PET, a dimer of the PET monomer ethylene terephthalate. Indeed, G62A revealed a 5.5-fold lower binding constant to the inhibitor than the wild type enzyme indicating that its increased PET hydrolysis activity is the result of a relieved product inhibition by mono-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1658-1665. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26804057

  12. Identification of framework residues in a secreted recombinant antibody fragment that control production level and localization in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, G; Forsgren, M; Jaki, M; Norin, M; Sterky, C; Enhörning, A; Larsson, K; Ericsson, M; Björk, P

    1997-05-01

    The monoclonal antibody 5T4, directed against a human tumor-associated antigen, was expressed as a secreted Fab superantigen fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The product is a putative agent for immunotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer. During fermentation, most of the fusion protein leaked out from the periplasm to the growth medium at a level of approximately 40 mg/liter. This level was notably low compared with similar products containing identical CH1, CL, and superantigen moieties, and the Fv framework was therefore engineered. Using hybrid molecules, the light chain was found to limit high expression levels. Substituting five residues in VL increased the level almost 15 times, exceeding 500 mg/liter in the growth medium. Here, the substitutions Phe-10 --> Ser, Thr-45 --> Lys, Thr-77 --> Ser, and Leu-78 --> Val were most powerful. In addition, replacing four VH residues diminished cell lysis during fermentation. Thereby the product was preferentially located in the periplasm instead of the growth medium, and the total yield was more than 700 mg/liter. All engineered products retained a high affinity for the tumor-associated antigen. It is suggested that at least some of the identified framework residues generally have to be replaced to obtain high level production of recombinant Fab products in E. coli. PMID:9139690

  13. Acute Vitamin D Intoxication Possibly Due to Faulty Production of a Multivitamin Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Anık, Ahmet; Çatlı, Gönül; Abacı, Ayhan; Dizdarer, Ceyhun; Böber, Ece

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D intoxication usually occurs as a result of inappropriate use of vitamin D preparations and can lead to life-threatening hypercalcemia. It is also known that there are a number of physicians who prescribe vitamin D supplements for various clinical conditions, such as poor appetite and failure to thrive. While inappropriate use of vitamin D supplements may lead to vitamin D intoxication, there are no reports of cases of vitamin D toxicity due to manufacturing errors of vitamin D preparations. Here, we present cases of hypervitaminosis D which developed following the use of a standard dose of a multivitamin preparation. All three cases presented with hypercalcemia symptoms and had characteristic laboratory findings such as hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, low levels of parathyroid hormone. The very high serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels in these patients indicated vitamin D excess. The vitamin D level of the prescribed multivitamin preparation in the market was studied and was found to contain a very low level of vitamin D (10 IU/5 mL). Although the stated vitamin D content of the preparations ingested by these patients was not high, unproven but possible manufacturing errors were considered to be a possible cause of the hypervitaminosis D diagnosed in these three patients. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23748070

  14. Production of a soluble single-chain variable fragment antibody against okadaic acid and exploration of its specific binding.

    PubMed

    He, Kuo; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Wang, Lixia; Du, Xinjun; Wei, Dong

    2016-06-15

    Okadaic acid is a lipophilic marine algal toxin commonly responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Outbreaks of DSP have been increasing and are of worldwide public health concern; therefore, there is a growing demand for more rapid, reliable, and economical analytical methods for the detection of this toxin. In this study, anti-okadaic acid single-chain variable fragment (scFv) genes were prepared by cloning heavy and light chain genes from hybridoma cells, followed by fusion of the chains via a linker peptide. An scFv-pLIP6/GN recombinant plasmid was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli for expression, and the target scFv was identified with IC-CLEIA (chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay). The IC15 was 0.012 ± 0.02 μg/L, and the IC50 was 0.25 ± 0.03 μg/L. The three-dimensional structure of the scFv was simulated with computer modeling, and okadaic acid was docked to the scFv model to obtain a putative structure of the binding complex. Two predicted critical amino acids, Ser32 and Thr187, were then mutated to verify this theoretical model. Both mutants exhibited significant loss of binding activity. These results help us to understand this specific scFv-antigen binding mechanism and provide guidance for affinity maturation of the antibody in vitro. The high-affinity scFv developed here also has potential for okadaic acid toxin detection. PMID:26772159

  15. Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Rueter, Horst; Stump, Brian; Segall, Paul; Zoback, Mark; Nelson, Jim; Frohlich, Cliff; Rutledge, Jim; Gritto, Roland; Baria, Roy; Hickman, Steve; McGarr, Art; Ellsworth, Bill; Lockner, Dave; Oppenheimer, David; Henning, Peter; Rosca, Anca; Hornby, Brian; Wang, Herb; Beeler, Nick; Ghassemi, Ahmad; Walters, Mark; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Dracos, Peter; Fehler, Mike; Abou-Sayed, Ahmed; Ake, Jon; Vorobiev, Oleg; Julian, Bruce

    2011-04-01

    that was necessary not only to make fluid injections safe, but an economic asset, DOE organized a series of workshops. The first workshop was held on February 4, 2010, at Stanford University. A second workshop will be held in mid-2010 to address the critical elements of a 'best practices/protocol' that industry could use as a guide to move forward with safe implementation of fluid injections/production for energy-related applications, i.e., a risk mitigation plan, and specific recommendations for industry to follow. The objectives of the first workshop were to identify critical technology and research needs/approaches to advance the understanding of induced seismicity associated with energy related fluid injection/production, such that: (1) The risk associated with induced seismicity can be reduced to a level that is acceptable to the public, policy makers, and regulators; and (2) Seismicity can be utilized/controlled to monitor, manage, and optimize the desired fluid behavior in a cost effective fashion. There were two primary goals during the workshop: (1) Identify the critical roadblocks preventing the necessary understanding of human-induced seismicity. These roadblocks could be technology related (better imaging of faults and fractures, more accurate fluid tracking, improved stress measurements, etc.), research related (fundamental understanding of rock physical properties and geochemical fluid/rock interactions, development of improved constitutive relations, improved understanding of rock failure, improved data processing and modeling, etc.), or a combination of both. (2) After laying out the roadblocks the second goal was to identify technology development and research needs that could be implemented in the near future to address the above objectives.

  16. Modeling Hydrodynamic Changes Due to Marine Hydrokinetic Power Production: Community Outreach and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, S. C.; Jones, C.; Roberts, J.

    2013-12-01

    Power generation with marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines is receiving growing global interest. Because of reasonable investment, maintenance, reliability, and environmental friendliness, this technology can contribute to national (and global) energy markets and is worthy of research investment. Furthermore, in remote areas, small-scale MHK energy from river, tidal, or ocean currents can provide a local power supply. The power-generating capacity of MHK turbines will depend, among other factors, upon the turbine type and number and the local flow velocities. There is an urgent need for deployment of practical, accessible tools and techniques to help the industry optimize MHK array layouts while establishing best sitting and design practices that minimize environmental impacts. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has modified the open-source flow and transport Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) to include the capability of simulating the effects of MHK power production. Upon removing energy (momentum) from the system, changes to the local and far-field flow dynamics can be estimated (e.g., flow speeds, tidal ranges, flushing rates, etc.). The effects of these changes on sediment dynamics and water quality can also be simulated using this model. Moreover, the model can be used to optimize MHK array layout to maximize power capture and minimize environmental impacts. Both a self-paced tutorial and in-depth training course have been developed as part of an outreach program to train academics, technology developers, and regulators in the use and application of this software. This work outlines SNL's outreach efforts using this modeling framework as applied to two specific sites where MHK turbines have been deployed.

  17. Enhanced Ozone Production at Low Temperatures due to Ethanol (E85)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginnebaugh, D. L.; Livingstone, P. L.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of ethanol in transportation fuels warrants an investigation of its consequences. An important component of such an investigation is the temperature-dependence of ethanol and gasoline exhaust chemistry. We use the near-explicit Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, version 3.1, LEEDS University) with the SMVGEAR II chemical ordinary differential solver to provide the speed necessary to simulate explicit chemistry to examine such effects. The MCM has over 13,500 organic reactions and 4,600 species. SMVGEAR II is a sparse-matrix Gear solver that reduces the computation time significantly while maintaining any specified accuracy. Although for this study we use a box model, we determined that the speed of the MCM with the SMVGEAR solver will allow the MCM to be modeled in 3-dimensions. We also verified the accuracy of the model with comparisons to smog chamber data. We use species-resolved tailpipe emissions data for E85 (15% gasoline, 85% ethanol fuel blend) and gasoline vehicles to compare the impact of each on ozone and carcinogenic organic gases as a function of ambient temperature and background concentrations, using Los Angeles in 2020 as a base case. We use two different emissions sets - one is a compilation of data taken at near 24 C and the other from data taken at -7 C - to determine how atmospheric chemistry and emissions are affected by temperature. We include diurnal effects by examining 2 day and 5 day scenarios. We find that for both emission data sets, the average ozone concentrations through the range of temperatures tested are higher with E85 than with gasoline by 8 parts per billion volume (ppbv) at higher temperatures to 55 ppbv at low temperatures and low sunlight (winter conditions) for an area with a high nitrogen oxides (NOx) to non-methane organic gases (NMOG) ratio. The results suggest that E85's effect on health through ozone formation becomes increasingly more significant relative to gasoline as temperatures decreased due to the

  18. Rapamycin reverses age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, oxidative stress, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, and lipofuscin level, and increases autophagy, in the liver of middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cisuelo, V; Gómez, J; García-Junceda, I; Naudí, A; Cabré, R; Mota-Martorell, N; López-Torres, M; González-Sánchez, M; Pamplona, R; Barja, G

    2016-10-01

    Rapamycin consistently increases longevity in mice although the mechanism of action of this drug is unknown. In the present investigation we studied the effect of rapamycin on mitochondrial oxidative stress at the same dose that is known to increase longevity in mice (14mgofrapamycin/kg of diet). Middle aged mice (16months old) showed significant age-related increases in mitochondrial ROS production at complex I, accumulation of mtDNA fragments inside nuclear DNA, mitochondrial protein lipoxidation, and lipofuscin accumulation compared to young animals (4months old) in the liver. After 7weeks of dietary treatment all those increases were totally or partially (lipofuscin) abolished by rapamycin, middle aged rapamycin-treated animals showing similar levels in those parameters to young animals. The decrease in mitochondrial ROS production was due to qualitative instead of quantitative changes in complex I. The decrease in mitochondrial protein lipoxidation was not due to decreases in the amount of highly oxidizable unsaturated fatty acids. Rapamycin also decreased the amount of RAPTOR (of mTOR complex) and increased the amounts of the PGC1-α and ATG13 proteins. The results are consistent with the possibility that rapamycin increases longevity in mice at least in part by lowering mitochondrial ROS production and increasing autophagy, decreasing the derived final forms of damage accumulated with age which are responsible for increased longevity. The decrease in lipofuscin accumulation induced by rapamycin adds to previous information suggesting that the increase in longevity induced by this drug can be due to a decrease in the rate of aging. PMID:27498120

  19. Fragmentation Function in Thermofield Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladrem, M.; Chekerker, M.; Khanna, F. C.; Santana, A. E.

    2013-04-01

    The fragmentation function at high energy experiments is introduced by using thermofield dynamics (TFD), a real-time finite-temperature quantum field formalism. Due to the structure of TFD, the results at T = 0 and T ≠ 0 are split in a direct way. As an application, we consider the temperature effect on the fragmentation function of a hadron leading to quark-antiquark pairs. Using a definition of Wilson-loop in real-time, we find that the fragmentation function decreases in magnitude with an increase in the temperature.

  20. Fragmentation of cosmic-string loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    The fragmentation of cosmic string loops is discussed, and the results of a simulation of this process are presented. The simulation can evolve any of a large class of loops essentially exactly, including allowing fragments that collide to join together. Such reconnection enhances the production of small fragments, but not drastically. With or without reconnections, the fragmentation process produces a collection of nonself-intersecting loops whose typical length is on the order of the persistence length of the initial loop.

  1. Overexpression of ryanodine receptor type 1 enhances mitochondrial fragmentation and Ca2+-induced ATP production in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    O-Uchi, Jin; Jhun, Bong Sook; Hurst, Stephen; Bisetto, Sara; Gross, Polina; Chen, Ming; Kettlewell, Sarah; Park, Jongsun; Oyamada, Hideto; Smith, Godfrey L.; Murayama, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Ca+ influx to mitochondria is an important trigger for both mitochondrial dynamics and ATP generation in various cell types, including cardiac cells. Mitochondrial Ca2+ influx is mainly mediated by the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU). Growing evidence also indicates that mitochondrial Ca2+ influx mechanisms are regulated not solely by MCU but also by multiple channels/transporters. We have previously reported that skeletal muscle-type ryanodine receptor (RyR) type 1 (RyR1), which expressed at the mitochondrial inner membrane, serves as an additional Ca2+ uptake pathway in cardiomyocytes. However, it is still unclear which mitochondrial Ca2+ influx mechanism is the dominant regulator of mitochondrial morphology/dynamics and energetics in cardiomyocytes. To investigate the role of mitochondrial RyR1 in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology/function in cardiac cells, RyR1 was transiently or stably overexpressed in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts. We found that overexpressed RyR1 was partially localized in mitochondria as observed using both immunoblots of mitochondrial fractionation and confocal microscopy, whereas RyR2, the main RyR isoform in the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum, did not show any expression at mitochondria. Interestingly, overexpression of RyR1 but not MCU or RyR2 resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation. These fragmented mitochondria showed bigger and sustained mitochondrial Ca2+ transients compared with basal tubular mitochondria. In addition, RyR1-overexpressing cells had a higher mitochondrial ATP concentration under basal conditions and showed more ATP production in response to cytosolic Ca2+ elevation compared with nontransfected cells as observed by a matrix-targeted ATP biosensor. These results indicate that RyR1 possesses a mitochondrial targeting/retention signal and modulates mitochondrial morphology and Ca2+-induced ATP production in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts. PMID:24124188

  2. The significance of nitrous oxide emission due to cropping of grain for biofuel production: a Swedish perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Å.; Smith, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    The current regulations governing production of biofuels in the European Union require that they have to mitigate climate change, by producing >35% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than fossil fuels. There is a risk that this may not be achievable, since land use for crop production inevitably emits the potent GHG nitrous oxide (N2O), due to nitrogen fertilisation and cycling in the environment. We analyse first-generation biofuel production on agricultural land and conclude that efficient agricultural crop production resulting in a good harvest and low N2O emission can fulfil the EU standard, and is possible under certain conditions for the Swedish agricultural and bioethanol production systems. However, in years having low crop yields, and where cropping is on organic soils, total GHG emissions per unit of fuel produced can be even higher than those released by burning of fossil fuels. In general, the N2O emission size in Sweden and elsewhere in northern Europe is such that there is a >50% chance that the 35% saving requirement will not be met. Thus ecosystem N2O emissions have to be convincingly assessed. Here we compare Swedish emission data with values estimated by means of statistical models and by a global, top-down, approach; the measurements and the predictions often show higher values that would fail to meet the EU standard and thus prevent biofuel production development.

  3. Limited impact of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on marine productivity due to biogeochemical feedbacks in a global ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somes, Christopher J.; Landolfi, Angela; Koeve, Wolfgang; Oschlies, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    The impact of increasing anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen deposition on marine biogeochemistry is uncertain. We performed simulations to quantify its effect on nitrogen cycling and marine productivity in a global 3-D ocean biogeochemistry model. Nitrogen fixation provides an efficient feedback by decreasing immediately to deposition, whereas water column denitrification increases more gradually in the slowly expanding oxygen deficient zones. Counterintuitively, nitrogen deposition near oxygen deficient zones causes a net loss of marine nitrogen due to the stoichiometry of denitrification. In our idealized atmospheric deposition simulations that only account for nitrogen cycle perturbations, these combined stabilizing feedbacks largely compensate deposition and suppress the increase in global marine productivity to <2%, in contrast to a simulation that neglects nitrogen cycle feedbacks that predicts an increase of >15%. Our study emphasizes including the dynamic response of nitrogen fixation and denitrification to atmospheric nitrogen deposition to predict future changes of the marine nitrogen cycle and productivity.

  4. [Increased efficiency of recombinant proteins production in plants due to optimized translation of RNA of viral vector].

    PubMed

    Mardanova, E S; Kotliarov, R Iu; Ravin, N V

    2009-01-01

    One of the most efficient methods for fast and efficient production of the target proteins in plants is based on the use of self-replicating recombinant viral vectors. We constructed phytoviral vector based on the genome of potato X virus containing the sequence of 5'-untranslated region of RNA 4 of alfalfa mosaic virus immediately upstream of the target gene. We demonstrated that incorporation of this sequence into the viral vector results in 3-4 fold elevation of the level of production of the target protein in plant due to increased efficiency of translation of viral subgenomic RNA comprising the target gene. The new vector may be used for production of recombinant proteins in plants. PMID:19548543

  5. Shielding and fragmentation studies.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, C; Guetersloh, S; Heilbronn, L; Miller, J

    2005-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry for manned spaced missions depends on the ability to adequately describe the process of high-energy ion transport through many materials. Since the types of possible nuclear interactions are many and complex, transport models are used which depend upon a reliable source of experimental data. To expand the heavy ion database used in the models we have been measuring charge-changing cross sections and fragment production cross sections from heavy-ion interactions in various elementa targets. These include materials flown on space missions such as carbon and aluminium, as well as those important in radiation dosimetry such as hydrogen, nitrogen and water. Measuring heavy-ion fragmentation through these targets also gives us the ability to determine the effectiveness of new materials proposed for shielding such as graphite composites and polyethylene hybrids. Measurement without a target present gives an indication of the level of contamination of the primary beam, which is also important in radiobiology experiments. PMID:16604611

  6. Neutron productions in the fragmentation of relativistic heavy nuclei and formation of a beam of high-energy neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurevich, V. I.

    2016-03-01

    The production of quasimonoenergetic high-energy neutrons at zero angle (0°) in the spallation of relativistic heavy nuclei is discussed by considering the example of the interaction of lead nuclei with light target nuclei. It is shown that this process can be used to generate a beam of high-energy neutrons at existing heavy ion accelerators. At the same time, itmay lead to the appearance of a parasitic neutron beam because of the interaction of the heavy-ion beam used with beam line and experimental setup materials.

  7. Production and delivery batch scheduling with a common due date and multiple vehicles to minimize total cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyaningsih, E.; Suprayogi; Samadhi, TMAA; Halim, AH

    2016-02-01

    This paper studies production and delivery batch scheduling problems for a single- supplier-to-a-single-manufacturer case, with multiple capacitated vehicles wherein different holding costs between in-process and completed parts are allowed. In the problem, the parts of a single item are first batched,then the resulting batches are processed on a single machine. All completed batches are transported in a number of deliveries in order to be received at a common due date. The objective is to find the integrated schedule of production and delivery batches so as to satisfy its due date and to minimize the total cost of associated in-process parts inventory, completed parts inventory and delivery. It should be noted that both holding costs constitute a derivation of the so-called actual flow time, and the delivery cost is proportional to the required number of deliveries. The problem can be formulated as an integer non-linier programming and it is solved optimally by Lingo 11.0 software. Numerical experiences show that there are two patterns of batch sizes affected by the ratio of holding costs of in-process and completed parts. It can be used by practitioners to solve the realistic integrated production and delivery batch scheduling problem.

  8. Heavy Ion Fragmentation Experiments at the Bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using the heavy-ion capability of the Bevatron were studied. The purpose was to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Attempts were also made to: (1) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (2) test the applicability of high-energy multi-particle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (3) apply the cross-section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (4) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross sections.

  9. Production of the 42-kDa fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1, a leading malaria vaccine antigen, in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    PubMed

    Lau, On Sun; Ng, Danny W-K; Chan, Wendy W L; Chang, Sandra P; Sun, Samuel S M

    2010-12-01

    Malaria is widely associated with poverty, and a low-cost vaccine against malaria is highly desirable for implementing comprehensive vaccination programmes in developing countries. Production of malaria antigens in plants is a promising approach, but its development has been hindered by poor expression of the antigens in plant cells. In the present study, we targeted plant seeds as a low-cost vaccine production platform and successfully expressed the Plasmodium falciparum 42-kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1₄₂), a leading malaria vaccine candidate, at a high level in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. We overcame hurdles of transcript and protein instabilities of MSP1₄₂ in plants by synthesizing a plant-optimized MSP1₄₂ cDNA and either targeting the recombinant protein to protein storage vacuoles or fusing it with a stable plant storage protein. An exceptional improvement in MSP1₄₂ expression, from an undetectable level to 5% of total extractable protein, was achieved with these combined strategies. Importantly, the plant-derived MSP1₄₂ maintains its natural antigenicity and can be recognized by immune sera from malaria-infected patients. Our results provide a strong basis for the development of a plant-based, low-cost malaria vaccine. PMID:20444208

  10. Double Gene Targeting Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay Discriminates Beef, Buffalo, and Pork Substitution in Frankfurter Products.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M A Motalib; Ali, Md Eaqub; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Asing; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir; Zaidul, I S M

    2016-08-17

    Beef, buffalo, and pork adulteration in the food chain is an emerging and sensitive issue. Current molecular techniques to authenticate these species depend on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays involving long and single targets which break down under natural decomposition and/or processing treatments. This novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay targeted two different gene sites for each of the bovine, buffalo, and porcine materials. This authentication ensured better security, first through a complementation approach because it is highly unlikely that both sites will be missing under compromised states, and second through molecular fingerprints. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and ND5 genes were targeted, and all targets (73, 90, 106, 120, 138, and 146 bp) were stable under extreme boiling and autoclaving treatments. Target specificity and authenticity were ensured through cross-amplification reaction and restriction digestion of PCR products with AluI, EciI, FatI, and CviKI-1 enzymes. A survey of Malaysian frankfurter products revealed rampant substitution of beef with buffalo but purity in porcine materials. PMID:27501408

  11. Variations of net ecosystem production due to seasonal precipitation differences in a tropical dry forest of northwest Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verduzco, Vivian S.; Garatuza-Payán, Jaime; Yépez, Enrico A.; Watts, Christopher J.; Rodríguez, Julio C.; Robles-Morua, Agustin; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2015-10-01

    Due to their large extent and high primary productivity, tropical dry forests (TDF) are important contributors to atmospheric carbon exchanges in subtropical and tropical regions. In northwest Mexico, a bimodal precipitation regime that includes winter precipitation derived from Pacific storms and summer precipitation from the North American monsoon (NAM) couples water availability with ecosystem processes. We investigated the net ecosystem production of a TDF ecosystem using a 4.5 year record of water and carbon fluxes obtained from the eddy covariance method complemented with remotely sensed data. We identified a large CO2 efflux at the start of the summer season that is strongly related to the preceding winter precipitation and greenness. Since this CO2 efflux occurs prior to vegetation green-up, we infer that respiration is mainly due to decomposition of soil organic matter accumulated from the prior growing season. Overall, ecosystem respiration has an important effect on the net ecosystem production but can be overwhelmed by the strength of the primary productivity during the NAM. Precipitation characteristics during NAM have significant controls on sustaining carbon fixation in the TDF into the fall season. We identified that a threshold of ~350 to 400 mm of monsoon precipitation leads to a switch in the annual carbon balance in the TDF ecosystem from a net source (+102 g C/m2/yr) to a net sink (-249 g C/m2/yr). This monsoonal precipitation threshold is typically exceeded one out of every 2 years. The close coupling of winter and summer periods with respect to carbon fluxes suggests that the annual carbon balance is dependent on precipitation amounts in both seasons in TDF ecosystems.

  12. Laser lithotripsy with the Ho:YAG laser: fragmentation process revealed by time-resolved imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidlin, Franz R.; Beghuin, Didier; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Venzi, Giordano; Jichlinski, Patrice; Rink, Klaus; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; Graber, Peter

    1998-07-01

    Improvements of endoscopic techniques have renewed the interest of urologists in laser lithotripsy in recent years. Laser energy can be easily transmitted through flexible fibers thereby enabling different surgical procedures such as cutting, coagulating and lithotripsy. The Ho:YAG laser offers multiple medical applications in Urology, among them stone fragmentation. However, the present knowledge of its fragmentation mechanism is incomplete. The objective was therefore to analyze the fragmentation process and to discuss the clinical implications related to the underlying fragmentation mechanism. The stone fragmentation process during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy was observed by time resolved flash video imaging. Possible acoustic transient occurrence was simultaneously monitored with a PVDF-needle hydrophone. Fragmentation was performed on artificial and cystine kidney stones in water. We observed that though the fragmentation process is accompanied with the formation of a cavitation bubble, cavitation has only a minimal effect on stone fragmentation. Fragment ejection is mainly due to direct laser stone heating leading to vaporization of organic stone constituents and interstitial water. The minimal effect of the cavitation bubble is confirmed by acoustic transients measurements, which reveal weak pressure transients. Stone fragmentation with the Holmium laser is the result of vaporization of interstitial (stone) water and organic stone constituents. It is not due to the acoustic effects of a cavitation bubble or plasma formation. The fragmentation process is strongly related with heat production thereby harboring the risk of undesired thermal damage. Therefore, a solid comprehension of the fragmentation process is needed when using the different clinically available laser types of lithotripsy.

  13. NOx production due to energetic particle precipitation in the MLT region - results from an ion-chemistry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieder, Holger; Sinnhuber, Miriam

    2013-04-01

    The chemistry in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) region is driven by forcing from solar radiation and energetic particles. The resulting ionisation, dissociation and excitation of the constituents lead to production of neutral reactive species such as NOx (N, NO, NO2) and HOx (H, OH, HO2), both directly from dissociation of neutrals and indirectly from subsequent ion-neutral reactions. As NOx is long-lived during polar winter, it can be transported down to the stratosphere and contribute to catalytic ozone depletion. To study the effective NOx production rates during an ionisation event, runs with a one-dimensional state-of-the-art ion chemistry model (UBIC) are carried out and analysed. The model starts with a neutral atmosphere and uses direct ion and neutral production rates from Porter et al. (1976) and Rusch et al. (1981), adapted for the MLT region. Including raw ionisation rates from external sources such as AIMOS is possible. The ion-neutral reactions in the charged atmosphere are computed until equilibrium is reached, resulting in an effective production rate including impact of ion-neutral reactions. The indirect NOx production rate is found to depend on atmospheric parameters such as pressure, temperature and the abundance of NOx, atomic oxygen and H2O. For the MLT region, this leads to an increasing amount of NOx per ionpair created with increasing altitude due to an increasing atomic oxygen VMR. Values of >1.8 NOx per ionpair can be obtained. The results are made available to a 3D Chemistry Transport Model using a database-approach and multilinear interpolation for readout. Efficiency of this approach and first results from a 3D CTM using the ion-chemistry results are discussed.

  14. Production of a recombinant anti-human CD4 single-chain variable-fragment antibody using phage display technology and its expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Arash; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Gharagozloo, Marjan

    2011-05-01

    Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) is a fusion protein of the variable regions of the heavy (VH) and light (VL) chains of immunoglobulin, connected with a short linker peptide of 10 to about 20 amino acids. In this study, the scFv of a monoclonal antibody against the third domain of human CD4 was cloned from OKT4 hybridoma cells using the phage display technique and produced in E. coli. The expression, production, and purification of anti-CD4 scFv were tested using SDS-PAGE and Western blot, and the specificity of anti-CD4 scFv was examined using ELISA. A 31 kDa recombinant anti-CD4 scFv was expressed and produced in bacteria, which was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot assays. Sequence analysis proved the ScFv structure of the construct. It was able to bind to CD4 in quality ELISA assay. The canonical structure of anti-CD4 scFv antibody was obtained using the SWISS_MODEL bioinformatics tool for comparing with the scFv general structure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for generating scFv against human CD4 antigen. Engineered anti-CD4 scFv could be used in immunological studies, including fluorochrome conjugation, bispecific antibody production, bifunctional protein synthesis, and other genetic engineering manipulations. Since the binding site of our product is domain 3 (D3) of the CD4 molecule and different from the CD4 immunological main domain, including D1 and D2, further studies are needed to evaluate the anti-CD4 scFv potential for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:21617352

  15. Measurement of HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate due to radon decay in air

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Huiling

    1993-08-01

    Radon in indoor air may cause the exposure of the public to excessive radioactivity. Radiolysis of water vapor in indoor air due to radon decay could produce ({center_dot}OH and HO{sub 2} {center_dot}) that may convert atmospheric constituents to compounds of lower vapor pressure. These lower vapor pressure compounds might then nucleate to form new particles in the indoor atmosphere. Chemical amplification was used to determine HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate in indoor air caused by radon decay. Average HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate was found to be (4.31{plus_minus}0.07) {times} 10{sup 5} HO{sub x}{center_dot} per Rn decay per second (Bq) 3.4 to 55.0% at 22C. This work provided G{sub (HO{sub x}{center_dot})}-value, 7.86{plus_minus}0.13 No./100 eV in air by directly measuring [HO{sub x}{center_dot}] formed from the radiolysis procedure. This G value implies that HO{sub x}{center_dot} produced by radon decay in air might be formed by multiple processes and may be result of positive ion-molecule reactions, primary radiolysis, and radical reactions. There is no obvious relation between HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate and relative humidity. A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been used for {center_dot}OH production rate measurement; it consists of an excimer laser, a dye laser, a frequency doubler, a gaseous fluorescence chamber, and other optical and electronic parts. This system needs to be improved to eliminate the interferences of light scattering and artificial {center_dot}OH produced from the photolysis of O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O.

  16. Crystal structure of a 117 kDa glucansucrase fragment provides insight into evolution and product specificity of GH70 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Vujicic-Zagar, Andreja; Pijning, Tjaard; Kralj, Slavko; López, Cesar A; Eeuwema, Wieger; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2010-12-14

    Glucansucrases are large enzymes belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 70, which catalyze the cleavage of sucrose into fructose and glucose, with the concomitant transfer of the glucose residue to a growing α-glucan polymer. Among others, plaque-forming oral bacteria secrete these enzymes to produce α-glucans, which facilitate the adhesion of the bacteria to the tooth enamel. We determined the crystal structure of a fully active, 1,031-residue fragment encompassing the catalytic and C-terminal domains of GTF180 from Lactobacillus reuteri 180, both in the native state, and in complexes with sucrose and maltose. These structures show that the enzyme has an α-amylase-like (β/α)(8)-barrel catalytic domain that is circularly permuted compared to the catalytic domains of members of glycoside hydrolase families 13 and 77, which belong to the same GH-H superfamily. In contrast to previous suggestions, the enzyme has only one active site and one nucleophilic residue. Surprisingly, in GTF180 the peptide chain follows a "U"-path, such that four of the five domains are made up from discontiguous N- and C-terminal stretches of the peptide chain. Finally, the structures give insight into the factors that determine the different linkage types in the polymeric product. PMID:21118988

  17. Aberrant immunoglobulin synthesis in light chain amyloidosis. Free light chain and light chain fragment production by human bone marrow cells in short-term tissue culture.

    PubMed Central

    Buxbaum, J

    1986-01-01

    Bone marrow cells obtained from 14 patients with light chain amyloid (AL) deposition were examined by biosynthetic labeling techniques. These analyses identified free monoclonal light chain (L-chain) synthesis even in those patients whose serum or urine contained no M protein or free L-chains or only an intact M protein. The experiments also identified a subset of patients whose plasma cells synthesized polypeptides bearing constant region antigenic determinants that migrated more rapidly than intact L-chains on polyacrylamide gels. Since most AL fibrils contain L-chain fragments rather than intact L-chains, these studies suggested that the genesis of the fibril components may reflect aberrant synthesis, proteolytic processing, or both. We also noted that in some individuals the pattern of Ig synthesis normalized after several courses of cytotoxic therapy. Thus, we could use bone marrow Ig synthesis as a sensitive biochemical parameter for monitoring therapy. Finally, the presence of aberrant synthetic products in these clones raised questions about their origin with respect to the normal processes of transcription, translation, and posttranslational modification in Ig-producing cells. Images PMID:3091637

  18. Utility of the Clostridial Site-Specific Recombinase TnpX To Clone Toxic-Product-Encoding Genes and Selectively Remove Genomic DNA Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Vicki; Bantwal, Radhika; Stevenson, Lauren; Cheung, Jackie K.; Awad, Milena M.; Nicholson, Joel; Carter, Glen P.; Mackin, Kate E.; Rood, Julian I.

    2014-01-01

    TnpX is a site-specific recombinase responsible for the excision and insertion of the transposons Tn4451 and Tn4453 in Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile, respectively. Here, we exploit phenotypic features of TnpX to facilitate genetic mutagenesis and complementation studies. Genetic manipulation of bacteria often relies on the use of antibiotic resistance genes; however, a limited number are available for use in the clostridia. The ability of TnpX to recognize and excise specific DNA fragments was exploited here as the basis of an antibiotic resistance marker recycling system, specifically to remove antibiotic resistance genes from plasmids in Escherichia coli and from marked chromosomal C. perfringens mutants. This methodology enabled the construction of a C. perfringens plc virR double mutant by allowing the removal and subsequent reuse of the same resistance gene to construct a second mutation. Genetic complementation can be challenging when the gene of interest encodes a product toxic to E. coli. We show that TnpX represses expression from its own promoter, PattCI, which can be exploited to facilitate the cloning of recalcitrant genes in E. coli for subsequent expression in the heterologous host C. perfringens. Importantly, this technology expands the repertoire of tools available for the genetic manipulation of the clostridia. PMID:24682304

  19. Crystal structure of a 117 kDa glucansucrase fragment provides insight into evolution and product specificity of GH70 enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Vujičić-Žagar, Andreja; Pijning, Tjaard; Kralj, Slavko; López, Cesar A.; Eeuwema, Wieger; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2010-01-01

    Glucansucrases are large enzymes belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 70, which catalyze the cleavage of sucrose into fructose and glucose, with the concomitant transfer of the glucose residue to a growing α-glucan polymer. Among others, plaque-forming oral bacteria secrete these enzymes to produce α-glucans, which facilitate the adhesion of the bacteria to the tooth enamel. We determined the crystal structure of a fully active, 1,031-residue fragment encompassing the catalytic and C-terminal domains of GTF180 from Lactobacillus reuteri 180, both in the native state, and in complexes with sucrose and maltose. These structures show that the enzyme has an α-amylase-like (β/α)8-barrel catalytic domain that is circularly permuted compared to the catalytic domains of members of glycoside hydrolase families 13 and 77, which belong to the same GH-H superfamily. In contrast to previous suggestions, the enzyme has only one active site and one nucleophilic residue. Surprisingly, in GTF180 the peptide chain follows a “U”-path, such that four of the five domains are made up from discontiguous N- and C-terminal stretches of the peptide chain. Finally, the structures give insight into the factors that determine the different linkage types in the polymeric product. PMID:21118988

  20. A Human Anti-Toll Like Receptor 4 Fab Fragment Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Production in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Cai, Binggang; Zhang, Yiqing; Zheng, Feng; Zhou, Linfu; Yang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Changjun; Nie, Shinan; Zhu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The results of clinical and experimental studies suggest that endotoxin/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated proinflammatory and profibrotic signaling activation is critical in the development of hepatic fibrosis. However, studies examining the role of specific TLR4 inhibitor are still lacking. The present study was aimed to prepare a human anti-TLR4 Fab fragment, named hTLR4-Fab01, and to explore its immune activity. We screened the positive clone of anti-human TLR4 phagemid from a human phage-display antibody library using recombinant TLR4 protein, which was used as template cDNA for the amplification of variable regions of the heavy (VH) chain and light chain (VL), then coupled with highly conserved regions of the heavy chain domain 1 (CH1) and the light chain (CL), respectively. Thus, the prokaryotic expression vector pETDuet-1 of hTLR4-Fab01 was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21. The characteristic of hTLR4-Fab01 was examined by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, ELISA, affinity and kinetics assay. Further, our data demonstrate that hTLR4-Fab01 could specifically bind to TLR4, and its treatment obviously attenuated the proinflammatory effect, characterized by less LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8 production in human macrophages. In conclusion, we have successfully prepared the hTLR4-Fab01 with efficient activity for blocking LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines production, suggesting that the hTLR4-Fab01 may be a potential candidate for the treatment of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26785354

  1. Significance of HO x and peroxides production due to alkene ozonolysis during fall and winter: A modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariya, Parisa A.; Sander, Rolf; Crutzen, Paul J.

    2000-07-01

    In an attempt to identify new mechanisms for the generation of oxidants during fall and winter, we carried out a modeling investigation in which ozonolysis reactions of alkenes that were primarily anthropogenic in origin were considered. Our results indicate that the ozonolysis reactions of these molecules can be the major sources of HOx, H2O2, and organic peroxides during the night and therefore especially during dark seasons. These O3-initiated oxidation reactions produce more peroxy radicals than those initiated by HO or NO3. This increase in RO2 also results in an increase in HO, HO2, and H2O2. The direct HO formation pathways by ozonolysis of alkenes can form more HO radicals than that from the reaction of O(1D) + H2O during the dark seasons. This additional source of HO can augment significantly atmospheric oxidation. H2O2 formation by ozonolysis also appears to be the most important dark season tropospheric sources of this oxidant. Our modeling results suggest that the existence of pollutant hydrocarbons and trace amount of biogenically produced terpenes can also lead to important production of HOx, H2O2, and organic peroxides. Substantially enhanced gas-phase production of H2O2 and organic peroxides due to ozonolysis reactions can cause significant liquid-phase oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI), and hence the role of ozonolysis reactions can be important for the sulfur conversion studies.

  2. Microbial gardening in the ocean's twilight zone: detritivorous metazoans benefit from fragmenting, rather than ingesting, sinking detritus: fragmentation of refractory detritus by zooplankton beneath the euphotic zone stimulates the harvestable production of labile and nutritious microbial biomass.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Daniel J; Sanders, Richard; Giering, Sarah L C; Anderson, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    Sinking organic particles transfer ∼10 gigatonnes of carbon into the deep ocean each year, keeping the atmospheric CO2 concentration significantly lower than would otherwise be the case. The exact size of this effect is strongly influenced by biological activity in the ocean's twilight zone (∼50-1,000 m beneath the surface). Recent work suggests that the resident zooplankton fragment, rather than ingest, the majority of encountered organic particles, thereby stimulating bacterial proliferation and the deep-ocean microbial food web. Here we speculate that this apparently counterintuitive behaviour is an example of 'microbial gardening', a strategy that exploits the enzymatic and biosynthetic capabilities of microorganisms to facilitate the 'gardener's' access to a suite of otherwise unavailable compounds that are essential for metazoan life. We demonstrate the potential gains that zooplankton stand to make from microbial gardening using a simple steady state model, and we suggest avenues for future research. PMID:25220362

  3. Multiparameter optimization method and enhanced production of secreted recombinant single-chain variable fragment against the HIV-1 P17 protein from Escherichia coli by fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Paopang, Porntip; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Butr-Indr, Bordin

    2016-04-01

    The single-chain fragment variable (scFv) was used to produce a completely functional antigen-binding fragment in bacterial systems. The advancements in antibody engineering have simplified the method of producing Fv fragments and made it more efficient and generally relevant. In a previous study, the scFv anti HIV-1 P17 protein was produced by a batch production system, optimized by the sequential simplex optimization method. This study continued that work in order to enhance secreted scFv production by fed-batch cultivation, which supported high volumetric productivity and provided a large amount of scFvs for diagnostic and therapeutic research. The developments in cell culture media and process parameter settings were required to realize the maximum production of cells. This study investigated the combined optimization methods, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and sequential simplex optimization, with the aim of optimize feed medium. Fed-batch cultivation with an optimal feeding rate was determined. The result demonstrated that a 20-mL/hr feeding rate of the optimized medium can increase cell growth, total protein production, and scFv anti-p17 activity by 4.43, 1.48, and 6.5 times more than batch cultivation, respectively. The combined optimization method demonstrated novel power tools for the optimization strategy of multiparameter experiments. PMID:25831436

  4. High-level production in Pichia pastoris of an anti-p185HER-2 single-chain antibody fragment using an alternative secretion expression vector.

    PubMed

    Gurkan, Cemal; Symeonides, Stefan N; Ellar, David J

    2004-02-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has become a highly popular expression host for the recombinant production of a wide variety of proteins. Initial success with this system was greatly facilitated by the development of versatile expression vectors that were almost exclusively based on the strong, tightly regulated promoter of the P. pastoris major alcohol oxidase gene ( AOX1 ). For example, pIB4 is an Escherichia coli - P. pastoris shuttle vector that also uses the AOX1 promoter to allow intracellular expression of endogenous and foreign genes in the latter organism. Since the eukaryotic advantages of P. pastoris would be best harnessed through the secretory targeting of the recombinant proteins, we modified the pIB4 vector by adding the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor secretion signal immediately upstream of its multiple cloning site. Here we describe the construction of this modified vector, pIB4alpha, and its successful use for the high-level expression and secretion of a functional single-chain antibody fragment (scFv), C6.5, which targets p185(HER-2), a cell-surface glycoprotein overexpressed in about 30% of human breast and ovarian cancers. The PCR strategy used for the subcloning of the C6.5 construct into pIB4alpha also introduced a short DNA sequence coding for a C-terminal hexahistidine tag, which allowed subsequent purification of the secreted scFv, by immobilized-metal-affinity chromatography, to a yield of 70 mg x l(-1) of shake-flask culture. In conclusion, our results suggest that the secretion expression vector pIB4alpha not only complements the original pIB4 vector for intracellular expression in P. pastoris, but might also constitute an attractive alternative to the commercially available secretion expression vectors. PMID:12962542

  5. Production and fragmentation of the D sup *0 charm meson in e sup + e sup minus annihilations at radical s = 29 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Low, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis, the neutral vector charm meson D{sup *0} has been studied. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 300 pb{sup {minus}1}, were collected using the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS). The HRS is located at the PEP e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} storage ring at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The detector subsystems relevant to the analysis are the seventeen layer drift chamber system and the barrel calorimeter system. Both of these devices are located within a solenoidal magnetic field of 1.62 Tesla. The charged particle momentum resolution is {sigma}{sub p}/p {approx} 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}p (p in GeV) for the momentum range used in this analysis. The electromagnetic energy resolution of the barrel shower counter system is {sigma}{sub E}/E {approx} 0.16/{radical}E (E in GeV). The radiative decay of the D{sup {asterisk}0} into a scalar charm meson, D{sup 0}, and a photon, {gamma}, where the D{sup 0} decays into a kaon and a pion (K{sup {minus}} {pi}{sup +}) has been observed. The production cross section in units of the point cross section is 0.63 {plus minus} 0.22 for fractional energy Z {ge} 0.5. This results is compared with the result form the JADE collaboration. The fragmentation function is compared with that of the D{sup *+} meson, also measured with the HRS.

  6. Electron-impact-induced tryptophan molecule fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamuliene, Jelena; Romanova, Liudmila G.; Vukstich, Vasyl S.; Papp, Alexander V.; Snegursky, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of a gas-phase tryptophan molecule by a low-energy (<70 eV) electron impact was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Various positively charged fragments were observed and analyzed. A special attention was paid to the energy characteristics of the ionic fragment yield. The geometrical parameters of the initial molecule rearrangement were also analyzed. The fragmentation observed was due to either a simple bond cleavage or more complex reactions involving molecular rearrangements. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Elementary Processes with Atoms and Molecules in Isolated and Aggregated States", edited by Friedrich Aumayr, Bratislav Marinkovic, Stefan Matejcik, John Tanis and Kurt H. Becker.

  7. Drop fragmentation by laser-induced cavitation bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-A, S. Roberto; Kerssens, Pjotr; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2015-11-01

    The fragmentation of water droplets by a short laser pulse has received significant attention since the 70's. The fundamental understanding of droplet vaporization/fragmentation is of interest in laser beam propagation in the atmosphere, in situ analysis of combustion products -a great concern due to its ecological implications- and more recently driven by a better understanding of the drop shaping by a laser pulse which is of interest in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) machines. In this presentation we discuss about the incipient events that lead to the fragmentation of a drop produced by a cavitation bubble. When the bubble expands, it stretches the drop into a thin liquid film; this liquid film is eventually ruptured and a shockwave and small droplets are ejected as fast as 4 times the speed of sound in air. Interestingly, we also observe bubbles on the surface of the stretched film. Numerical simulations of a shock wave propagating inside a droplet show that cavitation bubbles appear when counter propagating shock waves that rebound from the walls of the drop meet. We also show different fragmentation scenarios recorded with high-speed video, one of them being a jelly fish like liquid film that eventually fragments into smaller drops.

  8. Unzen Dome Dacite Density: Influence On Fragmentation Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küppers, U.; Spieler, O.; Dingwell, D. B.

    Preliminary experimental investigations of the fragmentation of dome lava from Un- zen volcano, Kyushu Island (Japan), have indicated that fragmentation is influenced by density. Two field campaigns (2000 and 2001) have been conducted to obtain extensive density information on the pyroclastic flow deposits of the 1990 to 1995 eruption. This allows the characterisation of the pre-collapse dome density. Such density data enable us to evaluate the effect and influence of transport processes on the density distribution inside the deposits. Experiments have been performed to determine the fragmentation threshold of hot, pressurised rock cylinders (60 x 26 mm) due to rapid decompression. The cylinders are pressurised using argon gas. The fragmentation bomb simulates the conditions for volcanic fragmentation induced by rapid decompression. At 850 C dense dacite with an open porosity of 3.76 % requires an initial pressure difference of 22.5 MPa to overcome the threshold. The threshold value decreases steeply with increasing porosity. At porosities greater than 12 % the rate of decrease of threshold value is reduced. The results presented here correlate with those obtained from Merapi, Montserrat and Mt. St. Helens (Spieler, 2001). Natural pyroclastics and pyroclastics generated experimentally have been compared using a laser particle size analyzer to correlate our experimental trends with data from natural products.

  9. Di-hadron fragmentation and mapping of the nucleon structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Silvia; Radici, Marco

    2016-06-01

    The fragmentation of a colored parton directly into a pair of colorless hadrons is a non-perturbative mechanism that offers important insights into the nucleon structure. Di-hadron fragmentation functions can be extracted from semi-inclusive electron-positron annihilation data. They also appear in observables describing the semi-inclusive production of two hadrons in deep-inelastic scattering of leptons off nucleons or in hadron-hadron collisions. When a target nucleon is transversely polarized, a specific chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function can be used as the analyzer of the net density of transversely polarized quarks in a transversely polarized nucleon, the so-called transversity distribution. The latter can be extracted through suitable single-spin asymmetries in the framework of collinear factorization, thus in a much simpler framework with respect to the traditional one in single-hadron fragmentation. At subleading twist, the same chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function provides the cleanest access to the poorly known twist-3 parton distribution e( x) , which is intimately related to the mechanism of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. When sensitive to details of transverse-momentum dynamics of partons, the di-hadron fragmentation functions for a longitudinally polarized quark can be connected to the longitudinal jet handedness to explore possible effects due to CP -violation of the QCD vacuum. In this review, we outline the formalism of di-hadron fragmentation functions, we discuss different observables where they appear and we present measurements and future worldwide plans.

  10. Severe von Willebrand disease due to a defect at the level of von Willebrand factor mRNA expression: Detection by exonic PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, W.C.; Lyons, S.E.; Harrison, J.S.; Cody, R.L.; Ginsburg, D. )

    1991-05-01

    von Willebrand disease (vWD), the most common inherited bleeding disorder in humans, results from abnormalities in the plasma clotting protein von Willebrand factor (vWF). Severe (type III) vWD is autosomal recessive in inheritance and is associated with extremely low or undetectable vWF levels. The authors report a method designed to distinguish mRNA expression from the two vWF alleles by PCR analysis of peripheral blood platelet RNA using DNA sequence polymorphisms located within exons of the vWF gene. This approach was applied to a severe-vWD pedigree in which three of eight siblings are affected and the parents and additional siblings are clinically normal. Each parent was shown to carry a vWF allele that is silent at the mRNA level. Family members inheriting both abnormal alleles are affected with severe vWD, whereas individuals with only one abnormal allele are asymptomatic. Given the frequencies of the two exon polymorphisms reported here, this analysis should be applicable to {approx}70% of type I and type III vWD patients. This comparative DNA and RNA PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach may also prove useful in identifying defects at the level of gene expression associated with other genetic disorders.

  11. Selectable fragmentation warhead

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, C.S.; Paisley, D.L.; Montoya, N.I.; Stahl, D.B.

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses a selectable fragmentation warhead which is capable of producing a predetermined number of fragments from a metal plate, and accelerating the fragments toward a target. A first explosive located adjacent to the plate is detonated at selected number of points by laser-driven slapper detonators. In one embodiment, a smoother-disk and a second explosive, located adjacent to the first explosive, serve to increase acceleration of the fragments toward a target. The ability to produce a selected number of fragments allows for effective destruction of a chosen target.

  12. Selectable fragmentation warhead

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, Courtney S.; Paisley, Dennis L.; Montoya, Nelson I.; Stahl, David B.

    1993-01-01

    A selectable fragmentation warhead capable of producing a predetermined number of fragments from a metal plate, and accelerating the fragments toward a target. A first explosive located adjacent to the plate is detonated at selected number of points by laser-driven slapper detonators. In one embodiment, a smoother-disk and a second explosive, located adjacent to the first explosive, serve to increase acceleration of the fragments toward a target. The ability to produce a selected number of fragments allows for effective destruction of a chosen target.

  13. The Effect of Additional Dead Space on Respiratory Exchange Ratio and Carbon Dioxide Production Due to Training

    PubMed Central

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17”29 ± 1”31 to 18”47 ± 1”37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17”20 ± 1”18 to 18”45 ± 1”44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key Points The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production. In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only. No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings. The lack of

  14. Attenuation of urban agricultural production potential and crop water footprint due to shading from buildings and trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Mark S.; Lathuillière, Michael J.; Tooke, Thoreau R.; Coops, Nicholas C.

    2015-06-01

    Urban agriculture requires local water to replace ‘hydrologic externalities’ associated with food produced outside of the local area, with an accompanying shift of the water footprint (WF) for agricultural production from rural to urban areas. Water requirements of urban agriculture have been difficult to estimate due to the heterogeneity of shading from trees and buildings within urban areas. We developed CityCrop, a plant growth and evapotranspiration (ET) model that couples a 3D model of tree canopies and buildings derived from LiDAR with a ray-casting approach to estimate spatially-explicit solar inputs in combination with local climate data. Evaluating CityCrop over a 1 km2 mixed use, residential neighborhood of Vancouver Canada, we estimated median light attenuation to result in 12% reductions in both reference ET (ETo) and crop ET (ETc). However, median crop yields were reduced by only 3.5% relative to potential yield modeled without any light attenuation, while the median crop WF was 9% less than the WF for areas unimpeded by shading. Over the 75 day cropping cycle, median crop water requirements as ETc were 17% less than that required for a well-watered grass (as ETo). If all lawns in our modeled area were replaced with crops, we estimate that about 37% of the resident population could obtain the vegetable portion of their diet from within the local area over a 150 day growing season. However doing so would result in augmented water demand if watering restrictions apply to lawns only. The CityCrop model can therefore be useful to evaluate trade-offs related to urban agriculture and to inform municipal water policy development.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide-induced production of a 40 kDa immunoreactive thyroglobulin fragment in human thyroid cells: the onset of thyroid autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Duthoit, C; Estienne, V; Giraud, A; Durand-Gorde, J M; Rasmussen, A K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Carayon, P; Ruf, J

    2001-01-01

    We recently reported that, during in vitro thyroid-hormone synthesis, H(2)O(2) stress cleaved thyroglobulin (Tg) into C-terminal peptides. These peptides were found to contain the immunodominant region of Tg recognized by Tg autoantibodies from patients with an autoimmune thyroid disease. To test the hypothesis that Tg fragmentation is an early upstream initiating event involved in Tg autoimmune response and the consequence of oxidative injuries, we studied the effect of H(2)O(2) stress on human thyroid cells. In culture conditions allowing Tg synthesis and iodine organification by the cells, we found that bolus addition of increasing millimolar doses of H(2)O(2) induced a dose-response appearance of floating cells in the culture medium. These cells apparently resulted from a necrotic process, and they bore iodinated Tg fragments. These fragments were found to be similar to those previously obtained in vitro from purified Tg. In both cases, Tg peptides were recognized by a well-defined monoclonal antibody directed to the immunodominant region of Tg. The smallest immunoreactive Tg peptide had a molecular mass of 40 kDa and entered human thyrocytes more efficiently than the entire Tg. These data suggest that thyrocytes exposed to locally increased H(2)O(2) doses accumulate fragmented Tg for further delivery into surrounding living thyrocytes in the course of an autoimmune response. PMID:11736644

  16. Selective Production of Electrostatically-Bound Adducts of Alkyl Cations/Polyoxoanions by the Collision-Induced Fragmentations of Their Quaternary Ammonium Counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jie; Xu, Chong; Fan, YanXuan; Fan, LinYuan; Zhang, XiuHui; Hu, ChangWen

    2013-06-01

    Solutions of the quaternary ammonium salts of a set of classic polyoxometalates (POMs) (Keggin [XM12O40]n-, Dawson [P2W18O62]6-, and Lindqvist [M6O19]2- (X = P, Si; M = W, Mo) were characterized by electrospray mass spectrometry. The gas-phase fragmentations of a series of quaternary ammonium-associated clusters were investigated by their collision-induced dissociations to elucidate their fragmentation mechanisms. It was found that the quaternary ammonium-associated clusters had distinctive dissociation characteristics. Moreover, the mono-quaternary ammonium-associated clusters, {NR4[POMs]}(n-1)-, shared a common fragmentation feature, that is, they decomposed exclusively into their respective alkyl cation-bound clusters irrespective of the different cation sizes and the different natures of the polyoxoanions. The optimized geometries and the binding energies of the mono cation-bound Lindqvist POM-based clusters were obtained by calculations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation of the gas-phase fragmentations of these noncovalent complexes between organic amines and inorganic POM anions by a combination of theory and mass spectrometry.

  17. Fragmentation properties of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Kipp, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    In the present study we are developing an experimental fracture material property test method specific to dynamic fragmentation. Spherical test samples of the metals of interest are subjected to controlled impulsive stress loads by acceleration to high velocities with a light-gas launcher facility and subsequent normal impact on thin plates. Motion, deformation and fragmentation of the test samples are diagnosed with multiple flash radiography methods. The impact plate materials are selected to be transparent to the x-ray method so that only test metal material is imaged. Through a systematic series of such tests, both strain-to-failure and fragmentation resistance properties are determined through this experimental method. Fragmentation property data for several steels, copper, aluminum, tantalum and titanium have been obtained to date. Aspects of the dynamic data have been analyzed with computational methods to achieve a better understanding of the processes leading to failure and fragmentation, and to test an existing computational fragmentation model.

  18. Consistent quantification of climate impacts due to biogenic carbon storage across a range of bio-product systems

    SciTech Connect

    Guest, Geoffrey Bright, Ryan M. Cherubini, Francesco Strømman, Anders H.

    2013-11-15

    Temporary and permanent carbon storage from biogenic sources is seen as a way to mitigate climate change. The aim of this work is to illustrate the need to harmonize the quantification of such mitigation across all possible storage pools in the bio- and anthroposphere. We investigate nine alternative storage cases and a wide array of bio-resource pools: from annual crops, short rotation woody crops, medium rotation temperate forests, and long rotation boreal forests. For each feedstock type and biogenic carbon storage pool, we quantify the carbon cycle climate impact due to the skewed time distribution between emission and sequestration fluxes in the bio- and anthroposphere. Additional consideration of the climate impact from albedo changes in forests is also illustrated for the boreal forest case. When characterizing climate impact with global warming potentials (GWP), we find a large variance in results which is attributed to different combinations of biomass storage and feedstock systems. The storage of biogenic carbon in any storage pool does not always confer climate benefits: even when biogenic carbon is stored long-term in durable product pools, the climate outcome may still be undesirable when the carbon is sourced from slow-growing biomass feedstock. For example, when biogenic carbon from Norway Spruce from Norway is stored in furniture with a mean life time of 43 years, a climate change impact of 0.08 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year time horizon (TH)) would result. It was also found that when biogenic carbon is stored in a pool with negligible leakage to the atmosphere, the resulting GWP factor is not necessarily − 1 CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored. As an example, when biogenic CO{sub 2} from Norway Spruce biomass is stored in geological reservoirs with no leakage, we estimate a GWP of − 0.56 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year TH) when albedo effects are also included. The large variance in GWPs across the range of

  19. 75 FR 64314 - Product Development Program for Interventions in Patients With Severe Bleeding Due to Trauma or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... With Severe Bleeding Due to Trauma or Other Causes; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug... Bleeding Due to Trauma or Other Causes.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to discuss possible... resulting from trauma, has been complicated by the lack of a consensus definition of severe bleeding as...

  20. 75 FR 22159 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Regulations for Indian Leases'' at 64 FR 43506 with the effective date January 1, 2000. The gas regulations... Production in Designated Areas Not Associated With an Index Zone AGENCY: Minerals Management Service (MMS... area not associated with an index zone for each production month beginning January 2000, along with...

  1. 77 FR 14041 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... January 1, 2000 (64 FR 43506). The Indian gas valuation regulations apply to all gas production from..., 2010. See Federal Register notice (75 FR 30430) published June 1, 2010. For information on how to... Indian Gas Production in Designated Areas Not Associated With an Index Zone AGENCY: Office of...

  2. HCD Fragmentation of Glycated Peptides.

    PubMed

    Keilhauer, Eva C; Geyer, Philipp E; Mann, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Protein glycation is a concentration-dependent nonenzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with amine groups of proteins to form early as well as advanced glycation (end-) products (AGEs). Glycation is a highly disease-relevant modification but is typically only studied on a few blood proteins. To complement our blood proteomics studies in diabetics, we here investigate protein glycation by higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD) fragmentation on Orbitrap mass spectrometers. We established parameters to most efficiently fragment and identify early glycation products on in vitro glycated model proteins. Retaining standard collision energies does not degrade performance if the most dominant neutral loss of H6O3 is included into the database search strategy. Glycation analysis of the entire HeLa proteome revealed an unexpected intracellular preponderance for arginine over lysine modification in early and advanced glycation (end-) products. Single-run analysis from 1 μL of undepleted and unenriched blood plasma identified 101 early glycation sites as well as numerous AGE sites on diverse plasma proteins. We conclude that HCD fragmentation is well-suited for analyzing glycated peptides and that the diabetic status of patients can be directly diagnosed from single-run plasma proteomics measurements. PMID:27425404

  3. Tailored stakeholder products help provide a vulnerability and adaptation assessment of Greek forests due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakopoulos, Christos; Karali, Anna; Roussos, Anargyros

    2014-05-01

    Greece, being part of the eastern Mediterranean basin, is an area particularly vulnerable to climate change and associated forest fire risk. The aim of this study is to assess the vulnerability of Greek forests to fire risk occurrence and identify potential adaptation options within the context of climate change through continuous interaction with local stakeholders. To address their needs, the following tools for the provision of climate information services were developed: 1. An application providing fire risk forecasts for the following 3 days (http://cirrus.meteo.noa.gr/forecast/bolam/index.htm) was developed from NOA to address the needs of short term fire planners. 2. A web-based application providing long term fire risk and other fire related indices changes due to climate change (time horizon up to 2050 and 2100) was developed in collaboration with the WWF Greece office to address the needs of long term fire policy makers (http://www.oikoskopio.gr/map/). 3. An educational tool was built in order to complement the two web-based tools and to further expand knowledge in fire risk modeling to address the needs for in-depth training. In particular, the second product provided the necessary information to assess the exposure to forest fires. To this aim, maps depicting the days with elevated fire risk (FWI>30) both for the control (1961-1990) and the near future period (2021-2050) were created by the web-application. FWI is a daily index that provides numerical ratings of relative fire potential based solely on weather observations. The meteorological inputs to the FWI System are daily noon values of temperature, air relative humidity, 10m wind speed and precipitation during the previous 24 hours. It was found that eastern lowlands are more exposed to fire risk followed by eastern high elevation areas, for both the control and near future period. The next step towards vulnerability assessment was to address sensitivity, ie the human-environmental conditions that

  4. Fragments and Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Can teachers contact the inner coherence of mathematics while working in a context fragmented by always-new objectives, criteria, and initiatives? How, more importantly, can learners experience the inner coherence of mathematics while working in a context fragmented by testing, modular curricular, short-term learning objectives, and lessons that…

  5. Fluctuations in nuclear fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Aranda, A.; Dorso, C.O.; Furci, V.; Lopez, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Heavy ion collisions can be used to study the thermodynamics of hot and dense nuclear matter only if the initial mass and energy fluctuations that lead to fragmentation are of thermal origin and survive the disassembly process. If this is the case, the observed fragment multiplicity should be directly related to those initial fluctuations and to the conditions of temperature and density causing them. The feasibility of this scenario is demonstrated with a molecular dynamics study of the evolution of mass and energy fluctuations, and fluctuations of the phase-space density. First, it is verified that the fluctuations leading to fragmentation are indeed early ones. Second, it is determined that different initial conditions of density and temperature can indeed produce varying final fragment multiplicities. The {rho}-{ital T} plane is mapped to the fragment multiplicity with good precision. This mapping should be easily reproducible with existing experimental data.

  6. Waves in fragmented geomaterials with impact attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Attenuation of waves in geomaterials, such as seismic waves is usually attributed to energy dissipation due to the presence of viscous fluid and/or viscous cement between the constituents. In fragmented geomaterials such as blocky rock mass there is another possible source of energy dissipation - impacting between the fragments. This can be characterised by the coefficient of restitution, which is the ratio between the rotational velocities after and before the impact. In particular, this manifests itself in the process of mutual rotations of the fragments/blocks, whereby in the process of oscillation different ends of the contacting faces of the fragments are impacting. During the rotational oscillations the energy dissipation is concentrated in the neutral position that is the one in which the relative rotation between two fragments is zero. We show that in a simple system of two fragments this dissipation is equivalent, in a long run, to the presence of viscous damper between the fragments (the Voigt model of visco-elasticity). Generalisation of this concept to the material consisting of many fragments leads to a Voigt model of wave propagation where the attenuation coefficient is proportional to the logarithm of restitution coefficient. The waves in such a medium show slight dispersion caused by damping and strong dependence of the attenuation on the wave frequency.

  7. Secondary fragmentation routes of glycine in ice under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernet, A.; Pilme, J.; Ellinger, Y.

    2011-05-01

    The question of the relative stability of the complex organic molecules (COM) under the interstellar radiation field is a crucial question, especially in the context of the panspermia hypothesis for which their survival during the transfer from space to the Earth is a necessary condition for the appearance of life (Ehrenfreund et al 2001, 2002). Assuming that these species are originally embedded in interstellar grains, their resistance to the solar UV radiation in ice is a key issue. The case of glycine, H2NCH2COOH, has been considered recently in irradiation experiments carried out at the SOLEIL synchrotron facility. It appeared that glycine is partially protected by ice but also suffers some fragmentation leading in the end to CO2 and to CN containing species. Quantum chemical simulations have been performed in parallel for all the possible fragmentations of neutral, ionized, doubly ionized, protonated and zwitterionic glycine (Lattelais et al. 2010). This study has shown that the primary decomposition routes leading to fragments CH2COOH, H2NCH2, H2NCH2+, CH2COOH+, H2NCH3, and CO2 are energetically valid. The experiments have also shown that the role of water is mainly to increase the production of the end products in the photoreactions, most probably due to the reactions with the OH radicals formed during the irradiation of the ice. We present a theoretical study of the secondary fragmentation channels initiated by the OH radical by means of quantum chemical calculations using DFT and ab initio correlated methods (MP2,CCSD(T)). We have examined all the possible secondary fragmentations starting from the primary fragments mentioned above. We considered all species embedded in the dielectric continuum simulating an icy environment (comparison with the gas phase situation serves as reference). Thermodynamic stabilities as well as activation barriers have been determined. This study shows that the formation of the HCN molecule as end product is energetically

  8. 78 FR 14834 - Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on Indian Gas Production in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Office of Natural Resources Revenue Major Portion Prices and Due Date for Additional Royalty Payments on... Secretary, Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR), Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Final regulations.... Gregory J. Gould, Director, Office of Natural Resources Revenue. BILLING CODE 4310-T2-P...

  9. Methane production and solids destruction in an anaerobic solid waste reactor due to post-reactor caustic and heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Distefano, T D; Ambulkar, A

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of caustic and heat treatment of sludge from a dry anaerobic reactor (DAR) with respect to increased methane production and solids destruction. The DAR was operated semi-continuously at 55 degrees C on sized-reduced municipal solid waste at a solids retention time of 15 days. A respirometer was employed to monitor the extent and rate of methane production from anaerobic biodegradation of DAR sludge that was treated with caustic and heat. Results indicate that caustic and heat treatment at 50 degrees C and 175 degrees C increased methane production by 22% and 52%, respectively. Also, volatile solids destruction increased from 46% to 58% and 83%, respectively. Based on these results, economic analysis for a full-scale 10(5) kg/d facility suggests that annual project revenue for 50 degrees C and 175 degrees C treatment is estimated at $21,000 and $445,000, respectively. PMID:16784187

  10. Opaque rock fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit, B.; Molinaroli, E.; Olsen, J.

    1987-05-01

    The authors describe a new, rare, but petrogenetically significant variety of rock fragments from Holocene detrital sediments. Approximately 50% of the opaque heavy mineral concentrates from Holocene siliciclastic sands are polymineralic-Fe-Ti oxide particles, i.e., they are opaque rock fragments. About 40% to 70% of these rock fragments show intergrowth of hm + il, mt + il, and mt + hm +/- il. Modal analysis of 23,282 opaque particles in 117 polished thin sections of granitic and metamorphic parent rocks and their daughter sands from semi-arid and humid climates show the following relative abundances. The data show that opaque rock fragments are more common in sands from igneous source rocks and that hm + il fragments are more durable. They assume that equilibrium conditions existed in parent rocks during the growth of these paired minerals, and that the Ti/Fe ratio did not change during oxidation of mt to hm. Geothermometric determinations using electron probe microanalysis of opaque rock fragments in sand samples from Lake Erie and the Adriatic Sea suggest that these rock fragments may have equilibrated at approximately 900/sup 0/ and 525/sup 0/C, respectively.

  11. Selectable fragmentation warhead

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, C.S.; Paisley, D.L.; Montoya, N.I.; Stahl, D.B.

    1993-07-20

    A selectable fragmentation warhead is described comprising: a case having proximal and distal ends; a fragmenting plate mounted in said distal end of said casing; first explosive means cast adjacent to said fragmenting plate for creating a predetermined number of fragments from said fragmenting plate; three or more first laser-driven slapper detonators located adjacent to said first explosive means for detonating said first explosive means in a predetermined pattern; smoother-disk means located adjacent to said first means for accelerating said fragments; second explosive means cast adjacent to said smoother-disk means for further accelerating said fragments; at least one laser-driven slapper detonators located in said second explosive means; a laser located in said proximal end of said casing; optical fibers connecting said laser to said first and second laser-driven slapper detonators; and optical switch means located in series with said optical fibers connected to said plurality of first laser-driven slapper detonators for blocking or passing light from said laser to said plurality of first laser-driven slapper detonators.

  12. Accelerated Rates of Nitrogen Cycling and N2O Production in Salt Marsh Sediments due to Long-Term Fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, X.; Ji, Q.; Angell, J.; Kearns, P.; Bowen, J. L.; Ward, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Intensified sedimentary production of nitrous oxide (N2O), one of the most potent greenhouse gases, is one of the many possible environmental consequences of elevated nitrogen (N) loading into estuarine ecosystems. This study investigates the response to over 40 years of fertilization of nitrogen removal processes in the sediments of the Great Sippewissett Marsh in Falmouth, MA. Sediment slurries were incubated (1.5 hr) with trace amounts (< 10% of ambient concentration) of 15NH4+ + 14NO3- or 15NO3- + 14NH4+. An additional parallel incubation with 15NH4+ + 14NO3- and 1 mM of allylthiourea (ATU) was included to measure rates of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Well-homogenized slurries filled about 10% of the volume in the gas-tight incubation vials, and the rest of the volume was replaced with an O2/He (20%/80%) mixture. The production of 29N2, 44N2O and 45N2O were determined using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The rate of total N2O production in fertilized sediments (0.89 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight) was 30-fold higher than in unfertilized sediments. The ratio of N2O to N2 production was also significantly higher in fertilized sediments (2.9%) than in unfertilized sediments (1.2%). This highlights the disproportionally large effect of long-term fertilization on N2O production in salt marsh sediments. The reduced oxygen level and higher ammonium concentrations in situ probably contributed to the significant rise in N2O production as a result of long-term fertilization. When detected, anammox and coupled nitrification-denitrification accounted for 10% and 14% of the total N2 production in fertilized sediments (30.5 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight), respectively, whereas neither was detected in unfertilized sediments. Thus these experiments indicate that N loading has important effects on multiple N cycle processes that result in N loss and N2O production.

  13. Stratification of gallstone fragments: the key to more effective fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Alderfer, J T; Laufer, I; Wisniewski, F; Malet, P F

    1992-04-01

    During previous experiments with in vitro fragmentation in a simulated gallbladder, we noticed that stone fragments tended to stratify with the dust and smaller fragments settled to the dependent portion, while the larger fragments settled on top. We reviewed the oral cholecystogram (OCG) of 10 patients examined 6 months following gallstone lithotripsy. In all cases with adequate visualization of stone fragments, the stratification phenomenon was observed. We hypothesized that adjusting the shock wave focus to target on these large fragments would improve the efficiency of fragmentation. To test this hypothesis, we fragmented three matched pairs of gallstones in vitro. For each pair, the stones were removed from the same gallbladder and the stone weights of the two stones were within 10%. The smaller member of each pair was fragmented using the "old method" with the focus on the fragment line. The larger stone was fragmented with the "new method" with the focus in the acoustic shadow deep to the echogenic line caused by the dust and small fragments in the dependent portion. The distribution of fragments was analyzed by passing the fragments through a series of filters. With the new method of targeting, the proportion of fragments less than 1.5 mm was doubled while the fragments greater than 5 mm were eliminated. The new method of targeting, taking into account the stratification of stone fragments, produces more effective fragmentation and should lead to more rapid clearance of fragments from the gallbladder. PMID:10149180

  14. 30 CFR 1206.352 - How do I calculate the royalty due on geothermal resources used for commercial production or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in your lease; or (2) The royalty rate that BLM prescribes or calculates under 43 CFR 3211.17. See... CFR 3211.17. See § 1206.361 for additional provisions applicable to determining gross proceeds under... geothermal resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? 1206.352 Section...

  15. 30 CFR 206.352 - How do I calculate the royalty due on geothermal resources used for commercial production or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; or (2) The royalty rate that BLM prescribes or calculates under 43 CFR 3211.17. See § 206.361 for... multiplied by the royalty rate BLM prescribed for your lease under 43 CFR 3211.17. See § 206.361 for... geothermal resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? 206.352 Section...

  16. Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 causes discoloration and pitting of mushroom caps due to the production of antifungal metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria in the diverse P. fluorescens group include mushroom pathogens, such as Pseudomonas tolaasii, and rhizosphere inhabitants known for their antifungal metabolite production and biological control of plant disease, such as Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5. Here, we report that strain Pf-5 causes bro...

  17. Cutleafgroundcherry (physalis angulata) density, biomass and seed production in peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) following regrowth due to inadequate control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate herbicide and application timing on cutleaf groundcherry density, biomass, seed production, and crop yield in a peanut system. Treatments included: 1) a non-treated control; 2) hand pruning; 3) diclosulam applied preemergence (PRE) alone at 0.027 kg ai h...

  18. Heavy ion fragmentation experiments at the bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1976-01-01

    Collaborative research efforts to study the fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using heavy ion beams of the Bevatron/Bevalac are described. The goal of the program is to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Effects were also made to: (a) study processes of heavy nuclei in matter, (b) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (c) test the applicability of high energy multiparticle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (d) apply the cross section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (e) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross-sections.

  19. Golgi fragmentation in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gunjan; Bekier, Michael E.; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is an essential cellular organelle for post-translational modifications, sorting, and trafficking of membrane and secretory proteins. Proper functionality of the Golgi requires the formation of its unique cisternal-stacking morphology. The Golgi structure is disrupted in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting a common mechanism and contribution of Golgi defects in neurodegenerative disorders. A recent study on Alzheimer's disease (AD) revealed that phosphorylation of the Golgi stacking protein GRASP65 disrupts its function in Golgi structure formation, resulting in Golgi fragmentation. Inhibiting GRASP65 phosphorylation restores the Golgi morphology from Aβ-induced fragmentation and reduces Aβ production. Perturbing Golgi structure and function in neurons may directly impact trafficking, processing, and sorting of a variety of proteins essential for synaptic and dendritic integrity. Therefore, Golgi defects may ultimately promote the development of AD. In the current review, we focus on the cellular impact of impaired Golgi morphology and its potential relationship to AD disease development. PMID:26441511

  20. 30 CFR 218.307 - How do I pay royalties due for my existing leases that qualify for near-term production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BLM regulations? If you qualify for a production incentive under BLM regulations at 43 CFR subpart... under 43 CFR 3212.23 and 3212.24 is 50 percent of the amount of the total royalty that would otherwise be due under 30 CFR part 206, subpart H....

  1. 30 CFR 1218.307 - How do I pay royalties due for my existing leases that qualify for near-term production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incentives under BLM regulations? If you qualify for a production incentive under BLM regulations at 43 CFR... under 43 CFR 3212.23 and 3212.24 is 50 percent of the amount of the total royalty that would otherwise be due under 30 CFR part 1206, subpart H....

  2. 30 CFR 1218.307 - How do I pay royalties due for my existing leases that qualify for near-term production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incentives under BLM regulations? If you qualify for a production incentive under BLM regulations at 43 CFR... under 43 CFR 3212.23 and 3212.24 is 50 percent of the amount of the total royalty that would otherwise be due under 30 CFR part 1206, subpart H....

  3. 30 CFR 1218.307 - How do I pay royalties due for my existing leases that qualify for near-term production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incentives under BLM regulations? If you qualify for a production incentive under BLM regulations at 43 CFR... under 43 CFR 3212.23 and 3212.24 is 50 percent of the amount of the total royalty that would otherwise be due under 30 CFR part 1206, subpart H....

  4. 30 CFR 1218.307 - How do I pay royalties due for my existing leases that qualify for near-term production...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... leases that qualify for near-term production incentives under BLM regulations? 1218.307 Section 1218.307 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural... Resources § 1218.307 How do I pay royalties due for my existing leases that qualify for near-term...

  5. A new expression vector facilitating production and functional analysis of scFv antibody fragments selected from Tomlinson I+J phagemid libraries.

    PubMed

    Ossysek, Karolina; Uchański, Tomasz; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Bzowska, Monika; Klaus, Tomasz; Woś, Klaudia; Madej, Mariusz; Bereta, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    Tomlinson I+J are synthetic phagemid human scFv libraries widely employed to obtain specific antibody fragments via a phage display method. The pIT2/HB2151 expression system proposed by the designers of the libraries has certain drawbacks which result in the lack of expression or low expression levels of numerous soluble scFvs. At the stage of scFv screening, this may lead to losing some excellent antibodies, which can be avoided but requires laborious and expensive work. Here we present a new, pET-30-based vector, which is compatible with Tomlinson libraries, retains all virtues of pIT2 used as a plasmid and eliminates all its flaws. We demonstrate that pET-scFv-T is frequently superior to pIT2 in terms of efficient scFv expression. Moreover, an amber suppressor bacterial strain, RosettaBlue(DE3)pLysS, transformed with the new vector, pET-scFv-T, coding for a number of scFvs, produces substantial amounts of functional, easy to purify recombinant antibody fragments, regardless of whether their coding sequences contain amber codons. Thus, pET-scFv-T/RosettaBlue(DE3)pLysS expression system seems to be a perfect tool for screening for the finest soluble scFvs selected from Tomlinson I+J, as well as from many other phagemid libraries. PMID:26219832

  6. Crisis management and recovery from the damage to the laboratory animal production facility due to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Charles River Laboratories Japan produces laboratory animals, mainly mice and rats. In its history, we have experienced many crises such as mass food poisoning of staff and contamination of animals. However, we overcame these crises, accomplishing our corporate missions to secure steady supply of healthy animals. Under such circumstances, in 2008, we faced an unprecedented crisis involving a novel influenza possibly becoming pandemic. Therefore, we prepared a Crisis Management Plan (CMP) and Business Continuity Plan (BCP) to avoid the worst case scenario. Fortunately, the novel influenza did not develop into a pandemic and no major problems occurred in production of our laboratory animals. In March 2011, our Tsukuba Breeding Center was struck by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Many cages fell from racks, and consequently, 14,000 mice and rats were euthanized. Moreover, this animal production facility experienced not only blackouts and water outage but also various maintenance problems. After triage of the animals, almost half of the animals kept were eventually lost. However, we recovered and resumed shipment of animals two weeks after the disaster by utilizing the CMP and BCP we initially created as a countermeasure against novel influenza. After two months, our production volume returned to normal except for two strains. I sincerely hope this review, which highlights our experience and related issues, will be a useful resource in regard to crisis management for people who are engaged in laboratory animal care and use. PMID:22293667

  7. Fragment capture device

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Lloyd R.; Cole, David L.

    2010-03-30

    A fragment capture device for use in explosive containment. The device comprises an assembly of at least two rows of bars positioned to eliminate line-of-sight trajectories between the generation point of fragments and a surrounding containment vessel or asset. The device comprises an array of at least two rows of bars, wherein each row is staggered with respect to the adjacent row, and wherein a lateral dimension of each bar and a relative position of each bar in combination provides blockage of a straight-line passage of a solid fragment through the adjacent rows of bars, wherein a generation point of the solid fragment is located within a cavity at least partially enclosed by the array of bars.

  8. Fracture tooth fragment reattachment

    PubMed Central

    Maitin, Nitin; Maitin, Shipra Nangalia; Rastogi, Khushboo; Bhushan, Rajarshi

    2013-01-01

    Coronal fractures of the anterior teeth are a common form of dental trauma and its sequelae may impair the establishment and accomplishment of an adequate treatment plan. Among the various treatment options, reattachment of a crown fragment is a conservative treatment that should be considered for crown fractures of anterior teeth. This clinical case reports the management of two coronal tooth fracture cases that were successfully treated using tooth fragment reattachment using glass-fibre-reinforced composite post. PMID:23853012

  9. Soil carbon stocks in response to management changes due to vinasse application in sugarcane production in southeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes Zani, Caio; Simoes Barneze, Arlete; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Brazilian commodities, such as ethanol, are looking for sustainable production to suit the international market demands. Thus, studies about variations in soil carbon (C) stocks on the ethanol production are essential. Researches in relation of land use change are already been developed; however information about management changes on the sugarcane production is needed. According to Six et al. (2004) changing the management to conservationist practices can provide an organic matter accumulation to the soil and in a long-term, can increase the soil C stocks. The vinasse is a waste product of the sugarcane industry fuel which contains potassium and considerable quantities of other mineral nutrients. It is estimated that for each litre of ethanol produced is generated approximately 13 L of vinasse. Nowadays, almost all vinasse is applied to the soil as fertigation (Soares et al., 2009). The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil C stocks after the management change with or without vinasse application into sugarcane production in southeast Brazil. The soil sampling was carried out in a fuel industry located in São Paulo state, on July 2013. This area was always used a conventional management at least 34 years with application of mineral fertilizer. However, in the mid of 1990, one part of this area started to use vinasse as source of potassium in sugarcane production. In view of this, we conducted the experiment in these two areas of conventional management: i) without vinasse and ii) with vinasse application. Soil samples were collected in the nine trenches in each site: three trenches at 1 m soil depth and six mini-trenches up to 0.3 m. Samples were used to calculate the bulk density using the undisturbed method with a steel cylinder. Total C was measured by dry combustion on Carbon Analyzer - LECO® CN 2000®. The results showed that C content was a decrease with an increase soil depth. Soil C stocks for areas without vinasse application and vinasse

  10. Ion cyclotron emission due to the newly-born fusion products induced fast Alfven wave radiative instabilities in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Arunasalam, V.

    1995-08-01

    The velocity distribution functions of the newly born (t = 0) charged fusion products of tokamak discharges can be approximated by a monoenergetic ring distribution with a finite v{sub {parallel}} such that v{sub {perpendicular}} {approx} v{sub {parallel}} {approx} v{sub j} where (M{sub j}V{sub j}{sup 2}/2) = E{sub j}, the directed birth energy of the charged fusion product species j of mass M{sub j}. As the time t progresses these distribution functions will evolve into a Gaussian in velocity with thermal spreadings given by the perpendicular and parallel temperatures T{sub {perpendicular}j}(t) = T{sub {parallel}j}(t) with T{sub j}(t) increasing as t increases and finally reaches an isotropic saturation value of T{sub {perpendicular}j}(t {approx} {tau}{sub j}) = T{sub {parallel}j}(t {approx} {tau}{sub j}) = T{sub j}(t {approx} {tau}{sub j}) {approx} [M{sub j}T{sub d}E{sub j}/(M{sub j} + M)]{sup 1/2}, where T{sub d} is the temperature of the background deuterium plasma ions, M is the mass of a triton or a neutron for j = protons and alpha particles, respectively, and {tau}{sub j} {approx} {tau}{sub sj}/4 is the thermalization time of the fusion product species j in the background deuterium plasma and {tau}{sub sj} is the slowing-down time. For times t of the order of {tau}{sub j} their distributions can be approximated by a Gaussian in their total energy. Then for times t {ge} {tau}{sub sj} the velocity distributions of these fusion products will relax towards their appropriate slowing-down distributions. Here the authors will examine the radiative stability of all these distributions. The ion cyclotron emission from energetic ion produced by fusion reactions or neutral beam injection promises to be a useful diagnostic tool.