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Sample records for france hors tva

  1. TVA fertilizer patents

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, J.J.; Aldridge, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    Fertilizer research has been an important function of the Tennessee Valley Authority from the time it was established in 1933 to the present. During this period there have been extensive changes in the fertilizer industry. New and improved products have been developed and more efficient manufacturing methods have emerged. Products and processes developed by TVA are in widespread use today in the fertilizer industry. This bulletin is a collection of abstracts of patents granted to TVA on fertilizer technology and related topics over about 45 years. It contains 200 abstracts of patents. The abstracts have been divided into 13 major sections. Each section reflects the improved technology through this period of time. Abstracts of some of the patents issued to TVA since 1968 have already appeared in Fertilizer Abstracts, a journal published monthly since 1968. Inventor and subject indexes are provided in this bulletin.

  2. France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  3. France.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, France had a population of 55,493,000, with an annual growth rate of 0.4%. The infant mortality rate stood at 8.2/1000. Of the work force of 23.8 million, 8.3% were engaged in agriculture, 45.2% were in the industry and commerce sector, and 46.5% were engaged in services. The unemployment rate stood at 10.7%. The country's gross domestic product (GDP) was US$724 billion in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.0%, and per capita income averaged $13,046. France has substantial agricultural resources, a diversified modern industrial system, and a highly skilled labor force. Following the return of a socialist majority in government in 1981, several large manufacturing firms were nationalized along with much of the commercial banking sector. Initial socialist policies were stimulative, relying partly on income redistribution and partly on increased government spending. However, the resultant increase in import demand was not offset by an increased demand French exports. In 1983, an economic stabilization plan of reductions in the budget deficit, involving spending cuts, increased taxes, and tighter monetary and credit policies, was successfully implemented. Although current economic policies should promote stronger growth over the medium to long term, trade competitiveness remains weak and high unemployment is a major social problem. PMID:12177959

  4. Hors d'oeuvres for neurology.

    PubMed

    Pascuzzi, R M

    1999-01-01

    From time to time, in the setting of lectures, rounds, or casual conversation, there is a need for hors d'oeuvres; small pieces, spices, and artifacts that generate a bit of thought and interest with a neurological twist. A potpourri of neurological trivia is herein presented for the purpose of stimulating the reader and serving as a brief reserve of questions and topics for use on rounds. PMID:10718544

  5. Operation of TVA reservoirs. Annual 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Data for 1979 on the operation of TVA reservoirs for flood control, power generation and navigational purposes are reported. The operation of TVA, ALCOA, and Cumberland Basin reservoirs that were scheduled daily by Reservoir Operations Branch personnel during calendar year 1979 is described. These include all TVA reservoirs, eight reservoirs in the Cumberland River Basin owned by the US Army, Corps of Engineers, and six reservoirs in the Tennessee River Basin owned by ALCOA. In addition, storage and flow computations include Walters Reservoir, operated by Carolina Power and Light Company; and Woods Reservoir, operated by the US Air Force. Any reference in this report to all reservoirs in the Tennessee or Cumberland River Basins refer to these specific reservoirs. Tabulated data are included on: reservation elevation and storage volume; turbine and gate discharges; and head water elevation. (LCL)

  6. Trophic status evaluation of TVA reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Placke, J.F.

    1983-10-01

    TVA tributary and mainstem reservoirs show generalized differences in morphometry, hydraulics, nutrient loads, and response to nutrient concentrations. Neither type of reservoir is strictly comparable to the natural lakes on which classical eutrophication studies have been based. The majority of published trophic state indices and standards (e.g., hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen depletion, Secchi depth, areas nutrient loading rates, in-reservoir phosphorus concentrations) are inappropriate for evaluation of some or all TVA reservoirs. No single trophic potential or trophic response variable summarizes the mechanisms and manifestations of eutrophication sufficiently to be used as a sole criterion for judging or regulating TVA reservoir water quality. Relative multivariate trophic state indices were developed for mainstem and tributary reservoirs. Ranking of the mainstem reservoirs is based on chlorophyll, macrophyte coverage, hydraulic retention time, reservoir area less than five feet deep, annual pool elevation drawdown, and Secchi depth. Based on available data, the rank from least eutrophic to most eutrophic is: Pickwick, Kentucky, Chickamauga, Nickajack, Wilson, Fort Loudoun, Watts Bar, Wheeler, and Guntersville Reservoirs. Ranking of the tributary reservoirs is based on chlorophyll, total phosphorus and total nitrogen weighted by the N:P ratio, and bio-available inorganic carbon levels. The rank from least eutrophic to most eutrophic is: Hiwassee, Blue Ridge, Chatuge, Norris and Fontana, Watauga, South Holston, Tims Ford, Cherokee, Douglas, and Boone Reservoirs. 130 references, 18 figures, 30 tables.

  7. Operation of TVA reservoirs. Annual report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    This report describes the operation of TVA, ALCOA, and Cumberland Basin reservoirs that were scheduled daily by Reservoir Operations Branch personnel during calendar year 1981. These include all TVA reservoirs, eight reservoirs in the Cumberland River Basin owned by the US Army, Corps of Engineers, and six reservoirs in the Tennessee River Basin owned by ALCOA. In addition, storage and flow computations include Walters Reservoir, operated by Carolina Power and Light Company; and Woods Reservoir, operated by the US Air Force. Plates are included in this report tabulating daily elevations, storage volumes, and/or average discharges for 48 reservoirs for 1981. Additional plates are included for the daily average flow in Barkley Canal, monthly and annual emptyings and water use at each lock in the Tennessee River Basin, monthly and annual capacity factors at each TVA scheduled hydro plant, combined monthly and annual storage and flows (in inches) for reservoirs above Chickamauga and Kentucky Dams, and a summary of Reservoir Operations. Tables of monthly and annual storages and flows (in inches) for the principal Tennessee River Basin tributary projects are included at the end of their respective annual operations summary. Individual plotting of midnight reservoir elevations during calendar year 1981 are included for the principal tributary storage reservoirs and Normandy Reservoir. Group charts are included showing midnight reservoir elevations for other tributary reservoirs, the Tennessee River reservoirs, and the principal Cumberland Basin reservoirs.

  8. Operation of TVA reservoirs. Annual 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the operation of TVA, ALCOA, and Cumberland Basin reservoirs that were scheduled daily by Reservoir Operations Branch personnel during calendar year 1982. These include all TVA reservoirs, eight reservoirs in the Cumberland River Basin owned by the US Army Corps of Engineers, and six reservoirs in the Tennessee River Basin owned by ALCOA. In addition, storage and flow computations include Walters Reservoir and Woods Reservoir. Data for the Cumberland Basin projects of the US Army Corps of Engineers have been included beginning with the 1954 report. Plates are included tabulating daily elevations, storage volumes, and/or average discharges for 48 reservoirs for 1982. Additional plates show the daily average flow in Barkley Canal, monthly and annual emptyings and water use at each lock in the Tennessee River Basin, monthly and annual capacity factors at each TVA scheduled hydro plant, combined monthly and annual storages and flows (in inches) for reservoirs above Chickamauga and Kentucky Dams, and a summary of reservoir operations. Tables of monthly and annual storages and flows (in inches) for the principal Tennessee River Basin tributary projects are included. Individual plottings of midnight reservoir elevations during calendar year 1982 are included for all principal reservoirs.

  9. Operation of TVA reservoirs: annual 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    This report describes the operation of TVA, ALCOA, and Cumberland Basin reservoirs that were scheduled daily by Reservoir Operations Branch personnel during calendar year 1980. These include all TVA reservoirs, eight reservoirs in the Cumberland River Basin owned by the US Army, Corps of Engineers, and six reservoirs in the Tennessee River Basin owned by ALCOA. In addition, storage and flow computations include Walters Reservoir, operated by Carolina Power and Light Company; and Woods Reservoir, operated by the US Air Force. Plates are included in this report tabulating daily elevations, storage volumes, and/or average discharges for 48 reservoirs for 1980. Additional plates are included for the daily average flow in Barkley Canal, monthly and annual emptyings and water use at each lock in the Tennessee River Basin, monthly and annual capacity factors at each TVA scheduled hydro plant, combined monthly and annual storage and flows (in inches) for reservoirs above Chickamauga and Kentucky Dams, and a summary of Reservoir Operations. Tables of monthly and annual storage and flows (in inches) for the principal Tennessee River Basin tributary projects are included at the end of their respective annual operations summary. Individual plottings of midnight reservoir elevations are included for the principal tributary storage reservoirs and Normandy Reservoir. Group charts are included showing midnight reservoir elevations for other tributary reservoirs, the Tennessee River reservoirs, and the principal Cumberland Basin reservoirs.

  10. New directions at TVA with special reference to agricultural research

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.J.; Rylant, K.E.

    1994-03-01

    Public Support for the Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) fertilizer research and development program in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, ended in fiscal year 1993. TVA`s research center at Muscle Shoals, formerly known as the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center, is now the TVA Environmental Research Center. Efforts at the Center have diversified to include research and support areas of Agricultural Research and Practices, Atmospheric Sciences, Biotechnology, Waste Management, and Remediation, Environmental Site Remediation, Support Services, Environmental Management, and Technology Transfer. ``We`re building on the expertise and success of our earlier research and focusing our new projects on emerging problems of the 21st century,`` TVA`s Chairman Craven Crowell said in prepared remarks to Congress on March 2, 1994. Agricultural Research in TVA has been aligned with corporate objectives to develop solutions to environmental problems of regional, national and international significance because the agency`s business incorporates a broad mix of responsibilities, including power generation, navigation, flood control, shoreline management, recreation, environmental research, and economic development. Agricultural strategies for watershed protection lie at the core of TVA`s new agricultural research agenda. The major influences for this agenda are TVA`s direct stewardship responsibilities for the 60,000 miles of streams that feed the 652-mile-long Tennessee River; the 11,000 miles of shoreline; and 470,000 acres of TVA-managed public land.

  11. 18 CFR 1311.7 - How does TVA communicate with state, regional, and local officials concerning TVA's programs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does TVA communicate with state, regional, and local officials concerning TVA's programs and activities? 1311.7 Section 1311.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL...

  12. Unexpectedly lengthened N--H{hor_ellipsis}Co hydrogen bonds?

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, L.; Mareque Rivas, J.C.; Zhao, D.

    1998-10-19

    Low-temperature crystal structures of QuinH{sup +}Co(CO){sub 4}{sup {minus}}, 1 (QuinH{sup +} = quinuclidinium), (DABCO)H{sup +}Co(CO){sub 3}P-(p-tolyl){sub 3}{sup {minus}}, 2, and (DABCO)H{sup +}Co(CO){sub 3}PPh{sub 2}(p-tolyl){sup {minus}}, 3 (DABCO = 1,4-diazabicyclooctane), 2 and 3 as their acetonitrile solvates, demonstrate that these salts exhibit intermolecular N--H{hor_ellipsis}Co hydrogen bonding between the cation and anion components. NMR and IR data demonstrate the persistence of these interactions in toluene solution. Such solution-state data, which examine solvated ion pairs, suggest little difference between these salts and the corresponding previously reported salts (DABCO)H{sup +}Co(CO){sub 3}L{sup {minus}} (4, L = CO; 5, L = PPh{sub 3}). However, in the solid state, the N--H{hor_ellipsis}Co hydrogen bonds in 1--3 are some 0.1--0.15 {angstrom} longer than would be predicted from consideration of the structures of 4 and 5 and the aforementioned similarity to 4 and 5 in solution. In previous reports the authors have shown that major steric or electronic changes to the anion or cation have resulted in substantial changes (0.15--0.3 {angstrom}) in the N{hor_ellipsis}Co [H{hor_ellipsis}] separation for N--H{hor_ellipsis}Co hydrogen bonds in related R{sub 3}NH{sup +}Co(CO){sub 3}L{sup {minus}} (L = CO, PR{sub 3}) salts. In this report, the authors present examples in which small changes are made to the anion or cation remote from the N--H{hor_ellipsis}Co hydrogen bond. In the solid state, the effect of these small changes on this hydrogen bond is subsumed by the effect of changes in the supramolecular structure. This clearly indicates the sensitivity of the geometry of these hydrogen bonds to the overall balance of intermolecular interactions in the solid state and as such is pertinent to current interest in weak (intermolecular) interactions for which characterization by X-ray crystallography is important.

  13. Clinical TVA-based studies: a general review

    PubMed Central

    Habekost, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In combination with whole report and partial report tasks, the theory of visual attention (TVA) can be used to estimate individual differences in five basic attentional parameters: the visual processing speed, the storage capacity of visual short-term memory, the perceptual threshold, the efficiency of top–down selectivity, and the spatial bias of attentional weighting. TVA-based assessment has been used in about 30 studies to investigate attentional deficits in a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions: (a) neglect and simultanagnosia, (b) reading disturbances, (c) aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and most recently (d) neurodevelopmental disorders. The article introduces TVA based assessment, discusses its methodology and psychometric properties, and reviews the progress made in each of the four research fields. The empirical results demonstrate the general usefulness of TVA-based assessment for many types of clinical neuropsychological research. The method’s most important qualities are cognitive specificity and theoretical grounding, but it is also characterized by good reliability and sensitivity to minor deficits. The review concludes by pointing to promising new areas for clinical TVA-based research. PMID:25852607

  14. Clean fuel test burn in TVA combustion turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnerman, R.; Houlihan, T.; Hall, R.; Stephens, E.

    1998-07-01

    In the fall of 1997, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in cooperation with A-55 Clean Fuels of Reno, NV (A-55) conducted a series of tests on the Unit 1 combustion turbine at the TVA Colbert Fossil Plant near Huntsville, AL. TVA was interested in assessing the use of oil/water emulsified fuels because they offered the potential of significant reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions without a significant impact on unit performance. Notably, the recorded data shows that there was a significant reduction in NOx emissions--upwards of 50%--in both transient and steady-state operations. Moreover, base load gross output increased 1.2 MW over a full range of operating ambient conditions. The following presentation displays the full set of operating and emission data obtained in the tests.

  15. TVA Reservoir Monitoring Program: Fish community results, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, E.M. Jr.

    1992-07-31

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operates 9 reservoirs on the Tennessee River and 37 reservoirs on its tributaries. TVA is committed to maintaining the health of aquatic resources created when the reservoir system was built. To that end, TVA conducts the Water Resources and Biological Monitoring Program that includes physical, chemical, and biological data collection components. Biological monitoring targets the following selected elements within three zones of the reservoir (inflow, transition, and forebay): Sediment/Water-column Acute Toxicity Screening (forebay and transition zone only); Benthic macroinvertebrates Fish Reservoir fish monitoring is divided into the following activities: Fish Biomass; Fish Tissue Contamination; Fish Community Monitoring; Fish Health Assessment. This report presents the results of fall1991 fish community monitoring and fish health assessment data using a new analytical approach: Reservoir Index of Biotic Integrity (RIBI). Fish health assessment is included in this report as one of the RIBI metrics.

  16. 18 CFR 1304.208 - Shoreline stabilization on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... stone, natural stone, or other material approved by TVA. (2) Rubber tires, concrete rubble, or other... owner's TVA-approved wall. (2) The retaining wall must be constructed of stone, concrete blocks, poured concrete, gabions, or other materials acceptable to TVA. Railroad ties, rubber tires, broken...

  17. 18 CFR 1304.208 - Shoreline stabilization on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stone, natural stone, or other material approved by TVA. (2) Rubber tires, concrete rubble, or other... owner's TVA-approved wall. (2) The retaining wall must be constructed of stone, concrete blocks, poured concrete, gabions, or other materials acceptable to TVA. Railroad ties, rubber tires, broken...

  18. 18 CFR 1304.208 - Shoreline stabilization on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... stone, natural stone, or other material approved by TVA. (2) Rubber tires, concrete rubble, or other... owner's TVA-approved wall. (2) The retaining wall must be constructed of stone, concrete blocks, poured concrete, gabions, or other materials acceptable to TVA. Railroad ties, rubber tires, broken...

  19. 18 CFR 1304.208 - Shoreline stabilization on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... stone, natural stone, or other material approved by TVA. (2) Rubber tires, concrete rubble, or other... owner's TVA-approved wall. (2) The retaining wall must be constructed of stone, concrete blocks, poured concrete, gabions, or other materials acceptable to TVA. Railroad ties, rubber tires, broken...

  20. 18 CFR 1304.208 - Shoreline stabilization on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... stone, natural stone, or other material approved by TVA. (2) Rubber tires, concrete rubble, or other... owner's TVA-approved wall. (2) The retaining wall must be constructed of stone, concrete blocks, poured concrete, gabions, or other materials acceptable to TVA. Railroad ties, rubber tires, broken...

  1. 18 CFR 1314.6 - Obligations of TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obligations of TVA. 1314.6 Section 1314.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY... the Person exclusively entitled to issue a transfer message, to receive interest and other...

  2. 18 CFR 1314.6 - Obligations of TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Obligations of TVA. 1314.6 Section 1314.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY... the Person exclusively entitled to issue a transfer message, to receive interest and other...

  3. 18 CFR 1314.6 - Obligations of TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obligations of TVA. 1314.6 Section 1314.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY... the Person exclusively entitled to issue a transfer message, to receive interest and other...

  4. 18 CFR 1314.6 - Obligations of TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of TVA. 1314.6 Section 1314.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY... the Person exclusively entitled to issue a transfer message, to receive interest and other...

  5. 18 CFR 1314.6 - Obligations of TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Obligations of TVA. 1314.6 Section 1314.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY BOOK-ENTRY... the Person exclusively entitled to issue a transfer message, to receive interest and other...

  6. Coal gasification tests at TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crim, M.C.; Williamson, P.C.

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results obtained from the EPRI cofunded tests conducted at TVA's 200 tpd Texaco coal gasification facility equipped with a water quench gasifier. Four US coals were tested at TVA: (1) Utah coal from the SUFCO mine, (2) Illinois No. 6 coal from the Amax Delta mine, (3) Pittsburgh No. 8 coal from the Blacksville No. 2 mine and (4) a high ash-fusion Maryland coal. The TVA tests were of short term duration totaling approximately 10 to 20 days of cumulative operation on each coal. The gasification behavior of each coal was tested under a wide range of process conditions and feed characteristics. All four coals produced carbon conversion of 92% or higher. Utah and Illinois No. 6 coals achieved carbon conversions of 95 to 97%. The high heating value Pittsburgh No. 8 coal had lower carbon conversion because the maximum allowable gasifier temperature was reached at relatively low O/C ratios. The high-ash fusion Maryland coal was gasified with a fluxing agent at temperatures within the design limit of the TVA gasifier. The gasification behavior of the coals was similar to that observed from tests at other Texaco gasifiers. However, earlier experiments at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratories showed higher values for both carbon conversion and coal gas efficiency. 27 figs., 35 tabs.

  7. 18 CFR 1300.103 - General conduct prejudicial to TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General conduct prejudicial to TVA. 1300.103 Section 1300.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.103 General...

  8. 18 CFR 1300.103 - General conduct prejudicial to TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General conduct prejudicial to TVA. 1300.103 Section 1300.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.103 General...

  9. 18 CFR 1300.103 - General conduct prejudicial to TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General conduct prejudicial to TVA. 1300.103 Section 1300.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.103 General...

  10. 18 CFR 1300.103 - General conduct prejudicial to TVA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General conduct prejudicial to TVA. 1300.103 Section 1300.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.103 General...

  11. 18 CFR 1311.7 - How does TVA communicate with state, regional, and local officials concerning TVA's programs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does TVA... 1311.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF... official state process, as early in a program planning cycle as is reasonably feasible to explain...

  12. The role of alphoid higher order repeats (HORs) in the centromere folding.

    PubMed

    Rosandić, Marija; Gluncić, Matko; Paar, Vladimir; Basar, Ivan

    2008-10-01

    Understanding the folding of centromere DNA in the maximally condensed methaphase chromosome remains a basic challenge in cell biology. We propose here a set of structural models with a graphical presentation of alphoid higher order repeat (HOR) distribution in the centromere folding, based on the assumption of encryption key for microtubule-centromere interaction which arises from chromosome-specific crystal-like structure of HORs. Specific HOR leads to a characteristic geometrical pattern which may be responsible for individual microtubule to recognize a specific structure of centromere in each chromosome. PMID:18625244

  13. Nature of chalcogen hor ellipsis chalcogen contact interactions in organic donor-molecule salts

    SciTech Connect

    Novoa, J.J.; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan . Dept. of Chemistry); Williams, J.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The nature of chalcogen{hor ellipsis}chalcogen contact interactions in organic donor-molecule salts was examined by performing ab initio SCF-MO/MP2 calculations on H{sub 2}X{hor ellipsis}XH{sub 2}(X = O, S, SE, Te) and MM2 calculations on donor dimers (TXF){sub 2} (X = S, SE, Te) and (BEDX-TTF){sub 2} (X = O, S). 14 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. HorA web server to infer homology between proteins using sequence and structural similarity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Hyun; Cheng, Hua; Grishin, Nick V

    2009-07-01

    The biological properties of proteins are often gleaned through comparative analysis of evolutionary relatives. Although protein structure similarity search methods detect more distant homologs than purely sequence-based methods, structural resemblance can result from either homology (common ancestry) or analogy (similarity without common ancestry). While many existing web servers detect structural neighbors, they do not explicitly address the question of homology versus analogy. Here, we present a web server named HorA (Homology or Analogy) that identifies likely homologs for a query protein structure. Unlike other servers, HorA combines sequence information from state-of-the-art profile methods with structure information from spatial similarity measures using an advanced computational technique. HorA aims to identify biologically meaningful connections rather than purely 3D-geometric similarities. The HorA method finds approximately 90% of remote homologs defined in the manually curated database SCOP. HorA will be especially useful for finding remote homologs that might be overlooked by other sequence or structural similarity search servers. The HorA server is available at http://prodata.swmed.edu/horaserver. PMID:19417074

  15. HorA web server to infer homology between proteins using sequence and structural similarity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong-Hyun; Cheng, Hua; Grishin, Nick V.

    2009-01-01

    The biological properties of proteins are often gleaned through comparative analysis of evolutionary relatives. Although protein structure similarity search methods detect more distant homologs than purely sequence-based methods, structural resemblance can result from either homology (common ancestry) or analogy (similarity without common ancestry). While many existing web servers detect structural neighbors, they do not explicitly address the question of homology versus analogy. Here, we present a web server named HorA (Homology or Analogy) that identifies likely homologs for a query protein structure. Unlike other servers, HorA combines sequence information from state-of-the-art profile methods with structure information from spatial similarity measures using an advanced computational technique. HorA aims to identify biologically meaningful connections rather than purely 3D-geometric similarities. The HorA method finds ∼90% of remote homologs defined in the manually curated database SCOP. HorA will be especially useful for finding remote homologs that might be overlooked by other sequence or structural similarity search servers. The HorA server is available at http://prodata.swmed.edu/horaserver. PMID:19417074

  16. Repetition priming in selective attention: A TVA analysis.

    PubMed

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-09-01

    Current behavior is influenced by events in the recent past. In visual attention, this is expressed in many variations of priming effects. Here, we investigate color priming in a brief exposure digit-recognition task. Observers performed a masked odd-one-out singleton recognition task where the target-color either repeated or changed between subsequent trials. Performance was measured by recognition accuracy over exposure durations. The purpose of the study was to replicate earlier findings of perceptual priming in brief displays and to model those results based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990). We tested 4 different definitions of a generic TVA-model and assessed their explanatory power. Our hypothesis was that priming effects could be explained by selective mechanisms, and that target-color repetitions would only affect the selectivity parameter (α) of our models. Repeating target colors enhanced performance for all 12 observers. As predicted, this was only true under conditions that required selection of a target among distractors, but not when a target was presented alone. Model fits by TVA were obtained with a trial-by-trial maximum likelihood estimation procedure that estimated 4-15 free parameters, depending on the particular model. We draw two main conclusions. Color priming can be modeled simply as a change in selectivity between conditions of repetition or swap of target color. Depending on the desired resolution of analysis; priming can accurately be modeled by a simple four parameter model, where VSTM capacity and spatial biases of attention are ignored, or more fine-grained by a 10 parameter model that takes these aspects into account. PMID:26163225

  17. TVA's dose algorithm for Panasonic type 802 TLDs

    SciTech Connect

    Colvett, R.D.; Gupta, V.P.; Hudson, C.G. )

    1988-10-01

    The TVA algorithm for interpreting readings from Panasonic type 802 multi-element TLDs uses a calculational method similar to that for unfolding neutron spectra. A response matrix is constructed for the four elements in the Panasonic TLD based on tests performed in a variety of single-component radiation fields. The matrix is then used to unfold the responses of the elements when the dosimeter is exposed to mixed radiation fields. In this paper the response metric and the calculational method are described in detail, and test results are presented that verify the algorithm's effectiveness.

  18. France`s nuclear dilemmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Ignoring worldwide protests, France conducted the first of several scheduled nuclear tests in September. The controversy has overshadowed France`s more important nuclear challenges: maintaining a strong deterrent under a test ban, moving ahead with its proposals for {open_quotes}Europeanization{close_quotes} of that deterrent, and developing a consensus on how nuclear threats should be used in response to those who would brandish other weapons of mass destruction. 1 fig.

  19. 18 CFR 1309.9 - How does TVA provide financial assistance in conformity with the Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does TVA provide financial assistance in conformity with the Act? 1309.9 Section 1309.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO AGE § 1309.9 How does TVA...

  20. 18 CFR 1314.7 - Liability of TVA and Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liability of TVA and Reserve Banks. 1314.7 Section 1314.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... transfer message and are not required to verify the information. TVA and the Reserve Banks shall not...

  1. 18 CFR 1314.7 - Liability of TVA and Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liability of TVA and Reserve Banks. 1314.7 Section 1314.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... transfer message and are not required to verify the information. TVA and the Reserve Banks shall not...

  2. 18 CFR 1314.7 - Liability of TVA and Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liability of TVA and Reserve Banks. 1314.7 Section 1314.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... transfer message and are not required to verify the information. TVA and the Reserve Banks shall not...

  3. 18 CFR 1314.7 - Liability of TVA and Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability of TVA and Reserve Banks. 1314.7 Section 1314.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... transfer message and are not required to verify the information. TVA and the Reserve Banks shall not...

  4. 18 CFR 1314.7 - Liability of TVA and Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Liability of TVA and Reserve Banks. 1314.7 Section 1314.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... transfer message and are not required to verify the information. TVA and the Reserve Banks shall not...

  5. 18 CFR 1301.18 - TVA review of request for correction or amendment of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false TVA review of request for correction or amendment of record. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 1301.18 TVA review of request for...

  6. Production and characterization of a soluble, active form of Tva, the subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus receptor.

    PubMed

    Balliet, J W; Berson, J; D'Cruz, C M; Huang, J; Crane, J; Gilbert, J M; Bates, P

    1999-04-01

    The receptor for the subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses [ASLV(A)] is the cellular glycoprotein Tva. A soluble form of Tva, sTva, was produced and purified with a baculovirus expression system. Using this system, 7 to 10 mg of purified sTva per liter of cultured Sf9 cells was obtained. Characterization of the carbohydrate modification of sTva revealed that the three N glycosylation sites in sTva were differentially utilized; however, the O glycosylation common to Tva produced in mammalian and avian cells was not observed. Purified sTva demonstrates significant biological activity, specifically blocking infection of avian cells by ASLV(A) with a 90% inhibitory concentration of approximately 25 pM. A quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, developed to assess the binding of sTva to ASLV envelope glycoprotein, demonstrates that sTva has a high affinity for EnvA, with an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 0.3 nM. Once they are bound, a very stable complex is formed between EnvA and sTva, with an estimated complex half-life of 6 h. The soluble receptor protein described here represents a valuable tool for analysis of the receptor-envelope glycoprotein interaction and for structural analysis of Tva. PMID:10074155

  7. 18 CFR 1304.207 - Channel excavation on TVA-owned residential access shoreland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accordance with any applicable local, State, and Federal regulations at an upland site above the TVA Flood Risk Profile elevation. For those reservoirs that have no flood control storage, dredge spoil must...

  8. Induction of the tod operon by trichloroethylene in Pseudomonas putida TVA8

    SciTech Connect

    Shingleton, J.T.; Applegate, B.M.; Nagel, A.C.; Bienkowski, P.R.; Sayler, G.S.

    1998-12-01

    Bioluminescence, mRNA levels, and toluene degradation rates in Pseudomonas putida TVA8 were measured as a function of various concentrations of toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE). TVA8 showed an increasing bioluminescence response to increasing TCE and toluene concentrations. Compared to uninduced TVA8 cultures, todC1 mRNA levels increased 11-fold for TCE-treated cultures and 13-fold for toluene-treated cultures. Compared to uninduced P. putida F1 cultures, todC1 mRNA levels increased 4,4-fold for TCE-induced cultures and 4.9-fold for toluene-induced cultures. Initial toluene degradation rates were linearly correlated with specific bioluminescence in TVA8 cultures.

  9. Campbell Creek TVA 2010 First Year Performance Report July 1, 2009 August 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Jeffrey E; Gehl, Anthony C; Boudreaux, Philip R; New, Joshua Ryan

    2010-10-01

    This research project was initiated by TVA in March 2008 and encompasses three houses that are of similar size, design and located within the same community - Campbell Creek, Farragut TN with simulated occupancy. This report covers the performance period from July 1, 2009 to August 31, 2010. It is the intent of TVA that this Valley Data will inform electric utilities future residential retrofit incentive program.

  10. Coal-fired power plant ash utilization in the TVA region. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Church, R.L.; Weeter, D.W.; Davis, W.T.

    1980-10-01

    The report gives results of a study: (1) to summarize (a) production of coal ash nationally and by TVA's 12 major ash-producing steam/electric power plants, and (b) the physical/chemical characteristics of coal ash that affect ash disposal and/or use; (2) to review reported methods of coal ash use, emphasizing potential markets in the TVA system; and (3) to recommend potential R and D for coal ash use in the TVA system. Uses discussed include: concrete mixtures, mineral and magnetite recovery, lightweight aggregate, wastewater treatment, sanitary landfill liners, cenosphere reuse, agriculture, mineral wool insulation, and bituminous paving mixtures. The TVA region's predominant historical use of fly ash has been as a concrete additive; however, extensive pilot scale development is underway to advance ash use in the TVA region in such areas as mineral and magnetite recovery, and mineral wool insulaton. Recommended studies include: (1) the feasibility of converting existing wet fly ash collection systems to dry collection and storage; (2) mechanical properties of ash to learn how to separate nonfloating cenospheres from ash; (3) other mineral recovery process choices (in addition to the one with Mineral Gas Co.); and (4) the potential uses, markets, generation points, transportation, and feasibility of extensive coal ash utilization in the TVA area.

  11. The concept of externality: Implications for TVA Environmental Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, T.H.

    1994-06-01

    Pollution of the environment is a result of the economic activities of production and consumption. And although the market system is touted as the superior method of organizing and operating an economic system, society frequently is dissatisfied with some of the side effects. In these cases of market failure, a cry for intervention often is raised to obtain more socially-desirable solutions. Environmental pollution is one symptom of market failure. If the TVA Environmental Research Center is to focus on defining solutions to environmental problems and designing policy options for implementing such solutions, its efforts should benefit from an understanding of why the market fails and how it may be adjusted to produce more socially-desirable results. The purposes of this report are to: (1) promote an appreciation for and understanding of the concept of externality; (2) demonstrate the utility of the concept in the design and packaging of policy and technology for improved environmental performance; (3) provide a brief summary of the externality valuation issue currently being debated by the electric power industry; and (4) identify environmental research and development agenda opportunities or strategic considerations suggested for the Center by this review.

  12. Optimizing efficiency of zebra mussel monitoring at TVA power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kerley, B.L.

    1995-06-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) began monitoring for zebra mussels in spring 1992 and first detected veligers entering plant intake at Shawnee, Allen and Cumberland Fossil Plans in summer 1993. Existing information indicated that densities of zebra mussel veligers at plant intakes did not always correspond to densities in critical pipe units; however, a more accurate predictive technique was unavailable. The two sites chosen for this project were Shawnee Fossil Plant on the Ohio River and Allen Fossil Plant on the Mississippi River. The project involved a coordinated series of experiments to determine how densities of zebra mussel veligers varied throughout the day, how veliger densities estimated outside the plants related to estimates at different internal locations, and how growth rate of adult zebra mussels compared using measurements taken inside and outside the plants and from the two different rivers. The data indicated no significant difference in veliger densities from samples collected at the intakes and samples collected inside the plants. There was also no significant difference in densities between samples collected inside the plants. There was also no significant difference in densities between samples taken at different times of the day. The data did indicate a significant difference in density estimates between samples collected on different days and between densities in the rivers compared to densities being drawn into the plant. The results will be used to assist plant staff in evaluating future data and in planning a more effective and cost efficient monitoring program.

  13. TVA`s coproduction of electricity and fertilizer project

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, D.T.; Wright, T.L.; Faucett, H.L.; Weatherington, R.W.

    1991-12-31

    TVA is proposing to develop and commercially demonstrate the coproduction of electricity and fertilizer using integrated gasification/combined cycle (IGCC) technology. The Coproduction Demonstration Project (CDP) will show that coproduction of chemicals with electricity can economically and environmentally enhance the production of electric power from coal. The proposed CDP will be a nominal 250-M plant. During normal operation, the CDP will produce about 150 MW of base-load capacity and 1000 tons per day (TPD) of urea. Sulfur is recovered either as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur. During peak power demand, the fertilizer capacity can be bypassed, and the full 250 MW can be produced. Subsequent IGCC/fertilizer coproduction (IGCC/F) plants may convert only 20 to 25 percent of the plant`s capacity as fertilizer or other chemicals, depending on optimum IGCC/F operating conditions. The coproduction of electricity and fertilizer allows the continuous operation of the capital intensive gasification-related process units at 100-percent capacity, while varying the amount of electricity produced from 60 percent to 100 percent of rated capacity. Coproduction also will further reduce the annual revenue requirements for power generation by the coproduction of the higher valued fertilizer coproduct. Since nitrogen fertilizers are produced from natural gas, the real escalation of natural gas prices in the 1990s is expected to result in significant price increases in natural gas-based chemicals, especially fertilizers. The overall risk of producing revenues is reduced because two countercyclic coproducts are produced. Electricity has peak demands in the summer and winter while fertilizer`s peak demand is in the spring.

  14. Model of the TVA Receptor Determinants Required for Efficient Infection by Subgroup A Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Melder, Deborah C.; Pike, Gennett M.; VanBrocklin, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The study of the interactions of subgroup A avian sarcoma and leucosis viruses [ASLV(A)] with the TVA receptor required to infect cells offers a powerful experimental model of retroviral entry. Several regions and specific residues in the TVA receptor have previously been identified to be critical determinants of the binding affinity with ASLV(A) envelope glycoproteins and to mediate efficient infection. Two homologs of the TVA receptor have been cloned: the original quail TVA receptor, which has been the basis for most of the initial characterization of the ASLV(A) TVA, and the chicken TVA receptor, which is 65% identical to the quail receptor overall but identical in the region thought to be critical for infection. Our previous work characterized three mutant ASLV(A) isolates that could efficiently bind and infect cells using the chicken TVA receptor homolog but not using the quail TVA receptor homolog, with the infectivity of one mutant virus being >500-fold less with the quail TVA receptor. The mutant viruses contained mutations in the hr1 region of the surface glycoprotein. Using chimeras of the quail and chicken TVA receptors, we have identified new residues of TVA critical for the binding affinity and entry of ASLV(A) using the mutant glycoproteins and viruses to probe the function of those residues. The quail TVA receptor required changes at residues 10, 14, and 31 of the corresponding chicken TVA residues to bind wild-type and mutant ASLV(A) glycoproteins with a high affinity and recover the ability to mediate efficient infection of cells. A model of the TVA determinants critical for interacting with ASLV(A) glycoproteins is proposed. IMPORTANCE A detailed understanding of how retroviruses enter cells, evolve to use new receptors, and maintain efficient entry is crucial for identifying new targets for combating retrovirus infection and pathogenesis, as well as for developing new approaches for targeted gene delivery. Since all retroviruses share

  15. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential for TVA's John Sevier and Kingston Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ellen D; Saulsbury, Bo

    2008-03-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the potential for geologic carbon sequestration for the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) John Sevier and Kingston power plants. The purpose of this assessment is to make a 'first cut' determination of whether there is sufficient potential for geologic carbon sequestration within 200 miles of the plants for TVA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to proceed with a joint proposal for a larger project with a strong carbon management element. This assessment does not consider alternative technologies for carbon capture, but assumes the existence of a segregated CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration.

  16. TVA's 500-kV electric and magnetic fields: measurements and analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 500-kV electric and magnetic fields data project, performed by the Electrical Systems Group of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The objectives of the project were to measure, record, and analyze electric and magnetic fields in the vicintiy of TVA's 500-kV transmission lines. Also the effects of transmission line fields on the growth and development of selected agricultural and forest plant species were to be investigated. This report contains only the categorization and the statistical analysis of the fields data.

  17. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... water-use facilities; (2) Commercial recreation boat dock and water-use facilities; (3) Water intake... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and...

  18. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... water-use facilities; (2) Commercial recreation boat dock and water-use facilities; (3) Water intake... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and...

  19. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... water-use facilities; (2) Commercial recreation boat dock and water-use facilities; (3) Water intake... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and...

  20. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... water-use facilities; (2) Commercial recreation boat dock and water-use facilities; (3) Water intake... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and...

  1. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... water-use facilities; (2) Commercial recreation boat dock and water-use facilities; (3) Water intake... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and...

  2. COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT ASH UTILIZATION IN THE TVA REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study: (1) to summarize (a) production of coal ash nationally and by TVA's 12 major ash-producing steam/electric power plants, and (b) the physical/chemical characteristics of coal ash that affect ash disposal and/or use; (2) to review reported metho...

  3. EVALUATION OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM TVA COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a preliminary evaluation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from 11 Tennessee Valley authority (TVA) coal-fired power plants. urrent EPA AP-42 emission factors for NOx from coal-fired utility boilers do not account for variations either in these emission...

  4. 18 CFR 1311.10 - How does TVA make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental viewpoints?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does TVA make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental viewpoints? 1311.10 Section 1311.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND DIRECT...

  5. 18 CFR 1311.10 - How does TVA make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental viewpoints?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does TVA make... Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY...; (2) Reaches a mutually agreeable solution with the state process; or (3) Provides the single point...

  6. 18 CFR 1311.10 - How does TVA make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental viewpoints?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does TVA make... Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY...; (2) Reaches a mutually agreeable solution with the state process; or (3) Provides the single point...

  7. 18 CFR 1311.10 - How does TVA make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental viewpoints?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true How does TVA make... Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY...; (2) Reaches a mutually agreeable solution with the state process; or (3) Provides the single point...

  8. 18 CFR 1311.10 - How does TVA make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental viewpoints?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does TVA make... Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY...; (2) Reaches a mutually agreeable solution with the state process; or (3) Provides the single point...

  9. 18 CFR 1311.13 - May TVA waive any provision of these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May TVA waive any provision of these regulations? 1311.13 Section 1311.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE...

  10. 18 CFR 1311.11 - What are TVA's obligations in interstate situations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are TVA's obligations in interstate situations? 1311.11 Section 1311.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL...

  11. 18 CFR 1311.5 - What is TVA's obligation with respect to federal interagency coordination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is TVA's obligation with respect to federal interagency coordination? 1311.5 Section 1311.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY...

  12. 18 CFR 1311.9 - How does TVA receive and respond to comments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does TVA receive and respond to comments? 1311.9 Section 1311.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE...

  13. 18 CFR 1311.11 - What are TVA's obligations in interstate situations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are TVA's obligations in interstate situations? 1311.11 Section 1311.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL...

  14. 18 CFR 1311.3 - What programs and activities of TVA are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What programs and activities of TVA are subject to these regulations? 1311.3 Section 1311.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY...

  15. 18 CFR 1311.9 - How does TVA receive and respond to comments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does TVA receive and respond to comments? 1311.9 Section 1311.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE...

  16. 18 CFR 1311.5 - What is TVA's obligation with respect to federal interagency coordination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is TVA's obligation with respect to federal interagency coordination? 1311.5 Section 1311.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY...

  17. 18 CFR 1311.3 - What programs and activities of TVA are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What programs and activities of TVA are subject to these regulations? 1311.3 Section 1311.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY...

  18. 18 CFR 1311.13 - May TVA waive any provision of these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May TVA waive any provision of these regulations? 1311.13 Section 1311.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE...

  19. [Geraldo Horácio de Paula Souza, China and Chinese medicine, 1928-1943].

    PubMed

    Roland, Maria Inês de França; Gianini, Reinaldo José

    2013-01-01

    This essay is on the writings of sanitary doctor Geraldo Horácio de Paula Souza in Eugenia e Imigração (1928) and, after an official trip to the Orient, in Digressões sobre a medicina chinesa clássica (1942) and A sabedoria chinesa diante da ciência ocidental e a Escola Médica de Pequim (1943). The documents, analyzed according to the conceptual approach of Carlo Ginzburg, indicate a change in his view of the Chinese. Trained according to the Rockefeller Foundation's model of experimental medicine, Geraldo de Paula Souza was guided in his work by scientific rigor and record imagery. In his youth he was of the opinion that the Chinese civilization was stagnated, but this view changed after his visit, when he perceived the Chinese republic's capacity to modernize. PMID:24141921

  20. Finite element analysis of three TVA dams with alkali-aggregate reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Grenoble, B.A.; Meisenheimer, J.K.; Wagner, C.D.; Newell, V.A.

    1995-12-31

    Three large Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) dams are currently experiencing problems caused by alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR). Since the fall of 1990, engineers in Stone & Webster`s Denver, Colorado office have been working with TVA to evaluate how AAR is affecting the dams and to identify measures for controlling the adverse effects of the concrete growth. This paper provides an overview of how finite element analysis is being used to understand the affects of AAR on these structures and to evaluate alternatives for minimizing the adverse effects of the concrete growth. Work on Hiwassee Dam is essentially complete, while that on the Chickamauga and Fontana Projects is still in progress. Consequently, this paper will focus primarily on Hiwassee Dam. The ongoing work on the other two projects will only be discussed briefly.

  1. Application of the Index of Biotic Integrity to existing TVA data

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, C.; Scott, E.M. Jr.

    1987-09-01

    The Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is a recently developed method of evaluating environmental quality at a given stream site by measuring certain aspects of the resident fish population (Karr, 1981). Application of IBI in different geographical regions, and to various perturbations of water quality and habitat has been shown by Fausch et al. (1984), Karr et al. (1986), and Leonard and Orth (1986). IBI was used by O'Bara (in press) to assess the effects of coal mine runoff on certain second order streams in the Cumberland River Drainage. IBI continues to undergo testing and modification; however, its value as a monitoring tool is apparent, and it may very well become a standard method for various TVA projects. To evaluate the use of IBI on streams of the Tennessee Valley, this report examines application of the method to existing TVA fish data that were gathered to complete Activity 2 of the Cumberlandian Mussel Conservation Program (CMCP) (TVA, 1986). 9 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  2. The hypoxia-induced dehydrogenase HorA is required for coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis, azole sensitivity and virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Kristin; Shekhova, Elena; Mattern, Derek J; Thywissen, Andreas; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Strassburger, Maria; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Shelest, Ekaterina; Brakhage, Axel A; Kniemeyer, Olaf

    2016-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the predominant airborne pathogenic fungus causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. During infection A. fumigatus has to adapt to oxygen-limiting conditions in inflammatory or necrotic tissue. Previously, we identified a mitochondrial protein to be highly up-regulated during hypoxic adaptation. Here, this protein was found to represent the novel oxidoreductase HorA. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae a homologue was shown to play a role in biosynthesis of coenzyme Q. Consistently, reduced coenzyme Q content in the generated ΔhorA mutant indicated a respective function in A. fumigatus. Since coenzyme Q is involved in cellular respiration and maintaining cellular redox homeostasis, the strain ΔhorA displayed an impaired response to both oxidative and reductive stress, a delay in germination and an accumulation of NADH. Moreover, an increased resistance against antifungal drugs was observed. All phenotypes were completely reversed by the addition of the synthetic electron carrier menadione. The deletion strain ΔhorA showed significantly attenuated virulence in two murine infection models of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Therefore, the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q and, particularly, the fungal-specific protein HorA play a crucial role in virulence of A. fumigatus. Due to its absence in mammals, HorA might represent a novel therapeutic target against fungal infections. PMID:26991818

  3. Intronic deletions of tva receptor gene decrease the susceptibility to infection by avian sarcoma and leukosis virus subgroup A

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiguo; Liu, Yang; Li, Hongxing; Chang, Shuang; Shu, Dingming; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Xie, Qingmei

    2015-01-01

    The group of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV) in chickens contains six highly related subgroups, A to E and J. Four genetic loci, tva, tvb, tvc and tvj, encode for corresponding receptors that determine the susceptibility to the ASLV subgroups. The prevalence of ASLV in hosts may have imposed strong selection pressure toward resistance to ASLV infection, and the resistant alleles in all four receptor genes have been identified. In this study, two new alleles of the tva receptor gene, tvar5 and tvar6, with similar intronic deletions were identified in Chinese commercial broilers. These natural mutations delete the deduced branch point signal within the first intron, disrupting mRNA splicing of the tva receptor gene and leading to the retention of intron 1 and introduction of premature TGA stop codons in both the longer and shorter tva isoforms. As a result, decreased susceptibility to subgroup A ASLV in vitro and in vivo was observed in the subsequent analysis. In addition, we identified two groups of heterozygous allele pairs which exhibited quantitative differences in host susceptibility to ASLV-A. This study demonstrated that defective splicing of the tva receptor gene can confer genetic resistance to ASLV subgroup A in the host. PMID:25873518

  4. Veterans' Employment. TVA Can Improve Its Disabled Veterans' Affirmative Action Program. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Education, Training, and Employment, Committee on Veterans' Affairs, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) conducted a study of employment practices at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to determine if practices for employing and advancing disabled veterans comply with applicable legislation. The study found that TVA's plans describing its Disabled Vererans' Affirmative Action Program were meeting regulatory…

  5. Evaluating a biomass resource: The TVA region-wide biomass resource assessment model

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Wood is an alterative fuel for electric power generation at coal-fired plants in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Short rotation wood energy crops (SRWC) could provide a source of this woody biomass. However, the economic and supply structures of SRWC markets have not been established. Establishing the likely price and supply of SRWC biomass in a region is a complex task because biomass is not an established commodity as are oil, natural gas and coal. In this study we project the cost and supply of short-rotation woody biomass for the TVA region -- a 276 county area that includes all of Tennessee and portions of 10 contiguous states in the southeastern United States. Projected prices and quantities of SRWC are assumed to be a function of the amount and quality of crop and pasture land available in a region. expected SRWC yields and production costs on differing soils and land types, and the profit that could be obtained from current conventional crop production on these same lands. Results include the supply curve of SRWC biomass that is projected to be available from the entire region, the amount and location of crop and pasture land that would be used, and the conventional agricultural crops that would be displaced as a function of SRWC production. Finally, we show the results of sensitivity analysis on the projected cost and supply of SRWC biomass. In particular, we examine the separate impacts of varying SRWC production yields.

  6. Characterization of BMP signaling dependent osteogenesis using a BMP depletable avianized bone marrow stromal cell line (TVA-BMSC).

    PubMed

    Yadav, Prem Swaroop; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Prashar, Paritosh; Duggal, Shivali; Rath, Srikanta Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Bandyopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-10-01

    Adipogenesis, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis are BMP signaling dependent differentiation processes. However, the molecular networks operating downstream of BMP signaling to bring about these distinct fates are yet to be fully elucidated. We have developed a novel Bone Marrow Stromal Cell (BMSC) derived mouse cell line as a powerful in vitro platform to conduct such experiments. This cell line is a derivative of BMSCs isolated from a tamoxifen inducible Bmp2 and Bmp4 double conditional knock-out mouse strain. These BMSCs are immortalized and stably transfected with avian retroviral receptor TVA (TVA-BMSCs), enabling an easy method for stable transduction of multiple genes in these cells. In TVA-BMSCs multiple components of BMP signaling pathway can be manipulated simultaneously. Using this cell line we have demonstrated that for osteogenesis, BMP signaling is required only for the first three days. We have further demonstrated that Klf10, an osteogenic transcription factor which is transcribed in developing bones in a BMP signaling dependent manner, can largely compensate for the loss of BMP signaling during osteogenesis of BMSCs. TVA-BMSCs can undergo chondrogenesis and adipogenesis, and hence may be used for dissection of the molecular networks downstream of BMP signaling in these differentiation processes as well. PMID:27424936

  7. 18 CFR 1309.17 - What is the procedure for hearings and issuance of TVA decisions required by this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for hearings and issuance of TVA decisions required by this part? 1309.17 Section 1309.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO AGE § 1309... be a waiver of the right to a hearing under the Act and § 1309.15(a)(1) and a consent to the...

  8. 18 CFR 1309.11 - What specific responsibilities do TVA and recipients have to ensure compliance with the Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... which financial assistance is provided by TVA. (2) Provide technical assistance to recipients, where... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What specific... of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO AGE §...

  9. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  10. Urban Sociology in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiot, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Divides the history of urban sociology in France into three periods: (1) functionalism, which lasted from 1910 until the 1960s, (2) neo-Marxist socioeconomics lasting from 1968 until 1979, and (3) anthropological approach which is still dominant. Reviews theoretical perspectives and research characteristic of each period. (JDH)

  11. Industrial Psychology in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Montmollin, Maurice

    1977-01-01

    The current status of French industrial psychology is evaluated. Within the social and economic context of contemporary France, varying ideologies and scarce resources have created a gap between applied and academic industrial psychology. Personnel practices and systems and organizational research are noted. (Editor)

  12. Potential supply and cost of biomass from energy crops in the TVA region

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.E.

    1995-04-01

    The economic and supply structures of energy crop markets have not been established. Establishing the likely price and supply of energy crop biomass in a region is a complex task because biomass is not an established commodity as are oil, natural gas, and coal. In this study, the cost and supply of short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) and switchgrass biomass for the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region-a 276-county area that includes portions of 11 states in the southeastern United States - are projected. Projected prices and quantities of biomass are assumed to be a function of the amount and quality of crop and pasture land available in a region, expected energy crop yields and production costs on differing soils and land types, and the profit that could be obtained from current conventional crop production on these same lands. Results include the supply curves of SRWC and switchgrass biomass that are projected to be available from the entire region, the amount and location of crop and pasture land that would be used, and the conventional agricultural crops that would be displaced as a function of energy crop production. Finally, the results of sensitivity analysis on the projected cost and supply of energy crop biomass are shown. In particular, the separate impacts of varying energy crop production costs and yields, and interest rates are examined.

  13. TVA`s Cumberland Units 1&2 SO{sub 2} removal system - an update

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, J.H.; Brodsky, I.S.; Muraskin, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority`s Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is a Phase I facility listed under the 1990 CAA Amendments. Units 1 & 2 are two 1300 MWe coal fired units which presently bum an eastern bituminous coal containing approximately 2.8% sulfur. The Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system reduces sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from Units 1 and 2 by means of wet limestone - forced oxidation scrubbing. The absorber modules were provided by ABB Environmental Systems (ABBES) with balance of plant engineering, construction management, and startup provided by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors (RE&C) under a partnership arrangement with TVA. The FGD systems for Unit 1 & 2 were brought on-line October 12, 1994 and December 14, 1994, respectively. This paper will present a brief description of the overall project, the design basis, challenging problems and solutions during construction and initial startup. Specific topics will include: (1) Optimization studies underway; (2) Unique design aspects of the facility; (3) A description of the absorber and supporting systems including the limestone barge unloader, ball mill system for reagent preparation, and draft system upgrades; and (4) Experience gained in management of a large project under the unique partnership agreement.

  14. [Primary care in France].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. PMID:26304179

  15. Pharmacy Education in France

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a “diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie” This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice. PMID:19325952

  16. Measurement of turbine pressures at TVA`s Norris Hydro Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hopping, P.; Mobley, M.; Pearson, H.

    1995-12-31

    The two 50-mW units at the Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA`s) Norris Hydro Project are to be upgraded with new Francis runners by the end of 1996. To increase the level of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the turbine discharges, the new turbines will include several alternatives for aerating the flow. For unit 2, the first to be upgraded, aeration outlets will be located at four sites - the discharge edge of the runner buckets, the base of the runner hub, the runner crown, and the wall of the draft tube cone. For each site, the amount of air drawn through the outlets will depend on the local pressure at the outlets and the headloss characteristics of the air supply passageways. Estimates for the pressure are available by two methods - numerical solutions of the governing equations of continuity and momentum, and measurements in the physical model of the turbine. Ideally, pressures obtained by each method should compare favorably. In analyzing the aeration alternatives for Norris, however, comparisons were found to be poor for the discharge edge of the runner buckets. To address these and other concerns, prototype pressure measurements were made in the existing units, both on the runner and in the draft tube cone. The results found that pressures measured on the discharge edge of the runner buckets agree better with the numerical computations, whereas those measured in the draft tube cone agree better with the physical model. The measurements allow the pressure coefficient to be determined for baffles located on the turbine hub and the wall of the draft tube cone. The headloss characteristics of the air supply passageway for the turbine hub is determined based on measured airflows. To provide additional data for estimating runner pressures and designing aeration outlets, similar measurements are planned for the new turbines.

  17. The Spacing between Cysteines Two and Three of the LDL-A Module of Tva Is Important for Subgroup A Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Virus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Tia; Marble, Deborah; Rihani, Kayla; Rong, Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Rong et al. have demonstrated previously that with a few substitutions, the fourth repeat of human low-density lipoprotein (hLDL-A4) receptor can functionally replace the LDL-A module of Tva, the cellular receptor for subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV-A), in viral entry (L. Rong, K. Gendron, and P. Bates, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:8467-8472, 1998). Here we have shown that swapping the amino terminus of hLDL repeat 5 (hLDL-A5) with that of Tva, in addition to the corresponding substitutions made in human LDL-A4, was required to convert hLDL-A5 into an efficient ASLV-A receptor. These results substantiated our previous findings regarding the role of the specific residues in the viral interaction domain of Tva and demonstrated the critical role of the amino terminus of the Tva LDL-A module in ASLV-A infection. Furthermore, we have shown that the residues between cysteines 2 and 3 of the Tva LDL-A module in a Tva/LDL-A5 chimeric protein can be functionally replaced by the corresponding region of another LDL-A module, human LDL receptor-related protein repeat 22 (LDL-A22), to mediate efficient ASLV-A entry. Since the only conserved feature between the C2-C3 region of LDL-A22 and the Tva LDL-A module is that both contain nine amino acids of which none are conserved, we conclude that the spacing between C2 and C3 of the LDL-A module of Tva is an important determinant for ASLV-A entry. Thus, the present study provides strong evidence to support our hypothesis that one role of the N terminus of the LDL-A module of Tva is to allow proper folding and conformation of the protein for optimal interaction with the viral glycoprotein EnvA in ASLV-A entry. PMID:14694099

  18. The spacing between cysteines two and three of the LDL-A module of Tva is important for subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus entry.

    PubMed

    Rai, Tia; Marble, Deborah; Rihani, Kayla; Rong, Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Rong et al. have demonstrated previously that with a few substitutions, the fourth repeat of human low-density lipoprotein (hLDL-A4) receptor can functionally replace the LDL-A module of Tva, the cellular receptor for subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV-A), in viral entry (L. Rong, K. Gendron, and P. Bates, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:8467-8472, 1998). Here we have shown that swapping the amino terminus of hLDL repeat 5 (hLDL-A5) with that of Tva, in addition to the corresponding substitutions made in human LDL-A4, was required to convert hLDL-A5 into an efficient ASLV-A receptor. These results substantiated our previous findings regarding the role of the specific residues in the viral interaction domain of Tva and demonstrated the critical role of the amino terminus of the Tva LDL-A module in ASLV-A infection. Furthermore, we have shown that the residues between cysteines 2 and 3 of the Tva LDL-A module in a Tva/LDL-A5 chimeric protein can be functionally replaced by the corresponding region of another LDL-A module, human LDL receptor-related protein repeat 22 (LDL-A22), to mediate efficient ASLV-A entry. Since the only conserved feature between the C2-C3 region of LDL-A22 and the Tva LDL-A module is that both contain nine amino acids of which none are conserved, we conclude that the spacing between C2 and C3 of the LDL-A module of Tva is an important determinant for ASLV-A entry. Thus, the present study provides strong evidence to support our hypothesis that one role of the N terminus of the LDL-A module of Tva is to allow proper folding and conformation of the protein for optimal interaction with the viral glycoprotein EnvA in ASLV-A entry. PMID:14694099

  19. Evaluation of TVA`s model site and individual technology pollution prevention demonstration programs and their impact on the agrichemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, G.S.

    1995-06-01

    The high volume of fertilizer and pesticides funneled through a relatively small number of distribution outlets has made these agribusiness sites potential sources of surface/groundwater contamination in watersheds surrounding the agrichemical facilities. The agrichemical industry came under increased pressures in the mid-1980s to implement environmentally sound management practices and to install containment structures around fertilizer and chemical storage/handling areas to prevent future contamination of existing sites or the movement of contaminants offsite. TVA`s long and successful history of technology transfer to the retail fertilizer industry, as well as the technical expertise of the Agency`s staff, made TVA ideally suited to handle the new environmental challenge. It was during this time period that TVA`s Model Site Demonstration Program (MSD) and Individual Technology Demonstration Program (ITD) were conceived. Since inception, the pollution prevention program and the technologies advanced by it have made a very positive impact on the US agrichemical industry, as well as on other TVA programs. This paper is an attempt to document these impacts, with primary focus being placed on the program`s impact on the agribusiness dealer who implements the pollution prevention technologies/practices recommended by TVA.

  20. Petroleum statistics in France

    SciTech Connect

    De Saint Germain, H.; Lamiraux, C.

    1995-08-01

    33 oil companies, including Elf, Exxon, Agip, Conoco as well as Coparex, Enron, Hadson, Midland, Hunt, Canyon and Union Texas are present in oil and gas exploration and production in France. The production of oil and gas in France amounts to some 60,000 bopd of oil and 350 MMcfpd of marketed natural gas each year, which still accounts for 3.5% and 10% for French domestic needs, respectively. To date, 166 fields have been discovered, representing a total reserve of 3 billion bbl of crude oil and 13 trillion cf of raw gas. These fields are concentrated in two major onshore sedimentary basins of Mesozoic age, which are the Aquitaine basin and the Paris basin. The Aquitaine basin should be subdivided into two distinct domains: The Parentis basin where the largest field Parentis was discovered in 1954 with still production of about 3700 bopd of oil and where Les Arbouslers field, discovered at the end of 1991, is currently producing about 10,000 bopd of oil. The northern Pyrenees and their foreland, where the Lacq field, discovered in 1951, has produced about 7.7 tcf of gas since 1957, and is still producing 138 MMcfpd. In the Paris basin, the two large oil fields are Villeperclue discovered in 1982 by Triton and Total, and Chaunoy, discovered in 1983 by Essorep, which are still producing about 10,000 and 15,000 bopd, respectively. The last significantly sized discovery occurred in 1990 with Itteville by Elf Aquitaine which is currently producing 4,200 bopd. The poster shows statistical data related to the past 20 years of oil and gas exploration and production in France.

  1. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  2. Breeder reactors in France

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, C.P.

    1980-04-11

    France relies on nuclear power as an important part of her energy program. Anticipating problems with the availability of natural uranium before the year 2020, the French have been pursuing a three-stage program of development of breeder reactors. The third reactor in this program, the near-commercial plant Super Phenix Mark I, is expected to reach power operation in 1983. Although there are still some uncertainties, particularly about the date when the breeder will become competitive with other energy sources, the outlook is considered favorable and preliminary designs for commercial plants are under way.

  3. Battle of France WWII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhath, Arpitha Rao

    The purpose of this thesis is to build an interactive Geographical Information System (GIS) tool, relating to the series of events that occurred during the Battle of France World War II. The tool gives us an insight about the countries involved in the battle, their allies and their strategies. This tool was created to use it as a one stop source of information regarding all the important battles that took place, which lead to the fall of France. The tool brings together the maps of all the countries involved. Integrated with each map is the data relevant to that map. The data for each country includes the place of attack, the strategies used during the attack, and the kind of warfare. The tool also makes use of HTML files to give all the information, along with the images from the time of the war and a footage which explains everything about the particular battle. The tool was build using JAVA, along with the use of MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) to develop Maps of each of the countries. MOJO is developed by ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) which makes it easier to add data to the maps. It also makes highlighting important information easier making use of pop-up windows, charts and infographics. HTML files were designed making use of the open-source template developed by Bootstrap. The tool is built in such a way that the interface is simple and easy for the user to use and understand.

  4. Legionnaires' disease in France.

    PubMed

    Campèse, C; Descours, G; Lepoutre, A; Beraud, L; Maine, C; Che, D; Jarraud, S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current knowledge of Legionnaires' disease (LD) illustrated by the epidemiological situation in France in 2013. LD is a severe pneumonia commonly caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. The diagnosis is usually based on the urinary antigen test. This rapid method reduces the delay between clinical suspicion and initiation of an appropriate treatment. However, the availability of a clinical strain is important to improve knowledge of circulating bacteria, to document case clusters, and to identify the sources of contamination. The source of contamination is unknown in most cases. The main contamination sources generating aerosols are water network systems and cooling towers. Thanks to the strengthening of clinical and environmental monitoring and to several guidelines, no epidemic has been reported in France since 2006. Despite these efforts, the number of LD cases has not decreased in recent years. It is essential that applied research continue to better understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of the disease and its characteristics (impact of environmental factors, sources of exposure, strains, host, etc.). Fundamental knowledge has been greatly improved (pathogenesis, immune mechanisms, etc.). The results of this research should help define new strategies for the diagnosis, prevention, and control to decrease the number of LD cases diagnosed every year. PMID:25722040

  5. Women in physics in France

    SciTech Connect

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  6. [Measles in France].

    PubMed

    Antona, Denise; Baudon, Claire; Freymuth, François; Lamy, Mathieu; Maine, Catherine; Parent du Chatelet, Isabelle; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    From January 2008 to May 2012, over 22,000 cases of measles were reported in France. The highest incidence rate was observed in children below one year of age. Over 50% of cases were reported in young adults. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalised including 1,023 with severe pneumonia, 27 with encephalitis and/or myelitis : 10 died. This situation is linked to insufficient and heterogeneous vaccination coverage with pockets of susceptible people allowing virus circulation. Although the vaccine coverage in children has now improved for both doses, the issue of convincing young susceptible adults to catch up for measles vaccination remains critical, if the elimination target is to be met, and in order to protect the most vulnerable population unable to benefit from this vaccination (children below 1 year, immunodeficient people, pregnant women). PMID:23171908

  7. Enzymatic synthesis of novel branched sugar alcohols mediated by the transglycosylation reaction of pullulan-hydrolyzing amylase II (TVA II) cloned from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Yoichiro; Oh, Keimei; Kon, Misaki; Yamamoto, Eri; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Adachi, Takashi; Abe, Tomomi; Tamogami, Shigeru; Fukushima, Jun; Inamoto, Tamio; Tonozuka, Takashi

    2011-09-27

    Transglycosylation reactions are useful for preserving a specific sugar structure during the synthesis of branched oligosaccharides. We have previously reported a panosyl unit transglycosylation reaction by pullulan-hydrolyzing amylase II (TVA II) cloned from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 (Tonozuka et al., Carbohydr. Res., 1994, 261, 157-162). The acceptor specificity of the TVA II transglycosylation reaction was investigated using pullulan as the donor and sugar alcohols as the acceptor. TVA II transferred the α-panosyl unit to the C-1 hydroxyl group of meso-erythritol, C-1 and C-2 of xylitol, and C-1 and C-6 of d-sorbitol. TVA II differentiated between the sugar alcohols' hydroxyl groups to produce five novel non-reducing branched oligosaccharides, 1-O-α-panosylerythritol, 1-O-α-panosylxylitol, 2-O-α-panosylxylitol, 1-O-α-panosylsorbitol, and 6-O-α-panosylsorbitol. The Trp(356)→Ala mutant showed similar transglycosylation reactions; however, panose production by the mutant was 4.0-4.5-fold higher than that of the wild type. This suggests that Trp(356) is important for recognizing both water and the acceptor molecules in the transglycosylation and the hydrolysis reaction. PMID:21722879

  8. Intronic deletions of tva receptor gene decrease the susceptibility to infection by subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus subgroup A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The group of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV) in chickens contains six highly related subgroups, A to E and J. Four genetic loci, tva, tvb, tvc and tvj, encode for corresponding receptors that determine the susceptibility to the ASLV subgroups. The prevalence of ASLV in hosts may have imposed...

  9. Analysis of the subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus receptor: the 40-residue, cysteine-rich, low-density lipoprotein receptor repeat motif of Tva is sufficient to mediate viral entry.

    PubMed

    Rong, L; Bates, P

    1995-08-01

    The genes encoding the receptor for subgroup A Rous sarcoma viruses (tva) were recently cloned from both chicken and quail cells (P. Bates, J. A. T. Young, and H. E. Varmus, Cell 74:1043-1051, 1993; J. A. T. Young, P. Bates, and H. E. Varmus, J. Virol. 67:1811-1816, 1993). Previous work suggested that only the extracellular domain of Tva interacts with the virus (P. Bates, J. A. T. Young, and H. E. Varmus, Cell 74:1043-1051, 1993). Tva is a small membrane-associated protein containing in its extracellular domain a 40-amino-acid region which is closely related to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) repeat motif. To determine the region of the Tva extracellular domain responsible for viral receptor function, we created chimeric proteins containing various regions of the Tva extracellular domain fused with a murine CD8 membrane anchor. Analysis of these proteins demonstrates that any chimera containing the Tva LDLR repeat motif can specifically bind the envelope protein of subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses. Furthermore, NIH 3T3 cell lines expressing these chimeric proteins were efficiently infected by subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus vectors. Our results demonstrate that the 40-residue-long LDLR repeat motif of Tva is responsible for viral receptor function. PMID:7609052

  10. TVA/DOE integrated onfarm alcohol production system. Phase II. Progress report, October 1981-February 1982. Circular Z-134

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C.; Pile, R.S.; Burch, D.W.; Mays, D.A.; Lewis, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    Equipment and procedures necessary for using a grain (corn) feedstock for onfarm alcohol production were refined and documented to provide benchmark data. Also, significant progress was made in developing technology to convert other agricultural crops into 190-proof alcohol with the farm-sized alcohol production facility. This was achieved by modifying the base alcohol-from-grain facility to process the nongrain feedstocks (Irish potatoes, sweet sorghum, sweet potatoes, sugar beets, fodder beets, and Jerusalem artichokes) being evaluated in field production trials by TVA. Alcohol production capacities of cull potatoes, water chestnuts, and cull apples were also tested. A computerized investment model was refined to predict rapidly the economic implications for alcohol production levels, feedstocks, and various system components.

  11. Assessing and validating RST-FIRES on MSG-SEVIRI data by means a Total Validation Approach (TVA).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filizzola, Carolina; Corrado, Rosita; Marchese, Francesco; Mazzeo, %Giuseppe; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2015-04-01

    Several fire detection methods have been developed through the years for detecting forest fires from space. These algorithms (which may be grouped in single channel, multichannel and contextual algorithms) are generally based on the use of fixed thresholds that, being intrinsically exposed to false alarm proliferation, are often used in a conservative way. As a consequence, most of satellite-based algorithms for fire detection show low sensitivity resulting not suitable in operational contexts. In this work, the RST-FIRES algorithm, which is based on an original multi-temporal scheme of satellite data analysis (RST-Robust Satellite Techniques), is presented. The implementation of RST-FIRES on data provided by Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) onboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) that, offering the best revisit time (i.e. 15 minutes), can be successfully used for detecting fires at early stage, is described here. Moreover, results of a Total Validation Approach (TVA) experimented both in Northern and Southern Italy, in collaboration with local and regional civil protection agencies, are also reported. In particular, TVA allowed us to assess RST-FIRES detections by means of ground check and aerial surveys, demonstrating the good performances offered by RST-FIRES using MSG-SEVIRI data. Indeed, this algorithm was capable of detecting several fires that for their features (e.g., small size, short time duration) would not have appeared in the official reports, highlighting a significant improvement in terms of sensitivity in comparison with other established satellite-based fire detection techniques still preserving a high confidence level of detection.

  12. Beginning of viniculture in France.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patrick E; Luley, Benjamin P; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P; Smith, Karen E; Hall, Gretchen R; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M

    2013-06-18

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport. PMID:23733937

  13. Beginning of viniculture in France

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500–475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425–400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport. PMID:23733937

  14. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  15. A Novel Ligustrazine Derivative T-VA Prevents Neurotoxicity in Differentiated PC12 Cells and Protects the Brain against Ischemia Injury in MCAO Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoling; Tian, Yufei; Zhang, Yuzhong; Hong, Ying; Hao, Yingzhi; Chen, Chunxiao; Wang, Penglong; Lei, Haimin

    2015-01-01

    Broad-spectrum drugs appear to be more promising for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. In our previous work, a new ligustrazine derivative (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl) methyl 3-methoxy-4-[(3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl)methoxy]benzoate (T-VA) showed neuroprotective effect on injured PC12 cells (EC50 = 4.249 µM). In the current study, we show that this beneficial effect was due to the modulation of nuclear transcription factor-κB/p65 (NF-κB/p65) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions. We also show that T-VA exhibited neuroprotective effect in a rat model of ischemic stroke with concomitant improvement of motor functions. We propose that the protective effect observed in vivo is owing to increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, decreased oxidative stress, and up-regulation of Ca2+–Mg2+ ATP enzyme activity. Altogether, our results warrant further studies on the utility of T-VA for the potential treatment of ischemic brain injuries, such as stroke. PMID:26370988

  16. Enterococcus cecorum human infection, France.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, E; Abat, C; Rolain, J-M

    2015-09-01

    Enterococcus cecorum is a bacterium of the intestinal tract of many domestic animals that is rarely reported as human pathogen. Here we report the first case of incisional hernia plate infection and the first case of urinary tract colonization due to E. cecorum from patients in Marseille, France. PMID:26199733

  17. Neural network boiler optimization of efficiency, emission, and reliability with TVA Kingston Unit 3 low NOx optimization test results

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.S.; Poston, J.M.; Schroech, K.A.; Hou, H.S.

    1995-12-31

    Boiler performance optimization includes the preservation of efficiency, emission, capacity, and reliability. Competitive pressures require cost reduction and environmental compliance. It is a challenge for utility personnel to balance these requirements often demand tradeoffs. The Clean Air Act Amendment requires utilities to reduce NOx emission. NOx emission reduction has often been accomplished by installation of new low NOx burners. Boiler tuning for NOx control can be used as an alternative to low NOx burner installation. Specifically in tangentially-fired boilers, boiler tuning can be very effective in NOx reduction. A PC-based computer software program was developed to assist the tuning process. This software, System Optimization Analysis Program (SOAP), is a neural network based code which uses the self-adaptation learning process, with an adaptive filter added for data noise control. SOAP can use historical data as the knowledge base and provides a fast optimal solution to adaptive control problems. SOAP was tested at TVA`s Kingston Unit 3 tangentially coal-fired furnace for NOx reduction. With a well-organized test plan, the optimized solution was reached with 16 tests at each test series load level. SOAP will be used for other plant equipment or system optimization, such as pulverizer performance, combustion system optimization, compared thermal performance design, and boiler tube leak detection and allocation.

  18. "Franklin: Science, Politics and France"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, James E., III

    2003-04-01

    This presentation traces Benjamin Franklin's career as a "civic scientist" in Old-Regime France. It outlines the initial - and not always positive - reception of Franklin's work on electricity by the community of French scientists in the 1750s. It sketches Franklin's subsequent elevation into the pantheon of French Enlightenment heros, and it details his work as a "civic scientist" while American envoy to France in the 1770s and 1780s, notably his service on the government-sponsored commissions that repudiated the scientific and medical claims of Franz Anton Mesmer. This presentation concludes by examining a few features of Franklin's career that are not completely congruent with our notion of what a "civic scientist" might be, a contrast that is intended to illuminate both Franklin and the concept of "civic scientist."

  19. Cardiac remote monitoring in France.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Nicolas; Perrotton, Fanny; Delage, Emilie; Gourraud, Jean-Baptiste; Lande, Gilles; Solnon, Aude; Probst, Vincent; Grimandi, Gael; Clouet, Johann

    2014-04-01

    The increase in number of implanted cardiac medical devices and the announced decrease in number of cardiologists have led to remote monitoring being considered as a pivotal tool for patient follow-up. For 10 years, remote monitoring has been the subject of multiple clinical studies. In these studies, reliability and clinical efficacy have been demonstrated, but the use of remote monitoring remains quite limited in France compared with other countries. To explain this delay in uptake, some organizational difficulties and the lack of reimbursement of remote monitoring are often mentioned. The results of medico-economic studies might provide answers about the value of remote monitoring and enable the supervisory authorities to define how its use will be financed. This review provides a global view of remote monitoring in France, and covers the principle, clinical efficacy, organizational and regulatory aspects, and medico-economic data. PMID:24709285

  20. Mariner Jupiter/Saturn LCSSE thruster/valve assembly and injection propulsion unit rocket engine assemblies: 0.2-lbf T/VA development and margin limit test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    Thruster valve assemblies (T/VA's) were subjected to the development test program for the combined JPL Low-Cost Standardized Spacecraft Equipment (LCSSE) and Mariner Jupiter/Saturn '77 spacecraft (MJS) programs. The development test program was designed to achieve the following program goals: (1) demonstrate T/VA design compliance with JPL Specifications, (2) to conduct a complete performance Cf map of the T/VA over the full operating range of environment, (3) demonstrate T/VA life capability and characteristics of life margin for steady-state limit cycle and momentum wheel desaturation duty cycles, (4) verification of structural design capability, and (5) generate a computerized performance model capable of predicting T/VA operation over pressures ranging from 420 to 70 psia, propellant temperatures ranging from 140 F to 40 F, pulse widths of 0.008 to steady-state operation with unlimited duty cycle capability, and finally predict the transient performance associated with reactor heatup during any given duty cycle, start temperature, feed pressure, and propellant temperature conditions.

  1. CFB boiler at Gardanne (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Jaud, P.; Jacquet, L.; Delot, P.; Bayle, F.

    1995-06-01

    Among the new Clean Coal Technologies, {open_quotes}Circulating Fluidized Bed{close_quotes} is one of the most promising. Today, the largest project in commissioning`s the 250 MWe Provence CFB boiler, located near MARSEILLE in the south of France. At such a size, the CFB technique has now reached a capacity corresponding to thermal power plants operated by utilities. This new unit is a very important step towards larger size i.e. 400 MWe and greater. The SO{sub 2} emissions of this CFB boiler are guaranteed to be less than 400 mg / Nm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2} with the ratio of Ca/S lower than 3 while total sulfur in local coal used can reach 3.68 %. The purpose of the Provence project was to replace the existing pulverized coal boiler unit 4, commissioned in 1967, of the Provence power plant, with a new CFB boiler while reusing most of the existing equipment. The new boiler has been ordered from GEC ALSTHOM STEIN INDUSTREE (GASI) by Electricite de France (EDF) on behalf of the SOPROLIF consortium. Architect Engineering and construction management was performed by EDF jointly with Charbonnages de France (CdF: the French Coal Board). The 250 MWe CFB boiler is of the superheat-reheat type. The first firing of the boiler is due in April 1995. The poster session will describe the progress in the construction of the plant and provides technical details of the new boiler and auxiliaries.

  2. Home health care in France.

    PubMed

    Charles, B

    1990-02-23

    Home health care in France has a long tradition, but is limited in its development. Since 1970 hospitals are by law permitted to extend services at home. Apart from this, patient associations are a driving force in the organization of home health care. There is a trend to more home health care, but this is hampered by splitting of responsibilities of local, departmental or central authorities. The hospital pharmacist is recommended to focus on his scientific and technical competence. Improved relations between community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists are advocated. PMID:2314994

  3. [Dengue fever in mainland France].

    PubMed

    Paty, M-C

    2014-11-01

    Dengue fever is the most widespread distributed vector borne viral disease. It is transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. With the expansion of Aedes albopictus and increasing travel exchange, it is no longer limited to the tropical zone and transmission has been documented in temperate areas. In mainland France, where Aedes albopictus has been present and disseminating since 2004, 2 episodes of autochthonous transmission occurred in 2010 and in 2013. Control measures against dengue and chikungunya, which shares the same vector, are implemented every year since 2006, in the areas where the vector is present. They aim at preventing or limiting local transmission of these diseases. They are based on epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control measures. The diagnosis of dengue, and chikungunya should be considered in case of suggestive symptoms in patients returning from an area of virus circulation. It should also be considered for patients living or having stayed in areas of mainland France where Aedes albopictus is present, during its activity period from May 1 to November 30. The prevention and control system, including vector control measures and the notification of cases to the local health authority should be known, as the risk of autochthonous transmission increases every year. PMID:25080833

  4. Video game experience and its influence on visual attention parameters: an investigation using the framework of the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA).

    PubMed

    Schubert, Torsten; Finke, Kathrin; Redel, Petra; Kluckow, Steffen; Müller, Hermann; Strobach, Tilo

    2015-05-01

    Experts with video game experience, in contrast to non-experienced persons, are superior in multiple domains of visual attention. However, it is an open question which basic aspects of attention underlie this superiority. We approached this question using the framework of Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) with tools that allowed us to assess various parameters that are related to different visual attention aspects (e.g., perception threshold, processing speed, visual short-term memory storage capacity, top-down control, spatial distribution of attention) and that are measurable on the same experimental basis. In Experiment 1, we found advantages of video game experts in perception threshold and visual processing speed; the latter being restricted to the lower positions of the used computer display. The observed advantages were not significantly moderated by general person-related characteristics such as personality traits, sensation seeking, intelligence, social anxiety, or health status. Experiment 2 tested a potential causal link between the expert advantages and video game practice with an intervention protocol. It found no effects of action video gaming on perception threshold, visual short-term memory storage capacity, iconic memory storage, top-down control, and spatial distribution of attention after 15 days of training. However, observations of a selected improvement of processing speed at the lower positions of the computer screen after video game training and of retest effects are suggestive for limited possibilities to improve basic aspects of visual attention (TVA) with practice. PMID:25834984

  5. Apprenticeship in France: Between Tradition and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Zarca, Georgie

    1996-01-01

    A study was made of the state of apprenticeship in France, using data gathered through telephone interviews with apprentices. Of a targeted group of 6,000 young apprentices, 70% participated in the survey. The study found that, until recently, apprenticeships had generally been used in France to train students in manual trades. During the past 10…

  6. Structure of the cytochrome b6f complex: new prosthetic groups, Q-space, and the 'hors d'oeuvres hypothesis' for assembly of the complex.

    PubMed

    Cramer, William A; Yan, Jiusheng; Zhang, Huamin; Kurisu, Genji; Smith, Janet L

    2005-01-01

    3-A crystal structures of the cytochrome b6f complex have provided a structural framework for the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The structures of the 220,000 molecular weight dimeric cytochrome b6f complex from the thermophilic cyanobacterium, Mastigocladis laminosus (Kurisu et al. 2003, Science 302: 1009-1014), and the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Stroebel et al. 2003, Nature 426: 413-418), are very similar. The latter is the first structure of a integral membrane photosynthetic electron transport complex from a eukaryotic source. The M. laminosus and C. reinhardtii structures have provided structural information and experimental insights to the properties and functions of three native and novel prosthetic groups, a chlorophyll a, a beta-carotene, and a unique heme x, one copy of which is found in each monomer of the cytochrome b6f complex, but not the cytochrome bc1 complex from the mitochondrial respiratory chain of animals and yeast. Several functional insights have emerged from the structures including the function of the dimer; the properties of heme x; the function of the inter-monomer quinone-exchange cavity; a quinone diffusion pathway through relatively narrow crevices or portals; a modified reaction scheme for n-side quinone redox reactions; a necessarily novel mechanism for quenching of the bound chlorophyll triplet state; a possible role for the bound chlorophyll a in activation of the LHC kinase; and a structural and assembly role for the four small PetG, L, M, and N subunits. An 'hors d'oeuvres hypothesis' for assembly of the complex is proposed for the small 'hydrophobic stick' or 'picket fence' polypeptides at the periphery of the complex, based on the cis-positive orientation of the small hydrophobic subunits and the 'toothpick' binding mode of the beta-carotene. PMID:15977064

  7. [The occupational physician in France].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-10-01

    The French Labor law defines the role and its allocation criteria of the occupational physician (OP) the same as in Japan. In France, occupational medicine is one of the medical specialties. The OP resident must follow the 4 years clinical training before certification. After having finished their residency, they are entitled to work for the occupational health service office of a company or company association (in the case of small and medium sized companies). The most important characteristics of the French system is that they cover all workers regardless of company size. The main role of the OP is prevention of work related diseases and accidents. They are not allowed to do clinical services except for emergency cases. Their main activities are health examinations, health education, patrol and advice for better working condition. Formerly, it was rather difficult to attract the medical students for OP resident course because of its prevention oriented characteristics. A growing concern about the importance of health management at the work site, however, has changed the situation. Now, the number of candidates for OP resident course is increasing. Their task has expanded to cover mental health and other life style related diseases. The 2011 modification of law redefines the role of the OP as a director of an occupational health service office who has a total responsibility of multidisciplinary services. The French and Japanese occupational health systems have many of similarities. A comparative study by researchers of UOEH is expected to yield useful information. PMID:24107336

  8. Women's Employment in France: Protection or Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaud, Marcelle; Levy, Martine

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the origin and evolution of special protection laws in France for employed women, describes those measures that still exist, and explains what employers, unions, and the authorities think of them. Discusses pregnancy, family responsibilities, and technological progress. (CT)

  9. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  10. Nuclear Energy - A Fateful Choice for France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Etienne; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In France the public is only moderately interested in technological problems, and so the question of energy choices has not seeped deeply into the political consciousness. The situation could change as the country strengthens its nuclear commitment. (BT)

  11. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ..., 2009, the Commission established a schedule for the conduct of the review (74 FR 66992, December 17... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  12. Crystalline Hors d'Oeuvres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Scott R.

    1996-01-01

    This is a laboratory activity to be used in the high school Materials Science and Technologies (MST) classroom. The objective of the lab is to develop macroscopic models for several types of crystal lattices. The students individually construct a unit cell out of toothpicks and candies and then join the cells with those of the other students. Upon completion, three macroscopic crystal lattices will have been created.

  13. Audit unto others hor ellipsis

    SciTech Connect

    Maday, J.H. Jr.

    1992-05-01

    My first encounter with a quality assurance auditor is reminiscent of an old Dodge commercial. You remember The old sheriff, masked in mirrored sunglasses, paunch hanging over his gun belt, prophesying, You're in a heap o' trouble boy '' Well, my auditor could have been kin to the sheriff; they had the same posture, attitude, and mirrored sunglasses. Plus, my auditor wore a black leather vest and sported a Buffalo Bill'' goatee. While certainly memorable, both gentlemen were far from pleasant. I'm fairly certain that the compliance auditor of old deserved this perceived association with his law enforcement counterpart. Both believed in enforcing the letter of the law, or their interpretations of it. Neither seemed capable of exercising interpretive powers, but instead relied on winning through intimidation, possibly with an eye toward claiming some version of a monthly Quota Award. Is the auditor of today any better perceived Because this first encounter of the worst kind'' made a lasting impression on me, I have dedicated considerable time and effort trying to avoid being perceived as another sheriff when I conduct audits. In my auditing career, I am determined to capitalize on each opportunity to turn negative situations, as experienced by the auditee, into meaningful opportunities for improved performance. I want to treat the auditee the way I want to be treated when I am being audited. (author)

  14. Advanced MCT technologies in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefanis, Gérard; Tribolet, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the very recent developments of the HgCdTe infrared detector technology developed by CEA-LETI and industrialized by Sofradir in France. Today Sofradir uses in production for more than 15years a very mature, reproducible, well mastered and fully understood, planar n on p ion implanted technology. This process that allows very high yields to be achieved in all infrared bands from SWIR to LWIR uses the very conventional approach of LPE growth of MCT on lattice-matched CdZnTe substrates. Progress in this field is continuous from 20years and has recently leaded to the fabrication of high performance VLWIR FPA (320x256 with cut off wavelengths as high as 20μm). Moreover, thanks to the design of the epitaxial structure and to the substrate removal step MCT FPAs present the unique features to have very high quantum efficiency (above 70%) from the cut off wavelength down to the UV. This effect, which opens new application fields, was recently demonstrated in SWIR 320x256 FPAs with cut off wavelength of 2.5μm. Very high quality FPAs (1280x1024) with pitches as small as 15μm have already been demonstrated last year using the MBE growth of MWIR MCT epilayers on 4 inches germanium substrates, n on p ion implanted photodiodes and the hot welding indium bump hybridization technique. At the same time, with the MBE growth, bicolor and dual band FPAs which uses more complex multi hetero-junctions architectures (both 4 layers npn and 'pseudo planar' structures and extrinsically doped MCT layers) were fabricated with formats of 320x256 and pitches as small as 25μm. A very new area of development concerns avalanche photodiodes (APD) made with MCT. This semiconductor presents a unique feature among all the over semiconductors. Extremely high avalanche gains can be obtained on n on p photodiodes without absolutely any noise excess (F(K)=1): MCT APDs act as perfect amplifiers. These results open new interesting fields of investigation for low

  15. Proposed construction and operation of a Low Level Radioactive Waste Metal Melting Facility affecting TVA Tract No. XWBR-688IE, Watts Bar Reservoir for Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. , Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The Scientific Ecology Group, Incorporated (SEG), a wholly owned subsidiary of Westinghouse Electric Corporation, has proposed to construct and operate a Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Metal Melting Facility (MMF) on TVA Tract No. XWBR-688IE, Parcel 1, Roane County, Tennessee. The MMF would be located on the grounds of SEG's existing facility, on a recently filled area adjacent to SEG's existing process and incinerator buildings. The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to determine the environmental impacts associated with approving, denying, or adopting reasonable alternatives to a request by SEG for TVA's approval of the MMF. This EA will assess these impacts to determine if the proposed development, with identified mitigation, could reasonably proceed without significant adverse effects on the environment, based on the information provided by SEG.

  16. The International Heliophysical Year in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.

    We are preparing in France the anniversary of IGY 50 We are gathering our efforts around few actions 1 We planned to follow the international campaigns with our solar Telescope THEMIS in Tenerife with the spacecrafts SOHO Cluster and the magnetometers of Superdarn A group is already formed with C Hanuise as responsible to understand some physical processes involved in these phenomena by using former data 2 On the initiative of CAWSES SCOSTEP program we plan to rehabilitate our heliograph in Meudon in order to be able to participate to the international network of flare survey The Japonese are leading this program Shibata and Kurokawa 3 We are developping lectures for students in different places in France We planned to work on the development of a DVD and video games in a IHY European context 4 We have also an outreach program which consists of an exhibition This exibition could be duplicated in France and for French speaking countries

  17. Syphilis surveillance in France, 2000-2003.

    PubMed

    Couturier, E; Michel, A; Janier, M; Dupin, N; Semaille, C

    2004-12-01

    This article describes syphilis trends, characteristics of patients from 2000 to 2003 in France and trends of the benzylpenicillin benzathine 2.4 million UI sales from 2001 to 2003. The ongoing surveillance system for syphilis case reporting since 2001 has been set up in volunteer settings, mostly public settings where STI treatment is offered. Clinical case reporting is complemented by sexual behavioural data based on a self-administered questionnaire. From 2000 to 2003, 1089 syphilis cases were reported in France, increasing from 37 cases in 2000 to 428 in 2003. Overall, 96% of syphilis cases were in men with a mean age of 36.5 years and 70% of whom were born in France. The proportion of syphilis cases with HIV co-infection decreased over time from 60% in 2000 to 33% in 2003. The most affected area by the syphilis epidemic is the Ile-de-France region, mainly the city of Paris. The greatest proportion of syphilis cases diagnosed in men who have sex with men (MSM) were in the Ile-de-France region, where they made up 87% of cases, compared with 75% in other regions. Among the patients who completed the self-administered questionnaire on sexual behaviour, 83% reported having casual sex partners in the 3 months prior to their syphilis diagnosis. Trends in the sales of benzylpenicillin benzathine 2.4 million UI in private pharmacies are similar to those observed in the surveillance system, and increased between 2001 and 2003. In conclusion, syphilis transmission is still ongoing in France in 2003 and the role of unprotected oral sex in the transmission of syphilis should be emphasised. PMID:15677855

  18. Career Development and Public Policy in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Jean

    Three conditions characterize employment in France today: (1) high unemployment; (2) the importance of degrees in employment; and (3) significant differences between the sexes. The differences between national government initiatives and regional issues also are of concern. The main strategic issues facing career development focus on reducing…

  19. The Occitan Movement in Southern France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Klaus

    The Occitan movement in Southern France should be studied in the light of a world-wide political reality of our days, the surfacing of ethnic minorities which are beginning to voice cultural and political demands in almost all large industrialized or developing countries. The first step for a minority group to come into existence is almost without…

  20. Progress in industrial holography in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigielski, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Industrial applications of holography in France are briefly reviewed. Particular attention is given to nondestructive testing of helicopter blades at Aerospatiale Central Laboratory, the use of holography at Renault for car-engine vibration study, vibration characterization of turbo-jet engine components at SNECMA, and vibration analysis of plates in an industrial hemodynamic tunnel.

  1. Haemovigilance and transfusion safety in France.

    PubMed

    Rouger, P; Noizat-Pirenne, F; Le Pennec, P Y

    2000-01-01

    The risks associated to red cell and platelet transfusions are essentially bound to the polymorphism of blood group antigens and to transfusion transmitted agents including virus, bacterias.... In France, the haemovigilance system and several investigations allowed to measure these different kinds of risks. We also developed analysis of failures in order to prevent errors and accidents to increase blood safety. PMID:10938971

  2. Murine Typhus, Reunion, France, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Camuset, Guillaume; Socolovschi, Cristina; Moiton, Marie-Pierre; Kuli, Barbara; Foucher, Aurélie; Poubeau, Patrice; Borgherini, Gianandrea; Wartel, Guillaume; Audin, Héla; Raoult, Didier; Filleul, Laurent; Parola, Philippe; Pagès, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Murine typhus case was initially identified in Reunion, France, in 2012 in a tourist. Our investigation confirmed 8 autochthonous cases that occurred during January 2011–January 2013 in Reunion. Murine typhus should be considered in local patients and in travelers returning from Reunion who have fevers of unknown origin. PMID:25625653

  3. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... The Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2009 (74 FR 31762, July 2, 2009) and determined on... publishing the notice in the Federal Register on December 17, 2009 (74 FR 66992). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Sorbitol From France; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  4. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  5. [New conditions for organ donation in France].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Corinne; Maroudy, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The procurement of organs from donors after circulatory death is a reliable technique which gives satisfactory posttransplant results and also represents a potential source of additional organs. In order to meet the growing need for organ donations, the 'anticipated organ donation approach' procedure is currently receiving renewed interest with new conditions for its implementation in France. PMID:27596496

  6. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  7. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  8. Screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in France.

    PubMed

    Thulliez, P

    1992-01-01

    The high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in France led to the establishment of a national screening programme. Preventive measures were progressively introduced, and these became compulsory in 1978 with the result that the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis is now markedly reduced. Further improvements may include more systematic sampling from women before pregnancy, better and adequate health education and centralized notification of both maternal and congenital cases of toxoplasmosis. PMID:1290073

  9. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000–2012) and Tunisia (2011–2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs. PMID:26709514

  10. Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht

    2016-06-01

    Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed. PMID:27261810

  11. A paradox in physics education in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureateThe French baccalaureate (baccalauréat) is the examination students must pass to graduate from high school. undergraduate engineering school. The responses to the survey indicate that many students fall into a kind of mathematical ‘formalism’, which prevents them from understanding the actual physics behind the question. This leads us to believe that we must reconsider the way that physics is taught. An analysis of a physics teaching sequence in French and English undergraduate textbooks confirms the weight given to mathematical formalism in France. When approached from a purely mathematical angle, physics becomes a long and slow process of assimilation of the specific scientific culture that underlies the teaching model used in classes préparatoires, classes that are usually presented as a model of academic excellence. However, this model appears to be less suitable when teaching more ‘ordinary students’, who respond better when taken through a ‘detour’ of the ‘important roots’ of physics. This paper shows that in France historically rooted pedagogical traditions persist, ignoring the latest advances in research on science teaching.

  12. Populations at Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, France

    PubMed Central

    Piarroux, Martine; Piarroux, Renaud; Knapp, Jenny; Bardonnet, Karine; Dumortier, Jérôme; Watelet, Jérôme; Gerard, Alain; Beytout, Jean; Abergel, Armand; Bresson-Hadni, Solange

    2013-01-01

    During 1982–2007, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) was diagnosed in 407 patients in France, a country previously known to register half of all European patients. To better define high-risk groups in France, we conducted a national registry-based study to identify areas where persons were at risk and spatial clusters of cases. We interviewed 180 AE patients about their way of life and compared responses to those of 517 controls. We found that almost all AE patients lived in 22 départements in eastern and central France (relative risk 78.63, 95% CI 52.84–117.02). Classification and regression tree analysis showed that the main risk factor was living in AE-endemic areas. There, most at-risk populations lived in rural settings (odds ratio [OR] 66.67, 95% CI 6.21–464.51 for farmers and OR 6.98, 95% CI 2.88–18.25 for other persons) or gardened in nonrural settings (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.82–10.91). These findings can help sensitization campaigns focus on specific groups. PMID:23647623

  13. France. Country profile. [France's economy adjusts to a declining birth rate].

    PubMed

    Inserra, P

    1984-09-01

    This discussion of France focuses on regions and cities, age distribution, households and families, housing, labor force, consumption, education, and communications. France counted 54,334,871 citizens as of March 4, 1982. There were 250,000 more people than in 1975, yielding a 7-year growth rate of 3.3%. If present trends continue, there will be 56 million French by the end of the 1980s. Since 1975 when the last census was conducted, cities of more than 200,000 lost an average of 5% of their residents. For the 1st time in more than a century, urban areas of 20,000 or more did not gain population but merely held their own. France continues to experience the effects of the large-scale decimation of its male population during the 2 world wars. The World war i loss showed up March 1982 as a relatively smaller 60-74 group. Conversely the population aged 75 and over is growing, both in absolute numbers and as a percent of the population. There were 3.6 million aged 75 and over (6.6% of the population) in 1982 compared with 3 million (5.6%) in 1975. The 19 and under age group declined between 1975-85, from 31% (16.2 million) to 29% (15.6 million). The 20-59 year old group constitutes the largest segment of the population--about double the group aged 19 and under--and its growing. This group was 50% of the population in 1973 and 53% in 1982. The infant mortality rate has declined steadily in France, from 18.2 deaths/1000 births in 1970 to 13.6 in 1975 and 9.5 at present. The total fertility rate has continued to decline: 1.8 children/woman in the 1982 census a rate less than the number needed to replace the present French population. Between 1975-82 households grew 10.4% to a total of 19.6 million. The growth in the number of households is attributed to the increase in divorce and the tendency for French children to leave the parental home at an earlier age. France has nearly 23 million dwelling places. More than half of householders own their own homes. New housing starts

  14. Outlier detection for groundwater data in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valmy, Larissa; de Fouquet, Chantal; Bourgine, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Quality and quantity water in France are increasingly observed since the 70s. Moreover, in 2000, the EU Water Framework Directive established a framework for community action in the water policy field for the protection of inland surface waters (rivers and lakes), transitional waters (estuaries), coastal waters and groundwater. It will ensure that all aquatic ecosystems and, with regard to their water needs, terrestrial ecosystems and wetlands meet 'good status' by 2015. The Directive requires Member States to establish river basin districts and for each of these a river basin management plan. In France, monitoring programs for the water status were implemented in each basin since 2007. The data collected through these programs feed into an information system which contributes to check the compliance of water environmental legislation implementation, assess the status of water guide management actions (programs of measures) and evaluate their effectiveness, and inform the public. Our work consists in study quality and quantity groundwater data for some basins in France. We propose a specific mathematical approach in order to detect outliers and study trends in time series. In statistic, an outlier is an observation that lies outside the overall pattern of a distribution. Usually, the presence of an outlier indicates some sort of problem, thus, it is important to detect it in order to know the cause. In fact, techniques for temporal data analysis have been developed for several decades in parallel with geostatistical methods. However compared to standard statistical methods, geostatistical analysis allows incomplete or irregular time series analysis. Otherwise, tests carried out by the BRGM showed the potential contribution of geostatistical methods for characterization of environmental data time series. Our approach is to exploit this potential through the development of specific algorithms, tests and validation of methods. We will introduce and explain our method

  15. How Gaz de France optimizes LNG regasification

    SciTech Connect

    Colonna, J.L.; Lecomte, B.; Caudron, S.

    1986-05-05

    A regasification optimization program was implemented at Montoir-de-Bretagne in 1984, and rapidly accepted by the operators. It has been an important tool for decision-making in the optimizing operation of this liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage and regasification terminal. The models used are regularly and easily updated on the basis of equipment behavior: aging or fouling. The Montoir-de-Bretagne LNG terminal is in the port area of Nates-Saint Nazaire on the Atlantic coast. It was commissioned in 1982 by Gaz de France. This terminal is used for receiving, storing, and regasifying the Algerian LNG received under a contract between Gaz de France and Sonatrach, as well as the LNG imported by Belgium and temporarily routed through France. It is designed to receive 25,000 to 200,000 cu m LNG carriers and has three 120,000 cm m LNG storage tanks. The daily sendout ranges between 6.7 million cu m and 36 million cu m. Monitor terminal supplies mainly Brittany and the Paris area. Two identifical berths allow the simultaneous reception of two LNG carriers. LNG is carried to the storage tanks in 32-in. lines at a rate of 12,000 cu m/hr. Each storage tank is equipped with three submerged 450 cu m/hr pumps with which the LNG is sent from the tanks to the secondary pumps at 8 bar. The nine high-pressure (HP) secondary pumps, with a capacity of either 450 cu m/hr or 180 cu m/hr, raise the LNG pressure to a level at least equal to pipeline pressure prior to revaporization.

  16. Chapter 40: history of neurology in France.

    PubMed

    Clarac, François; Boller, François

    2010-01-01

    The history of neurology in France is characterized by the very high degree of centralization in that country where "everything seems to happen in Paris," and yet the considerable degree of autonomous diversity in the evolution of some other medical schools such as Montpellier and Strasbourg. It could be argued that France saw the birth of clinical neurology as a separate discipline since Jean Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière Hospital obtained a chair of diseases of the nervous system in 1892, a first in the history of the academic world. The chapter shows, however, that the work of Charcot was preceded by a long evolution in medical thinking, which culminated with the introduction of experimental medicine developed by Claude Bernard and François Magendie, and by the study of aphasia by Paul Broca and its localization of language in a specific area of the brain. Many of the great neurologists of France like Duchenne de Boulogne, Gilles de la Tourette, Joseph Babinski and Pierre Marie gravitated around Charcot while others like Charles-Edward Brown-Sequard and Jules Dejerine developed their talents independently. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital further illustrates this independence. It also shows the relation between neurology and psychiatry with Henri Ey, Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker, who collaborated with Henri Laborit in the clinical development of chlorpromazine. Sainte Anne also saw the birth of modern neuropsychology with Henry Hécaen. Jean Talairach and his group developed human stereotaxic neurosurgery and a 3-dimensional brain atlas that is used around the world. The chapter also mentions institutions (the CNRS and INSERM) that have contributed to developments partially independently from medical schools. It concludes with a presentation of schools located outside of Paris that have played a significant role in the development of neurology. Six of the most important ones are described: Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Strasbourg, Lyon, and

  17. Autochthonous case of dengue in France, October 2013.

    PubMed

    Marchand, E; Prat, C; Jeannin, C; Lafont, E; Bergmann, T; Flusin, O; Rizzi, J; Roux, N; Busso, V; Deniau, J; Noel, H; Vaillant, V; Leparc-Goffart, I; Six, C; Paty, M C

    2013-01-01

    In October 2013, autochthonous dengue fever was diagnosed in a laboratory technician in Bouches-du-Rhone, southern France, a department colonised by Aedes albopictus since 2010. After ruling out occupational contamination, we identified the likely chain of local vector-borne transmission from which the autochthonous case arose. Though limited, this second occurrence of autochthonous dengue transmission in France highlights that efforts should be continued to rapidly detect dengue virus introduction and prevent its further dissemination in France. PMID:24342514

  18. Frances E. Jensen's The Teenage Brain.

    PubMed

    Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictable and sometimes incomprehensible moods and behaviors of a teenager can be a head-scratching mystery-especially to parents. Hormones, boredom, social media, peer pressure, and drugs and alcohol are just a few of the factors to consider. Frances E. Jensen, M.D., professor and chair of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and the mother of two sons who are now in their twenties (along with Washington Post health and science reporter and Pulitzer Prize winner Amy Ellis Nutt) look at the emerging science of the adolescent brain and provide advice based on Jensen's own research and experience as a single mother. PMID:27408670

  19. France: Thrust and parry over nuclear risks

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1997-01-31

    Claims about the health risks posed by nuclear-power installations are always controversial, but nowhere more so than in France, where some 75% of the nation`s electricity is generated from nuclear energy. So, it was no surprise that publication of a study by two French epidemiologists earlier this month claiming to show a link between cases of childhood leukemia and the nuclear-waste reprocessing plant at La Hague on the Normandy coast sparked fireworks in the French press. Several French epidemiologists sharply criticized the study`s methodology and conclusions. Their attacks have now drawn an unusual response from the British Medical Journal (BMJ), in which the paper appeared.

  20. Medication sales and syndromic surveillance, France.

    PubMed

    Vergu, Elisabeta; Grais, Rebecca F; Sarter, Hélène; Fagot, Jean-Paul; Lambert, Bruno; Valleron, Alain-Jaques; Flahault, Antoine

    2006-03-01

    Although syndromic surveillance systems using nonclinical data have been implemented in the United States, the approach has yet to be tested in France. We present the results of the first model based on drug sales that detects the onset of influenza season and forecasts its trend. Using weekly lagged sales of a selected set of medications, we forecast influenzalike illness (ILI) incidence at the national and regional level for 3 epidemic seasons (2000-01, 2001-02, and 2002-03) and validate the model with real-time updating on the fourth (2003-04). For national forecasts 1-3 weeks ahead, the correlation between observed ILI incidence and forecast was 0.85-0.96, an improvement over the current surveillance method in France. Our findings indicate that drug sales are a useful additional tool to syndromic surveillance, a complementary and independent source of information, and a potential improvement for early warning systems for both epidemic and pandemic planning. PMID:16704778

  1. [Territorial and social healthcare inequalities in France].

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Geographic analyses of health-related issues have a long tradition in France, and have often consisted of observational studies conducted by practitioners themselves. Such geographic approaches were gradually abandoned during the 20th century as the pace of clinical progress increased. The few healthcare studies conducted by geographers have had little impact among the medical community. However, our studies show that geographic inequalities in health still persist. During the last 10 years or so, the social and economic crisis has dangerously accentuated health inequalities at every level In France, where equality is supposed to be the watchword of the entire healthcare system, this situation is particularly regrettable. Access to care decreases with distance from medical services. With the increasing urban and suburban concentration of the population, public healthcare policy must focus on finding solutions for people living in remote areas or too poor to access medical care. Geographic analyses of healthcare organization can help to make medical care available for all, especially those who need it most. PMID:23550454

  2. TVA's dosimetry technician training program

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.G.; Faust, V.L.; Cornelius, T.W.; Regan, J.M.; Farrell, W.E. )

    1984-04-01

    In 1984, the Tennessee Valley Authority decentralized its personnel TLD program and established TLD processing facilities at each of its nuclear plant sites. This article describes the training program that was developed to aid in staffing dosimetry technician positions at each of the plants. The scope of the dosimetry technician's duties include TLD processing, operation of a computerized records system, whole-body counting system operation, and respirator mask fit-testing. The training program includes thirteen weeks of classroom and laboratory training plus a 15-month apprenticeship at a nuclear plant. Retraining and requalification are performed on an annual basis.

  3. Dutch/Flemish in the North of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryckeboer, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Dutch in the Northern France, specifically the historical retreat of Dutch from Pas-de-Calais, historical evolution of the language situation in the Department du Nord, reactions to official language policy and language loss, characteristics of Flemish in France, alienation from other Dutch dialects by communicative isolation, linguistic…

  4. France: The Move toward Distance Education in the University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    France is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leading force in Europe. A highly literate and well-educated society, France's education statistics for 2003 show 12.1 million French children in primary and secondary education and 2.2 million students in tertiary education. The concept of education as a market commodity--long since…

  5. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  6. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  7. International Reports on Literacy Research: France and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This is a compilation of two separate reports on international literacy research from France and Argentina. In the reports from France, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow detailed three research projects that included the following: (1) A description of adult literacy skills; (2) An investigation of how study-abroad students were integrated…

  8. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  9. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  10. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  11. The Definition of Vocational Diplomas in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobus, Martine; Verdier, Eric

    1997-01-01

    In both France and Germany, the government, employers' organizations, and unions all participate in defining vocational diplomas based on a national framework of procedures of elaborating and standardizing titles. Important differences between the diploma definition processes in France and Germany may be identified. In Germany, the issue is…

  12. Social Representation of Gifted Children: A Preliminary Study in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavani, Jean Louis; Zenasni, Franck; Pereira-Fradin, Maria

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of giftedness in France and the need for identification. Social Representations (SR) of gifted children have never been examined in France with an appropriate methodology, yet it is important to do so as the information obtained may help ensure the insertion and inclusion of these children in school and society. The…

  13. 78 FR 38821 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... reference at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of...-071-AD; Amendment 39-17482; AD 2013-12-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model EC 155B, EC155B1, SA-366G1, SA-365N,...

  14. 78 FR 76984 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... is incorporated by reference at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For...-084-AD; Amendment 39-17696; AD 2013-24-19] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS332C, AS332L,...

  15. 78 FR 25367 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... information that is incorporated by reference at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For...-021-AD; Amendment 39-17282; AD 2012-25-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model AS350B, AS350BA, AS350B1,...

  16. 78 FR 16200 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Eurocopter France...

  17. 78 FR 23686 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Eurocopter France...

  18. 77 FR 36216 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model...

  19. 78 FR 63429 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model AS332C,...

  20. 77 FR 58973 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the Eurocopter France...

  1. 77 FR 20319 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Eurocopter France (EC) Model...

  2. 77 FR 36220 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Eurocopter France...

  3. A Primer for Accompanying Secondary Student Groups to France. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Jim

    Many of the factors that can help ensure a successful and positive learning experience for teachers, leaders, chaperons, and students who travel and/or study in France are addressed in this publication. Although it is geared toward France, many of the ideas, especially the section on pre-departure orientation, can be applied to any travel group.…

  4. Teachers' Organizations and Educational Policy: The Case of France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanner, Raymond E.

    1978-01-01

    Characterizes membership and policy-making role of the largest teachers' organization in France, the Federation de l'Education Nationale. It represents 44 specialized educational unions. It supports the socialist party but has identified itself with the traditional way of administering education in France. (Author/AV)

  5. Estimation of sulphite in food in France.

    PubMed

    Mareschi, J P; François-Collange, M; Suschetet, M

    1992-01-01

    Estimates have been made of the consumption levels of sulphites in foods in France using two methods, a global and a segmented protocol. The global method gave an estimated average intake of 20 mg SO2/day/capita; the segmented method gave estimates of 1.96 mg/day/capita for non-consumers of alcoholic beverages and 31.5 mg/day/capita for average consumers of cider, beer and wine. The risk of exceeding the Acceptable Daily Intake concerns only regular consumers (40-75 years old) of alcoholic beverages, particularly wine, the main vector. The global approach appears to be a simple and useful method for estimating intakes. PMID:1298660

  6. The death of Henry II of France.

    PubMed

    Faria, M A

    1992-12-01

    On June 30, 1559, King Henry II of France (1519-1559), against the advice of his court ministers, participated in a fateful joust. The wooden lance of his younger opponent pierced the King's headgear, shattered into fragments, and penetrated his right orbit and temple. The King survived for 11 days following the mortal wound and was treated by two of the most distinguished physicians of the Renaissance: Ambroise Paré (1510-1590), the master surgeon, and Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), the great anatomist. The unfortunate event, the nature of the injury, and the medical consultation between these eminent physicians should all be of interest to neurosurgeons. The historical consequences of this event are briefly reviewed. PMID:1432144

  7. [Epidemiology of autochthonous leishmaniases in France].

    PubMed

    Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Carme, Bernard; Desbois, Nicole; Bourdoiseau, Gilles; Lachaud, Laurence; Pratlong, Francine

    2013-11-01

    Leishmania infantum is the only species occurring in metropolitan France; located in the Mediterranean part of the country, it is responsible for a highly enzootic canine disease, while the human endemicity is low, with about 23 cases yearly reported to the National Reference Centre of Leishmaniases, mainly visceral forms. In French Guyana, five Leishmania species occur in the Amazonian forest, of which L. guyanensis is the predominant species, and L. braziliensis is responsible for the most critical forms. The most frequent clinical feature is cutaneous leishmaniasis, with a mean annual incidence reaching 2 p. 1000, with some inter-annual fluctuations. In Martinique Island, recent studies have confirmed the presence of an ancestral Leishmania species, responsible for small cutaneous lesions, of mild evolution; the life cycle of this species remains unknown. In Guadeloupe Island, a few autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis cases have been reported, needing a prospective study. PMID:23886932

  8. The LUNEX5 project in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couprie, M. E.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Betinelli, P.; Bouvet, F.; Buteau, A.; Cassinari, L.; Daillant, J.; Denard, J. C.; Eymard, P.; Gagey, B.; Herbeaux, C.; Labat, M.; Lagarde, B.; Lestrade, A.; Loulergue, A.; Marchand, P.; Marlats, J. L.; Miron, C.; Morin, P.; Nadji, A.; Polack, F.; Pruvost, J. B.; Ribeiro, F.; Ricaud, J. P.; Roy, P.; Tanikawa, T.; Roux, R.; Bielawski, S.; Evain, C.; Szwaj, C.; Lambert, G.; Lifschitz, A.; Malka, V.; Lehe, R.; Rousse, A.; Phuoc, K. Ta; Thaury, C.; Devanz, G.; Luong, M.; Carré, B.; LeBec, G.; Farvacque, L.; Dubois, A.; Lüning, J.

    2013-03-01

    The LUNEX5 (free electron Laser Using a New accelerator for the Exploitation of X-ray radiation of 5th generation) in France aims at investigating the generation of short, intense, and coherent pulses in the soft x-ray region (with two particular targeted wavelengths of 20 and 13 nm). It consists in a single Free Electron Laser (FEL) line with cryo-ready in-vacuum undulators using a Conventional Linear Accelerator (CLA) using the superconducting technology of 400 MeV or a Laser Wake Field Accelerator (LWFA) ranging from 0.4 to 1 GeV with multi-TW or PW lasers. The FEL line can be operated in the seeded (High order Harmonic in Gas seeding) and Echo Enable Harmonic Generation configurations, which performances will be compared. Two pilot user experiments for time-resolved studies of isolated species and magnetization dynamics will take benefit of LUNEX5 FEL radiation.

  9. Comparative description of tornadoes in France and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessens, Jean; Snow, John T.

    In comparison with the Great Plains of the United States, severe tornadoes are rare in France. Statistics based on significant (strong (F-2 and F-3) and violent (F-4 and F-5) [see Hales, 1988]) tornadoes that have occurred in France in the past three decades, however, show that this country averages two such tornadoes a year. By combining these observations with information from the scientific literature about events that occurred before the modern period, it has been possible to establish a tornado climatology for France based on 107 significant tornadoes. The main data of this climatology, recently published by Dessens and Snow [1989], are summarized here and compared with American tornadoes.

  10. Pronatalist policies in Eastern Europe and France.

    PubMed

    Girard, A

    1983-08-01

    Western European fertility rates dropped markedly during the 1930s, and several governments established pronatalist policies. The policies were shortlived as fertility began to rise again after World War 2 and government intervention no longer appeared warranted. In contrast the countries of Eastern Europe retained their relatively high birthrates until measures in the 1950s gave individuals, especially women, greater freedom of choice in childbearing. Divorce laws were liberalized following World War 2, and women's participation in the labor force became widespread. Most European governments, following the example of the Soviet Union, liberalized abortion laws as well, making safe, medical abortion available for social, economic, and medical reasons. Whether or not as a direct result of this legislation, the Eastern European nations experienced such a rapid decline in birthrates that governments, fearing further ramifications, decided to intervene. In 1966, for example, Romania decreed abortion to be illegal except for medical reasons or in the case of rape. Eastern European governments justified their actions by emphasizing their concern about longterm effects. They wanted to avoid the "aging" of their population and the risk of future decrease in total population size. The abortion restrictions were accompanied by widespread efforts to encourage contraception through education, information programs, and postnatal consultations. Incentives were also adopted, and there were adjustments in working conditions for women including longer maternity leave and the opportunity for young mothers to have extended leave. The government's goal is to encourage 2 child families with enough 3 or 4 child families to compensate for 1 child or childless households. Eastern Europe is not alone in its pronatalist policy. France has set similar policies into motion. If this is exceptional among Western countries, it is because French fertility declined about a century before other

  11. A κ Model for Mainland France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, John; Gehl, Pierre; Bonilla, Luis Fabian; Gélis, Céline

    2010-11-01

    An important parameter for the characterization of strong ground motion at high-frequencies (>1 Hz) is kappa, κ, which models a linear decay of the acceleration spectrum, a( f), in log-linear space (i.e. a( f) = A 0 exp(- π κ f) for f > f E where f is frequency, f E is a low frequency limit and A 0 controls the amplitude of the spectrum). κ is a key input parameter in the stochastic method for the simulation of strong ground motion, which is particularly useful for areas with insufficient strong-motion data to enable the derivation of robust empirical ground motion prediction equations, such as mainland France. Numerous studies using strong-motion data from western North America (WNA) (an active tectonic region where surface rock is predominantly soft) and eastern North America (ENA) (a stable continental region where surface rock is predominantly very hard) have demonstrated that κ varies with region and surface geology, with WNA rock sites having a κ of about 0.04 s and ENA rock sites having a κ of about 0.006 s. Lower κs are one reason why high-frequency strong ground motions in stable regions are generally higher than in active regions for the same magnitude and distance. Few, if any, estimates of κs for French sites have been published. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to estimate κ using data recorded by the French national strong-motion network (RAP) for various sites in different regions of mainland France. For each record, a value of κ is estimated by following the procedure developed by Anderson and Hough (Bull Seismol Soc Am 74:1969-1993, 1984): this method is based on the analysis of the S-wave spectrum, which has to be performed manually, thus leading to some uncertainties. For the three French regions where most records are available (the Pyrenees, the Alps and the Côtes-d’Azur), a regional κ model is developed using weighted regression on the local geology (soil or rock) and source-to-site distance. It is found that the studied

  12. [Difficulties with conducting clinical trials in France].

    PubMed

    Zannad, F; Plétan, Y

    2001-01-01

    France ranks third among European countries as regards the level of investment in clinical R&D and, overall, accounts for a contributive effort proportional to the size of its population and pharmaceutical market respectively. However, there is a trend for phase II and III studies to become proportionally fewer than in the past, while the number of phase IV studies is increasing. In a growing proportion of the mega-trials, which are instrumental for establishing evidence-based practice, French experts, investigators and, even more seriously, French patients, are insufficiently represented. Though studies in France are initiated relatively fast due to a clear regulatory framework and perform equally well as far as quantitative and qualitative factors are concerned, compared with most European countries involved in clinical research the costs incurred per completed patient are higher than those recorded in the other countries. Academic research shares most of these constraints and suffers from a lack of financial and human resources, while it faces additional delays in implementing studies because of longer administrative processes. Given the stakes in play, specific solutions should be implemented to maintain and further develop French competitiveness in clinical R&D. At the patient level, positive perception and awareness of the usefulness and safety of participating in clinical trials need to be emphasized. Education at the school level and using the lay media should be developed. Intervention of institutional and government officials is much needed. Direct patient recruitment should be developed through advertisement and the Internet, as well as within doctors' offices and through collaboration with patients' organizations. Patient information and consent forms should be made much simpler than those imposed within the framework of global studies because of FDA requirements. The French health system discourages the recruitment of patients by investigators who are

  13. Chemical composition of rainwater in Eastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanusi, Astrid; Wortham, Henri; Millet, Maurice; Mirabel, Philippe

    Rainwater sampled weekly at nine sites in eastern France from October 1991 to March 1992 has been analysed for major ions (Cl -, NO 3-, SO s2-, NH 4+, Na +, K +, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+), pH and conductivity. The major elements are SO 42- and Cl - for the anions and NH 4+ and Ca 2+ for the cations. The major ion concentrations are higher in urban areas, especially at Colmar (no.2), where rainfall amounts are low. Surprisingly, the acidity is higher at the sites in rural areas [i.e. mean pH of 4.4 for Ban sur Meurthe (no. 7)] and lower in the urban areas [mean pH of 5.0 for Strasbourg (no. 1) and pH of 5.7 for Colmar (no. 2)]. This is probably due to the presence of CaCO 3 in the "loess", which is the major constituent of soils in the upper Rhine valley. The relationship between the chemical composition of rain andair-mass trajectories for four humid weeks which presented only one rain event are also examined.

  14. Identifying barriers to Muslim integration in France

    PubMed Central

    Adida, Claire L.; Laitin, David D.; Valfort, Marie-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Is there a Muslim disadvantage in economic integration for second-generation immigrants to Europe? Previous research has failed to isolate the effect that religion may have on an immigrant family's labor market opportunities because other factors, such as country of origin or race, confound the result. This paper uses a correspondence test in the French labor market to identify and measure this religious effect. The results confirm that in the French labor market, anti-Muslim discrimination exists: a Muslim candidate is 2.5 times less likely to receive a job interview callback than is his or her Christian counterpart. A high-n survey reveals, consistent with expectations from the correspondence test, that second-generation Muslim households in France have lower income compared with matched Christian households. The paper thereby contributes to both substantive debates on the Muslim experience in Europe and methodological debates on how to measure discrimination. Following the National Academy of Sciences’ 2001 recommendations on combining a variety of methodologies and applying them to real-world situations, this research identifies, measures, and infers consequences of discrimination based on religious affiliation, controlling for potentially confounding factors, such as race and country of origin. PMID:21098283

  15. The Quaternary coversands of southwest France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitzia, Luca; Bertran, Pascal; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Bateman, Mark D.; Hernandez, Marion; Garon, Henri; de Lafontaine, Guillaume; Mercier, Norbert; Leroyer, Chantal; Queffelec, Alain; Voinchet, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Detailed stratigraphic analysis and numerical dating (OSL, IRSL, ESR, 14C) of Pleistocene coversands in southwest France enable the construction of a renewed chronostratigraphic framework for sand deposition. The chronological data obtained from sandsheet units testify to the development of transgressive dunefields since at least the Middle Pleistocene (MIS 10). Three main phases of accumulation occurred during the Last Glacial. The oldest one (64-42 ka) is associated with wet sandsheet facies, histic horizons and zibar-type dune fields, which reflect deposition in a context strongly influenced by the groundwater table. The Late Pleniglacial (24-14 ka) corresponds to the main phase of coversand extension in a drier context. Silty gley horizons suggest, however, local interruptions of sand drifting during GS 2.1. Lateglacial stabilization of the coversands may not have occurred before GI-1c (Allerød), which was typified by the development of cumulic arenosols. These were covered by parabolic dunes during the Younger Dryas. The variations in extent of the emerged continental shelf during the glacial-interglacial cycles may explain the uneven geographical distribution of sand deposition through time. Because of coastline retreat up to 100 km north of 45°N during the LGM lowstand, the coversands were unable to reach the northern part of the basin. Comparison with other European regions highlights stronger affinities of the French record with Portugal than with the Netherlands and Great Britain, probably because of reduced influence of permafrost.

  16. Laboratory medicine in France. A jeopardized situation.

    PubMed

    Valdiguié, P M; de Graeve, J S; Guerre, J P

    1997-11-01

    The expenses for health care in France have risen considerably during the present decade, ranking third after USA and Canada in the Western world. In spite of the very low cost of laboratory medicine (2.4% of the total expenditure in 1995), clinical laboratories have undergone a severe squeeze, due to two limiting factors; a decrease in the ordering of laboratory tests from private physicians and a reduction in the total expenses for laboratory services from the Social Security. Consequently, there has been unemployment of technical and secretarial staff and severe restriction in investment for buying new equipment. However, hospital laboratories will manage to assume their challenge in developing robotics, automation, molecular pathology techniques and expert systems. Private laboratories, in spite of their efforts to follow the technological advances in automation, will survive thanks to consolidation of regional networks that operate in a cooperative rather than competitive mode. Therefore, the challenge will be not in the adaptation of clinical laboratories, but in the limitation of overspending at the national level and in modification of the behaviour of irresponsible citizens accustomed to spending freely on health care services. PMID:9469244

  17. Charles Thibault and assisted reproduction in France.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Charles Thibault was liked by French gynaecologists. There was not a year that Charles Thibault did not attend clinician gynaecology conferences. He made great strides in research on in vitro fertilisation, being the first to perform in vitro fertilised (IVF) oocyte transfers in rabbits. Later, in 1978 the first human pregnancy following IVF was achieved in the UK when Louise Brown was born. In 1980, two French teams,one at the Sèvres hospital and the other at the Clamart University Teaching Hospital, carried out egg retrievals in patients with natural cycles, after determination of the urinary LH peak, under general anaesthesia and by laparoscopy. The Clamart team developed LH SIR, which enabled a more accurate determination of the ideal time for egg collection. In 1983, the same team reported the first ambulatory oocyte retrievals by ultrasound, under local anaesthesia. This new technique did not require general anaesthesia. Finally, in 1983, the rate of births, per transfer, for the Sèvres team rose to 5.31%. 1984 showed considerable improvement: 13.83%. The first step in establishing IVF in France was completed with the Carghese symposium, in September 1984, where Charles Thibault pleaded for animal experimentation before human clinical trials. It was only later that ART developed significantly, necessitating a legislative framework and organisations such as GEFF and FIVNAT. PMID:15982455

  18. Revisiting the Rochechouart impact structure, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapers, Haley M.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Banerjee, Neil R.; FerrièRe, Ludovic; Lambert, Philippe; Izawa, Matthew R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Rochechouart impact structure, south-central France (45o50'N, 0o46'E), is a partly eroded, approximately 200 Myr, complex impact structure. The impactite suite at Rochechouart provides an excellent example of gradational boundaries and transitional lithologies that have been historically difficult to classify with standard impactite nomenclature. Here, we present the first detailed scanning electron microscopy-based description of the Rochechouart impactites integrated with hand-sample and petrographic observations with the goal of understanding the clast-matrix relationships of transitional lithologies. Three main impact-generated hydrothermal alteration assemblages are also recognized: (1) argillic-like, (2) carbonate, and (3) oxide. Our results support the existence of a continuum between clast-rich impact melt rocks and glass-rich clastic breccias (suevites) that must be represented in universal classification schemes. This suite of impactites from the Rochechouart impact structure is used as a test case for a recently published classification scheme based on the nature of the groundmass setting a precedent for classification of impactites with limited to no geological context such as deeply eroded terrestrial impact structures and future sample return missions. The re-evaluation of the melt-bearing Rochechouart impactites questions the currently accepted size of the crater, suggesting a much larger original crater diameter.

  19. Briquet and Briquet's syndrome viewed from France.

    PubMed

    Dongier, M

    1983-10-01

    Briquet's contributions to the description of hysteria have been almost completely forgotten in France. One may wonder how he, as well as contemporary French psychiatrists, would react to the approach to hysteria introduced and officialized by DSM III. In particular, its fragmentation into syndromes without apparent link to each other (psychogenic amnesia, conversion disorders, histrionic personality disorder, etc.) and its psychological causation, unbalanced by the consideration of organic factors in etiology, may raise questions. The correlation of conversion disorders with hysterical personality remains a feature of the WHO classification (ICD 9), as well as a feature of French contemporary texts, although it is no longer viewed as a regular association by American psychiatry. It may be that cultural factors lead, as suggested by Brisset, to a repression of conversion phenomena and of hyperexpressivity of affects replaced by more psychosomatic disorders in many contemporary societies. Finally, one may question whether the choice of the term "Briquet Syndrome" is appropriate, as many of the patients described by him did not have the chronic and malignant course described by Guze: It tends to limit hysteria to one end (the most severe one) of a spectrum of disorders. PMID:6357422

  20. The impact of international recruitment on healthcare delivery in France.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Ioana; Planck, Ashlee

    2010-01-01

    Mobility of Health Professionals (MoHProf), the European Commission-sponsored collaborative project, examines current trends in the mobility of health professionals to, from and within the European Union (EU). The French national level project studies the relevance of international recruitment in France by studying migratory flows and the "pull" and "preventive" factors influencing immigration of foreign health professionals to France. Using the results of the study, in this article, firstly, we quantify the phenomenon of health professional immigration and secondly, we discuss the 'pull' and 'preventive' factors. We argue that diploma and professional recognition is a variable that acts both as a 'pull' and 'preventive' factor at once and has one of the most significant impacts on international recruitment in France. We, therefore, analyze its impact on the recruitment of health professionals having obtained their diploma and qualifications abroad and the possible consequences on healthcare delivery in France. PMID:21155427

  1. Autonomy and Mismanagement of Institutions of Higher Education in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Serge

    1982-01-01

    The report of an OECD IMHE Programme working group on institutional management in France is presented, focusing on four main themes: staff, diplomas and degrees, institutional administration, and relations with the central government. (Author/MSE)

  2. Chirac of France: A new leader of the west?

    SciTech Connect

    Moiesi, D.

    1995-11-01

    In foreign and security policy the issues for France are contradictory nature of Chirac`s goals or in the incompatibility of the means to those ends. Chirac`s modernized Gaullist formula for independent French action to meet the exigencies of the post-Cold War world may be irreconcilable with the constraints and demands of the European unification process. The goal of independence may not mesh with the retention of influence. An immediate, concrete example is the apparent contradiction between France`s European and world ambitions and its resumption of nuclear testing. Four foreign policy themes have dominated the initial months of Chirac`s presidency: the war in Bosnia, nuclear testing, European relations, and the conflict in Algeria and its repercussions in France. These themes are examined in more detail.

  3. A short account of forensic dentistry in France.

    PubMed

    Riaud, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The earliest records and more recent cases where forensic dentistry has been used to identify bodies in France are described. The establishment of the French Society of Forensic Odontology is detailed. PMID:26930882

  4. History of infrared optronics in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouilloy, J. P.; Siriex, Michel B.

    1995-09-01

    In France, the real start of work on the applications of infrared radiations occurred around 1947 - 1948. During many years, technological research was performed in the field of detectors, optical material, modulation techniques, and a lot of measurements were made in order to acquire a better knowledge of the propagation medium and radiation of IR sources, namely those of jet engines. The birth of industrial infrared activities in France started with the Franco-German missile guidance programs: Milan, HOT, Roland and the French air to air missile seeker programs: R530, MAGIC. At these early stages of IR technologies development, it was a great technical adventure for both the governmental agencies and industry to develop: detector technology with PbS and InSb, detector cooling for 3 - 5 micrometer wavelength range, optical material transparent in the infrared, opto mechanical design, signal processing and related electronic technologies. Etablissement Jean Turck and SAT were the pioneers associated with Aerospatiale, Matra and under contracts from the French Ministry of Defence (DGA). In the 60s, the need arose to enhance night vision capability of equipment in service with the French Army. TRT was chosen by DGA to develop the first thermal imagers: LUTHER 1, 2, and 3 with an increasing number of detectors and image frequency rate. This period was also the era in which the SAT detector made rapid advance. After basic work done in the CNRS and with the support of DGA, SAT became the world leader of MCT photovoltaic detector working in the 8 to 12 micron waveband. From 1979, TRT and SAT were given the responsibility for the joint development and production of the first generation French thermal imaging modular system so-called SMT. Now, THOMSON TTD Optronique takes over the opto-electronics activities of TRT. Laser based systems were also studied for military application using YAG type laser and CO2 laser: Laboratoire de Marcousis, CILAS, THOMSON CSF and SAT have

  5. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.

    The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.

    To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to

  6. The spatial distribution of Mustelidae in France.

    PubMed

    Calenge, Clément; Chadoeuf, Joël; Giraud, Christophe; Huet, Sylvie; Julliard, Romain; Monestiez, Pascal; Piffady, Jérémy; Pinaud, David; Ruette, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the spatial distribution of 6 Mustelidae species in France using the data collected by the French national hunting and wildlife agency under the "small carnivorous species logbooks" program. The 1500 national wildlife protection officers working for this agency spend 80% of their working time traveling in the spatial area in which they have authority. During their travels, they occasionally detect dead or living small and medium size carnivorous animals. Between 2002 and 2005, each car operated by this agency was equipped with a logbook in which officers recorded information about the detected animals (species, location, dead or alive, date). Thus, more than 30000 dead or living animals were detected during the study period. Because a large number of detected animals in a region could have been the result of a high sampling pressure there, we modeled the number of detected animals as a function of the sampling effort to allow for unbiased estimation of the species density. For dead animals -- mostly roadkill -- we supposed that the effort in a given region was proportional to the distance traveled by the officers. For living animals, we had no way to measure the sampling effort. We demonstrated that it was possible to use the whole dataset (dead and living animals) to estimate the following: (i) the relative density -- i.e., the density multiplied by an unknown constant -- of each species of interest across the different French agricultural regions, (ii) the sampling effort for living animals for each region, and (iii) the relative detection probability for various species of interest. PMID:25811456

  7. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in France: 2001

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, F; Saraux, A; Guggenbuhl, P; Roux, C; Fardellone, P; Le Bihan, E; Cantagrel, A; Chary-Valckenaere, I; Euller-Ziegler, L; Flipo, R; Juvin, R; Behier, J; Fautrel, B; Masson, C; Coste, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Prevalence estimates of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) vary across Europe. Recent estimates in southern European countries showed a lower prevalence than in northern countries. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of RA in France in a multiregional representative sample in the year 2001. Methods: A two stage random sample was constituted in seven areas (20 counties) from the national telephone directory of households and by the next birthday method in each household. Patient-interviewers, member of self help groups, were trained to administer telephone surveys using a validated questionnaire for case detection of inflammatory rheumatism, and conducted the survey under quality control. All suspected cases of RA were confirmed by their rheumatologist or by clinical examination. Prevalence estimates after probability sampling correction were standardised for age and sex (national census 1999). Results: An average response rate of 64.7% (two stages combined) led to a total of 9395 respondents. Standardised prevalence was 0.31% (95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.48) for RA, 0.51% in women and 0.09% in men, with a higher age-specific prevalence in the 65–74 year age band. A geographical analysis of county clustering showed significant variation across the country. Conclusion: This national multiregional cooperative study demonstrates the usefulness of working in association with patients of self help groups. It showed a similar prevalence of RA to that of the spondyloarthropathies estimated concomitantly during the survey. It provides a reliable basis for definition of population targets for healthcare delivery and drug treatments. PMID:15800010

  8. The Spatial Distribution of Mustelidae in France

    PubMed Central

    Calenge, Clément; Chadoeuf, Joël; Giraud, Christophe; Huet, Sylvie; Julliard, Romain; Monestiez, Pascal; Piffady, Jérémy; Pinaud, David; Ruette, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the spatial distribution of 6 Mustelidae species in France using the data collected by the French national hunting and wildlife agency under the “small carnivorous species logbooks” program. The 1500 national wildlife protection officers working for this agency spend 80% of their working time traveling in the spatial area in which they have authority. During their travels, they occasionally detect dead or living small and medium size carnivorous animals. Between 2002 and 2005, each car operated by this agency was equipped with a logbook in which officers recorded information about the detected animals (species, location, dead or alive, date). Thus, more than 30000 dead or living animals were detected during the study period. Because a large number of detected animals in a region could have been the result of a high sampling pressure there, we modeled the number of detected animals as a function of the sampling effort to allow for unbiased estimation of the species density. For dead animals -- mostly roadkill -- we supposed that the effort in a given region was proportional to the distance traveled by the officers. For living animals, we had no way to measure the sampling effort. We demonstrated that it was possible to use the whole dataset (dead and living animals) to estimate the following: (i) the relative density -- i.e., the density multiplied by an unknown constant -- of each species of interest across the different French agricultural regions, (ii) the sampling effort for living animals for each region, and (iii) the relative detection probability for various species of interest. PMID:25811456

  9. Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France.

    PubMed

    Dufour, B; La Vieille, S

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological surveillance, namely the continuous monitoring of diseases and health determinants in a population, has developed over the past fifteen years, in the sphere of human health as well as in animal health. All epidemiological surveillance networks include the following four stages: data collection, data transmission, data processing and dissemination of information. However, despite this basic similarity, the very many networks existing in France are extremely varied in nature. At the national level, the bodies involved in epidemiological surveillance for infectious animal diseases are the Direction générale de l'alimentation, the Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments and, to a lesser degree, the Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer. In the field, the networks rely on the Direction des services vétérinaires, veterinary practitioners, laboratories in each département, and livestock producers' groups (especially animal health protection groups). Some twenty French networks currently in operation are presented in this article according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases, epidemiological surveillance is carried out almost entirely by the Direction générale de la santé and the Directions départementales d'action sanitaire et sociale, the Institut de veille sanitaire and the various Centres nationaux de référence (CNRs). Most human infectious diseases are monitored by one or more of the following broad categories of networks: reporting of notifiable diseases, the CNRs, the network of sentinel doctors, the network of hospital laboratories and departments, and medical causes of death. An example where surveillance is covered by several networks is also presented, namely surveillance for salmonellosis and Salmonella. Lastly, methods for evaluating networks are discussed. PMID:10779198

  10. [Organ procurement in France: new challenges].

    PubMed

    Lamy, François-Xavier; Atinault, Alain; Thuong, Marie

    2013-03-01

    France has reached a pretty good level of activity, comparable to southern European countries: in 2011, 4945 transplantations (TX) have been performed among them, 2976 (60%) kidney TX, 1164 (24%) liver TX, 398 (8%) heart TX and 312 (6.3%) lung TX. However, the progression has slowed down since 2008 like in many countries. The potential of donors is mainly represented by the donor after brain-death (DBD) (90%), living donor (LD) for kidneys transplantation participates for only 10% of the overall kidney TX, and donor after cardiac death (DCD) activity, just started in 2006, for 2.2%. Current challenges to maximize the existing activity of DBD rely upon the implementation of program aimed to monitor deceased organ donation potential, a comprehensive approach of the regional disparities covering the steps of the detection of the potential donor, the rate of organ procurement and the refusal rate to organ donation. The profile of the donors has changed due to substantial epidemiologic shifts and a growing shortage of organs. The resource of expanded criteria donor (ECD) is widely used, mainly defined by a criteria of age. This policy is acceptable and successful under specific allocation scheme based on a donor-recipient matching. Before the TX needs of the population have been adequately met, the opportunities for improvement should be the development of DCD and LD activities, in addition to DBD activity. The extension to the DCD of the 3rd category of Maastricht is currently devised as a possible option for the future. The development of perfusion machine, available for kidney preservation and soon for the other organs is a new technical challenge that might increase the donor pool to previously discarded grafts. This superior and cost-effective method evaluated for ECD kidney preservation has also a potential of resuscitation and prediction of post-transplant outcome. To give a new launch to the TX activity as it was done in 2000, the Agency together with the

  11. Audit unto others{hor_ellipsis}

    SciTech Connect

    Maday, J.H. Jr.

    1992-05-01

    My first encounter with a quality assurance auditor is reminiscent of an old Dodge commercial. You remember? The old sheriff, masked in mirrored sunglasses, paunch hanging over his gun belt, prophesying, ``You`re in a heap o` trouble boy!`` Well, my auditor could have been kin to the sheriff; they had the same posture, attitude, and mirrored sunglasses. Plus, my auditor wore a black leather vest and sported a ``Buffalo Bill`` goatee. While certainly memorable, both gentlemen were far from pleasant. I`m fairly certain that the compliance auditor of old deserved this perceived association with his law enforcement counterpart. Both believed in enforcing the letter of the law, or their interpretations of it. Neither seemed capable of exercising interpretive powers, but instead relied on winning through intimidation, possibly with an eye toward claiming some version of a monthly Quota Award. Is the auditor of today any better perceived? Because this ``first encounter of the worst kind`` made a lasting impression on me, I have dedicated considerable time and effort trying to avoid being perceived as another sheriff when I conduct audits. In my auditing career, I am determined to capitalize on each opportunity to turn negative situations, as experienced by the auditee, into meaningful opportunities for improved performance. I want to treat the auditee the way I want to be treated when I am being audited. (author)

  12. Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism Following a Viper Envenomation in France

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Géraldine; Pineau, Samuel; Biron, Charlotte; Connault, Jérôme; Artifoni, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Complications following snake bites are not common in France. We report the case of a bilateral pulmonary embolism following a viper envenomation in France. A healthy 72-year-old female presented with a lower limb hematoma following a viper bite. She was admitted at the hospital 2 days later and received low-molecular-weight heparin because of bed rest. Seven days later, she complained of thoracic pain and respiratory failure, and a bilateral pulmonary was diagnosed, without biological sign of neither disseminated intravascular coagulation nor coagulation trouble. Repeated lower limbs Doppler ultrasound were normal. This case is particularly interesting because it is only the 7th reported case of pulmonary embolism following a snake envenomation; moreover, it happened in France where poisonous snakes are very rare. Several hypotheses have been made to explain this late localized coagulopathy: an increased level of unstable fibrin produced by thrombin-like glycoproteins from the venom is one of them. PMID:27175626

  13. The epidemiology of adolescent drug use in France and Israel.

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, D B; Adler, I; Sudit, M

    1981-01-01

    Based on samples of adolescents residing in urban areas in France and in Israel, cross-cultural comparisons of adolescent use of alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, and illicit drugs are reported. Lifetime and current prevalences of use of all substances are higher in France than in Israel. The relative ranking of the prevalence of use of the various drugs is identical in the two countries, and is similar to that found in American samples. In both countries, drug use is more prevalent among males than females, and among older than younger adolescents. There are no differences among different socioeconomic groups. Religiosity affects the rates of use of all drugs in France, and the rates of non-alcoholic substances and the amounts of alcoholic beverages consumed in Israel. Differences in the prevalence of substance use across cultures and within a culture decrease as overall prevalence of use increases. PMID:7468857

  14. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  15. The Scottish Women's Hospital at Royaumont, France 1914-1919.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M-F

    2014-01-01

    In 1915, under the aegis of the French Red Cross, volunteer medical women from the Scottish Women's Hospital Service for Foreign Service established a hospital at Royaumont Abbey in France, to treat casualties of the First World War. By working as a team comprised of radiologists, bacteriologists and surgeons, they were able to combat gas gangrene and record remarkable results. The circumstances and the way in which the doctors were portrayed in France and Britain prevented them from actively promoting their results to gain wider acceptance. After the War, medical women lost their training and employment opportunities and many left the profession. PMID:25516906

  16. Application of Three-Dimensional Models for the Teaching of Time Zones. (Breton Title: Aplicação de Modelos Tridimensionais Para o Ensino de Fusos Horários.) Aplicación de Modelos Tridimensionales Para la Enseñanza de Husos Horarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-07-01

    There are several interesting astronomical topics that must be addressed in the High School and Elementary/Middle School in the disciplines of Geography and of Sciences. Among them, the topic of time zones which is one of the most important to understand the correlation of the Earth's rotation and its implications on daily activities of citizens in local scale, regional and global scales which involve problems of time differences. For the teaching of time zones in the lessons of Geography, for example, there are bi-dimensional representations of thematic maps of world time zones, textbooks and atlas. It happens that teachers face some difficulties to permit its students to view three-dimensionally this astronomical phenomenon from the textbooks available in schools. The aim of this paper is to present two proposals with low-cost materials, which allow the preparation of three-dimensional models for the teaching of time zones. Há vários temas astronômicos interessantes que devem ser trabalhados nos Ensinos Médio e Fundamental, nas disciplinas de Geografia e de Ciências. Entre eles, o tema dos fusos horários que é um dos mais importantes para se correlacionar a rotação da Terra e suas implicações nas atividades cotidianas dos cidadãos em escala local, regional e global, que envolvem problemas de diferenças horárias. Para o ensino dos fusos horários nas aulas de Geografia, por exemplo, há representações bidimensionais de mapas temáticos de fusos horários mundiais, nos livros didáticos e nos atlas. Ocorre que os professores enfrentam algumas dificuldades para possibilitar aos seus alunos a visão tridimensional deste fenômeno astronômico, a partir dos materiais didáticos disponíveis nas escolas. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar duas propostas para a confecção de materiais de baixo custo, que possibilitem a elaboração de modelos tridimensionais para o ensino dos fusos horários. Hay algunos temas astronómicos interesantes que se

  17. Infection with Mycobacterium microti in Animals in France

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Lorraine; de Cruz, Krystel; Zanella, Gina; Aaziz, Rachid; Bulach, Tabatha; Karoui, Claudine; Hénault, Sylvie; Joncour, Guy

    2014-01-01

    We describe here 35 animal cases of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti in France (2002–2014). Recently, molecular tools that overcome the difficulty of confirming infection by this potentially zoonotic agent have revealed an increasing number of cases, suggesting that its prevalence may have been underestimated. PMID:25540404

  18. Providing for Disabled Students: University of Grenoble, France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Examines how France's University of Grenoble provides for its disabled students in its residence halls, including a description of the university's service for disabled service. A hospital/education center where disabled students can receive care and physiotherapy while attending school is highlighted. (GR)

  19. Continuing Vocational Training in France. Review and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berton, F.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, continuing vocational training in France has evolved within an innovative institutional system that has produced results. The goals of the institutional program are to: (1) give individuals who had been excluded from initial training a second chance; (2) give people greater control over their lives by improving their level…

  20. Pupils and School History in France and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audigier, Francois; Fink, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes five studies, based on questionnaires and interviews with pupils in primary and lower secondary schools, in France and in Switzerland, over the past two decades. It explores the ways in which pupils' attitudes to history change during the transition between primary and secondary school, and investigates pupils' views about the…

  1. France's Administrative Tertiary: Stable Numbers for Occupations in Flux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaroutzos, Olivier; Meriot, Sylvie-Anne

    1995-01-01

    During the past decade, the number of jobs in France's administrative service sector has remained stable. General administrative work has become more infrequent; however, the basic occupations of secretary and accountancy have been maintained. Although the number of typists has declined, the number of "secretarial" jobs has increased dramatically.…

  2. Pandoraea pulmonicola chronic colonization in a cystic fibrosis patient, France

    PubMed Central

    Kokcha, S; Bittar, F; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Mely, L; Gomez, C; Gaubert, J-Y; Thomas, P; Rolain, J-M

    2013-01-01

    Pandoraea are considered emerging multidrug resistant pathogens in the context of cystic fibrosis. We report herein for the first time the case of a 30-year-old woman with cystic fibrosis, living in France, who was chronically infected with Pandoraea pulmonicola and who died of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis 3 weeks after bilateral lung transplantation. PMID:25356323

  3. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Verger, F.; Monget, J. M.; Crepon, M. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an investigation to map the various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France are presented. Paricular emphasis is given to the natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. It is shown that a close correlation exist between wind speed direction and the offshore width of the effluent.

  4. Fine-scale human genetic structure in Western France

    PubMed Central

    Karakachoff, Matilde; Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Simonet, Floriane; Le Scouarnec, Solena; Pellen, Nadine; Lecointe, Simon; Charpentier, Eric; Gros, Françoise; Cauchi, Stéphane; Froguel, Philippe; Copin, Nane; Balkau, B; Ducimetière, P; Eschwège;, E; Alhenc-Gelas, F; Girault, A; Fumeron, F; Marre, M; Roussel, R; Bonnet, F; Cauchi, S; Froguel, P; Cogneau, J; Born, C; Caces, E; Cailleau, M; Lantieri, O; Moreau, J G; Rakotozafy, F; Tichet, J; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Probst, Vincent; Le Marec, Hervé; Molinaro, Sabrina; Balkau, Beverley; Redon, Richard; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Blum, Michael GB; Dina, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The difficulties arising from association analysis with rare variants underline the importance of suitable reference population cohorts, which integrate detailed spatial information. We analyzed a sample of 1684 individuals from Western France, who were genotyped at genome-wide level, from two cohorts D.E.S.I.R and CavsGen. We found that fine-scale population structure occurs at the scale of Western France, with distinct admixture proportions for individuals originating from the Brittany Region and the Vendée Department. Genetic differentiation increases with distance at a high rate in these two parts of Northwestern France and linkage disequilibrium is higher in Brittany suggesting a lower effective population size. When looking for genomic regions informative about Breton origin, we found two prominent associated regions that include the lactase region and the HLA complex. For both the lactase and the HLA regions, there is a low differentiation between Bretons and Irish, and this is also found at the genome-wide level. At a more refined scale, and within the Pays de la Loire Region, we also found evidence of fine-scale population structure, although principal component analysis showed that individuals from different departments cannot be confidently discriminated. Because of the evidence for fine-scale genetic structure in Western France, we anticipate that rare and geographically localized variants will be identified in future full-sequence analyses. PMID:25182131

  5. School Design and Management: Three Examples from France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Presents three examples of large-scale school construction and renovation projects in France where a link has been established between school design and successful teaching and learning. Further discussed are the conclusions that can be drawn from these projects in preparatory work prior to building. (GR)

  6. Adolescents and Smoking: Evidence from France and Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosanquet, Nick; Magee, Jayne

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on recent evidence now available from France and Spain on the smoking behavior of adolescents and young people. Evidence indicates that it will be a massive challenge to reduce smoking among young people. Argues that public awareness of the threat to health from smoking should be raised and that public health measures require further…

  7. 'Miss Frances', 'Miss Gail' and 'Miss Sandra' Crapemyrtles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, announces the release to nurserymen of three new crapemyrtle cultivars named 'Miss Gail', 'Miss Frances', and 'Miss Sandra'. ‘Miss Gail’ resulted from a cross-pollination between ‘Catawba’ as the female parent and ‘Arapaho’ ...

  8. Trade Unions and Political Parties in France: Some Recent Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynaud, Jean-Daniel

    1975-01-01

    France's three major trade union federations, which do not encompass all organized French workers, espouse quite different styles of relations with political parties. The author relates these to the three main traditions of French trade-unionism: the communist-leninist, the social democratic, and the syndicalist models, but finds them changing.…

  9. Fine-scale human genetic structure in Western France.

    PubMed

    Karakachoff, Matilde; Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Simonet, Floriane; Le Scouarnec, Solena; Pellen, Nadine; Lecointe, Simon; Charpentier, Eric; Gros, Françoise; Cauchi, Stéphane; Froguel, Philippe; Copin, Nane; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Probst, Vincent; Le Marec, Hervé; Molinaro, Sabrina; Balkau, Beverley; Redon, Richard; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Blum, Michael Gb; Dina, Christian

    2015-06-01

    The difficulties arising from association analysis with rare variants underline the importance of suitable reference population cohorts, which integrate detailed spatial information. We analyzed a sample of 1684 individuals from Western France, who were genotyped at genome-wide level, from two cohorts D.E.S.I.R and CavsGen. We found that fine-scale population structure occurs at the scale of Western France, with distinct admixture proportions for individuals originating from the Brittany Region and the Vendée Department. Genetic differentiation increases with distance at a high rate in these two parts of Northwestern France and linkage disequilibrium is higher in Brittany suggesting a lower effective population size. When looking for genomic regions informative about Breton origin, we found two prominent associated regions that include the lactase region and the HLA complex. For both the lactase and the HLA regions, there is a low differentiation between Bretons and Irish, and this is also found at the genome-wide level. At a more refined scale, and within the Pays de la Loire Region, we also found evidence of fine-scale population structure, although principal component analysis showed that individuals from different departments cannot be confidently discriminated. Because of the evidence for fine-scale genetic structure in Western France, we anticipate that rare and geographically localized variants will be identified in future full-sequence analyses. PMID:25182131

  10. Correspondence Tuition in France and the Development of Permanent Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cros, Louis

    This report covers the current situation and general trends in correspondence study in France and describes two public institutions involved in it: Centre National de Tele-Enseignement and Radio-Television Scolaire. The evolution of correspondence study has been linked with the development of permanent education and the parallel transformation of…

  11. Wildlife Reservoir for Hepatitis E Virus, Southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Sebastien; Top, Sokunthea; Bertagnoli, Stephane; Dubois, Martine; Guerin, Jean-Luc; Izopet, Jacques

    2015-07-01

    Pigs are a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). To determine the relative contribution of game to the risk for human HEV infection in southwestern France, we tested wildlife samples. HEV RNA was in 3.3% of wildlife livers, indicating that in this region, eating game meat is as risky as eating pork. PMID:26079541

  12. Local and International Implications of Schistosomiasis Acquired in Corsica, France

    PubMed Central

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Rothe, Camilla; Libman, Michael; Van De Winkel, Kristina; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Grobusch, Martin P.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Esposito, Douglas H.; Parola, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    We report 11 cases of schistosomiasis in international travelers who had bathed in rivers in Corsica, France, during 2012–2014. The infections were diagnosed in 2014 and reported to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network and European Travel Medicine Network. Travelers can be sentinels for emerging infections; thus, this situation warrants a concerted human and veterinary epidemiologic response. PMID:26401954

  13. International Reports on Literacy Research: France, United Kingdom, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botza, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on France, United Kingdom and Brazil. In the first report, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow presents research into variations of reading motivation related to students' socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. Three of these…

  14. International Reports on Literacy Research: Argentina, Mexico, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Mallozzi, Christine, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Argentina, Mexico, and France. In the first report, Melina Porto reports on a new implementation of a teacher-education program currently underway in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, under the leadership of teacher-researcher…

  15. Changes in University Governance in France and in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffo, Stefano; Dubois, Pierre; Moscati, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The transformation of higher education systems under the pressure of new needs required by the "society of knowledge" in France and Italy has had a deep effect on the relationship between state and university, and therefore a direct impact on university governance. This article sums up the main results of a research carried out on university…

  16. Novel Bluetongue Virus in Goats, Corsica, France, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Höper, Dirck; Beer, Martin; Jenckel, Maria; Hoffmann, Bernd; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Fablet, Aurore; Vitour, Damien; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    During 2000–2013, 4 genotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) were detected in Corsica, France. At the end of 2013, a compulsory BTV-1 vaccination campaign was initiated among domestic ruminants; biological samples from goats were tested as part of a corresponding monitoring program. A BTV strain with nucleotide sequences suggestive of a novel serotype was detected. PMID:25418049

  17. Infection with Mycobacterium microti in animals in France.

    PubMed

    Michelet, Lorraine; de Cruz, Krystel; Zanella, Gina; Aaziz, Rachid; Bulach, Tabatha; Karoui, Claudine; Hénault, Sylvie; Joncour, Guy; Boschiroli, Maria Laura

    2015-03-01

    We describe here 35 animal cases of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti in France (2002-2014). Recently, molecular tools that overcome the difficulty of confirming infection by this potentially zoonotic agent have revealed an increasing number of cases, suggesting that its prevalence may have been underestimated. PMID:25540404

  18. Foreign Students and Government Policy: Britain, France, and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Alice

    The impact of European government policy on the movement of foreign students in Great Britain, France, and West Germany is discussed by a member of the American Council on Education Committee on Foreign Students. Foreign student enrollments have increased dramatically in these three countries in the 1960s and 1970s, and foreign students also make…

  19. Ecole Maternelle (Preschool) in France: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougere, Gilles; Guenif-Souilamas, Nacira; Rayna, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at a cross-cultural analysis of interviews of (im/migrant and non-im/migrant) preschool teachers and parents, concerning im/migrant children enrolled in the French "ecole maternelle", in the context of the international Children Crossing Borders (CCB) research project. Interviews were conducted in France following a polyphonic…

  20. Recent Developments in Assessment and Examination Procedures in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadfoot, Patricia

    Recent changes in educational assessment in France reflect pressures to modernize the French educational system to align it with prevailing democratic and egalitarian values and to respond to the economy's vocational training needs. After providing background on the French educational system, this paper discusses two areas of secondary school…

  1. Novel bluetongue virus in goats, Corsica, France, 2014.

    PubMed

    Zientara, Stéphan; Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Höper, Dirck; Beer, Martin; Jenckel, Maria; Hoffmann, Bernd; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Fablet, Aurore; Vitour, Damien; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2014-12-01

    During 2000-2013, 4 genotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) were detected in Corsica, France. At the end of 2013, a compulsory BTV-1 vaccination campaign was initiated among domestic ruminants; biological samples from goats were tested as part of a corresponding monitoring program. A BTV strain with nucleotide sequences suggestive of a novel serotype was detected. PMID:25418049

  2. The Processing of Architects' Records. A Case-Study: France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildesheimer, Francoise

    By means of close examination of the records created and accumulated by individual architects and architectural firms in France, this Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) study is intended to call attention to the basic documentary values of these architectural records and to provide practical guidance to help ensure their preservation…

  3. International Reports on Literacy Research: Canada, France, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Canada, France and Russia. In the first report, research correspondent Linda M. Phillips, in collaboration with Christian Beaulieu, reports on the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network (CLLRNet). The vision of CLLRNet is…

  4. 78 FR 66668 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... written comments, data, or views. We also invite comments relating to the economic, environmental,...

  5. 78 FR 22213 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... France Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter...

  6. "Training the Trainers" of Teachers in France: Assessment and Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapostolle, Guy

    2009-01-01

    With the creation of IUFMs (university institutes of teacher training) in the 1990s, the training of teacher trainers in France has become a fundamental part of the renewal of teacher training. It is seen as a fundamental lever for the IUFMs to achieve the tasks and goals entrusted to them: training teachers who need to accommodate the new demands…

  7. France's grandes écoles accused of elitism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    Physicists in France have backed government plans to open up the country's elite grandes écoles to more students from poorer backgrounds. The government wants to allow up to 30% of students to be given free scholarships in an attempt to broaden the social mix of the student body. The physicists say this would not lead to a lowering of standards.

  8. Nationwide pseudo-outbreak of Salmonella enterica ssp. diarizonae, France.

    PubMed

    Thiolet, J M; Jourdan-Da Silva, N; Reggiani, A; De Valk, H; Coignard, B; Weill, F X

    2011-06-01

    To investigate an increased incidence of human cultures growing Salmonella enterica ssp. diarizonae serotype 61:k:1,5,7 in France in 2008, we reviewed medical records of case patients and identified the material used during invasive procedures and for bacterial culture. Trace-back investigations incriminated culture media containing contaminated sheep blood agar. PMID:20718799

  9. Foodborne Outbreak and Nonmotile Salmonella enterica Variant, France

    PubMed Central

    Brisabois, Anne; Accou-Demartin, Marie; Josse, Adeline; Marault, Muriel; Francart, Sylvie; Da Silva, Nathalie Jourdan; Weill, François-Xavier

    2012-01-01

    We report a food-related outbreak of salmonellosis in humans caused by a nonmotile variant of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in France in 2009. This nonmotile variant had been circulating in laying hens but was not considered as Typhimurium and consequently escaped European poultry flock regulations. PMID:22257550

  10. Migration and Marginality: Guestworkers in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rist, Ray C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines migratory movements in Europe since 1954, with particular emphasis on the 13 to 14 million immigrants to the industrial countries of northern Europe. Concludes that the movement of manpower has been critical in sustaining the post-World War II economies of industrialized nations such as Germany and France. (Author/DB)