Science.gov

Sample records for france palier n4-1450

  1. France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  2. France.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, France had a population of 55,493,000, with an annual growth rate of 0.4%. The infant mortality rate stood at 8.2/1000. Of the work force of 23.8 million, 8.3% were engaged in agriculture, 45.2% were in the industry and commerce sector, and 46.5% were engaged in services. The unemployment rate stood at 10.7%. The country's gross domestic product (GDP) was US$724 billion in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.0%, and per capita income averaged $13,046. France has substantial agricultural resources, a diversified modern industrial system, and a highly skilled labor force. Following the return of a socialist majority in government in 1981, several large manufacturing firms were nationalized along with much of the commercial banking sector. Initial socialist policies were stimulative, relying partly on income redistribution and partly on increased government spending. However, the resultant increase in import demand was not offset by an increased demand French exports. In 1983, an economic stabilization plan of reductions in the budget deficit, involving spending cuts, increased taxes, and tighter monetary and credit policies, was successfully implemented. Although current economic policies should promote stronger growth over the medium to long term, trade competitiveness remains weak and high unemployment is a major social problem. PMID:12177959

  3. France`s nuclear dilemmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Ignoring worldwide protests, France conducted the first of several scheduled nuclear tests in September. The controversy has overshadowed France`s more important nuclear challenges: maintaining a strong deterrent under a test ban, moving ahead with its proposals for {open_quotes}Europeanization{close_quotes} of that deterrent, and developing a consensus on how nuclear threats should be used in response to those who would brandish other weapons of mass destruction. 1 fig.

  4. Urban Sociology in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiot, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Divides the history of urban sociology in France into three periods: (1) functionalism, which lasted from 1910 until the 1960s, (2) neo-Marxist socioeconomics lasting from 1968 until 1979, and (3) anthropological approach which is still dominant. Reviews theoretical perspectives and research characteristic of each period. (JDH)

  5. Industrial Psychology in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Montmollin, Maurice

    1977-01-01

    The current status of French industrial psychology is evaluated. Within the social and economic context of contemporary France, varying ideologies and scarce resources have created a gap between applied and academic industrial psychology. Personnel practices and systems and organizational research are noted. (Editor)

  6. [Primary care in France].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. PMID:26304179

  7. Pharmacy Education in France

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a “diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie” This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice. PMID:19325952

  8. Petroleum statistics in France

    SciTech Connect

    De Saint Germain, H.; Lamiraux, C.

    1995-08-01

    33 oil companies, including Elf, Exxon, Agip, Conoco as well as Coparex, Enron, Hadson, Midland, Hunt, Canyon and Union Texas are present in oil and gas exploration and production in France. The production of oil and gas in France amounts to some 60,000 bopd of oil and 350 MMcfpd of marketed natural gas each year, which still accounts for 3.5% and 10% for French domestic needs, respectively. To date, 166 fields have been discovered, representing a total reserve of 3 billion bbl of crude oil and 13 trillion cf of raw gas. These fields are concentrated in two major onshore sedimentary basins of Mesozoic age, which are the Aquitaine basin and the Paris basin. The Aquitaine basin should be subdivided into two distinct domains: The Parentis basin where the largest field Parentis was discovered in 1954 with still production of about 3700 bopd of oil and where Les Arbouslers field, discovered at the end of 1991, is currently producing about 10,000 bopd of oil. The northern Pyrenees and their foreland, where the Lacq field, discovered in 1951, has produced about 7.7 tcf of gas since 1957, and is still producing 138 MMcfpd. In the Paris basin, the two large oil fields are Villeperclue discovered in 1982 by Triton and Total, and Chaunoy, discovered in 1983 by Essorep, which are still producing about 10,000 and 15,000 bopd, respectively. The last significantly sized discovery occurred in 1990 with Itteville by Elf Aquitaine which is currently producing 4,200 bopd. The poster shows statistical data related to the past 20 years of oil and gas exploration and production in France.

  9. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  10. Breeder reactors in France

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, C.P.

    1980-04-11

    France relies on nuclear power as an important part of her energy program. Anticipating problems with the availability of natural uranium before the year 2020, the French have been pursuing a three-stage program of development of breeder reactors. The third reactor in this program, the near-commercial plant Super Phenix Mark I, is expected to reach power operation in 1983. Although there are still some uncertainties, particularly about the date when the breeder will become competitive with other energy sources, the outlook is considered favorable and preliminary designs for commercial plants are under way.

  11. Legionnaires' disease in France.

    PubMed

    Campèse, C; Descours, G; Lepoutre, A; Beraud, L; Maine, C; Che, D; Jarraud, S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current knowledge of Legionnaires' disease (LD) illustrated by the epidemiological situation in France in 2013. LD is a severe pneumonia commonly caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. The diagnosis is usually based on the urinary antigen test. This rapid method reduces the delay between clinical suspicion and initiation of an appropriate treatment. However, the availability of a clinical strain is important to improve knowledge of circulating bacteria, to document case clusters, and to identify the sources of contamination. The source of contamination is unknown in most cases. The main contamination sources generating aerosols are water network systems and cooling towers. Thanks to the strengthening of clinical and environmental monitoring and to several guidelines, no epidemic has been reported in France since 2006. Despite these efforts, the number of LD cases has not decreased in recent years. It is essential that applied research continue to better understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of the disease and its characteristics (impact of environmental factors, sources of exposure, strains, host, etc.). Fundamental knowledge has been greatly improved (pathogenesis, immune mechanisms, etc.). The results of this research should help define new strategies for the diagnosis, prevention, and control to decrease the number of LD cases diagnosed every year. PMID:25722040

  12. Battle of France WWII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhath, Arpitha Rao

    The purpose of this thesis is to build an interactive Geographical Information System (GIS) tool, relating to the series of events that occurred during the Battle of France World War II. The tool gives us an insight about the countries involved in the battle, their allies and their strategies. This tool was created to use it as a one stop source of information regarding all the important battles that took place, which lead to the fall of France. The tool brings together the maps of all the countries involved. Integrated with each map is the data relevant to that map. The data for each country includes the place of attack, the strategies used during the attack, and the kind of warfare. The tool also makes use of HTML files to give all the information, along with the images from the time of the war and a footage which explains everything about the particular battle. The tool was build using JAVA, along with the use of MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) to develop Maps of each of the countries. MOJO is developed by ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) which makes it easier to add data to the maps. It also makes highlighting important information easier making use of pop-up windows, charts and infographics. HTML files were designed making use of the open-source template developed by Bootstrap. The tool is built in such a way that the interface is simple and easy for the user to use and understand.

  13. Women in physics in France

    SciTech Connect

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  14. [Measles in France].

    PubMed

    Antona, Denise; Baudon, Claire; Freymuth, François; Lamy, Mathieu; Maine, Catherine; Parent du Chatelet, Isabelle; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    From January 2008 to May 2012, over 22,000 cases of measles were reported in France. The highest incidence rate was observed in children below one year of age. Over 50% of cases were reported in young adults. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalised including 1,023 with severe pneumonia, 27 with encephalitis and/or myelitis : 10 died. This situation is linked to insufficient and heterogeneous vaccination coverage with pockets of susceptible people allowing virus circulation. Although the vaccine coverage in children has now improved for both doses, the issue of convincing young susceptible adults to catch up for measles vaccination remains critical, if the elimination target is to be met, and in order to protect the most vulnerable population unable to benefit from this vaccination (children below 1 year, immunodeficient people, pregnant women). PMID:23171908

  15. Beginning of viniculture in France.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patrick E; Luley, Benjamin P; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P; Smith, Karen E; Hall, Gretchen R; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M

    2013-06-18

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport. PMID:23733937

  16. Beginning of viniculture in France

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500–475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425–400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport. PMID:23733937

  17. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  18. Enterococcus cecorum human infection, France.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, E; Abat, C; Rolain, J-M

    2015-09-01

    Enterococcus cecorum is a bacterium of the intestinal tract of many domestic animals that is rarely reported as human pathogen. Here we report the first case of incisional hernia plate infection and the first case of urinary tract colonization due to E. cecorum from patients in Marseille, France. PMID:26199733

  19. "Franklin: Science, Politics and France"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, James E., III

    2003-04-01

    This presentation traces Benjamin Franklin's career as a "civic scientist" in Old-Regime France. It outlines the initial - and not always positive - reception of Franklin's work on electricity by the community of French scientists in the 1750s. It sketches Franklin's subsequent elevation into the pantheon of French Enlightenment heros, and it details his work as a "civic scientist" while American envoy to France in the 1770s and 1780s, notably his service on the government-sponsored commissions that repudiated the scientific and medical claims of Franz Anton Mesmer. This presentation concludes by examining a few features of Franklin's career that are not completely congruent with our notion of what a "civic scientist" might be, a contrast that is intended to illuminate both Franklin and the concept of "civic scientist."

  20. Cardiac remote monitoring in France.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Nicolas; Perrotton, Fanny; Delage, Emilie; Gourraud, Jean-Baptiste; Lande, Gilles; Solnon, Aude; Probst, Vincent; Grimandi, Gael; Clouet, Johann

    2014-04-01

    The increase in number of implanted cardiac medical devices and the announced decrease in number of cardiologists have led to remote monitoring being considered as a pivotal tool for patient follow-up. For 10 years, remote monitoring has been the subject of multiple clinical studies. In these studies, reliability and clinical efficacy have been demonstrated, but the use of remote monitoring remains quite limited in France compared with other countries. To explain this delay in uptake, some organizational difficulties and the lack of reimbursement of remote monitoring are often mentioned. The results of medico-economic studies might provide answers about the value of remote monitoring and enable the supervisory authorities to define how its use will be financed. This review provides a global view of remote monitoring in France, and covers the principle, clinical efficacy, organizational and regulatory aspects, and medico-economic data. PMID:24709285

  1. CFB boiler at Gardanne (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Jaud, P.; Jacquet, L.; Delot, P.; Bayle, F.

    1995-06-01

    Among the new Clean Coal Technologies, {open_quotes}Circulating Fluidized Bed{close_quotes} is one of the most promising. Today, the largest project in commissioning`s the 250 MWe Provence CFB boiler, located near MARSEILLE in the south of France. At such a size, the CFB technique has now reached a capacity corresponding to thermal power plants operated by utilities. This new unit is a very important step towards larger size i.e. 400 MWe and greater. The SO{sub 2} emissions of this CFB boiler are guaranteed to be less than 400 mg / Nm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2} with the ratio of Ca/S lower than 3 while total sulfur in local coal used can reach 3.68 %. The purpose of the Provence project was to replace the existing pulverized coal boiler unit 4, commissioned in 1967, of the Provence power plant, with a new CFB boiler while reusing most of the existing equipment. The new boiler has been ordered from GEC ALSTHOM STEIN INDUSTREE (GASI) by Electricite de France (EDF) on behalf of the SOPROLIF consortium. Architect Engineering and construction management was performed by EDF jointly with Charbonnages de France (CdF: the French Coal Board). The 250 MWe CFB boiler is of the superheat-reheat type. The first firing of the boiler is due in April 1995. The poster session will describe the progress in the construction of the plant and provides technical details of the new boiler and auxiliaries.

  2. Home health care in France.

    PubMed

    Charles, B

    1990-02-23

    Home health care in France has a long tradition, but is limited in its development. Since 1970 hospitals are by law permitted to extend services at home. Apart from this, patient associations are a driving force in the organization of home health care. There is a trend to more home health care, but this is hampered by splitting of responsibilities of local, departmental or central authorities. The hospital pharmacist is recommended to focus on his scientific and technical competence. Improved relations between community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists are advocated. PMID:2314994

  3. [Dengue fever in mainland France].

    PubMed

    Paty, M-C

    2014-11-01

    Dengue fever is the most widespread distributed vector borne viral disease. It is transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. With the expansion of Aedes albopictus and increasing travel exchange, it is no longer limited to the tropical zone and transmission has been documented in temperate areas. In mainland France, where Aedes albopictus has been present and disseminating since 2004, 2 episodes of autochthonous transmission occurred in 2010 and in 2013. Control measures against dengue and chikungunya, which shares the same vector, are implemented every year since 2006, in the areas where the vector is present. They aim at preventing or limiting local transmission of these diseases. They are based on epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control measures. The diagnosis of dengue, and chikungunya should be considered in case of suggestive symptoms in patients returning from an area of virus circulation. It should also be considered for patients living or having stayed in areas of mainland France where Aedes albopictus is present, during its activity period from May 1 to November 30. The prevention and control system, including vector control measures and the notification of cases to the local health authority should be known, as the risk of autochthonous transmission increases every year. PMID:25080833

  4. Apprenticeship in France: Between Tradition and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Zarca, Georgie

    1996-01-01

    A study was made of the state of apprenticeship in France, using data gathered through telephone interviews with apprentices. Of a targeted group of 6,000 young apprentices, 70% participated in the survey. The study found that, until recently, apprenticeships had generally been used in France to train students in manual trades. During the past 10…

  5. [The occupational physician in France].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-10-01

    The French Labor law defines the role and its allocation criteria of the occupational physician (OP) the same as in Japan. In France, occupational medicine is one of the medical specialties. The OP resident must follow the 4 years clinical training before certification. After having finished their residency, they are entitled to work for the occupational health service office of a company or company association (in the case of small and medium sized companies). The most important characteristics of the French system is that they cover all workers regardless of company size. The main role of the OP is prevention of work related diseases and accidents. They are not allowed to do clinical services except for emergency cases. Their main activities are health examinations, health education, patrol and advice for better working condition. Formerly, it was rather difficult to attract the medical students for OP resident course because of its prevention oriented characteristics. A growing concern about the importance of health management at the work site, however, has changed the situation. Now, the number of candidates for OP resident course is increasing. Their task has expanded to cover mental health and other life style related diseases. The 2011 modification of law redefines the role of the OP as a director of an occupational health service office who has a total responsibility of multidisciplinary services. The French and Japanese occupational health systems have many of similarities. A comparative study by researchers of UOEH is expected to yield useful information. PMID:24107336

  6. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  7. Nuclear Energy - A Fateful Choice for France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Etienne; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In France the public is only moderately interested in technological problems, and so the question of energy choices has not seeped deeply into the political consciousness. The situation could change as the country strengthens its nuclear commitment. (BT)

  8. Women's Employment in France: Protection or Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaud, Marcelle; Levy, Martine

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the origin and evolution of special protection laws in France for employed women, describes those measures that still exist, and explains what employers, unions, and the authorities think of them. Discusses pregnancy, family responsibilities, and technological progress. (CT)

  9. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ..., 2009, the Commission established a schedule for the conduct of the review (74 FR 66992, December 17... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  10. Advanced MCT technologies in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefanis, Gérard; Tribolet, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the very recent developments of the HgCdTe infrared detector technology developed by CEA-LETI and industrialized by Sofradir in France. Today Sofradir uses in production for more than 15years a very mature, reproducible, well mastered and fully understood, planar n on p ion implanted technology. This process that allows very high yields to be achieved in all infrared bands from SWIR to LWIR uses the very conventional approach of LPE growth of MCT on lattice-matched CdZnTe substrates. Progress in this field is continuous from 20years and has recently leaded to the fabrication of high performance VLWIR FPA (320x256 with cut off wavelengths as high as 20μm). Moreover, thanks to the design of the epitaxial structure and to the substrate removal step MCT FPAs present the unique features to have very high quantum efficiency (above 70%) from the cut off wavelength down to the UV. This effect, which opens new application fields, was recently demonstrated in SWIR 320x256 FPAs with cut off wavelength of 2.5μm. Very high quality FPAs (1280x1024) with pitches as small as 15μm have already been demonstrated last year using the MBE growth of MWIR MCT epilayers on 4 inches germanium substrates, n on p ion implanted photodiodes and the hot welding indium bump hybridization technique. At the same time, with the MBE growth, bicolor and dual band FPAs which uses more complex multi hetero-junctions architectures (both 4 layers npn and 'pseudo planar' structures and extrinsically doped MCT layers) were fabricated with formats of 320x256 and pitches as small as 25μm. A very new area of development concerns avalanche photodiodes (APD) made with MCT. This semiconductor presents a unique feature among all the over semiconductors. Extremely high avalanche gains can be obtained on n on p photodiodes without absolutely any noise excess (F(K)=1): MCT APDs act as perfect amplifiers. These results open new interesting fields of investigation for low

  11. The International Heliophysical Year in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.

    We are preparing in France the anniversary of IGY 50 We are gathering our efforts around few actions 1 We planned to follow the international campaigns with our solar Telescope THEMIS in Tenerife with the spacecrafts SOHO Cluster and the magnetometers of Superdarn A group is already formed with C Hanuise as responsible to understand some physical processes involved in these phenomena by using former data 2 On the initiative of CAWSES SCOSTEP program we plan to rehabilitate our heliograph in Meudon in order to be able to participate to the international network of flare survey The Japonese are leading this program Shibata and Kurokawa 3 We are developping lectures for students in different places in France We planned to work on the development of a DVD and video games in a IHY European context 4 We have also an outreach program which consists of an exhibition This exibition could be duplicated in France and for French speaking countries

  12. Syphilis surveillance in France, 2000-2003.

    PubMed

    Couturier, E; Michel, A; Janier, M; Dupin, N; Semaille, C

    2004-12-01

    This article describes syphilis trends, characteristics of patients from 2000 to 2003 in France and trends of the benzylpenicillin benzathine 2.4 million UI sales from 2001 to 2003. The ongoing surveillance system for syphilis case reporting since 2001 has been set up in volunteer settings, mostly public settings where STI treatment is offered. Clinical case reporting is complemented by sexual behavioural data based on a self-administered questionnaire. From 2000 to 2003, 1089 syphilis cases were reported in France, increasing from 37 cases in 2000 to 428 in 2003. Overall, 96% of syphilis cases were in men with a mean age of 36.5 years and 70% of whom were born in France. The proportion of syphilis cases with HIV co-infection decreased over time from 60% in 2000 to 33% in 2003. The most affected area by the syphilis epidemic is the Ile-de-France region, mainly the city of Paris. The greatest proportion of syphilis cases diagnosed in men who have sex with men (MSM) were in the Ile-de-France region, where they made up 87% of cases, compared with 75% in other regions. Among the patients who completed the self-administered questionnaire on sexual behaviour, 83% reported having casual sex partners in the 3 months prior to their syphilis diagnosis. Trends in the sales of benzylpenicillin benzathine 2.4 million UI in private pharmacies are similar to those observed in the surveillance system, and increased between 2001 and 2003. In conclusion, syphilis transmission is still ongoing in France in 2003 and the role of unprotected oral sex in the transmission of syphilis should be emphasised. PMID:15677855

  13. Progress in industrial holography in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigielski, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Industrial applications of holography in France are briefly reviewed. Particular attention is given to nondestructive testing of helicopter blades at Aerospatiale Central Laboratory, the use of holography at Renault for car-engine vibration study, vibration characterization of turbo-jet engine components at SNECMA, and vibration analysis of plates in an industrial hemodynamic tunnel.

  14. Haemovigilance and transfusion safety in France.

    PubMed

    Rouger, P; Noizat-Pirenne, F; Le Pennec, P Y

    2000-01-01

    The risks associated to red cell and platelet transfusions are essentially bound to the polymorphism of blood group antigens and to transfusion transmitted agents including virus, bacterias.... In France, the haemovigilance system and several investigations allowed to measure these different kinds of risks. We also developed analysis of failures in order to prevent errors and accidents to increase blood safety. PMID:10938971

  15. Murine Typhus, Reunion, France, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Camuset, Guillaume; Socolovschi, Cristina; Moiton, Marie-Pierre; Kuli, Barbara; Foucher, Aurélie; Poubeau, Patrice; Borgherini, Gianandrea; Wartel, Guillaume; Audin, Héla; Raoult, Didier; Filleul, Laurent; Parola, Philippe; Pagès, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Murine typhus case was initially identified in Reunion, France, in 2012 in a tourist. Our investigation confirmed 8 autochthonous cases that occurred during January 2011–January 2013 in Reunion. Murine typhus should be considered in local patients and in travelers returning from Reunion who have fevers of unknown origin. PMID:25625653

  16. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  17. Career Development and Public Policy in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Jean

    Three conditions characterize employment in France today: (1) high unemployment; (2) the importance of degrees in employment; and (3) significant differences between the sexes. The differences between national government initiatives and regional issues also are of concern. The main strategic issues facing career development focus on reducing…

  18. The Occitan Movement in Southern France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Klaus

    The Occitan movement in Southern France should be studied in the light of a world-wide political reality of our days, the surfacing of ethnic minorities which are beginning to voice cultural and political demands in almost all large industrialized or developing countries. The first step for a minority group to come into existence is almost without…

  19. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... The Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2009 (74 FR 31762, July 2, 2009) and determined on... publishing the notice in the Federal Register on December 17, 2009 (74 FR 66992). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Sorbitol From France; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  20. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  1. [New conditions for organ donation in France].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Corinne; Maroudy, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The procurement of organs from donors after circulatory death is a reliable technique which gives satisfactory posttransplant results and also represents a potential source of additional organs. In order to meet the growing need for organ donations, the 'anticipated organ donation approach' procedure is currently receiving renewed interest with new conditions for its implementation in France. PMID:27596496

  2. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  3. Screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in France.

    PubMed

    Thulliez, P

    1992-01-01

    The high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in France led to the establishment of a national screening programme. Preventive measures were progressively introduced, and these became compulsory in 1978 with the result that the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis is now markedly reduced. Further improvements may include more systematic sampling from women before pregnancy, better and adequate health education and centralized notification of both maternal and congenital cases of toxoplasmosis. PMID:1290073

  4. Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht

    2016-06-01

    Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed. PMID:27261810

  5. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000–2012) and Tunisia (2011–2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs. PMID:26709514

  6. A paradox in physics education in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureateThe French baccalaureate (baccalauréat) is the examination students must pass to graduate from high school. undergraduate engineering school. The responses to the survey indicate that many students fall into a kind of mathematical ‘formalism’, which prevents them from understanding the actual physics behind the question. This leads us to believe that we must reconsider the way that physics is taught. An analysis of a physics teaching sequence in French and English undergraduate textbooks confirms the weight given to mathematical formalism in France. When approached from a purely mathematical angle, physics becomes a long and slow process of assimilation of the specific scientific culture that underlies the teaching model used in classes préparatoires, classes that are usually presented as a model of academic excellence. However, this model appears to be less suitable when teaching more ‘ordinary students’, who respond better when taken through a ‘detour’ of the ‘important roots’ of physics. This paper shows that in France historically rooted pedagogical traditions persist, ignoring the latest advances in research on science teaching.

  7. Populations at Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, France

    PubMed Central

    Piarroux, Martine; Piarroux, Renaud; Knapp, Jenny; Bardonnet, Karine; Dumortier, Jérôme; Watelet, Jérôme; Gerard, Alain; Beytout, Jean; Abergel, Armand; Bresson-Hadni, Solange

    2013-01-01

    During 1982–2007, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) was diagnosed in 407 patients in France, a country previously known to register half of all European patients. To better define high-risk groups in France, we conducted a national registry-based study to identify areas where persons were at risk and spatial clusters of cases. We interviewed 180 AE patients about their way of life and compared responses to those of 517 controls. We found that almost all AE patients lived in 22 départements in eastern and central France (relative risk 78.63, 95% CI 52.84–117.02). Classification and regression tree analysis showed that the main risk factor was living in AE-endemic areas. There, most at-risk populations lived in rural settings (odds ratio [OR] 66.67, 95% CI 6.21–464.51 for farmers and OR 6.98, 95% CI 2.88–18.25 for other persons) or gardened in nonrural settings (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.82–10.91). These findings can help sensitization campaigns focus on specific groups. PMID:23647623

  8. France. Country profile. [France's economy adjusts to a declining birth rate].

    PubMed

    Inserra, P

    1984-09-01

    This discussion of France focuses on regions and cities, age distribution, households and families, housing, labor force, consumption, education, and communications. France counted 54,334,871 citizens as of March 4, 1982. There were 250,000 more people than in 1975, yielding a 7-year growth rate of 3.3%. If present trends continue, there will be 56 million French by the end of the 1980s. Since 1975 when the last census was conducted, cities of more than 200,000 lost an average of 5% of their residents. For the 1st time in more than a century, urban areas of 20,000 or more did not gain population but merely held their own. France continues to experience the effects of the large-scale decimation of its male population during the 2 world wars. The World war i loss showed up March 1982 as a relatively smaller 60-74 group. Conversely the population aged 75 and over is growing, both in absolute numbers and as a percent of the population. There were 3.6 million aged 75 and over (6.6% of the population) in 1982 compared with 3 million (5.6%) in 1975. The 19 and under age group declined between 1975-85, from 31% (16.2 million) to 29% (15.6 million). The 20-59 year old group constitutes the largest segment of the population--about double the group aged 19 and under--and its growing. This group was 50% of the population in 1973 and 53% in 1982. The infant mortality rate has declined steadily in France, from 18.2 deaths/1000 births in 1970 to 13.6 in 1975 and 9.5 at present. The total fertility rate has continued to decline: 1.8 children/woman in the 1982 census a rate less than the number needed to replace the present French population. Between 1975-82 households grew 10.4% to a total of 19.6 million. The growth in the number of households is attributed to the increase in divorce and the tendency for French children to leave the parental home at an earlier age. France has nearly 23 million dwelling places. More than half of householders own their own homes. New housing starts

  9. Outlier detection for groundwater data in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valmy, Larissa; de Fouquet, Chantal; Bourgine, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Quality and quantity water in France are increasingly observed since the 70s. Moreover, in 2000, the EU Water Framework Directive established a framework for community action in the water policy field for the protection of inland surface waters (rivers and lakes), transitional waters (estuaries), coastal waters and groundwater. It will ensure that all aquatic ecosystems and, with regard to their water needs, terrestrial ecosystems and wetlands meet 'good status' by 2015. The Directive requires Member States to establish river basin districts and for each of these a river basin management plan. In France, monitoring programs for the water status were implemented in each basin since 2007. The data collected through these programs feed into an information system which contributes to check the compliance of water environmental legislation implementation, assess the status of water guide management actions (programs of measures) and evaluate their effectiveness, and inform the public. Our work consists in study quality and quantity groundwater data for some basins in France. We propose a specific mathematical approach in order to detect outliers and study trends in time series. In statistic, an outlier is an observation that lies outside the overall pattern of a distribution. Usually, the presence of an outlier indicates some sort of problem, thus, it is important to detect it in order to know the cause. In fact, techniques for temporal data analysis have been developed for several decades in parallel with geostatistical methods. However compared to standard statistical methods, geostatistical analysis allows incomplete or irregular time series analysis. Otherwise, tests carried out by the BRGM showed the potential contribution of geostatistical methods for characterization of environmental data time series. Our approach is to exploit this potential through the development of specific algorithms, tests and validation of methods. We will introduce and explain our method

  10. How Gaz de France optimizes LNG regasification

    SciTech Connect

    Colonna, J.L.; Lecomte, B.; Caudron, S.

    1986-05-05

    A regasification optimization program was implemented at Montoir-de-Bretagne in 1984, and rapidly accepted by the operators. It has been an important tool for decision-making in the optimizing operation of this liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage and regasification terminal. The models used are regularly and easily updated on the basis of equipment behavior: aging or fouling. The Montoir-de-Bretagne LNG terminal is in the port area of Nates-Saint Nazaire on the Atlantic coast. It was commissioned in 1982 by Gaz de France. This terminal is used for receiving, storing, and regasifying the Algerian LNG received under a contract between Gaz de France and Sonatrach, as well as the LNG imported by Belgium and temporarily routed through France. It is designed to receive 25,000 to 200,000 cu m LNG carriers and has three 120,000 cm m LNG storage tanks. The daily sendout ranges between 6.7 million cu m and 36 million cu m. Monitor terminal supplies mainly Brittany and the Paris area. Two identifical berths allow the simultaneous reception of two LNG carriers. LNG is carried to the storage tanks in 32-in. lines at a rate of 12,000 cu m/hr. Each storage tank is equipped with three submerged 450 cu m/hr pumps with which the LNG is sent from the tanks to the secondary pumps at 8 bar. The nine high-pressure (HP) secondary pumps, with a capacity of either 450 cu m/hr or 180 cu m/hr, raise the LNG pressure to a level at least equal to pipeline pressure prior to revaporization.

  11. Chapter 40: history of neurology in France.

    PubMed

    Clarac, François; Boller, François

    2010-01-01

    The history of neurology in France is characterized by the very high degree of centralization in that country where "everything seems to happen in Paris," and yet the considerable degree of autonomous diversity in the evolution of some other medical schools such as Montpellier and Strasbourg. It could be argued that France saw the birth of clinical neurology as a separate discipline since Jean Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière Hospital obtained a chair of diseases of the nervous system in 1892, a first in the history of the academic world. The chapter shows, however, that the work of Charcot was preceded by a long evolution in medical thinking, which culminated with the introduction of experimental medicine developed by Claude Bernard and François Magendie, and by the study of aphasia by Paul Broca and its localization of language in a specific area of the brain. Many of the great neurologists of France like Duchenne de Boulogne, Gilles de la Tourette, Joseph Babinski and Pierre Marie gravitated around Charcot while others like Charles-Edward Brown-Sequard and Jules Dejerine developed their talents independently. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital further illustrates this independence. It also shows the relation between neurology and psychiatry with Henri Ey, Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker, who collaborated with Henri Laborit in the clinical development of chlorpromazine. Sainte Anne also saw the birth of modern neuropsychology with Henry Hécaen. Jean Talairach and his group developed human stereotaxic neurosurgery and a 3-dimensional brain atlas that is used around the world. The chapter also mentions institutions (the CNRS and INSERM) that have contributed to developments partially independently from medical schools. It concludes with a presentation of schools located outside of Paris that have played a significant role in the development of neurology. Six of the most important ones are described: Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Strasbourg, Lyon, and

  12. Autochthonous case of dengue in France, October 2013.

    PubMed

    Marchand, E; Prat, C; Jeannin, C; Lafont, E; Bergmann, T; Flusin, O; Rizzi, J; Roux, N; Busso, V; Deniau, J; Noel, H; Vaillant, V; Leparc-Goffart, I; Six, C; Paty, M C

    2013-01-01

    In October 2013, autochthonous dengue fever was diagnosed in a laboratory technician in Bouches-du-Rhone, southern France, a department colonised by Aedes albopictus since 2010. After ruling out occupational contamination, we identified the likely chain of local vector-borne transmission from which the autochthonous case arose. Though limited, this second occurrence of autochthonous dengue transmission in France highlights that efforts should be continued to rapidly detect dengue virus introduction and prevent its further dissemination in France. PMID:24342514

  13. Frances E. Jensen's The Teenage Brain.

    PubMed

    Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictable and sometimes incomprehensible moods and behaviors of a teenager can be a head-scratching mystery-especially to parents. Hormones, boredom, social media, peer pressure, and drugs and alcohol are just a few of the factors to consider. Frances E. Jensen, M.D., professor and chair of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and the mother of two sons who are now in their twenties (along with Washington Post health and science reporter and Pulitzer Prize winner Amy Ellis Nutt) look at the emerging science of the adolescent brain and provide advice based on Jensen's own research and experience as a single mother. PMID:27408670

  14. France: Thrust and parry over nuclear risks

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1997-01-31

    Claims about the health risks posed by nuclear-power installations are always controversial, but nowhere more so than in France, where some 75% of the nation`s electricity is generated from nuclear energy. So, it was no surprise that publication of a study by two French epidemiologists earlier this month claiming to show a link between cases of childhood leukemia and the nuclear-waste reprocessing plant at La Hague on the Normandy coast sparked fireworks in the French press. Several French epidemiologists sharply criticized the study`s methodology and conclusions. Their attacks have now drawn an unusual response from the British Medical Journal (BMJ), in which the paper appeared.

  15. Medication sales and syndromic surveillance, France.

    PubMed

    Vergu, Elisabeta; Grais, Rebecca F; Sarter, Hélène; Fagot, Jean-Paul; Lambert, Bruno; Valleron, Alain-Jaques; Flahault, Antoine

    2006-03-01

    Although syndromic surveillance systems using nonclinical data have been implemented in the United States, the approach has yet to be tested in France. We present the results of the first model based on drug sales that detects the onset of influenza season and forecasts its trend. Using weekly lagged sales of a selected set of medications, we forecast influenzalike illness (ILI) incidence at the national and regional level for 3 epidemic seasons (2000-01, 2001-02, and 2002-03) and validate the model with real-time updating on the fourth (2003-04). For national forecasts 1-3 weeks ahead, the correlation between observed ILI incidence and forecast was 0.85-0.96, an improvement over the current surveillance method in France. Our findings indicate that drug sales are a useful additional tool to syndromic surveillance, a complementary and independent source of information, and a potential improvement for early warning systems for both epidemic and pandemic planning. PMID:16704778

  16. [Territorial and social healthcare inequalities in France].

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Geographic analyses of health-related issues have a long tradition in France, and have often consisted of observational studies conducted by practitioners themselves. Such geographic approaches were gradually abandoned during the 20th century as the pace of clinical progress increased. The few healthcare studies conducted by geographers have had little impact among the medical community. However, our studies show that geographic inequalities in health still persist. During the last 10 years or so, the social and economic crisis has dangerously accentuated health inequalities at every level In France, where equality is supposed to be the watchword of the entire healthcare system, this situation is particularly regrettable. Access to care decreases with distance from medical services. With the increasing urban and suburban concentration of the population, public healthcare policy must focus on finding solutions for people living in remote areas or too poor to access medical care. Geographic analyses of healthcare organization can help to make medical care available for all, especially those who need it most. PMID:23550454

  17. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  18. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  19. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  20. The Definition of Vocational Diplomas in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobus, Martine; Verdier, Eric

    1997-01-01

    In both France and Germany, the government, employers' organizations, and unions all participate in defining vocational diplomas based on a national framework of procedures of elaborating and standardizing titles. Important differences between the diploma definition processes in France and Germany may be identified. In Germany, the issue is…

  1. Social Representation of Gifted Children: A Preliminary Study in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavani, Jean Louis; Zenasni, Franck; Pereira-Fradin, Maria

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of giftedness in France and the need for identification. Social Representations (SR) of gifted children have never been examined in France with an appropriate methodology, yet it is important to do so as the information obtained may help ensure the insertion and inclusion of these children in school and society. The…

  2. 78 FR 38821 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... reference at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of...-071-AD; Amendment 39-17482; AD 2013-12-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model EC 155B, EC155B1, SA-366G1, SA-365N,...

  3. 78 FR 76984 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... is incorporated by reference at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For...-084-AD; Amendment 39-17696; AD 2013-24-19] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS332C, AS332L,...

  4. 78 FR 25367 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... information that is incorporated by reference at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For...-021-AD; Amendment 39-17282; AD 2012-25-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model AS350B, AS350BA, AS350B1,...

  5. 78 FR 16200 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Eurocopter France...

  6. 78 FR 23686 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Eurocopter France...

  7. 77 FR 36216 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model...

  8. 78 FR 63429 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model AS332C,...

  9. 77 FR 58973 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the Eurocopter France...

  10. 77 FR 20319 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Eurocopter France (EC) Model...

  11. 77 FR 36220 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Eurocopter France...

  12. Dutch/Flemish in the North of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryckeboer, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Dutch in the Northern France, specifically the historical retreat of Dutch from Pas-de-Calais, historical evolution of the language situation in the Department du Nord, reactions to official language policy and language loss, characteristics of Flemish in France, alienation from other Dutch dialects by communicative isolation, linguistic…

  13. France: The Move toward Distance Education in the University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    France is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leading force in Europe. A highly literate and well-educated society, France's education statistics for 2003 show 12.1 million French children in primary and secondary education and 2.2 million students in tertiary education. The concept of education as a market commodity--long since…

  14. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  15. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  16. Teachers' Organizations and Educational Policy: The Case of France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanner, Raymond E.

    1978-01-01

    Characterizes membership and policy-making role of the largest teachers' organization in France, the Federation de l'Education Nationale. It represents 44 specialized educational unions. It supports the socialist party but has identified itself with the traditional way of administering education in France. (Author/AV)

  17. A Primer for Accompanying Secondary Student Groups to France. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Jim

    Many of the factors that can help ensure a successful and positive learning experience for teachers, leaders, chaperons, and students who travel and/or study in France are addressed in this publication. Although it is geared toward France, many of the ideas, especially the section on pre-departure orientation, can be applied to any travel group.…

  18. International Reports on Literacy Research: France and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This is a compilation of two separate reports on international literacy research from France and Argentina. In the reports from France, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow detailed three research projects that included the following: (1) A description of adult literacy skills; (2) An investigation of how study-abroad students were integrated…

  19. The death of Henry II of France.

    PubMed

    Faria, M A

    1992-12-01

    On June 30, 1559, King Henry II of France (1519-1559), against the advice of his court ministers, participated in a fateful joust. The wooden lance of his younger opponent pierced the King's headgear, shattered into fragments, and penetrated his right orbit and temple. The King survived for 11 days following the mortal wound and was treated by two of the most distinguished physicians of the Renaissance: Ambroise Paré (1510-1590), the master surgeon, and Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), the great anatomist. The unfortunate event, the nature of the injury, and the medical consultation between these eminent physicians should all be of interest to neurosurgeons. The historical consequences of this event are briefly reviewed. PMID:1432144

  20. [Epidemiology of autochthonous leishmaniases in France].

    PubMed

    Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Carme, Bernard; Desbois, Nicole; Bourdoiseau, Gilles; Lachaud, Laurence; Pratlong, Francine

    2013-11-01

    Leishmania infantum is the only species occurring in metropolitan France; located in the Mediterranean part of the country, it is responsible for a highly enzootic canine disease, while the human endemicity is low, with about 23 cases yearly reported to the National Reference Centre of Leishmaniases, mainly visceral forms. In French Guyana, five Leishmania species occur in the Amazonian forest, of which L. guyanensis is the predominant species, and L. braziliensis is responsible for the most critical forms. The most frequent clinical feature is cutaneous leishmaniasis, with a mean annual incidence reaching 2 p. 1000, with some inter-annual fluctuations. In Martinique Island, recent studies have confirmed the presence of an ancestral Leishmania species, responsible for small cutaneous lesions, of mild evolution; the life cycle of this species remains unknown. In Guadeloupe Island, a few autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis cases have been reported, needing a prospective study. PMID:23886932

  1. The LUNEX5 project in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couprie, M. E.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Betinelli, P.; Bouvet, F.; Buteau, A.; Cassinari, L.; Daillant, J.; Denard, J. C.; Eymard, P.; Gagey, B.; Herbeaux, C.; Labat, M.; Lagarde, B.; Lestrade, A.; Loulergue, A.; Marchand, P.; Marlats, J. L.; Miron, C.; Morin, P.; Nadji, A.; Polack, F.; Pruvost, J. B.; Ribeiro, F.; Ricaud, J. P.; Roy, P.; Tanikawa, T.; Roux, R.; Bielawski, S.; Evain, C.; Szwaj, C.; Lambert, G.; Lifschitz, A.; Malka, V.; Lehe, R.; Rousse, A.; Phuoc, K. Ta; Thaury, C.; Devanz, G.; Luong, M.; Carré, B.; LeBec, G.; Farvacque, L.; Dubois, A.; Lüning, J.

    2013-03-01

    The LUNEX5 (free electron Laser Using a New accelerator for the Exploitation of X-ray radiation of 5th generation) in France aims at investigating the generation of short, intense, and coherent pulses in the soft x-ray region (with two particular targeted wavelengths of 20 and 13 nm). It consists in a single Free Electron Laser (FEL) line with cryo-ready in-vacuum undulators using a Conventional Linear Accelerator (CLA) using the superconducting technology of 400 MeV or a Laser Wake Field Accelerator (LWFA) ranging from 0.4 to 1 GeV with multi-TW or PW lasers. The FEL line can be operated in the seeded (High order Harmonic in Gas seeding) and Echo Enable Harmonic Generation configurations, which performances will be compared. Two pilot user experiments for time-resolved studies of isolated species and magnetization dynamics will take benefit of LUNEX5 FEL radiation.

  2. Estimation of sulphite in food in France.

    PubMed

    Mareschi, J P; François-Collange, M; Suschetet, M

    1992-01-01

    Estimates have been made of the consumption levels of sulphites in foods in France using two methods, a global and a segmented protocol. The global method gave an estimated average intake of 20 mg SO2/day/capita; the segmented method gave estimates of 1.96 mg/day/capita for non-consumers of alcoholic beverages and 31.5 mg/day/capita for average consumers of cider, beer and wine. The risk of exceeding the Acceptable Daily Intake concerns only regular consumers (40-75 years old) of alcoholic beverages, particularly wine, the main vector. The global approach appears to be a simple and useful method for estimating intakes. PMID:1298660

  3. Comparative description of tornadoes in France and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessens, Jean; Snow, John T.

    In comparison with the Great Plains of the United States, severe tornadoes are rare in France. Statistics based on significant (strong (F-2 and F-3) and violent (F-4 and F-5) [see Hales, 1988]) tornadoes that have occurred in France in the past three decades, however, show that this country averages two such tornadoes a year. By combining these observations with information from the scientific literature about events that occurred before the modern period, it has been possible to establish a tornado climatology for France based on 107 significant tornadoes. The main data of this climatology, recently published by Dessens and Snow [1989], are summarized here and compared with American tornadoes.

  4. Pronatalist policies in Eastern Europe and France.

    PubMed

    Girard, A

    1983-08-01

    Western European fertility rates dropped markedly during the 1930s, and several governments established pronatalist policies. The policies were shortlived as fertility began to rise again after World War 2 and government intervention no longer appeared warranted. In contrast the countries of Eastern Europe retained their relatively high birthrates until measures in the 1950s gave individuals, especially women, greater freedom of choice in childbearing. Divorce laws were liberalized following World War 2, and women's participation in the labor force became widespread. Most European governments, following the example of the Soviet Union, liberalized abortion laws as well, making safe, medical abortion available for social, economic, and medical reasons. Whether or not as a direct result of this legislation, the Eastern European nations experienced such a rapid decline in birthrates that governments, fearing further ramifications, decided to intervene. In 1966, for example, Romania decreed abortion to be illegal except for medical reasons or in the case of rape. Eastern European governments justified their actions by emphasizing their concern about longterm effects. They wanted to avoid the "aging" of their population and the risk of future decrease in total population size. The abortion restrictions were accompanied by widespread efforts to encourage contraception through education, information programs, and postnatal consultations. Incentives were also adopted, and there were adjustments in working conditions for women including longer maternity leave and the opportunity for young mothers to have extended leave. The government's goal is to encourage 2 child families with enough 3 or 4 child families to compensate for 1 child or childless households. Eastern Europe is not alone in its pronatalist policy. France has set similar policies into motion. If this is exceptional among Western countries, it is because French fertility declined about a century before other

  5. [Difficulties with conducting clinical trials in France].

    PubMed

    Zannad, F; Plétan, Y

    2001-01-01

    France ranks third among European countries as regards the level of investment in clinical R&D and, overall, accounts for a contributive effort proportional to the size of its population and pharmaceutical market respectively. However, there is a trend for phase II and III studies to become proportionally fewer than in the past, while the number of phase IV studies is increasing. In a growing proportion of the mega-trials, which are instrumental for establishing evidence-based practice, French experts, investigators and, even more seriously, French patients, are insufficiently represented. Though studies in France are initiated relatively fast due to a clear regulatory framework and perform equally well as far as quantitative and qualitative factors are concerned, compared with most European countries involved in clinical research the costs incurred per completed patient are higher than those recorded in the other countries. Academic research shares most of these constraints and suffers from a lack of financial and human resources, while it faces additional delays in implementing studies because of longer administrative processes. Given the stakes in play, specific solutions should be implemented to maintain and further develop French competitiveness in clinical R&D. At the patient level, positive perception and awareness of the usefulness and safety of participating in clinical trials need to be emphasized. Education at the school level and using the lay media should be developed. Intervention of institutional and government officials is much needed. Direct patient recruitment should be developed through advertisement and the Internet, as well as within doctors' offices and through collaboration with patients' organizations. Patient information and consent forms should be made much simpler than those imposed within the framework of global studies because of FDA requirements. The French health system discourages the recruitment of patients by investigators who are

  6. A κ Model for Mainland France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, John; Gehl, Pierre; Bonilla, Luis Fabian; Gélis, Céline

    2010-11-01

    An important parameter for the characterization of strong ground motion at high-frequencies (>1 Hz) is kappa, κ, which models a linear decay of the acceleration spectrum, a( f), in log-linear space (i.e. a( f) = A 0 exp(- π κ f) for f > f E where f is frequency, f E is a low frequency limit and A 0 controls the amplitude of the spectrum). κ is a key input parameter in the stochastic method for the simulation of strong ground motion, which is particularly useful for areas with insufficient strong-motion data to enable the derivation of robust empirical ground motion prediction equations, such as mainland France. Numerous studies using strong-motion data from western North America (WNA) (an active tectonic region where surface rock is predominantly soft) and eastern North America (ENA) (a stable continental region where surface rock is predominantly very hard) have demonstrated that κ varies with region and surface geology, with WNA rock sites having a κ of about 0.04 s and ENA rock sites having a κ of about 0.006 s. Lower κs are one reason why high-frequency strong ground motions in stable regions are generally higher than in active regions for the same magnitude and distance. Few, if any, estimates of κs for French sites have been published. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to estimate κ using data recorded by the French national strong-motion network (RAP) for various sites in different regions of mainland France. For each record, a value of κ is estimated by following the procedure developed by Anderson and Hough (Bull Seismol Soc Am 74:1969-1993, 1984): this method is based on the analysis of the S-wave spectrum, which has to be performed manually, thus leading to some uncertainties. For the three French regions where most records are available (the Pyrenees, the Alps and the Côtes-d’Azur), a regional κ model is developed using weighted regression on the local geology (soil or rock) and source-to-site distance. It is found that the studied

  7. The Quaternary coversands of southwest France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitzia, Luca; Bertran, Pascal; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Bateman, Mark D.; Hernandez, Marion; Garon, Henri; de Lafontaine, Guillaume; Mercier, Norbert; Leroyer, Chantal; Queffelec, Alain; Voinchet, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Detailed stratigraphic analysis and numerical dating (OSL, IRSL, ESR, 14C) of Pleistocene coversands in southwest France enable the construction of a renewed chronostratigraphic framework for sand deposition. The chronological data obtained from sandsheet units testify to the development of transgressive dunefields since at least the Middle Pleistocene (MIS 10). Three main phases of accumulation occurred during the Last Glacial. The oldest one (64-42 ka) is associated with wet sandsheet facies, histic horizons and zibar-type dune fields, which reflect deposition in a context strongly influenced by the groundwater table. The Late Pleniglacial (24-14 ka) corresponds to the main phase of coversand extension in a drier context. Silty gley horizons suggest, however, local interruptions of sand drifting during GS 2.1. Lateglacial stabilization of the coversands may not have occurred before GI-1c (Allerød), which was typified by the development of cumulic arenosols. These were covered by parabolic dunes during the Younger Dryas. The variations in extent of the emerged continental shelf during the glacial-interglacial cycles may explain the uneven geographical distribution of sand deposition through time. Because of coastline retreat up to 100 km north of 45°N during the LGM lowstand, the coversands were unable to reach the northern part of the basin. Comparison with other European regions highlights stronger affinities of the French record with Portugal than with the Netherlands and Great Britain, probably because of reduced influence of permafrost.

  8. Laboratory medicine in France. A jeopardized situation.

    PubMed

    Valdiguié, P M; de Graeve, J S; Guerre, J P

    1997-11-01

    The expenses for health care in France have risen considerably during the present decade, ranking third after USA and Canada in the Western world. In spite of the very low cost of laboratory medicine (2.4% of the total expenditure in 1995), clinical laboratories have undergone a severe squeeze, due to two limiting factors; a decrease in the ordering of laboratory tests from private physicians and a reduction in the total expenses for laboratory services from the Social Security. Consequently, there has been unemployment of technical and secretarial staff and severe restriction in investment for buying new equipment. However, hospital laboratories will manage to assume their challenge in developing robotics, automation, molecular pathology techniques and expert systems. Private laboratories, in spite of their efforts to follow the technological advances in automation, will survive thanks to consolidation of regional networks that operate in a cooperative rather than competitive mode. Therefore, the challenge will be not in the adaptation of clinical laboratories, but in the limitation of overspending at the national level and in modification of the behaviour of irresponsible citizens accustomed to spending freely on health care services. PMID:9469244

  9. Identifying barriers to Muslim integration in France

    PubMed Central

    Adida, Claire L.; Laitin, David D.; Valfort, Marie-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Is there a Muslim disadvantage in economic integration for second-generation immigrants to Europe? Previous research has failed to isolate the effect that religion may have on an immigrant family's labor market opportunities because other factors, such as country of origin or race, confound the result. This paper uses a correspondence test in the French labor market to identify and measure this religious effect. The results confirm that in the French labor market, anti-Muslim discrimination exists: a Muslim candidate is 2.5 times less likely to receive a job interview callback than is his or her Christian counterpart. A high-n survey reveals, consistent with expectations from the correspondence test, that second-generation Muslim households in France have lower income compared with matched Christian households. The paper thereby contributes to both substantive debates on the Muslim experience in Europe and methodological debates on how to measure discrimination. Following the National Academy of Sciences’ 2001 recommendations on combining a variety of methodologies and applying them to real-world situations, this research identifies, measures, and infers consequences of discrimination based on religious affiliation, controlling for potentially confounding factors, such as race and country of origin. PMID:21098283

  10. Briquet and Briquet's syndrome viewed from France.

    PubMed

    Dongier, M

    1983-10-01

    Briquet's contributions to the description of hysteria have been almost completely forgotten in France. One may wonder how he, as well as contemporary French psychiatrists, would react to the approach to hysteria introduced and officialized by DSM III. In particular, its fragmentation into syndromes without apparent link to each other (psychogenic amnesia, conversion disorders, histrionic personality disorder, etc.) and its psychological causation, unbalanced by the consideration of organic factors in etiology, may raise questions. The correlation of conversion disorders with hysterical personality remains a feature of the WHO classification (ICD 9), as well as a feature of French contemporary texts, although it is no longer viewed as a regular association by American psychiatry. It may be that cultural factors lead, as suggested by Brisset, to a repression of conversion phenomena and of hyperexpressivity of affects replaced by more psychosomatic disorders in many contemporary societies. Finally, one may question whether the choice of the term "Briquet Syndrome" is appropriate, as many of the patients described by him did not have the chronic and malignant course described by Guze: It tends to limit hysteria to one end (the most severe one) of a spectrum of disorders. PMID:6357422

  11. Chemical composition of rainwater in Eastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanusi, Astrid; Wortham, Henri; Millet, Maurice; Mirabel, Philippe

    Rainwater sampled weekly at nine sites in eastern France from October 1991 to March 1992 has been analysed for major ions (Cl -, NO 3-, SO s2-, NH 4+, Na +, K +, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+), pH and conductivity. The major elements are SO 42- and Cl - for the anions and NH 4+ and Ca 2+ for the cations. The major ion concentrations are higher in urban areas, especially at Colmar (no.2), where rainfall amounts are low. Surprisingly, the acidity is higher at the sites in rural areas [i.e. mean pH of 4.4 for Ban sur Meurthe (no. 7)] and lower in the urban areas [mean pH of 5.0 for Strasbourg (no. 1) and pH of 5.7 for Colmar (no. 2)]. This is probably due to the presence of CaCO 3 in the "loess", which is the major constituent of soils in the upper Rhine valley. The relationship between the chemical composition of rain andair-mass trajectories for four humid weeks which presented only one rain event are also examined.

  12. Charles Thibault and assisted reproduction in France.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Charles Thibault was liked by French gynaecologists. There was not a year that Charles Thibault did not attend clinician gynaecology conferences. He made great strides in research on in vitro fertilisation, being the first to perform in vitro fertilised (IVF) oocyte transfers in rabbits. Later, in 1978 the first human pregnancy following IVF was achieved in the UK when Louise Brown was born. In 1980, two French teams,one at the Sèvres hospital and the other at the Clamart University Teaching Hospital, carried out egg retrievals in patients with natural cycles, after determination of the urinary LH peak, under general anaesthesia and by laparoscopy. The Clamart team developed LH SIR, which enabled a more accurate determination of the ideal time for egg collection. In 1983, the same team reported the first ambulatory oocyte retrievals by ultrasound, under local anaesthesia. This new technique did not require general anaesthesia. Finally, in 1983, the rate of births, per transfer, for the Sèvres team rose to 5.31%. 1984 showed considerable improvement: 13.83%. The first step in establishing IVF in France was completed with the Carghese symposium, in September 1984, where Charles Thibault pleaded for animal experimentation before human clinical trials. It was only later that ART developed significantly, necessitating a legislative framework and organisations such as GEFF and FIVNAT. PMID:15982455

  13. Revisiting the Rochechouart impact structure, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapers, Haley M.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Banerjee, Neil R.; FerrièRe, Ludovic; Lambert, Philippe; Izawa, Matthew R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Rochechouart impact structure, south-central France (45o50'N, 0o46'E), is a partly eroded, approximately 200 Myr, complex impact structure. The impactite suite at Rochechouart provides an excellent example of gradational boundaries and transitional lithologies that have been historically difficult to classify with standard impactite nomenclature. Here, we present the first detailed scanning electron microscopy-based description of the Rochechouart impactites integrated with hand-sample and petrographic observations with the goal of understanding the clast-matrix relationships of transitional lithologies. Three main impact-generated hydrothermal alteration assemblages are also recognized: (1) argillic-like, (2) carbonate, and (3) oxide. Our results support the existence of a continuum between clast-rich impact melt rocks and glass-rich clastic breccias (suevites) that must be represented in universal classification schemes. This suite of impactites from the Rochechouart impact structure is used as a test case for a recently published classification scheme based on the nature of the groundmass setting a precedent for classification of impactites with limited to no geological context such as deeply eroded terrestrial impact structures and future sample return missions. The re-evaluation of the melt-bearing Rochechouart impactites questions the currently accepted size of the crater, suggesting a much larger original crater diameter.

  14. Chirac of France: A new leader of the west?

    SciTech Connect

    Moiesi, D.

    1995-11-01

    In foreign and security policy the issues for France are contradictory nature of Chirac`s goals or in the incompatibility of the means to those ends. Chirac`s modernized Gaullist formula for independent French action to meet the exigencies of the post-Cold War world may be irreconcilable with the constraints and demands of the European unification process. The goal of independence may not mesh with the retention of influence. An immediate, concrete example is the apparent contradiction between France`s European and world ambitions and its resumption of nuclear testing. Four foreign policy themes have dominated the initial months of Chirac`s presidency: the war in Bosnia, nuclear testing, European relations, and the conflict in Algeria and its repercussions in France. These themes are examined in more detail.

  15. The impact of international recruitment on healthcare delivery in France.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Ioana; Planck, Ashlee

    2010-01-01

    Mobility of Health Professionals (MoHProf), the European Commission-sponsored collaborative project, examines current trends in the mobility of health professionals to, from and within the European Union (EU). The French national level project studies the relevance of international recruitment in France by studying migratory flows and the "pull" and "preventive" factors influencing immigration of foreign health professionals to France. Using the results of the study, in this article, firstly, we quantify the phenomenon of health professional immigration and secondly, we discuss the 'pull' and 'preventive' factors. We argue that diploma and professional recognition is a variable that acts both as a 'pull' and 'preventive' factor at once and has one of the most significant impacts on international recruitment in France. We, therefore, analyze its impact on the recruitment of health professionals having obtained their diploma and qualifications abroad and the possible consequences on healthcare delivery in France. PMID:21155427

  16. Autonomy and Mismanagement of Institutions of Higher Education in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Serge

    1982-01-01

    The report of an OECD IMHE Programme working group on institutional management in France is presented, focusing on four main themes: staff, diplomas and degrees, institutional administration, and relations with the central government. (Author/MSE)

  17. A short account of forensic dentistry in France.

    PubMed

    Riaud, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The earliest records and more recent cases where forensic dentistry has been used to identify bodies in France are described. The establishment of the French Society of Forensic Odontology is detailed. PMID:26930882

  18. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.

    The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.

    To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to

  19. History of infrared optronics in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouilloy, J. P.; Siriex, Michel B.

    1995-09-01

    In France, the real start of work on the applications of infrared radiations occurred around 1947 - 1948. During many years, technological research was performed in the field of detectors, optical material, modulation techniques, and a lot of measurements were made in order to acquire a better knowledge of the propagation medium and radiation of IR sources, namely those of jet engines. The birth of industrial infrared activities in France started with the Franco-German missile guidance programs: Milan, HOT, Roland and the French air to air missile seeker programs: R530, MAGIC. At these early stages of IR technologies development, it was a great technical adventure for both the governmental agencies and industry to develop: detector technology with PbS and InSb, detector cooling for 3 - 5 micrometer wavelength range, optical material transparent in the infrared, opto mechanical design, signal processing and related electronic technologies. Etablissement Jean Turck and SAT were the pioneers associated with Aerospatiale, Matra and under contracts from the French Ministry of Defence (DGA). In the 60s, the need arose to enhance night vision capability of equipment in service with the French Army. TRT was chosen by DGA to develop the first thermal imagers: LUTHER 1, 2, and 3 with an increasing number of detectors and image frequency rate. This period was also the era in which the SAT detector made rapid advance. After basic work done in the CNRS and with the support of DGA, SAT became the world leader of MCT photovoltaic detector working in the 8 to 12 micron waveband. From 1979, TRT and SAT were given the responsibility for the joint development and production of the first generation French thermal imaging modular system so-called SMT. Now, THOMSON TTD Optronique takes over the opto-electronics activities of TRT. Laser based systems were also studied for military application using YAG type laser and CO2 laser: Laboratoire de Marcousis, CILAS, THOMSON CSF and SAT have

  20. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in France: 2001

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, F; Saraux, A; Guggenbuhl, P; Roux, C; Fardellone, P; Le Bihan, E; Cantagrel, A; Chary-Valckenaere, I; Euller-Ziegler, L; Flipo, R; Juvin, R; Behier, J; Fautrel, B; Masson, C; Coste, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Prevalence estimates of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) vary across Europe. Recent estimates in southern European countries showed a lower prevalence than in northern countries. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of RA in France in a multiregional representative sample in the year 2001. Methods: A two stage random sample was constituted in seven areas (20 counties) from the national telephone directory of households and by the next birthday method in each household. Patient-interviewers, member of self help groups, were trained to administer telephone surveys using a validated questionnaire for case detection of inflammatory rheumatism, and conducted the survey under quality control. All suspected cases of RA were confirmed by their rheumatologist or by clinical examination. Prevalence estimates after probability sampling correction were standardised for age and sex (national census 1999). Results: An average response rate of 64.7% (two stages combined) led to a total of 9395 respondents. Standardised prevalence was 0.31% (95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.48) for RA, 0.51% in women and 0.09% in men, with a higher age-specific prevalence in the 65–74 year age band. A geographical analysis of county clustering showed significant variation across the country. Conclusion: This national multiregional cooperative study demonstrates the usefulness of working in association with patients of self help groups. It showed a similar prevalence of RA to that of the spondyloarthropathies estimated concomitantly during the survey. It provides a reliable basis for definition of population targets for healthcare delivery and drug treatments. PMID:15800010

  1. The Spatial Distribution of Mustelidae in France

    PubMed Central

    Calenge, Clément; Chadoeuf, Joël; Giraud, Christophe; Huet, Sylvie; Julliard, Romain; Monestiez, Pascal; Piffady, Jérémy; Pinaud, David; Ruette, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the spatial distribution of 6 Mustelidae species in France using the data collected by the French national hunting and wildlife agency under the “small carnivorous species logbooks” program. The 1500 national wildlife protection officers working for this agency spend 80% of their working time traveling in the spatial area in which they have authority. During their travels, they occasionally detect dead or living small and medium size carnivorous animals. Between 2002 and 2005, each car operated by this agency was equipped with a logbook in which officers recorded information about the detected animals (species, location, dead or alive, date). Thus, more than 30000 dead or living animals were detected during the study period. Because a large number of detected animals in a region could have been the result of a high sampling pressure there, we modeled the number of detected animals as a function of the sampling effort to allow for unbiased estimation of the species density. For dead animals -- mostly roadkill -- we supposed that the effort in a given region was proportional to the distance traveled by the officers. For living animals, we had no way to measure the sampling effort. We demonstrated that it was possible to use the whole dataset (dead and living animals) to estimate the following: (i) the relative density -- i.e., the density multiplied by an unknown constant -- of each species of interest across the different French agricultural regions, (ii) the sampling effort for living animals for each region, and (iii) the relative detection probability for various species of interest. PMID:25811456

  2. Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France.

    PubMed

    Dufour, B; La Vieille, S

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological surveillance, namely the continuous monitoring of diseases and health determinants in a population, has developed over the past fifteen years, in the sphere of human health as well as in animal health. All epidemiological surveillance networks include the following four stages: data collection, data transmission, data processing and dissemination of information. However, despite this basic similarity, the very many networks existing in France are extremely varied in nature. At the national level, the bodies involved in epidemiological surveillance for infectious animal diseases are the Direction générale de l'alimentation, the Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments and, to a lesser degree, the Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer. In the field, the networks rely on the Direction des services vétérinaires, veterinary practitioners, laboratories in each département, and livestock producers' groups (especially animal health protection groups). Some twenty French networks currently in operation are presented in this article according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases, epidemiological surveillance is carried out almost entirely by the Direction générale de la santé and the Directions départementales d'action sanitaire et sociale, the Institut de veille sanitaire and the various Centres nationaux de référence (CNRs). Most human infectious diseases are monitored by one or more of the following broad categories of networks: reporting of notifiable diseases, the CNRs, the network of sentinel doctors, the network of hospital laboratories and departments, and medical causes of death. An example where surveillance is covered by several networks is also presented, namely surveillance for salmonellosis and Salmonella. Lastly, methods for evaluating networks are discussed. PMID:10779198

  3. The spatial distribution of Mustelidae in France.

    PubMed

    Calenge, Clément; Chadoeuf, Joël; Giraud, Christophe; Huet, Sylvie; Julliard, Romain; Monestiez, Pascal; Piffady, Jérémy; Pinaud, David; Ruette, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the spatial distribution of 6 Mustelidae species in France using the data collected by the French national hunting and wildlife agency under the "small carnivorous species logbooks" program. The 1500 national wildlife protection officers working for this agency spend 80% of their working time traveling in the spatial area in which they have authority. During their travels, they occasionally detect dead or living small and medium size carnivorous animals. Between 2002 and 2005, each car operated by this agency was equipped with a logbook in which officers recorded information about the detected animals (species, location, dead or alive, date). Thus, more than 30000 dead or living animals were detected during the study period. Because a large number of detected animals in a region could have been the result of a high sampling pressure there, we modeled the number of detected animals as a function of the sampling effort to allow for unbiased estimation of the species density. For dead animals -- mostly roadkill -- we supposed that the effort in a given region was proportional to the distance traveled by the officers. For living animals, we had no way to measure the sampling effort. We demonstrated that it was possible to use the whole dataset (dead and living animals) to estimate the following: (i) the relative density -- i.e., the density multiplied by an unknown constant -- of each species of interest across the different French agricultural regions, (ii) the sampling effort for living animals for each region, and (iii) the relative detection probability for various species of interest. PMID:25811456

  4. [Organ procurement in France: new challenges].

    PubMed

    Lamy, François-Xavier; Atinault, Alain; Thuong, Marie

    2013-03-01

    France has reached a pretty good level of activity, comparable to southern European countries: in 2011, 4945 transplantations (TX) have been performed among them, 2976 (60%) kidney TX, 1164 (24%) liver TX, 398 (8%) heart TX and 312 (6.3%) lung TX. However, the progression has slowed down since 2008 like in many countries. The potential of donors is mainly represented by the donor after brain-death (DBD) (90%), living donor (LD) for kidneys transplantation participates for only 10% of the overall kidney TX, and donor after cardiac death (DCD) activity, just started in 2006, for 2.2%. Current challenges to maximize the existing activity of DBD rely upon the implementation of program aimed to monitor deceased organ donation potential, a comprehensive approach of the regional disparities covering the steps of the detection of the potential donor, the rate of organ procurement and the refusal rate to organ donation. The profile of the donors has changed due to substantial epidemiologic shifts and a growing shortage of organs. The resource of expanded criteria donor (ECD) is widely used, mainly defined by a criteria of age. This policy is acceptable and successful under specific allocation scheme based on a donor-recipient matching. Before the TX needs of the population have been adequately met, the opportunities for improvement should be the development of DCD and LD activities, in addition to DBD activity. The extension to the DCD of the 3rd category of Maastricht is currently devised as a possible option for the future. The development of perfusion machine, available for kidney preservation and soon for the other organs is a new technical challenge that might increase the donor pool to previously discarded grafts. This superior and cost-effective method evaluated for ECD kidney preservation has also a potential of resuscitation and prediction of post-transplant outcome. To give a new launch to the TX activity as it was done in 2000, the Agency together with the

  5. The epidemiology of adolescent drug use in France and Israel.

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, D B; Adler, I; Sudit, M

    1981-01-01

    Based on samples of adolescents residing in urban areas in France and in Israel, cross-cultural comparisons of adolescent use of alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, and illicit drugs are reported. Lifetime and current prevalences of use of all substances are higher in France than in Israel. The relative ranking of the prevalence of use of the various drugs is identical in the two countries, and is similar to that found in American samples. In both countries, drug use is more prevalent among males than females, and among older than younger adolescents. There are no differences among different socioeconomic groups. Religiosity affects the rates of use of all drugs in France, and the rates of non-alcoholic substances and the amounts of alcoholic beverages consumed in Israel. Differences in the prevalence of substance use across cultures and within a culture decrease as overall prevalence of use increases. PMID:7468857

  6. Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism Following a Viper Envenomation in France

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Géraldine; Pineau, Samuel; Biron, Charlotte; Connault, Jérôme; Artifoni, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Complications following snake bites are not common in France. We report the case of a bilateral pulmonary embolism following a viper envenomation in France. A healthy 72-year-old female presented with a lower limb hematoma following a viper bite. She was admitted at the hospital 2 days later and received low-molecular-weight heparin because of bed rest. Seven days later, she complained of thoracic pain and respiratory failure, and a bilateral pulmonary was diagnosed, without biological sign of neither disseminated intravascular coagulation nor coagulation trouble. Repeated lower limbs Doppler ultrasound were normal. This case is particularly interesting because it is only the 7th reported case of pulmonary embolism following a snake envenomation; moreover, it happened in France where poisonous snakes are very rare. Several hypotheses have been made to explain this late localized coagulopathy: an increased level of unstable fibrin produced by thrombin-like glycoproteins from the venom is one of them. PMID:27175626

  7. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  8. The Scottish Women's Hospital at Royaumont, France 1914-1919.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M-F

    2014-01-01

    In 1915, under the aegis of the French Red Cross, volunteer medical women from the Scottish Women's Hospital Service for Foreign Service established a hospital at Royaumont Abbey in France, to treat casualties of the First World War. By working as a team comprised of radiologists, bacteriologists and surgeons, they were able to combat gas gangrene and record remarkable results. The circumstances and the way in which the doctors were portrayed in France and Britain prevented them from actively promoting their results to gain wider acceptance. After the War, medical women lost their training and employment opportunities and many left the profession. PMID:25516906

  9. Foreign Students and Government Policy: Britain, France, and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Alice

    The impact of European government policy on the movement of foreign students in Great Britain, France, and West Germany is discussed by a member of the American Council on Education Committee on Foreign Students. Foreign student enrollments have increased dramatically in these three countries in the 1960s and 1970s, and foreign students also make…

  10. Ecole Maternelle (Preschool) in France: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougere, Gilles; Guenif-Souilamas, Nacira; Rayna, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at a cross-cultural analysis of interviews of (im/migrant and non-im/migrant) preschool teachers and parents, concerning im/migrant children enrolled in the French "ecole maternelle", in the context of the international Children Crossing Borders (CCB) research project. Interviews were conducted in France following a polyphonic…

  11. Recent Developments in Assessment and Examination Procedures in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadfoot, Patricia

    Recent changes in educational assessment in France reflect pressures to modernize the French educational system to align it with prevailing democratic and egalitarian values and to respond to the economy's vocational training needs. After providing background on the French educational system, this paper discusses two areas of secondary school…

  12. Novel bluetongue virus in goats, Corsica, France, 2014.

    PubMed

    Zientara, Stéphan; Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Höper, Dirck; Beer, Martin; Jenckel, Maria; Hoffmann, Bernd; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Fablet, Aurore; Vitour, Damien; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2014-12-01

    During 2000-2013, 4 genotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) were detected in Corsica, France. At the end of 2013, a compulsory BTV-1 vaccination campaign was initiated among domestic ruminants; biological samples from goats were tested as part of a corresponding monitoring program. A BTV strain with nucleotide sequences suggestive of a novel serotype was detected. PMID:25418049

  13. The Processing of Architects' Records. A Case-Study: France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildesheimer, Francoise

    By means of close examination of the records created and accumulated by individual architects and architectural firms in France, this Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) study is intended to call attention to the basic documentary values of these architectural records and to provide practical guidance to help ensure their preservation…

  14. International Reports on Literacy Research: Canada, France, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Canada, France and Russia. In the first report, research correspondent Linda M. Phillips, in collaboration with Christian Beaulieu, reports on the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network (CLLRNet). The vision of CLLRNet is…

  15. 78 FR 66668 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... written comments, data, or views. We also invite comments relating to the economic, environmental,...

  16. 78 FR 22213 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... France Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter...

  17. "Training the Trainers" of Teachers in France: Assessment and Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapostolle, Guy

    2009-01-01

    With the creation of IUFMs (university institutes of teacher training) in the 1990s, the training of teacher trainers in France has become a fundamental part of the renewal of teacher training. It is seen as a fundamental lever for the IUFMs to achieve the tasks and goals entrusted to them: training teachers who need to accommodate the new demands…

  18. France's grandes écoles accused of elitism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    Physicists in France have backed government plans to open up the country's elite grandes écoles to more students from poorer backgrounds. The government wants to allow up to 30% of students to be given free scholarships in an attempt to broaden the social mix of the student body. The physicists say this would not lead to a lowering of standards.

  19. Nationwide pseudo-outbreak of Salmonella enterica ssp. diarizonae, France.

    PubMed

    Thiolet, J M; Jourdan-Da Silva, N; Reggiani, A; De Valk, H; Coignard, B; Weill, F X

    2011-06-01

    To investigate an increased incidence of human cultures growing Salmonella enterica ssp. diarizonae serotype 61:k:1,5,7 in France in 2008, we reviewed medical records of case patients and identified the material used during invasive procedures and for bacterial culture. Trace-back investigations incriminated culture media containing contaminated sheep blood agar. PMID:20718799

  20. Foodborne Outbreak and Nonmotile Salmonella enterica Variant, France

    PubMed Central

    Brisabois, Anne; Accou-Demartin, Marie; Josse, Adeline; Marault, Muriel; Francart, Sylvie; Da Silva, Nathalie Jourdan; Weill, François-Xavier

    2012-01-01

    We report a food-related outbreak of salmonellosis in humans caused by a nonmotile variant of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in France in 2009. This nonmotile variant had been circulating in laying hens but was not considered as Typhimurium and consequently escaped European poultry flock regulations. PMID:22257550

  1. School Design and Management: Three Examples from France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Presents three examples of large-scale school construction and renovation projects in France where a link has been established between school design and successful teaching and learning. Further discussed are the conclusions that can be drawn from these projects in preparatory work prior to building. (GR)

  2. Adolescents and Smoking: Evidence from France and Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosanquet, Nick; Magee, Jayne

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on recent evidence now available from France and Spain on the smoking behavior of adolescents and young people. Evidence indicates that it will be a massive challenge to reduce smoking among young people. Argues that public awareness of the threat to health from smoking should be raised and that public health measures require further…

  3. 'Miss Frances', 'Miss Gail' and 'Miss Sandra' Crapemyrtles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, announces the release to nurserymen of three new crapemyrtle cultivars named 'Miss Gail', 'Miss Frances', and 'Miss Sandra'. ‘Miss Gail’ resulted from a cross-pollination between ‘Catawba’ as the female parent and ‘Arapaho’ ...

  4. Trade Unions and Political Parties in France: Some Recent Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynaud, Jean-Daniel

    1975-01-01

    France's three major trade union federations, which do not encompass all organized French workers, espouse quite different styles of relations with political parties. The author relates these to the three main traditions of French trade-unionism: the communist-leninist, the social democratic, and the syndicalist models, but finds them changing.…

  5. Fine-scale human genetic structure in Western France.

    PubMed

    Karakachoff, Matilde; Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Simonet, Floriane; Le Scouarnec, Solena; Pellen, Nadine; Lecointe, Simon; Charpentier, Eric; Gros, Françoise; Cauchi, Stéphane; Froguel, Philippe; Copin, Nane; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Probst, Vincent; Le Marec, Hervé; Molinaro, Sabrina; Balkau, Beverley; Redon, Richard; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Blum, Michael Gb; Dina, Christian

    2015-06-01

    The difficulties arising from association analysis with rare variants underline the importance of suitable reference population cohorts, which integrate detailed spatial information. We analyzed a sample of 1684 individuals from Western France, who were genotyped at genome-wide level, from two cohorts D.E.S.I.R and CavsGen. We found that fine-scale population structure occurs at the scale of Western France, with distinct admixture proportions for individuals originating from the Brittany Region and the Vendée Department. Genetic differentiation increases with distance at a high rate in these two parts of Northwestern France and linkage disequilibrium is higher in Brittany suggesting a lower effective population size. When looking for genomic regions informative about Breton origin, we found two prominent associated regions that include the lactase region and the HLA complex. For both the lactase and the HLA regions, there is a low differentiation between Bretons and Irish, and this is also found at the genome-wide level. At a more refined scale, and within the Pays de la Loire Region, we also found evidence of fine-scale population structure, although principal component analysis showed that individuals from different departments cannot be confidently discriminated. Because of the evidence for fine-scale genetic structure in Western France, we anticipate that rare and geographically localized variants will be identified in future full-sequence analyses. PMID:25182131

  6. Correspondence Tuition in France and the Development of Permanent Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cros, Louis

    This report covers the current situation and general trends in correspondence study in France and describes two public institutions involved in it: Centre National de Tele-Enseignement and Radio-Television Scolaire. The evolution of correspondence study has been linked with the development of permanent education and the parallel transformation of…

  7. Wildlife Reservoir for Hepatitis E Virus, Southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Sebastien; Top, Sokunthea; Bertagnoli, Stephane; Dubois, Martine; Guerin, Jean-Luc; Izopet, Jacques

    2015-07-01

    Pigs are a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). To determine the relative contribution of game to the risk for human HEV infection in southwestern France, we tested wildlife samples. HEV RNA was in 3.3% of wildlife livers, indicating that in this region, eating game meat is as risky as eating pork. PMID:26079541

  8. Local and International Implications of Schistosomiasis Acquired in Corsica, France

    PubMed Central

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Rothe, Camilla; Libman, Michael; Van De Winkel, Kristina; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Grobusch, Martin P.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Esposito, Douglas H.; Parola, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    We report 11 cases of schistosomiasis in international travelers who had bathed in rivers in Corsica, France, during 2012–2014. The infections were diagnosed in 2014 and reported to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network and European Travel Medicine Network. Travelers can be sentinels for emerging infections; thus, this situation warrants a concerted human and veterinary epidemiologic response. PMID:26401954

  9. International Reports on Literacy Research: France, United Kingdom, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botza, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on France, United Kingdom and Brazil. In the first report, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow presents research into variations of reading motivation related to students' socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. Three of these…

  10. International Reports on Literacy Research: Argentina, Mexico, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Mallozzi, Christine, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Argentina, Mexico, and France. In the first report, Melina Porto reports on a new implementation of a teacher-education program currently underway in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, under the leadership of teacher-researcher…

  11. Changes in University Governance in France and in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffo, Stefano; Dubois, Pierre; Moscati, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The transformation of higher education systems under the pressure of new needs required by the "society of knowledge" in France and Italy has had a deep effect on the relationship between state and university, and therefore a direct impact on university governance. This article sums up the main results of a research carried out on university…

  12. Hepatitis E virus antibodies in blood donors, France.

    PubMed

    Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Bendall, Richard; Legrand-Abravanel, Florence; Sauné, Karine; Miédouge, Marcel; Ellis, Vic; Rech, Henri; Destruel, François; Kamar, Nassim; Dalton, Harry R; Izopet, Jacques

    2011-12-01

    Using a validated sensitive assay, we found hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG in 52.5% of voluntary blood donors in southwestern France. This finding suggests HEV is highly endemic to this region. The high HEV prevalence may reflect local dietary practices, such as eating uncooked pork and game products. PMID:22172156

  13. Romanticism or Reality? An Exploration of Frances Mary Hendry's "Chandra."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jilaine

    This paper singles out a novel written for children about India, "Chandra" (1995) by Frances Mary Hendry, as a powerful and useful novel to present to today's 11 to 14 year old students. The paper contends that the novel allows students to explore and consider different value systems, challenges them to become aware of prejudice and the making of…

  14. Frances Mullen: Her Life and Contributions to School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Thomas K.; Wells, Perri Dawn

    1999-01-01

    Frances Mullen was a significant contributor to the development of international school psychology. With Calvin Catterall and others she helped to initiate the international committee that would evolve into the International School Psychology Association. Her life and contributions provide a better understanding of the historical development of…

  15. Continuing Vocational Training in France. Review and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berton, F.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, continuing vocational training in France has evolved within an innovative institutional system that has produced results. The goals of the institutional program are to: (1) give individuals who had been excluded from initial training a second chance; (2) give people greater control over their lives by improving their level…

  16. Pupils and School History in France and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audigier, Francois; Fink, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes five studies, based on questionnaires and interviews with pupils in primary and lower secondary schools, in France and in Switzerland, over the past two decades. It explores the ways in which pupils' attitudes to history change during the transition between primary and secondary school, and investigates pupils' views about the…

  17. Wildlife Reservoir for Hepatitis E Virus, Southwestern France

    PubMed Central

    Lhomme, Sebastien; Top, Sokunthea; Bertagnoli, Stephane; Dubois, Martine; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). To determine the relative contribution of game to the risk for human HEV infection in southwestern France, we tested wildlife samples. HEV RNA was in 3.3% of wildlife livers, indicating that in this region, eating game meat is as risky as eating pork. PMID:26079541

  18. Migration and Marginality: Guestworkers in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rist, Ray C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines migratory movements in Europe since 1954, with particular emphasis on the 13 to 14 million immigrants to the industrial countries of northern Europe. Concludes that the movement of manpower has been critical in sustaining the post-World War II economies of industrialized nations such as Germany and France. (Author/DB)

  19. France's Administrative Tertiary: Stable Numbers for Occupations in Flux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaroutzos, Olivier; Meriot, Sylvie-Anne

    1995-01-01

    During the past decade, the number of jobs in France's administrative service sector has remained stable. General administrative work has become more infrequent; however, the basic occupations of secretary and accountancy have been maintained. Although the number of typists has declined, the number of "secretarial" jobs has increased dramatically.…

  20. Pandoraea pulmonicola chronic colonization in a cystic fibrosis patient, France

    PubMed Central

    Kokcha, S; Bittar, F; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Mely, L; Gomez, C; Gaubert, J-Y; Thomas, P; Rolain, J-M

    2013-01-01

    Pandoraea are considered emerging multidrug resistant pathogens in the context of cystic fibrosis. We report herein for the first time the case of a 30-year-old woman with cystic fibrosis, living in France, who was chronically infected with Pandoraea pulmonicola and who died of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis 3 weeks after bilateral lung transplantation. PMID:25356323

  1. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Verger, F.; Monget, J. M.; Crepon, M. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an investigation to map the various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France are presented. Paricular emphasis is given to the natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. It is shown that a close correlation exist between wind speed direction and the offshore width of the effluent.

  2. Fine-scale human genetic structure in Western France

    PubMed Central

    Karakachoff, Matilde; Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Simonet, Floriane; Le Scouarnec, Solena; Pellen, Nadine; Lecointe, Simon; Charpentier, Eric; Gros, Françoise; Cauchi, Stéphane; Froguel, Philippe; Copin, Nane; Balkau, B; Ducimetière, P; Eschwège;, E; Alhenc-Gelas, F; Girault, A; Fumeron, F; Marre, M; Roussel, R; Bonnet, F; Cauchi, S; Froguel, P; Cogneau, J; Born, C; Caces, E; Cailleau, M; Lantieri, O; Moreau, J G; Rakotozafy, F; Tichet, J; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Probst, Vincent; Le Marec, Hervé; Molinaro, Sabrina; Balkau, Beverley; Redon, Richard; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Blum, Michael GB; Dina, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The difficulties arising from association analysis with rare variants underline the importance of suitable reference population cohorts, which integrate detailed spatial information. We analyzed a sample of 1684 individuals from Western France, who were genotyped at genome-wide level, from two cohorts D.E.S.I.R and CavsGen. We found that fine-scale population structure occurs at the scale of Western France, with distinct admixture proportions for individuals originating from the Brittany Region and the Vendée Department. Genetic differentiation increases with distance at a high rate in these two parts of Northwestern France and linkage disequilibrium is higher in Brittany suggesting a lower effective population size. When looking for genomic regions informative about Breton origin, we found two prominent associated regions that include the lactase region and the HLA complex. For both the lactase and the HLA regions, there is a low differentiation between Bretons and Irish, and this is also found at the genome-wide level. At a more refined scale, and within the Pays de la Loire Region, we also found evidence of fine-scale population structure, although principal component analysis showed that individuals from different departments cannot be confidently discriminated. Because of the evidence for fine-scale genetic structure in Western France, we anticipate that rare and geographically localized variants will be identified in future full-sequence analyses. PMID:25182131

  3. Critical Citizenship Education in England and France: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura; Morris, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The promotion of "critical citizenship" has become a key objective of official school curricula around the world. Using an analytic framework developed by the authors, this paper identifies the diverse conceptions of critical citizenship that are promoted, by comparing the official school curricula for citizenship in England and France. The…

  4. Infection with Mycobacterium microti in Animals in France

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Lorraine; de Cruz, Krystel; Zanella, Gina; Aaziz, Rachid; Bulach, Tabatha; Karoui, Claudine; Hénault, Sylvie; Joncour, Guy

    2014-01-01

    We describe here 35 animal cases of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti in France (2002–2014). Recently, molecular tools that overcome the difficulty of confirming infection by this potentially zoonotic agent have revealed an increasing number of cases, suggesting that its prevalence may have been underestimated. PMID:25540404

  5. Providing for Disabled Students: University of Grenoble, France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Examines how France's University of Grenoble provides for its disabled students in its residence halls, including a description of the university's service for disabled service. A hospital/education center where disabled students can receive care and physiotherapy while attending school is highlighted. (GR)

  6. Novel Bluetongue Virus in Goats, Corsica, France, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Höper, Dirck; Beer, Martin; Jenckel, Maria; Hoffmann, Bernd; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Fablet, Aurore; Vitour, Damien; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    During 2000–2013, 4 genotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) were detected in Corsica, France. At the end of 2013, a compulsory BTV-1 vaccination campaign was initiated among domestic ruminants; biological samples from goats were tested as part of a corresponding monitoring program. A BTV strain with nucleotide sequences suggestive of a novel serotype was detected. PMID:25418049

  7. Infection with Mycobacterium microti in animals in France.

    PubMed

    Michelet, Lorraine; de Cruz, Krystel; Zanella, Gina; Aaziz, Rachid; Bulach, Tabatha; Karoui, Claudine; Hénault, Sylvie; Joncour, Guy; Boschiroli, Maria Laura

    2015-03-01

    We describe here 35 animal cases of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti in France (2002-2014). Recently, molecular tools that overcome the difficulty of confirming infection by this potentially zoonotic agent have revealed an increasing number of cases, suggesting that its prevalence may have been underestimated. PMID:25540404

  8. Frances Kellor, Americanization, and the Quest for Participatory Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, John

    2010-01-01

    Frances Alice Kellor (1873 - 1952) is most famous for leading the Americanization movement that greeted immigrants from 1906 to 1921. The movement has been damned as coercive in the name of conformity in the historical literature. This dissertation argues that Kellor's Americanization movement promoted immigrants and immigration, Americanized…

  9. Citrobacter amalonaticus human urinary tract infections, Marseille, France

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, V.; Abat, C.; Moal, V.; Rolain, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Citrobacter amalonaticus is a bacterium that has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. Here we report four cases of C. amalonaticus infections occurring in patients hospitalized in Marseille, France, and review all cases described in the published literature. PMID:26958347

  10. The Status of Women in France Today: A Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitz, Margaret Collins

    1981-01-01

    Reviews status of women in France today including intellectual scene, women in work force, feminist movement, recent legislation, and women in political process. Believes history will provide perspective needed to reassess changes which have taken place especially with new president and party in power. (BK)

  11. Promoting Reflective Practice in Continuing Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Educationalist Fred Korthagen elaborated a model in the 1980s for the relationship between the teacher educator and the teacher which embraces reflective practice as its guiding principle. In the present study, research was carried out into teacher development among a small group of language teachers working in continuing education in France.…

  12. Geographic variation in potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Gregoire; Georgescu, Vera; Bousquet, Jean

    2015-05-01

    Potentially avoidable hospitalizations are studied as an indirect measure of access to primary care. Understanding the determinants of these hospitalizations can help improve the quality, efficiency, and equity of health care delivery. Few studies have tackled the issue of potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France, and none has done so at the national level. We assessed disparities in potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France in 2012 and analyzed their determinants. The standardized rate of potentially avoidable hospitalizations ranged from 0.1 to 44.4 cases per 1,000 inhabitants, at the ZIP code level. Increased potentially avoidable hospitalizations were associated with higher mortality, lower density of acute care beds and ambulatory care nurses, lower median income, and lower education levels. This study unveils considerable variation in the rate of potentially avoidable hospitalizations in spite of France's mandatory, publicly funded health insurance system. In addition to epidemiological and sociodemographic factors, this study suggests that primary care organization plays a role in geographic disparities in potentially avoidable hospitalizations that might be addressed by increasing the number of nurses and enhancing team work in primary care. Policy makers should consider measuring potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France as an indicator of primary care organization. PMID:25941286

  13. The future of astronomy PhDs in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissier, S.

    2012-12-01

    This contribution presents a poll undertaken at the beginning of 2012, and addressed to every doctor in astronomy who obtained his/her degree in France. Its goal is to motivate the French astronomical community to think and discuss about what should be the training of PhDs, and what should be its objective. Further discussions and reactions can be posted e.g. on {http://docastro.blogspot.fr/}. A worrying results from the poll is that the majority of the participants would not encourage a young student to start a thesis in astronomy. The main reasons for this fact may be the high pressure on astronomy positions and the little interest a doctorate has for other careers in France. I suggest we either have to modify our training or reduce the number of thesis starting each year in astronomy.

  14. France tries to save its ailing national health insurance system.

    PubMed

    Sorum, Paul Clay

    2005-07-01

    France has provided universal health care through employment-based health insurance funds. As its governments have increasingly used tax revenues to supplement payroll levies, they have assumed a larger role. Faced with widening deficits in the funds' accounts, the National Assembly adopted in August 2004 legislation designed to decrease health expenses, increase revenues to the funds, and improve quality of care. The apparent impacts of the so-called Douste-Blazy law are to reaffirm social solidarity and equality of access; to reinforce central control rather than relying more on decentralized and market forces; to give the now-unified funds a stronger director, shielded not only from labor and business but also, possibly, from the central government; to allow French private physicians to retain their unrivaled freedom of prescription; and to continue France's reliance on taxes as well as payroll levies to finance its health care. PMID:16022215

  15. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France were mapped with regard to natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. The mesoscale thermal features of the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea were also studied. The evolution of the thermal gradients generated by the main estuaries of the French coastal zones was investigated along with the modeling of diurnal heating of the sea surface and its influence on the oceanic surface layers.

  16. Shell disease in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, reared in France.

    PubMed

    Renault, T; Chollet, B; Cochennec, N; Gerard, A

    2002-01-01

    Progeny of eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, introduced into France in 1992, were reared in IFREMER facilities to test their growth performances. During the summer of 1993, sporadic mass mortalities (80-90%) occurred among C. virginica spat reared in the IFREMER laboratories in La Tremblade (Charente Maritime, France) and Bouin (Vendée, France). Affected oysters presented mantle retraction and deposition of an anomalous conchiolin layer on the inner surface of the shell. The incidence of oysters with gross signs exceeded 80%. No obvious pathogen was identified in soft tissues by histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, histological examination showed the presence of anomalous basophilic round structures, 0.5-1 microm in diameter, in gill and mantle connective tissues. These extracellular Feulgen-negative structures reacted positively with the von Kossa stain. TEM examination on mantle and gill samples in diseased spat showed that the basophilic bodies consisted of concentric deposits of an amorphous substance interpreted as containing calcium. These observations may indicate that the mineralization process in spat shells was disturbed without exact determination of the cause. Based on the similarities of the gross signs to those reported in juvenile eastern oysters in the United States, we believe that the cause of the mortalities observed in France was probably the Juvenile Oyster Disease. Moreover, we report for the first time the detection of anomalous amorphous structures in gill and mantle connective tissues associated with mortalities and deposition of an anomalous conchioloin layer on the inner shell surface in C. virginica spat. PMID:12054781

  17. The GMO case in France: politics, lawlessness and postmodernism.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Marcel

    2014-07-01

    The GMO debacle in France is analyzed in the light of the balance of forces around this controversy, the changes in position of governments and the opponents' strategic use of intimidation. These factors have caused insurmountable difficulties for scientific experimentations and assessment of the technology, as well as for farmers attempting to grow GM maize in this country. The change from a "modern" to a "postmodern" framing of official public debates and scientific institutions has not appeased confrontations concerning GMOs. PMID:25437234

  18. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in small rodents in France.

    PubMed

    Chastagner, A; Moinet, M; Perez, G; Roy, E; McCoy, K D; Plantard, O; Agoulon, A; Bastian, S; Butet, A; Rantier, Y; Verheyden, H; Cèbe, N; Leblond, A; Vourc'h, G

    2016-07-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging zoonotic tick-borne pathogen affecting a wide range of mammals. Rodents are suspected to be natural reservoirs for this bacterium, but their role in the epidemiologic cycles affecting domestic animals and wild ungulates has not been demonstrated. This study aimed to improve our knowledge on A. phagocytophilum prevalence in Apodemus sylvaticus, A. flavicollis and Myodes glareolus using data collected in 2010 in one area in eastern France and in 2012-2013 in two others areas in western France. Rodents were captured in each site and infection was tested using qualitative real-time PCR assays on either blood or spleen samples. Prevalence showed high variability among sites. The highest prevalence was observed in the most eastern site (with an average infection rate of 22.8% across all species), whereas no rodent was found to be PCR positive in the south-west site and only 6.6% were positive in the north-west of France. Finally, a significant increase in prevalence was observed in autumn samples compared to spring samples in the north-west, but no change was found in the other two sites. PMID:27270190

  19. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium Isolates Obtained from Humans in France

    PubMed Central

    Guyot, K.; Follet-Dumoulin, A.; Lelièvre, E.; Sarfati, C.; Rabodonirina, M.; Nevez, G.; Cailliez, J. C.; Camus, D.; Dei-Cas, E.

    2001-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is usually considered the agent of human cryptosporidiosis. However, only in the last few years, molecular biology-based methods have allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes, and only a few data are available from France. In the present work, we collected samples of whole feces from 57 patients from France (11 immunocompetent patients, 35 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-infected patients, 11 immunocompromised but non-HIV-infected patients) in whom Cryptosporidium oocysts were recognized by clinical laboratories. A fragment of the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA gene encompassing the hypervariable region was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The results revealed that the majority of the patients were infected with cattle (29 of 57) or human (18 of 57) genotypes of Cryptosporidium parvum. However, a number of immunocompromised patients were infected with C. meleagridis (3 of 57), C. felis (6 of 57), or a new genotype of C. muris (1 of 57). This is the first report of the last three species of Cryptosporidium in humans in France. These results indicate that immunocompromised individuals are susceptible to a wide range of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. PMID:11574558

  20. Tectonic styles, reevaluation of plays in southeastern France

    SciTech Connect

    Deville, E.; Mascle, A. ); Lamiraux, C. ); Le Bras, A. )

    1994-10-31

    Two major onshore sedimentary basins of Mesozoic age in France, the Paris and Aquitaine basins, have been intensively explored for about 40 years and contain a significant amount of hydrocarbons which presently still accounts for 4% of oil and 10% of gas for French domestic needs. Nevertheless, other Mesozoic basins are also present in the southeastern part of France, in front of the Alpine and Provincial Tertiary thrust belts. The level of activity here is presently very low, as the first phases of exploration in the 1950s to 1970s have been rather disappointing. In order to attract new players in these frontier area the French public authorities have decided to slightly modify the policy of license attributions. Among other aspects the new policy will include: (1) a simplification of the investigation procedure related to exploration licenses by suppression of the initial public inquiry; (2) an improvement of the transparency during the awarding of mining rights, by indicating the criteria that will be required for the selecting of the petitioner; and (3) a relaxing of regulations. The paper describes the geology of S.E. France, early exploration, seismic surveys, the Jura thrust belt, Bresse basin, the Vercors-Chartreuse, Southeast basin, and Carbieres zone.

  1. Long-Term Care Financing: Lessons From France

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Context An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States’ long-term care financing reform efforts. Methods We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. Findings France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income adjusted and amounts are low. Nevertheless, expenditures have exceeded projections, burdening local governments. Private supplemental insurance covers 11% of French, mostly middle-income adults (versus 3% of Americans 18 and older). Whether policyholders will maintain employer-sponsored coverage after retirement is not known. The government's interest in pursuing an explicit public/private partnership has waned under President François Hollande, a centrist socialist, in contrast to the previous center-right leader, President Nicolas Sarkozy, thereby reducing the prospects of a coordinated public/private strategy. Conclusions American private insurers are showing increasing interest in long

  2. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. P.; Wattenbach, M.; Smith, P.; Meersmans, J.; Jolivet, C.; Boulonne, L.; Arrouays, D.

    2011-05-01

    Soil organic carbon plays a major role in the global carbon budget, and can act as a source or a sink of atmospheric carbon, thereby possibly influencing the course of climate change. Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are now taken into account in international negotiations regarding climate change. Consequently, developing sampling schemes and models for estimating the spatial distribution of SOC stocks is a priority. The French soil monitoring network has been established on a 16 km × 16 km grid and the first sampling campaign has recently been completed, providing around 2200 measurements of stocks of soil organic carbon, obtained through an in situ composite sampling, uniformly distributed over the French territory. We calibrated a boosted regression tree model on the observed stocks, modelling SOC stocks as a function of other variables such as climatic parameters, vegetation net primary productivity, soil properties and land use. The calibrated model was evaluated through cross-validation and eventually used for estimating SOC stocks for mainland France. Two other models were calibrated on forest and agricultural soils separately, in order to assess more precisely the influence of pedo-climatic variables on SOC for such soils. The boosted regression tree model showed good predictive ability, and enabled quantification of relationships between SOC stocks and pedo-climatic variables (plus their interactions) over the French territory. These relationships strongly depended on the land use, and more specifically, differed between forest soils and cultivated soil. The total estimate of SOC stocks in France was 3.260 ± 0.872 PgC for the first 30 cm. It was compared to another estimate, based on the previously published European soil organic carbon and bulk density maps, of 5.303 PgC. We demonstrate that the present estimate might better represent the actual SOC stock distributions of France, and consequently that the previously published approach at the

  3. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. P.; Wattenbach, M.; Smith, P.; Meersmans, J.; Jolivet, C.; Boulonne, L.; Arrouays, D.

    2010-11-01

    Soil organic carbon plays a major role in the global carbon budget, and can act as a source or a sink of atmospheric carbon, whereby it can influence the course of climate change. Changes in soil organic soil stocks (SOCS) are now taken into account in international negotiations regarding climate change. Consequently, developing sampling schemes and models for estimating the spatial distribution of SOCS is a priority. The French soil monitoring network has been established on a 16 km × 16 km grid and the first sampling campaign has recently been completed, providing circa 2200 measurements of stocks of soil organic carbon, obtained through an in situ composite sampling, uniformly distributed over the French territory. We calibrated a boosted regression tree model on the observed stocks, modelling SOCS as a function of other variables such as climatic parameters, vegetation net primary productivity, soil properties and land use. The calibrated model was evaluated through cross-validation and eventually used for estimating SOCS for the whole of metropolitan France. Two other models were calibrated on forest and agricultural soils separately, in order to assess more precisely the influence of pedo-climatic variables on soil organic carbon for such soils. The boosted regression tree model showed good predictive ability, and enabled quantification of relationships between SOCS and pedo-climatic variables (plus their interactions) over the French territory. These relationship strongly depended on the land use, and more specifically differed between forest soils and cultivated soil. The total estimate of SOCS in France was 3.260 ± 0.872 PgC for the first 30 cm. It was compared to another estimate, based on the previously published European soil organic carbon and bulk density maps, of 5.303 PgC. We demonstrate that the present estimate might better represent the actual SOCS distributions of France, and consequently that the previously published approach at the European

  4. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  5. [Planning of perinatal health: the case of France].

    PubMed

    Arroyo, P E

    1990-01-01

    Since 1970 the perinatal health (PH) status of the French population has been one of the highest in the world as a resulting of systematic efforts in social and economic development. This article is a case study to determine the reasons for France's success in achieving such a high standard in Ph. The study is a prospective quasi-social experiment and the data was gathered at 3 intervals: 1970, 1976 and 1981. The methodology used was based on the planning process and analyzed the data from both the microeconomic and macroeconomic perspectives. The 9 stages of the planning process include the following: 1) definition of the problem; 2) financial and economic costs of PH; 3) identification of causal relationships between cause and effect of the problem; 4) census of resources needed for PH; 5) establishment of policy goals and objectives; 6) categorizing all potential interventions and integrating these into action programs; 7) quantifying the program costs; 8) classifying programs according to cost-efficiency and 9) developing a national policy. The national policy was implemented in France in 1971 with evaluations in 1976 and 1981. The reasons attributed to the successful implementation of this national program in France are: 1) a high degree of social participation and mobilization; 2) a high level of economic prosperity achieved after the 1960's; 3) the basic health needs of the population were met; 4) the existence of a research infrastructure that allowed national and international interventions; and 5) the multidisciplinary and economic focus of the planning process. PMID:12342827

  6. Predictability in France : atmospheric forcing or land surface initial conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, S.; Martin, E.; Céron, J.-P.; Regimbeau, F.

    2010-09-01

    A first study of a hydrological forecasting suite has already been done at seasonal time scales over France (Céron and al., 2010) in a context of adaptation for water resources management. The results showed the feasibility of hydrological seasonal forecasts by forcing the hydrometeorological model Safran-Isba-Modcou (SIM) with seasonal atmospheric forecasts from the DEMETER project. Scores were better for hydrological variables than for atmospheric variables for four river catchments for the spring season. The purpose of the present study is to quantify the sources of predictability of the hydrometeorological system. Two experiences were conducted in order to address this issue. The first experience consisted in testing the impact of the land surface initial conditions. We used realistic land surface initial state produced by the operational SIM model for the specific year and 9 random years of Safran atmospheric analyses (temperature and precipitation) from 1971 to 2001, in a consistent way with the previous study (Céron et al, 2010). The other atmospheric parameters (wind, specific humidity, long wave and short wave radiation and cloudiness) come from the SAFRAN climatology over the same period. The second experience was designed to evaluate the impact of the atmospheric forcing with 9 random years, chosen for the land surface initial state. The atmospheric forcing (temperature and precipitation) comes from the Safran analysis system for the corresponding year. Some results of this study will be presented on soil wetness index (SWI) forecasts and river flows forecasts for all stations in France. We will compare deterministic and probabilistic scores of the two experiences with those of the hydrological forecasting suite built with the seasonal forecasts from the DEMETER project. Perspectives for the downscaling of seasonal forecasts will be discussed in a last part. Céron J-P, Tanguy G, Franchistéguy L, Martin E, Regimbeau F and Vidal J-P, 2010. Hydrological

  7. Remote Operations of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, T.; Thomas, J.; Burdullis, T.

    2014-05-01

    In 2007, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) started a project with the goal to enable remote control of the Mauna Kea observatory from the Headquarters facility in Waimea. After a few years of development effort the observatory has operated exclusively in a remote fashion since the beginning of 2011. This paper will discuss the entire lifecycle of the project from design and development to the successful implementation and ongoing operation of remote observing. Special emphasis will be given to the challenges, successes and lessons learned along the way.

  8. What strategy should France implement for H2020?

    PubMed

    Dhainaut, Jean-François; Diebolt, Vincent; Pouletty-Lefèbvre, Brigitte; Baker, Angela; Bassompierre, François; Borel, Thomas; Braunstein, David; Demotes, Jacques; François, Bruno; Huet, Stéphane; Micallef, Joëlle; Misse, Christophe; Molon, Annamaria; Rascol, Olivier; Ravoire, Sophie; Schwartz, Bertrand; Donne, Nathalie; Donne, Nathalie; Fusaï, Guillaume; Pouletty, Philippe; Vicaut, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of Horizon 2020--the European Union's 8th Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, allotted a budget of 79 billion euros--provides an opportunity to review France's participation in previous Framework Programmes. Indeed, French participation does not match either its scientific importance or its financial investment. While France contributed 16.5 to 17% of the EU's 7th Framework Programme research budget, its return through the funding of coordinated projects in which French teams are participating stands at around 12.5 to 13%, a shortfall of 600 million euros. Although the situation depends on the type of activity, French participation in clinical research appears to be smaller than that of its neighbours, with fewer responses to European calls for proposals. While France has many assets, which include the assured funding of clinical research, structured thematic networks and the initiation of major national programmes, it suffers from the dilution of resources due to France's regional development policy, the lack of multidisciplinarity and the ignorance of both the medical and scientific community and the institutions to which they belong as to how Horizon 2020 actually works. We propose three types of strategy to encourage proposals for coordinated clinical research projects or projects involving French teams, and to help in the drawing up of applications: Broaden the vision of our children, students and colleagues, helping them to adapt to the globalisation of knowledge throughout their educational and professional lives. Recognise the value of European actions to influence the European landscape and change mentalities. Help and support project initiators by pooling skills within a limited number of expert centres designed to assist them in their funding application. • Broaden the vision of our children, students and colleagues, helping them to adapt to the globalisation of knowledge throughout their educational and professional lives

  9. [Ventilators for anesthesia. Models available in France. Criteria for choice].

    PubMed

    Otteni, J C; Ancellin, J; Cazalaà, J B; Clergue, F; Feiss, P; Fougère, S; Nivoche, Y; Safran, D

    1995-01-01

    This update article discusses the criteria for the choice of an anaesthetic machine and provides a short analysis of the main components of the models commercialized in France in 1994. The following items are considered: the design of the machine, the fresh gas delivery system, the anaesthesia breathing system(s), the ventilator and the waste gas scavenging system, the monitors associated with the machine and other criteria such as facility of learning to run the machine and of its daily use, ease of "in-house" maintenance and quality of after-sales service, cost of the machine and of its use (driving gas, disposable equipment). PMID:7677278

  10. [Ambulatory surgery in France: practical and medicolegal considerations].

    PubMed

    Wodey, E; de la Brière, F

    2013-12-01

    In France, ambulatory anaesthesia and surgery seem to be well codified. Many recommendations have been published by the Health Authority and the professional associations: they are summarized in this review. However, numerous practical problems persist: for example, two situations specific to paediatric practice are problematic parental comprehension and application of the information provided and poor access to strong analgesics outside the hospital. Despite this, the paediatric population is an ideal target for ambulatory care because of its usual good health and quicker recovery after minor injury as proven by the small percentage of failure and readmission. PMID:24209990

  11. Remote sensing of biomass of salt marsh vegetation in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.; Levasseur, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data (gathered using a hand-held radiometer) and harvest data were collected from four salt marsh vegetation types in Brittany, France, to develop equations predicting live aerial biomass from spectral measurements. Remote sensing estimates of biomass of the general salt marsh community (GSM) and of Spartina alterniflora can be obtained throughout the growing season if separate biomass prediction equations are formulated for different species mixtures (for the GSM) and for different canopy types (for S. alterniflora). Results suggest that remote sensing will not be useful for predicting Halimione portulacoides biomass, but can be used to estimate Puccinellia maritima biomass early in the growing season.

  12. Frances E. Jensen’s The Teenage Brain

    PubMed Central

    Silveri, Marisa M.

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictable and sometimes incomprehensible moods and behaviors of a teenager can be a head-scratching mystery—especially to parents. Hormones, boredom, social media, peer pressure, and drugs and alcohol are just a few of the factors to consider. Frances E. Jensen, M.D., professor and chair of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and the mother of two sons who are now in their twenties (along with Washington Post health and science reporter and Pulitzer Prize winner Amy Ellis Nutt) look at the emerging science of the adolescent brain and provide advice based on Jensen’s own research and experience as a single mother. PMID:27408670

  13. Time transfer by laser link between China and France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Ni, W. T.; Samain, E.

    2008-07-01

    To advance from milli-arcsecond to micro-arcsecond astrometry, time keeping capability and its comparison among different stations need to be improved and enhanced. The T2L2 (Time transfer by laser link) experiment under development at OCA and CNES to be launched in 2008 on Jason-2, allows the synchronization of remote clocks on Earth. It is based on the propagation of light pulses in space which is better controlled than propagation of radio waves. In this paper, characteristics are presented for both a common view and non-common view T2L2 comparisons of clocks between China and France.

  14. [Sex and mortality in France, 1906-1980].

    PubMed

    Chenu, A

    1988-01-01

    Differential mortality in France is examined by sex, with a focus on the excess mortality among men during the period 1906-1980, using data from official and other published sources. The effects of occupation, social class, quality of medical care, and consumption of alchohol and tobacco are considered. The author finds that since 1976, life expectancy has been eight years higher for women than for men. While men employed in executive and white collar positions tend to live longer than their working-class counterparts, the situation is reversed for women, with executive women showing a higher mortality rate than other female employees and workers. PMID:12315114

  15. Severe peritonitis due to Balantidium coli acquired in France.

    PubMed

    Ferry, T; Bouhour, D; De Monbrison, F; Laurent, F; Dumouchel-Champagne, H; Picot, S; Piens, M A; Granier, P

    2004-05-01

    The case reported here concerns an alcoholic pork-butcher who presented with severe colitis with peritonitis, caused by the only ciliate protozoan capable of infecting humans, Balantidium coli. This parasite is common in a variety of domestic and wild mammals, mainly pigs; however, its prevalence rate in humans is very low--particularly in industrialised, northern countries, including France. The infection is most frequently acquired by ingesting food or water contaminated by pig faeces, and it may be asymptomatic or may cause acute diarrhoea. Specific antibiotic treatment is efficacious, and it is important to consider the risk of this parasitic disease in susceptible patients presenting with bloody diarrhoea. PMID:15112068

  16. The contract facilities for gamma irradiation at Dagneux, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, D.; Kavanagh, M. T.

    CONSERVATOME SA have operated a facility at DAGNEUX near LYON, France since 1961. This operation is among the very first of its kind in the entire world. The process is based on gamma rays from Cobalt 60 of which there are three separate units. In addition there is a small experimental unit using Cesium 137. At present CONSERVATOME is owned by TRANSNUCLEAIRE and EPICEA as principal shareholders and so has the support of the French Atomic Energy Commission. This paper describes the larger D3 unit and reviews some of the products treated at DAGNEUX.

  17. [An economic evaluation of intimate partner violence in France].

    PubMed

    Nectoux, Marc; Mugnier, Claude; Baffert, Sandrine; Albagly, Maité; Thélot, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to carry out an economic evaluation of intimate partner violence in France. Using published data, institutional sources, field studies and expert opinions, the cost of intimate partner violence is estimated in terms of the overall cost to society. A range of different economic approaches are used (micro-economic, meso-economic and macro-economic approaches). The total cost of intimate partner violence in France is estimated at 2.5 billion Euros per year (between 1.7 and 3.5 billion Euros). The total cost of intimate partner violence includes healthcare costs (483 ? million), social and justice services (355 ? million), production losses as a result of deaths, imprisonments and absenteeism (1099 ? million), and the human costs of rape and prejudice (535 ? million). By increasing the budget allocated to the prevention of domestic violence by one euro, it is estimated that the state, health insurance and local authorities could make savings of up to 87 Euros of social spending, including 30 Euros of direct expenses. PMID:20858339

  18. Toward an anthropometric history of provincial France, 1780-1920.

    PubMed

    Heyberger, Laurent

    2007-07-01

    A sample of 237,782 individual observations was obtained in four areas of France: rural Alsace, urban Alsace, Limousin, and Brie (Ile-de-France). Trends in the biological standard of living of conscripts born in these regions between 1780 and 1920 fit well with the recently estimated trends for other parts of Europe. While heights were relatively low, they did not decline much preceding the Revolution in 1789. During the first half of the 19th Century heights varied considerably both spatially and longitudinally, indicating the contrasting effects of modernization among the four areas. Conscripts from the least productive agricultural area, Limousin, were the shortest. Heights in Alsace remained essentially unchanged during the first half of the 19th Century, but those in Brie increased after 1820 and those in Limousin after 1840. The positive trend became more general after 1870, though Brie alone showed the considerable negative impact of the agricultural depression of the last quarter of the 19th Century. Heights diverged until 1850 and converged thereafter. In Limousin, the annual height of conscripts is positively correlated with the weight of cattle. By the early decades of the 20th Century, a marked, long-term increase in anthropometric growth had occurred in these four regions, as elsewhere in Europe. The regional estimates correspond well to the national trends estimated by Komlos and Weir except that they show the great local variation in height until the turn of the 20th Century. PMID:17531551

  19. Doses to patients from dental radiology in France

    SciTech Connect

    Benedittini, M.; Maccia, C.; Lefaure, C.; Fagnani, F. )

    1989-06-01

    In France, a national study was undertaken to estimate both dental radiology practices (equipment and activity) and the associated population collective dose. This study was done in two steps: A nationwide survey was conducted on the practitioner categories involved in dental radiology, and dosimetric measurements were performed on patients and on an anthropomorphic phantom by using conventional dental x-ray machines and pantomographic units. A total of 27.5 x 10(6) films were estimated to have been performed in 1984; 6% of them were pantomographic and 94% were conventional. Most of the organ doses measured for one intra-oral film were lower than 1 mGy (100 mrad); pantomogram dose values were generally higher than intra-oral ones. The collective effective dose equivalent figure was 2,000 person-Sv (2 x 10(5) person rem) leading to a per head dose equivalent of 0.037 mSv (3.7 mrem). The study allowed authors to identify ways to reduce the patient dose in France (e.g., implementing the use of long cone devices and controlling darkroom practices).

  20. Doses to patients from diagnostic radiology in France

    SciTech Connect

    Maccia, C.; Benedittini, M.; Lefaure, C.; Fagnani, F.

    1988-04-01

    Reported here are results of a 1982 national survey in France to establish the collective effective dose equivalent associated with the main types of radiological examinations practiced annually in this country (except nuclear medicine, C.T. scans, dental radiology and mass chest screening). This report describes the methodology followed in achieving dose measurements either on an anthropomorphic phantom or directly on the patient, and it highlights the importance of the radiological procedures (number of x-ray films, fluoroscopy screening time, etc.) on the patient organ doses. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent associated with these radiological practices is 86,000 person-Sv, i.e., an individual effective dose equivalent of 1.58 mSv y-1; the genetically significant dose figure is 0.29 mSv and the collective red bone marrow dose due to 45 million x-ray exams practiced in France (1982) is 40,300 person-Sv, i.e. 0.74 mSv per inhabitant.

  1. Surnames and dialects in France: population structure and cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Scapoli, C; Goebl, H; Sobota, S; Mamolini, E; Rodriguez-Larralde, A; Barrai, I

    2005-11-01

    To study the isonymy structure of France as related to local language variations, the surname distributions of 6.03 million telephone users registered for the year 2002 were analysed in the 21 conterminous regions, their 94 departments and in 809 towns of the Country. For regions and departments the differences among local dialects were quantified according to the dialecto-metrization of the Atlas Linguistique Français. We found that Lasker's distance between regions was correlated with geographic distance with r=0.692+/-0.040, while Euclidean (r=0.546+/-0.058) and Nei's (r=0.610+/-0.048) distances were less correlated. Slightly lower correlations were observed for departments. Also, dialectometric distance was correlated with geography (r=0.582+/-0.069 for regions and r=0.617+/-0.015 for departments). The correlations between Lasker and dialectometric matrix distances for regions and departments are r=0.625+/-0.046 and 0.544+/-0.014, respectively, indicating that the common cause generating surname and language diversity accounts for about 35% of the differentiation. Both Lasker and dialectometric distances identify very similar boundaries between Poitou, Centre, Bourgogne and Franche Comptée at the North, and Aquitaine, Limousin, Auvergne, Rhône-Alpes in the South. Average Fisher's alpha for France was 7877 the highest value observed for the European countries studied to date. The size of alpha in most French towns indicates considerable recent immigration. PMID:15935393

  2. NATO SET-093 joint field experiment at Bourges, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, C.; Bruel, F.; Prieur, D.; Naz, P.; Miller, L. S.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the NATO Task Group SET-093/RTG53/MSE (referred to as TG-53 in this report) Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment II conducted at the Etablissement Technique de Bourges (ETBS), Bourges, France, during 16 to 27 June 2008. This field experiment is a follow-on to the NATO TG-53 Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment I conducted at the Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG), Yuma, Arizona, USA, during 31 October to 4 November 2005 [1]. The objectives of the joint experiment were: (i) to collect acoustic signatures of direct and indirect firings from weapons' such as small arms, mortars, artillery, rockets, and C4 explosives, (ii) to analyze the propagation effects of grassy, wooded, and urban terrains, (iii) to share signatures collected from a variety of acoustic sensors, on the ground and in the air, distributed over a wide area, and (iv) to demonstrate the interoperability of disparate sensors developed by the various nations involved. The participating NATO countries , including France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States of America, and Israel as well as part of the Mediterranean dialogue countries, deployed nearly 90 sensors and sensor systems over the test range area.

  3. Introduction of SARS in France, March–April, 2003

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf, Sylvie; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Hoen, Bruno; Emmanuelli, Julien; Lesens, Olivier; Dupon, Michel; Natali, François; Michelet, Christian; Reynes, Jacques; Guery, Benoit; Larsen, Christine; Semaille, Caroline; Mouton, Yves; Christmann, Daniel; André, Michel; Escriou, Nicolas; Burguière, Anna; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Coignard, Bruno; Lepoutre, Agnés; Meffre, Christine; Bitar, Dounia; Decludt, Bénédicte; Capek, Isabelle; Antona, Denise; Che, Didier; Herida, Magid; Infuso, Andréa; Saura, Christine; Brücker, Gilles; Hubert, Bruno; LeGoff, Dominique; Scheidegger, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    We describe severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in France. Patients meeting the World Health Organization definition of a suspected case underwent a clinical, radiologic, and biologic assessment at the closest university-affiliated infectious disease ward. Suspected cases were immediately reported to the Institut de Veille Sanitaire. Probable case-patients were isolated, their contacts quarantined at home, and were followed for 10 days after exposure. Five probable cases occurred from March through April 2003; four were confirmed as SARS coronavirus by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, serologic testing, or both. The index case-patient (patient A), who had worked in the French hospital of Hanoi, Vietnam, was the most probable source of transmission for the three other confirmed cases; two had been exposed to patient A while on the Hanoi-Paris flight of March 22–23. Timely detection, isolation of probable cases, and quarantine of their contacts appear to have been effective in preventing the secondary spread of SARS in France. PMID:15030682

  4. Vaccine knowledge in students in Paris, France, and surrounding regions

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, Guillaume; Rigal, Laurent; Partouche, Henri; Aoun, Olivier; Jaury, Philippe; Joannard, Nathalie; Guthmann, Jean Paul; Cochereau, Delphine; Caumes, Eric; Bricaire, Francois; Salmon-Céron, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In France, young adults are legally freed from parental authority at the age of 18 years and are, thus, responsible for their own vaccine record. This young adult population is more frequently exposed to vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with students’ knowledge of the interval between two antitetanus boosters and their report of having up-to-date vaccinations. METHODS: In April 2009, a survey was conducted involving a random sample of students between 18 and 25 years of age eating lunch at university dining facilities in Paris and its suburbs (Ile de France). RESULTS: Among the 677 students approached, 583 agreed to participate. Only 207 (36%) of respondents knew the recommended dosing interval between two doses of tetanus vaccine booster (10 years). The majority of students (69%) reported having up-to-date vaccinations. Declaring having up-to-date vaccinations was significantly associated with having a general practitioner (OR 3.03 [95% CI 1.69 to 5.55]). Health care students were significantly more likely to know the decennial interval between two antitetanus boosters (OR 2 [95% CI 1.28 to 3.25]). Most of responding students (n=519 [89%]) believed that vaccines were very useful. CONCLUSIONS: An overall lack of knowledge of vaccines was observed among this student population. Health care providers, such as GPs and university medical practice staff, who interact with these young individuals have an essential role to promote better vaccination coverage in this population. PMID:25285109

  5. Slavery, smallpox, and revolution: 1792 in Ile de France (Mauritius).

    PubMed

    Vaughan, M

    2000-12-01

    In 1792 a slave-ship arrived on the french Indian Ocean island of Ile de France (Mauritius) from South India, bringing with it smallpox. As the epidemic spread, a heated debate ensued over the practice of inoculation. The island was in the throes of revolutionary politics and the community of French colonists were acutely aware of their new rights as 'citizens'. In the course of the smallpox epidemic, many of the political tenisons of the period came to focus on the question of inoculation, and were played out on the bodies of slaves. Whilst some citizens asserted their right, as property owners, to inoculate their slaves, others, equally vehemently, objected to the practice and asserted their right to protect their slaves from infection. Eighteenth-century colonial medicine was largely geared to keeping the bodies of slaves and workers productive and useful, but formal medicine never had a monopoly. Slaves on Ile de France brought with them a rich array of medical beliefs and practices from Africa, India, and Madagascar. We have little direct historical evidence for these, but we do know that many slaves came from areas in which forces of smallpox inoculation were known and practised. PMID:14535269

  6. French hormones: progestins and therapeutic variation in France.

    PubMed

    Löwy, Ilana; Weisz, George

    2005-06-01

    Western medicine is seen as universally valid, but in reality it displays a wide range of national and local variability. Our paper focuses on one such case of local variation: the widespread use of progestins in France to treat various pre-menopausal conditions as well as for contraception. The case of progestins allows us to explore how specific styles of research may come to dominate a particular local medical culture, and how they are influenced by changing criteria of scientific validity and wider social relations. We argue that in the 1980s and 1990s a single prestigious research-oriented Parisian hospital service played a dominant role in the transformation of progestins into scientifically validated medical practice. This status was not called seriously into question until recently when foreign research on a different form of hormone therapy suggested that risk was associated with their use. We also propose that both the research around and medical use of progestins in France was shaped by the positive attitude of many French women, including feminists, to hormonal therapies and to the non-surgical specialty most closely associated with hormones, medical gynaecology. PMID:15814185

  7. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pork produced in France.

    PubMed

    Djokic, V; Blaga, R; Aubert, D; Durand, B; Perret, C; Geers, R; Ducry, T; Vallee, I; Djurkovic Djakovic, O; Mzabi, A; Villena, I; Boireau, P

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of the Toxoplasma gondii parasite in pork produced in France, and to determine infection risk factors. An innovative survey was designed based on annual numbers of slaughtered pigs from intensive and outdoor farms in France. A total of 1549 samples of cardiac fluids were collected from pig hearts to determine seroprevalence using a Modified Agglutination Test. Of those, 160 hearts were bio-assayed in mice to isolate live parasites. The overall seroprevalence among fattening pigs was 2·9%. The adjusted seroprevalence in pigs from intensive farms was 3·0%; the highest in sows (13·4%); 2·9% in fattening pigs and 2·6% in piglets. Adjusted seroprevalence in fattening animals from outdoor farms was 6·3%. Strains were isolated from 41 animals and all were genotyped by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism as type II. Risk-factor analysis showed that the risk of infection was more than three times higher for outdoor pigs, and that sows' risk was almost five times higher than that of fattening animals. This study provides further evidence of extensive pork infection with T. gondii regardless of breeding systems, indicating that farm conditions are still insufficient to guarantee 'Toxoplasma-free pork'. PMID:26928081

  8. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. PMID:24919796

  9. E-waste management and resources recovery in France.

    PubMed

    Vadoudi, Kiyan; Kim, Junbeum; Laratte, Bertrand; Lee, Seung-Jin; Troussier, Nadège

    2015-10-01

    There are various issues of concern regarding electronic waste management, such as the toxicity of hazardous materials and the collection, recycling and recovery of useful resources. To understand the fate of electronic waste after collection and recycling, a products and materials flow analysis should be performed. This is a critical need, as material resources are becoming increasingly scarce and recycling may be able to provide secondary sources for new materials in the future. In this study, we investigate electronic waste systems, specifically the resource recovery or recycling aspects, as well as mapping electronic waste flows based on collection data in France. Approximately 1,588,453 t of new electrical and electronic equipment were sold in the French market in 2010. Of this amount, 430,000 t of electronic waste were collected, with the remaining 1,128,444 t remaining in stock. Furthermore, the total recycled amounts were 354,106 t and 11,396 t, respectively. The main electronic waste materials were ferrous metals (37%), plastic (22%), aluminium (12%), copper (11%) and glass (7%). This study will contribute to developing sustainable electronic waste and resource recycling systems in France. PMID:26283311

  10. Obtaining Reimbursement in France and Italy for New Diabetes Products

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Elmar; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  11. [Total body irradiation in France in the past twenty years].

    PubMed

    Hoffstetter, S; Marchal, C; Bordigoni, P

    2003-06-01

    A review of the activity and techniques of total body irradiation (TBI) in France in the last 20 years is presented. In order to have on overall view of the activity and techniques of total body irradiation in France, the group of cancer centre radiation oncologists sent a questionnaire to all the cancer centres or public hospitals radiotherapy departments dealing with this treatment. Thirty-six questionnaires were sent and thirty-one departments answered. Three departments do not offer this treatment. Five departments did not answer. Results, therefore, concern the activity of the 28 departments that agreed to give detailed and clear answers. A total of 10 630 TBIs have been documented, 850 to 900 TBI have been done each year since 1995. Single fraction TBIs are used in only five centres and are being progressively abandoned. For multiple-fraction TBIs, the techniques described here are the ones used in 1999, at the time the questionnaires were sent. A majority (98%) of the teams used linear accelerators. The collected data are synthesised in tables. Nowadays, single fraction TBIs are only indicated in exceptional cases. Most of the TBIs are fractionated in six twice-daily fractions with pulmonary shielding to limit the dose between 6 and 11 Gy depending on departments' protocols and pathologies. PMID:12834771

  12. [Vauquelin: route from a thatched cottage to Institute of France].

    PubMed

    Lafont, O

    2014-07-01

    Nicolas Louis Vauquelin was born in a little thatched cottage in Saint-André-d'Hébertot, in Normandy, on May 16th 1763. He went to Rouen and then to Paris where he met Antoine de Fourcroy and became his co-worker and his friend. They published together sixty articles, and he published alone a hundred and twenty articles. He became a pharmacist in 1787. He occupied simultaneously or not many important University positions. He was Associate Professor at École polytechnique, Professor at École des mines, Professor at Collège de France, Director of School of Pharmacy, Professor at Museum d'histoire naturelle, Professor at Faculty of Medicine. He became Empire Knight, Member of Institute of France, Member and President of Academy of Medicine, Member and President of Society of Pharmacy. He discovered and isolated chrome and discovered beryllium. He was a very efficient professor and many of his students were well-known scientists. He died on November 14th 1829. PMID:24997883

  13. 10 years of surveillance of human tularaemia in France.

    PubMed

    Mailles, A; Vaillant, V

    2014-01-01

    Tularaemia has been mandatorily notifiable in France since October 2002. The surveillance aims to detect early any infection possibly due to bioterrorism and to follow up disease trends. We report the results of national surveillance from 2002 to 2012. A case is defined as a patient with clinical presentation suggestive of tularaemia and biological confirmation of infection or an epidemiological link with a biologically confirmed case. Clinical, biological and epidemiological data are collected using a standardised notification form. From 2002 to 2012, 433 cases were notified, with a median age of 49 years (range 2 to 95 years) and a male–female sex ratio of 1.8. Most frequent clinical presentations were glandular tularaemia (n=200; 46%) and ulceroglandular tularaemia (n=113; 26%). Most frequent at-risk exposures were handling hares (n=179; 41%) and outdoor leisure exposure to dust aerosols (n=217; 50%). Tick bites were reported by 82 patients (19%). Ten clusters (39 cases) were detected over the 10-year period, as well as a national outbreak during winter 2007/2008. The tularaemia surveillance system is able to detect small clusters as well as major outbreaks. Surveillance data show exposure to dust aerosols during outdoor leisure activities to be a major source of contamination in France. PMID:25411688

  14. USA-France: Confronting two perspectives on shale gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, C.; Fellous, J.

    2013-12-01

    Exploiting shale gas and oil can be seen from very different perspectives, whether you live in the US where it is a decade long reality shaping the country's energy landscape or in France, where it is banned by law since 2011. Beyond this situation, the overall legal framework that regulates (or not) environmental and water protection, the use of chemicals, land ownership and the exploitation of underground mineral resources, the attribution of licenses for exploration and exploitation, etc. in Europe (and particularly in France, the only European country with Bulgaria where hydraulic fracturation is strictly forbidden) and in the US is at complete variance. This presentation will discuss subsequent attitudes vis-à-vis exploration, exploitation, scientific research on shale gas and fracking, and public activism that has arisen as a result of environmental, socioeconomic and human concerns. It will compare and contrast the different views and look at lessons that can be learned from those differences. This work is building upon the experience of the authors who have studied the issues relating to energy, water, population and climate and their connections, as seen from both sides of the Atlantic.

  15. Travel reported by pilgrims from Marseille, France before and after the 2010 Hajj.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Bauge, Marie; Simon, Fabrice; Benkouiten, Samir; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Sixty-seven percent of French pilgrims reported to have traveled out of France just before the 2010 Hajj (mainly in North Africa) and 26% planned to do so after leaving Saudi Arabia. Surveillance of Hajj-associated infectious diseases in returned French pilgrims should be coordinated between France and North African countries. PMID:22414041

  16. Nuclear Power and Government Structure: The Divergent Paths of the United States and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkenbus, Jack N.

    1984-01-01

    Despite large-scale public opposition to civilian nuclear power in the United States and France, only in the former country has the opposition been successful in halting further commercialization of this energy technology. A major reason is that France's political structure provides relatively few access points for the expression of opposition.…

  17. The Highlights and Pitfalls of Developing an Intercultural Workshop in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey-Hartel, Cheri; Kasum, Duffy

    An intercultural training workshop including orientation and travel to France is described. The program was made available to businessmen and women interested or involved in trade with France, to students in communications, foreign languages, and international business, and to community members. The program included pre-departure classes to…

  18. 77 FR 7128 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Determination and Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Low Enriched Uranium From France, 67 FR 6689 (February 13..., 77 FR 1059 (January 9, 2012) (CCR Initiation Notice). DATES: Effective Date: February 10, 2012. FOR... International Trade Administration Low Enriched Uranium From France: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  19. Economic Analysis of Grain Production in France. Staff Report No. AGES880202.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liapis, Peter S.

    A study analyzed grain production in France, the major grain producer in the European Community and one of the leading producers in the world. France is also a major grain exporter and thus competes with the United States in world markets. The United States is pursuing a policy of lower world prices to regain market share. Large grain surpluses in…

  20. Severe Ketoalkalosis as Initial Presentation of Imported Human Rabies in France

    PubMed Central

    Contou, Damien; Dacheux, Laurent; Bendib, Inès; Jolivet, Sarah; Rodriguez, Christophe; Tomberli, Françoise; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Lavenir, Rachel; Lepelletier, Anthony; Larrous, Florence; Troupin, Cécile; Bourhy, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with an unusual initial metabolic presentation of imported human rabies who became symptomatic within 2 weeks of returning from Mali to France. This is the single case of imported human rabies identified in France within the past 11 years and the first report of viral RNA in bronchial secretions. PMID:25854482

  1. 75 FR 42380 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order on Sorbitol From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... from France. See Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009). Pursuant to... United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. Sorbitol From France; Determination, 75 FR 39277... Order, 47 FR 15391 (April 9, 1982). On June 29, 1984, the order was revoked, in part. See Sorbitol...

  2. Structure and Governance of Universities in France, the United States of America, and Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acostaromero, Salvador

    This thesis reviews the main elements of university governance in France, the United States, and Mexico. A brief historical overview of higher education in the three countries precedes an individual analysis. The analysis of university governance in France focuses on the 1968 reform of higher education prompted by student protests and the 1983…

  3. Possible application of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index in France: A pilot study in Brittany

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our goal was to determine if the US Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) scale might have application in France. Twenty homes in Brittany, north western region of France were classified by inspection as “Moldy” or “Non-Moldy”. Dust and air samples were collected (MiTest ...

  4. From Sun King to Royal Twilight: Painting in Eighteenth Century France from the Musee Picardie, Amiens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the traveling exhibition from the Musee de Picardie in Amiens, France, called "From the Sun King to the Royal Twilight: Painting in Eighteenth Century France," that provides an overview of French paintings from the reign of Louis IV to the fall of the monarchy. (CMK)

  5. Corporate Language: The Blind Spot of Language Policy? Reflections on France's Loi Toubon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saulière, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at France's Loi Toubon, which mandates the use of French in private companies, to illustrate how macro-level language planning reaches a dead end if it fails to consider local contexts and involve micro-level agents. The motivations, limitations and contradictions of France's language policy in relation to companies…

  6. Education in France. Bulletin, 1963, No. 33. OE-14091. [Foreword - Chapter VI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Male, George A.

    1963-01-01

    The present bulletin on education in France is another in the Office of Education's long established series on education in other countries. France is of particular interest because of its strong educational traditions and its dedication to democratic principles. In the process of gathering information for this study, the author visited schools in…

  7. Education in France. Bulletin, 1963, No. 33. OE-14091. [Chapter VII - Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Male, George M.

    1963-01-01

    The present bulletin on education in France is another in the Office of Education's long established series on education in other countries. France is of particular interest because of its strong educational traditions and its dedication to democratic principles. In the process of gathering information for this study, the author visited schools in…

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8, Which Reemerged in France in August 2015

    PubMed Central

    Sailleau, Corinne; Quenault, Hélène; Lucas, Pierrick; Viarouge, Cyril; Touzain, Fabrice; Fablet, Aurore; Vitour, Damien; Attoui, Houssam; Zientara, Stéphan; Blanchard, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the complete genome sequence (coding and noncoding) of the bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8, isolated from a ram in Allier department, France, 2015. Sequence analysis confirms the reemergence of the BTV-8 strain that previously circulated in France until 2009 and other European countries until 2010. PMID:27081120

  9. What Do We Do with a Difference? France and the Debate over Headscarves in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshet, Dan

    2008-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent debates surrounding headscarves in public schools in France, where the wearing of an article of clothing became the focus of intense national debate. The book is divided into two parts. Part One, Framing the Discussion, includes the following essays: (1) Essay: Immigration and Integration in Europe (2) France; (3)…

  10. Educating the People: "Cours d'adultes" and Social Stratification in France, 1830-1870

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines the formation, operation, and social effects of adult education classes in France during the nineteenth century. These classes were created and operated prior to the formation of France's national education system and were part of the expansion of primary schooling for the working class, or more generally for "the people". The…

  11. Peripheral arterial obliterative disease. Cost of illness in France.

    PubMed

    Montron, A; Guignard, E; Pelc, A; Comte, S

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of this study, carried out in 1995, was to determine, using available sources, the cost of peripheral arterial obliterative disease (PAOD) in France over a 1-year period. This cost-of-illness study was based on a retrospective analysis of the available literature and databases. It involved a description of epidemiological data and a cost estimate of the different medical resources consumed over 1 year. For this latter purpose, a payer perspective was chosen. Data were extracted from national representative surveys and databases with respect to morbidity and mortality [from the National Institute of Health and Medical Research (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale; INSERM) and the National Sickness Insurance Fund for Salaried People (Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salariés; CNAMTS)], consultations, examination tests and drug prescriptions [from the French Medical Audit conducted by Intercontinental Medical Statistics (IMS)], hospitalisations [from the Statistical Unit of the Department of Health-Service des Statistiques, des Etudes et des Systemes d'Information (SESI) and the National Public Research Centre in Health Economics (Centre de Recherche d'Etude et de Documentation en Economie de la Santé; CREDES)] and related health expenditure from CNAMTS. In France, the prevalence of stage II PAOD (Leriche and Fontaine classification) in 1992 was estimated to be 675,000; 53% of these patients had undergone vascular or bypass surgery. The total annual cost of healthcare (including consultations, drugs, laboratory tests, hospitalisation and hydrotherapy) for the management of patients with PAOD ranged from 3.9 billion French francs (F) to F4.6 billion (1995 values), depending on the type of hospital considered. 50% of this cost was related to hospitalisations and 75% was covered by the CNAMTS. Although this study was only a partial evaluation and did not take into account indirect costs or nonmedical direct

  12. [First-aid in France. Current situation and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri

    2010-06-01

    First-aid--treatment aimed at enabling a victim to survive pending the arrival of qualified medical support--is less well developed in France than in many other industrialized countries, especially among the general public. The current status of first-aid in France is paradoxical: schooling is free and obligatory, the ambulance service and emergency services are of the highest quality, but the general public are too often passive and unknowledgeable when faced with an emergency situation. This situation is due to several factors, including the complexity of first-aid training and regulations, the involvement of too many public bodies, the legal liability of the first-aider, and a lack of ongoing training. The French National Academy of Medicine recommends 8 measures to improve this situation: Provide a legal definition of first-aid: "a set of recognized measures aimed, in an emergency setting, at preserving the physical and psychological integrity of the victim of an accident or illness, notably pending the arrival of professional medical assistance". Waive, as in many other countries, civil and legal responsibility for the non professional first-aider, except in case of clear negligence. Reinforce the organization of first-aid in France in order to monitor the number and quality of first-aiders, and to ensure theoretical and pedagogic research; create a communications department capable of supporting and promoting first-aid. Improve access to first-aid training by increasing the number of situations in which it is obligatory (driving tuition, school and university examinations, group responsibility, at-risk practices), by providing financial assistance for certain groups, and by ensuring routine training at school, in the armed forces, and in the workplace. Create a progressive and integrated citizen first-aid training course with individual modules, ensuring that first-aiders update and perfect their knowledge throughout life. Soften pedagogic rules and shorten

  13. The burden and treatment of diabetes in France

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this review was to describe and situate the burden and treatment of diabetes within the broader context of the French health care system. Methods Literature review on the burden, treatment and outcomes of diabetes in France, complemented by personal communication with with diabetes experts in the Paris public hospital system. Results Prevalence of diabetes in the French population is estimated at 6%. Diabetes has the highest prevalence among all chronic conditions covered 100% by France’s statutory health insurance (SHI), and the number of covered patients has doubled in the past 10 years. In 2010, the SHI cost for pharmacologically-treated diabetes patients amounted to €17.7 billion, including an estimated €2.5 billion directly related to diabetes treatment and prevention and €4.2 billion for treatment of diabetes-related complications. In 2007, the average annual SHI cost was €6 930 for patients with type 1 diabetes and €4 890 for patients with type 2 diabetes. Complications are associated with significantly increased costs. Diabetes is a leading cause of adult blindness, amputation and dialysis in France, which also has one of the highest rates of end-stage renal disease in Europe. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among people with diabetes. Historically, the French health care system has been more oriented to curative acute care rather than preventive medicine and management of long-term chronic diseases. More recently, the government has focused on primary prevention as part of its national nutrition and health program, with the goal of reducing overweight and obesity in adults and children. It has also recognized the critical role of the patient in managing chronic diseases such as diabetes and has put into place a free patient support program called “sophia”. Additional initiatives focus on therapeutic patient education (TPE) and the development of personalized patient pathways. Conclusions

  14. Childhood leukaemia and population movements in France, 1990–2003

    PubMed Central

    Bellec, S; Baccaïni, B; Goubin, A; Rudant, J; Ripert, M; Hémon, D; Clavel, J

    2007-01-01

    In a national study, we investigated the incidence of childhood leukaemia (CL) over a 14-year period in France in relation to several measures based on the proportion of individuals who changed address between the last two national censuses. A positive association was found with the proportion of migrants who came from a distant place. The further the migrants came, the higher was the incidence of leukaemia, particularly among children aged 0–4 years in ‘isolated' communes at the time of diagnosis (RR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.1,1.8 in the highest category of migration distance). Although the role of the population density was less obvious, a more marked association was found above a certain threshold. No association with the proportion of commuters was observed. PMID:18087281

  15. Market access pathways for cell therapies in France

    PubMed Central

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Toumi, Mondher; Jørgensen, Jesper; Kefalas, Panos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and objective Cell therapies can be classified into three main categories of products: advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), ATMPs prepared on a non-routine basis (hospital exemptions), and minimally manipulated cells. Despite the benefits that cell therapies can bring to patients, they are subject to complex pathways to reach the market in France. The objective of this study was to identify and describe routes to market access for cell therapies in France and how these vary by regulatory status. Methodology The research was structured following five main steps: (1) identification of the French regulatory framework for cell therapies; (2) identification of the health products categorised as cell therapies in France; (3) mapping of the market access pathways per category of cell therapy; (4) validation of findings by interviewing experts; and (5) development of a roadmap summarising market access pathways for cell therapies in France. The secondary research methodology included a comprehensive literature review conducted on websites of French public health institutions, complemented by a research for peer-reviewed articles, abstracts, and grey literature. Results Different market access pathways are possible depending on the cell therapy category. For ATMPs, market access pathways depend on the licensing status of the therapy. Licensed ATMPs followed the same market access pathways as ‘conventional’ pharmaceuticals, whereas not-yet-licensed ATMPs can be funded via a specific financial allowance under the framework of a Temporary Authorisation for Use procedure or various research programmes. For new ATMPs that are associated with a separate medical device (not considered as ‘combined ATMPs’) or associated with a new medical procedure, additional pathways will apply for the medical device and/or medical procedure to be reimbursed in the ambulatory settings or at hospital. The most likely funding option for ATMPs prepared on a non

  16. Measles Elimination Efforts and 2008–2011 Outbreak, France

    PubMed Central

    Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel; Baudon, Claire; Freymuth, François; Lamy, Mathieu; Maine, Catherine; Floret, Daniel; Parent du Chatelet, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Although few measles cases were reported in France during 2006 and 2007, suggesting the country might have been close to eliminating the disease, a dramatic outbreak of >20,000 cases occurred during 2008–2011. Adolescents and young adults accounted for more than half of cases; median patient age increased from 12 to 16 years during the outbreak. The highest incidence rate was observed in children <1 year of age, reaching 135 cases/100,000 infants during the last epidemic wave. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalized, including 1,023 for severe pneumonia and 27 for encephalitis/myelitis; 10 patients died. More than 80% of the cases during this period occurred in unvaccinated persons, reflecting heterogeneous vaccination coverage, where pockets of susceptible persons still remain. Although vaccine coverage among children improved, convincing susceptible young adults to get vaccinated remains a critical issue if the target to eliminate the disease by 2015 is to be met. PMID:23618523

  17. Preparing the future of astronomy PhDs in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissier, S.; Buat, V.; Cambresy, L.

    2015-12-01

    The numbers of doctors in astronomy formed in France has been increasing for 15 years, a time during which the number of openings for permanent positions has remained constant. As it is well known by the young generations, the pressure on the research position is high, putting many post-doctoral researchers in difficult situations for up to 10 years after their defence. We have to prepare students and post-doctoral researchers to maximize their chances for both academia and the private sector. In this spirit, the 2015 SF2A conference included a lunch meeting with former members of hiring committee and a workshop on the valorization of the astronomy thesis. We believe awareness of both young and senior researchers is important to provide PhDs with a robust background and modern methods, valuable in their future, whichever it is.

  18. Implementing Cognitive Remediation Programs in France: The "Secret Sauce".

    PubMed

    Amado, Isabelle; Sederer, Lloyd I

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive remediation (CR) is a psychosocial therapy that seeks to restore patients' cognitive abilities by providing strategies to improve functioning in cognitive domains and helping them transfer acquired capabilities to everyday life. Since 2008, CR programs have been introduced in several regional health ministry areas in France. This column describes that implementation initiative, which includes creation of a network of the most active CR programs to conduct multicenter trials; establishment of a university degree in CR, awarded after completion of a one-year clinical training program; and implementation activities of regional health agencies. The authors describe three core elements of a "secret sauce"-a common language, timing, and leadership-that has helped ensure the success of the implementation efforts and that may be useful in other countries. PMID:26975526

  19. STS-93 Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-93 Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), poses in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Facility, which holds the main engine of the orbiter Columbia. He and other crew members Commander Eileen Collins, Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley are visiting Kennedy to look over the primary payload, the Chandra X-ray Observatory. STS-93 is scheduled to launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  20. Cloud Height Maps for Hurricanes Frances and Ivan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) captured these images and cloud-top height retrievals of Hurricane Frances on September 4, 2004, when the eye sat just off the coast of eastern Florida, and Hurricane Ivan on September 5th, after this cyclone had devastated Grenada and was heading toward the central and western Caribbean. Hurricane Frances made landfall in the early hours of September 5, and was downgraded to Tropical Storm status as it swept inland through the Florida panhandle and continued northward. On the heels of Frances is Hurricane Ivan, which is on record as the strongest tropical cyclone to form at such a low latitude in the Atlantic, and was the most powerful hurricane to have hit the Caribbean in nearly a decade.

    The ability of forecasters to predict the intensity and amount of rainfall associated with hurricanes still requires improvement, especially on the 24 to 48 hour timescale vital for disaster planning. To improve the operational models used to make hurricane forecasts, scientists need to better understand the multi-scale interactions at the cloud, mesoscale and synoptic scales that lead to hurricane intensification and dissipation, and the various physical processes that affect hurricane intensity and rainfall distributions. Because these uncertainties with regard to how to represent cloud processes still exist, it is vital that the model findings be evaluated against hurricane observations whenever possible. Two-dimensional maps of cloud height such as those shown here offer an unprecedented opportunity for comparing simulated cloud fields against actual hurricane observations.

    The left-hand panel in each image pair is a natural color view from MISR's nadir camera. The right-hand panels are cloud-top height retrievals produced by automated computer recognition of the distinctive spatial features between images acquired at different view angles. These results indicate that at the time that these images were

  1. Fire occurrence prediction in the Mediterranean: Application to Southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakosta, Panagiota; Öster, Jan; Scherb, Anke; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The areas that extend in the Mediterranean basin have a long fire history. The climatic conditions of wet winters and long hot drying summers support seasonal fire events, mainly ignited by humans. Extended land fragmentation hinders fire spread, but seasonal winds (e.g. Mistral in South France or Meltemia in Greece) can drive fire events to become uncontrollable fires with severe impacts to humans and the environment [1]. Prediction models in these areas should incorporate both natural and anthropogenic factors. Several indices have been developed worldwide to express fire weather conditions. The Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) is currently adapted by many countries in Europe due to the easily observable input weather parameters (temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, precipitation) and the easy-to-implement algorithms of the Canadian formulation describing fuel moisture relations [2],[3]. Human influence can be expressed directly by human presence (e.g. population density) or indirectly by proxy indicators (e.g. street density [4], land cover type). The random nature of fire occurrences and the uncertainties associated with the influencing factors motivate probabilistic prediction models. The aim of this study is to develop a prediction model of fire occurrence probability under natural and anthropogenic influence in Southern France and to compare it with earlier developed predictions in other Mediterranean areas [5]. Fire occurrence is modeled as a Poisson process. Two interpolation methods (Kriging and Inverse Distance Weighting) are used to interpolate daily weather observations from weather stations to a 1 km² spatial grid and their results are compared. Poisson regression estimates the parameters of the model and the resulting daily predictions are provided in terms of maps displaying fire occurrence rates. The model is applied to the regions Provence-Alpes-Côtes D'Azur und Languedoc-Roussillon in the South of France. Weather data are obtained from

  2. Impact of carwash discharge on stormwater quality (Toulouse, France).

    PubMed

    Sablayrolles, C; Vialle, C; Vignoles, C; Montrejaud-Vignoles, M

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of discharge from carwashes to pollutant levels in stormwater was evaluated. Five carwashes and two outlets in the city of Toulouse (France) were selected. Water samples were collected from December 2006 to December 2007. Concentrations and loadings of classical water quality parameters (conductivity, pH, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen, phosphorus, ammonium, nitrate, suspended solid and volatile suspended solid) and five groups of organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, lauryl alkyl benzene sulphonates, methyl tert-butyl ether and total hydrocarbons) were determined. The results suggest that the wastewater derived from carwashes was negligible compared to the volume and flow rates within the stormwater network. However, high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phosphorus and lauryl alkyl benzene sulphonates in liquid waste from carwashes, and the impact of these pollutants on stormwater quality could not be neglected. PMID:21123901

  3. Structural investigations in the Massif-Central, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanvic, J. Y.

    1974-01-01

    This survey covered the French Massif-Central (where crystalline and volcanic rocks outcrop) and its surrounding sedimentaries, Bassin de Paris, Bassin d'Aquitaine and Rhodanian valley. One objective was the mapping of fracturing and the surveying of its relationship with known ore deposits. During this survey it was found that ERTS imagery outlines lithology in some sedimentary basins. On the other hand, in a basement area, under temperature climate conditions, lithology is rarely expressed. These observations can be related to the fact that band 5 gives excellent results above sedimentary basins in France and generally band 7 is the most useful in a basement area. Several examples show clearly the value of ERTS imagery for mapping linear features and circular structures. All the main fractures are identified with the exception of new ones found both in sedimentaries and basement areas. Other interesting findings concern sun elevation which, stereoscopic effect not being possible, simulates relief in a better way under certain conditions.

  4. [3 cases of tetradontidae poisoning observed in France].

    PubMed

    Costes, P; Avril, E

    1979-01-01

    The authors report 3 cases of food poisoning, one of them leading to a swift death, which they were able to observe on 1st January 1978 in the Drôme (France). They explain how burbot was the suspected food responsible for the auto-intoxication and how the X ray examination of the vertebrae of this fish allowed them to support the diagnosis of "tetrodonic" poisoning; the inquest did not allow to state precisely where the fish was caught. With regard to these French cases the authors point out that this type of pathology is made possible by the increasing importing of fish from tropical regions, in powder form or frozen products. PMID:498391

  5. [Intraosseous vascular access, a technic previously underestimated in France].

    PubMed

    Oriot, D; Cardona, J; Berthier, M; Nasimi, A; Boussemart, T

    1994-07-01

    Intraosseous vascular access is a simple and very efficient technique for fluid and drug administration in any pediatric emergencies where the intravenous route is impossible or inadequate. Yet it remains unrecognized in France. Its pharmacokinetics is close to that of peripheral intravenous route, but it allows much greater infusion flow rates. In pediatric resuscitation it must be considered as the number one technique of intravascular access in infants, and rapidly as the first alternative after failure of attempt of intravenous route in children under 6. Provided that the technique is performed with careful asepsis, the risk of infectious complications is very low. However the intraosseous route must remain a transitory vascular access, and has to be stopped as soon as possible, its use never exceeding 24 hours. PMID:7987470

  6. Statistical analysis of Nomao customer votes for spots of France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pálovics, Róbert; Daróczy, Bálint; Benczúr, András; Pap, Julia; Ermann, Leonardo; Phan, Samuel; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of votes of customers for spots of France collected by the startup company Nomao. The frequencies of votes per spot and per customer are characterized by a power law distribution which remains stable on a time scale of a decade when the number of votes is varied by almost two orders of magnitude. Using the computer science methods we explore the spectrum and the eigenvalues of a matrix containing user ratings to geolocalized items. Eigenvalues nicely map to large towns and regions but show certain level of instability as we modify the interpretation of the underlying matrix. We evaluate imputation strategies that provide improved prediction performance by reaching geographically smooth eigenvectors. We point on possible links between distribution of votes and the phenomenon of self-organized criticality.

  7. The Rank-Ferenczi relationship, as seen from France.

    PubMed

    Lugrin, Yves

    2012-12-01

    Seen from France, where Rank's "American" work is not well known, the Rank-Ferenczi relationship does not allow to state that the two learned colleagues were the best friends. Rank met Ferenczi in 1908, but their most valuable and fruitful working relationship is limited to the 1922-1924 time period. Their working relationship must be read in light of the unique transference links of each to Freud, and in light of the tormented history of the analytic movement, especially after the First World War. The sensible reader will not forget that after the fast extinction of their short collaboration they continued their own works in their own ways, Otto Rank in Paris and in America and Sándor Ferenczi in Budapest. No more friends, nor enemies, but both, in a different style, brave and creative analysts. PMID:23175027

  8. Survey on practice of venom immunotherapy in France

    PubMed Central

    Dzviga, Charles; Matevi, Catherine; Bonniaud, Philippe; Lavaud, François; Girodet, Bruno; Birnbaum, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is the only efficient prevention for sting-induced anaphylaxis, but its application is not without risks and needs precautions and standardization. European guidelines were proposed in 2005, but recent practice surveys and more recent knowledge raise the need for an update. The aim of this study was to analyze VIT practices in France, based on previous surveys in Europe but also extended to outcome event management. Material and methods A paper questionnaire was sent widely to persons involved in venom treatment. Results Eighty-six responses could be included from physicians actively involved in VIT induction evenly distributed in France. The survey shows that VIT was engaged from grade III down to grade I reactions, starting preferentially with the ultra-rush protocol. Premedication was used by 42% only and risks induced by co-treatment with β-blockers were well known but not with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. However, side effects were very variably managed from arrest to enhancement in doses, time-delay or duration. Similarly, we observed a large discrepancy in treatment evaluation (skin tests, biology, timing and interpretation), decision making for treatment termination (when and how long to be prolonged) and post-treatment follow-up (adrenaline kit, event record) as well as procedures in case of late relapse (new induction, different doses). Conclusions Our study shows that most recommendations were fully or partially followed and may need reminding, but many points need to be completed or updated with new tools and knowledge acquired during the last 10 years. PMID:26925131

  9. Testing probabilistic seismic hazard estimations against observations, application to France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasan, H. O.; Beauval, C.; Helmstetter, A.; Gueguen, P.

    2012-12-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard calculations rely on different models and assumptions (characterization of seismic sources, recurrence laws of magnitudes, ground-motion prediction equations, …). In many countries, studies performed by different teams often led to considerably different outputs. The aim of the present study is to understand if, by using observations, it is possible to discriminate between the different hazard estimates. The work focuses on estimates obtained for the French territory (SIGMA project, seismic hazard in France). Three past studies are considered: MEDD 2002, AFPS 2006 and SIGMA 2012. Two types of observations are taken into account: the French accelerometric database (RAP), and the French macroseismic database (SisFrance). The methods were initially applied in New Zealand, Italy, and the US (Albarello and D'Amico 2008; Stirling and Gerstenberger 2010). Testing of predictions against observations is led in an extensive way, looking at different acceleration threshold levels, different return periods and different spatial windows. The GMPEs best fitting the low-acceleration dataset are first identified. In the course of the testing, we check that the main assumptions underlying the tests are fulfilled (independence of sites, no impact of aftershocks, completeness of records). The results of the testing, relying on the short accelerometric record, show that the models are overestimating the observed hazard for small accelerations (<30 cm/s2) and short return periods (< 20 years). For higher accelerations and longer return periods, models are consistent with the observed hazard. Next, tests will be led using observations on much longer time windows by using the macroseismic database.

  10. Toward an Ensemble Streamflow Forecast Over the Entire France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, F.; Habets, F.; Noilhan, J.; Morel, S.; Le Moigne, P.

    2004-12-01

    Since the year 2003, the French National Weather Service (Meteo-France) uses an operationnal real-time system that provides a daily monitoring of the water budget, streamflows and aquifer levels over the entire France : the SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) system. This coupled model is composed of the ISBA surface scheme and of the distributed hydrological model MODCOU. The system is used in a forced mode, with the atmospheric forcing derived from observations through the use of the SAFRAN analysis system. Such a system has been validated over 3 large french basins~: the Rhone, the Adour-Garonne and the Seine basins. It was shown that the system satisfactorily reproduces the water and energy budgets, as well as the observed streamflows, aquifer levels and snow-packs. In particular, the main long-duration floods of the Seine are well simulated. The SIM system is also used for streamflow forecasting. As a first step, experiments of determinist forecasts have been performed over the Rhone basin, using 2- and 3-day quantitive precipitation forecast. The encouraging results showed the potential of SIM for flood forecasting. As a next step, an ensemble streamflow prediction system is now being built. The forecasts from the Ensemble Prediction System of the ECMWF are used to force the system. The initial conditions of soil moisture, aquifer levels, etc. are given by the operationnal run of SIM, and the results are analysed for each forecast day. This system is expected to give 10-day forecasts of the streamflow of the main french rivers with a measure of the associated confidence, which is greatly valuable for flood warning and water management.

  11. Coalbed methane exploration in the Lorraine Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, B.; Briens, F.; Girdler, D.

    1995-08-01

    DuPont Conoco Hydrocarbures has been involved in a Coalbed Methane (CBM) project in France since 1991. Coalbed methane exploration differs noticeably in several aspects from conventional oil and gas exploration. This paper is divided in three parts and discusses some geological, reservoir and drilling considerations relevant to the exploration and appraisal of a coalbed methane prospect. The first part presents geological issues such as data collection and evaluation of its associated value, building expertise to create a geological and geophysical model integrating the work of a multidisciplinary team, and assessing uncertainties of the data interpretation. A short review of the basin activity, geological and tectonic setting, and environment aspects is presented in order to illustrate some CBM exploration issues. The second part describes a comprehensive coalbed methane reservoir data acquisition program incorporating coal sample optical and chemical analyses, gas sample chromatography, canister desorption, fracture density of coal cores, and measurement of in-situ coal permeability and bounding-strata stress. Field practical concerns are then discussed such as on-site and off-site canister desorption, gas sample collection, rapid estimation of gas content, ash content, total bed moisture, and finally well testing alternatives for permeability and rock stress determination. The third part reviews drilling issues such as drilling and coring options for core hole size and casing size, rig site equipment requirements for continuous coring operations, including mud treatment equipment, core handling material and core work stations, alliance of national and foreign drilling contractors to optimize equipment and experience, and finally overview of coring procedures to identify best practices for pending operations. The paper is derived from Conoco`s experience in CBM exploration in the Lorraine Basin, North East of France.

  12. FVCOM model estimate of the location of Air France 447

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changsheng; Limeburner, Richard; Gao, Guoping; Xu, Qichun; Qi, Jianhua; Xue, Pengfei; Lai, Zhigang; Lin, Huichan; Beardsley, Robert; Owens, Breck; Carlson, Barry

    2012-06-01

    On June 1, 2009, Air France AF447 disappeared in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean en route from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to Paris, France. On June 6-19, 2009, bodies and debris from the aircraft were recovered floating in the equatorial ocean. This paper describes efforts on using the global-local nested finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) to model reversely the tracks of bodies and debris back to the time of the crash and to help searchers locate the cockpit voice and flight data recorders and learn why this tragic accident occurred. To validate the reliability and reality of FVCOM, eight surface drifters were deployed by the French Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la sécurité de l'aviation civile (BEA) near the last known position in early June 2010 for a period of 3 weeks. These drifter data were used to optimize the spatial and temporal correlation scales of the adaptive sampling data assimilation method of FVCOM. Applying an optimized FVCOM system to assimilate all available drifter- and float-tracking-derived currents in May-June 2009 under three different wind conditions, we reproduced the June 2009 current fields in the area near the LKP and used these fields to reversely track bodies and debris from locations where they were found to the time when the crash occurred. Possible locations for the crashed plane were suggested based on our model results and were made available to the French investigators and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle Operations Group who successfully located the aircraft debris field in April 2011 on the seafloor at a depth of 3,900 m.

  13. Predicting future spatial distribution of SOC across entire France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meersmans, Jeroen; Van Rompaey, Anton; Quine, Tim; Martin, Manuel; Pagé, Christian; Arrouays, Dominique

    2013-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is widely recognized as a key factor controlling soil quality and as a crucial and active component of the global C-cycle. Hence, there exists a growing interest in monitoring and modeling the spatial and temporal behavior of this pool. So far, a large attempt has been made to map SOC at national scales for current and/or past situations. Despite some coarse predictions, detailed spatial SOC predictions for the future are still lacking. In this study we aim to predict future spatial evolution of SOC driven by climate and land use change for France up to the year 2100. Therefore, we combined 1) an existing model, predicting SOC as a function of soil type, climate, land use and management (Meersmans et al 2012), with 2) eight different IPCC spatial explicit climate change predictions (conducted by CERFACS) and 3) Land use change scenario predictions. We created business-as-usual land use change scenarios by extrapolating observed trends and calibrating logistic regression models, incorporating a large set of physical and socio-economic factors, at the regional level in combination with a multi-objective land allocation (MOLA) procedure. The resultant detailed projections of future SOC evolution across all regions of France, allow us to identify regions that are most likely to be characterized by a significant gain or loss of SOC and the degree to which land use decisions/outcomes control the scale of loss and gain. Therefore, this methodology and resulting maps can be considered as powerful tools to aid decision making concerning appropriate soil management, in order to enlarge SOC storage possibilities and reduce soil related CO2 fluxes.

  14. Group B streptococcus neonatal invasive infections, France 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Joubrel, C; Tazi, A; Six, A; Dmytruk, N; Touak, G; Bidet, P; Raymond, J; Trieu Cuot, P; Fouet, A; Kernéis, S; Poyart, C

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus (GBS)) is the leading cause of invasive infections among newborns in industrialized countries, with two described syndromes: early-onset disease (EOD) and late-onset disease (LOD). Since the introduction in many countries of intrapartum antibioprophylaxis (IAP), the incidence of EOD has dramatically decreased, whereas that of LOD remains unchanged. We describe the clinical and bacteriological characteristics of 438 GBS neonatal invasive infections notified to the French National Reference Centre for Streptococci in France from 2007 to 2012. Clinical data were retrieved from hospitalization reports or questionnaires. Capsular type, assignment to the hypervirulent clonal complex (CC)17 and antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined. One hundred and seventy-four (39.7%) and 264 (60.3%) isolates were responsible for EOD, including death in utero, and LOD, respectively. EOD was associated with bacteraemia (n = 103, 61%) and LOD with meningitis (n = 145, 55%). EOD was mainly due to capsular polysaccharide (CPS) III isolates (n = 99, 57%) and CPS Ia isolates (n = 40, 23%), and CPS III isolates were responsible for 80% (n = 211) of LOD cases. CC17 accounted for 80% (n = 121) of CPS III isolates responsible for meningitis (n = 151; total cases of meningitis, 188). Bad outcome risk factors were low gestational age and low birthweight. LOD represents almost 60% of cases of neonatal GBS disease in France and other countries in which IAP has been implemented. This observation reinforces the need to develop new prevention strategies targeting CC17, which is predominant in GBS neonatal infections. PMID:26055414

  15. Hospital planning in France and the Federal Republic of Germany.

    PubMed

    Altenstetter, C

    1980-01-01

    This article on hospital planning programs in France and North-Rhine Westfalia (a state in the Federal Republic of Germany), assembles information on the formal building blocks of inter-organizational relations in the formulation and implementation process. Because these planning programs are embedded in past social policy developments and institution-building, it is necessary to first compare the two countries' compulsory health insurance schemes. This is followed by a general profile of each health care system. A third section examines the formulation and implementation of the countries' hospital planning programs and participation patterns. Based on this comparison, inferences are drawn that are relevant to policy and research. The analysis yields three major conclusions. First, despite abundant legal and administrative controls at the disposal of central health bureaucracies, the capability of the national leadership to influence the hospital system through innovative planning is limited by jurisdictional, institutional, functional and territorial fragmentation, and differentiation of control and public responsibility in health. However, the diverse goal orientations of participants may provide the necessary tension to allow for some change in otherwise highly structured political and administrative systems. Second, despite differences in historical, political and administrative developments, the decision making systems for health care policies in France and the Federal Republic, with the exception of health insurance, are strikingly similar to the fragmented decision making system in the United States. Third, the effect of government-mandated participation is empirically uncertain. Opening up the circle of participants seems to have reinforced alliances between public bureaucracies and corporate vested interests. Hospital planning continues to be carried out for rather than with the consumer and citizen. Hospital planning which is a mixture of goal and process

  16. Archaeomagnetic Study performed on Early Medieval Buildings from western France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.; Dufresne, P.; Blain, S.; Guibert, P.; Oberlin, C.; Sapin, C.

    2009-05-01

    A multiple dating study, involving a collaboration between specialists of dating techniques (thermoluminescence (TL) and radiocarbon), historians of art and archaeologists, has been carried out on several early medieval buildings from western France. The early medieval period is not well known especially in France where there is a lack of visible evidence that identifies pre-Romanesque architecture. The majority of buildings to have survived from this period are religious ones, considered important enough to be made of strong, non-perishable material such as stone or brick, as for example the churches of Notre-Dame-sous- Terre in the Mont-Saint-Michel or St Martin in Angers. Due to their significance in architectural history, it is imperative to position them accurately in the chronology of the history of art. Bricks are often used to build up round-headed arches or to reinforce the frame of a wall with bonding courses in those churches. TL dating and archeomagnetic analysis were performed on cores drilled within bricks while radiocarbon dating were undertaken on coals found within mortars. In order to increase the number of data during the early Middle Ages, archeointensity determinations using the classical Thellier technique with anisotropy of thermal remanence and cooling rate corrections were performed. Archaeomagnetic directions were used to recognize the firing position of bricsk during manufacture. Reliable and precise ages were obtained on the church Notre-Dame-sous-Terre; they indicate two phases of building in 950±50AD and 990±50AD. Mean archeointensities obtained on 17 (21) samples from the first (second) phases appears very closed 69.1±1.2 and 68.3±1.6 microTesla. Ages and archeomagnetic results obtained on 4 other sites will be presented and compared to the available data in western Europe.

  17. Clinical negligence in hospitals in France and England.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michael J; de Bono Q C, John; Métayer, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    This article arose from the back-to-back presentations by Michael Kelly and Patrice Métayer to the Anglo-French Medical Society in 2013 on the French and English legal systems handling a case of alleged clinical negligence as it proceeds from complaint to settlement or judgment in the two jurisdictions. Both systems have a hospital-based first stage with various avenues being available for amicable resolution, the French version being more regulated and prescribed than the English one. In both jurisdictions fewer than 5% cases go down the criminal route. Before the court is involved, in England there is an elaborate lawyer-controlled phase involving negotiations between the two sides and their experts which is expensive but often leads to pre-trial settlement for significant sums of money. Medical experts are central to all of this. In England they are largely unregulated and entirely advisory in an open market, in France they are both regulated and supervised by judges, being placed on official lists. These experts take a major inquisitorial role in a Debate between the two sides, combining the functions of Single Joint Expert (SJE), arbiter and mentor. If agreement is not reached, a second Debate before a different Expert is arranged. In both countries fewer than 5% cases reach a court for a hearing before a judge. In England a trial is an elaborate lengthy, expensive adversarial contest where all of the issues are rehearsed in full with factual and expert evidence, whereas in France in a contested case the judge reviews the reports of the two Debates with the lawyers who were involved (and not the experts, factual witnesses or parties). PMID:26419273

  18. Implementing the national AIGA flash flood warning system in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Organde, Didier; Javelle, Pierre; Demargne, Julie; Arnaud, Patrick; Caseri, Angelica; Fine, Jean-Alain; de Saint Aubin, Céline

    2015-04-01

    The French national hydro-meteorological and flood forecasting centre (SCHAPI) aims to implement a national flash flood warning system to improve flood alerts for small-to-medium (up to 1000 km2) ungauged basins. This system is based on the AIGA method, co-developed by IRSTEA these last 10 years. The method, initially set up for the Mediterranean area, is based on a simple event-based hourly hydrologic distributed model run every 15 minutes (Javelle et al. 2014). The hydrologic model ingests operational radar-gauge rainfall grids from Météo-France at a 1-km² resolution to produce discharges for successive outlets along the river network. Discharges are then compared to regionalized flood quantiles of given return periods and warnings (expressed as the range of the return period estimated in real-time) are provided on a river network map. The main interest of the method is to provide forecasters and emergency services with a synthetic view in real time of the ongoing flood situation, information that is especially critical in ungauged flood prone areas. In its enhanced national version, the hourly event-based distributed model is coupled to a continuous daily rainfall-runoff model which provides baseflow and a soil moisture index (for each 1-km² pixel) at the beginning of the hourly simulation. The rainfall-runoff models were calibrated on a selection of 700 French hydrometric stations with Météo-France radar-gauge reanalysis dataset for the 2002-2006 period. To estimate model parameters for ungauged basins, the 2 hydrologic models were regionalised by testing both regressions (using different catchment attributes, such as catchment area, soil type, and climate characteristic) and spatial proximity techniques (transposing parameters from neighbouring donor catchments), as well as different homogeneous hydrological areas. The most valuable regionalisation method was determined for each model through jack-knife cross-validation. The system performance was then

  19. Time Series Analysis for the Drac River Basin (france)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Castro, K.; Donado-Garzon, L. D.; Rodriguez, E.

    2013-12-01

    This research is based on analyzing of discharge time-series in four stream flow gage stations located in the Drac River basin in France: (i) Guinguette Naturelle, (ii) Infernet, (iii) Parassat and the stream flow gage (iv) Villard Loubière. In addition, time-series models as the linear regression (single and multiple) and the MORDOR model were implemented to analyze the behavior the Drac River from year 1969 until year 2010. Twelve different models were implemented to assess the daily and monthly discharge time-series for the four flow gage stations. Moreover, five selection criteria were use to analyze the models: average division, variance division, the coefficient R2, Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE) and the Nash Number. The selection of the models was made to have the strongest models with an important level confidence. In this case, according to the best correlation between the time-series of stream flow gage stations and the best fitting models. Four of the twelve models were selected: two models for the stream flow gage station Guinguette Naturel, one for the station Infernet and one model for the station Villard Loubière. The R2 coefficients achieved were 0.87, 0.95, 0.85 and 0.87 respectively. Consequently, both confidence levels (the modeled and the empirical) were tested in the selected model, leading to the best fitting of both discharge time-series and models with the empirical confidence interval. Additionally, a procedure for validation of the models was conducted using the data for the year 2011, where extreme hydrologic and changes in hydrologic regimes events were identified. Furthermore, two different forms of estimating uncertainty through the use of confidence levels were studied: the modeled and the empirical confidence levels. This research was useful to update the used procedures and validate time-series in the four stream flow gage stations for the use of the company Électricité de France. Additionally, coefficients for both the models and

  20. Sources and geographical origins of fine aerosols in Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressi, M.; Sciare, J.; Ghersi, V.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Petit, J.-E.; Nicolas, J. B.; Moukhtar, S.; Rosso, A.; Féron, A.; Bonnaire, N.; Poulakis, E.; Theodosi, C.

    2013-12-01

    The present study aims at identifying and apportioning the major sources of fine aerosols in Paris (France) - the second largest megacity in Europe -, and determining their geographical origins. It is based on the daily chemical composition of PM2.5 characterised during one year at an urban background site of Paris (Bressi et al., 2013). Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA PMF3.0) was used to identify and apportion the sources of fine aerosols; bootstrapping was performed to determine the adequate number of PMF factors, and statistics (root mean square error, coefficient of determination, etc.) were examined to better model PM2.5 mass and chemical components. Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and Conditional Probability Function (CPF) allowed the geographical origins of the sources to be assessed; special attention was paid to implement suitable weighting functions. Seven factors named ammonium sulfate (A.S.) rich factor, ammonium nitrate (A.N.) rich factor, heavy oil combustion, road traffic, biomass burning, marine aerosols and metals industry were identified; a detailed discussion of their chemical characteristics is reported. They respectively contribute 27, 24, 17, 14, 12, 6 and 1% of PM2.5 mass (14.7 μg m-3) on the annual average; their seasonal variability is discussed. The A.S. and A.N. rich factors have undergone north-eastward mid- or long-range transport from Continental Europe, heavy oil combustion mainly stems from northern France and the English Channel, whereas road traffic and biomass burning are primarily locally emitted. Therefore, on average more than half of PM2.5 mass measured in the city of Paris is due to mid- or long-range transport of secondary aerosols stemming from continental Europe, whereas local sources only contribute a quarter of the annual averaged mass. These results imply that fine aerosols abatement policies conducted at the local scale may not be sufficient to notably reduce PM2.5 levels at urban background sites in

  1. Sources and geographical origins of fine aerosols in Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressi, M.; Sciare, J.; Ghersi, V.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Petit, J.-E.; Nicolas, J. B.; Moukhtar, S.; Rosso, A.; Féron, A.; Bonnaire, N.; Poulakis, E.; Theodosi, C.

    2014-08-01

    The present study aims at identifying and apportioning fine aerosols to their major sources in Paris (France) - the second most populated "larger urban zone" in Europe - and determining their geographical origins. It is based on the daily chemical composition of PM2.5 examined over 1 year at an urban background site of Paris (Bressi et al., 2013). Positive matrix factorization (EPA PMF3.0) was used to identify and apportion fine aerosols to their sources; bootstrapping was performed to determine the adequate number of PMF factors, and statistics (root mean square error, coefficient of determination, etc.) were examined to better model PM2.5 mass and chemical components. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) and conditional probability function (CPF) allowed the geographical origins of the sources to be assessed; special attention was paid to implement suitable weighting functions. Seven factors, namely ammonium sulfate (A.S.)-rich factor, ammonium nitrate (A.N.)-rich factor, heavy oil combustion, road traffic, biomass burning, marine aerosols and metal industry, were identified; a detailed discussion of their chemical characteristics is reported. They contribute 27, 24, 17, 14, 12, 6 and 1% of PM2.5 mass (14.7 μg m-3) respectively on the annual average; their seasonal variability is discussed. The A.S.- and A.N.-rich factors have undergone mid- or long-range transport from continental Europe; heavy oil combustion mainly stems from northern France and the English Channel, whereas road traffic and biomass burning are primarily locally emitted. Therefore, on average more than half of PM2.5 mass measured in the city of Paris is due to mid- or long-range transport of secondary aerosols stemming from continental Europe, whereas local sources only contribute a quarter of the annual averaged mass. These results imply that fine-aerosol abatement policies conducted at the local scale may not be sufficient to notably reduce PM2.5 levels at urban background sites in

  2. Upper Ocean Responses to Hurricane Frances in September 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, T. B.; Price, J. F.; Webb, D. C.; Girton, J. B.

    2007-05-01

    Three new autonomous ocean velocity and density profilers were deployed ahead of Hurricane Frances as it passed north of Hispaniola in September 2004. These EM-APEX floats (velocity sensing versions of Webb Research Corp APEX floats) were launched from a C-130. The EM-APEX floats measured T, S and V over the upper 500 m starting about a day before the storm's arrival. One EM-APEX float was directly under the track of the storm's eye, another EM-APEX float went in about 55 km to the right of the track (where the surface winds are strongest) and the third float was about 110 km to the right. The EM-APEX floats profiled for 10 hours from the surface to 200 m then continued profiling between 30 and 200 m with excursions to 500 m every half inertial period. After 5 days, the EM-APEX floats surfaced and transmitted the accumulated processed observations, then the floats profiled to 500 m every half inertial period until recovered early in October aided by GPS and Iridium. The float array sampled in unprecedented detail the upper-ocean momentum, turbulence and salt and heat changes in response to the hurricane. Rapid acceleration of inertial currents in the surface mixing layer (SML) to over 1 m/s produced vertical mixing by shear instability at the SML base, as indicated by low Richardson numbers and SML deepening from about 40 m to 120 m under the strongest wind forcing. Surface cooling of about 2.2 C was primarily due to the SML deepening and entrainment of colder water, with a small contribution from surface heat flux. Intense inertial pumping was observed under the eye, with vertical excursions of 50 m or more. Comparison with a 3-D numerical model of the ocean response to Frances' winds simulates accurately SML deepening and surface cooling as well as significant differences in maximum currents and heat content changes. These differences highlight the sensitivity of the ocean's response to both the specification of the wind field and the parameterization of stress

  3. Stepwise analogue downscaling for hydrology (SANDHY): validation experiments over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radanovics, Sabine; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Sauquet, Eric; Ben Daoud, Aurélien; Bontron, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    Statistical downscaling aims at finding relationships between local precipitation (predictand) and large-scale predictor fields, in various contexts, from medium-term forecasting to climate change impact studies. One of the challenges of statistical downscaling in a climate change context is that the predictor-predictand relationship should still be valid under climate change conditions. A minimum requirement is therefore to test the performance of the downscaling method on independent data under current climate conditions. The downscaling method considered is the Stepwise ANalog Downscaling method for HYdrology (SANDHY). ERA-40 reanalysis data are used as large scale predictors and daily precipitation from the French near surface reanalysis (Safran) as predictand. Two 20-year periods have been selected from the common archive period of the two data sources: 1958-1978 ('early') and 1982-2002 ('late'). SANDHY has been optimised over the late period in terms of geopotential predictor domains individually for 608 target zones covering France. The validation setup consists of 4 experiments, that all use the parameters as optimised for the late period and that are compared in terms of continous ranked probability skill score (CRPSS) with climatology as reference: Reference simulation. A simulation of the late period is performed using the late period as an archive for searching the analogue dates, thus representing the best possible case. The CRPSS shows a spatial distribution similar to the one of the mean precipitation. Out-of-sample validation. The early period is simulated using the late period as an archive for searching the analogue dates. The idea is to simulate a period whose local data is not 'known' by the model as it would be the case in any application. The average skill loss compared to the reference simulation is reasonable with some more skill loss in the northern part of the country and no loss in the southeastern part. Alternative archive. The late

  4. Allo France (Hello, France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominique, Philippe

    1987-01-01

    The second volume of a series of textbooks designed for young students of French is reviewed by examining how the dialogs, phonological information, grammar instruction and notes, exercises, characters and their language, cultural information, and photos and documents correspond to the authors' expressed instructional intentions. (MSE)

  5. LIDAR developments at Clermont-Ferrand--France for atmospheric observation.

    PubMed

    Fréville, Patrick; Montoux, Nadège; Baray, Jean-Luc; Chauvigné, Aurélien; Réveret, François; Hervo, Maxime; Dionisi, Davide; Payen, Guillaume; Sellegri, Karine

    2015-01-01

    We present a Rayleigh-Mie-Raman LIDAR system in operation at Clermont-Ferrand (France) since 2008. The system provides continuous vertical tropospheric profiles of aerosols, cirrus optical properties and water vapour mixing ratio. Located in proximity to the high altitude Puy de Dôme station, labelled as the GAW global station PUY since August 2014, it is a useful tool to describe the boundary layer dynamics and hence interpret in situ measurements. This LIDAR has been upgraded with specific hardware/software developments and laboratory calibrations in order to improve the quality of the profiles, calibrate the depolarization ratio, and increase the automation of operation. As a result, we provide a climatological water vapour profile analysis for the 2009-2013 period, showing an annual cycle with a winter minimum and a summer maximum, consistent with in-situ observations at the PUY station. An overview of a preliminary climatology of cirrus clouds frequency shows that in 2014, more than 30% of days present cirrus events. Finally, the backscatter coefficient profile observed on 27 September 2014 shows the capacity of the system to detect cirrus clouds at 13 km altitude, in presence of aerosols below the 5 km altitude. PMID:25643059

  6. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, François; Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

    2014-07-01

    The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m(3), 15.4 μg/m(3), 14.0 μg/m(3), 247.6 μg/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1mg/m(3), 9.0 μg/m(3), 9.0 μg/m(3), 219.2 μg/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees' skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures. PMID:24768515

  7. Probabilistic modeling of financial exposure to flood in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncoulon, David; Quantin, Antoine; Leblois, Etienne

    2014-05-01

    CCR is a French reinsurance company which offers natural catastrophe covers with the State guarantee. Within this framework, CCR develops its own models to assess its financial exposure to floods, droughts, earthquakes and other perils, and thus the exposure of insurers and the French State. A probabilistic flood model has been developed in order to estimate the financial exposure of the Nat Cat insurance market to flood events, depending on their annual occurrence probability. This presentation is organized in two parts. The first part is dedicated to the development of a flood hazard and damage model (ARTEMIS). The model calibration and validation on historical events are then described. In the second part, the coupling of ARTEMIS with two generators of probabilistic events is achieved: a stochastic flow generator and a stochastic spatialized precipitation generator, adapted from the SAMPO model developed by IRSTEA. The analysis of the complementary nature of these two generators is proposed: the first one allows generating floods on the French hydrological station network; the second allows simulating surface water runoff and Small River floods, even on ungauged rivers. Thus, the simulation of thousands of non-occured, but possible events allows us to provide for the first time an estimate of the financial exposure to flooding in France at different scales (commune, department, country) and from different points of view (hazard, vulnerability and damages).

  8. Restricted diversity of dental calculus methanogens over five centuries, France.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hong T T; Nkamga, Vanessa D; Signoli, Michel; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Pinguet, Romuald; Audoly, Gilles; Aboudharam, Gérard; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Methanogens are acknowledged archaeal members of modern dental calculus microbiota and dental pathogen complexes. Their repertoire in ancient dental calculus is poorly known. We therefore investigated archaea in one hundred dental calculus specimens collected from individuals recovered from six archaeological sites in France dated from the 14(th) to 19(th) centuries AD. Dental calculus was demonstrated by macroscopic and cone-beam observations. In 56 calculus specimens free of PCR inhibition, PCR sequencing identified Candidatus Methanobrevibacter sp. N13 in 44.6%, Methanobrevibacter oralis in 19.6%, a new Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis-like methanogen in 12.5%, a Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis-like in one and Methanoculleus bourgensis in one specimen, respectively. One Candidatus Methanobrevibacter sp. N13 dental calculus was further documented by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The prevalence of dental calculus M. oralis was significantly lower in past populations than in modern populations (P = 0.03, Chi-square test). This investigation revealed a previously unknown repertoire of archaea found in the oral cavity of past French populations as reflected in preserved dental calculus. PMID:27166431

  9. [Importation in France of drugs without authorization for marketing].

    PubMed

    Blanc, P

    1997-01-01

    With a view to protecting Public Health, French regulations subject the importation into France of not locally registered drugs to specific provisions. In all cases, an administrative authorization is required. The rules are more stringent when the drug is to be administered to patients. In the course of this presentation, the following different situations are considered. the importation for analytical, pharmacological or toxicological studies, the importation for clinical research, the importation by the patient himself, the importation for therapeutical purposes. In the last case, two possibilities exist: the so called "autorisation de cohorte" which permits the importation for a group of patients of a drug for which the studies undertaken for registration are not completed but which allow to assume efficacy and safety of the drug, the authorization given to a named patient which is granted upon request of the doctor when efficacy and safety of the drug are assumed according to current scientific knowledge. The advantages and limitations of these procedures are reviewed. PMID:9406474

  10. Zach and geodesy in the south of France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, James

    In 1814 Zach published a two-volume work called "L'attraction des montagnes", based mainly on observations made in and near Marseille in 1810. The principle subject was his attempt to repeat Maskelyne's observation, published in 1775, of the deviation of the vertical caused by the gravitational attraction of a mountain. Zach chose two sites with a north-south separation of about 22 km: one on the southern slope of a (small) mountain, the other on a very small isolated island. He found that the astronomical latitude difference between the two sites differed from the geodetic latitude difference by 2", in the sense he expected. This result was soon contested, notably by François Arago. But the book also contains much more. It was for many years the main source about the history of astronomy in Marseille. Zach also gives the geographic coordinates of many locations in the south of France and especially of landmarks (including observatories) in Marseille. All this is accompanied by interesting information of all sorts.

  11. Early Neanderthal constructions deep in Bruniquel Cave in southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Jaubert, Jacques; Verheyden, Sophie; Genty, Dominique; Soulier, Michel; Cheng, Hai; Blamart, Dominique; Burlet, Christian; Camus, Hubert; Delaby, Serge; Deldicque, Damien; Edwards, R Lawrence; Ferrier, Catherine; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Lévêque, François; Maksud, Frédéric; Mora, Pascal; Muth, Xavier; Régnier, Édouard; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël; Santos, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    Very little is known about Neanderthal cultures, particularly early ones. Other than lithic implements and exceptional bone tools, very few artefacts have been preserved. While those that do remain include red and black pigments and burial sites, these indications of modernity are extremely sparse and few have been precisely dated, thus greatly limiting our knowledge of these predecessors of modern humans. Here we report the dating of annular constructions made of broken stalagmites found deep in Bruniquel Cave in southwest France. The regular geometry of the stalagmite circles, the arrangement of broken stalagmites and several traces of fire demonstrate the anthropogenic origin of these constructions. Uranium-series dating of stalagmite regrowths on the structures and on burnt bone, combined with the dating of stalagmite tips in the structures, give a reliable and replicated age of 176.5 thousand years (±2.1 thousand years), making these edifices among the oldest known well-dated constructions made by humans. Their presence at 336 metres from the entrance of the cave indicates that humans from this period had already mastered the underground environment, which can be considered a major step in human modernity. PMID:27251286

  12. Waning immunity against mumps in vaccinated young adults, France 2013.

    PubMed

    Vygen, Sabine; Fischer, Aurélie; Meurice, Laure; Mounchetrou Njoya, Ibrahim; Gregoris, Marina; Ndiaye, Bakhao; Ghenassia, Adrien; Poujol, Isabelle; Stahl, Jean Paul; Antona, Denise; Le Strat, Yann; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Rolland, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, 15 clusters of mumps were notified in France; 72% (82/114) of the cases had been vaccinated twice with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. To determine whether the risk of mumps increased with time since the last vaccination, we conducted a case-control study among clusters in universities and military barracks. A confirmed case had an inflammation of a salivary gland plus laboratory confirmation in 2013. A probable case presented with inflammation of a salivary gland in 2013 either lasting for > 2 days or with epidemiological link to a confirmed case. Controls had no mumps symptoms and attended the same university course, student party or military barracks. We collected clinical and vaccination data via web questionnaire and medical records. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) using logistic regression. 59% (50/85) of cases and 62% (199/321) of controls had been vaccinated twice. The odds of mumps increased for twice-vaccinated individuals by 10% for every year that had passed since the second dose (aOR 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.19; p = 0.02). Mumps immunity waned with increasing time since vaccination. Our findings contributed to the French High Council of Public Health's decision to recommend a third MMR dose during outbreaks for individuals whose second dose dates > 10 years. PMID:26987576

  13. Restricted diversity of dental calculus methanogens over five centuries, France

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Hong T. T.; Nkamga, Vanessa D.; Signoli, Michel; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Pinguet, Romuald; Audoly, Gilles; Aboudharam, Gérard; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Methanogens are acknowledged archaeal members of modern dental calculus microbiota and dental pathogen complexes. Their repertoire in ancient dental calculus is poorly known. We therefore investigated archaea in one hundred dental calculus specimens collected from individuals recovered from six archaeological sites in France dated from the 14th to 19th centuries AD. Dental calculus was demonstrated by macroscopic and cone-beam observations. In 56 calculus specimens free of PCR inhibition, PCR sequencing identified Candidatus Methanobrevibacter sp. N13 in 44.6%, Methanobrevibacter oralis in 19.6%, a new Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis-like methanogen in 12.5%, a Candidatus Nitrososphaera evergladensis-like in one and Methanoculleus bourgensis in one specimen, respectively. One Candidatus Methanobrevibacter sp. N13 dental calculus was further documented by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The prevalence of dental calculus M. oralis was significantly lower in past populations than in modern populations (P = 0.03, Chi-square test). This investigation revealed a previously unknown repertoire of archaea found in the oral cavity of past French populations as reflected in preserved dental calculus. PMID:27166431

  14. Ethical and legal issue raised by DNA fingerprinting in France.

    PubMed

    Mangin, P

    1996-01-01

    As soon as DNA identification tests have been introduced as a new powerful tool in criminalistics and in paternity testing, this new technology has immediately aroused a mixture of ethical concerns, suspicion and interest among scientists and non-scientists. The major concerns about the so called 'DNA fingerprints' were related first to the possible constitution of data based by the police agencies for the purpose of identifying and investigating individuals as potential criminal suspects, and secondly to the risk of a widespread use without safeguards for private investigation as establishing paternity or the typing of a person for insurance companies. In this context, and in order to preserve civil liberties and the respect of individual privacy, the national Consultative Bioethics Committee advised, as early as 1989, the French government that DNA identification should be strictly limited to judicial use and performed by accredited laboratories. After a long debate, this recommendation has finally been adopted in July, 1994 by the French Parliament. As a result, France is presently the only member state of the European Union with such restricted legislation. This is not without raising difficulties in the implementation of the law, especially in the field of paternity testing where the demand is growing and can be satisfied in any other neighbour country. PMID:9009599

  15. LIDAR Developments at Clermont-Ferrand—France for Atmospheric Observation

    PubMed Central

    Fréville, Patrick; Montoux, Nadège; Baray, Jean-Luc; Chauvigné, Aurélien; Réveret, François; Hervo, Maxime; Dionisi, Davide; Payen, Guillaume; Sellegri, Karine

    2015-01-01

    We present a Rayleigh-Mie-Raman LIDAR system in operation at Clermont-Ferrand (France) since 2008. The system provides continuous vertical tropospheric profiles of aerosols, cirrus optical properties and water vapour mixing ratio. Located in proximity to the high altitude Puy de Dôme station, labelled as the GAW global station PUY since August 2014, it is a useful tool to describe the boundary layer dynamics and hence interpret in situ measurements. This LIDAR has been upgraded with specific hardware/software developments and laboratory calibrations in order to improve the quality of the profiles, calibrate the depolarization ratio, and increase the automation of operation. As a result, we provide a climatological water vapour profile analysis for the 2009–2013 period, showing an annual cycle with a winter minimum and a summer maximum, consistent with in-situ observations at the PUY station. An overview of a preliminary climatology of cirrus clouds frequency shows that in 2014, more than 30% of days present cirrus events. Finally, the backscatter coefficient profile observed on 27 September 2014 shows the capacity of the system to detect cirrus clouds at 13 km altitude, in presence of aerosols below the 5 km altitude. PMID:25643059

  16. A century of leishmaniasis in Alpes-Maritimes, France.

    PubMed

    Marty, P; Izri, A; Ozon, C; Haas, P; Rosenthal, E; Del Giudice, P; Godenir, J; Coulibaly, E; Gari-Toussaint, M; Delaunay, P; Ferrua, B; Haas, H; Pratlong, F; Le Fichoux, Y

    2007-10-01

    A century of publications on leishmaniasis in Alpes-Maritimes, in southern France, is here reviewed. Autochtonous human and canine leishmaniasis were first recognised in this département, which lies by the Mediterranean Sea and near the Italian border, in 1918 and 1925, respectively. The parasite responsible for the leishmaniasis, Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. ariasi. The human leishmaniasis is zoonotic, with domestic dogs acting as the main 'reservoir' hosts. In prospective surveys over the last two decades, a mean of 12% of the domestic dogs checked in Alpes-Maritimes have been found seropositive for L. infantum but only about 50% of the seropositive animals showed any clinical signs of infection at the time of the surveys. During the last 30 years, 178 cases of human visceral leishmaniasis have been recorded in the area. Such cases are sporadic and often opportunistic, occurring predominantly in children (29% of the 178 cases) or HIV-positive subjects (31%). Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in Alpes-Maritimes, approximately 20% of those found seropositive in leishmanin skin tests are asymptomatic carriers, with amastigotes in their peripheral blood. PMID:17877875

  17. [Professional health cards (CPS): informatic health care system in France].

    PubMed

    Fortuit, P

    2005-09-01

    The Professional Health Card Public interest group (Groupement d'Intérêt Public-Carte de professionnel de Santé (GIP-CPS)) was founded in 1993 as a joint initiative by the different parties involved in health care in France: the state, the representatives of the health care professions and the compulsory and complementary health insurance organizations. The CPS system enables safe exchange and electronic sharing of medical data. Via Intranet connections and Extranet hosting of medical files, databases, the CPS system enables health care professionals who access servers to be identified with certainty. For email exhanges, the CPS systems guarantees the sender's identity and capacity. The electronic signature gives legal value to the email. The system also enables confidential email. The health card system (CPS) contributes to making the health service efficient. Shared medical files, health care networks, health warning systems or electronic requests for reimbursement of health insurance expenses all use the CPS system. More than 300,000 health care professionals use it regularly. The freedom of movement of patients throughout Europe has led to the growth of exchanges and information sharing between health professionals in the States of the Union. More and more health professionals will be leaving their own countries to work in foreign countries in the future. It is essential that their freedom of movement is accompanied by the ability to prove their rights to practice. PMID:16385785

  18. Living Together Apart in France and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Claude; Cherlin, Andrew; Cross-Barnet, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    Union formation involves a number of stages, as does union dissolution, and new couples often spend an initial period in a non-cohabiting intimate relationship. Yet while certain couples never share the same dwelling, “living apart together”1 has not developed widely as a long-term lifestyle option. Claude Martin in France, and Andrew Cherlin and Caitlin Cross-Barnet in the United States have studied a symmetrical phenomenon, that of couples who continue to live together while considering themselves to be separated. In this article, they draw together their analyses to describe an arrangement which, while marginal, reveals situations where residential separation is not possible, either because of the need to keep up appearances, often for the children’s sake, or because total separation is too frightening or living in separate homes is unaffordable. Beyond the differences between the two countries and the two survey fields, the authors analyse the ways in which persons who “live together apart” describe their loveless relationship that has led to explicit conjugal separation within a shared home. PMID:25170338

  19. [Aggravation of snake bite in France and their treatment].

    PubMed

    de Haro, Luc

    2003-07-12

    VIPERS AT THE ORIGIN OF ENVENOMING: Out of the 4 species of vipers found in France, only two can be responsible for severe envenoming: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the addetr (Vipera berus). CLINICAL GRADING: Since 1992, a grading table published by the Institut Pasteur in Paris helps to assess the severity of the clinical and biological picture. A grade 2 (extensive oedema +/- accompanied by moderate general signs) or notably a grade 3 (giant oedema + severe general signs + biological signs) implies the administration of an antivenom. ANTIVENOM VIPERFAV: Available on the market since 2000, is administered in intravenous infusion, the only route effective. Tolerance to the treatment is good and clinical improvement is rapid after administration of 1 to 4 infusions of antivenom. When confronted with life-threatening envenoming, there is no strong argument to justify the non-use of an antivenom. VIPERINE ENVENOMING: Among the grass snakes, the viperine snake of Montpellier is the only species that is actually venomous. The fangs are posterior in the buccal cavity of the snake, which does not usually permit it to inject its venom in humans. In exceptional circumstances (finger placed in the throat), envenoming has been observed with, in this case, essentially neurological clinical signs: involvement of the cranial nerves, drowsiness. There is no specific treatment for these extremely rare accidents. PMID:12947747

  20. France in the era of Mendelism (1900-1930).

    PubMed

    Gayon, J; Burian, R M

    2000-12-01

    This paper describes and explains the reception of Mendelism among French biologists at the beginning of the 20th Century. Three dimensions of description must be taken into account: scholarly diffusion; transmission of the new science through teaching and textbooks; and effective research. These three axes of description do not provide the same picture: Mendelian research was widely reported among specialists; no significant teaching of Mendelism took place in the years 1900-1930; by 1930 only one biologist, Lucien Cuénot, had carried out significant genetic research, but he abandoned his Mendelian research in 1914. The resistance to Mendelism can be attributed to four categories of factors, none of which is sufficient. The first category includes a series of intellectual factors: a massively positivist conception of science, an approach to heredity that privileged a 'physiological' theory, and a poor development of cytology. The second set of factors stems from the failure of French academic biologists to establish a strong interaction with plant and animal breeding. The third factor is the relatively weak influence of the eugenic ideology in France. Finally, the particular organization of French universities, together with the deaths of numerous young scientists during World War I, amplified the effects of the previous factors. PMID:11147096

  1. Molecular epidemiology of human Blastocystis isolates in France.

    PubMed

    Souppart, Laetitia; Sanciu, Giovanna; Cian, Amandine; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Delbac, Frederic; Capron, Monique; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Boorom, Kenneth; Delhaes, Laurence; Viscogliosi, Eric

    2009-08-01

    Blastocystis sp. is the most common eukaryotic parasite in the intestinal tract of humans. Due to its strong impact in public health, in this study, we determined the frequency of different Blastocystis subtypes in patients in France. We hypothesized on the mode of transmission and tested a possible relationship between the subtype and symptomatic status. We obtained a total of 40 stool samples identified as positive for Blastocystis by microscopic examination of smears. Participants consisted of 25 symptomatic and 15 asymptomatic patients, for whom clinical and parasitological data were collected. For nested-polymerase chain reaction and genotyping, DNA was extracted directly from fecal samples or from fecal cultures. Morphological forms observed in fecal cultures were uncorrelated with symptomatic status. Genotyping using partial small subunit rRNA gene analysis identified a total of 43 Blastocystis isolates corresponding to 37 single infections and three mixed infections by two different subtypes. These 43 isolates belonged to five subtypes (1, 2, 3, 4, and 7) with predominance of subtype 3 (53.5%). Patient symptomatic status was uncorrelated with Blastocystis subtype. PMID:19290540

  2. Motor sport in France: testing-ground for the world.

    PubMed

    Cofaigh, Eamon O

    2011-01-01

    The birth of the automobile in the late nineteenth century was greeted with a mixture of awe, scepticism and sometimes even disdain from sections of the European public. In this article, the steps taken in France to pioneer and promote this new invention are examined. Unreliable and noisy, the early automobile owes a debt of gratitude to the French aristocracy who organised and codified motor racing in an effort to test these new inventions while at the same time introduce them to a wider public. City-to-city races demonstrated the potential of the automobile before the initiative of Gordon Bennett proved to be the catalyst for the birth of international motor sport as we recognise it today. Finally this article looks at the special connection between Le Mans and the automobile. Le Mans has, through its 24-hour race, maintained a strong link with the development of everyday automobile tourism and offers the enthusiast an alternative to the machines that reach incredible speeds on modern-day closed circuits. This article examines how French roads were veritable testing grounds for the earliest cars and how the public roads of Le Mans maintain the tradition to this day. PMID:21491707

  3. Wage differences according to health status in France.

    PubMed

    Ben Halima, Mohamed Ali; Rococo, Emeline

    2014-11-01

    Many OECD countries have implemented anti-discrimination laws in recent decades. However, according to the annual report published in 2010 by the French High Authority for the Fight against Discrimination and for Equality, the second most commonly cited factor in discrimination claims since 2005 is a handicap or health status. The aim of this research is to estimate the level of unexplained components in the wage gap that can be attributed to wage discrimination based on health status in France in 2010 utilizing data from the Health, Healthcare and Insurance survey among 1594 individuals. Three health indicators are used: self-perceived health status, activity limitations and long-term chronic illness. To measure the wage gap according to an individual's health status, the analysis considers the endogenous selection of health status and unobserved differences in productivity. The results demonstrate that wage discrimination is experienced by individuals in poor health regardless of the health indicator utilized. The hourly wage rate among individuals with poor self-assessed health status is on average 14.2% lower than among individuals with good self-assessed health status. However, for individuals suffering from a long-term chronic illness or an activity limitation, the gap is 6.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The decomposition performed on wage differences according to health status by correcting for health status selection bias and controlling for unobserved differences in productivity indicates that the 'unexplained component' that can be attributed to wage discrimination is equal to 50%. PMID:25262313

  4. Implementation of DRG Payment in France: issues and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Or, Zeynep

    2014-08-01

    In France, a DRG-based payment system was introduced in 2004/2005 for funding acute services in all hospitals with the objectives of improving hospital efficiency, transparency and fairness in payments to public and private hospitals. Despite the initial consensus on the necessity of the reform, providers have become increasingly critical of the system because of the problems encountered during the implementation. In 2012 the government announced its intention to modify the payment model to better deal with its adverse effects. The paper reports on the issues raised by the DRG-based payment in the French hospital sector and provides an overview of the main problems with the French DRG payment model. It also summarises the evidence on its impact and presents recent developments for reforming the current model. DRG-based payment addressed some of the chronic problems inherent in the French hospital market and improved accountability and productivity of health-care facilities. However, it has also created new problems for controlling hospital activity and ensuring that care provided is medically appropriate. In order to alter its adverse effects the French DRG model needs to better align greater efficiency with the objectives of better quality and effectiveness of care. PMID:24962536

  5. Pesticide exposure and depression among agricultural workers in France.

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Moisan, Frédéric; Tzourio, Christophe; Rathouz, Paul J; Elbaz, Alexis

    2013-10-01

    Pesticides are ubiquitous neurotoxicants, and several lines of evidence suggest that exposure may be associated with depression. Epidemiologic evidence has focused largely on organophosphate exposures, while research on other pesticides is limited. We collected detailed pesticide use history from farmers recruited in 1998-2000 in France. Among 567 farmers aged 37-78 years, 83 (14.6%) self-reported treatment or hospitalization for depression. On the basis of the reported age at the first such instance, we used adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for depression (first treatment or hospitalization) by exposure to different pesticides. The hazard ratio for depression among those who used herbicides was 1.93 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 3.91); there was no association with insecticides or fungicides. Compared with nonusers, those who used herbicides for <19 years and ≥19 years (median for all herbicide users, 19 years) had hazard ratios of 1.51 (95% CI: 0.62, 3.67) and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.05, 5.10), respectively. Similar results were found for total hours of use. Results were stronger when adjusted for insecticides and fungicides. There is widespread use of herbicides by the general public, although likely at lower levels than in agriculture. Thus, determining whether similar associations are seen at lower levels of exposure should be explored. PMID:23851580

  6. The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society (ETRS) in Reims, France

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society, Reims, France, October 23 to 25, 2013 focused on tissue repair and regenerative medicine covering topics such as stem cells, biomaterials, tissue engineering, and burns. PMID:24552134

  7. "Onions and Stripey Tee-Shirts" or how Do Primary Pupils Learn about France?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esarte-Sarries, Veronica

    1989-01-01

    Describes how sources such as television, visits, and personal accounts influence British students' impressions and stereotypes of France and French culture. Teachers can help students to interpret these impressions beyond perception from a typical British norm. (CB)

  8. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 7, 2004 (10:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-07

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances in the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, storm track, and county outage data are provided.

  9. Tropical Storm Frances and Hurricane Ivan Situation Report, September 9, 2004 (10:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-09

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Hurricane Frances and Hurricane Ivan in the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, and county outage data are provided.

  10. Tropical Storm Frances/ Hurricane Ivan Situation Report, September 10, 2014 (10:00 AM EDT)

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-10

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Hurricane Frances and Hurricane Ivan in the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, county outage data, and a table for restoration targets/status are provided.

  11. The Emergence of Cognitive Science in France: A Comparison with the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamak, Brigitte

    1999-01-01

    Compares the development of cognitive sciences in France and the United States. Analyzes some national differences linked to specific connections between the scientific, military, economic, and political worlds. (Author/ CCM)

  12. A cluster of three cases of botulism due to Clostridium baratii type F, France, August 2015.

    PubMed

    Tréhard, Hélène; Poujol, Isabelle; Mazuet, Christelle; Blanc, Quentin; Gillet, Yves; Rossignol, Frédérique; Popoff, Michel-Robert; Jourdan Da Silva, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    A cluster of three cases of food-borne botulism due to Clostridium baratii type F occurred in France in August 2015. All cases required respiratory assistance. Consumption of a Bolognese sauce at the same restaurant was the likely source of contamination. Clostridium baratii was isolated both from stool specimens from the three patients and ground meat used to prepare the sauce. This is the second episode reported in France caused by this rare pathogen. PMID:26848055

  13. Labwork in France (first two years of university): Innovation and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sere, Marie-Geneviève

    1997-03-01

    In France, schools and Universities are dependent on the Ministry of Education which sets a standard framework for teaching. However, initiatives, innovations and research are possible within this framework. We shall start by giving some details concerning the instructions coming from the Ministry, and the rights of every student. Then we shall introduce the principal directions of innovation that teachers generally wish to promote, and finally, which sort of research questions concerning labwork are raised presently in France.

  14. New Introductions of Enterovirus 71 Subgenogroup C4 Strains, France, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Henquell, Cécile; Mirand, Audrey; Coste-Burel, Marianne; Marque-Juillet, Stéphanie; Desbois, Delphine; Lagathu, Gisèle; Bornebusch, Laure; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Lina, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    In France during 2012, human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) subgenogroup C4 strains were detected in 4 children hospitalized for neonatal fever or meningitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed novel and independent EV-A71 introductions, presumably from China, and suggested circulation of C4 strains throughout France. This observation emphasizes the need for monitoring EV-A71 infections in Europe. PMID:25061698

  15. Two new species of Bryobia (Acarina, Prostigmata, Tetranychidae) from South France

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Philippe; Arabuli, Tea; Migeon, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Tetranychidae belonging to the genus Bryobia are reported from France. Bryobia belliloci sp. n. and Bryobia gigas sp. n. collected on Genista cinerea and Bituminaria bituminosa, respectively, are described and illustrated in the present work. Additional data to the original description of Bryobia cinereae are given and an identification key to known Bryobia species from France is also provided. PMID:25685021

  16. New introductions of enterovirus 71 subgenogroup C4 strains, France, 2012.

    PubMed

    Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Henquell, Cécile; Mirand, Audrey; Coste-Burel, Marianne; Marque-Juillet, Stéphanie; Desbois, Delphine; Lagathu, Gisèle; Bornebusch, Laure; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Lina, Bruno

    2014-08-01

    In France during 2012, human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) subgenogroup C4 strains were detected in 4 children hospitalized for neonatal fever or meningitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed novel and independent EV-A71 introductions, presumably from China, and suggested circulation of C4 strains throughout France. This observation emphasizes the need for monitoring EV-A71 infections in Europe. PMID:25061698

  17. Epidemiology of atrial fibrillation in France: extrapolation of international epidemiological data to France and analysis of French hospitalization data.

    PubMed

    Charlemagne, Agnès; Blacher, Jacques; Cohen, Ariel; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Diévart, François; de Groote, Pascal; Hanon, Olivier; Leenhardt, Antoine; Pinel, Jean-François; Pisica-Donose, George; Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves

    2011-02-01

    The prevalence of atrial fibrillation is steadily increasing throughout the world because of ageing populations and better management of coronary heart disease. An international literature review was conducted to estimate the prevalence and incidence of atrial fibrillation in France. A review of the literature on comorbidities was also performed. Finally, French mortality and hospitalization data were analysed using the PMSI database. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation is estimated to be between 600,000 and 1 million people; of these, two-thirds are aged >75 years. The incidence is estimated at between 110,000 and 230,000 new cases per year. In 2008, 412,000 hospitalized patients had a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation; this figure increased by 26% in the 3-year period between 2005 and 2008. These findings highlight the importance of targeting therapy, of upstream therapy, and of therapy that provides clear clinical and economic advantages over the well-established reductions already achieved in atrial fibrillation morbidity, mortality and cost. In addition, new prevention strategies should be developed, particularly secondary prevention strategies in patients with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21402346

  18. Identifying driving climate factors of wheat and maize yields inter-annual variability in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceglar, Andrej; Toreti, Andrea; Lecerf, Remi; Dentener, Frank J.

    2015-04-01

    A canonical powered Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) approach is here used to estimate the relationship between meteorological variables and crop (durum wheat and grain maize) yield time series over France. This method combines the advantages of both the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and the PLSR. The latter is mainly based on the extraction of a subset of latent variables (having the best predictive power) from the full set of predictors. The method is applied to detrended (by using a LOESS approach) time series of crop yields and monthly mean temperature, cumulated precipitation and global solar radiation during the growing seasons from 1990 to 2011. Results show that, overall, temperature has a substantial influence on winter wheat yields in south-western and eastern France, while rainfall plays an important role in the northern and southern parts of the country. Finally, radiation is more important over the southern part of France. Concerning grain maize, the inferred statistical models show relatively low skill over the northern part of France, where inter-annual yield variability is low. Overall, results show that temperature is the most important variable influencing grain maize yields over the southern and eastern parts of France, while rainfall is more important in the central and northern parts of the country. Finally, global radiation is the main meteorological factor over the westernmost part of France.

  19. Deposition of radionuclides by fogwater on plants at Houdelaincourt, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tav, Jackie; Masson, Olivier; Burnet, Frédéric; De Visme, Anne; Paulat, Pascal; Bourrianne, Thierrry; Conil, Sébastien; Simon, Maxime

    2015-04-01

    After a nuclear accident like Fukushima, large quantities of radionuclides attached to particles are released in the atmosphere. Those particles can act as condensation nuclei to form fog droplets. To determine the radiological impact of fog droplets deposition on plants, an analysis of the fogwater radioactivity levels and a quantification of the fogwater deposition have been performed. To collect fogwater samples, a replica of the Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collector (Demoz et al. 1996) is implemented at the atmospheric research platform in Houdelaincourt (North-East region of France). This instrument allows air containing fog drops to be drawn through a cylinder by a fan. In this tube, rows of Teflon strands are collecting the drops by impaction. Other active collectors have been developed on the same principle with a tube and a mesh grid as the impaction surface. Passive collectors are also used; they consist of vertical strings surrounding a container where the drops are collected. Once the fogwater is collected, it is analyzed to determine the activity levels of gamma emitter radionuclides. In previous studies (Bourcier 2009) the mean level activity for cesium 137, beryllium 7 and lead 210 in rainwater at the Puy de DÙme have been previously estimated. A comparison between activity levels found in rainwater and in fogwater highlights the fact that fog deposition of radionuclides is far from negligible. At the same time a fog monitor FM-120 from DMT provides the size distribution of droplets from 1 to 30 microns. A visibility meter and a PVM from Gerber Scientific Inc. provide respectively the visibility and the liquid water content (LWC) to identify and characterize fog events. In order to quantify the deposition of water on plants, plastics plants were exposed to fog droplet deposition and weighed at the end of the event to measure the amount of water deposited. A second experiment was conducted, during which plastics plants were implemented on a

  20. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, François Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the five fluorescent lamp recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are mercury vapors and dust containing lead and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels were correlated with steps and processes. • All the stages and processes are concerned by worrying levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m{sup 3}, 15.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 14.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 247.6 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1 mg/m{sup 3}, 9.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 9.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 219.2 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees’ skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures.

  1. Aldehyde measurements in indoor environments in Strasbourg (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, C.; Bulliot, B.; Le Calvé, S.; Mirabel, Ph.

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations have been measured in indoor environments of various public spaces (railway station, airport, shopping center, libraries, underground parking garage, etc.) of Strasbourg area (east of France). In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde propionaldehyde and hexanal concentrations have been measured in 22 private homes in the same area. In most of the sampling sites, indoor and outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were measured simultaneously. Gaseous aldehydes levels were quantified by a conventional DNHP-derivatization method followed by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection. Outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were both in the range 1-10 μg m -3, the highest values being measured at the airport and railway station. Indoor concentrations were strongly dependant upon the sampling sites. In homes, the average concentrations were 37 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 46 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for formaldehyde, 15 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 18 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for acetaldehyde, 1.2 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 1.6 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for propionaldehyde, 9 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 10 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for hexanal. However, concentrations as high as 123, 80 and 47 μg m -3 have been found for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexanal respectively. In public spaces, the highest formaldehyde concentration (62 μg m -3) was found in a library and the highest concentration of acetaldehyde (26 μg m -3) in the hall of a shopping center. Additional measurements of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were made inside a car both at rest or in a fluid or heavy traffic as well as in a room where cigarettes were smoked. Our data have been discussed and compared with those of previous studies.

  2. US Astronomers Access to SIMBAD in Strasbourg, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Oliverson, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    During the last year the US SIMBAD Gateway Project continued to provide services like user registration to the US users of the SIMBAD database in France. Currently there are over 4300 US users registered. We also provided user support by answering questions from users and handling requests for lost passwords when still necessary. Even though almost all users now access SIMBAD without a password, based on hostnames/IP addresses, there are still some users that need individual passwords. We continued to maintain the mirror copy of the SIMBAD database on a server at SAO. This allows much faster access for the US users. During the past year we moved this mirror to a faster server to improve access for the US users. We again supported a demonstration of the SIMBAD database at the meeting of the American Astronomical Society in January. We provided support for the demonstration activities at the SIMBAD booth. We paid part of the fee for the SIMBAD demonstration. We continued to improve the cross-linking between the SIMBAD project and the Astrophysics Data System. This cross-linking between these systems is very much appreciated by the users of both the SIMBAD database and the ADS Abstract Service. The mirror of the SIMBAD database at SAO makes this connection faster for the US astronomers. We exchange information between the ADS and SIMBAD on a daily basis. The close cooperation between the CDS in Strasbourg and SAO, facilitated by this project, is an important part of the astronomy-wide digital library initiative. It has proven to be a model in how different data centers can collaborate and enhance the value of their products by linking with other data centers. We continue this collaboration in order to provide better services to both the US and European astronomical community. This collaboration is even more important in light of the developments for the Virtual Observatory projects in the different countries.

  3. Space Radar Image of Rhine River, France and Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Rhine River where it forms the border between the Alsace region of northeastern France on the left and the Black Forest region of Germany on the right. The Rhine, one of the largest and most used waterways in central Europe, winds its way through five countries from the Swiss-Austrian Alps to the North Sea coast of the Netherlands. The river valley is densely populated, as seen in this image, which shows the French city of Strasbourg, the light blue and orange area in the upper left center; and the German cities of Kehl, across the river from Strasbourg and Offenburg, the bright area in right center. The fertile valley is famous for its wine production and most of the agricultural areas in the image, shown in purple patches, are vineyards. The light green areas are forest. Scientists can use radar images like this one to monitor the effects of urban and agricultural development on sensitive ecosystems such as the Rhine River valley. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is 34.2 kilometers by 33.2 kilometers (21.2 miles by 20.6 miles) and is centered at 48.5 degrees north latitude, 7.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  4. Hailstorm forecast from stability indexes in Southwestern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcón, Pablo; Merino, Andrés; Sánchez, José Luis; Dessens, Jean; Gascón, Estíbaliz; Berthet, Claude; López, Laura; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Forecasting hailstorms is a difficult task because of their small spatial and temporal scales. Over recent decades, stability indexes have been commonly used in operational forecasting to provide a simplified representation of different thermodynamic characteristics of the atmosphere, regarding the onset of convective events. However, they are estimated from vertical profiles obtained by radiosondes, which are usually available only twice a day and have limited spatial representativeness. Numerical models predictions can be used to overcome these drawbacks, providing vertical profiles with higher spatiotemporal resolution. The main objective of this study is to create a tool for hail prediction in the southwest of France, one of the European regions where hailstorms have a higher incidence. The Association Nationale d'Etude et de Lutte contre les Fleáux Atmosphériques (ANELFA) maintains there a dense hailpad network in continuous operation, which has created an extensive database of hail events, used in this study as ground truth. The new technique is aimed to classify the spatial distribution of different stability indexes on hail days. These indexes were calculated from vertical profiles at 1200 UTC provided by WRF numerical model, validated with radiosonde data from Bordeaux. Binary logistic regression is used to select those indexes that best represent thermodynamic conditions related to occurrence of hail in the zone. Then, they are combined in a single algorithm that surpassed the predictive power they have when used independently. Regression equation results in hail days are used in cluster analysis to identify different spatial patterns given by the probability algorithm. This new tool can be used in operational forecasting, in combination with synoptic and mesoscale techniques, to properly define hail probability and distribution. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the CEPA González Díez Foundation and the University of Leon for its

  5. Child homicide and neglect in France: 1991-2008.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf, F; Rambaud, C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate epidemiological characteristics of the victims and the offenders in children homicide cases and to propose preventive measures. We retrospectively investigated homicides and deaths by neglect involving children aged 15 or less, which have been autopsied in the Department of Pathology and Legal Medicine of the Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches, France, during the 18-year period from 1991 to 2008. Cases included were analyzed for victims' age and gender, victim-assailant's relation, death cause and scenery, and offender's motivation. For the purposes of the study, victims were divided into four age groups: new born; infants (1-23 months); young children (2-5 years); and children (6-15 years). During the study period, 70 victims of homicide or fatal neglect were identified, which equates to a child homicide prevalence of 0.56 per 100,000 children per year. Slightly more than half of the victims (51.4%) were less than 1 year old. Neonaticide prevalence was 0.12 per 100,000 births with an equal distribution between genders. Neonates were most likely to be killed by their mothers while fathers were the most frequent assailants in both infants and children groups. Stepparents were involved in only one case. Familicide cases where children and spouses are killed were perpetrated only by fathers. The leading cause of death was blunt trauma (especially head trauma). In the neonaticide group, half of the victims died from passive neglect whereas gunshots were predominant in the children groups. PMID:24075615

  6. Respiratory viruses within homeless shelters in Marseille, France

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Homeless shelters are identified as places where humans are at high risk of acquiring respiratory disease. We previously reported the prevalence of the main respiratory diseases affecting a population of homeless in Marseille, France. Here, we investigated the prevalence of 10 respiratory viruses in a similar homeless population during 2 successive winter seasons. Findings Following a clinical examination, we collected nasal specimens from which the RT-PCR detection of 10 respiratory viruses was performed through snapshot investigations. Among the 265 patients included, 150 (56.6%) reported at least one respiratory symptom of which 13 (8.7%) had positive swabs for at least one respiratory virus, and 115 patients reported any respiratory symptom of which 10 (8.7%) had positive swabs for respiratory virus. Overall, 23 patients had positive swabs for at least one respiratory virus. Human rhinovirus (HRV) was the predominant virus (13 isolates) followed by enteroviruses (3), human metapneumovirus (2), human coronavirus OC43 (2), 229E virus (2) and human respiratory syncytial virus subtype B (1). Among the patients infected with HRV, 10 were collected during the same snapshot. Conclusions Although one half of the patients reported respiratory symptoms, the prevalence of respiratory viruses was within the range of that previously described in adult asymptomatic patients outside the homeless community. Most HRV-positive swabs were collected during the same snapshot suggesting a local outbreak. No influenza viruses were found despite the fact that one half of the patients were investigated during the peak of the seasonal influenza epidemic in Marseille. PMID:24499605

  7. Reconstruction of the Provence Chain evolution, southeastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestani, L.; Espurt, N.; Lamarche, J.; Bellier, O.; Hollender, F.

    2016-06-01

    The Provence fold-and-thrust belt forms the eastern limit of the Pyrenean orogenic system in southeastern France. This belt developed during the Late Cretaceous-Eocene Pyrenean-Provence compression and was then deformed by Oligocene-Miocene Ligurian rifting events and Neogene to present-day Alpine compression. In this study, surface structural data, seismic profiles, and crustal-to-lithospheric-scale sequentially balanced cross sections contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of the Provence Chain and its long-term history of deformation. Balanced cross sections show that the thrust system is characterized by various structural styles, including deep-seated basement faults that affect the entire crust, tectonic inversions of Paleozoic-Mesozoic basins, shallower décollements within the sedimentary cover, accommodation zones, and salt tectonics. This study shows the prime control of the structural inheritance over a long period of time on the tectonic evolution of a geological system. This includes mechanical heterogeneities, such as Variscan shear zones, reactivated during Middle Cretaceous Pyrenean rifting between Eurasia and Sardinia. In domains where Mesozoic rifting is well marked, inherited basement normal faults and the thermally weak crust favored the formation of an inner thick-skinned thrust belt during Late Cretaceous-Eocene contraction. Here 155 km (~35%) of shortening was accommodated by inversion of north verging crustal faults, north directed subduction of the Sardinia mantle lithosphere, and ductile thickening of the Provence mantle lithosphere. During the Oligocene, these domains were still predisposed for the localized faulting of the Ligurian basin rifting and the seafloor spreading.

  8. Green space, social inequalities and neonatal mortality in France

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have considered using environmental amenities to explain social health inequalities. Nevertheless, Green spaces that promote good health may have an effect on socioeconomic health inequalities. In developed countries, there is considerable evidence that green spaces have a beneficial effect on the health of urban populations and recent studies suggest they can have a positive effect on pregnancy outcomes. To investigate the relationship between green spaces and the spatial distribution of infant mortality taking account neighborhood deprivation levels. Methods The study took place in Lyon metropolitan area, France. All infant deaths that occurred between 2000 and 2009 were geocoded at census block level. Each census block was assigned greenness and socioeconomic deprivation levels. The spatial–scan statistic was used to identify high risk cluster of infant mortality according to these neighborhood characteristics. Results The spatial distribution of infant mortality was not random with a high risk cluster in the south east of the Lyon metropolitan area (p<0.003). This cluster disappeared (p=0.12) after adjustment for greenness level and socioeconomic deprivation, suggesting that these factors explain part of the spatial distribution of infant mortality. These results are discussed using a conceptual framework with 3 hypothetical pathways by which green spaces may have a beneficial effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes: (i) a psychological pathway, (ii) a physiological disruption process and (iii) an environmental pathway. Conclusions These results add some evidence to the hypothesis that there is a relationship between access to green spaces and pregnancy outcomes but further research is required to confirm this. PMID:24139283

  9. Zinc and Its Isotopes in the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Bourrain, X.

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for Zn in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of metal pollutants. Zinc isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ66Zn values ranging from 0.21 to 0.39‰. This range of variation is very different from anthropogenic signature (industrial and/or agriculture release) that displays δ66Zn values between 0.02 to 0.14‰. This result is in agreement with a geogenic origin and the low Zn concentrations in the Loire River Basin (from 0.8 to 6 µg/L).

  10. How France launched its donation after cardiac death program.

    PubMed

    Antoine, C; Mourey, F; Prada-Bordenave, E

    2014-02-01

    On the basis of the literature and results presented at the 6th International Conference, donation after cardio-circulatory death provides a significant, practical, additional high quality source of transplantable organs. The vast majority of DCD are 'controlled' Maastricht category III donors. In 2010, the parliamentary information mission on the revision of the bioethics laws invited the Intensive Care Societies to debate and to make recommendations to implement controlled donation after circulatory death. They came to the conclusion that such retrieval is possible in France and insisted on the medical criteria that frame it: the writing of the medical procedures, the ethical aspects and the delay. The major recommendations of the ethics committees were firstly, The WLST decision is independent of the possibility of organ donation; secondly, the strict respect of "The dead donor and organ transplantation rule" and the updated national guidance for the WLST; thirdly, the drafting of a nationally agreed protocol defining the mandatory conditions to determine death and to perform procurement and transplantation. Organ donation after WLST will be authorised only in pilot centres with a locally agreed WLST policy including external second opinion and written transcript of the WLST decision, experienced intensive care staff, a local organ procurement coordination team familiar with DBD and DCD protocols and only in hospitals authorised for organ procurement. It is important to have an optimal and standardized national guidance to limit the known risk factors of graft failure (donor and recipient choice, warm and cold ischemia time), to increase acceptance by medical community and civil society and to improve results and allow more powerful analysis. PMID:24388490

  11. Hyperostosis frontalis interna in a Neandertal from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Garralda, María Dolores; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The site of Marillac (Charente, France) has yielded an important stratigraphic sequence containing numerous Neandertal remains (some of them with peri-mortem manipulations) from lithofacies 2 (Quina Mousterian). This level has been correlated with MIS 4 and is associated with a TL date of 57,600 ± 4600 years BP (before present). The study of one of the cranial fragments (Marillac 3) revealed a grade 2 or Type B Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI), remodelling and altering the internal table of the thick frontal bone. This pathology has been analysed macroscopically together with radiography and sections made using a microscanner and a scanner. The development of the HFI is compared with published evidence for Sangiran 3 (Homo erectus), two other Neandertals (Forbes' Quarry and Shanidar 5), and several archaeological samples. Forbes' Quarry seems to display more advanced HFI than either Shanidar 5 or Marillac 3. The three Neandertals may be considered mature individuals (≥40 years) and it seems likely that the aetiology of this pathology may be associated with hormonal alterations, as has been suggested for past and extant populations. While the prevalence of HFI in contemporary post-menopausal women is well documented, the identification of HFI amongst males from several archaeological samples (Neanderthals, Ancient Egypt, Syrian Bronze Age or the Anasazi), with different stages of development, confirm that the pathology affected both sexes in past populations. Additional data and research are still needed to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of this illness and to better understand the relationship between environmental factors and their possible influences/consequences for the development of metabolic disorders in prehistoric populations. PMID:24491378

  12. [Human rabies in France in 2004: update and management].

    PubMed

    Peigue-Lafeuille, H; Bourhy, H; Abiteboul, D; Astoul, J; Cliquet, F; Goudal, M; Lerasle, S; Mailles, A; Montagne, M C; Morer, I; Rotivel, Y; Floret, D

    2004-12-01

    Twenty people died of rabies in France between 1970 and 2003 (compared to 55,000 yearly worldwide), 80% on returning from Africa. Dogs were the contaminating animals in 90% of the cases and children were the most common victims. The last instance of rabies in a native French animal was reported in 1998. However the illegal importation of animals still poses a risk. The disease is transmitted by saliva, even before the appearance of clinical symptoms, through a bite, scratch, or licks of mucous membranes or broken skin. Person-to-person transmission has only been observed in cases of grafts (cornea). The mean incubation time of 1 to 3 months is long enough to allow passive immunization and vaccination. After its onset, the disease presents as encephalitis or a paralytic syndrome the outcome of which is always fatal. Clinical diagnosis may be difficult in the early stages of the disease. If rabies is suspected, the National Reference Centre is responsible for the sampling and proper transportation of these samples so as to ensure assessment results within 5 days. If stringent hygiene rules are complied to, there is no risk of contamination for those in close contact. Vaccination, which is performed in official rabies centers, is only performed after a diagnosis based on laboratory evidence, and solely for exposed persons or those for whom a reliable history cannot be established (children under 6 years). Prevention is based on information. People traveling abroad, particularly to Africa, are warned not to approach unknown animals (especially dogs) nor to try to import them, and are advised to comply with vaccinal recommendations for travelers, particularly for toddlers. PMID:15603930

  13. An Extraordinary Gobioid Fish Fossil from Southern France

    PubMed Central

    Gierl, Christoph; Reichenbacher, Bettina; Gaudant, Jean; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Pharisat, André

    2013-01-01

    Background The classification of gobioid fishes is still under discussion. Several lineages, including the Eleotridae and Butidae, remain difficult to characterize because synapomorphies are rare (Eleotridae) or have not yet been determined (Butidae). Moreover, the fossil record of these groups is scarce. Results Exceptionally well-preserved fish fossils with otoliths in situ from uppermost Oligocene sediments (≈23–24 Mio. y. ago) in Southern France provide the most in-depth description of a fossil gobioid to date. The species was initially described as Cottus aries Agassiz, then transferred to †Lepidocottus Sauvage, and subsequently assigned to Gobius. Based on a comparative analysis of meristic, osteological and otolith data, this species most likely is a member of the family Butidae. This discovery is important because it represents the first record of a fossil butid fish based on articulated skeletons from Europe. Significance The Butidae and Eleotridae are currently distributed in W-Africa, Madagascar, Asia and Australia, but they do not appear in Europe and also not in the Mediterranean Sea. The new results indicate that several species of the Butidae thrived in Europe during the Oligocene and Early Miocene. Similar to the recent Butidae and Eleotridae, these fishes were adapted to a wide range of salinities and thrived in freshwater, brackish and marginal marine habitats. The fossil Butidae disappeared from Europe and the Mediterranean and Paratethys areas during the Early Miocene, due probably to their lack of competitiveness compared to other Gobioidei that radiated during this period of time. In addition, this study documents the great value of otoliths for gobioid systematics. PMID:23691158

  14. Living in France. A Brief Introduction or Review of the Culture and Language of France for Visitors, Students and Business Travelers. Third revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Anni; Moran, Patrick R.

    The guide offers practical information on various aspects of daily living in France, including: money; food; restaurants; hotels; postal and telecommunications services; transportation; shopping; health and medical care; safety and security; tipping; electricity; measurement and clothing size conversions; greetings and leave-takings; names,…

  15. Developpement et apprentissage dans la nouvelle politique educative en France (Development and Training in the New Policy for Education in France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman-Bredel, Josiana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses France's 1989 New Policy for Education (NPE), which identifies three ways of preventing academic failure: school policies stressing family involvement and instructional continuity; reorganization of primary education into three training cycles; and assessment of student competencies. Considers NPE's position on knowledge development.…

  16. Ragweed pollen source inventory for France - The second largest centre of Ambrosia in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibaudon, Michel; Šikoparija, Branko; Oliver, Gilles; Smith, Matt; Skjøth, Carsten A.

    2014-02-01

    France, in particular the Rhône-Alpes region, is one of the three main centres of ragweed (Ambrosia) in Europe. The aim of this study is to develop a gridded ragweed pollen source inventory for all of France that can be used in assessments, eradication plans and by atmospheric models for describing concentrations of airborne ragweed pollen. The inventory combines information about spatial variations in annual Ambrosia pollen counts, knowledge of ragweed ecology, detailed land cover information and a Digital Elevation Model. The ragweed inventory consists of a local infection level on a scale of 0-100% (where 100% is the highest plant abundance per area in the studied region) and a European infection level between 0% and 100% (where 100% relates to the highest identified plant abundance in Europe using the same methodology) that has been distributed onto the EMEP grid with 5 km × 5 km resolution. The results of this analysis showed that some of the highest mean annual ragweed pollen concentrations were recorded at Roussillon in the Rhône-Valley. This is reflected by the inventory, where the European infection level has been estimated to reach 67.70% of the most infected areas in Europe i.e. Kecskemét in central Hungary. The inventory shows that the Rhône Valley is the most heavily infected part of France. Central France is also infected, but northern and western parts of France are much less infected. The inventory can be entered into atmospheric transport models, in combination with other components such as a phenological model and a model for daily pollen release, in order to simulate the dispersion of ragweed pollen within France as well as potential long-distance transport from France to other European countries.

  17. The Holocene separation of Jersey from France: the microfossil evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolaro, Chiara; Hart, Malcolm; Chambers, Paul; Evans, Graham; Nichols, Ralph; Smart, Christopher; Whittaker, John

    2014-05-01

    More than fifty marine boreholes have been drilled into the sea bed between France and the east coast of Jersey and these are being used to plan the route of a new electricity cable. The cores provide a comprehensive coverage of an Holocene sedimentary succession and core OVC-18 is being used as a reference because it contains a near-complete record of the transition from a terrestrial environment, with peats and plant beds, to inter-tidal mud flats and, eventually, marine sediments with abundant marine fossils and highly significant occurrences of the calcareous red alga known as maërl. This core, therefore, contains a near-complete record of mid-late Holocene sea level rise through to the invasion of the slipper limpet Crepidula in 1962. Almost all of the samples contain well-preserved assemblages of foraminifera and ostracods that allow the reconstruction of a range of sub-environments through to fully marine. Below the terrestrial sediments in core OVC-18 is a thickness of carbonate-rich, fossiliferous, marine sands that may be of mid-Eocene age or derived from pre-existing Eocene sediments. The Baie du Mont-St-Michel, in which Jersey is located, is macro-tidal with an exceptionally large tidal range which probably developed quite early in the Holocene. The large tides are responsible for the significant numbers of transported marine foraminifera that are found in samples of saltmarsh and estuarine sediments. The upper saltmarsh environment is represented by the first 15-20 cm of muds immediately overlying a well-developed peat and contain a diagnostic benthic assemblage that includes Trochammina inflata and Jadammina macrescens. The overlying estuarine sediments are characterised by an assemblage dominated by Elphidium spp. and Ammonia spp.. The dating of this Holocene peat and the overlying marine sediments provides an accurate chronology of sea level rise around Jersey, although a crustal subsidence rate of -4 mm/year must be used to increase the impact of

  18. Occupational cancer in France: epidemiology, toxicology, prevention, and compensation.

    PubMed Central

    Aubrun, J C; Binet, S; Bozec, C; Brochard, P; Dimerman, S; Fontaine, B; Guénel, P; Luce, D; Martinet, Y; Moulin, J J; Mur, J M; Pietruszynski, M; Vallayer, C

    1999-01-01

    This article is a description of the current situation in France with regard to occupational cancer: research, prevention, and occupation. Toxicologic experiments are carried out using (italic)in vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) tests, particularly using transgenic mice. Several epidemiologic studies have been conducted over the last decades: population-based case-control studies; mortality studies and cancer incidence studies carried out in historical cohorts of workers employed in the industry; and case-control studies nested in occupational cohorts. French ethical aspects of toxicologic and epidemiologic studies are described. The results thus obtained are used to establish regulations for the prevention and the compensation of cancers attributable to occupational exposure. This French regulation for prevention of occupational cancer involves several partners: (italic)a(/italic)) the states authorities, including labor inspectors, responsible for preparing and implementing the labor legislation and for supervising its application, particularly in the fields of occupational health and safety and working conditions; (italic)b(/italic)) the Social Security Organisation for the analysis of present or potential occupational risks based on tests, visits in plants, complaints or requests from various sources, and statistics. These activities are performed within the framework of the general French policy for the prevention of occupational cancer. This organization includes the National Institute for Research and Safety, particularly involved in research in the various fields of occupational risks--animal toxicology, biologic monitoring, exposure measurements epidemiology, psychology, ergonomy, electronic systems and machineries, exposure to chemicals, noise, heat, vibration, and lighting; and (italic)c(/italic)) companies where the regulation defines the role of the plant manager, the occupational physician, and the Health, Safety and Working Conditions

  19. How an Anglo-American methodology took root in France.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    French organic chemistry had a strong nationalistic bent in the immediate aftermath to World War II. It continued to bask in the glow of the pre-World War I Nobel prize awarded jointly in 1912 to Victor Grignard and Paul Sabatier. In addition, the influence of the two mandarins then in power, Charles Prévost at the Sorbonne and Albert Kirrmann, a Dean in Strasbourg who would be called upon as vice-director at the École normale supérieure in Paris, saw to it that the only theory of organic reactions, admissible in the classroom and in the laboratory, was Prévost's. As Mary Jo Nye has shown, a wall was erected against penetration of the ideas of the British school of Ingold and Hughes. Mechanistic chemistry, as was being vigorously studied by the contemporary Anglo-American physical organic chemists, was 'persona non grata' in France. Publication by Bianca Tchoubar, in 1960, of "Les mécanismes réactionnels en chimie organique" opened a breach. The irony was for Dr. Tchoubar, a militant member of the Communist Party and a lady of fierce opinions, to have become a propagandist for the Anglo-American school of mechanistic studies. Truth for her overruled political propaganda. Her little book was revolutionary in the French context of the times. Together with the GECO (Groupe d'étude de chimie organique) summer conferences pioneered by Guy Ourisson after his return from Harvard, it ushered in the new ideas. This historical essay, based on an in-depth study of Tchoubar's book, will include a portrait of this remarkable woman scientist. It will delve at some length into the renewal of French science initiated by De Gaulle's government after his return to power in 1958. The tension in the French scientific establishment of the sixties reflected two opposed versions of nationalism, the one conservative, Malthusian, inner-directed, the other forward-looking, eager for the recovery of national status, seeing a strong French science as a means for asserting national

  20. Ongoing pharmaceutical reforms in France: implications for key stakeholder groups.

    PubMed

    Sermet, Catherine; Andrieu, Veronique; Godman, Brian; Van Ganse, Eric; Haycox, Alan; Reynier, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The rapid rise in pharmaceutical costs in France has been driven by new technologies and the growing prevalence of chronic diseases as well as considerable prescribing freedom and choice of physician among patients. This has led to the introduction of a number of reforms and initiatives in an attempt to moderate expenditure whilst ensuring universal coverage and rewarding innovation. These reforms include accelerating access to and granting average European prices for new innovative drugs, delisting drugs where there are concerns over their value and instigating rebates for excessive prescribing. Alongside this, ongoing initiatives to improve the quality and efficiency of prescribing include programmes to enhance generic prescribing and dispensing as well as to reduce antibacterial and anxiolytic/hypnotic prescribing. However, there have been few publications documenting the impact of specific reforms on the overall costs and quality of care, which have been exacerbated by compartmentalization of budgets. Estimates suggest savings of over 27 million euro/year by decreasing antibacterial prescribing, 450 million euro/year by not reimbursing ineffective drugs, 670 million euro/year from pharmaceutical company rebates and approximately 1 billion euro/year from increased prescribing and dispensing of generics (year 2003-7 values). Additional savings of at least 1.5 billion euro/year are seen as being possible from increased use of generics such as generic proton pump inhibitors, statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) and ACE inhibitors instead of current branded products such as angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]). Delisting drugs when there are concerns about their value provides an example to other countries with currently limited demand-side measures. Other possible examples include price : volume agreements and multifaceted campaigns to enhance generic prescribing and dispensing and reduce antibacterial prescribing

  1. Trends of eutrophication in the Loire River (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaudo, Camille; Moatar, Florentina; Gassama, Nathalie; Curie, Florence

    2016-04-01

    The Loire River (France) was known to be sensible to eutrophication at the end of the 1970s, especially in its lower reaches with extreme phytoplankton growth (chlorophyll a concentration up to 250 μg L-1 in summer). During the 80s and 90s, the Loire estuary was often in state of anoxia in summer, as a result of the biodegradation of large quantities of labile organic matter. In this context, this work aimed at identifying clearly its eutrophication trajectories since the European environmental measures undertook in the early 1990s, and aimed at studying the physical and chemical causes and consequences of phytoplankton blooms. The long-term water quality time-series carried out by the national authorities allowed to identify the Loire River eutrophication trends since 1980. Since the extreme conditions in the early 1990s, phytoplankton developments in summer were divided 3-fold in the Loire River and in the main tributaries, synchronously with the generalized reduction 2-fold of bioavailable phosphorous. This was mostly attributable to the improvement of P treatment in the upstream waste water treatment plants. Thus, controlling and limiting P point sources greatly limited the magnitude of phytoplankton blooms (from 150 to 60 μg Chl. a L-1 between 1990 and 2012 in the lower Loire reaches). These trajectories highly changed the spatio-temporal dynamics of nutrients. Organic carbon (C-org) was not measured within the regular survey, however, based on some strong relationships between particulate C-org, suspended solids and pigments concentrations measured recently within a daily scale survey (2012-2014), C-org fluxes of the past could be reasonably assessed and it was estimated that 50% of the total C-org fluxes entering the estuarine zone in summer had autochthonous origins in the 80s and 90s against 20% during the period 2012-2014. Eutrophication has decreased in the freshwater system but keeps affecting the coastal zone, especially because algal species in

  2. Factors influencing dairy calf and replacement heifer mortality in France.

    PubMed

    Raboisson, D; Maigne, E; Sans, P; Allaire, G; Cahuzac, E

    2014-01-01

    Herd-level risk factors for dairy calf and heifer mortality in France were identified by calculating herd-level variables (including mortality risk or rate) using the National Bovine Identification Database (2005 and 2006). Eleven dairy production areas representing different livestock systems were also included. Statistical analyses were based on a probit model (mortality risk or rate=0 or >0) and a linear model (mortality risk or rate >0) corrected by the sample bias Heckman method. The same associations were reported for 2005 and 2006. The mortality risks or rates for calves and heifers were positively associated with the proportion of purchased cows or being a Milk Control Program member and negatively associated with adhering to the Good Breeding Practices charter and having an autumn calving peak. The associations between mortality and the breeds or the production areas were positive or negative, depending on the classes of animal. Mortality and having a beef herd in addition to the dairy herd were negatively associated for noncrossed birth to 2-d-old calves, noncrossed 3-d- to 1-mo-old calves, and 3-d- to 1-mo-old heifers. Having a beef herd probably provides specific know-how related to newborn and young calf management that makes it easier to attain low mortality in pure-breed dairy calves. The proportion of males born was positively associated with mortality for the birth to 2-d-old calves (all classes) and for the 3-d- to 1-mo-old beef-crossed calves, but negatively for all classes of heifers. This indicates that heifer management was improved when the availability of newborn heifers decreased, resulting in low mortality. This lower mortality is apparent for all classes of heifers present on the farm during the year when the proportion of males was low, and demonstrates an anticipatory effect. In conclusion, this study shows that the presence of a beef herd in addition to the dairy herd within a farm is associated with decreased dairy calf mortality. It

  3. Predictive mapping of the natural flow regimes of France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelder, Ton H.; Lamouroux, Nicolas; Leathwick, John R.; Pella, Hervé; Sauquet, Eric; Shankar, Ude

    2009-06-01

    SummaryHydrologic variability is important in sustaining a variety of ecological processes in streams and rivers. Natural flow regime classifications group streams and rivers that are relatively homogeneous with respect to flow variability and have been promoted as a method of defining units for management of river flows. Although there has been considerable interest in classifying natural flow regimes, there has been less emphasis given to developing accurate methods of extrapolating these classifications to locations without flow data. We developed a method of mapping flow regime classes using boosted regression trees (BRT) that automatically fits non-linear functions and interactions between explanatory variables of flow regimes, both of which can be expected when comparing responses between complex systems such as watersheds. A natural flow regimes classification of continental France was developed from cluster analysis of 157 hydrological indices derived from 763 gauging stations representing unmodified flows. BRT models were used to predict the likelihood of gauging stations belonging to each class based on the watershed characteristics. These models were used to extrapolate the natural flow regime classification to all segments of a national river network. The performance of the BRT models were compared with other methods of assigning locations to flow regime classes, including the use of geographically contiguous regions, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and classification and regression trees (CART). The "fitted" misclassification rate (associated with model fits) for assignment based on the BRT models was 13% whereas the fitted misclassification rates for geographically contiguous regions, LDA and CART were 52%, 44% and 39% respectively. A "predictive" misclassification rate (calculated for new cases) was estimated for assignments based on the BRT, LDA and CART models using cross validation analysis. For assignment based on the BRT models, the mean

  4. EPIPAGE 2: a preterm birth cohort in France in 2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children born at low gestational ages face a range of risks and number of neonates surviving very preterm birth is increasing. We present the objectives and methods of a French national cohort of very and moderately preterm children, the EPIPAGE 2 study. It aims to examine short- and long-term outcomes of very preterm children and their determinants. Methods/Design Eligible participants for this prospective population-based study include all infants live born or stillborn and all terminations of pregnancy between 22 and 31 completed weeks of gestation in all the maternity units in 25 French regions. In addition, a sample of moderate preterm births, i.e. births and late terminations at 32–34 weeks, was included in the same regions. In all, 7804 babies (stillbirths and live births) and terminations of pregnancy out of 8400 eligible births in France in 2011 that were either very (22–31 weeks) or moderately preterm (32–34 weeks) were included. Data on pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal events were extracted from the obstetric and neonatal records. The follow-up will collect information at corrected ages of one and 2 years and at 5, 8, and 12 years of age. Of the 4467 children discharged alive from the hospital and eligible for follow-up, 155 (4%) families refused further follow-up and 22 died before one-year of age. Finally, 4290 were included in the follow-up. Eight additional projects investigating specific hypotheses among subsamples of the cohort by collecting specific data in addition to the core cohort data are being conducted to investigate 1) diagnosis of histologic chorioamnionitis, 2) early biomarkers of child health, 3) attitudes of care for extremely preterm infants, 4) painful procedures in neonatal intensive care units, 5) neonatal MRI cerebral abnormalities and their relation to executive functions, 6) associations between early gut colonization and early and late onset diseases, 7) impact of neonatal nutrition on child development

  5. Methodological proposals for estimating the price of climate in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, D.; Brossard, T.; Cardot, H.; Cavailhes, J.; Hilal, M.; Wavresky, P.

    2009-09-01

    A current project linking economists, geographers and mathematicians evaluates the price of climate in France. The economic data are mainly from housing surveys conducted by the INSEE. It consists in a total of 9,640 buyers of single-detached houses, 2,658 buyers of apartments, 3,447 tenants of single-detached houses and 8,615 tenants of apartments. Each transaction is located in space by X-Y geographical coordinates. The climatic data are derived from the Meteo-France data base (normal 1970-2000). They are related to (1) mean annual temperature, (2) mean temperature for January and July, (3) number of days with temperatures of less than -5 °C in January and more than 30 °C in July, (4) mean monthly rainfall, (5) rainfall in January and July, (6) number of days' precipitation in January and July. These data are recorded by a network of scattered weather stations. A raster GIS composed by ten data layers derived from a DEM and remote sensing images at 250 m resolution is used to initiate interpolations. Four types of interpolation techniques were tested. First we used regressions between climatic data (variables to be explained) and explanatory variables stored into the GIS. Second we used ordinary kriging; third a double step method linking regression and then kriging of the regression residuals. Finally we used a local interpolation method. Based on standard deviation values obtained by cross validation and R² values, the comparison between the four methods shows that the last one reduces the residuals to the minimum and explains the maximum of variance. It was retained in our project to compute continuous field of the climatic data. The predicted values are then merged with the housing survey data. We use the hedonic price method (Rosen, 1974) to determine the price of climatic attributes, which are capitalized in land rents. Three econometric methods are used: a fixed-effects model estimated by OLS or PLS method and a mixed model with random intercepts. The

  6. Obesity framing for health policy development in Australia, France and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Patchett, Annabelle D; Yeatman, Heather R; Johnson, Keryn M

    2016-03-01

    The obesity epidemic is a consequence of the interaction of cultural, environmental, genetic and behavioural factors; framing the issue is central to determining appropriate solutions. This study used content and thematic framing analysis to explore portrayal of responsibility for obesity in policy documents in Australia, France and Switzerland. For Australia and France, obesity causality was a combination of individual and environmental factors, but for Switzerland, it was predominantly individual. The primary solutions for all countries were health promotion strategies and children's education. Industry groups proposed more school education while health advocates advised government intervention. Where France emphasized cultural attitudes towards taste, Australia focused on sport. The French were most keen on legislating against unhealthy foods compared with Switzerland where there was opposition towards regulation of individual's choices. To curb the increasing prevalence of obesity, allocation of responsibility needs to be considered and initiatives enacted accordingly. PMID:25149100

  7. VEB-1 Extended-Spectrum β-lactamase–producing Acinetobacter baumannii, France1

    PubMed Central

    Coignard, Bruno; Carbonne, Anne; Blanckaert, Karine; Bajolet, Odile; Bernet, Claude; Verdeil, Xavier; Astagneau, Pascal; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Nordmann, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    VEB-1 extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Acinetobacter baumannii was responsible for an outbreak in hospitals in France. A national alert was triggered in September 2003 when 4 hospitals reported clusters of A. baumannii infection with similar susceptibility profiles. Case definitions and laboratory guidelines were disseminated, and prospective surveillance was implemented; strains were sent to a single laboratory for characterization and typing. From April 2003 through June 2004, 53 hospitals reported 290 cases of A. baumannii infection or colonization; 275 isolates were blaVEB-1-positive and clonally related. Cases were first reported in 5 districts of northern France, then in 10 other districts in 4 regions. Within a region, interhospital spread was associated with patient transfer. In northern France, investigation and control measures led to a reduction of reported cases after January 2004. The national alert enabled early control of new clusters, demonstrating the usefulness of early warning about antimicrobial drug resistance. PMID:16965700

  8. Current process and future path for health economic assessment of pharmaceuticals in France.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Mondher; Rémuzat, Cécile; El Hammi, Emna; Millier, Aurélie; Aballéa, Samuel; Chouaid, Christos; Falissard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The Social Security Funding Law for 2012 introduced the Economic and Public Health Assessment Committee (Commission Evaluation Economique et de Santé Publique, or CEESP) in the Social Security Code as a specialised committee affiliated with the Haute Autorité de Santé in charge of providing recommendations and health economic opinions. This article provides an in-depth description of the CEESP's structure and working methods, and analyses the impact of health economic assessment on market access of drugs in France. It also points out the areas of uncertainty and the conflicting rules following the introduction of the health economic assessment in France. The authors also provide their personal opinion on the likely future of health economic assessment of drugs in France, including the possible merge of the CEESP and the Transparency Committee, the implementation of a French threshold, and the extension of health economic assessment to a larger number of products. PMID:27123173

  9. Current process and future path for health economic assessment of pharmaceuticals in France

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Mondher; Rémuzat, Cécile; El Hammi, Emna; Millier, Aurélie; Aballéa, Samuel; Chouaid, Christos; Falissard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The Social Security Funding Law for 2012 introduced the Economic and Public Health Assessment Committee (Commission Evaluation Economique et de Santé Publique, or CEESP) in the Social Security Code as a specialised committee affiliated with the Haute Autorité de Santé in charge of providing recommendations and health economic opinions. This article provides an in-depth description of the CEESP's structure and working methods, and analyses the impact of health economic assessment on market access of drugs in France. It also points out the areas of uncertainty and the conflicting rules following the introduction of the health economic assessment in France. The authors also provide their personal opinion on the likely future of health economic assessment of drugs in France, including the possible merge of the CEESP and the Transparency Committee, the implementation of a French threshold, and the extension of health economic assessment to a larger number of products. PMID:27123173

  10. Determinants of differentials in pneumonia mortality in the UK and France.

    PubMed

    ul Haq, Rizwan; Rivers, Patrick; Umar, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Pneumonia is one of the major causes of death in the world. Age-adjusted mortality from pneumonia in the United Kingdom was three times higher than it was in France in 2004. The purpose of this article is to find the underlying determinants of pneumonia mortality differences between these two countries. The main research question is "what are the determinants of pneumonia mortality in the UK and France?" Reviewing the underlying determinants of health inequalities, we expected that behavioral factors, environmental factors, and the health care system would account for the differences, but they do not actually account for much of the differences in Pneumonia mortality between the UK and France. The main difference is due to data quality problems particularly relating to diagnosis and certification in both countries. PMID:25223162

  11. Comparative stability calculations of the Pleistocene landslide in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabre, R.; Martins Campina, B.; Riss, J.; Bertran, P.

    2003-04-01

    Remnants of the Petit-Bost landslide that occurred during the Pleistocene have been observed during field investigations in Quaternary alluvial formations, southwestern France. The work presented demonstrates how field observations can be used to calculate slope stability. A sliding surface and other related features due to soil deformation have been discovered within a clay layer that overlays the gravel. Abundant periglacial features such as ice-wedge casts have also been found in the colluvium and testify to a former permafrost, suggesting that sliding may be closely linked with Pleistocene periglacial conditions. The surface of rupture is located in a 0.5 m thick, very plastic mottled clay at the top of an alluvial gravel. The initial topography at the time of sliding is not known, but the gradient was thought to be close to that of the present soil surface. This ranges between 3 and 4°; a value of 3° has been used in the following stability calculations. The landslide corresponds to a 2-m-thick colluvium formations with 1.5-m thick permafrost that has been subjected to gravity-induced instability in saturated soil in a periglacial environment. The stability calculations for the Petit-Bost landslide have been performed using an infinite plane sliding and according to two complementary methods. The first one has been usually used for plane sliding, the Carter method. The second one used also for plane sliding with the FLAC computer method (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua method). Following the first one Carter method, calculations were made for an impermeable upper layer, that leads to the development of high pore water pressure in the clay layer. These first results show that instability in the clay only occurs for very low angle of internal friction and cohesion values. Under such conditions, artesian water pressures may have triggered sliding. This could have occurred if the thawed clay layer was trapped between a permafrost table and an overlying

  12. [The cost of cancer in France: macroeconomic and microeconomic approaches, evolution towards a prospective payment system].

    PubMed

    Perrier, Lionel; Borella, Laurent; Philip, Thierry

    2003-11-01

    In this article we have reviewed the cost of cancer in France, based on a literature review. The cost of the treatment of cancer is estimated to be 10 thousand million euros for 75,000 lives saved annually. The increasing number of economic evaluations of cancer use both a macro economic approach, based on DRG data, and a micro economic approach, based on cost result analysis. These cost studies provide the elements for a decision aid in the context of social demands, budget constraints and the evolution towards a DRG's prospective payment system which characterises present organisation of health care in France. PMID:14706905

  13. Privatisation, Decentralisation And Governance In Education In The Czech Republic, England, France, Germany And Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daun, Holger

    2004-07-01

    The Czech Republic, England, France, Germany and Sweden differ culturally and economically, but they commonly exhibit general trends of decentralisation in the control of educational processes and outcomes. The present contribution looks at these five European countries as the venue for case studies in educational restructuring as well as evaluation, assessment and reporting. It shows that such trends have been most radical in the Czech Republic and Sweden, while England has centralised curriculum policy and France has devolved some decision-making to bodies at lower levels, but as representatives of the central state.

  14. [Dermacentor ticks in France and Germany. Molecular biological differences in species, ecology and epidemiological implications].

    PubMed

    Zahler, M; Gothe, R; Rinder, H

    1996-06-01

    Dermacentor reticulatus and D. marginatus, two ixodid tick species occurring in France and Germany, exhibit morphologically overlapping phenotypes. The results of sequence analyses of the hypervariable rDNA gene region ITS 2 do not support conspecifidity. As in France, D. reticulatus has to be characterized as an epidemiologically effective vector of Babesia canis in Germany as well, with the endemic area being located at Kehl/Offenburg/Lahr/Emmendingen/Freiburg in Breisgau. Ecological investigations indicate that a spreading of D. reticulatus and, as a possible consequence, that of B. canis in Germany has to be expected. PMID:8767177

  15. Evaluation of the smoking ban in public places in France one year and five years after its implementation: Findings from the ITC France survey.

    PubMed

    Fong, Geoffrey T; Craig, Lorraine V; Guignard, Romain; Nagelhout, Gera E; Tait, Megan K; Driezen, Pete; Kennedy, Ryan David; Boudreau, Christian; Wilquin, Jean-Louis; Deutsch, Antoine; Beck, François

    2013-05-01

    France implemented a comprehensive smoke-free policy in public places in February 2007 for workplaces, shopping centres, airports, train stations, hospitals and schools. On January 2008, it was extended to meeting places (bars, restaurants, hotels, casinos, nightclubs). This paper evaluates France's smoke-free law based on the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project in France (the ITC France Project), which conducted a cohort survey of approximately 1,500 smokers and 500 non-smokers before the implementation of the laws (Wave 1, conducted December 2006 to February 2007) and two waves after the implementation (Wave 2, conducted between September-November 2008; and Wave 3, conducted between September-December 2012). Results show that the smoke-free law led to a very significant and near total elimination of indoor smoking in key venues such as bars (from 95.9% to 3.7%) and restaurants (from 64.7% to 2.3%) at Wave 2, which was sustained four years later at Wave 3 (1.4% in restaurants; 6.6% in bars). Smoking in workplaces declined significantly after the law (from 42.6% to 19.3%), which continued to decline at Wave 3 (to 12.8%). Support for the smoke-free law increased significantly after their implementation and continued to increase at Wave 3 (among smokers for bars and restaurants; among smokers and non-smokers for workplaces). The findings demonstrate that smoke-free policies that are implemented in ways consistent with the Guidelines for Article 8 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) lead to substantial and sustained reductions in tobacco smoke in public places while also leading to high levels of support by the public. PMID:24803715

  16. Immigrants, Labor Markets, and the State, a Comparative Approach: France and the United States, 1880-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collomp, Catherine

    1999-01-01

    Proposes a comparison of immigration to France and the United States during the period (1880-1930) when industrialization called for a mass working-class migration. Reports that collective immigration in France led to treating foreigners as individuals, while U.S. immigration was understood as an individual act but led to the collective expression…

  17. 76 FR 35910 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Notice of Commission Determinations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... of institution (76 FR 11509, March 2, 2011) was adequate and that the respondent interested party... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Notice of Commission Determinations... from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission....

  18. 77 FR 71626 - Low Enriched Uranium From France; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... low enriched uranium from France (67 FR 6680). Following the five-year reviews by Commerce and the... imports of low enriched uranium from France (73 FR 449). The Commission is now conducting a second review..., and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response...

  19. 76 FR 58768 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Reviews, 76 FR 52937 (August 24, 2011) (Final Results). The period of review is May 1, 2009, through April... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Amended... ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. See Ball Bearings and Parts...

  20. 76 FR 45853 - Certain Bearings From China, France, Germany, and Italy; Institution of Five-Year Reviews...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... bearings from France, Germany, and Italy (54 FR 20900, 20902, and 20903). Following first and second five... China, France, Germany, and Italy (65 FR 42665 and 71 FR 54469). The Commission is now conducting third... amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is required if...

  1. 76 FR 57019 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany and Italy: Final Results of Sunset Reviews...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR... Germany, 54 FR 20900 (May 15, 1989), and Antidumping Duty Orders: Ball Bearings and Cylindrical Roller..., and Parts Thereof From France, 54 FR 20902 (May 15, 1989), Antidumping Duty Orders: Ball...

  2. 76 FR 2647 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). The preliminary results of the reviews are currently due no... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the... France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom for the period May 1, 2009, through April 30,...

  3. Sub-Saharan African migrants living with HIV acquired after migration, France, ANRS PARCOURS study, 2012 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel; Pannetier, Julie; Ravalihasy, Andrainolo; Gosselin, Anne; Supervie, Virginie; Panjo, Henri; Bajos, Nathalie; Lert, France; Lydié, Nathalie; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the proportion of migrants from sub-Saharan Africa who acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) while living in France. Life-event and clinical information was collected in 2012 and 2013 from a random sample of HIV-infected outpatients born in sub-Saharan Africa and living in the Paris region. We assumed HIV infection in France if at least one of the following was fulfilled: (i) HIV diagnosis at least 11 years after arrival in France, (ii) at least one negative HIV test in France, (iii) sexual debut after arrival in France. Otherwise, time of HIV infection was based on statistical modelling of first CD4(+) T-cell count; infection in France was assumed if more than 50% (median scenario) or more than 95% (conservative scenario) of modelled infection times occurred after migration. We estimated that 49% of 898 HIV-infected adults born in sub-Saharan Africa (95% confidence interval (CI): 45-53) in the median and 35% (95% CI: 31-39) in the conservative scenario acquired HIV while living in France. This proportion was higher in men than women (44% (95% CI: 37-51) vs 30% (95% CI: 25-35); conservative scenario) and increased with length of stay in France. These high proportions highlight the need for improved HIV policies targeting migrants. PMID:26607135

  4. 78 FR 19311 - Low Enriched Uranium From France; Notice of Commission Determination to Conduct a Full Five-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (77 FR 71626, December 3... COMMISSION Low Enriched Uranium From France; Notice of Commission Determination to Conduct a Full Five-Year... low enriched uranium from France would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  5. 75 FR 28469 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS332L2 Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Model AS332L2 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation... directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS332L2 helicopters. This AD results from a... may send comments by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to...

  6. Sources of Self-Efficacy: An Investigation of Elementary School Students in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joet, Gwenaelle; Usher, Ellen L.; Bressoux, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of Bandura's (1997) theorized sources of self-efficacy on the academic and self-regulatory efficacy beliefs of 3rd-grade elementary school students (N = 395) in France, to examine whether classroom context might explain a significant portion of the variation in self-efficacy, and to assess…

  7. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-France Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Anxiety and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouyaud, Jacques; Vignoli, Emmanuelle; Dosnon, Odile; Lallemand, Noelle

    2012-01-01

    The CAAS-France Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from moderate to good. The factor structure was…

  8. Elite Education and the State in France: Durable Ties and New Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zanten, Agnès; Maxwell, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Employing a Weberian understanding of the centrality of a strong bureaucracy in the modern nation-state, this article examines the relationship between the state and elite education in France. Through a historical analysis and an examination of two current issues facing education--widening participation and pressures to internationalise--we…

  9. The Role of France, Quebec and Belgium in the Revival of French in Louisiana Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Gerald L.

    The Council for the Development of French in Louisiana, as part of its effort to revive French in Louisiana schools, arranged for a number of teachers from Belgium, France, and Quebec to assume teaching positions in that state. This report describes the experiences and attitudes of those teachers. Attitudes toward language maintenance, and…

  10. Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings from France, Germany, and Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…

  11. University Students' Beliefs and Attitudes Regarding Foreign Language Learning in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquemal, Nathalie; Renaud, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on a survey of 1,305 university students enrolled in English and other foreign-language classes across year levels in four major universities in France . It explores the factors that promote or hinder multilingualism, with special attention to the following questions: What are the beliefs and attitudes of students enrolled in…

  12. Changing Occupational Profiles in the Hotel Industry: Case Studies in France, Italy and Spain. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Mario; Grazia Mereu, Maria; Tagliaferro, Claudio

    Changing occupational profiles in the hotel industry in France, Italy, and Spain were examined in case studies that included interviews with hotel managers, human resource managers, and individuals employed in hotel occupations identified as new or entailing new skills. The study focused on the following topics: (1) changes in the hotel industry…

  13. Water fluxes and renewal rates at Pertuis d'Antioche/Marennes-Oléron Bay, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascione Kenov, Isabella; Muttin, Frédéric; Campbell, Rose; Fernandes, Rodrigo; Campuzano, Francisco; Machado, Fernando; Franz, Guilherme; Neves, Ramiro

    2015-12-01

    Water renewal is crucial for removal of pollutants (e.g. oil), organic loadings, and oxygen supply and within shellfish farms. This study presents a 3-D hydrodynamic model with local resolution of 500 m used to quantify water renewal and water fluxes at Pertuis d'Antioche/Marennes-Oléron Bay, France. Open boundary conditions were based on MyOcean products

  14. 78 FR 52905 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Initiation of Expedited Changed Circumstances Review, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Low Enriched Uranium From France, 67 FR 6680 (February 13, 2002). foreign utility end...: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 77 FR 19642 (April 2, 2012) (Final... earthquake and tsunami in Japan, the Department extended the 18-month period for the re-exportation of...

  15. Educational Performance or Educational Inequality: What Can We Learn from PISA about France and England?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This article evaluates PISA 2000 as a resource for providing information on educational attainment and inequality, focusing on France and England. Going beyond pupils' performance, it assesses levels of educational inequality by examining distributions of scores and the relationship between socio-economic status and performance. This review raises…

  16. Innovation in In-Service Education and Training of Teachers--France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belbenoit, Georges

    This report discusses innovation in inservice education and training of teachers (INSET) in France. The first section deals with INSET in relationship to the French educational system, research institutes on the teaching of mathematics, and teacher training assignments in business and industrial firms. Section two presents four case studies. The…

  17. Worshipping Satan: Witchcraft and Folk Superstitions in Massachusetts and New France 1692 to 1760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Salem witchcraft trials as a reflection of the social and moral values of colonial Massachusetts and New France. Traces the history of the trials. Describes other instances of witchcraft and folk superstitions during that same historical period. Provides primary sources of a picture, map, and excerpts from letters pertaining to the…

  18. Transversal Training within Secondary Teachers' Training in the Face of Current Reforms in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapostolle, Guy; Genelot, Sophie; Mabilon, Bonfils Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to define what "transversal training" represents in secondary teachers' training in France. It attempts at the same time to assess critically the place it holds in the framework of the two years of training that university institutes for teacher training provide for young teachers. Noting the small place occupied by transversal…

  19. Sheep-to-human transmission of Orf virus during Eid al-Adha religious practices, France.

    PubMed

    Nougairede, Antoine; Fossati, Christelle; Salez, Nicolas; Cohen-Bacrie, Stephan; Ninove, Laetitia; Michel, Fabrice; Aboukais, Samer; Buttner, Mathias; Zandotti, Christine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Remi N

    2013-01-01

    Five persons in France were infected with Orf virus after skin wounds were exposed to infected sheep tissues during Eid al-Adha, the Muslim Feast of Sacrifice. Infections were confirmed by electron microscopy, PCR, and sequence analysis. Prevention and control of this underdiagnosed disease can be achieved by educating physicians, slaughterhouse workers, and persons participating in Eid al-Adha. PMID:23260031

  20. Recent Demographic Developments in France: Relatively Low Mortality at Advanced Ages

    PubMed Central

    Prioux, France; Barbieri, Magali

    2013-01-01

    France had 65.3 million inhabitants as of 1 January 2012, including 1.9 million in the overseas départements. The population is slightly younger than that of the European Union as a whole. Population growth continues at the same rate, mainly through natural increase. There are now more African than European immigrants living in France. Fertility was practically stable in 2011 (2.01 children per woman), but the lifetime fertility of the 1971–1972 cohorts reached a historic low in metropolitan France (1.99 children per woman), nevertheless remaining among the highest in Europe. Abortion levels remained stable and rates among young people are no longer increasing. The marriage rate is falling and the divorce rate has stabilized (46.2 divorces per 100 marriages in 2011). The risk of divorce decreases with age, but has greatly increased among the under-70s over the last decade. Life expectancy at birth (78.4 years for men, 85.0 for women) has continued to increase at the same rate, mainly thanks to progress at advanced ages. Among European countries, France has the lowest mortality in the over-65 age group, but it ranks less well for premature mortality. PMID:24285939

  1. Educational Routes and Family Aspirations in France, a Panel Data Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanchane, Said; Verdier, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The decade from 1985 to 1995 saw a very significant increase in the numbers of those staying on at school beyond the age of 16 in France, a process largely underpinned by the development of vocational and technological training. This article examines one of the crucial aspects of this "democratisation": the creation of educational routes within…

  2. The Financing of Vocational Education and Training in France. Financing Portrait. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelet, Valerie

    This report examines the financing of the two components of France's vocational education and training (VET) system. They are initial vocational training (IVT), which includes upper secondary and short forms of higher education, and continuing vocational training (CVT), which aims to help workers adapt to changes in working techniques and…

  3. Reflections on Race: Affirmative Action Policies Influencing Higher Education in France and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahoo, Saran

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Although frequently associated with the United States, affirmative action is not a uniquely American social policy. Indeed, 2003 witnessed review and revision of affirmative action policies affecting higher education institutions in both France and the United States. Using critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical lens, this…

  4. Hospital Libraries and the Public Library System in France: How Can They Work Together?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Claudie

    This paper discusses cooperation between hospital and public libraries in France. The first section provides an overview of hospital libraries, including historical and regulatory background, as well as the current situation. The second section considers the network of public libraries, including increasing awareness of the duty to provide all…

  5. Jewish children hidden in France between 1940 and 1944: an analysis of their narratives today.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Marion; Taïeb, Olivier; Moro, Marie Rose

    2010-10-01

    The psychology literature concerning Jewish children hidden during World War II appeared in 1991 and was predominantly American and Israeli. Nevertheless, few studies consider the specific and complex situation of the "hidden children." The present study broaches this theme. The aim of this research is to show the consequences of the cumulate trauma in adults whose trauma occurred when they were children; it also aims to show how the subjects cope with the trauma. This research used a qualitative methodology. A series of semistructured interviews on personal and psychological history was conducted with 35 Jewish people (21 women, 14 men; mean age = 74.9 years; range = 65-82 years) living in France and who had been hidden between 1940 and 1944 during the Occupation in France (except for 2 hidden in Belgium and the Netherlands). The current research identified specific traumas, intra- and intergenerational family disorders, and affiliation disturbances, as well as protective factors and ways of coping with the trauma. This research shows the impact of collective history on individual history, the experience of Jewish children who were hidden in France and who stayed in France following the Liberation presents specific features. PMID:20950295

  6. [Étienne Destot (1864-1918): the first radioanatomist in Lyon, France].

    PubMed

    Viard, B; Trost, O; Trouilloud, P; Salomon, C

    2014-03-01

    Destot was born in Dijon, France, in 1864. He began his education in Burgundy, then he started his preclinical curriculum in Lyon, France, from 1884. He had to leave Lyon, and spent some times in Algeria to treat a tuberculosis. He came back in Lyon as a resident in 1886. Destot worked as an assistant in the laboratory of anatomy of Leo Testut in 1880. His thesis, in 1892, analyzed mortality in the departments of surgery of the Lyon hospitals. The polemical results he presented compromised his surgical career. He went on as prosector by Leo Testut, and then became electrician-physician in 1895 (electrotherapy and galvanotherapy). Étienne Destot of Lyon, France, developed in 1895 the first radiography room ever at the Hôtel-Dieu of Lyon, France. Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-rays in the same year, and Destot felt his discovery could revolutionize the approach of anatomy and traumatology. He studied wrist, ankle and calcaneus fractures, and described a new anatomy: "traumatic anatomy". For example, he focused on the posterior talar surface hollow in posterior tarsus fractures. He proposed the term of "thalamus" for this articular surface; this term is nowadays widely used by the clinicians. He introduced the term of "third malleolus" to describe the posterior part of the distal extremity of the tibia. He was the first author to analyze the normal and pathological movements of the scaphoid bone and the lunatum in wrist extension. PMID:24646447

  7. Arrogant Assimilationism: National Identity Politics and African-Origin Muslim Girls in the Other France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaton, Trica

    2005-01-01

    National identity politics in France have taken an interesting turn since the 1980s, a period accentuated by social movements led by youth of immigration who self-asserted in terms of ethnonational origins. Now French-born or -raised youth, stigmatized by those origins, self-identify as French, although they are not so perceived in French society.…

  8. Multicultural Tensions in England, France and Canada: Contrasting Approaches and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereluk, Dianne; Race, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This article considers multicultural education policies in relation to recent political and social events in England, France and Canada. The authors start from the assumption that the promotion of multiculturalism is thought to be a beneficial aim in schools. In light of this, they contrast this aim with the large civil unrest witnessed in 2005 in…

  9. Recent Trends in Social Reproduction in France: Should the Political Promises of Education Be Revisited?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duru-Bellat, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Relying upon recent research, this article puts into perspective the evolution of inequalities concerning both education and life chances in France since the 1960s. While a dramatic expansion of education has taken place, what consequences can one observe as far as social mobility and more broadly social reproduction are concerned? In fact, French…

  10. Teacher Education in France under the Hollande Government: Reconstructing and Reinforcing the Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, David; Meraud, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Successive republican governments in France have constructed a complex educational context, which is rhetorically committed to a myth of provision of educational equality of opportunity whilst in practical terms it is characterised by a system focused on the production and reproduction of elites. This article aims to consider the political drivers…

  11. 75 FR 47201 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model EC 130 B4 Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...This amendment adopts a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the specified Eurocopter France helicopters. This action requires inspecting certain electrical harnesses for damage and if damage is found, repairing the electrical harness; protecting the electrical harness from damage; installing harness clamp blocks; and inspecting each fairing attachment screw to determine the length and......

  12. Achieving universal health coverage in France: policy reforms and the challenge of inequalities.

    PubMed

    Nay, Olivier; Béjean, Sophie; Benamouzig, Daniel; Bergeron, Henri; Castel, Patrick; Ventelou, Bruno

    2016-05-28

    Since 1945, the provision of health care in France has been grounded in a social conception promoting universalism and equality. The French health-care system is based on compulsory social insurance funded by social contributions, co-administered by workers' and employers' organisations under State control and driven by highly redistributive financial transfers. This system is described frequently as the French model. In this paper, the first in The Lancet's Series on France, we challenge conventional wisdom about health care in France. First, we focus on policy and institutional transformations that have affected deeply the governance of health care over past decades. We argue that the health system rests on a diversity of institutions, policy mechanisms, and health actors, while its governance has been marked by the reinforcement of national regulation under the aegis of the State. Second, we suggest the redistributive mechanisms of the health insurance system are impeded by social inequalities in health, which remain major hindrances to achieving objectives of justice and solidarity associated with the conception of health care in France. PMID:27145707

  13. Privatisation, Decentralisation and Governance in Education in The Czech Republic, England, France, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun, Holger

    2004-01-01

    The Czech Republic, England, France, Germany and Sweden differ culturally and economically, but they commonly exhibit general trends of decentralisation in the control of educational processes and outcomes. The present contribution looks at these five European countries as the venue for case studies in educational restructuring as well as…

  14. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France

    PubMed Central

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M. Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids. PMID:27362639

  15. Social Inequalities in Suicide Mortality: Spain and France, 1980-1982 and 1988-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lostao, Lourdes; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Lester, David; Regidor, Enrique; Aiach, Pierre; Sandin, Bonifacio

    2006-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the socioeconomic differences in mortality from suicide in the economically active male population aged 25-64 years in Spain and France in 1980-1982 and 1988-1990; in the case of Spain the data came from the Eight Provinces Study (Regidor, Gutierrez-Fisac, & Rodriguez, 1995). Individuals were grouped into four categories:…

  16. Market Accountability in Schools: Policy Reforms in England, Germany, France and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattei, Paola

    2012-01-01

    This article concentrates on the policy reforms of schools in England, Germany, France and Italy, from 1988 to 2009, with a focus on the introduction of market accountability. Pressing demands for organisational change in schools, shaped by the objectives of "efficiency" and competition, which were introduced in England in the 1980s, have been…

  17. Nonuniversity Higher Education Reform in France, Germany, and Greece: A Comparison of Core and Semiperiphery Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokou, Eleni

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze a number of Greek higher education reforms in comparative perspective. Emphasis will be placed on the rationale of the state's policies in creating the nonuniversity sector within higher education. The case of Greece will be compared to the cases of France and Germany because approximately the same reforms…

  18. The Notion of Diversity in Language Education: Policy and Practice at Primary Level in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helot, Christine; Young, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    This paper will present an analysis of the notion of cultural and linguistic diversity in the new curriculum for primary schools in France (MEN, 2003). First, it will explain how this notion is linked both to a wider choice of languages and to the teaching of one foreign or regional language only. We shall argue that, despite the wide theoretical…

  19. 75 FR 51015 - Sorbitol From France: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ..., Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 16426 (April 1.... See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 29976 (May 28... France, 75 FR 42380 (July 21, 2010). Consequently, the POR for the administrative review became April...

  20. The Strong State, Social Class, and Controlled School Expansion in France, 1881-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier, Maurice; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines operation of demand models in mass education as opposed to elite secondary school systems in France between 1881 and 1975. Looks at role of supply in school expansion and effect of state policies on relative importance of different types of demand. Finds economic demand and state supply exert differing levels of influence on elite system…

  1. 78 FR 77650 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... foreseeable time.\\3\\ \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 71684 (December 3, 2013). \\2... Duty Order, 78 FR 21100 (April 9, 2013). \\3\\ See Low Enriched Uranium from France (Investigation No. 731- TA-909 (Second Review), 78 FR 75579 (December 12, 2013). Scope of the Order The product...

  2. Franz Xaver von Zach et l'astronomie dans la France méridionale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosche, Peter; Débarbat, Suzanne

    Le baron Franz Xaver von Zach, né à Pest (Hongrie), a fait ses études notamment en France et en Angleterre. En 1786 le duc de Saxe-Gotha, Ernst II, lui demande de créer son observatoire de Seeberg. La même année ils se rendent dans le sud de la France, à Hyères à cette occasion, une des tours du mur d'enceinte de la ville est transformée en observatoire. En 1809, Zach et la duchesse régnante viennent près de Marseille et, lors de plusieurs voyages dans le sud de la France. Zach exécute des travaux géodésiques et astronomiques. Dans son "Journal", il mentionne les astronomes français, notamment ceux de la France méridonale auxquels il apporte son soutien. Pons devient, sur sa recommandation, astronome royal de la duchesse de Lucca, épouse du "roi d'Etrurie".

  3. The Fate of a Migrant Language in Northern France (1880-1914): Flemish in Song Repertoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declercq, Elien; D'hulst, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    New research on the history of nineteenth-century Flemish migration into the North of France shows ample evidence of a complex pattern of transfer procedures taking place between the source and target cultures, both via institutions such as newspapers, magazines and associations and via practices such as popular theatre, almanacs and songs. The…

  4. 77 FR 19642 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Uranium From France, 67 FR 6680 (February 13, 2002). As for evaluating AREVA's request, the Department... Circumstances Review, 77 FR 7128 (February 10, 2012) (Preliminary Results). DATES: Effective Date: April 2, 2012... product covered by the order is all low enriched uranium (LEU). LEU is enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF...

  5. Complete Genome and Phylogeny of Puumala Hantavirus Isolates Circulating in France.

    PubMed

    Castel, Guillaume; Couteaudier, Mathilde; Sauvage, Frank; Pons, Jean-Baptiste; Murri, Séverine; Plyusnina, Angelina; Pontier, Dominique; Cosson, Jean-François; Plyusnin, Alexander; Marianneau, Philippe; Tordo, Noël

    2015-10-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) is the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe. NE incidence presents a high spatial variation throughout France, while the geographical distribution of the wild reservoir of PUUV, the bank vole, is rather continuous. A missing piece of the puzzle is the current distribution and the genetic variation of PUUV in France, which has been overlooked until now and remains poorly understood. During a population survey, from 2008 to 2011, bank voles were trapped in eight different forests of France located in areas known to be endemic for NE or in area from where no NE case has been reported until now. Bank voles were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig)G ELISA serology and two seropositive animals for each of three different areas (Ardennes, Jura and Orleans) were then subjected to laboratory analyses in order to sequence the whole S, M and L segments of PUUV. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that French PUUV isolates globally belong to the central European (CE) lineage although isolates from Ardennes are clearly distinct from those in Jura and Orleans, suggesting a different evolutionary history and origin of PUUV introduction in France. Sequence analyses revealed specific amino acid signatures along the N protein, including in PUUV from the Orleans region from where NE in humans has never been reported. The relevance of these mutations in term of pathophysiology is discussed. PMID:26506370

  6. Complete Genome and Phylogeny of Puumala Hantavirus Isolates Circulating in France

    PubMed Central

    Castel, Guillaume; Couteaudier, Mathilde; Sauvage, Frank; Pons, Jean-Baptiste; Murri, Séverine; Plyusnina, Angelina; Pontier, Dominique; Cosson, Jean-François; Plyusnin, Alexander; Marianneau, Philippe; Tordo, Noël

    2015-01-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) is the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe. NE incidence presents a high spatial variation throughout France, while the geographical distribution of the wild reservoir of PUUV, the bank vole, is rather continuous. A missing piece of the puzzle is the current distribution and the genetic variation of PUUV in France, which has been overlooked until now and remains poorly understood. During a population survey, from 2008 to 2011, bank voles were trapped in eight different forests of France located in areas known to be endemic for NE or in area from where no NE case has been reported until now. Bank voles were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig)G ELISA serology and two seropositive animals for each of three different areas (Ardennes, Jura and Orleans) were then subjected to laboratory analyses in order to sequence the whole S, M and L segments of PUUV. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that French PUUV isolates globally belong to the central European (CE) lineage although isolates from Ardennes are clearly distinct from those in Jura and Orleans, suggesting a different evolutionary history and origin of PUUV introduction in France. Sequence analyses revealed specific amino acid signatures along the N protein, including in PUUV from the Orleans region from where NE in humans has never been reported. The relevance of these mutations in term of pathophysiology is discussed. PMID:26506370

  7. Conflicts and Competition for Influence: The History of PETE in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinet, Cecile; Terral, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    The paper provides a historical analysis of the evolution of PE teacher education (PETE) in France since the end of the nineteenth century. It highlights three main points: the progressive unification and integration into university structures, the implementation of scientific research within the structures of PETE and the creation of a specific…

  8. From Equivalence to Transparency of Vocational Diplomas: The Case of France and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobus, Martine

    2000-01-01

    The decision to establish equivalencies between vocational training diplomas in France and Germany is a legal act subject to publication in the official gazettes of both countries. The procedure for establishing the equivalence and forms of implementation is defined in arrangements adopted by the committee of Franco-German experts in application…

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Paris Basin, France, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phoung A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 222 million barrels of unconventional oil; 2,092 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas; 18 million barrels of conventional oil; and 47 billion cubic feet of conventional gas resources in the Paris Basin of France.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, FRANCE COMPRESSOR PRODUCTS EMISSIONS PACKING, PHASE I REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents results of a Phase I test of emissions packing technology offered by France Compressor Products which is designed to reduce methane leaks from compressor rod packing when a compressor is in a standby and pressurized state. This Phase I test was executed betwee...

  11. Community Incidence of Campylobacteriosis and Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis, France, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Van Cauteren, Dieter; De Valk, Henriette; Sommen, Cecile; King, Lisa A; Jourdan-Da Silva, Nathalie; Weill, François-Xavier; Le Hello, Simon; Mégraud, Francis; Vaillant, Veronique; Desenclos, Jean C

    2015-08-01

    Community incidence estimates are necessary to assess the burden and impact of infections on health and to set priorities for surveillance, research, prevention, and control strategies. The current study was performed to estimate the community incidence of campylobacteriosis and nontyphoidal salmonellosis in France from the number of laboratory-confirmed cases reported to the national reference center (NRC). The probabilities of a case in the community visiting a doctor, having a stool sample requested, having a positive laboratory test, and having the case reported to the NRC were estimated using data of national surveillance systems, national hospitalization and health insurance databases, and specific surveys informing about these parameters. Credible intervals (CrI) were calculated using Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, we estimated the number of hospitalizations for both infections in France. The annual community incidence rate in France is estimated at 842 cases per 100,000 (90%CrI 525-1690) for campylobacteriosis and 307 cases per 100,000 (90%CrI 173-611) for salmonellosis. The annual number of hospitalizations is estimated at 5182 for campylobacteriosis and 4305 for salmonellosis. The multiplication factors between cases ascertained by the surveillance system and cases in the community were 115 for campylobacteriosis and 20 for salmonellosis. They are consistent with estimates reported in other countries, indicating a high community incidence of campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis in France. PMID:26193045

  12. Modernization and Age Management in France: French Older Workers and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaullier, Xavier; Thomas, Charles

    In the new context of economic recovery, employment creation, new technologies, and labor shortages in some sectors, France cannot sustain a systematic policy of rejecting aging workers. This policy has led gradually to the recognition that early retirement was merely an easy way out of the problem that has many substantially adverse effects on…

  13. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) strains isolated from varroa mites in southern France

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic fungi are currently being considered as alternatives to chemical pesticides for controlling varroa mites of honey bees. Varroa mites were collected from 112 beehives in southern France and evaluated for the presence of entomopathogenic fungi. Eight strains of Beauveria bassiana we...

  14. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Practices: A Cross-National Comparison of Canada, France, and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, Michel; Perchec, Cyrille; Miranda, Dave; Benoit, Amelie; Bariaud, Francoise; Lanz, Margherita; Marta, Elena; Lacourse, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This study compares two dimensions of parenting--emotional bonding and control--as perceived by adolescents living in three countries: Canada (province of Quebec), France, and Italy. A cross-sectional sample was composed of 1256 adolescents who filled out a self-report questionnaire. Multiple Correspondence Analyses provided a graphic synthesis of…

  15. Cunning Pedagogics: The Encounter between the Jesuit Missionaries and Amerindians in Th-Century New France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Jesuit encounter with the Amerindians of the St. Lawrence Valley in Th-century New France provides us with incalculable insights into the inner workings of the "colonial imagination" that believes the objects of instruction have everything to learn and nothing of value to teach. This article explicates how the Jesuits got to know their…

  16. Scrapie in France: some possible predisposing factors in the naturally-acquired disease of sheep.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, J; Delasnerie-Laupretre, N; Cathala, F; Brown, P

    1983-10-01

    A nationwide survey of the occurrence of scrapie in France during the 12-year period 1968-1979 has shown the disease to be more widespread than previously thought. The data suggest that certain sheep raising practices, such as transhumance (nomadic grazing), pen and pasture alternations, and use of animals for milk production, may play a possible role in disease prevalence. PMID:6685940

  17. Météo-France activities towards education and youth spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billard, C.

    2009-09-01

    Among its different missions, Météo-France, as a national meteorological service, has to contribute in general to education in meteorology. Using Météo-France Internet site is an important way used to achieve this objective: a devoted comprehensive section entitled "Understanding meteorological science” is operational, including pictures, data and sometimes animation of significant phenomena, a glossary of several hundreds of meteorological terms, and various thematic tools and resources at disposal of teachers and/or pupils. Some focus is also given to climate change issues, according to a widely shared wish among the users. Many other activities are conducted together with the French Ministry of Education consisting in effective support at a large scale to teachers through the provision of guidance material. Météo-France is particularly involved in the so-called "Science at school” national system, aimed at promoting and spreading initiatives in science and techniques within secondary education system so as to eventually foster scientific callings. Concretely, schools are supplied with meteorological devices and have data collection activities on a continuous basis. Maintenance issues and data exchange processes are also tackled after appropriate training, and additional meteorological resources or products are delivered by Météo-France.

  18. PRM Programmes of Care and PRM Care Pathways: European Approach, Developments in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Korvin, Georges; Yelnik, Alain P.; Ribinik, Patricia; Calmels, Paul; Le Moine, Francis; Delarque, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The development of European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) physical and rehabilitation medicine programmes of care (PRMPC) and physical and rehabilitation medicine care pathways (PRMCP) in France is a good example of the positive interaction between European and national organizations. PRMPC were defined at the European level to offer a…

  19. The Research Foundations of Graduate Education: Germany, Britain, France, United States, Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Burton R., Ed.

    This book examines the capacity of universities in Germany, England, France, the United States, and Japan to operate as centers of research, as places for research training, and as institutions where even students destined for nonresearch careers will learn something of the nature of research. The volume is organized by country with each section…

  20. Phytoplankton bloom in the Bay of Biscay and off the coast of Brittany, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS true-color image of France and a small strip of Spain shows the characteristic blue-green swirls of phytoplankton blooming in the Bay of Biscay, as well as another bloom, mostly obscured by clouds, to the east of Brittany in the upper left corner of the image.

  1. A Lesson in Progress? Primary Classrooms Observed in England and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Marilyn; Broadfoot, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    Discusses a comparative study of elementary school teachers in England and France that preceded the implementation of the National Curriculum in English schools. Reports differences in teaching methods, classroom organization, and teacher student relationships between the two countries. Concludes that greater focus on professional autonomy by…

  2. Training in the Retail Trade in France. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baret, Christophe; Bertrand, Olivier

    An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in France's retail sector: structure and characteristics, institutional and social context, employment and labor, changing conditions and their implications for skill requirements, and training and recruitment. Data were collected from an analysis of social and…

  3. Human sex ratio at birth and residential proximity to nuclear facilities in France.

    PubMed

    Scherb, Hagen; Kusmierz, Ralf; Voigt, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    The possible detrimental genetic impact on humans living in the vicinity of nuclear facilities has been previously studied. We found evidence for an increase in the human secondary sex ratio (sex odds) within distances of up to 35km from nuclear facilities in Germany and Switzerland. Here, we extend our pilot investigations using new comprehensive data from France. The French data (1968-2011) account for 36,565 municipalities with 16,968,701 male and 16,145,925 female births. The overall sex ratio was 1.0510. Using linear and nonlinear logistic regression models with dummy variables coding for appropriately grouped municipalities, operation time periods, and corresponding spatiotemporal interactions, we consider the association between annual municipality-level birth sex ratios and minimum distances of municipalities from nuclear facilities. Within 35km from 28 nuclear sites in France, the sex ratio is increased relative to the rest of France with a sex odds ratio (SOR) of 1.0028, (95% CI: 1.0007, 1.0049). The detected association between municipalities' minimum distances from nuclear facilities and the sex ratio in France corroborates our findings for Germany and Switzerland. PMID:26880420

  4. Foot infection by Clostridium sordellii: case report and review of 15 cases in France.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Philippe; Sautereau, Jean; Le Coustumier, Alain; Mory, Francine; Bouchier, Christiane; Popoff, Michel-R

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of foot infection by Clostridium sordellii and review 15 human infections registered at a Reference Center in France during the period 1998 to 2011. All strains were found nontoxigenic, lacking the lethal toxin gene coding for TcsL. Like Clostridium septicum, several C. sordellii infections were associated with intestinal neoplasms. PMID:25609723

  5. Foot Infection by Clostridium sordellii: Case Report and Review of 15 Cases in France

    PubMed Central

    Sautereau, Jean; Le Coustumier, Alain; Mory, Francine; Bouchier, Christiane; Popoff, Michel-R.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of foot infection by Clostridium sordellii and review 15 human infections registered at a Reference Center in France during the period 1998 to 2011. All strains were found nontoxigenic, lacking the lethal toxin gene coding for TcsL. Like Clostridium septicum, several C. sordellii infections were associated with intestinal neoplasms. PMID:25609723

  6. Government Goals and Entrepreneurship Education--An Investigation at a Grande Ecole in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapper, Rita

    2004-01-01

    Across the European Union there has been an increase in the number of programmes and initiatives aiming to promote small business and entrepreneurship. In line with this general trend, enterprise creation and entrepreneurship are increasingly recognised as vital for French post-industrial society, yet France is lagging behind Spain, the UK, Italy…

  7. The Political Economy of Educational Reform in France and Britain: 1980-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deer, Cecile; de Meulemeester, Jean-Luc

    2004-01-01

    In this article we analyse the role given to education and training by policy-makers in France and Britain from 1980 onwards, in relation to their overall chosen economic (and social) strategies, and highlight conjunctions between education, exchange-rate regimes, and the level of economic openness. Britain opted for a monetarist route against…

  8. The Impacts of Reforms on Research and Innovation in France: Direction, Planning and Co-Ordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laperche, Blandine; Uzunidis, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    The various reforms introduced in France since the end of the 1990s are transforming the field of institutional research, which has historically been hierarchical and centralised, by giving more leeway to the different levels of territorial administration. In this new context, who is involved in orienting and planning research? The wide diversity…

  9. 77 FR 53844 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France and Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocations in Part, 77 FR 40565 (July 10, 2012... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France and Italy: Rescission of... (the Department) initiated administrative reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings...

  10. 76 FR 327 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ..., 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). Rescission of Review in Part In accordance with 19 CFR 351.213(d)(1... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France: Partial Rescission of... (the Department) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on ball...

  11. International Meeting on Business Start-up (Lille, France, November 26-28, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Africa, Ed.; Peigne, Florence, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    An international meeting explored work on business start-up undertaken jointly by CEDEFOP (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training) and France's Agence Nationale pour la creation d'entreprise. One opening presentation (Melis) addressed the basic idea underlying the research: to identify and highlight the role of training and…

  12. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallourd, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This contribution from France is based on recently-published documents and in particular on the "Report on the Public Infancy Service for Early Childhood," published in February 2007 by a department of the Prime Minister's Office, the Centre of Strategic Analysis, Social Affairs Section and "Early Childhood Education and Care, a Report issued…

  13. Catering Education and Training in France. A Comparative Study. Occasional Paper Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Duncan; Teare, Melvyn

    This report revises a 10-year-old study of the hotel and catering industry to reflect the developments during the decade. The report describes current French practices in the industry, including details of the structure of the industry in France and the way the industry works with government to influence the content of vocational education. The…

  14. Becoming a Secondary School Teacher in England and France: Contextualising Career "Choice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the circumstances in which individuals become secondary school teachers in England and France. Using a social constructivist theoretical framework, it specifically considers how national contexts play out in this decision. The findings presented in this paper draw on a corpus of 60 interviews with a sample of teachers based…

  15. A Model for Collaboration: The Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing and the Frontier Nursing Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotny, Jeanne M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The collaboration between the Frontier Nursing Service and the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing provides a way for those with associate degrees in midwifery to obtain a baccalaureate degree in nursing and become eligible for advanced training in midwifery. Distance learning facilitates instruction for the geographically dispersed midwives.…

  16. The oldest accurate record of Scenopinidae in the Lowermost Eocene amber of France (Diptera: Brachycera).

    PubMed

    Garrouste, Romain; Azar, Dany; Nel, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Eocenotrichia magnifica gen. et sp. nov. (Diptera: Scenopinidae: Metatrichini) is described and illustrated from the Lowermost Eocene amber of Oise (France) and represents the oldest definitive window fly fossil. The present discovery in the Earliest Eocene supports the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene age currently proposed for the emergence of Metatrichini. PMID:27394507

  17. The Satellite Development Project in French Language & Culture: France-TV Magazine. FIPSE Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duverlie, Claud; Pease, Elizabeth

    In 1987, a project was undertaken to expand and further develop "France-TV Magazine," a French language and culture video magazine series featuring cultural and political topics and current events taken from actual French television broadcasts. The project addressed needs for the following: (1) culturally authentic, timely, live materials; (2)…

  18. Finding One's Place in the Republic: Educating for Citizenship in a Diversifying France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Travis William

    2013-01-01

    The school, France's traditional vehicle for integrating diverse populations into a national culture and fostering civic participation, has encountered difficulties in fulfilling its central mission as demographic shifts have given rise to competing conceptions of religious, cultural, ethnic, political and national identity. For French society the…

  19. 76 FR 75772 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model EC 120B Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... France Model EC 120B helicopters. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 2011 (76 FR... after the effective date of the AD. Comments By publishing the NPRM (76 FR 27952, May 13, 2011), we gave... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3....

  20. 76 FR 27952 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model EC 120B Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Examining the Docket You may examine the docket that... FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... France, has issued French AD No. F-2005-175, dated October 26, 2005, on behalf of the European...

  1. Orthographic Competence among Multilingual School Children: Writing Moroccan Arabic in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weth, Constanze

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents children's writing in their vernacular family language, Moroccan Arabic. It first provides some background to the family and school literacies of nine-year-old children of Moroccan Arabic (MA) background growing up in France with French literacy practices at school and Written Arabic literacy practices in the home. The paper…

  2. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Associated Features among Children in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecendreux, Michel; Konofal, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Earlier studies point to the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be similar around the world. There is, however, a wide variety in estimates. The prevalence of ADHD in youth has never been examined in France. Method: Starting with 18 million telephone numbers, 7,912 numbers are randomly selected. Among the…

  3. German: The German Language in Education in Alsace, France. 2nd Edition. Regional Dossiers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Schaaf, Alie, Comp.; Morgen, Daniel, Comp.

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of the European Union-- Alsace, a part of France along the German border. Details about the features of the educational system, recent educational policies, divisions of responsibilities,…

  4. Floods in southwest-central Florida from hurricane Frances, September 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    Hurricane Frances brought heavy rainfall and widespread flooding to southwest-central Florida September 4-14, 2004. The center of Hurricane Frances made landfall on the east coast of Florida on September 5 as a category 2 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale, then moved west-northwestward through central Florida before exiting Pasco County into the Gulf of Mexico on September 6 (fig. 1; National Weather Service, 2004). The hurricane moved across the Florida Peninsula generating 5 to 11 inches of rain over already saturated ground (table 1). Record flooding occurred in parts of Hardee, Hillsborough, Pasco, and Polk Counties (fig. 1). The hurricane and resulting floods caused an estimated $4-5 billion in damage to public and private property (Harrington, 2004), and 23 deaths were attributed to Hurricane Frances (National Weather Service, 2004). Several watersheds drain counties in southwest-central Florida that were affected by Hurricane Frances. De Soto, Hardee, and Polk Counties generally are drained by the Peace River system, which flows southwestward to Charlotte Harbor and the Gulf of Mexico. Hillsborough and Pasco Counties generally are drained by the Alafia, Hillsborough, Anclote, and Pithlachascotee River systems. Water in the Hillsborough and Alafia River watersheds flows west to Tampa Bay and water in the Anclote and Pithlachascotee River watersheds flows west to the Gulf of Mexico. (fig. 1, http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/fs/2005/3028/#fig1).

  5. Basque: The Basque Language in Education in France. Regional Dossiers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuijt, Mark

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of the European Union--the southwestern part of France, also known as the North Basque country. Details are provided about the features of the educational system, recent educational…

  6. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is... France, Germany, and Italy (52 FR 6995; Italy amended at 52 FR 11299 (April 8, 1987)). On August 12, 1988, Commerce issued an antidumping duty order on imports of brass sheet and strip from Japan (53 FR...

  7. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France.

    PubMed

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids. PMID:27362639

  8. Engineering Ethics at the Catholic University of Lille (France): Research and Teaching in a European Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didier, Christelle

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the development of non-technical education and ethics in engineering curricula in Europe and particularly in France. Investigates two projects at the Catholic University of Lille. The first project is an engineering ethics course and the second has to do with writing a European handbook on engineering ethics as a discipline. (Contains 28…

  9. Frances Kelsey and Thalidomide in the US: A Case Study Relating to Pharmaceutical Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Lisa A.; Warren, Noreen

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case study on the story of Dr. Frances Kelsey and the drug thalidomide, which was widely used in Europe for its therapeutic effects in the 1960s and later identified as having multiple effects on the body during development by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Describes the drug approval process in the United States and…

  10. 62 FR 61036 - Changes in Disease Status of Belgium, France, Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-11-14

    ... specified conditions, based on the regions' disease status (see 62 FR 56000-56033, October 28, 1997, Dockets..., Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...-mouth disease; Greece free of rinderpest; France, Greece, Luxembourg, and Spain free of exotic...

  11. Complete Coding Sequences of Six Toscana Virus Strains Isolated from Human Patients in France

    PubMed Central

    Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Piorkowski, Geraldine; Coutard, Bruno; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; De Lamballerie, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne phlebovirus belonging to the Sandfly fever Naples virus species (genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae). Here, we report the complete coding sequences of six TOSV strains isolated from human patients having acquired the infection in southeastern France during a 12-year period. PMID:27231377

  12. Research and ECEC for Children under Three in France: A Brief Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayna, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of ECEC services in France for children under three. It reviews research carried out in this area, and shows its genesis, main issues, cultural context and modalities of its production. The French provision for the under threes' is characterized by its increasing diversification. French research shows a diversity…

  13. Bourbaki at Seventy-Five: Its Influence in France and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Bourbaki, a professional mathematical society in France, was established formally in 1935. Throughout three quarters of a century, Bourbaki changed mathematics and mathematics education significantly. It was instrumental in the Moderne Mathématique movement that modernized French curricula. Bourbaki also provided philosophical support for the New…

  14. Girls in Science and Technology in Secondary and Post-Secondary Education: The Case of France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevanovic, Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Based on surveys undertaken by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (France's National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies) and by the Direction de l'évaluation de la prospective et de la performance (Directorate of Evaluation, Forecasting and Performance), this article examines the evolution of…

  15. 77 FR 33159 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Department published the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France (54 FR 20902), Germany (54 FR 20900), and Italy (54 FR 20903) in the ] Federal Register. On June 28, 2011, in accordance... Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011).\\1\\ \\1\\ On July 16, 2011, we revoked...

  16. Pupil's Beliefs about the Transformations of Energy in Three Countries (Canada, France and Morocco)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Métioui, Abdeljalil; MacWillie, Mireille Baulu

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative research approach was chosen to analyse the conceptions of pupils attending elementary school from Canada (N = 135), France (N = 30) and Morocco (N = 92) between 10 and 12 years of age. Their conceptions were identified while being mobilised on energy transformations during the working of a simple electric circuit made of a battery,…

  17. Human Capital Background and the Educational Attainment of Second-Generation Immigrants in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dos Santos, Manon Domingues; Wolff, Francois-Charles

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the impact of parental human capital background on ethnic educational gaps between second-generation immigrants using a large data set conducted in France in 2003. Estimates from censored random effect ordered Probit regressions show that the skills of immigrants explain in the most part, the ethnic educational gap between…

  18. Evolution of temperature and precipitation in France since the 1950s : a new homogenised dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibelin, Anne-Laure; Dubuisson, Brigitte; Corre, Lola; Madec, Thumette

    2015-04-01

    Climate change analysis requires reliable long term series. The raw observed series contain numerous heterogeneities, due to the successive changes in measurements conditions and practices over time. The related biases can be of the same magnitude as the climate change signal that we are analysing. Homogenization is a statistical process allowing to detect and to correct the breaks due to these heterogeneities. In 2013 and 2014, Météo-France has achieved the homogenization of monthly series over France for minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation, associated with a major effort of data rescue. The series have been homogenized using the software HOMER over climatic homogeneous areas. This new dataset offers the highest spatial density and the best quality available. There are around 230 monthly homogenized temperature series and more than 1000 precipitation series covering metropolitan France since the 1950s, providing an up-to-date diagnosis of climate evolutions over France, with a high spatial density useful for climate impact and adaptation studies. Temperature has increased with a mean trend of 0.29°C per decade for minimum temperature and 0.32°C per decade for maximum temperature over 1959-2009. This warming over France is mainly explained by spring and summer temperatures increase. It is higher than the one established over the XXth century (+0.1°C per decade), due to a net warming acceleration since the end of the 1970s. Changes in precipitation depend on the region, the season and the period considered. At annual scale, precipitation increase in the North and decrease in the South, even if most of annual trends are not significant. These patterns are modulated at seasonal scale, due to the large temporal and spatial variability of precipitation.

  19. Diversity of Group I and II Clostridium botulinum Strains from France Including Recently Identified Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Mazuet, Christelle; Legeay, Christine; Sautereau, Jean; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Bouvet, Philippe; Popoff, Michel R.

    2016-01-01

    In France, human botulism is mainly food-borne intoxication, whereas infant botulism is rare. A total of 99 group I and II Clostridium botulinum strains including 59 type A (12 historical isolates [1947–1961], 43 from France [1986–2013], 3 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), 31 type B (3 historical, 23 recent isolates, 4 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), and 9 type E (5 historical, 3 isolates, and 1 collection strain) were investigated by botulinum locus gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing analysis. Historical C. botulinum A strains mainly belonged to subtype A1 and sequence type (ST) 1, whereas recent strains exhibited a wide genetic diversity: subtype A1 in orfX or ha locus, A1(B), A1(F), A2, A2b2, A5(B2′) A5(B3′), as well as the recently identified A7 and A8 subtypes, and were distributed into 25 STs. Clostridium botulinum A1(B) was the most frequent subtype from food-borne botulism and food. Group I C. botulinum type B in France were mainly subtype B2 (14 out of 20 historical and recent strains) and were divided into 19 STs. Food-borne botulism resulting from ham consumption during the recent period was due to group II C. botulinum B4. Type E botulism is rare in France, 5 historical and 1 recent strains were subtype E3. A subtype E12 was recently identified from an unusual ham contamination. Clostridium botulinum strains from human botulism in France showed a wide genetic diversity and seems to result not from a single evolutionary lineage but from multiple and independent genetic rearrangements. PMID:27189984

  20. [Regional management of arterial hypertension in France. Report of a survey of general practitioners].

    PubMed

    Chamontin, B; Lang, T; Vaisse, B; Nicodeme, R; Antoine, M P; Lazorthes, M L; Gallois, H; Poggi, L

    2001-08-01

    A survey was conducted in 14 regional samples of general practitioners (GPs) included in Gallup-up poll. 2,423 GPs contributed to the study and had to include all patients > 18 years old over a period of one week. Patients were considered hypertensives if the mean of two recorded BP measurements was > or = 140/90 mmHg and/or < 140/90 mmHg if they were under antihypertensive treatment. Hypertensives were considered as controlled if there BP levels were overall < 140/90 mmHg under treatment. The risk factors associated with hypertension were collected in order to evaluate the cardiovascular risk, according to 1999 ISH-OMS recommendations. 156,470 patients recruited by 2423 GPs were included in the study representing 14 different French regions: Ile-de-France I (1), Ile-de-France II (2), Ile-de-France-Pays-de-la-Loire (3), Bretagne (4), Normandie-Picardie (5), Nord-Pas-de-Calais (6), Alsace-Lorraine (7), Bourgogne-Franche Comté (8), Rhônes-Alpes (9), Provence-Côte d'Azur (10), Languedoc-Provence (11), Limousin-Auvergne (12), Midi-Pyrénées (13), Aquitaine (14). Among 70,073 hypertensives, 23,054 had never received antihypertensive treatment, and 32,059 (47%) had a high or a very high cardiovascular risk. 67% of hypertensives (47,019) were treated, and 32.8% of treated hypertensives (15,422) had a BP < 140/90 mmHg. The study illustrated few differences in prevalence and control of hypertension in the different French regions: BP control at the 140/90 mmHg threshold vary from 28.5 to 36.6% among treated hypertensives and % of patients at high cardiovascular risk from 42.1% (South-France) to 49.7% (East-France). PMID:11575211

  1. Diversity of Group I and II Clostridium botulinum Strains from France Including Recently Identified Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Mazuet, Christelle; Legeay, Christine; Sautereau, Jean; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Bouvet, Philippe; Popoff, Michel R

    2016-01-01

    In France, human botulism is mainly food-borne intoxication, whereas infant botulism is rare. A total of 99 group I and II Clostridium botulinum strains including 59 type A (12 historical isolates [1947-1961], 43 from France [1986-2013], 3 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), 31 type B (3 historical, 23 recent isolates, 4 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), and 9 type E (5 historical, 3 isolates, and 1 collection strain) were investigated by botulinum locus gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing analysis. Historical C. botulinum A strains mainly belonged to subtype A1 and sequence type (ST) 1, whereas recent strains exhibited a wide genetic diversity: subtype A1 in orfX or ha locus, A1(B), A1(F), A2, A2b2, A5(B2') A5(B3'), as well as the recently identified A7 and A8 subtypes, and were distributed into 25 STs. Clostridium botulinum A1(B) was the most frequent subtype from food-borne botulism and food. Group I C. botulinum type B in France were mainly subtype B2 (14 out of 20 historical and recent strains) and were divided into 19 STs. Food-borne botulism resulting from ham consumption during the recent period was due to group II C. botulinum B4. Type E botulism is rare in France, 5 historical and 1 recent strains were subtype E3. A subtype E12 was recently identified from an unusual ham contamination. Clostridium botulinum strains from human botulism in France showed a wide genetic diversity and seems to result not from a single evolutionary lineage but from multiple and independent genetic rearrangements. PMID:27189984

  2. Characteristics of childbearing women, obstetrical interventions and preterm delivery: a comparison of the US and France.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Blondel, Béatrice; Ananth, Cande V

    2015-05-01

    Preterm delivery rates have remained consistently higher in the US than France, but the reasons for this excess remain poorly understood. We examined if differences in socio-demographic risk factors or more liberal use of obstetrical interventions contributed to higher rates in the US. Data on singleton live births in 1995, 1998 and 2003 from US birth certificates and the French National Perinatal Survey were used to analyze preterm delivery rate by maternal characteristics (age, parity, marital status, education, race (US)/nationality (France), prenatal care and smoking). We distinguished between preterm deliveries with a cesarean or a labor induction and those without these interventions. Unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RR) for the US compared to France were estimated using log-binomial regression. Preterm delivery rates were 7.9 % in the US and 4.7 % in France (risk ratio [RR] = 1.7, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.6-1.8). The US had more teen mothers and late entry to prenatal care, but fewer women smoked, although adjustment for these and other confounders did not reduce RR (1.8, 95 % CI 1.7-1.9). Preterm delivery rates associated with labor induction or cesarean were 3.3 % in the US and 2.1 % in France (RR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.5-1.7); the corresponding rates for preterm delivery without these interventions were 4.5 and 2.5 % (RR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.7-1.9), respectively. Key socio-demographic risk factors and more obstetric intervention do not explain higher US preterm delivery rates. Avenues for future research include the impact of universal access to health services (universal health insurance?) on health care quality and the association between more generous social policies, stress and the risks of preterm delivery. PMID:25119892

  3. Evaluation of the smoking ban in public places in France one year and five years after its implementation: Findings from the ITC France survey

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Geoffrey T.; Craig, Lorraine V.; Guignard, Romain; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Tait, Megan K.; Driezen, Pete; Kennedy, Ryan David; Boudreau, Christian; Wilquin, Jean-Louis; Deutsch, Antoine; Beck, François

    2013-01-01

    France implemented a comprehensive smoke-free policy in public places in February 2007 for workplaces, shopping centres, airports, train stations, hospitals and schools. On January 2008, it was extended to meeting places (bars, restaurants, hotels, casinos, nightclubs). This paper evaluates France’s smoke-free law based on the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project in France (the ITC France Project), which conducted a cohort survey of approximately 1,500 smokers and 500 non-smokers before the implementation of the laws (Wave 1, conducted December 2006 to February 2007) and two waves after the implementation (Wave 2, conducted between September-November 2008; and Wave 3, conducted between September-December 2012). Results show that the smoke-free law led to a very significant and near total elimination of indoor smoking in key venues such as bars (from 95.9% to 3.7%) and restaurants (from 64.7% to 2.3%) at Wave 2, which was sustained four years later at Wave 3 (1.4% in restaurants; 6.6% in bars). Smoking in workplaces declined significantly after the law (from 42.6% to 19.3%), which continued to decline at Wave 3 (to 12.8%). Support for the smoke-free law increased significantly after their implementation and continued to increase at Wave 3 (among smokers for bars and restaurants; among smokers and non-smokers for workplaces). The findings demonstrate that smoke-free policies that are implemented in ways consistent with the Guidelines for Article 8 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) lead to substantial and sustained reductions in tobacco smoke in public places while also leading to high levels of support by the public. PMID:24803715

  4. A coordinated set of ecosystem research platforms open to international research in ecotoxicology, AnaEE-France.

    PubMed

    Mougin, Christian; Azam, Didier; Caquet, Thierry; Cheviron, Nathalie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Guillaume, Olivier; Houot, Sabine; Lacroix, Gérard; Lafolie, François; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Michniewicz, Radika; Pichot, Christian; Ranjard, Lionel; Roy, Jacques; Zeller, Bernd; Clobert, Jean; Chanzy, André

    2015-10-01

    The infrastructure for Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems (AnaEE-France) is an integrated network of the major French experimental, analytical, and modeling platforms dedicated to the biological study of continental ecosystems (aquatic and terrestrial). This infrastructure aims at understanding and predicting ecosystem dynamics under global change. AnaEE-France comprises complementary nodes offering access to the best experimental facilities and associated biological resources and data: Ecotrons, seminatural experimental platforms to manipulate terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, in natura sites equipped for large-scale and long-term experiments. AnaEE-France also provides shared instruments and analytical platforms dedicated to environmental (micro) biology. Finally, AnaEE-France provides users with data bases and modeling tools designed to represent ecosystem dynamics and to go further in coupling ecological, agronomical, and evolutionary approaches. In particular, AnaEE-France offers adequate services to tackle the new challenges of research in ecotoxicology, positioning its various types of platforms in an ecologically advanced ecotoxicology approach. AnaEE-France is a leading international infrastructure, and it is pioneering the construction of AnaEE (Europe) infrastructure in the field of ecosystem research. AnaEE-France infrastructure is already open to the international community of scientists in the field of continental ecotoxicology. PMID:26315587

  5. Evaluating the Effectiveness of France's Indoor Smoke-Free Law 1 Year and 5 Years after Implementation: Findings from the ITC France Survey.

    PubMed

    Fong, Geoffrey T; Craig, Lorraine V; Guignard, Romain; Nagelhout, Gera E; Tait, Megan K; Driezen, Pete; Kennedy, Ryan David; Boudreau, Christian; Wilquin, Jean-Louis; Deutsch, Antoine; Beck, François

    2013-01-01

    France implemented a comprehensive smoke-free law in two phases: Phase 1 (February 2007) banned smoking in workplaces, shopping centres, airports, train stations, hospitals, and schools; Phase 2 (January 2008) banned smoking in hospitality venues (bars, restaurants, hotels, casinos, nightclubs). This paper evaluates France's smoke-free law based on the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project in France (the ITC France Project), which conducted a cohort survey of approximately 1,500 smokers and 500 non-smokers before the implementation of the laws (Wave 1) and two waves after the implementation (Waves 2 and 3). Results show that the smoke-free law led to a very significant and near-total elimination of observed smoking in key venues such as bars (from 94-97% to 4%) and restaurants (from 60-71% to 2-3%) at Wave 2, which was sustained four years later (6-8% in bars; 1-2% in restaurants). The reduction in self-reported smoking by smoking respondents was nearly identical to the effects shown in observed smoking. Observed smoking in workplaces declined significantly after the law (from 41-48% to 18-20%), which continued to decline at Wave 3 (to 14-15%). Support for the smoke-free laws increased significantly after their implementation and continued to increase at Wave 3 (p<.001 among smokers for bars and restaurants; p<.001 among smokers and p = .003 for non-smokers for workplaces). The findings demonstrate that smoke-free policies that are implemented in ways consistent with the Guidelines for Article 8 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) lead to substantial and sustained reductions in indoor smoking while also leading to high levels of support by the public. Moreover, contrary to arguments by opponents of smoke-free laws, smoking in the home did not increase after the law was implemented and prevalence of smoke-free homes among smokers increased from 23.2% before the law to 37.2% 5 years after the law. PMID:23805265

  6. Coleophoranepetellae Baldizzone & Nel, a new species of the C.lixella group (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae) from France and Italy.

    PubMed

    Baldizzone, Giorgio; Nel, Jacques; Landry, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Coleophoranepetellae Baldizzone & Nel, sp. n. is described from the southern Alps (Italy and France). It belongs to the Coleophoralixella species group. Its host plants are Nepetanepetella L. (Lamiaceae) and an unidentified Poaceae. The fifth instar larva, its case, the adult habitus, and genitalia are illustrated. The species is compared to Coleophoranevadella Baldizzone, 1985, here newly confirmed from France and whose larvae feed on Nepetalatifolia DC. in the Eastern Pyrénées. DNA barcodes are shown to be distinct and congruent with morphological differences among species of the lixella group. Barcodes revealed that Coleophoratricolor Walsingham, 1889, formerly known only from Great Britain, is also present in France and Greece. PMID:25561856

  7. Vaccination against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in France: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Bresse, Xavier; Annemans, Lieven; Préaud, Emmanuelle; Bloch, Karine; Duru, Gérard; Gauthier, Aline

    2013-06-01

    This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of vaccination against herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia in France, using a published Markov model. The cost-effectiveness of vaccinating individuals aged from 65 years or between 70 and 79 years was evaluated over their lifetime, from a third-party payer perspective. French-specific data were combined with results from clinical studies and international quality-of-life-based (EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire) utilities from the literature. HZ vaccination was highly cost effective in both populations. Incremental cost-effective ratios were estimated between €9513 and 12,304 per quality-adjusted life year gained, corresponding to €2240-2651 per HZ case avoided and €3539-4395 per postherpetic neuralgia case avoided. In addition to epidemiological and clinical evidence, economic evidence also supports the implementation of HZ vaccination in France. PMID:23537397

  8. Distribution of Leptospira Serogroups in Cattle Herds and Dogs in France

    PubMed Central

    Ayral, Florence C.; Bicout, Dominique J.; Pereira, Helena; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to identify and describe the distribution pattern of Leptospira serogroups in domestic animals in France. The population consisted of cattle herds and dogs with clinically suspected leptospirosis that were tested at the “Laboratoire des Leptospires” between 2008 and 2011. The laboratory database was queried for records of cattle and dogs in which seroreactivity in Leptospira microagglutination tests was consistent with a recent or current infection, excluding vaccine serogroups in dogs. A total of 394 cattle herds and 232 dogs were diagnosed with clinical leptospirosis, and the results suggested infection by the Leptospira serogroup Australis in 43% and 63%, respectively; by the Leptospira serogroup Grippotyphosa in 17% and 9%, respectively; and by the Leptospira serogroup Sejroe in 33% and 6%, respectively. This inventory of infecting Leptospira serogroups revealed that current vaccines in France are not fully capable of preventing the clinical form of the disease. PMID:25092816

  9. The "cradle of glass": incubators for infants in late nineteenth-century France.

    PubMed

    Greene, Gina

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the development of the incubator for premature infants in fin-de-siècle France. During a period of widespread anxiety in France regarding infant mortality and its implications for population growth, physicians in Paris developed and widely promoted the lifesaving technology. This article explores the ways in which the incubator reflected new scientific and symbolic approaches to creating hygienic spaces as well as how it reflected new scientific and symbolic approaches to the traditionally feminine project of infant care. By creating such an isolating and protective milieu around premature infants—an entirely new population of patients—the incubator, I argue, heralded a renegotiation of the boundary between motherhood and medical authority. PMID:21174887

  10. Genetic Diversity of Talpa Europaea and Nova Hanta Virus (NVAV) in France

    PubMed Central

    Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Gu, Se Hun; Feliu, Carlos; Ventur, Jacint; Ribas, Alexis; Dormion, Jerôme; Yanagihara, Richard; Nicolas, Violaine

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nova hantavirus (NVAV) was first identified in a single European mole (Talpa europaea), captured in Hungary. Analysis of lung tissues from 94 moles captured in France revealed NVAV in 50%. Based on the genetic diversity of the cytochrome b mtDNA, moles collected in Poitiers and Bordeaux were more closely related to the Iberian mole (T. occidentalis), a species previously assumed to be restricted to the Iberian Peninsula. Several hypotheses are discussed to explain these observations: 1) presence of hitherto unnoticed T. occidentalis in southwestern France; 2) existence of an ancient mitochondrial introgression phenomenon between the two Talpa species, producing a particular phenotype in some hybrids; 3) existence of a hybrid zone between the two species; and 4) existence of a new Talpa species. NVAV was not detected in the southwestern moles, which begs the question of the potential presence of a particular Hantavirus sp. in this population and/or in the Iberian moles. PMID:25530620

  11. Giving or giving back: new psychosocial insights from sperm donors in France.

    PubMed

    Kalampalikis, Nikos; Haas, Valérie; Fieulaine, Nicolas; Doumergue, Marjolaine; Deschamps, Gaëlle

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing importance of the international scientific literature concerning donor insemination, studies of French samples are rare. We recently had the opportunity to conduct a nationwide study on psychosocial issues related to semen donation in France. In this article, we present the main results of an analysis of the narratives of 33 sperm donors. We examine the meaning they attribute to this experience, their motivations, the social ramifications of their action, and their perspective on the principles of sperm donation in France. We highlight our results by comparing them to those derived from other recent international studies in different legislative contexts. Finally, we suggest a hypothesis regarding donor motivations based on recent literature in social sciences regarding the fundamental role of gift and reciprocity. These issues, particularly the anonymity of gamete donation, are currently at the heart of a national debate related to the expected revision of the French bioethics law. PMID:22512643

  12. [Control of smoking to reduce the incidence of bronchial cancer: application of Evin's law in France].

    PubMed

    Hirsch, A

    1998-01-01

    In France, 30% of adults smoke, and males smoke a little bit more than females. Young people smoke more and more, and 50% of 18-24 years-old males and females smoke. Tobacco causes 60,000 deaths each year in France. Publicity is now forbidden (Evins's law). Price of cigarette has been multiplied by two. Interdiction of smoking in public and closed places is however insufficiently respected. Budget devoted to information, education, and prevention, is also dramatically insufficient. By contrast, due to vigilance of the Comité National Contre le Tabagisme, tobacco sales decreased from 1991 to 1997 of 11.1%, and cigarette sales of 14.5%. French situation must be replaced in European and international context. European regulation on smoking interdiction increases the impact of the French legislation. PMID:9868406

  13. FRANC2D: A two-dimensional crack propagation simulator. Version 2.7: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wawrzynek, Paul; Ingraffea, Anthony

    1994-01-01

    FRANC 2D (FRacture ANalysis Code, 2 Dimensions) is a menu driven, interactive finite element computer code that performs fracture mechanics analyses of 2-D structures. The code has an automatic mesh generator for triangular and quadrilateral elements. FRANC2D calculates the stress intensity factor using linear elastic fracture mechanics and evaluates crack extension using several methods that may be selected by the user. The code features a mesh refinement and adaptive mesh generation capability that is automatically developed according to the predicted crack extension direction and length. The code also has unique features that permit the analysis of layered structure with load transfer through simulated mechanical fasteners or bonded joints. The code was written for UNIX workstations with X-windows graphics and may be executed on the following computers: DEC DecStation 3000 and 5000 series, IBM RS/6000 series, Hewlitt-Packard 9000/700 series, SUN Sparc stations, and most Silicon Graphics models.

  14. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN FRANCE AND JAPAN ON LOCAL GOVERNMENTS' INVOLVEMENT IN NUCLEAR SAFETY GOVERNANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Shin-Etsu; Shiroyama, Hideaki

    This paper shows a comparative analysis between France and Japan on the way of the local governments' involvement in nuclear safety governance through some interviews. In France, a law came into force that requires related local governments to establish "Commision Locale d'Information" (CLI), which means the local governments officially involve in nuclear regulatory activity. Meanwhile, in Japan, related local governments substantially involve in the operation of nuclear facilities through the "safety agreements" in spite of the lack of legal authority. As a result of comparative analysis, we can point out some institutional input from French cases as follows: to clarify the local governments' roles in the nuclear regulation system, to establish the official channels of communication among nuclear utilities, national regulatory authorities and local governments, and to stipulate explicitly the transparency as a purpose of safety regulation.

  15. Distribution of Leptospira serogroups in cattle herds and dogs in France.

    PubMed

    Ayral, Florence C; Bicout, Dominique J; Pereira, Helena; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli

    2014-10-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to identify and describe the distribution pattern of Leptospira serogroups in domestic animals in France. The population consisted of cattle herds and dogs with clinically suspected leptospirosis that were tested at the "Laboratoire des Leptospires" between 2008 and 2011. The laboratory database was queried for records of cattle and dogs in which seroreactivity in Leptospira microagglutination tests was consistent with a recent or current infection, excluding vaccine serogroups in dogs. A total of 394 cattle herds and 232 dogs were diagnosed with clinical leptospirosis, and the results suggested infection by the Leptospira serogroup Australis in 43% and 63%, respectively; by the Leptospira serogroup Grippotyphosa in 17% and 9%, respectively; and by the Leptospira serogroup Sejroe in 33% and 6%, respectively. This inventory of infecting Leptospira serogroups revealed that current vaccines in France are not fully capable of preventing the clinical form of the disease. PMID:25092816

  16. [State of unmet medical needs in France in 2006: necessity of reinforcing research effort].

    PubMed

    Jouan-Flahault, Chrystel; Billon, Nathalie; Castaigne, Alain; Henry, Yves-Dominique; Omnes, Carole; Puech, Alain; Rosilio, Myriam; Lassale, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Leem (French Pharmaceutical Companies) realized an inventory of unmet medical needs in 2006 in France for 12 pathologies. All of them are considered as national public health priorities by the law of August 9th, 2004. Allied to the epidemiological projections, analyses concerned various stages and/or pathology forms, impact of guidelines in clinical practice, therapeutic strategies, marketed therapeutics and pharmacological products in an advanced phase of clinical development. With more than 100 products listed in clinical phase III or pre-registration/marketed for those pathologies, French Pharmaceutical Companies contribute, quasi exclusively, to the development of innovative pharmaceutical products to answer unmet medical needs. This study illustrates the necessity of French Government to support therapeutic innovation led by Pharmaceutical Companies in France. PMID:18206102

  17. Draft genome sequences of five Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains isolated in France.

    PubMed

    Cunty, Amandine; Cesbron, Sophie; Briand, Martial; Carrère, Sébastien; Poliakoff, Françoise; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Manceau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum causes necrotic spots on the leaves of Actinidia deliciosa and Actinidia chinensis. P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum has been detected in New Zealand, Australia, France and Spain. Four lineages were previously identified within the P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum species group. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of five strains of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum representative of lineages 1, 2 and 4, isolated in France. The whole genomes of strains isolated in New Zealand, representative of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum lineages 1 and 3, were previously sequenced. The availability of supplementary P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum genome sequences will be useful for developing molecular tools for pathogen detection and for performing comparative genomic analyses to study the relationship between P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum and other kiwifruit pathogens, such as P. syringae pv. actinidiae. PMID:27237113

  18. Perception of nuclear energy and coal in France and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wiegman, O; Gutteling, J M; Cadet, B

    1995-08-01

    This study focuses on the perception of large scale application of nuclear energy and coal in the Netherlands and France. The application of these energy-sources and the risks and benefits are judged differently by various group in society. In Europe, France has the highest density of nuclear power plants and the Netherlands has one of the lowest. In both countries scientists and social scientists completed a questionnaire assessing the perception of the large scale application of both energy sources. Furthermore, a number of variables relating to the socio cultural and political circumstances were measured. The results indicate that the French had a higher risk perception and a more negative attitude toward nuclear power than the Dutch. But they also assess the benefits of the use of nuclear power to be higher. Explanations for these differences are discussed. PMID:7480951

  19. Computerized system for the selection of the most HLA-compatible kidney recipient (France-Transplant).

    PubMed

    Busson, M; Petit, A; Hors, J; Dausset, J; Mathieu, J P; Jourde, P; Puerto, A; Pinson, G

    1978-01-01

    The RITRAN program is applied to renal transplantation and operates within the framework of France Transplant. It makes it possible to choose the most compatible kidney recipient within the ABO blood group system and within the major histocompatibility system in man (HLA). The file presently comprises the data stored on tape concerning 1800 dialysis patients who are awaiting grafts. It is managed by UNIVAC 1108 computer. More than 25 medical-surgical transplant teams from France, Switzerland, Holland and Spain are connected with the computer. It was five years ago that the first interrogation system began operating in real time 20 hours out of 24, using a telex line, and it continues to provide complete satisfaction. The updating of the data is done by the RITREC system, also using a telex machine. An adaptation of the programs applied for choosing blood and platelet donors is in the process of being realized. PMID:355985

  20. Structures of Mesocirculations Producing Tornadoes Associated with Tropical Cyclone Frances (1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Gandikota V.; Scheck, Joshua W.; Edwards, Roger; Schaefer, Joseph T.

    2005-08-01

    Radar structures of one mesocyclone and one mesocirculation (the term mesocirculation refers to a class of rotating updrafts, which may or may not be as spatially and temporally large as a typical mesocyclone) that developed a total of four tornadoes in association with Tropical Cyclone (TC) Frances 1998 are presented. One tornado developed within an inner rainband near the time of landfall while three of the other tornadoes developed within an outer rainband nearly 24 hours after the landfall. Radar reflectivities of the tornadic circulations averaged upwards of 40 dBZ while Doppler radar wind components directed toward the radar averaged 11 m s-1. It is realized that although TC Frances was a minimal hurricane it spawned several tornadoes (four of which were studied) causing damage exceeding 2 million. These tornadoes were not all located close to the TC center, serving as a caution to forecasters and emergency personnel that the immediate landfalling area is not the only place to watch.

  1. Cluster of two cases of botulism due to Clostridium baratii type F in France, November 2014.

    PubMed

    Castor, C; Mazuet, C; Saint-Leger, M; Vygen, S; Coutureau, J; Durand, M; Popoff, M R; Jourdan Da Silva, N

    2015-01-01

    The first two cases in France of botulism due to Clostridium baratii type F were identified in November 2014, in the same family. Both cases required prolonged respiratory assistance. One of the cases had extremely high toxin serum levels and remained paralysed for two weeks. Investigations strongly supported the hypothesis of a common exposure during a family meal with high level contamination of the source. However, all analyses of leftover food remained negative. PMID:25695475

  2. Risk factors for winter outbreak of acute diarrhoea in France: case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Letrilliart, L.; Desenclos, J. C.; Flahault, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential role of consumption of shellfish (particularly raw oysters) and tap water in the winter epidemic of acute diarrhoea in France. DESIGN: Population based, case-control study during the 1995-6 winter epidemic of acute diarrhoea in France. SETTING: A national network comprising 1% of general practitioners in France. SUBJECTS: 568 pairs of cases and controls consulting in general practice and interviewed by 209 doctors from 26 December 1995 to 31 January 1996. Cases and controls were matched for age, doctor, and time of consultation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted relative risk of diarrhoea estimated from conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of acute diarrhoea was not increased in people who had recently eaten raw oysters (odds ratio 1.1; 95% confidence interval 0.9% to 1.4%) or other shellfish such as clams, cockles, and mussels, or in those people who usually consumed tap water rather than bottled water (0.8; 0.6% to 1.1%). The risk was, however, increased in people who had had recent contact wit ha person with diarrhoea either within the household (adjusted odds ratio 5.0) or in the workplace (3.1), and in people who lived with a child < or = 2 years of age (1.6). Recent treatment with either oral penicillin or cephalosporin was also independently associated with acute diarrhoea in winter. CONCLUSIONS: The winter epidemic of acute diarrhoea in France is probably not caused by consumption of either shellfish or tap water. A viral aetiology, however, is suggested by the speed with which the acute diarrhoea is transmitted. PMID:9448526

  3. Access to employment among African migrant women living with HIV in France: opportunities and constraints.

    PubMed

    Gerbier-Aublanc, Marjorie; Gosselin, Anne

    2016-08-01

    HIV in France particularly affects sub-Saharan migrants as they accounted for 31% of the new diagnoses in 2013. The objective of this study is to investigate the access to and the experience of employment among migrant women living with HIV in France. We use a mixed-method approach. The quantitative data come from the ANRS Parcours study, a life-event survey conducted in 2012-2013 in 70 health centres which collected year-by-year detailed information on living conditions about 755 sub-Saharan women migrants in the greater Paris region (470 with HIV and 285 without HIV). The qualitative data have been collected independently in the same region through socio-ethnographic observations and interviews conducted in 8 HIV-positive migrant organisations and among 35 women-members from 2011 to 2013. Two main results are noteworthy. First, being HIV-positive unexpectedly gives sub-Saharan migrant women a quicker access to employment thanks to the social support they find in migrant organisations: in the third year in France in median (versus 5th year among HIV-negative group). This effect of being HIV-positive on the access to employment remains all things being equal in a discrete-time logistic regression (aOR [95% CI] HIV+: 1.4[1.1;1.8]). Second, their employment situation remains strongly shaped by the racial division of work existing in France and they develop individual strategies to negotiate this constraint: for example, temporary jobs and working as health mediators. The type of jobs they find, mainly in the care sector, force them to carefully hide their HIV status because they fear discrimination at work. Not only migrant women endure structural discrimination in a segmented labour market, but they also anticipate HIV-related discrimination related to caring activities. Thus, the design and implementation of programmes that address stigma should consider structural discrimination to improve PLWHA's working experiences. PMID:27098378

  4. Respiratory disease (rhinotracheitis) in turkeys in Brittany, France, 1981-1982. II. Laboratory findings.

    PubMed

    Andral, B; Louzis, C; Edlinger, E; Newman, J A; Toquin, D; Bennejean, G

    1985-01-01

    After discovering that numerous turkey flocks experiencing rhinotracheitis in Brittany, France, had antibodies against chlamydia, laboratory studies were conducted to determine whether chlamydia and/or viruses would explain the respiratory disease observed. Although both lentogenic paramyxoviruses of type 1 (Newcastle disease virus) and Chlamydia psittaci were isolated, it was concluded, based on epidemiologic and other laboratory findings, that C. psittaci was the primary cause of the disease. PMID:3985882

  5. Paleomagnetic secular variation study of lavas from the Massif central, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doell, Richard R.

    1970-01-01

    The angular standard deviation of virtual geomagnetic poles determined from a paleomagnetic study of 31 Brunhes-age lava flows from France has been obtained. The value, referred to the axial dipole (geographic axis), is 15.2?? with 95% confidence limits of 18.4?? and 12.9??. This value is not significantly different from that obtained in similar studies of lavas from other midlatitude localities (Western United States and New Zealand). ?? 1970.

  6. 75 FR 26920 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews, Preliminary Results...

  7. [A Case of Brucellosis with Intermittent Fever in a Patient Returning from France].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nagamine, Keisuke

    2016-03-01

    We herein report on a 62-year-old man who presented with symptoms of intermittent fever that persisted after returning from a trip to France. During his trip, he had eaten natural cheese. Although no bacteria could be isolated from blood culture, the serum agglutination test showed a positive antibody titer of 1 : 160 for Brucella canis. The patient responded well to combination antibiotic therapy consisting of gentamicin, rifampicin, and doxycycline, and his symptoms improved. He became antibody-negative after antibiotic therapy. Although the present case may have been a case of B. canis infection, considering the epidemiology of brucellosis in France, serological cross-reactivity with Brucella melitensis infection is also a possibility. Concerns regarding the reemergence of brucellosis have recently been reported in France, and most cases are caused by B. melitensis. Clinicians should be aware of the fact that blood cultures must be incubated for ≥ 21 days for isolation of Brucella and that in Japan, antibody measurement of B. melitensis cannot be performed on a commercial basis. PMID:27197442

  8. Time and space clusters of the French-Canadian MIV phenylketonuria mutation in France

    PubMed Central

    Lyonnet, Stanislas; Melle, Dominique; de Braekeleer, Marc; Laframboise, Rachel; Rey, Françoise; John, Simon W. M.; Berthelon, Monique; Berthelot, Jacques; Journel, Hubert; Le Marec, Bernard; Parent, Philippe; de Parscau, Loïc; Saudubray, Jean-Marie; Rozen, Rima; Rey, Jean; Munnich, Arnold; Scriver, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    We performed mutation analysis and RFLP haplotype analysis of chromosomes associated with classical phenylketonuria (PKU) in contemporary French families. We also did genealogical reconstructions for seven obligate carriers in five contemporary French-Canadian families living in eastern Quebec, who carry the M1V mutation causing PKU. The M1V mutation, heretofore considered to be associated exclusively with French-Canadians, was found on 4 of 152 independent French chromosomes. The French and Quebec M1V mutations all occurred on RFLP haplotype 2. The contemporary mutant French chromosomes clustered in southern Brittany (Finistère Sud). Genealogical reconstructions of the Quebec families identified 53 shared ancestors and a center of diffusion in the Perche region in 17th century France. The two clusters in France, one historical and the other contemporary, are not incompatible, if one assumes the possibilities that settlers returned from Nouvelle France or moved from Perche to southern Brittany. The M1V mutation is serving as a useful marker for historical demography. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3 PMID:1609797

  9. Context and dating of Aurignacian vulvar representations from Abri Castanet, France

    PubMed Central

    White, Randall; Mensan, Romain; Bourrillon, Raphaëlle; Cretin, Catherine; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Clark, Amy E.; Sisk, Matthew L.; Tartar, Elise; Gardère, Philippe; Goldberg, Paul; Pelegrin, Jacques; Valladas, Hélène; Tisnérat-Laborde, Nadine; de Sanoit, Jacques; Chambellan, Dominique; Chiotti, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    We report here on the 2007 discovery, in perfect archaeological context, of part of the engraved and ocre-stained undersurface of the collapsed rockshelter ceiling from Abri Castanet, Dordogne, France. The decorated surface of the 1.5-t roof-collapse block was in direct contact with the exposed archaeological surface onto which it fell. Because there was no sedimentation between the engraved surface and the archaeological layer upon which it collapsed, it is clear that the Early Aurignacian occupants of the shelter were the authors of the ceiling imagery. This discovery contributes an important dimension to our understanding of the earliest graphic representation in southwestern France, almost all of which was discovered before modern methods of archaeological excavation and analysis. Comparison of the dates for the Castanet ceiling and those directly obtained from the Chauvet paintings reveal that the “vulvar” representations from southwestern France are as old or older than the very different wall images from Chauvet. PMID:22586111

  10. [Catch-up vaccination of worldwide newcoming (adopted, refugee or migrant) children in France].

    PubMed

    de Monléon, J-V; Regnier, F; Ajana, F; Baptiste, C; Callamand, P; Cheymol, J; Gillet, Y; Hau-Rainsard, I; Lorrot, M; Reinert, P; Marchand, S; Okaïs, C; Picherot, G

    2014-03-01

    In France, international adoption includes around to 90,000 children since 1980 and near 300,000 immigrant children were counted in 2008. This population is heterogeneous, according to age and country of origin, and its large number. It is not easy to completely and surely assess the vaccine status of the child. Due to a great variability of individual situations, it is not possible to have systematic and unchangeable rules. This article aims to give an update of catch-up vaccination of internationally adopted or refugee or migrant children in France. The vaccination status of a child who recently arrived in France is complex and has to be adapted to his country of origin. Some of them were never vaccinated whereas the vaccine status of others is uncertain or unknown. Three parameters have to be considered: the age of the child, the country of origin, and sometimes serology in the case of doubts of his vaccine status. Catch-up vaccination of foreign children has to be adapted to French vaccine recommendations, as a reference, and to vaccines already administered to the child. PMID:24512806

  11. Gender identification and sex reassignment surgery in the trans population: a survey study in France.

    PubMed

    Giami, Alain; Beaubatie, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    Drawing from controversies between medical, legal, and associative actors about the obligation of sex reassignment surgeries (SRS) for people who intend to change their civil status, this article discusses the role that medical procedures, and particularly SRS, play in contemporary gender identifications and transition pathways in France. In 2010, the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research conducted a national survey in order to study the sociodemographic characteristics, access to medical, and psychological care, and state of health among trans individuals. After a long period of ethnographic work during which a partnership was established with trans actors to map the social, medical, and political landscape of trans communities, a questionnaire was developed and distributed between July and October 2010 in collaboration with most of the trans organizations and public and private health professionals operating in France. Overall, 381 self-identified trans individuals returned the anonymous self-administered questionnaire. The results highlighted the heterogeneity of the trans population, whose definition cannot be reduced to a group of individuals undergoing standardized hormonal treatments and SRS. Two central indicators, sex assigned at birth and gender self-identification, enabled us to describe and analyze different medical and legal pathways with a particular focus on SRS, which is often compulsory for a change of civil status in France. Although SRS remains an important factor in an individual's subjective evaluation of the success of the transition pathway, its practice varies depending on one's sex assigned at birth and gender identification. PMID:25231821

  12. The path dependency theory: analytical framework to study institutional integration. The case of France

    PubMed Central

    Trouvé, Hélène; Couturier, Yves; Etheridge, Francis; Saint-Jean, Olivier; Somme, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Background The literature on integration indicates the need for an enhanced theorization of institutional integration. This article proposes path dependence as an analytical framework to study the systems in which integration takes place. Purpose PRISMA proposes a model for integrating health and social care services for older adults. This model was initially tested in Quebec. The PRISMA France study gave us an opportunity to analyze institutional integration in France. Methods A qualitative approach was used. Analyses were based on semi-structured interviews with actors of all levels of decision-making, observations of advisory board meetings, and administrative documents. Results Our analyses revealed the complexity and fragmentation of institutional integration. The path dependency theory, which analyzes the change capacity of institutions by taking into account their historic structures, allows analysis of this situation. The path dependency to the Bismarckian system and the incomplete reforms of gerontological policies generate the coexistence and juxtaposition of institutional systems. In such a context, no institution has sufficient ability to determine gerontology policy and build institutional integration by itself. Conclusion Using path dependence as an analytical framework helps to understand the reasons why institutional integration is critical to organizational and clinical integration, and the complex construction of institutional integration in France. PMID:20689740

  13. Predictors of car smoking rules among smokers in France, Germany and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Guignard, Romain; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Mons, Ute; Beck, François; van den Putte, Bas; Crone, Mathilde; de Vries, Hein; Hyland, Andrew; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a cause of premature death and disease in non-smokers, and studies have demonstrated that smoking in cars produces high levels of TSP, this study will investigate smokers’ rules for smoking in their cars, and predictors of car smoking rules, including potentially modifiable correlates. Methods: Data were drawn from nationally representative samples of current smokers from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project surveys in France (2007), Germany (2007), and the Netherlands (2008). Smokers in France and Germany were asked about smoking rules in their cars, and smokers in the Netherlands were asked about smoking rules in cars carrying children. Results: In France and Germany, 59% and 52% of smokers respectively, allowed smoking in their cars. In the Netherlands, 36% of smokers allowed smoking in cars carrying children. Predictors of allowing smoking in cars included: being a daily vs. non-daily smoker, being younger vs. older age, having no (young) children in the home, being a heavier smoker, and allowing smoking in the home. In the Netherlands, smokers who agreed that TSP is dangerous to non-smokers were less likely to allow smoking in cars carrying children. Conclusion: Overall, a sizeable proportion of smokers allowed smoking in their cars across the three countries. Media campaigns with information about the dangers of TSP may increase the adoption of smoke-free cars. These media campaigns could target smokers who are most likely to allow smoking in cars. PMID:22294780

  14. Laboratory-based surveillance for Cryptosporidium in France, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, the French Food Safety Agency drew attention to the lack of information on the prevalence of human cryptosporidiosis in the country. Two years later, the ANOFEL Cryptosporidium National Network (ACNN) was set up to provide public health authorities with data on the incidence and epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis in France. Constituted on a voluntary basis, ACNN includes 38 hospital parasitology laboratories (mainly in university hospitals). Each laboratory is engaged to notify new cases of confirmed human cryptosporidiosis, store specimens (e.g. stools, duodenal aspirates or biopsies) and related clinical and epidemiological data, using data sheet forms. From January 2006 to December 2009, 407 cryptosporidiosis cases were notified in France and 364 specimens were collected. Of the notified cases, 74 were children under four years of age, accounting for 18.2%. HIV-infected and immunocompetent patients represented 38.6% (n=157) and 28% (n=114) of cases, respectively. A marked seasonal pattern was observed each year, with increased number of cases in mid to late summer and the beginning of autumn. Genotyping of 345 isolates from 310 patients identified C. parvumin 168 (54.2%) cases, C. hominis in 113 (36.4%) and other species in 29 (9.4%), including C. felis (n=15), C. meleagridis (n=4), C. canis (n=4), Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype (n=1), Cryptosporidium rabbit genotype (n=1) and new Cryptosporidium genotypes (n=4). These data represent the first multisite report of laboratory-confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis in France. PMID:20739000

  15. The multifunctionality of agriculture and contractual policies. A comparative analysis of France and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Daniel, François-Joseph; Perraud, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    The process of CAP reform has reorientated the development of agriculture, more towards the principles of rural development and agricultural multifunctionality. These transformations have been accompanied by a shift in the principles and tools used by policy-makers, necessary to implement these new orientations. The emergent contractual policies represent a renewal of public intervention in agriculture. This article explores the implementation of these policy instruments in two countries, France and the Netherlands. The content and implementation of these policies differs greatly between the two countries, reflecting their different conceptions of multifunctionality. The Netherlands limited the scope of the policy instrument to nature and landscape protection, while France adopted a wider definition of multifunctionality. These differences are partly explained by the particularities of the national context to which those policies have been applied. France is characterized by an institutionalized system of co-management, in which farmers' organizations work closely and have a privileged relationship with the state. Although this mode of governance is weakening and becoming vulnerable, it proved to be highly effective during the 1990s and contributed to the adoption of a broad vision of multifunctionality. By contrast, the selective definition of multifunctionality within Dutch policy is partly due to the co-evolution of strong environmentalist sympathies, together with a liberalization of agricultural management. These divergences are perceptible in the policies that were adopted as well as in the configurations of power that were at stake during the policy-making processes. PMID:19217202

  16. Estimating the number of homeless deaths in France, 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The homeless population of France has increased by 50% over the last 10 years. Studies have shown that homelessness is associated with a high risk of premature death. The aim of this study was to estimate the number of homeless deaths in France between 2008 and 2010, using a reproducible method. Methods We used the capture-recapture method to estimate the number of homeless deaths in France using two independent sources. An associative register of homeless deaths was matched with the national exhaustive database of the medical causes of death, using several matching approaches based on various combinations of the following variables: gender, age, place of death, date of death. Results The estimated number of homeless deaths between 2008 and 2010 was 6730 (95% CI: [4381–9079]), a number greatly underestimated by the two sources considered separately (less than 20%). Conclusions In the absence of a register of the homeless deaths, the capture-recapture method provides an order of magnitude for evaluation of the resources that may be allocated by policy makers to manage the issue. Based on common and routinely produced databases, this estimate may therefore be used to monitor the mortality of the homeless population. Further studies about homeless mortality, particularly on the lead causes of deaths, are needed to manage this issue and to implement strategy to decrease the number of homeless deaths. PMID:24999114

  17. Regional intensity attenuation models for France and the estimation of magnitude and location of historical earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.; Scotti, O.

    2006-01-01

    Intensity assignments for 33 calibration earthquakes were used to develop intensity attenuation models for the Alps, Armorican, Provence, Pyrenees and Rhine regions of France. Intensity decreases with ?? most rapidly in the French Alps, Provence and Pyrenees regions, and least rapidly in the Armorican and Rhine regions. The comparable Armorican and Rhine region attenuation models are aggregated into a French stable continental region model and the comparable Provence and Pyrenees region models are aggregated into a Southern France model. We analyse MSK intensity assignments using the technique of Bakun & Wentworth, which provides an objective method for estimating epicentral location and intensity magnitude MI. MI for the 1356 October 18 earthquake in the French stable continental region is 6.6 for a location near Basle, Switzerland, and moment magnitude M is 5.9-7.2 at the 95 per cent (??2??) confidence level. MI for the 1909 June 11 Trevaresse (Lambesc) earthquake near Marseilles in the Southern France region is 5.5, and M is 4.9-6.0 at the 95 per cent confidence level. Bootstrap resampling techniques are used to calculate objective, reproducible 67 per cent and 95 per cent confidence regions for the locations of historical earthquakes. These confidence regions for location provide an attractive alternative to the macroseismic epicentre and qualitative location uncertainties used heretofore. ?? 2006 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2006 RAS.

  18. NATIONAL DOSE REGISTER IN FRANCE WITHIN THE NATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEM SISERI.

    PubMed

    Scanff, P; Crescini, D; Roy, H; Billarand, Y; Rannou, A

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, France has developed an electronic dose register at national level called SISERI. Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety is in charge of the management of this information system. Besides the main purpose of being a central register of any doses measured for the individual dosimetric monitoring of all exposed workers, SISERI has been developed so as to constitute a tool for occupational physicians and radiation protection officers allowing access in real-time to the results of the individual monitoring. The SISERI information system centralises, verifies and keeps the records of all personal dosimetric results of the 370 000 workers annually monitored in France. Moreover, since the publication of a new order in 2013, employers shall declare any new workers in SISERI before the beginning of their occupation and they shall upload data concerning in particular the activity field/sector and the occupation of each worker. The enforcement of this new order is going to enrich the individual dosimetric information stored in SISERI. Thus, it is expected that more precise and accurate statistics on occupational exposure to ionising radiation in France will be established in the next few years. PMID:26424137

  19. Predictability of soil moisture and river flows over France for the spring season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, S.; Céron, J.-P.; Martin, E.; Regimbeau, F.; Déqué, M.; Habets, F.; Vidal, J.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Sources of spring predictability of the hydrological system over France were studied on a seasonal time scale over the 1960-2005 period. Two random sampling experiments were set up in order to test the relative importance of the land surface initial state and the atmospheric forcing. The experiments were based on the SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU hydrometeorological suite which computed soil moisture and river flow forecasts over a 8-km grid and more than 880 river-gauging stations. Results showed that the predictability of hydrological variables primarily depended on the seasonal atmospheric forcing (mostly temperature and total precipitation) over most plains, whereas it mainly depended on snow cover over high mountains. However, the Seine catchment area was an exception as the skill mainly came from the initial state of its large and complex aquifers. Seasonal meteorological hindcasts with the Météo-France ARPEGE climate model were then used to force the ISBA-MODCOU hydrological model and obtain seasonal hydrological forecasts from 1960 to 2005 for the entire March-April-May period. Scores from this seasonal hydrological forecasting suite could thus be compared with the random atmospheric experiment. Soil moisture and river flow skill scores clearly showed the added value in seasonal meteorological forecasts in the north of France, contrary to the Mediterranean area where values worsened.

  20. Verification of the new ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczypta, C.; Calvet, J.-C.; Albergel, C.; Balsamo, G.; Boussetta, S.; Carrer, D.; Lafont, S.; Meurey, C.

    2011-02-01

    An evaluation of the global ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis ERA-Interim (with a 0.5° grid) is performed over France, based on the high resolution (8 km) SAFRAN atmospheric reanalysis. The ERA-Interim precipitation, Incoming Solar Radiation (ISR), air temperature, air humidity, and wind speed, are compared with their SAFRAN counterparts. Also, interpolated in situ ISR observations are used in order to consolidate the evaluation of this variable. The daily precipitation estimates produced by ERA-Interim over France correlate very well with SAFRAN. However, the values are underestimated by 27%. A GPCP-corrected version of ERA-Interim is less biased (13%). The ERA-Interim estimates of ISR correlate very well with SAFRAN and with in situ observations on a daily basis. Whereas SAFRAN underestimates the ISR by 6 Wm-2, ERA-Interim overestimates the ISR by 10 Wm-2. In order to assess the impact of the ERA-Interim errors, simulations of the ISBA-A-gs land surface model are performed over the SMOSREX grassland site in southwestern France using ERA-Interim (with and without GPCP rescaling) and SAFRAN. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are simulated, together with carbon dioxide fluxes. The rescaled ERA-Interim performs better than the original ERA-Interim and permits to achieve flux scores similar to those obtained with SAFRAN.

  1. Predictability of soil moisture and river flows over France for the spring season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, S.; Céron, J.-P.; Martin, E.; Regimbeau, F.; Déqué, M.; Habets, F.; Vidal, J.-P.

    2011-08-01

    Sources of spring predictability of the hydrological system over France were studied on a seasonal time scale over the 1960-2005 period. Two random sampling experiments were set up in order to test the relative importance of the land surface initial state and the atmospheric forcing. The experiments were based on the SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU hydrometeorological suite which computed soil moisture and river flow forecasts over a 8-km grid and more than 800 river-gauging stations. Results showed that the predictability of hydrological variables primarily depended on the seasonal atmospheric forcing (mostly temperature and total precipitation) over most plains, whereas it mainly depended on snow cover over high mountains. However, the Seine catchment area was an exception as the skill mainly came from the initial state of its large and complex aquifer. Seasonal meteorological hindcasts with the Météo-France ARPEGE climate model were then used to force the ISBA-MODCOU hydrological model and obtain seasonal hydrological forecasts from 1960 to 2005 for the entire March-April-May period. Scores from this seasonal hydrological forecasting suite could thus be compared with the random atmospheric experiment. Skill scores clearly showed the added value in seasonal meteorological forecasts in the north of France, contrary to the Mediterranean area where values worsened.

  2. Verification of the new ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczypta, C.; Calvet, J.-C.; Albergel, C.; Balsamo, G.; Boussetta, S.; Carrer, D.; Lafont, S.; Meurey, C.

    2010-09-01

    An evaluation of the global ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis ERA-Interim (with a 0.5° grid) is performed over France, based on the high resolution (8 km) SAFRAN atmospheric reanalysis. The ERA-Interim precipitation, Incoming Solar Radiation (ISR), air temperature, air humidity, and wind speed, are compared with their SAFRAN counterparts. Also, interpolated in situ ISR observations are used in order to consolidate the evaluation of this variable. The daily precipitation estimates produced by ERA-Interim over France correlate very well with SAFRAN. However, the values are underestimated by 26%. A GPCP-corrected version of ERA-Interim is less biased (10-15%). The ERA-Interim estimates of ISR correlate very well with SAFRAN and with in situ observations on a daily basis. Whereas SAFRAN underestimates the ISR by 6-8 W m-2, ERA-Interim overestimates the ISR by 9-10 W m-2. In order to assess the impact of the ERA-Interim errors, simulations of the ISBA-A-gs land surface model are performed over the SMOSREX grassland site in southwestern France using ERA-Interim (with and without GPCP rescaling) and SAFRAN. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are simulated, together with carbon dioxide fluxes. The rescaled ERA-Interim performs better than the original ERA-Interim and permits to achieve flux scores similar to those obtained with SAFRAN.

  3. [Presence in France of a selvatic Xenopsylla: X. cunicularis Smit, 1957 (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae), a parasite of wild rabbits].

    PubMed

    Beaucournu, J C; Launay, H

    1977-01-01

    The authors point out, for the first time in France, a selvatic Xenopsylla: X. cunicularis Smit, 1957, parasite on the European rabbit, well-known in Morocco and Spain until today. The paleogeographical, ecological, and epidemiological interest of this parasite is laid stress on. The other fleas linked to the European rabbit are evoked, and the acclimatization of Euphoplopsyllus glacialis affinis (Baker, 1904), in France and Italy, introduced with its host Sylvilagus? floridanus is related. PMID:580913

  4. Travel-associated and autochthonous Zika virus infection in mainland France, 1 January to 15 July 2016.

    PubMed

    Septfons, A; Leparc-Goffart, I; Couturier, E; Franke, F; Deniau, J; Balestier, A; Guinard, A; Heuzé, G; Liebert, A H; Mailles, A; Ndong, J R; Poujol, I; Raguet, S; Rousseau, C; Saidouni-Oulebsir, A; Six, C; Subiros, M; Servas, V; Terrien, E; Tillaut, H; Viriot, D; Watrin, M; Wyndels, K; Noel, H; Paty, M C; De Valk, H

    2016-08-11

    During summer 2016, all the conditions for local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) are met in mainland France: a competent vector, Aedes albopictus, a large number of travellers returning from ZIKV-affected areas, and an immunologically naive population. From 1 January to 15 July 2016, 625 persons with evidence of recent ZIKV infection were reported in mainland France. We describe the surveillance system in place and control measures implemented to reduce the risk of infection. PMID:27542120

  5. Ensemble reconstruction of severe low flow events in France since 1871

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillouet, Laurie; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Sauquet, Eric; Devers, Alexandre; Graff, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a study of severe low flow events that occurred from 1871 onwards for a large number of near-natural catchments in France. It aims at assessing and comparing their characteristics to improve our knowledge on historical events and to provide a selection of benchmark events for climate change adaptation purposes. The historical depth of streamflow observations is generally limited to the last 50 years and therefore offers too small a sample of severe low flow events to properly explore the long-term evolution of their characteristics and associated impacts. In order to overcome this limit, this work takes advantage of a 140-year ensemble hydrometeorological dataset over France based on: (1) a probabilistic precipitation and temperature downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis over France (Caillouet et al., 2015), and (2) a continuous hydrological modelling that uses the high-resolution meteorological reconstructions as forcings over the whole period. This dataset provides an ensemble of 25 equally plausible daily streamflow time series for a reference network of stations in France over the whole 1871-2012 period. Severe low flow events are identified based on a combination of a fixed threshold and a daily variable threshold. Each event is characterized by its deficit, duration and timing by applying the Sequent Peak Algorithm. The procedure is applied to the 25 simulated time series as well as to the observed time series in order to compare observed and simulated events over the recent period, and to characterize in a probabilistic way unrecorded historical events. The ensemble aspect of the reconstruction leads to address specific issues, for properly defining events across ensemble simulations, as well as for adequately comparing the simulated characteristics to the observed ones. This study brings forward the outstanding 1921 and 1940s events but also older and less known ones that occurred during the last decade of the 19th century. For

  6. [Migrants from sub-Saharan Africa in France: some elements for the present discussion].

    PubMed

    Fassin, D

    1986-08-01

    Migrations in Africa have occurred since ancient times, but the 20th century migratory flows to Europe are a new phenomenon. After decolonization, the European economies needed cheap labor and African workers were attracted by the prospect of paying jobs. The 4 million foreigners in France comprise 7-8% of the population. Nearly 1/2 are of European origin, 1/3 are from Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco, and about 3.5%, or 150,000 persons, are from Africa south of the Sahara. The main African countries of origin are Mali, Senegal, and Mauritania. Burkina Faso, the Ivory Coast, Togo, and Cameroon are less well represented. The migration to Europe began after World War II with small groups of Malians and Senegalese who had learned to speak French through their contact with French colonists and were readily assimilated into the labor force, mainly as skilled workers. Beginning in the late 1950s, their numbers increased rapidly. Accords signed by France, Mali, Senegal, and Mauritania in 1960 and 1963 to regularize their influx were ignored by employers needing labor and by Africans entering on tourist visas to seek work. By the early 1970s there were about 50,000 Africans in France, over 80% of them male. At about the same time immigration came to be regarded as a serious social and political problem, where before it had been little noticed. The number of immigrants had increased, especially in some neighborhoods of large cities, but not as much as generally believed. A larger proportion of families made the immigrants more visible on the streets and in the schools. The world economic recession caused the migrants to be regarded as competitors for the few jobs available. Cultural differences between the French and the immigrants increased. On the whole, North Africans are more numerous and visible, but Malians and Senegalese have become numerous enough in some Parisian neighborhoods to be perceived as a threat. Some journalists and politicians have fanned existing tensions

  7. Indoor terrestrial gamma dose rate mapping in France: a case study using two different geostatistical models.

    PubMed

    Warnery, E; Ielsch, G; Lajaunie, C; Cale, E; Wackernagel, H; Debayle, C; Guillevic, J

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma dose rates show important spatial variations in France. Previous studies resulted in maps of arithmetic means of indoor terrestrial gamma dose rates by "departement" (French district). However, numerous areas could not be characterized due to the lack of data. The aim of our work was to obtain more precise estimates of the spatial variability of indoor terrestrial gamma dose rates in France by using a more recent and complete data base and geostatistics. The study was based on the exploitation of 97,595 measurements results distributed in 17,404 locations covering all of France. Measurements were done by the Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) using RPL (Radio Photo Luminescent) dosimeters, exposed during several months between years 2011 and 2012 in French dentist surgeries and veterinary clinics. The data used came from dosimeters which were not exposed to anthropic sources. After removing the cosmic rays contribution in order to study only the telluric gamma radiation, it was decided to work with the arithmetic means of the time-series measurements, weighted by the time-exposure of the dosimeters, for each location. The values varied between 13 and 349 nSv/h, with an arithmetic mean of 76 nSv/h. The observed statistical distribution of the gamma dose rates was skewed to the right. Firstly, ordinary kriging was performed in order to predict the gamma dose rate on cells of 1*1 km(2), all over the domain. The second step of the study was to use an auxiliary variable in estimates. The IRSN achieved in 2010 a classification of the French geological formations, characterizing their uranium potential on the bases of geology and local measurement results of rocks uranium content. This information is georeferenced in a map at the scale 1:1,000,000. The geological uranium potential (GUP) was classified in 5 qualitative categories. As telluric gamma rays mostly come from the progenies of the (238)Uranium series present in rocks, this

  8. Paliers bathymétriques observés en plongée au littoral occidental de la Corse. Conséquences néotectoniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collina-Girard, Jacques

    1998-07-01

    Along the western coast of Corsica, 80 bathymetric profiles were drawn, from scuba- diving observations. A statistical analysis of slope breakdown bathymetry shows several standstill levels, identical to those found by Collina-Girard along the coast of Provence. Isotopic ages from the Marseilles area are Holocene age. A more selective study shows a south to north uplift: 1-2 m between Ajaccio and Sagone and 3-5 m between Sagone and Girolata. As already evidenced in the Nice area as well as in Corsica, the method proves to be highly feasible for dentifying neotectonic features on vertical rocky shores.

  9. New drug regulations in France: what are the impacts on market access? Part 1 – Overview of new drug regulations in France

    PubMed Central

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Toumi, Mondher; Falissard, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Access to the French drug market is being impacted by an ongoing dramatic shift in practice as well as by two laws that came into force in December 2011. This new environment has been described and analyzed in two separate articles. The first article aims to describe the recent changes in access to the French drug market. The severity of the condition being treated, which used to be the main determinant of the drug's reimbursement level in France, has now been replaced with the drugs’ efficacy criterion. Moreover, the effect size required for acknowledging drug innovation has substantially increased. Perceived evidence might also be more important than actual evidence. Comparative evidence and real-world data are considered critical conditions for marketing authorization. Cost-effectiveness studies will now be part of the market access requirements for all drugs in order to satisfy the selection criteria for medico-economic assessment. PMID:27226825

  10. Climate and hydrological uncertainties in projections of flood and low-flows in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauquet, E.; Vidal, J.-P.; Perrin, C.; Bourgin, P.-Y.; Chauveau, M.; Chazot, S.

    2012-04-01

    Changes in river flows are associated with different types of uncertainties, due to an imperfect knowledge of both future climate and rainfall-runoff processes. Due to computational constraints, impact and adaptation studies unfortunately cannot always afford to perform a detailed analysis of all these uncertainties. In that case, the modelling efforts have to focus on the most relevant source of uncertainty in order to provide the best estimate of the overall uncertainty. As part of the national Explore2070 project, the present study thus aims at assessing the hierarchy of uncertainties in changes on river flow extremes at the scale of France. Amongst all possible sources of uncertainties, two are here considered: (1) the uncertainty in General Circulation Model (GCM) configuration, with 7 different models that adequately sample the range of changes as projected by the GCMs used in the IPCC AR4 over France, and (2) the uncertainty in hydrological model structure, with 2 quite different models: GR4J (Perrin et al., 2003), a lumped conceptual model, and Isba-Modcou (Habets et al., 2008), a suite of a land surface scheme and a distributed hydrogeological model. The hydrological models have been run at more than 1500 locations in France over the 1961-1990 baseline period with forcings from both the Safran near-surface atmospheric reanalysis (Vidal et al., 2010) and the GCM control runs downscaled with a weather type method (Boé et al., 2006), and over the 2046-2065 period with forcings from all downscaled GCM runs under the A1B emissions scenario. Various high flow indices (annual maximum daily flow with return period of 10 and 20 years, the daily flow value exceeded 10% of the time) and low flow indices (annual minimum monthly flow with a 5-year return period, annual minimum 10-day mean flow with a 2-year return period, the daily flow value exceeded 95% of the time) as well as seasonality indices have been computed for both periods. An analysis of variance has been

  11. Role of river bank erosion in sediment budgets of catchments within the Loire river basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Poisvert, Cecile; Landemaine, Valentin

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying volumes of sediments produced on hillslopes or in channels and transported or stored within river systems is necessary to establish sediment budgets. If research efforts on hillslope erosion processes have led to a relatively good understanding and quantification of local sources, in-channel processes remain poorly understood and quasi inexistent in global budgets. However, profound landuse changes and agricultural practices have altered river functioning, caused river bank instability and stream incision. During the past decades in France, river channelization has been perfomed extensively to allow for new agricultural practices to take place. Starting from a recent study on the quantification of sediment fluxes for catchments within the Loire river basin (Gay et al. 2013), our aim is to complete sediment budgets by taking into account various sources and sinks both on hillslope and within channel. The emphasis of this study is on river bank erosion and how bank erosion contributes to global budgets. A model of bank retreat is developed for the entire Loire river basin. In general, our results show that bank retreat is on average quite low with approximately 1 cm.yr-1. However, a strong variability exists within the study area with channels displaying values of bank retreat up to ~10 cm.yr-1. Our results corroborate those found by Landemaine et al. in 2013 on a small agricultural catchment. From this first step, quantification of volumes of sediment eroded from banks and available for transport should be calculated and integrated in sediment budgets to allow for a better understanding of basin functioning. Gay A., Cerdan O., Delmas M., Desmet M., Variability of sediment yields in the Loire river basin (France): the role of small scale catchments (under review). Landemaine V., Gay A., Cerdan O., Salvador-Blanes S., Rodriguez S. Recent morphological evolution of a headwater stream in agricultural context after channelization in the Ligoire river (France

  12. Patients’ views on pay for performance in France: a qualitative study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Lary, Olivier; Leroux, Claire; Dubourdieu, Cécile; Fournier, Cécile; François-Purssell, Irène

    2015-01-01

    Background Pay for performance was implemented in 2009 in France. The system was optional at first and then became widespread. Since 2012, it has been standard for most GPs. Several studies have attempted to investigate its efficiency and the GP’s opinion of the system, but few studies have yet to examine the patient’s view. Aim To gain an understanding of the views of French family practice patients about pay for performance. Design and setting Forty patients were interviewed between March and July 2013 in the Île-de-France region, of France. Method A qualitative study using semi-structured individual interviews, in primary care. Results Most of the patients did not know what pay for performance was and stated that they had not noticed any change in care since the system began. Some patients noted the possible benefits in the quality of care, such as an improvement in follow-up and prevention, better information provided by the GP, and a decrease in the volume of prescriptions and therefore health costs. Other patients were concerned about potential downsides, such as an overprescription of unnecessary medical treatments, an increase in health costs, patient selection, and standardised consultations that do not necessarily take into account the patient’s individual concerns. Conclusion Since implementation of pay for performance, patients had not noticed any modification in their medical care. They could understand the need for change in the remuneration policy and expressed their agreement about performance-based remuneration if, and only if, it is not the cause of depersonalised health care. PMID:26212852

  13. Spatial genetic structure and restricted gene flow in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) populations in France.

    PubMed

    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Kengne, Pierre; Cannet, Arnaud; Brengues, Cécile; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Izri, Arezki; Marty, Pierre; Simard, Frederic; Fontenille, Didier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are resurgent blood-sucking ectoparasites that are currently increasing at a rapid rate, particularly in industrialized countries, such as France. Despite the rapid spread of bed bugs, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the population structure and gene flow among C. lectularius populations in France. To fill this gap, a genetic study was conducted using 183 C. lectularius from 14 populations of bed bugs collected in a hotel and in individual apartments in the French Riviera and in the Saint Ouen suburb of Paris. The samples were genotyped using an isolated set of six polymorphic microsatellite loci, including five new loci which were newly isolated and chosen based on prior successful amplification, and one previously described loci (bb15b). The low genetic diversity observed in the samples (of one to five alleles) suggested that most of prospected populations were established by only a few individuals, possibly from a single mated female. The overall genetic differentiation was high and statistically significant (FST=0.556, p<0.0001). Pairwise analysis of the populations indicated significant genetic differentiation for 24 out of the 45 (53%) population pairs associated with FST, ranging from 0.0042 to 0.862. No obvious relationship between the level of genetic differentiation and the geographic distance was observed when considering all samples. Analysis with Structure software identified nine distinct genetic clusters within the dataset. These preliminary results help to elucidate the genetic structure and gene flow of C. lectularius populations in France; however, the available information should be expanded in further studies. PMID:26140960

  14. Prasugrel Use in Real Life: A Report From the Outpatient Setting in France.

    PubMed

    Sabouret, Pierre; Taiel-Sartral, Magali; Chartier, Florence; Akiki, Sabine; Cuisset, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to provide descriptive statistics on patterns of prasugrel usage in the outpatient setting in France. This retrospective study was conducted to describe treatment patterns for prasugrel in the outpatient setting in France using the Intercontinental Marketing Services (IMS) Disease Analyzer database, which collates electronic medical records updated by a nationally representative database of 1200 French general practitioners (GPs). Anonymous data were collected prospectively at each follow-up visit. The study population consisted of patients with ≥1 prescription for prasugrel in the outpatient setting from its launch date to 3 years post-launch. Patients were followed up from the date of the first prescription for prasugrel recorded in the database until they died, changed GP, or reached the end of the study, whichever came first. In France, the IMS Disease Analyzer included 1052 patients receiving ≥1 prescription of prasugrel from January 2010 until October 2012. Eighty-five percent of the population was male. The mean age was 58 years; 94.3% were age <75 years, and 95.0% weighed ≥60 kg. Of the total, 99.8% of patients were prescribed a daily maintenance dose of 10 mg, and 0.2% had a history of transient ischemic attack/stroke. Concomitant medications were antiplatelet agents (100%; aspirin, 93.7%), lipid-lowering agents (90.1%), β-blockers (83.7%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (62.2%), and anti-ulcer medications (55.1%). The results reflect good usage of prasugrel by French GPs in the outpatient setting, with excellent implementation of the Prasugrel European Summary Product Characteristics. PMID:27299993

  15. Combustion of Schlamm in ACFB boilers -- The Charbonnages de France Group's experience

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, M.; Rollin, J.P.

    1998-07-01

    Within the context of the rehabilitation of Emile Huchet Power Plant Unit 4 owned by the ``SNET'', a company of the CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE Group, a new CFB boiler with an electrical capacity of 125 MW has been commissioned in 1990 in replacement for an existing pulverized-coal boiler. This boiler constituted at the time an experimental unit on two accounts. It was an innovation through its size but also its specific design which allows to burn schlamm--a coal washing residue--in the form of pulp. The boiler design answered the CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE Group's need to eliminate old settling ponds containing schlamm which, from the technical and economic point of view, could not be burnt using conventional combustion techniques owing to its specific characteristics (fine, high-ash product with a very high moisture and clay content). This original method of injection as well as the pulp preparation process suited to this type of injection have been designed and developed by CdF INGENIERIE and the CERCHAR (CdF Group) after many investigations and tests. The experience gained at Emile Huchet Power Plant for more than 7 years confirms that the CFB boiler is a clean combustion technique which is perfectly suited to the combustion of schlamm injected in the form of pulp. The CFB unit burns exclusively schlamm conditioned in the form of pulp with 33% of moisture, and this with a high degree of efficiency, low emission values and a very good availability. This talk include a description of the CFB boiler and the pulp preparation plant as well as a presentation of the boiler performances and of the experience gained by the CHARBONANGES DE FRANCE Group since the new CFB unit has been commissioned.

  16. Genetic Evolution of Mycobacterium bovis Causing Tuberculosis in Livestock and Wildlife in France since 1978

    PubMed Central

    Hauer, Amandine; De Cruz, Krystel; Cochard, Thierry; Godreuil, Sylvain; Karoui, Claudine; Henault, Sylvie; Bulach, Tabatha; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Biet, Franck; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2015-01-01

    To study the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in France, 4,654 M. bovis strains isolated mainly from livestock and wildlife since 1978 were characterized by spoligotyping and MLVA based on MIRU-VNTR. In our study spoligotyping allowed the discrimination of 176 types although 3 spoligotypes are predominant and account for more than half of the total strain population: SB0120 (26%), SB0134 (11%) and SB0121 (6%). In addition, 11% of the isolates, principally from Southern France, showing close spoligotypes and MIRU-VNTR types have been gathered in a family designated as the “F4-family”. MLVA typing allowed extensive discrimination, particularly for strains with predominant spoligotypes, with a total of 498 genotypes, several of which were highly regionalized. The similarity of the strains’ genetic relationships based on spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR markers supports the co-existence of different clonal populations within the French M. bovis population. A genetic evolution of the strains was observed both geographically and in time. Indeed, as a result of the reduction of bTB due to the national control campaigns, a large reduction of the strains’ genetic variability took place in the last ten years. However, in the regions were bTB is highly prevalent at present, cases in both livestock and in wildlife are due to the spread of unique local genotype profiles. Our results show that the highly discriminating genotyping tools used in this study for molecular studies of bTB are useful for addressing pending questions, which would lead to a better insight into the epidemiology of the disease, and for finding proper solutions for its sustainable control in France. PMID:25658691

  17. Genetic evolution of Mycobacterium bovis causing tuberculosis in livestock and wildlife in France since 1978.

    PubMed

    Hauer, Amandine; De Cruz, Krystel; Cochard, Thierry; Godreuil, Sylvain; Karoui, Claudine; Henault, Sylvie; Bulach, Tabatha; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Biet, Franck; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2015-01-01

    To study the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in France, 4,654 M. bovis strains isolated mainly from livestock and wildlife since 1978 were characterized by spoligotyping and MLVA based on MIRU-VNTR. In our study spoligotyping allowed the discrimination of 176 types although 3 spoligotypes are predominant and account for more than half of the total strain population: SB0120 (26%), SB0134 (11%) and SB0121 (6%). In addition, 11% of the isolates, principally from Southern France, showing close spoligotypes and MIRU-VNTR types have been gathered in a family designated as the "F4-family". MLVA typing allowed extensive discrimination, particularly for strains with predominant spoligotypes, with a total of 498 genotypes, several of which were highly regionalized. The similarity of the strains' genetic relationships based on spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR markers supports the co-existence of different clonal populations within the French M. bovis population. A genetic evolution of the strains was observed both geographically and in time. Indeed, as a result of the reduction of bTB due to the national control campaigns, a large reduction of the strains' genetic variability took place in the last ten years. However, in the regions were bTB is highly prevalent at present, cases in both livestock and in wildlife are due to the spread of unique local genotype profiles. Our results show that the highly discriminating genotyping tools used in this study for molecular studies of bTB are useful for addressing pending questions, which would lead to a better insight into the epidemiology of the disease, and for finding proper solutions for its sustainable control in France. PMID:25658691

  18. [Adult vaccination coverage: surveys in four populations - Isère (France), 2002-2003].

    PubMed

    Goirand, Laurence; Charrel, Martine; Dell'accio, Pierre; Stahl, Jean-Paul; Da Silva, Eric; Billette de Villemeur, Agathe

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess their vaccination policy, the public health authorities in Isère (France) conducted several surveys to determine the vaccination coverage rate among adults. In France, the current state of knowledge in this area is limited. Four separate surveys were conducted in 2002-2003: (1) a telephone survey of 976 adults, 18% of whom had vaccination certificates; (2) a survey of 44 general practitioners (805 patients); (3) a survey of occupational health centers (82 practitioners and 1,119 employees); and (4) a survey of 1,214 patients vaccinated at the international vaccination center in Grenoble (France). The same data were recorded in all four surveys (last vaccination date, either declared by the patient or proven by a vaccination certificate). Based on certified evidence, vaccination coverage for tetanus, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis ranged from 31.6% to 83.9%, from 24.1% to 44.0%, and from 25.9% to 71.9%, respectively. Compared to general practitioners, vaccination coverage was higher among staff working at the occupational health center and lower in the general population. The four surveys covered only part of the adult population and provided only an estimate of vaccination coverage. The study found that tetanus vaccination coverage was the highest, but was still below expected levels. For the other vaccines, vaccination coverage among adults appears to be inadequate. The findings suggest that all health professionals involved in adult vaccination (occupational health doctors, general practitioners, hospital doctors, etc.) should be invited to participate in working groups on vaccination. PMID:23043739

  19. [From Comte to Carnap. Marcel Boll and the introduction of the Vienna Circle in France].

    PubMed

    Schöttler, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The issue of the introduction of viennese "scientific philosophy" in France appears to be resolved. However, the rediscovery of the positivist physicist Marcel Boll (1886-1971), who was the first-well before Louis Rougier-to draw the French public's attention to the works of Schlick, Frank, and Carnap, obliges us to rethink the passage from traditional positivism to neo-positivism during the 1920s and 1930s. The French reception of the Vienna circle can be dated earlier than accepted and is more profound than usualy assumed. PMID:25914078

  20. Response of Agriculture and Forests to Climate Change in France: Assessment of Uncertainties and Trend Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laanaia, N.; Carrer, D.

    2014-12-01

    In the framework of the French research project ORACLE we examine the impact of climate change on agriculture and forests in France for two time horizons (2020-2050 and 2070-2100) in reference to the 1970-2000 period. The biophysical variables (leaf area index, equilibrium forest biomass, leaf onset and offset, ...) are produced by ISBA-A-gs forced by the atmospheric variables produced by differents climat models and scenarios. Their trends will be analyzed. The impact of uncertainties at various levels through multi-model and multi-scenario approaches will be assessed

  1. Prevalence of hip dysplasia according to official radiographic screening, among 31 breeds of dogs in France.

    PubMed

    Genevois, J-P; Remy, D; Viguier, E; Carozzo, C; Collard, F; Cachon, T; Maitre, P; Fau, D

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of hip dysplasia (HD) from radiographs that were submitted for authorative grading, and its changes over the time in 31 breeds of dogs in France, a 14 year-retrospective study was conducted. Significant differences were observed between breeds, with HD prevalence ranging from 59.7% (Cane Corso) to 3.9% (Siberian Husky). When comparing the 1993-1999 with the 2000-2006 period in 15 breeds, a significant decrease in HD prevalence was detected in Berger Picard, Bernese Mountain dog, Briard, Gordon Setter, White Swiss Sheepdog and Rottweiler. Modifications observed in the other breeds were not statistically significant. PMID:18288340

  2. Barremian decapod crustaceans from Serre de Bleyton (Drôme, SE France)

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš; Kroh, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Based on mostly small-sized isolated cheliped fingers, a new decapod crustacean assemblage is described from the Barremian of Serre de Bleyton (Drôme, SE France). The assemblage is composed mostly of representatives of the crab family Dynomenidae. In addition, remains of astacidean lobsters, axiidean shrimps, paguroid hermit crabs and brachyurous crabs of the families Necrocarcinidae and ?Cenomanocarcinidae occur in low numbers. Graptocarcinus moosleitneri (Dynomenidae) and ?Paranecrocarcinus schloegli (Necrocarcinidae) are introduced as new species. They both exhibit presence of multi-setal pores on dactyli that are interpreted as parts of a sieving mechanism used in feeding. The stratigraphic range of Graptocarcinus is extended herein to the Barremian. PMID:26097276

  3. Jewish children hidden in france (1940-1944): what outcomes for feelings of shame?

    PubMed

    Feldman, Marion; Mouchenik, Yoram; Moro, Marie Rose

    2012-12-01

    This article explores how shame affects individuals over time, from childhood to late adulthood. A series of semi-structured interviews was conducted with 35 aging hidden Jewish children (21 women, 14 men; mean age of 74.9 years, range: 65-82 years), living in France 65 years after the Holocaust. For most of them, shame repeatedly acts as an "alarm signal." For many, the transformation has been possible: creation, recognition by the social group. We also discuss the fact that shame can lead to psychic exhaustion as well as handing down to the next generation. This outcome can prove fatal. PMID:23253059

  4. High-level azithromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolate in France, March 2014.

    PubMed

    Bercot, B; Belkacem, A; Goubard, A; Mougari, F; Sednaoui, P; La Ruche, G; Cambau, E

    2014-01-01

    We report the first case in France of a high-level azithromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 96 mg/L) assigned to MLST7363 (NG-MAST ST6360), also resistant to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline but susceptible to ceftriaxone. The patient was a 51 year-old heterosexual man who returned following 1g azithromycin monotherapy. Mechanisms of azithromycin resistance were a C2599T mutation in the four copies of the rrl gene and a novel mutation in the promoter of the mtrR gene. PMID:25394255

  5. When and What Meteorological Stresses Will Maize Crops Meet in the future in France?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caubel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is expected to modify overall climatic conditions and therefore, suitability for cropping. Assessment of when and what meteorological stresses will crops meet in the future is highly useful for planners and land managers who can apply adaptation strategies to improve agricultural potentialities. We propose to evaluate the impacts of climate change on suitability for maize cropping in terms of ecophysiology (e.g., heat stress during grain filling), yield quality (e.g., thermal conditions on protein content) and cultural practices performance (e.g., days available for harvest according to risk of waterlogged soil compaction) in two French areas. The Midi-Pyrénées (southern) and Ile-de-France (northern) regions were chosen as representing the two distinct climates when dividing France into southern and northern parts. The Midi-Pyrénées region is a major irrigated maize producer but could become penalizing in the future because of heat and water stress. By contrast, northern France could become a more suitable area thanks to the expected increasing temperature. To confirm our assumptions, we used the method assessment for crop-climate suitability developed in Caubel et al. (2015) and based on the sub-annual analysis of agroclimatic indicators calculated over phenological periods. Indicators have been calculated using climatic data from 1950 to 2100 simulated by the global climate ARPEGE at the meso-scale SAFRAN (8 km resolution) for the two areas and forced by a greenhouse effect corresponding to the SRES A1B scenario (similar to RCP 6.0). The evaluation was done for two distinct varieties in terms of precocity. Agroclimatic indicators characterizing water deficit and water excess impacts on crop were calculated for three soils with contrasting soil water reserves and depths. Finally, the evaluation was performed with a unique sowing date (the current one), and with an optimized sowing date according to water and thermal requirements for emergence

  6. Virtual surveillance of communicable diseases: a 20-year experience in France.

    PubMed

    Flahault, A; Blanchon, T; Dorléans, Y; Toubiana, L; Vibert, J F; Valleron, A J

    2006-10-01

    Inserm has developed, since 1984, an information system based on a computer network of physicians in France. It allows for constitution of large databases on diseases, with individual description of cases, and to explore some aspects of the mathematical theory of communicable diseases. We developed user-friendly interfaces for remote data entry and GIS tools providing real-time atlas of the epidemiologic situation in any location. The continuous and ongoing surveillance network is constituted of about 1200 sentinel voluntary and unpaid investigators. We studied their motivation, reasons for either withdrawal or compliance using survival analyses. We implemented early warning systems for outbreak detection and for time-space forecasting. We conducted epidemiological surveys for investigating outbreaks. Large available time and space series allowed us to calibrate and explore synchronism of influenza epidemics, to test the assumption of panmixing in susceptibles-infectious-removed type models and to study the role of closing school in influenza morbidity and mortality in elderly. More than 250 000 cases of influenza, 150 000 cases of acute diarrheas, 35,000 patients for whom HIV tests have been prescribed by general practitioners and 25,000 cases of chickenpox have been collected. Detection of regional influenza or acute diarrhea outbreaks and forecasting of epidemic trends three weeks ahead are currently broadcasted to the French media and published on Sentiweb on a weekly basis. Age-cohort-period models assessed field effectiveness of mass immunization strategies against measles and influenza in the country. Case-control studies with more than 1200 sets of cases of acute diarrheas and their matched controls showed the role of calicivirus and rotavirus as probable major causes of gastroenteritis during recurrent widespread outbreaks in winter in France. An age-specific model for chickenpox showed the probable role of children in disease transmission to their

  7. Die Gästesternwarte von Puimichel [The observatory at Puimichel, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas

    1991-04-01

    We report on a visit and observing run at the observatory of Puimichel in Southern France, which took place from 27th Dec. 1990 to 4th Jan. 1991. The observatory, which has been founded in 1982 by the Belgian amateur astronomer Dany Cardoen, is equipped, inter alia, with a 1m telescope. At this telescope, guests can also carry out visual observations. We shortly describe our observations of Jupiter, M42, M15, M82, and of galaxies in the Virgo clusters. A part of the observations have been made using a 0.5m telescope at the same observatory.

  8. Optical design and performance of the IR microscope beamline at SUPERACO-France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polack, Francois A.; Mercier, Raymond; Nahon, Laurent; Armellin, Catherine; Marx, Jean Pierre; Tanguy, Michel; Couprie, Marie-Emmanuelle; Dumas, Paul

    1999-10-01

    Infrared microspectrometry, using a synchrotron radiation source, has been developed at Super-ACO (LURE-France). In order to accommodate for constrained horizontal (45 mrad) and vertical (18 mrad) collection angles, a particular care has been devoted to the design and making of the extraction optics, in order to achieve the highest brightness as possible, for small area illumination. Experimentally, a net gain of one hundred in Signal to Noise Ratio has been measured for an upper aperture of 3 X 3 micrometers 2. Several applications are currently underway, and some of them, related to Biomedical Science are reported in this paper.

  9. Protein supply and nutritional status in nineteenth century Bavaria, Prussia and France.

    PubMed

    Baten, Joerg

    2009-07-01

    What determined regional height differences in the 19th century? We compare anthropometric evidence with production estimates of different food products and other economic variables. To this end, we concentrate on 179 rural regions and 29 towns in Bavaria (Southeast Germany). This regionally disaggregated level of analysis enables us to study the influence of the local supply of different food products on the nutritional status of the population, among which milk turned out particularly important. This result is tested and confirmed with regional data from Prussia and France. PMID:19285929

  10. The association between asthma control, health care costs, and quality of life in France and Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current asthma management guidelines are based on the level of asthma control. The impact of asthma control on health care resources and quality of life (QoL) is insufficiently studied. EUCOAST study was designed to describe costs and QoL in adult patients according to level of asthma control in France and Spain. Methods An observational cost of illness study was conducted simultaneously in both countries among patients age greater or equal to 18 with a diagnosis of asthma for at least 12 months. Patients were recruited prospectively by GPs in 2010 in four waves to avoid a seasonal bias. Health care resources utilization of the three months before the inclusion was collected through physician questionnaires. Asthma control was evaluated using 2009 GINA criteria over a 3-month period. QoL was assessed using EQ-5D-3L®. Results 2,671 patients (France: 1,154; Spain: 1,517) were enrolled. Asthma was controlled in 40.6% [95% CI: 37.7% - 43.4%] and 29.9% [95% CI: 27.6% - 32.3%] of French and Spanish patients respectively. For all types of costs, the percentage of patients using health care resources varied significantly according to the level of asthma control. The average cost (euros/3-months/patient) of controlled asthma was €85.4 (SD: 153.5) in France compared with €314.0 (SD: 2,160.4) for partially controlled asthma and €537.9 (SD: 2,355.7) for uncontrolled asthma (p<0.0001). In Spain, the corresponding figures were €152.6 (SD: 162.1), €241.2 (SD: 266.8), and €556.8 (SD: 762.4). EQ-5D-3L® score was higher (p<0.0001) in patients with controlled asthma compared to partially controlled and uncontrolled asthma in both countries (respectively 0.88; 0.78; 0.63 in France and 0.89; 0.82; 0.69 in Spain). Conclusions In both countries, patients presenting with uncontrolled asthma had a significantly higher asthma costs and lower scores of Qol compared to the others. PMID:23517484

  11. Respiratory disease (rhinotracheitis) in turkeys in Brittany, France, 1981-1982. I. Field observations and serology.

    PubMed

    Andral, B; Louzis, C; Trap, D; Newman, J A; Bennejean, G; Gaumont, R

    1985-01-01

    During the summer of 1981, a respiratory disease epidemic occurred in turkeys in Brittany, France. Since this initial epizootic, which lasted through fall, epizootic waves similar to the initial one have occurred at approximately 6-month intervals, with smaller peaks at 2-month intervals. The epidemiology, clinical signs, and postmortem findings were highly suggestive of an epizootic of chlamydiosis. Serological tests for chlamydia, paramyxoviruses, avian influenza, adenovirus 127, mycoplasma, and Alcaligenes faecalis were conducted. The chlamydia tests were the only ones consistently positive. PMID:3985881

  12. Isolation and characterization of a new strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus from rodents in southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Yama, Ines N; Cazaux, Benoite; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Moureau, Grégory; Thirion, Laurence; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Dobigny, Gauthier; Charrel, Rémi N

    2012-10-01

    A total of 821 tissue samples from rodents trapped during field campaigns organized in Europe and Africa were screened for the presence of arenaviruses by molecular methods and cell culture inoculation when feasible. Two Mus musculus domesticus trapped in the southwestern part of France were infected with a potentially new strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), here referred to as LCMV strain HP65-2009, which was isolated and genetically characterized by whole genome sequencing. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses comparing LCMV HP65-2009 with 26 other LCMV strains showed that it represents a novel highly-divergent strain within the group of Mus musculus-associated LCMV. PMID:22651393

  13. Successional changes and diversity of soil macrofaunal communities on chalk grasslands in Upper-Normandy (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutoit, Thierry; Decaens, Thibaud; Alard, Didier

    A study of soil macrofaunal communities was made along a secondary plant succession following sheep grazing abandonment in some chalk grasslands of Upper-Normandy (France). 78 taxonomic units were identified. Taxonomic richness was highest in the recently abandoned grassland. Each plot was characterised by its own specific taxonomic groups. The environmental factors which explained the major contrasts between soil macrofaunal communities were the extent of tree colonisation and litter characteristics (C:N, biomass). Successional changes induced major changes in functional groups of soil macrofauna i. e. endogeic species dominated under herbaceous vegetation while epigeic species were more important in woody plots.

  14. Reforming pharmaceutical industry-physician financial relationships: lessons from the United States, France, and Japan.

    PubMed

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    This article compares the means that the United States, France, and Japan use to oversee pharmaceutical industry-physician financial relationships. These countries rely on professional and/or industry ethical codes, anti-kickback laws, and fair trade practice laws. They restrict kickbacks the most strictly, allow wide latitude on gifts, and generally permit drug firms to fund professional activities and associations. Consequently, to avoid legal liability, drug firms often replace kickbacks with gifts and grants. The paper concludes by proposing reforms that address problems that persist when firms replace kickbacks with gifts and grants based on the experience of the three countries. PMID:22084852

  15. [Immigrants or citizens: immigration policy in France and in the United States].

    PubMed

    Hollifield, J H

    1990-01-01

    Treatment of migrants and foreigners by a government can reveal not only the functioning of the political system but the philosophic values on which the system is founded. This article compares French and American immigration policy and explores the extent to which French immigration policy is more "statist" or Jacobin while American immigration policy is more "liberal" or pluralist. Immigration is an explosive problem for all democratic governments. 4 questions are involved, that of the sovereignty of the state over its citizens; that of citizenship, not only regarding the juridical definition of citizen but also assimilation, ethnicity, race, and political socialization; that of employment, which has been the most important determinant of migration policies in the industrialized countries after World War II; and that of humanitarian considerations, which have become more significant in the 1980s. Comparison of immigration policies must focus on issues of citizenship and employment and on humanitarian aspects. France and the US have had more difficulty in formulating and applying migration policies with national objectives than have any of the other liberal democracies. This work seeks to explain this similarity as well as divergences in the migration policies of France and the US by examining: 1) institutional differences between the 2 political systems and how they affect the state's capacity to control immigration; 2) the way in which the political and juridical culture influence relationships between problems of citizenship and use of foreign manpower; and 3) immigration policies as they have been applied in the 2 countries in the postwar period. The entire issue of immigration has become more politicized in France than in the US, partly because of the statist and administrative approach to it in France. The federal nature of the US political system, the stability of the party system, and the pluralist approach to legislation have fragmented the issue of

  16. Quick use of WEFAX images from METEOSAT to determine daily solar radiation in France

    SciTech Connect

    Delorme, C.; Gallo, A.; Olivieri, J. )

    1992-09-01

    The authors present some preliminary results about 74 days: March 15th to June 30th, 1990. Four WEFAX images per day from the visible channel of METEOSAT have been processed. The main elements of the GISTEL methodology are briefly stated again. The estimated daily global irradiation on the ground is compared with figures measured at 10 stations in the south of France. In order to analyze the main causes of inaccuracy, this comparison is made on several modes: estimated and measured values, estimated and measured weather indexes for normalization, station per station to detect possible geographic errors.

  17. Molecular characterization of Bacillus strains involved in outbreaks of anthrax in France in 1997.

    PubMed

    Patra, G; Vaissaire, J; Weber-Levy, M; Le Doujet, C; Mock, M

    1998-11-01

    Outbreaks of anthrax zoonose occurred in two regions of France in 1997. Ninety-four animals died, and there were three nonfatal cases in humans. The diagnosis of anthrax was rapidly confirmed by bacteriological and molecular biological methods. The strains of Bacillus anthracis in animal and soil samples were identified by a multiplex PCR assay. They all belonged to the variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) group (VNTR)3. A penicillin-resistant strain was detected. Nonvirulent bacilli related to B. anthracis, of all VNTR types, were also found in the soil. PMID:9774609

  18. [70 years of school health in France: an old lady’s forgotten birthday].

    PubMed

    Gindt-Ducros, Agnès; Guigné, Christophe; Robichon, Françoise; Bedouin-Bourel, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    School health in France has recently celebrated its 70th birthday. The authors review the last 70 years and the adjustments made by the various professionals in this field to adapt to political and institutional changes, whether or not these changes were designed to improve the health of infants and children. Changing governance does not facilitate the essential place of team work, especially between Ministry of Education doctors, nurses and social workers. Although these professionals regret the lack of publicity concerning the 70 years of school health, the continuing commitment of young school health professionals illustrates the real importance of health measures in school children and adolescents. PMID:27392052

  19. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 85-307-1608, Frances Perkins Building, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.A.

    1985-07-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for carbon dioxide and carbon-monoxide at the Frances Perkins Building, Washington, DC in May, 1985. The evaluation was requested by the employees who were concerned about the possible lack of fresh air and potential CO contamination in their offices from indoor parking garages and the nearby Interstate 395 tunnel. Ventilation specifications of the building were reviewed. The author concludes that there is no hazard from lack of fresh air or CO in the building. The author recommends monitoring indoor CO, especially during periods of stagnant weather during the summer months and adjusting the ventilation system to minimize CO concentrations if necessary.

  20. Analysis of medieval limestone sculpture from southwestern France and the Paris Basin by NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G.

    1994-12-31

    Compositional characterization of limestone from sources known to medieval craftsmen and from the monuments they built can be used in conjunction with stylistic and iconographic criteria to infer geographic origin of sculptures that have lost their histories. Limestone from 47 quarrying locations in France and from numerous medieval monuments have been subjected to neutron activation analysis (NAA) to form the nucleus of the Brookhaven Limestone Database. Even though the method and techniques of NAA are well established, this paper briefly summarizes the parameters and experimental conditions useful for determining those concentration variables for which limestone from different sources exhibits significant and reproducible differences.