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Sample records for france uraniferous basin

  1. Coal preparation in France's Lorraine Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Houlle, E.

    1982-07-01

    The Freyming preparation plant is one of the most modern in the Lorraine Basin. It is also the one with the highest capacity - 28,500 raw metric tons or 20,000 clean tons per day, washing coal 20 hours per day. At the top of the mine shaft, the skips are emptied onto metal apron feeders, which provide a regular flow of coal onto two 1200-millimeter (47-1/4-inch) wide rubber belt conveyors. The conveyors lead to the pre-treatment plant for run-of-mine coal and then to the washing plant. At the pre-treatment plant, the conveyors deliver the coal to two scalping screens, which make the separation at 1020 millimeters (40-inch) at a rate of 750 tons per hour per screen. The undersize is removed by a belt equipped with an overband magnetic separator to remove tramp iron. Timber that comes along with the plus-120-millimeter (plus-4-3/4-inch) material is eliminated by immersion in a water drew-boy, after which the coal and the waste rock are crushed in a jaw crusher set at 150 millimeters (6 inches). The coal preparation plant proper consists of two identical, parallel but independent lines with a total capacity of 1600 tons per hour. The plant uses screens, dense media separation and jigs to produce three washed products. The materials handling equipment, including train loading, is emphasized in the description. A detailed flowsheet of the plant is given. (LTN)

  2. Zinc and Its Isotopes in the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Bourrain, X.

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for Zn in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of metal pollutants. Zinc isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ66Zn values ranging from 0.21 to 0.39‰. This range of variation is very different from anthropogenic signature (industrial and/or agriculture release) that displays δ66Zn values between 0.02 to 0.14‰. This result is in agreement with a geogenic origin and the low Zn concentrations in the Loire River Basin (from 0.8 to 6 µg/L).

  3. Coalbed methane exploration in the Lorraine Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, B.; Briens, F.; Girdler, D.

    1995-08-01

    DuPont Conoco Hydrocarbures has been involved in a Coalbed Methane (CBM) project in France since 1991. Coalbed methane exploration differs noticeably in several aspects from conventional oil and gas exploration. This paper is divided in three parts and discusses some geological, reservoir and drilling considerations relevant to the exploration and appraisal of a coalbed methane prospect. The first part presents geological issues such as data collection and evaluation of its associated value, building expertise to create a geological and geophysical model integrating the work of a multidisciplinary team, and assessing uncertainties of the data interpretation. A short review of the basin activity, geological and tectonic setting, and environment aspects is presented in order to illustrate some CBM exploration issues. The second part describes a comprehensive coalbed methane reservoir data acquisition program incorporating coal sample optical and chemical analyses, gas sample chromatography, canister desorption, fracture density of coal cores, and measurement of in-situ coal permeability and bounding-strata stress. Field practical concerns are then discussed such as on-site and off-site canister desorption, gas sample collection, rapid estimation of gas content, ash content, total bed moisture, and finally well testing alternatives for permeability and rock stress determination. The third part reviews drilling issues such as drilling and coring options for core hole size and casing size, rig site equipment requirements for continuous coring operations, including mud treatment equipment, core handling material and core work stations, alliance of national and foreign drilling contractors to optimize equipment and experience, and finally overview of coring procedures to identify best practices for pending operations. The paper is derived from Conoco`s experience in CBM exploration in the Lorraine Basin, North East of France.

  4. Time Series Analysis for the Drac River Basin (france)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Castro, K.; Donado-Garzon, L. D.; Rodriguez, E.

    2013-12-01

    This research is based on analyzing of discharge time-series in four stream flow gage stations located in the Drac River basin in France: (i) Guinguette Naturelle, (ii) Infernet, (iii) Parassat and the stream flow gage (iv) Villard Loubière. In addition, time-series models as the linear regression (single and multiple) and the MORDOR model were implemented to analyze the behavior the Drac River from year 1969 until year 2010. Twelve different models were implemented to assess the daily and monthly discharge time-series for the four flow gage stations. Moreover, five selection criteria were use to analyze the models: average division, variance division, the coefficient R2, Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE) and the Nash Number. The selection of the models was made to have the strongest models with an important level confidence. In this case, according to the best correlation between the time-series of stream flow gage stations and the best fitting models. Four of the twelve models were selected: two models for the stream flow gage station Guinguette Naturel, one for the station Infernet and one model for the station Villard Loubière. The R2 coefficients achieved were 0.87, 0.95, 0.85 and 0.87 respectively. Consequently, both confidence levels (the modeled and the empirical) were tested in the selected model, leading to the best fitting of both discharge time-series and models with the empirical confidence interval. Additionally, a procedure for validation of the models was conducted using the data for the year 2011, where extreme hydrologic and changes in hydrologic regimes events were identified. Furthermore, two different forms of estimating uncertainty through the use of confidence levels were studied: the modeled and the empirical confidence levels. This research was useful to update the used procedures and validate time-series in the four stream flow gage stations for the use of the company Électricité de France. Additionally, coefficients for both the models and

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Paris Basin, France, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phoung A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 222 million barrels of unconventional oil; 2,092 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas; 18 million barrels of conventional oil; and 47 billion cubic feet of conventional gas resources in the Paris Basin of France.

  6. The North Pyrenean Aquitaine Basin, France: Evolution and hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bourrouilh, R.; Richert, J.P.; Zolnaie, G.

    1995-06-01

    The Mesozoic-Tertiary Aquitaine basin overlaps the Aquitaine block and the northern edge of the Iberian margin. Both units are situated in the southwesternmost part of the European Continent. The Aquitaine shelf is a stable platform overlying a relatively thin crustal segment; it underwent extensional block faulting and many of its folded structures are related to salt tectonism. The Iberian block is a thicker lithospheric unit that acted as a buttress. At the junction of these two structural domains the South Aquitaine or North Pyrenean area developed, where crustal stretching, rifting, wrenching, and orogenic compression were maximal from the Mesozoic to the Tertiary. The history of the basin has been a suite of rifting attempts, in the context of the progressive opening of the Bay of Biscay, which never completely succeeded. The relative plate motions and the later convergence led, nevertheless, to the formation of the Aquitaine basin and to the emergence of the Pyrenean fold belt. The Mesozoic-Tertiary sedimentary infill of the basin is mostly marine, with thick evaporates, stable platform carbonates, subsiding platform shaly-calcareous deposits, and a characteristic, diachronous turbiditic (flysch) and molasse complex. Events during the basin-forming, extensional, and translational periods contributed more to the generation of the hydrocarbon accumulations than did the effects of the subsequent compressive structural regime. The latter, however, may have enhanced thermal flow and, thus, maturation of hydrocarbon source rocks.

  7. Structural geology investigation on Massif Central and Parisian Basin (France)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weecksteen, G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Band 5 gives the most information concerning the fracturing in the Massif Central and Parisian Basins. Band 6 and 7 show the fractures emphasized by forest boundaries and by the linear trace of water courses. The most remarkable information drawn from the preliminary investigation of two ERTS-1 images covering two different landscapes, a regular relief of shelving plateau bounded by cuestas having a sedimentary origin and a mountainous region built in crystalline and volcanic rocks, is that the deep structural elements under a thick sedimentary cover can be translated on the surface by indirect criteria. MSS imagery has permitted the Metz fault to be extended towards the west and shows clearly, through land use on the Rhone Valley fluvial deposit, the continuation towards the east of the carboniferous basin of St. Etienne.

  8. Gas Geochemistry of the Dogger Geothermal Aquifer (Paris Basin, France)

    SciTech Connect

    Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C.; Marty, B.; Brach, M.; Wei, H.F.

    1987-01-20

    The low enthalpy program developed in the Paris Basin provides the opportunity for studying the gas geochemistry of the calcareous aquifer of the Dogger. Hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} are mainly biogenic, He displays high concentrations. He, Ar and N{sub 2} have multiple origins (radioactive decay, atmospheric migration, biochemical processes). The distribution of the gases in the zones of the basin varies in relation to the general chemistry, sedimentology and hydrodynamics. The gas geothermometers do not apply to this environment but useful estimations of the redox potential of the fluid can be derived from CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} ratios. H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are involved in corrosion processes and scaling in the pipes. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Role of Permo-Carboniferous and Mesozoic fault reactivation in the basin evolution of southeastern France

    SciTech Connect

    Enfield, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    The Sud-Est basin of France consists of a structural mosaic of Permo-Carboniferous, Mesozoic, and Tertiary subbasins. The complex tectonic evolution of these basins has involved alternating strike-slip, contractional, and extensional episodes. By and large, the prospective late Paleozoic-Mesozoic subbasins and the structures that have influenced their development are buried beneath nonpropsective Tertiary basin fill. The architecture of the younger basins, which is strongly controlled by reactivation of the structures bounding the older basins, provides clues to the structure and evolution of the pre-Tertiary subbasins. In particular, localized basins associated with Eocene (Pyrenean) contraction and Oligocene extension delineate reactivated structures bounding the older subbasins. Regionally significant middle Cretaceous left-lateral strike-slip movement along Mesozoic growth faults resulted in reactivation of Permian-Carboniferous faults having an antithetic trend, right-lateral sense of movement, and associated anticlines. This method of analysis has been used to determine the location, structure, and dynamic evolution of the buried late Paleozoic and Mesozoic subbasins of southeastern France external to the Alps.

  10. France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  11. Role of river bank erosion in sediment budgets of catchments within the Loire river basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Poisvert, Cecile; Landemaine, Valentin

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying volumes of sediments produced on hillslopes or in channels and transported or stored within river systems is necessary to establish sediment budgets. If research efforts on hillslope erosion processes have led to a relatively good understanding and quantification of local sources, in-channel processes remain poorly understood and quasi inexistent in global budgets. However, profound landuse changes and agricultural practices have altered river functioning, caused river bank instability and stream incision. During the past decades in France, river channelization has been perfomed extensively to allow for new agricultural practices to take place. Starting from a recent study on the quantification of sediment fluxes for catchments within the Loire river basin (Gay et al. 2013), our aim is to complete sediment budgets by taking into account various sources and sinks both on hillslope and within channel. The emphasis of this study is on river bank erosion and how bank erosion contributes to global budgets. A model of bank retreat is developed for the entire Loire river basin. In general, our results show that bank retreat is on average quite low with approximately 1 cm.yr-1. However, a strong variability exists within the study area with channels displaying values of bank retreat up to ~10 cm.yr-1. Our results corroborate those found by Landemaine et al. in 2013 on a small agricultural catchment. From this first step, quantification of volumes of sediment eroded from banks and available for transport should be calculated and integrated in sediment budgets to allow for a better understanding of basin functioning. Gay A., Cerdan O., Delmas M., Desmet M., Variability of sediment yields in the Loire river basin (France): the role of small scale catchments (under review). Landemaine V., Gay A., Cerdan O., Salvador-Blanes S., Rodriguez S. Recent morphological evolution of a headwater stream in agricultural context after channelization in the Ligoire river (France

  12. France.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, France had a population of 55,493,000, with an annual growth rate of 0.4%. The infant mortality rate stood at 8.2/1000. Of the work force of 23.8 million, 8.3% were engaged in agriculture, 45.2% were in the industry and commerce sector, and 46.5% were engaged in services. The unemployment rate stood at 10.7%. The country's gross domestic product (GDP) was US$724 billion in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.0%, and per capita income averaged $13,046. France has substantial agricultural resources, a diversified modern industrial system, and a highly skilled labor force. Following the return of a socialist majority in government in 1981, several large manufacturing firms were nationalized along with much of the commercial banking sector. Initial socialist policies were stimulative, relying partly on income redistribution and partly on increased government spending. However, the resultant increase in import demand was not offset by an increased demand French exports. In 1983, an economic stabilization plan of reductions in the budget deficit, involving spending cuts, increased taxes, and tighter monetary and credit policies, was successfully implemented. Although current economic policies should promote stronger growth over the medium to long term, trade competitiveness remains weak and high unemployment is a major social problem. PMID:12177959

  13. Low flows and reservoir management for the Durance River basin (Southern France) in the 2050s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauquet, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The Durance River is one of the major rivers located in the Southern part of France. Water resources are under high pressure due to significant water abstractions for human uses within and out of the natural boundaries of the river basin through an extended open channel network. Water demands are related to irrigation, hydropower, drinking water, industries and more recently water management has included water needs for recreational uses as well as for preserving ecological services. Water is crucial for all these activities and for the socio-economic development of South Eastern France. Both socio-economic development and population evolution will probably modify needs for water supply, irrigation, energy consumption, tourism, industry, etc. In addition the Durance river basin will have to face climate change and its impact on water availability that may question the sustainability of the current rules for water allocation. The research project R²D²-2050 "Risk, water Resources and sustainable Development within the Durance river basin in 2050" aims at assessing future water availability and risks of water shortage in the 2050s by taking into account changes in both climate and water management. R²D²-2050 is partially funded by the French Ministry in charge of Ecology and the Rhône-Méditerranée Water Agency. This multidisciplinary project (2010-2014) involves Irstea, Electricité de France (EDF), the University Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris), LTHE (CNRS), the Société du Canal de Provence (SCP) and the research and consultancy company ACTeon. A set of models have been developed to simulate climate at regional scale (given by 330 projections obtained by applying three downscaling methods), water resources (provided by seven rainfall-runoff models forced by a subset of 330 climate projections), water demand for agriculture and drinking water, for different sub basins of the Durance River basin upstream of Mallemort under present day and under future conditions

  14. Climate change impact on the management of water resources in the Seine River basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorchies, David; Thirel, Guillaume; Chauveau, Mathilde; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Perrin, Charles; Dehay, Florine

    2013-04-01

    It is today commonly accepted that adaptation strategies will be needed to cope with the hydrological consequences of projected climate change. The main objective of the IWRM-Net Climaware project is to design adaptation strategies for various socio-economic sectors and evaluate their relevance at the European scale. Within the project, the Seine case study focuses on dam management. The Seine River basin at Paris (43800km²) shows major socio-economic stakes in France. Due to its important and growing demography, the number of industries depending on water resources or located on the river sides, and the developed agricultural sector, the consequences of droughts and floods may be dramatic. To mitigate the extreme hydrological events, a system of four large multi-purpose reservoirs was built in the upstream part of the basin between 1949 and 1990. The IPCC reports indicate modifications of the climate conditions in northern France in the future. An increase of mean temperature is very likely, and the rainfall patterns could be modified: the uncertainty on future trends is still high, but summer periods could experience lower quantities of rainfall. Anticipating these changes are crucial: will the present reservoirs system be adapted to these conditions? Here we propose to evaluate the capacity of the Seine River reservoirs to withstand future projected climate conditions using the current management rules. For this study a modeling chain was designed. We used two hydrological models: GR4J, a lumped model used as a benchmark, and TGR, a semi-distributed model. TGR was tuned to explicitly account for reservoir management rules. Seven climatic models forced by the moderate A1B IPCC scenario and downscaled using a weather-type method (DSCLIM, Pagé et al., 2009), were used. A quantile-quantile type method was applied to correct bias in climate simulations. A model to mimic the way reservoirs are managed was also developed. The evolution of low flows, high flows and

  15. New characterization aspects of carbonate accumulation horizons in Chalky Champagne (NE of the Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linoir, Damien; Thomachot-Schneider, Céline; Gommeaux, Maxime; Fronteau, Gilles; Barbin, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    The soil profiles of the Champagne area (NE of Paris Basin, France) occasionally show carbonate accumulation horizons (CAHs). From the top to the bottom, these soil profiles include a rendic leptosol horizon, a Quaternary cryoturbated paleosol (QCP), and a chalky substratum. The CAHs are located in the top part of the QCP. This study is aimed at highlighting the specific characteristics of CAHs compared to other soil profile horizons using geophysics, geochemistry, micromorphology, and mercury injection porosimetry. It is the first essential step for understanding the impact of CAHs on water transfers into the Champagne soil profiles. Our analyses show that Champagne CAHs are not systematically characterized by a typical induration unlike generally put forward in the regional literature. They are more porous and heterogeneous than their parent material (QCP). Carbonate accumulation horizons are also characterized by singular colorimetric parameters that are linked to their geochemical specific content, even if they bear a signature of the initial QCP before the pedogenic modification.

  16. Fossil echinoid (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) diversity of the Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) in the Paris Basin (France).

    PubMed

    Benetti, Sophie; Saucède, Thomas; David, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This dataset inventories occurrence records of fossil echinoid specimens collected in the Calcaires à Spatangues Formation (CSF) that crops out in the southeast of the Paris Basin (France), and is dated from the Acanthodiscus radiatus chronozone (ca. 132 Ma, early Hauterivian, Early Cretaceous). Fossil richness and abundance of the CSF has attracted the attention of palaeontologists since the middle of the nineteenth century. This dataset compiles occurrence data (referenced by locality names and geographic coordinates with decimal numbers) of fossil echinoids both collated from the literature published over a century and a half, and completed by data from collection specimens. The dataset also gives information on taxonomy (from species to order and higher taxonomic levels), which has been checked for reliability and consistency. It compiles a total of 628 georeferenced occurrence data of 26 echinoid species represented by 22 genera, 14 families, and 9 orders. PMID:24003321

  17. Fossil echinoid (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) diversity of the Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) in the Paris Basin (France)

    PubMed Central

    Benetti, Sophie; Saucède, Thomas; David, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This dataset inventories occurrence records of fossil echinoid specimens collected in the Calcaires à Spatangues Formation (CSF) that crops out in the southeast of the Paris Basin (France), and is dated from the Acanthodiscus radiatus chronozone (ca. 132 Ma, early Hauterivian, Early Cretaceous). Fossil richness and abundance of the CSF has attracted the attention of palaeontologists since the middle of the nineteenth century. This dataset compiles occurrence data (referenced by locality names and geographic coordinates with decimal numbers) of fossil echinoids both collated from the literature published over a century and a half, and completed by data from collection specimens. The dataset also gives information on taxonomy (from species to order and higher taxonomic levels), which has been checked for reliability and consistency. It compiles a total of 628 georeferenced occurrence data of 26 echinoid species represented by 22 genera, 14 families, and 9 orders. PMID:24003321

  18. Geometry and kinematics of extensional structures in the alpine foreland basin of southeastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roure, F.; Brun, J.-P.; Colletta, B.; Van Den Driessche, J.

    1992-05-01

    The basin of southeastern France is developed between the Bresse Graben and the Mediterranean Sea. In this area, the Western European Oligocene rift system is locally superimposed on early Jurassic (Liassic) extensional structures of the Tethyan palaeomargin, and was later involved in Neogene compressive deformation of the Alpine foreland. The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the initial configuration of both thin-skinned and deep-seated Oligocene structures that are now locally inverted, and to separate the effects of Oligocene extension from Liassic extension. Cross-section balancing techniques have been applied to complex multiphase structures whose present geometries are clearly controlled by surface and subsurface geology. The resulting Oligocene configurations are compared with laboratory models and are discussed in terms of the regional extensional history.

  19. An experimental peri-urban basin in North-western France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chancibault, K.; Rodriguez, F.; Mosini, M.-L.; Furusho, C.; Bocher, E.; Palaccio, M.; Palma-Lopes, S.; Letellier, L.; Benot, R.; Andrieu, H.

    2009-04-01

    Basins located in the suburbs, known as peri-urban basins, face a quick land-use change, increasing pollution and flood risks. Being neither urban nor rural basins, they have been left apart by hydrologists. Improving hydrological models taking into account both natural and anthropogenic surfaces and pathways is the objective of the French project AVuPUR. One of the two peri-urban basins chosen for this project is the Chézine basin, located in northwestern France, in the suburbs of Nantes. The Chézine basin is subject to an oceanic climate and has a quite flat topography. Whereas the upstream part of the catchment remains essentially rural, the urbanization is dense in the downstream part and under development in the medium part. The mean urbanization over the basin is about 18%. A first part of the project consists of collecting geographical and hydrological data, followed by a first hydrological data analysis. Then different spatial segmentation methods are tested based on a geomorphological analysis and ultimately hydrological models well adapted for these particular basins will be developed. Nantes Metropole supplies geographical data as roads, buildings, land-use, sewer networks, Digital Elevation Model, etc. They also have monitored Chézine basin since 2001, with a water level recorder and a rain gauge. The outlet, at the water level recorder, defines a 29 km² basin with a 15km long river. During summer 2008, additional recorders were installed, in the medium part of the basin, at the outlet of the rural subcatchment : a rain gauge and a flow meter. This will help to analyse the hydrological behaviour of the catchment, by characterizing the rainfall spatial variability over the basin and by pointing out the rural surface contribution. In autumn 2008, a geophysical experimental study was carried out, using different geophysical methods: ground penetrating radar, DC-electrical resistivity tomography and EM31 electromagnetic profiling method. The aim of this

  20. Seismic velocities to characterize the soil-aquifer continuum on the Orgeval experimental basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquet, S.; Ludovic, B.; Dhemaied, A.; Flipo, N.; Guérin, R.; Mouhri, A.; Faycal, R.; Vitale, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Among geophysical methods applied to hydrogeology, seismic prospecting is frequently confined to the characterization of aquifers geometry. The combined study of pressure- (P) and shear- (SH) wave velocities (respectively Vp and Vs) can however provide information about the aquifer parameters, as it is commonly done for most fluids in hydrocarbon exploration. This approach has recently been proposed in sandy aquifers with the estimation of Vp/Vs ratio. In order to address such issues in more complex aquifer systems (e.g. unconsolidated, heterogeneous or low-permeability media) we carried out P- and SH-wave seismic surveys on the Orgeval experimental basin (70 km east from Paris, France). This basin drains a multi-layer aquifer system monitored by a network of piezometers. The upper part of the aquifer system is characterized by tabular layers well delineated all over the basin thanks to Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Time Domain ElectroMagnetic (TDEM) soundings and wells. But the lateral variability of the intrinsic properties in each layer raises questions regarding the hydrodynamics of the upper aquifer and the validity of interpolations between piezometers. A simple interpretation of P- and SH-wave first arrivals for tabular models provides 1D velocity structures in very good agreement with the stratification anticipated from ERT and nearby geological logs. Vp/Vs ratios show a strong contrast at a depth consistent with the observed water table level, reinforcing the assumption of a free upper aquifer in the area. Similar experiments have to be conducted under different hydrological conditions to validate these observations. Anticipating the need to propose lateral applications of the method, we additionally performed tomographic inversions of the recorded data to retrieve 2D Vp and Vs models. If interpreted independently, both models fail to depict the stratification of the medium and the water table level cannot be straightforwardly identified

  1. Response of douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) to uraniferous groundwater in a small glaciated drainage, Northeastern Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Schumann, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Douglas fir trees and associated soils were sampled from the slopes of a small (???4 km2) drainage basin in northeastern Washington to investigate the biogeochemical response to locally uraniferous groundwater. Uranium is preferentially incorporated in needles and twigs compared to larger branches or the trunk. The U concentration in needle ash ranges from 0.2 to 5.8??g g-1 (ppm) and shows no correlation with the U concentration in associated soils. Rather, the distribution of anomalously uraniferous douglas fir (> 1.0??g g-1 U in needle ash) appears to be controlled by observed or readily inferred pathways of near-surface groundwater movement in the drainage. These pathways include: (1) general downslope movement of subsurface runoff; (2) increased flux of near-surface groundwater near the toe of an alluvial fan; and (3) emergence of uraniferous (100-150 ng ml-1 [ppb] groundwater in the vicinity of a slope spring. The data also indicate the presence of near-surface uraniferous groundwater along a structurally controlled zone that parallels the north-south strike of the valley, and that includes the slope spring. The results suggest that biogeochemical sampling may be used to supplement more direct, but more limited, measurements of groundwater quality and flow regime in areas of near-surface contaminated groundwater. ?? 1987.

  2. Response of douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) to uraniferous groundwater in a small glaciated drainage, Northeastern Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Schumann, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Douglas fir trees and associated soils were sampled from the slopes of a small (??? 4 km2) drainage basin in northeastern Washington to investigate the biogeochemical response to locally uraniferous groundwater. Uranium is preferentially incorporated in needles and twigs compared to larger branches or the trunk. The U concentration in needle ash ranges from 0.2 to 5.8 ??g g-1 (ppm) and shows no correlation with the U concentration in associated soils. Rather, the distribution of anomalously uraniferous douglas fir (>1.0??g g-1 U in needle ash) appears to be controlled by observed or readily inferred pathways of near-surface groundwater movement in the drainage. These pathways include: (1) general downslope movement of subsurface runoff; (2) increased flux of near-surface groundwater near the toe of an alluvial fan; and (3) emergence of uraniferous (100-150 ng ml-1 [ppb] groundwater in the vicinity of a slope spring. The data also indicate the presence of near-surface uraniferous groundwater along a structurally controlled zone that parallels the north-south strike of the valley, and that includes the slope spring. The results suggest that biogeochemical sampling may be used to supplement more direct, but more limited, measurements of groundwater quality and flow regime in areas of near-surface contaminated groundwater. ?? 1987.

  3. Operational Mapping of Soil Moisture Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: Application to the Touch Basin (France)

    PubMed Central

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Aubert, Maelle; Cerdan, Olivier; Franchistéguy, Laurent; Viel, Christian; Martin, Eric; Zribi, Mehrez; Desprats, Jean François

    2007-01-01

    Soil moisture is a key parameter in different environmental applications, such as hydrology and natural risk assessment. In this paper, surface soil moisture mapping was carried out over a basin in France using satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired in 2006 and 2007 by C-band (5.3 GHz) sensors. The comparison between soil moisture estimated from SAR data and in situ measurements shows good agreement, with a mapping accuracy better than 3%. This result shows that the monitoring of soil moisture from SAR images is possible in operational phase. Moreover, moistures simulated by the operational Météo-France ISBA soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model in the SIM-Safran-ISBA-Modcou chain were compared to radar moisture estimates to validate its pertinence. The difference between ISBA simulations and radar estimates fluctuates between 0.4 and 10% (RMSE). The comparison between ISBA and gravimetric measurements of the 12 March 2007 shows a RMSE of about 6%. Generally, these results are very encouraging. Results show also that the soil moisture estimated from SAR images is not correlated with the textural units defined in the European Soil Geographical Database (SGDBE) at 1:1000000 scale. However, dependence was observed between texture maps and ISBA moisture. This dependence is induced by the use of the texture map as an input parameter in the ISBA model. Even if this parameter is very important for soil moisture estimations, radar results shown that the textural map scale at 1:1000000 is not appropriate to differentiate moistures zones.

  4. Variability of suspended sediment yields within the Loire river basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, A.; Cerdan, O.; Delmas, M.; Desmet, M.

    2014-11-01

    Suspended sediment fluxes and their variability in time and space have received much attention over the past decades. Large databases compiling suspended sediment load (SL) data are often used to serve these purposes. Analyses of these databases have highlighted the following two major limitations: (i) the role of lowland areas in sediment production and transfer has been minimised, and studies on small-scale catchments (with a drainage area of ⩽102 km2) are practically non-existent in the literature; and (ii) inhomogeneous data and calculation methods are used to estimate and compare the SL values. In this context, the present study aims to complete the existing studies by providing a reliable comparison of SL values for various catchments within lowland river basins. Therefore, we focused on the Loire and Brittany river basins (France). 111 small to large catchments covering 78% of this area and representative of the basins landscape diversity were chosen. We first present a large database of area-specific suspended sediment yields (SY) calculated from the suspended sediment concentration and flow discharge data over 7-40 yr of measurements at gauging stations. Two calculation methods are used, and the calculated loads are confined within a factor of 0.60-1.65 of the real values. Second, we analyse the temporal and spatial variability of the calculated SY values. Finally, using a nested catchment approach, we provide insight into sediment transport from upstream to downstream gauging stations and into the role of small- and medium- scale catchments in sediment production and transfers. The SL values at the outlet of the catchments range from 2.5 * 102 to 8.6 * 105 t yr-1, and the SY values range from 2.9 to 32.4 t km-2 yr-1. A comparison with the limited values available in the literature for this region corroborates our estimations. Sediment exports from the Loire and Brittany river basins are very low compared with mountainous regions and European exports

  5. Declining Dioxin Concentrations in the Rhone River Basin, France, Attest to the Effectiveness of Emissions Controls.

    PubMed

    Van Metre, Peter C; Babut, Marc; Mourier, Brice; Mahler, Barbara J; Roux, Gwenaelle; Desmet, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Emission-control policies have been implemented in Europe and North America since the 1990s for polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs). To assess the effect of these policies on temporal trends and spatial patterns for these compounds in a large European river system, sediment cores were collected in seven depositional areas along the Rhone River in France, dated, and analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. Results show concentrations increase in the downstream direction and have decreased temporally at all sites during the last two decades, with an average decrease of 83% from 1992 to 2010. The time for a 50% decrease in concentrations (t1/2) averaged 6.9±2.6 and 9.1±2.9 years for the sum of measured PCDDs and PCDFs, respectively. Congener patterns are similar among cores and indicate dominance of regional atmospheric deposition and possibly weathered local sources. Local sources are clearly indicated at the most downstream site, where concentrations of the most toxic dioxin, TCDD, are about 2 orders of magnitude higher than at the other six sites. The relatively steep downward trends attest to the effects of the dioxin emissions reduction policy in Europe and suggest that risks posed to aquatic life in the Rhone River basin from dioxins and furans have been greatly reduced. PMID:26418318

  6. Structural modelling of thrust zones utilizing photogrammetry: Western Champsaur basin, SE France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totake, Yukitsugu; Butler, Rob; Bond, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in photogrammetric technologies allow geoscientists to easily obtain a high-resolution 3D geospatial data across multiple scales, from rock specimen to landscape. Although resolution and accuracy of photogrammetry models are dependent on various factors (a quality of photography, number of overlapping photo images, distance to targets, etc), modern photogrammetry techniques can even provide a comparable data resolution to laser scanning technologies (< ~1cm resolution) if conditions are complete. Such high-resolution datasets enable to perform accurate and detailed mapping or modelling of various geological objects. Another advantages of photogrammetry techniques, high portability and low costs for infrastructures, ease to incorporate these techniques with conventional geological surveys. Photogrammetry techniques have a great potential to enhance performances of geological surveys. We present a workflow for building basin-scale 3D structural models utilizing the ground-based photogrammetry along with field observations. The workflow is applied to model thrust zones in Eocene-Oligocene turbidite sequences called Champsaur Sandstone (Gres du Champsaur) filling an Alpine fore-deep basin, Western Champsaur basin, in southeastern France. The study area is located ca. 20km northeast from Gap, and approximately extends 10 km from east to west and 6 km from north to south. During a 2-week fieldwork, over 9400 photographs were taken at 133 locations by a handheld digital camera from ground, and were georeferenced with a handheld GPS. Photo images were processed within software PhotoScan to build a 3D photogrammetric model. The constructed photogrammetry model was then imported into software Move to map faults and geological layers along with georeferenced field data so that geological cross sections and 3D surfaces are produced. The workflow succeeded to produce a detailed topography and textures of landscape at ~1m resolution, and enabled to characterize

  7. Connectivity from source to sink in a lowland area: the Loire river basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Degan, Francesca; Salvador, Sebastien

    2014-05-01

    Sediment connectivity relates to the transfer of sediments from sources to sinks via runoff and in channel transport. It is highly dependent on spatial variability of landscape properties such as differences in morphology, land use and infiltration/runoff characteristics but may also vary in time due to differences in rainfall amount/intensity and changes in vegetation cover throughout the year. In the Loire river basin, we found that sediment fluxes displayed strong variations in space but also at the interannual and seasonnal time scales (Gay et al. 2013). In this context, our goal is to better understand and quantify hillslope sediment redistributions within this lowland area thanks to the use of semi distributed connectivity approach. To this aim, Borselli's index of connectivity (IC, Borselli et al., 2008) is selected to assess hillslope connectivity at annual and seasonal time scales. Several improvements are proposed to take into account the coupling of the structural landscape connectivity and its hydrosedimentary response. Parameters such as rainfall intensity and differences in seasonal land cover are integrated into the model to account for landscape variations through time. Infiltration and runoff indices were also tested. Preliminary results confirm the variability of landscape connectivity throughout the year. The integration of the index of infiltration and runoff properties of landscape (IDPR) as defined by Mardhel et al. 2004 seems to improve the IC model outputs. From this first step, in-stream sediment connectivity index should be developed for a better understanding and assessment of sediment redistributions at the entire catchment scale. L. Borselli L., Cassi P., Torri D. Prolegomena to sediment and flow connectivity in the landscape: a GIS and field numerical assessment. Catena, 75 (2008), pp. 268-277 Gay A., Cerdan O., Delmas M., Desmet M., Variability of sediment yields in the Loire river basin (France): the role of small scale catchments

  8. Implementation of Theeuropeanwater Framework Directive In France: New Challenges For River Basin Organisat Ion, Planning and Participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, S.

    The European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) establishes a system of participatory river basin planning for national and international basins. The French institutional framework for water management is already very close to this system: the 1964 Water Law actually set up basin bodies, the Agences de l'Eau ("Water Agencies"), at the level of large river basins, and multipartite basin commissions, the Comités de Bassin ("River Basin Authorities"), in order to monitor the Agences de l'Eau's policies; besides, the 1992 Water Law created a planning procedure at this level, the Schéma Directeur d'Aménagement et de Gestion des Eaux (SDAGE : "General Water Management Plan"), aiming to determine general orientations for the management of water resources and having to be defined by the Comités de Bassin. At first glance therefore, the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive should not raise a lot of problems in France. However, a quick analysis of the current situation shows that it is not so obvious : if the French Water Policy set up two basin organisations, neither of them deals concretely with the management of the water resources, and the implementation of water management plans depends on many stakeholders; the SDAGE itself only partially meets the demands of the Directive, regarding e. g. the economic analysis; finally, in spite of the creation of multipartite basin commissions, the public participation is very restricted. Such an analysis leads to pay more attention to the relations to establish between organisation, planning and participation at the level of large river basins. An analysis of other elements of the French institutional framework can help us in this way : another planning procedure was actually created by the 1992 Water Law, the Schéma d'Aménagement et de Gestion des Eaux (SAGE : "Water Management Plan"), aiming to fix general objectives to manage the water resources at the level of small river basins, and having to be

  9. Effects of the Pays de Bray'' fault on fluid paleocirculations in the Paris Basin Dogger reservoir, France

    SciTech Connect

    Bril, H. . Lab. d'Analyse Structurale et Hydrothermalisme); Velde, B.; Iqdari, A. . Dept. Geologie); Meunier, A. . Lab. Petrologie des Alterations Hydrothermales)

    1994-06-01

    Clay fractions and fluid inclusions were studied in the Aulnay sous Bois and Cerneaux (CER-1 and CER-P6) wells located 10 km, 1.3 and 0.6 km, respectively, from the Pays de Bray'' fault (Paris Basin, France). It was shown that a connection was probably established between the Dogger and Triassic reservoirs during the active period of the fault. Chemical and heat transfers have locally modified the diagenesis conditions in the Dogger formation, inducing an overmaturation of clay minerals. These effects, although attenuated, are still identifiable in the Aulnay and CER-1 wells. A maximum temperature of about 90 C was maintained in CER-P6 site even during the uplift stage of the basin.

  10. Comparison of magnetic and gamma ray logging for correlations in chronology and lithology: example from the Aquitanian Basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibal, J.; Etchecopar, A.; Pozzi, J.-P.; Barthès, V.; Pocachard, J.

    1999-06-01

    Precise time and facies correlations between drilled holes are fundamental for a better understanding of the geological evolution of sedimentary basins. A downhole magnetic measurement device called the geological high-sensitivity magnetic tool (GHMT) has been run within two wells drilled by Gaz de France in the Landes oil-field (southwest France) as part of a gas storage exploration program. The method of interpretation of downhole magnetic measurements yielded a magnetostratigraphy within each well, allowing absolute dating and time correlations between the wells. Magnetic susceptibility and natural gamma ray intensity are useful parameters for establishing high-resolution lithological correlations at a basin scale. We present a correlation parameter established from a simultaneous analysis of the susceptibility and the gamma ray logs within each well. The correlation parameter appears to provide a new tool for delineating lithological elements when local lithological changes are too subtle to show clear well-to-well correlations either from susceptibility logs or from gamma ray logs. This new approach is interpreted as a sensitive way to detect relative variations between the detrital and clay content of the penetrated sediment.

  11. Organic matter in the Paleogene west European rift: Bresse and Valence salt basins (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Curial, A.; Dumas, D.; Moretto, R.

    1988-08-01

    The Bresse and Valence basins are two adjacent segments of the West European rift. They contain thick Paleogene halite sequences including intercalated and interfingering siliciclastic material and carbonate and sulfate deposits. Source rock samples in this study were mainly taken from the depocenters because of maximum sampling coverage. Organic matter (OM) is generally immature and occurs primarily within intercalated nonhalitic beds. The Bresse basin seems to contain more OM in (1) the Intermediate Salt Formation (Priabonian), composed of alternating laminated carbonate and halite beds; (2) the upper part of the Upper Salt Formation (clayey carbonate beds; Rupelian), affected by synsedimentary halite solution; and (3) the solution breccia which immediate overlies the salt sequence. In the Valence basin, the organic-rich layers are concentrated in the Subsalt Formation (carbonate beds; Priabonian), and the upper part of the Lower Salt Formation (laminates; Rupelian). In both basins, type III organic matter is associated with terrigenous facies. Type I is abundant in the Valence basin (laminites), and type II seems to be more abundant in the Bresse basin. The amount of OM varies considerably, and we suppose it is higher toward the basin margins. From studies made in evaporite basins in other region, which are also known to have significant amounts of organic matter, we find a similar range of organic composition. Such studies are of interest because of their petroleum potential and for understanding precise depositional environments and waste disposal problems (gas generation with local heat source).

  12. On the Use of Hydrological Models and Satellite Data to Study the Water Budget of River Basins Affected by Human Activities: Examples from the Garonne Basin of France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Eric; Gascoin, Simon; Grusson, Youen; Murgue, Clément; Bardeau, Mélanie; Anctil, François; Ferrant, Sylvain; Lardy, Romain; Le Moigne, Patrick; Leenhardt, Delphine; Rivalland, Vincent; Sánchez Pérez, José-Miguel; Sauvage, Sabine; Therond, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    Natural and anthropogenic forcing factors and their changes significantly impact water resources in many river basins around the world. Information on such changes can be derived from fine scale in situ and satellite observations, used in combination with hydrological models. The latter need to account for hydrological changes caused by human activities to correctly estimate the actual water resource. In this study, we consider the catchment area of the Garonne river (in France) to investigate the capabilities of space-based observations and up-to-date hydrological modeling in estimating water resources of a river basin modified by human activities and a changing climate. Using the ISBA-MODCOU and SWAT hydrological models, we find that the water resources of the Garonne basin display a negative climate trend since 1960. The snow component of the two models is validated using the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer snow cover extent climatology. Crop sowing dates based on remote sensing studies are also considered in the validation procedure. Use of this dataset improves the simulated evapotranspiration and river discharge amounts when compared to conventional data. Finally, we investigate the benefit of using the MAELIA multi-agent model that accounts for a realistic agricultural and management scenario. Among other results, we find that changes in crop systems have significant impacts on water uptake for agriculture. This work constitutes a basis for the construction of a future modeling framework of the sociological and hydrological system of the Garonne river region.

  13. Development and Exploitation of Low Enthalpy Geothermal Systems, Example of "The Dogger" in the Paris Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, J.; Menjoz, A.; Martin, J.C.; Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C.

    1987-01-20

    A feature of French geothermal engineering is the development of industrial projects in normal gradient, non-convective areas. The economic feasibility of exploiting wells producing between 150 and 350 m{sup 3}/h at temperatures from 55° to 85° from depths of 1,500 to 2,000 meters, in sedimentary basins with normal gradient, for direct heat production has been proved by 50 plants providing heating for over 500,000 people during the last few years. This opens new possibilities for geothermal energy development the world over, in particular for areas where heat consumption is higher than 2,500 Tons oil equivalent (Toe)/year over several square kilometers. The recent and rapid development of geothermal projects in France, in particular in the Paris Basin has provided much more information on the characteristics of the Jurassic Dogger, which is the unit tapped by geothermal doublets (one production and one injection well). Detailed study of the Dogger reservoir in the Paris Basin is one of the main objectives of the IMRG research and development program drawn up in 1983. The preliminary results presented here are oriented towards (1) improved knowledge of the potential geothermal resources, and (2) analysis of optimum development conditions. 1 tab., 7 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Seismic valve as the main mechanism for sedimentary fluid entrapment within extensional basin: example of the Lodève Permian Basin (Hérault, South of France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, D.; Lopez, M.; Chauvet, A.; Imbert, P.; Sauvage, A. C.; Martine, B.; Thomas, M.

    2014-12-01

    During syn-sedimentary burial in basin, interstitial fluids initially trapped within the sedimentary pile are easily moving under overpressure gradient. Indeed, they have a significant role on deformation during basin evolution, particularly on fault reactivation. The Lodève Permian Basin (Hérault, France) is an exhumed half graben with exceptional outcrop conditions providing access to barite-sulfides mineralized systems and hydrocarbon trapped into rollover faults of the basin. Architectural studies shows a cyclic infilling of fault zone and associated S0-parallel veins according to three main fluid events during dextral/normal faulting. Contrasting fluid entrapment conditions are deduced from textural analysis, fluid inclusion microthermometry and sulfide isotope geothermometer: (i) the first stage is characterized by an implosion breccia cemented by silicifications and barite during abrupt pressure drop within fault zone; (ii) the second stage consists in succession of barite ribbons precipitated under overpressure fluctuations, derived from fault-valve action, with reactivation planes formed by sulphide-rich micro-shearing structures showing normal movement; and (iii) the third stage is associated to the formation of dextral strike-slip pull-apart infilling by large barite crystals and contemporary hydrocarbons under suprahydrostatic pressure values. Microthermometry, sulfide and strontium isotopic compositions of the barite-sulfides veins indicate that all stages were formed by mixing between deep basinal fluids at 230°C, derived from cinerite dewatering, and formation water from overlying sedimentary cover channelized trough fault planes. We conclude to a polyphase history of fluid trapping during Permian synrift formation of the basin: (i) a first event, associated with the dextral strike-slip motion on faults, leads to a first sealing of the fault zone; (ii) periodic reactivations of fault planes and bedding-controlled shearing form the main mineralized

  15. Stress inversion and basement-cover stress transmission across weak layers in the Paris basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunzburger, Yann; Magnenet, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the source of non-purely gravitational horizontal stresses in the Paris basin, a nowadays tectonically quiet intracratonic basin, in its eastern border of which outstandingly dense stress measurements are available. Based on a synthesis of published data, the stress state in the basin is first shown to be very close to the one that may be extrapolated for the underlying basement, in terms of principal stress orientations and horizontal to vertical stress ratios. This is in favour of a mechanical coupling between the basement and its sedimentary cover, which may seem contradictory to the presence of several weak rock layers in the basin fill, e.g. an argillite layer that was shown to bear low deviatoric stresses, and salt layers that are implicated in a major décollement elsewhere. To unravel this apparent contradiction, a 3D-numerical modelling is performed, following a rigorous inverse problem approach, to determine the long-term elastic properties of both the basement and the basin rocks. The objective is to find the set of elastic constants that provides the best fit between the calculated stress state in the basin and the in situ data, by assuming that the stress state in the basement is known. This methodology provides a realistic set of mechanical parameters, in agreement with previous studies, which leads to the conclusion that the horizontal stresses in the basin constitute its mechanical response to the stresses that developed in the underlying basement during and since the last tectonic event (Alpine phase). The fact that horizontal stresses could be transmitted across the weak horizons, contrary to what may be expected at first glance, is explained both by the geometry of the basin and the fact that, over the long term, the stiffnesses of the various sedimentary rocks are only slightly different from each other.

  16. Reconstruction of Tertiary palaeovalleys in the South Alpine Foreland Basin of France (Eocene-Oligocene of the Castellane arc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosjean, Anne-Sabine; Pittet, Bernard; Ferry, Serge; Mahéo, Gweltaz; Gardien, Véronique

    2012-11-01

    The dynamics of depositional environments and the spatial deformation of drainage networks in foreland basins reflect the tectonic and erosional dynamics associated with the development of mountain belts. The spatial and temporal organization of the Eocene-Oligocene (40-25 Ma) sedimentation in the external part of the South Alpine Foreland Basin of France was reconstructed using an integrated cartographic, sedimentological and petrographic analysis of the Tertiary sedimentary successions. The depositional geometries and variations in facies and thickness of the Palaeogene Nummulitic succession, as well as the observed flow directions in various continental and marine sediments, suggest that the Barrême, Blieux and Taulanne synclines were present as palaeovalleys since the Eocene. The sedimentological analysis of the Nummulitic succession allows the identification of three depositional sequences separated by transgressive surfaces that are recognized in the Barrême, Blieux and Taulanne synclines. Correlation of these sequences between the three synclines suggests that these palaeovalleys were connected by a local valley network that recorded the same sea-level fluctuations during the marine Nummulitic sedimentation. The palaeovalley network was structurally controlled by the east-west axes of the Blieux and Taulanne synclines and the north-south axis of the Barrême syncline formed during the "Pyrenean-Provençal" (Late Cretaceous-Middle Eocene) shortening and the first stage of the Alpine history (Middle Eocene) respectively. Later on, the westward "Alpine" compression (since the Early Oligocene) induced local depocenter migration and reversal in flow direction. However, compared to the modern river pattern, the palaeovalley orientation highlights a geometrical stability since their formation (about 40 Ma), suggesting a long-term stability of the early structures in the foreland basin. This constancy can be explained by the location of the study area in a piggy

  17. The Miocene Sommières basin, SE France: Bioclastic carbonates in a tide-dominated depositional system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud, Jean-Yves; James, Noël P.

    2012-12-01

    The Miocene Sommières Basin in SE France is a semi-enclosed depression that was connected to the Mediterranean Sea by a flooded paleo-incised valley and then filled by a suite of sediments comprising carbonate grains coming from temperate factories that were largely deposited in tidal-dominated paleoenvironments. The strata are partitioned into two sequences that reflect repeated flooding of the incised valley system, one of several similar situations in this region of France. The carbonate grains are mostly bioclasts, namely from barnacles, bryozoans, coralline algae (encrusting, branching, and rhodoliths), echinoids, and benthic foraminifers (large and small) with ostracods, sponge spicules and planktic foraminifers prominent in muddy facies. Particles were produced by shallow water carbonate factories on hard substrates (valley walls in particular), associated with subaqueous dunes, and in deeper water basinal settings. Each depositional sequence is underlain by an eroded and bored hard surface that is progressively overlain by TST subaqueous tidal dunes or storm deposits that grade up, in one case, into HST marls (the HST of the upper sequence has been removed by erosion). The lower sequence is ebb tide dominated whereas the upper sequence is flood tide dominated. The succession is interpreted to represent a TST whose tidal currents were focused by the narrow valley and a HST that reflected flooding of the overbanks. This stratigraphic and depositional motif is comparable to that in other spatially separated Neogene paleovalleys that are filled with tide-dominated clastic carbonates in the region. Together with other recently documented similar systems, these limestones constitute an important new group of carbonate sand bodies in the carbonate depositional realm.

  18. Modification of an Index of Biotic Integrity based on fish assemblages to characterize rivers of the Seine basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Oberdorff, T.; Hughes, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is a measure of fish assemblage 'health' that has been used to assess catchment and stream quality throughout North America. It reflects human perturbations on natural environmental structures and processes. While preserving the ecological foundation of the original North American metrics, the authors have modified and adapted the IBI to the mainstem Seine River and its major tributaries in France. This successful modification of the IBI to a considerably different fish fauna on a different continent further supports its wider use outside the midwestern United States. Using data collected in 1967, 1981, and 1988-1989 from a total of 46 sites, they show spatial and temporal variation in the Seine as indicated by IBI scores. Statistically significant relationships were found between IBI and catchment area but insignificant relationships existed between IBI and an independent Water Quality Index (WQI) based on water chemistry. Comparisons between the IBI and the WQI indicate that the former is a more sensitive and robust measure of water body quality. Their results demonstrate that the IBI, combined with a statistically designed national monitoring program, would offer a reliable means of assessing spatial patterns and temporal trends in water body improvement or degradation in France. The more primitive fish families in the Basin were affected first by perturbations. These families include all the diadromous species found in the Seine and suggest serious disruption of their life histories. (Copyright (c) 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

  19. Budget of N2O emissions at the watershed scale: role of land cover and topography (the Orgeval basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilain, G.; Garnier, J.; Passy, P.; Silvestre, M.; Billen, G.

    2011-11-01

    Agricultural basins are the major source of N2O emissions, with arable land accounting for half of the biogenic emissions worldwide. Moreover, N2O emission strongly depends on the position of agricultural land in relation with topographical gradients, as footslope soils are often more prone to denitrification. The estimation of land surface area occupied by agricultural soils depends on the available spatial input information and resolution. Surface areas of grassland, forest and arable lands were estimated for the Orgeval sub-basin using two cover representations: the pan European CORINE Land Cover 2006 database (CLC 2006) and a combination of two databases produced by the Institut d'Aménagement et d'Urbanisme de la Région d'Île-de-France (IAU IDF), the MOS (Mode d'Occupation des Sols) combined with the Ecomos 2000, a land-use classification. In this study we have analyzed how different land-cover representations influence and introduce errors into the results of regional N2O emissions inventories. A further introduction of the topography concept was used to better identify the critical zones for N2O emissions, a crucial issue to better adapt the strategies of N2O emissions mitigation. Overall, we observed that a refinement of the land-cover database led to a 5% decrease in the estimation of N2O emissions, while the integration of the topography decreased the estimation of N2O emissions up to 25%.

  20. Budget of N2O emissions at the watershed scale: role of land cover and topography (the Orgeval basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilain, G.; Garnier, J.; Passy, P.; Silvestre, M.; Billen, G.

    2012-03-01

    Agricultural basins are the major source of N2O emissions, with arable land accounting for half of the biogenic emissions worldwide. Moreover, N2O emission strongly depends on the position of agricultural land in relation with topographical gradients, as footslope soils are often more prone to denitrification. The estimation of land surface area occupied by agricultural soils depends on the available spatial input information and resolution. Surface areas of grassland, forest and arable lands were estimated for the Orgeval sub-basin using two cover representations: the pan European CORINE Land Cover 2006 database (CLC 2006) and a combination of two databases produced by the IAU IDF (Institut d'Aménagement et d'Urbanisme de la Région d'Île-de-France), the MOS (Mode d'Occupation des Sols) combined with the ECOMOS 2000 (a land-use classification). In this study, we have analyzed how different land-cover representations influence and introduce errors into the results of regional N2O emissions inventories. A further introduction of the topography concept was used to better identify the critical zones for N2O emissions, a crucial issue to better adapt the strategies of N2O emissions mitigation. Overall, we observed that a refinement of the land-cover database led to a 5 % decrease in the estimation of N2O emissions, while the integration of the topography decreased the estimation of N2O emissions up to 25 %.

  1. Analysis of medieval limestone sculpture from southwestern France and the Paris Basin by NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G.

    1994-12-31

    Compositional characterization of limestone from sources known to medieval craftsmen and from the monuments they built can be used in conjunction with stylistic and iconographic criteria to infer geographic origin of sculptures that have lost their histories. Limestone from 47 quarrying locations in France and from numerous medieval monuments have been subjected to neutron activation analysis (NAA) to form the nucleus of the Brookhaven Limestone Database. Even though the method and techniques of NAA are well established, this paper briefly summarizes the parameters and experimental conditions useful for determining those concentration variables for which limestone from different sources exhibits significant and reproducible differences.

  2. Diagenesis and pore water evolution in the Keuper reservoir, Paris Basin (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Spotl, C.; Matter, A. . Geologisches Inst.); Brevart, O. . Centre Scientifique et Technique Jean Feger)

    1993-09-01

    Keuper (Upper Triassic) fluvial sandstones and nonmarine carbonate rocks form a major oil reservoir in the western Paris Basin at burial depths of [approximately] 2km. Early-diagenetic processes comprise red-bed-type diagenesis and extensive dolocrete formation both in fluvial channels and in fine-grained over-bank sediments. Locally significant paleokarst created vuggy dissolution porosity in the carbonate units and probably also caused leaching of detrital alkali feldspar grains. Oxygen, carbon, and strontium isotope analyses of various eogenetic cements indicate a nonmarine pore-water composition. Ferroan carbonates, authigenic albite and potassium feldspar, quartz, sulfates, sulfides, and clay minerals formed subsequent to major mechanical compaction. Their isotopic compositions record significant changes in the chemistry of the parent pore water. Cl-Br relationships of the present-day pore water reveal that fluids saturated with respect to halite flushed the reservoir during burial. Based on radiogenic dating of illite cements, influx of warm brines into the reservoir most likely occurred during the earliest Cretaceous. The authors suggest that uplift of the Vosges crustal block created a hydraulic head in the eastern part of the basin and established a gravity-driven fluid flow system, displacing interstitial brines from the Keuper evaporites from the eastern part towards the western part of the basin. A second gravity-driven fluid flow system was established during the Oligocene by major uplift, and freshwater flushed the Keuper reservoir, causing brine dilution. The present-day pore water in the study area is still saline and mass-balance calculations indicate that the ratio of basinal brines to Tertiary meteoric water is about 1:2.

  3. Relationships between fracture patterns, geodynamics and mechanical stratigraphy in Carbonates (South-East Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarche, Juliette; Lavenu, Arthur P. C.; Gauthier, Bertrand D. M.; Guglielmi, Yves; Jayet, Océane

    2012-12-01

    This study aims at improving the understanding of fracture genesis in layered carbonate sedimentary sequences, focusing on field analysis of Jurassic to Maastrichtian age carbonates of Provence (France). Fracture patterns of 9 outcrops were characterized in 3D: 6 of Urgonian, 1 of Tithonian and 2 of Campanian-Late Maastrichtian ages. Seven sites are located in relatively weakly deformed areas away from larges fault and fold zones where strain partitioning and stress localization effects may take place. Two sites are located in fold flanks for the purpose of relative dating and for comparison with the sites in the weakly deformed areas. Patterns and detailed fracture attributes were compared to host rock sedimentary facies, porosity and P-wave velocities. Fracture chronology was determined with cross-cutting relationships and compared to burial/uplift history reconstructed from subsidence curves and from a regional structural analysis. Our results show that fractures are clustered in two perpendicular joint sets whatever the host rock age. We observe an average spacing of 20 cm and no control of strike, age, facies, or bed thickness on fracture size. There is no mechanical stratigraphy. The fracture sequence compared to subsidence curves indicates that fractures occurred before tectonic inversion, during early and rapid burial, whatever the host rock age and facies. The abundance of burial stylolites does not correlate with maximum burial depth but with fracture frequency, host rock porosity and P-wave velocity. We conclude that the studied carbonates had early brittle properties controlled by their geographic position rather than by depositional facies types and undergone early diagenesis. The porosity loss/gain and the mechanical differentiation in carbonates of Provence could have been acquired during very early burial and diagenesis and have preserved through time. This study also demonstrates that regional fracturing is not necessarily driven by large scale

  4. Evidence for long term deep CO2 confinement below thick Jurassic shales at Montmiral site (SE Basin of France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubert, Y.; Ramboz, C.; Le Nindre, Y. M.; Lerouge, C.; Lescanne, M.

    2009-04-01

    Studies of natural CO2 analogues bring key information on the factors governing the long term (>1My) stability/instability of future anthropogenic CO2 storages. The main objective of this work is to trace the deep-origin CO2 migrations in fractures in the Montmiral CO2 deep natural occurrence (Valence Basin, SE France). The final objective is to document the reservoir feeding and the possible leakages through overlying series. The CO2 reservoir is hosted within a horst controlled by a N-S fault network. From the Triassic to Eocene, the Montmiral area was part of the South-East Basin of France. This period is marked by the Tethysian extension phase (Triassic-Cretaceous) followed by the closure of the basin which culminated during the Pyrenean compressive phase (Eocene). Then, from the late Eocene, the Valence Basin was individualised in particular during the Oligocene E-W rifting affecting the West of Europe. Finally the eastern border of the Basin was overthrusted by Mesozoic formations during the Alpine orogenesis (Miocene). The Montmiral CO2 reservoir is intersected by the currently productive V.Mo.2 well, drilled through Miocene to Triassic sedimentary formations, and reaching the Palaeozoic substratum at a depth of 2771 meters. The CO2 is trapped below a depth of 2340 meters, at the base of sandy, evaporitic and calcareous formations (2340-2771m), Triassic to Sinemurian in age. These units are overlain by a 575 m-thick Domerian to Oxfordian marly sequence which seals the CO2 reservoir. Above these marls, calcareous strata (1792-1095 m), Oxfordian to Cretaceous in age, and sandy clayey formations (1095-0 m), Oligocene and Miocene in age, are deposited. The various stratigraphic levels from the Miocene to the basement were cored over a total length of ~100m. From bottom to top, three lithological units, which exhibit well characterised contrasted diagenetic evolution, record various stages and effects of the CO2 migration: - Lower unit: Palaeozoic metamorphic

  5. A molecular and isotopic study of the organic matter from the Paris Basin, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtfouse, E.; Albrecht, P.; Behar, F.; Hayes, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Thirteen Liassic sedimentary rocks of increasing depth and three petroleums from the Paris Basin were studied for 13C/12C isotopic compositions and biological markers, including steranes, sterenes, methylphenanthrenes, methylanthracenes, and triaromatic steroids. The isotopic compositions of n-alkanes from mature sedimentary rocks and petroleums fall in a narrow range (2%), except for the deepest Hettangian rock and the Trias petroleum, for which the short-chain n-alkanes are enriched and depleted in 13C, respectively. Most of the molecular parameters increase over the 2000-2500 m depth range, reflecting the transformation of the organic matter at the onset of petroleum generation. In this zone, carbonate content and carbon isotopic composition of carbonates, as well as molecular parameters, are distinct for the Toarcian and Hettangian source rocks and suggest a migration of organic matter from these two formations. Two novel molecular parameters were defined for this task: one using methyltriaromatic steroids from organic extracts; the other using 1-methylphenanthrene and 2-methylanthracene from kerogen pyrolysates. The anomalous high maturity of the Dogger petroleum relative to the maturity-depth trend of the source rocks is used to estimate the minimal vertical distance of migration of the organic matter from the source rock to the reservoir.

  6. Natural flow and vertical heterogeneities in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir (Paris Basin, France): Geochemical investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Criaud, Annie, Fouassier, Philippe; Fouillac, Christian; Brach, Michel

    1988-01-01

    Three geothermal wells tapping the Dogger aquifer were studied in detail for their variations in chemical composition with time or conditions of exploitation. Analytical improvements for the determination of Cl, SO{sub 4}, Ca, Mg, Na and K make it possible to detect variations respectively of 0.15, 0.8, 0.6, 1.8, 1.8 and 1.4 %. Despite the fact that the natural flow may be important in some parts of the basin aquifer, we conclude that this factor is not responsible for the small variations noticed in mineralization within the one year survey period. The results concerning reactive and nonreactive species are best explained if a vertical heterogeneity of the chemistry of the fluid is assumed. A number of calcareous sub-layers, already demonstrated by geological studies, contribute to varying degrees to the production of the hot water. The changes in pumping rates, which are fixed according to external requirements, play a major role in the hydrodynamic and chemical disequilibrium of the wells. The consequences for the geothermal exploitations are emphasized.

  7. Molecular parameters of maturation in the Toarcian shales, Paris Basin, France - IV. Laboratory thermal alteration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, A. S.; Lewis, C. A.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1981-12-01

    An immature Toarcian shale from the Paris Basin (Semecourt, reported maximum burial depth 700m) was heated in the laboratory under reduced pressure at different temperatures (201, 257, 285°C) for different times (6-91 days). We measured in the resulting extracts by gas chromatography or combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: (b) extent of aromatisation in aromatic steroid hydrocarbons. Both configurational isomerisation and aromatisation occur during heating, but the latter process is accelerated relative to the former, in comparison with the maturation effect experienced by the Toarcian shales as a result of burial depth and the associated temperature rise. The results suggest that it may be possible to distinguish the thermal histories of sedimentary sequences by comparison of the relative extents of isomerisation at C-20 in steranes with the extent of aromatisation in aromatic steroid hydrocarbons.

  8. Cu-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of a small watershed (Loire river basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desaulty, A. M.; Millot, R.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2015-12-01

    Combating metal pollution in surface water is a major environmental, public health and economic issue. Knowledge of the behavior of metals, such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in sediments and dissolved load, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. Recent advances in mass spectrometry related to the development of MC-ICPMS allow to analyze the isotopic composition of these elements, and previous studies show the effectiveness of isotopic analyses to determine the anthropogenic sources of pollution in environment. The goal of this study is to use the Cu-Zn-Pb multi-isotopic signature to track the pollutions in surface water, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in environment. More particularly we investigate the mechanisms of distribution between the dissolved load and particulate load, known to play an important role in the transport of metals through river systems. As case study, we chose a small watershed, poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is in a pristine area, while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. First a sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Then to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions, we made sequential extraction protocol using various reagents on the sediments. Isotopic analyzes were performed also on the various extracting solutions. Isotopic ratios were measured using a Neptune MC-ICPMS at the BRGM, after a protocol of purification for Zn and Cu. The results showed that, these isotopic systematics reveal important informations about the mechanists of mobilization and transport of metals through river systems. However experiments performed under laboratory conditions will be necessary

  9. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and south-east of France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Julie; Laurent, Benoit; Losno, Rémi; Bon Nguyen, Elisabeth; Roullet, Pierre; Sauvage, Stéphane; Chevaillier, Servanne; Coddeville, Patrice; Ouboulmane, Noura; di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Massanet, Ana; Triquet, Sylvain; Morales Baquero, Rafael; Fornier, Michel; Coursier, Cyril; Desboeufs, Karine; Dulac, François; Bergametti, Gilles

    2016-07-01

    provenance, transport and deposition processes (i.e. wet vs. dry) of dust are different and specific for the different deposition sites in the Mediterranean studied area. The results tend to indicate that wet deposition is the main form of deposition for mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin, but the contribution of dry deposition (in the sense that no precipitation was detected at the surface) is far from being negligible, and contributes 10 to 46 % to the major dust deposition events, depending on the sampling site.

  10. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and South-East of France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, J.; Laurent, B.; Losno, R.; Bon Nguyen, E.; Roullet, P.; Sauvage, S.; Chevaillier, S.; Coddeville, P.; Ouboulmane, N.; di Sarra, A. G.; Tovar-Sánchez, A.; Sferlazzo, D.; Massanet, A.; Triquet, S.; Morales Baquero, R.; Fornier, M.; Coursier, C.; Desboeufs, K.; Dulac, F.; Bergametti, G.

    2015-12-01

    , suggesting that the dust provenance, transport, and deposition processes (i.e. wet vs. dry) of dust are different and specific for the different deposition sites in the Mediterranean studied area. The results also show that wet deposition is the main way of deposition for mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin, but the contribution of dry deposition is far to be negligible, and contributes by 15 to 46 % to the major dust deposition events, depending on the sampling site.

  11. Dynamics of metallic contaminants at a basin scale--Spatial and temporal reconstruction from four sediment cores (Loire fluvial system, France).

    PubMed

    Dhivert, E; Grosbois, C; Courtin-Nomade, A; Bourrain, X; Desmet, M

    2016-01-15

    From the 19th century, the Loire basin (France) presents potentially pollutant activities such as mining and heavy industries. This paper shows spatio-temporal distribution of trace elements in sediments at a basin-scale, based on a comparison of archived temporal signals recorded in four sedimentary cores. Anthropogenic sources contributing to sediment contamination are also characterized, using geochemical signatures recorded in river bank sediments of the most industrialized tributaries. This study highlights upstream-downstream differences concerning recorded contamination phases in terms of spatial influence and temporality of archiving processes. Such differences were related to (i) various spatial influences of contamination sources and (ii) polluted sediments dispersion controlled by transport capacity of metal-carrier phases and hydrosedimentary dynamics. PMID:26490530

  12. Evaluation of a landscape evolution model to simulate stream piracies: Insights from multivariable numerical tests using the example of the Meuse basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaïchouche, Abed; Stab, Olivier; Tessier, Bruno; Cojan, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    In landscapes dominated by fluvial erosion, the landscape morphology is closely related to the hydrographic network system. In this paper, we investigate the hydrographic network reorganization caused by a headward piracy mechanism between two drainage basins in France, the Meuse and the Moselle. Several piracies occurred in the Meuse basin during the past one million years, and the basin's current characteristics are favorable to new piracies by the Moselle river network. This study evaluates the consequences over the next several million years of a relative lowering of the Moselle River (and thus of its basin) with respect to the Meuse River. The problem is addressed with a numerical modeling approach (landscape evolution model, hereafter LEM) that requires empirical determinations of parameters and threshold values. Classically, fitting of the parameters is based on analysis of the relationship between the slope and the drainage area and is conducted under the hypothesis of equilibrium. Application of this conventional approach to the capture issue yields incomplete results that have been consolidated by a parametric sensitivity analysis. The LEM equations give a six-dimensional parameter space that was explored with over 15,000 simulations using the landscape evolution model GOLEM. The results demonstrate that stream piracies occur in only four locations in the studied reach near the city of Toul. The locations are mainly controlled by the local topography and are model-independent. Nevertheless, the chronology of the captures depends on two parameters: the river concavity (given by the fluvial advection equation) and the hillslope erosion factor. Thus, the simulations lead to three different scenarios that are explained by a phenomenon of exclusion or a string of events.

  13. The Cenozoic history of the Armorican Massif: New insights from the deep CDB1 borehole (Rennes Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Hugues; Bessin, Paul; Saint-Marc, Pierre; Châteauneuf, Jean-Jacques; Bourdillon, Chantal; Wyns, Robert; Guillocheau, François

    2016-05-01

    Borehole CDB1 (675.05 m) crosses the deepest Cenozoic sedimentary basin of the Armorican Massif, the Rennes Basin, to reach the underlying basement at a depth of 404.92 m, made up of the Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian Brioverian Group, weathered down to 520 m depth. The basin's Cenozoic deposits are divided into seven formations, ranging from Early-Middle Bartonian to Late Pliocene in age. Coastal sediments at the very base, along with a thick Priabonian lacustrine episode, imply a major revision of the regional palaeogeography, whilst a very steady and low-energy lacustrine-palustrine environment throughout the Priabonian and Early Rupelian argue for an aggradational system associated with uniform subsidence. Palynological assemblages attest to environmental and climatic changes through the Eocene and Early Oligocene, in accordance with regional and global trends (Eocene-Oligocene Transition).

  14. Mapping of a buried basement combining aeromagnetic, gravity and petrophysical data: The substratum of southwest Paris Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptiste, Julien; Martelet, Guillaume; Faure, Michel; Beccaletto, Laurent; Reninger, Pierre-Alexandre; Perrin, José; Chen, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Aeromagnetic and gravity data have proven to be among the most effective methods for mapping deeply buried basin/basement interfaces. However, the data interpretation generally suffers from ambiguities, due to the non-uniqueness of the gravity and magnetic signatures. Here, we tie the gravity and magnetic signatures with a petrophysical characterization of the lithologies outcropping around the French Paris Basin. Our methodology investigates the lithology and structure of its hidden Variscan substratum at the junction between the Armorican Massif and Massif Central. Our approach is based on the combination of potential field data, magnetic susceptibilities measured in the field, density values of sample rocks and information documented in boreholes, in order to propose a new interpretative geological map of the buried substratum of the Paris Basin. The petrophysical description is combined with geophysical patterns of the substratum, mapped through statistical unsupervised classification of suitably selected magnetic and gravity maps. The first step of interpretation consists in extending the outcropping major structures below the Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary cover of the Paris Basin. The litho-structural units, in between these major structures, are then interpreted separately. The second step consists in assigning lithologies within each unit, with respect to its magnetization and density (as derived from the petrophysical compilation), and mapping its extension under cover, integrating punctual borehole information. Overall, with a special emphasis on relating geophysical signatures and petrophysical characteristics of litho-structural units, this methodology permits a precise structural and lithological cartography of a segment of the buried Variscan substratum. In the southwestern part of the Paris Basin, this approach reveals: i) the limited eastward extension of Central Brittany, ii) the eastward extension of the major Cholet fault, iii) the emphasis on N150E

  15. Climatic precession is the main driver of Early Cretaceous sedimentation in the Vocontian Basin (France): Evidence from the Valanginian Orpierre succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulila, Slah; Charbonnier, Guillaume; Galbrun, Bruno; Gardin, Silvia

    2015-07-01

    The Valanginian sediments outcropping in the Vocontian Basin (SE France) exhibit striking marl-limestone alternations, which were formed under the influence of orbital forcing and which have served for geochronological and paleoenvironmental studies. Previous studies have suggested an obliquity forcing during the Late Valanginian interval, reflecting specific environmental conditions such as polar ice. Using a cyclostratigraphic correlation of previously studied sections and performing time-series analysis on the most complete Late Valanginian interval we argue that the climatic precession cycle is the primary driver of these marl-limestone alternations. In addition, we highlight the modulation of the precession by the ~ 100 and 405 kyr eccentricity cycles. We suggest that the cyclostratigraphic misinterpretation (i.e., obliquity-forcing hypothesis) results mainly from poorly preserved 405 kyr eccentricity cycles, due to local hiatuses and/or "missed beats". This study shows the potential of cyclostratigraphic correlations for the detection and quantification of differential hiatuses and/or "missed beats" within intrabasinal sequences, hence providing constraints on cyclostratigraphic interpretations. The recorded 405 kyr eccentricity cycle is of prominent amplitude, and controlled the fourth-order sea-level sequences. These latter are faithfully detected through cyclostratigraphically inferred sedimentation rate. Finally, we show that the well-known, pronounced lithostratigraphic markers/intervals in the basin were orbitally paced by the 405 kyr eccentricity extrema. This is a good argument for the strong impact of this cyclicity on the sedimentary processes, especially during greenhouse periods.

  16. Identification of spatial and temporal contributions of rainfalls to flash floods using neural network modelling: case study on the Lez Basin (Southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darras, T.; Borrell Estupina, V.; Kong-A-Siou, L.; Vayssade, B.; Johannet, A.; Pistre, S.

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods pose significant hazards in urbanised zones and have important human and financial implications in both the present and future due to the likelihood that global climate change will exacerbate their consequences. It is thus of crucial importance to better model these phenomena especially when they occur in heterogeneous and karst basins where they are difficult to describe physically. Toward this goal, this paper applies a recent methodology (KnoX methodology) dedicated to extracting knowledge from a neural network model to better determine the contributions and time responses of several well-identified geographic zones of an aquifer. To assess the interest of this methodology, a case study was conducted in Southern France: the Lez hydrosystem whose river crosses the conurbation of Montpellier (400 000 inhabitants). Rainfall contributions and time transfers were estimated and analysed in four geologically-delimited zones to estimate the sensitivity of flash floods to water coming from the surface or karst. The Causse de Viol-le-Fort is shown to be the main contributor to flash floods and the delay between surface and underground flooding is estimated to be three hours. This study will thus help operational flood warning services to better characterise critical rainfall and develop measurements to design efficient flood forecasting models. This generic method can be applied to any basin with sufficient rainfall-runoff measurements.

  17. Identification of spatial and temporal contributions of rainfalls to flash floods using neural network modelling: case study on the Lez basin (southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darras, T.; Borrell Estupina, V.; Kong-A-Siou, L.; Vayssade, B.; Johannet, A.; Pistre, S.

    2015-10-01

    Flash floods pose significant hazards in urbanised zones and have important implications financially and for humans alike in both the present and future due to the likelihood that global climate change will exacerbate their consequences. It is thus of crucial importance to improve the models of these phenomena especially when they occur in heterogeneous and karst basins where they are difficult to describe physically. Toward this goal, this paper applies a recent methodology (Knowledge eXtraction (KnoX) methodology) dedicated to extracting knowledge from a neural network model to better determine the contributions and time responses of several well-identified geographic zones of an aquifer. To assess the interest of this methodology, a case study was conducted in southern France: the Lez hydrosystem whose river crosses the conurbation of Montpellier (400 000 inhabitants). Rainfall contributions and time transfers were estimated and analysed in four geologically delimited zones to estimate the sensitivity of flash floods to water coming from the surface or karst. The Causse de Viols-le-Fort is shown to be the main contributor to flash floods and the delay between surface and underground flooding is estimated to be 3 h. This study will thus help operational flood warning services to better characterise critical rainfall and develop measurements to design efficient flood forecasting models. This generic method can be applied to any basin with sufficient rainfall-run-off measurements.

  18. A new interpretation of Stephanian deformation in the Decazeville basin (Massif Central, France): consequences on late Variscan tectonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, Christophe

    2006-09-01

    Five stages of faulting were observed in and around the Stephanian Decazeville basin, in the SW French Massif Central, at the southern edge of the Sillon houiller fault. The older stage ends during middle Stephanian time, and corresponds to a strike-slip regime with N-S shortening and E-W extension. Before the end of the middle Stephanian, three other stages were recorded: two strike-slip regimes with NW-SE, then E-W compression and NE-SW, then N-S extension; and finally a NNE-SSW extensional regime during the main subsidence of the basin from the end of the middle Stephanian to late Stephanian. Based on mining documents, a new interpretation of the N-S striking folds of the Decazeville basin is proposed. Folding may not be associated with E-W compression but with diapirism of coal seams along syn-sedimentary normal faults during the extensional phase. A last strike-slip regime with N-S compression and E-W extension may be related to Cainozoic Pyrenean orogeny. At a regional scale, it is suggested that from the end of the middle Stephanian to the late Stephanian, the main faults in the Decazeville basin may represent a horsetail splay structure at the southern termination of the Sillon houiller fault.

  19. Remanence of lead pollution in an urban river system: a multi-scale temporal and spatial study in the Seine River basin, France.

    PubMed

    Ayrault, S; Le Pape, P; Evrard, O; Priadi, C R; Quantin, C; Bonté, P; Roy-Barman, M

    2014-03-01

    Total lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic ratio ((206)Pb/(20)7Pb) were determined in 140 samples from the Seine River basin (France), covering a period of time from 1945 to 2011 and including bed sediments (bulk and size fractionated samples), suspended particulate matter (SPM), sediment cores, and combined sewer overflow (CSO) particulate matter to constrain the spatial and temporal variability of the lead sources at the scale of the contaminated Seine River basin. A focus on the Orge River subcatchment, which exhibits a contrasted land-use pattern, allows documenting the relation between hydrodynamics, urbanization, and contamination sources. The study reveals that the Pb contamination due to leaded gasoline that peaked in the 1980s has a very limited impact in the river nowadays. In the upstream Seine River, the isotopic ratio analysis suggests a pervasive contamination which origin (coal combustion and/or gasoline lead) should be clarified. The current SPM contamination trend follows the urbanization/industrialization spatial trend. Downstream of Paris, the lead from historical use originating from the Rio Tinto mine, Spain ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.1634 ± 0.0001) is the major Pb source. The analysis of the bed sediments (bulk and grain size fractionated) highlights the diversity of the anthropogenic lead sources in relation with the diversity of the human activities that occurred in this basin over the years. The "urban" source, defined by waste waters including the CSO samples ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.157 ± 0.003), results of a thorough mixing of leaded gasoline with "historical" lead over the years. Finally, a contamination mixing scheme related to hydrodynamics is proposed. PMID:24234814

  20. Extension of the Mid- to Lower Crust with Orogenic Inheritance: Examples from the Death Valley Region (Western US), and the Mauleon Basin (Southwestern France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, R. D.; Hayman, N. W.; Kelly, E. D.; Lavier, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    Continental margins exhibit a range of widths and symmetries defined by the strain patterns that arise during extension and rifting. An important pattern in this respect is the early localization of extension into necking zones. The rheology of the lower crust plays a large role in this localization, and can be affected by inherited orogenic structures, fabrics, and mineral assemblages. Here, we further evaluate the role of orogenic fabrics in continental extension using microstructural observations and thermodynamic modeling of geological sections exposed in the Funeral and Black Mountains of the Death Valley region, California, and from the Mauleon Basin, France. The Death Valley region sits within the Basin-and-Range region of broadly distributed Cenozoic extension, over a relatively flat and deep moho. In contrast, in the Mauleon basin, Cretaceous extension accommodated mantle exhumation, and was strongly localized in older Hercynian orogenic crust. In both areas, mid- to lower crustal rocks are characterized by inherited migmatitic fabrics overprinted by zones of localized, extensional fabrics. Mineral assemblages that formed over a P-T cooling path define the fabrics in each field area. The high-temperature fabrics record decompression-melting due to late- to post-orogenic collapse. Yet, the two field areas show contrasting retrograde assemblages, which are hypothesized to have resulted from changes in the local effective bulk composition produced by differences in melt segregation. At subsequent extensional stages, mid- to lower crustal deformation resulted in the transposition of the inherited post-orogenic fabrics, documented with quartz fabric analysis (including EBSD). The two contrasting regions show how the rheology of inherited orogenic lower crust responds to differences in melt-segregation and metamorphic histories, potentially controlling margin structural evolution.

  1. Drinking water supply and mineralized groundwaters in the Aquitaine Basin (SW France): hydrodynamic and geochemical processes of acquisition of the mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malcuit, E.; Atteia, O.; Franceschi, M.; Negrel, P. J.; Petelet-Giraud, E.

    2012-12-01

    One of the main resources for drinking water in the sedimentary Aquitaine Basin (SW France) is the Eocene aquifer including several geological layers, which have different lithological, mineralogical and hydrodynamic properties. In this aquifer, mostly confined, a large area has been identified with high salinity and with anomalous levels of critical elements, such as sulfates and fluorides. This led to difficulties for the resource exploitation for drinking water supply of the population. Since the 1900's, many boreholes in the area for drinking water supply have locally modified the natural water flows of the system. This work has allowed i) understanding the origin of the mineralization of the waters, geochemical and isotopic characterization of groundwaters showed a common origin of the mineralization in all the study area; ii) identifying exactly the location of the minerals bearing sulfates and fluorides (gypsum, fluorite) within the layer defined as the Eocene aquifer; iii) constraint the geochemical and hydrodynamic processes. Finally, it allows defining and improving for the way for a sustainable management for drinking water resource in South-West of France. To understand the acquisition of the groundwaters' geochemistry, it is necessary to consider the lateral and vertical variations in facies and mineralogy, geochemical processes (mineral dissolution and/or precipitation, phenomenon of diffusion in contact with low permeability and mineralized layers) and local fluid mixing processes within the borehole and its immediate surroundings. Our investigation also showed the need for a precise and detailed knowledge of the vertical distribution of the hydrodynamic and geochemical properties of each layer. Indeed, the average concentration in the borehole water depends on the 10-3 to 1 meter scale variation of water fluxes and concentrations. Geochemical models, presented here, fully explain the composition of groundwaters across the study area and improve the

  2. Capability of ERTS-1 imagery to investigate geological and structural features in a sedimentary basin (Bassin Parisien, France)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavelier, C.; Scanvic, J. Y.; Weecksteen, G.; Zizerman, A.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study of the MSS imagery of a sedimentary basin whose structure is regular is reported. Crops and natural vegetation are distributed all over the site located under temperate climate. Ground data available concern plant species geology and tectonic and are correlated with results from ERTS 1 imagery. This comparison shows a good correlation. The main geological units are detected or enhanced by way of agricultural land use and/or natural vegetation. Alluvial deposits are outlined by vegetation grass land and poplar trees. Some spatial relationship of geostructures, suspected until now, are identified or extended in associating results from different spectral bands.

  3. Zinc mobility in an infiltration basin (Lyon city, France): constraints from Zn stable isotope ratios in the plant and sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queyron, M.; Aucour, A.-M.; Pichat, S.; Saulais, M.; Bedell, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Infiltration basins are stormwater management techniques that are widely used. The settling of stormwater particles leads to a contaminated sediment layer. Wild plants can colonize these basins. They can play a role on the fate of heavy metals either directly by uptake or indirectly by modifying the forms of the metal in the sediment. Plant interactions with metals depend on a large number of factors, including the type of metal, the plant species and plant's growth stage. Moreover, during the dormant period of each year, the shoots die back. The resulting dead matter is returned to the basin substrate where it gradually decomposes through a combination of leaching and biological action that implicates a complete cycle for metal mobility. In order to model the metal cycle in the system, we consider the plant root, aerial part, litter deposits, sediments as the main Zn pools. The aim of this study is to assess the Zn mobility between these pools. The Zn concentration and isotope ratios were analyzed in the different Zn pools for two dominant species of the studied infiltration basin (Phalaris arundinaceae, Typha latifolia) and for a complete biological cycle from spring to winter. Zn stable isotopes are expected to fractionate with plant uptake and translocation and thus can help to assess the effect of the plant biochemical processes on Zn mobility. Whilst the sediments (1100-1400 ppm Zn DW) and litter (600 ppm) are highly concentrated in Zn, the plant aerial parts (100-250 ppm) are less concentrated than the roots (200-400 ppm). The ^66Zn significantly differ between the sediment (0.15 to 0.19‰) and aerial parts of the plants (-0.03 to -0.08‰) hence confirming the occurrence of depletion in heavy isotopes with plant uptake and translocation to shoot. The ^66Zn of roots fall close to the sediment. The roots show a small depletion in heavy isotopes between mid-summer (0.18‰) and winter (0.27‰). This observation and the fact that the litter is enriched in

  4. The metallic contamination of the Loire River Basin (France): Spatial and temporal evolution with a multi-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhivert, Elie; Grosbois, Cécile; Desmet, Marc; Curie, Florence; Moatar, Florentina; Meybeck, Michel; Bourrain, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Since the early 19th century, important agricultural, mining and industrial development has been active in Western Europe. The Loire River Basin (117,800 km2, total population of 8.4 Mp) presents a long history of human pressures, reflecting temporal evolution of technological and urban activities (Grosbois et al, 2012). Hence, sediments of the Loire River and its tributaries have recorded partially and/or totally organic, nutrients and trace element contamination. Nowadays, can we determine history of metallic emissions in sediment records and what is the part of these past inputs relative to the actual contamination? Can we point out historical sources of contamination? To answer these questions, two approaches were used in this study. Firstly, in four coring sites in the Loire River Basin, a temporal re-enacting of metallic contamination trapped in sediments was carried out. Based on age-model and inter-element correlations in each core, trace element signals were deconvoluted and compared to actual and specific chemical signatures of anthropogenic inputs (300 bed sediment samples collected downstream of former and current industrial sites like mines, smelters, planting/coating plants, glassware and car industries, metal recycling plants and waste water treatment plants). The second approach was at a larger basin scale, comparing location of these former and actual contamination sources with explanatory factors such as geology, evolution of population density, of industrial activities and of land use. This was done in the main stream of the Loire River and its major tributaries and locally at a smaller scale (0-500 km²). All these approaches emphasized three temporal periods of metallic contamination: (i) the first period begins with the 20th century until 1950, it corresponds to the first increase of major contaminants like Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn; some trace elements like Hg and Sn seem to be present in the Loire sediments much earlier as they

  5. Impacts of Climate Change and of Anthropisation on Water Resources: from the Risk Assessment to Adaptation, the Case of the Seine Basin (including Paris, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habets, F.; Viennot, P.; Thierion, C.; Vergnes, J. P.; Ait Kaci, A.; Caballero, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Seine river, located in the temperate climate of northern France and flowing over a large sedimentary basins that hosts multilayer aquifers, is characterized by small temporal variations of its discharge. However, the presence of a megacity (Paris) and a wide area of intensive agriculture combined with climate change puts pressure on the water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. Previous research projects have estimated the impact of climate change on the water resource of the Seine basin, with the uncertainties associated to climate projections, hydrological models or downscaling methods. The water resource was projected to decrease by -14 % ± 10 % in 2050 and -28 +/-16% in 2100. This led to new studies that focus on the combined impact of climate change and adaptations. The tested adaptations are: a reduction of the groundwater abstractions, evolution of land use, development of small dams to « harvest water » or artificial recharge of aquifers. The communication of the results of these projects to stakeholders have led to the development on new indicators that better express the risk on the water resource management, especially for the groundwater. For instance maps of the evolution of piezometric head are difficult to interpret. To better express the risk evolution, a new indicator was defined: the evolution of the groundwater crisis duration, ie, the period when the charge of the aquifer is below the crisis piezometric level defined by the stakeholders. Such crisis piezometric levels are used to help defining the period when the groundwater abstraction should be reduced. Such maps are more efficient to communicate with water resources managers. This communication will focus on the results from the MEDDE Explore 2070 and ANR Oracle projects.

  6. 3D geomodelling combining implicit surfaces and Voronoi-based remeshing: A case study in the Lorraine Coal Basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collon, Pauline; Steckiewicz-Laurent, Wendy; Pellerin, Jeanne; Laurent, Gautier; Caumon, Guillaume; Reichart, Guillaume; Vaute, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how recent geomodelling techniques can be combined and used to build a 3D geological model on a real case study: the former coal mine of Merlebach (France), that is targeted to be exploited for low-temperature geothermal energy production. From geological maps, cross-sections, borehole and mine exploitation data, we build a 3D model in which are identified the rocks and infrastructures having significantly different permeabilities. First, a structural model of the main geological interfaces in our area of interest (2 horizons and 13 faults) is built with classical geomodelling techniques. Then, we propose to model by surfaces the 71 irregularly stacked, very close and very thin, sub-vertical coal beds. To ease their construction, we use an implicit method which represents 3D surfaces as isovalues of a scalar field defined in a 3D tetrahedral grid of the area. The corresponding triangulated surfaces are remeshed with a recently proposed method based on Voronoi diagrams so that the exploited parts of the coal beds, now filled by sand, can be computed. The 3D surface-based geological model, in which infrastructures can be inserted as piecewise lines, can be volumetrically meshed. It is available for download as supplemental material, as well as a volumetric grid.

  7. Geology and recognition criteria for uraniferous humate deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.S.; Saucier, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The geology of the uraniferous humate uranium deposits of the Grants Uranium Region, northwestern New Mexico, is summarized. The most important conclusions of this study are enumerated. Although the geologic characteristics of the uraniferous humate deposits of the Grants Uranium Region are obviously not common in the world, neither are they bizarre or coincidental. The source of the uranium in the deposits of the Grants Uranium Region is not known with certainty. The depositional environment of the host sediments was apparently the mid and distal portions of a wet alluvial fan system. The influence of structural control on the location and accumulation of the host sediments is now supported by considerable data. The host sediments possess numerous important characteristics which influenced the formation of uraniferous humate deposits. Ilmenite-magnetite distribution within potential host sandstones is believed to be the simplest and most useful regional alteration pattern related to this type of uranium deposit. A method is presented for organizing geologic observations into what is referred to as recognition criteria. The potential of the United States for new districts similar to the Grants Uranium Region is judged to be low based upon presently available geologic information. Continuing studies on uraniferous humate deposits are desirable in three particular areas.

  8. The Robinson and Weatherly uraniferous pyrobitumen deposits near Placerville, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilmarth, V.R.; Vickers, R.C.

    1952-01-01

    Uranium deposits that contain uraniferous pyrobitumen of possible hydrothermal origin occur at the Weatherly and Robinson properties near Placerville, San Miguel County, Colo. These deposits were mined for copper, silver, and gold more than 50 years ago and were developed for uranium in 1950.

  9. Pre- and syn-ore zonation in Precambrian uraniferous sodic metasomatities

    SciTech Connect

    Omel'yanenko, B.I.; Mineyeva, I.G.

    1982-04-01

    Uraniferous-sodic metasomatites in Precambrian basement faults, in which a regular change in the mineral composition in vertical section has been established are described. The authors attempt to show that this pattern is controlled by the evolution of the solutions in time and space, and that it is an expression of a verticle metasomatic zonation. (JMT)

  10. Tracing the origin of water and solute transfers in deep groundwater from Oxfordian, Dogger and Trias formations in the east of the Paris Basin - France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebeix, Romain; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Verdoux, Patrick; Noret, Aurélie; Monvoisin, Gael; Gianesinni, Sophie; Lancelot, Joël; Simler, Roland

    In order to assess the feasibility for long lived radioactive wastes storage facilities in deep geological formation, solute transport processes must be investigated in the vicinity of the host formation. In France, the Oxfordian and Dogger limestone layers surrounding the Callovo-Oxfordian (CO x) argillite in the east of the Paris Basin are investigated for this purpose. More than 60 samples of Oxfordian and Dogger formation groundwater and one sample of Triassic formation groundwater, located at the bottom section of the investigated sedimentary cover, were collected over a 250 km 2 area, and were analysed for major ions, δ 18O and δ 2H of water, 87Sr/ 86Sr, and δ 34S and δ 18O of dissolved sulphate. Oxfordian and Dogger formation water is from meteoric origin, and no direct water flow between Oxfordian, Dogger, nor Triassic formations was evidenced. Mineralization processes of the Dogger limestone groundwater were fully investigated. These processes correspond to a series of geochemical reactions including: calcite dissolution, incongruent dissolution of dolomite, ion addition from upward vertical diffusion through the sedimentary pile inducing cation exchange and further dissolution due to the increased ionic strength of the solutions. A PHREEQC model was developed to simulate inferred chemical processes. The model output is consistent with observed data.

  11. Headwater valley response to climate and land use changes during the Little Ice Age in the Massif Central (Yzeron basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delile, Hugo; Schmitt, Laurent; Jacob-Rousseau, Nicolas; Grosprêtre, Loïc; Privolt, Grégoire; Preusser, Frank

    2016-03-01

    The geomorphological response of valley bottoms in eastern France to climatic fluctuations of the Little Ice Age (LIA) was investigated using sedimentological analysis together with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon dating. Diachronic mapping of land use since the beginning of the nineteenth century was also carried out. Since A.D. 1500, the valley bottoms experienced three cycles of aggradation and subsequent incision, each characterized by paired periods of high and low detritic activity. While the impact of human activity on the aggradation of the alluvial plain is observed, the vertical dynamics of the valley bottom deposits seemingly were also linked to the hydroclimatic fluctuations during the LIA. The sensitivity to these fluctuations was increased by human activity at the scale of the basin. Variations of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and solar activity from the last five centuries correlate with wet and cold phases during which valley bottoms accumulated, and dry and warm phases during which the streams incised into the valley floors. This fluvial sensitivity to the meteorological conditions induced temporal variations in sedimentary supply originating from either direct input from remnants of periglacial alluvial sheets or local rocky outcrops and/or from indirect input from the erosion of alluvial and colluvial deposits. These two components, combined with the sheet runoff over the ploughlands, express the complex coupling between hillslopes and valley bottoms in the headwater catchments. This caused a cascade-shaped transit of the sediments characterized by alternating phases of storage and removal.

  12. Impact of erosion and transfer processes in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contamination of water bodies in the Seine River basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) reach problematic concentrations in water and sediment of numerous streams of the world. In the Seine River (France), they prevent to achieve the good chemical status enforced by European law. However, the provenance and the fate of PAHs found in rivers are still poorly understood. Here, we combined chemical and fallout radionuclide measurements conducted on a large number of suspended sediment (SS) (n = 231) and soil (n = 37) samples collected at 62 sites during an entire hydrological year. A model was developed to estimate mean PAH concentration in sediment from the population density in the drainage area and good relationships were found during both low stage and flood periods. Influence of human population also appeared to be stronger during the latter period. However, some discrepancies between measured and modeled PAH concentrations were observed and the role of the origin of SS was investigated. During the low flow period, the observed differences were explained by the provenance of river sediment (agricultural topsoil vs. eroded channel banks). Time-averaged PAH concentrations measured in suspended sediment collected in the catchments where erosion of agricultural topsoil dominated were systematically higher than the predicted values. On the contrary, in the catchments where erosion mainly occurred in deep soil or river embankment, the supply of particles protected from atmospheric fallout contamination led to measure concentrations below the predicted values. As this relationship between population density and SS contamination was no longer valid during the flood period, the role of transfer times was also investigated. The percentages of freshly eroded sediment in samples were determined by comparing the 7Be/210Pb ratio in rainfall and SS. An annual turn-over cycle of sediment was observed but no relationship was found between PAH contamination and residence times of particles within rivers. This result suggested

  13. Fate of arsenic-bearing phases during the suspended transport in a gold mining district (Isle river Basin, France).

    PubMed

    Grosbois, C; Courtin-Nomade, A; Robin, E; Bril, H; Tamura, N; Schäfer, J; Blanc, G

    2011-11-01

    Arsenic-rich (~140-1520 mg x kg(-1)) suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected daily with an automatic sampler in the Upper Isle River (France) draining a former gold mining district in order to better understand the fate of arsenic during the suspended transport (particles smaller than 50 μm). Various techniques at a micrometric scale (EPMA, quantitative SEM-EDS with an automated particle counting including classification system and μXRD) were used to directly characterize As-bearing phases. The most frequent ones were aggregates of fine clay particles. Their mineralogy varied with particle sources involved. These aggregates were formed by chlorite-phlogopite-kaolinite assemblages during the high flow and chlorite-illite-montmorillonite during the low flow. Among all the observed As-carriers in SPM, these clay assemblages were the least As-rich (0.10 up to 1.58 wt.% As) and their median As concentrations suggested that they were less concentrated during the high flow than during the low flow. Iron oxyhydroxides were evidenced by μXRD in these clay aggregates, either as micro- to nano-sized particles and/or as coating. (Mn, Fe)oxyhydroxides were also present as discrete particles. Manganese oxides (0.14-1.26 wt.% As) transport significantly more arsenic during the low flow than during the high flow (0.16-0.79 wt.% As). The occurrence of Fe oxyhydroxide particles appeared more complex. During the low flow, observations on banks and in wetlands of freshly precipitated Fe hydroxides (ferrihydrite-type) presented the highest As concentrations (up to 6.5 wt.% As) but they were barely detected in SPM at a microscale. During the high flow, As-rich Fe-oxyhydroxides (0.10-2.80 wt.% As) were more frequent, reflecting mechanical erosion and transport when the surface water level increased. Arsenic transfers from SPM to corresponding aqueous fraction mostly depend on As-carrier stability. This study shows the temporal occurrence of each type of As-bearing phases in

  14. Molecular and bulk isotopic analyses of organic matter in marls of the Mulhouse Basin (Tertiary, Alsace, France)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollander, D. J.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; Hayes, J. M.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Huc, A. Y.

    1993-01-01

    Contents of 13C in kerogens and carbonates in 21 samples from a core of the MAX borehole, Mulhouse Evaporite Basin, range from -27.3 to -23.5 and -3.7 to -1.8% vs PDB, respectively. Organic nitrogen in the same samples is enriched in 15N relative to atmospheric N2 by 12.2-15.7%. Hydrogen indices and delta values for kerogens vary systematically with facies, averaging 493 mg HC/g Corg and -25.7% in the most saline facies (dominated by inputs from aquatic sources) and 267 mg HC/g Corg and -23.7% in the least saline facies (50/50 aquatic/terrigenous). Values of delta were measured for individual aliphatic hydrocarbons from three samples representing three different organic facies. For all samples, terrigenous inputs were unusually rich in 13C, the estimated delta value for bulk terrigenous debris, apparently derived partly from CAM plants, being -22.5%. In the most saline facies, isotopic evidence indicates the mixing of 13C-depleted products of photosynthetic bacteria with 13C-enriched products of halotolerant eukaryotic algae. At lower salinities, a change in the producer community is marked by a decrease in the 13C content of algal lipids. The content of 13C in algal lipids increases in the least saline facies, due either to succession of different organisms or to decreased concentrations of dissolved CO2.

  15. Borehole magnetostratigraphy, absolute age dating, and correlation of sedimentary rocks, with examples from the Paris Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Bouisset, P.M. ); Augustin, A.M. )

    1993-04-01

    Total and CEA have conceived and developed two new logging tools which allow continuous, precise, and accurate in-situ magnetic measurements within weakly magnetized sedimentary rocks encountered in uncased industry drilled wells. The combination of these magnetic measurements permits for the first time continuous determination of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) polarities occurring in the logged section. The resulting well magnetostratigraphic sequence (WMS) which may be recognized from well to well (magnetostratigraphic correlations), may also be correlative to a geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) of reference magnetostratigraphic scale (RMS), given adequate dating tie points and lack of noticeable remagnetizations. Application of this method to the Upper Jurrasic formation in four wells of the Paris basin has yielded promising results for both stratigraphic and near absolute age correlations as well as determination of facies diachronisms. The comparison of results obtained from magnetic measurements and from sequence stratigraphy analysis shows that third-order sequence boundaries may be correlative to geomagnetic reversals, but may also be diachronous in wells 80 km or less apart. The potential of borehole magnetic measurements as presented in this paper is still under investigation. However, these encouraging initial results show that this new investigating and dating method could be of great help in the analysis of subsurface stratigraphy by extending the concepts of magnetostratigraphy from the outcrops and laboratory directly into borehole logging. 81 refs., 18 figs.

  16. Palaeozoic clay mineral sedimentation and diagenesis in the Dinant and Avesnes Basins (Belgium, France): relationships with Variscan tectonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, G.; Preat, A.; Chamley, H.; Deconinck, J.-F.; Mansy, J.-L.

    2000-11-01

    Clay mineral investigations have been performed on more than 500 limestones and shales sampled in Lower Devonian (Emsian) to Lower Carboniferous (Namurian) outcrops in the Dinant and Avesnes Basins (Ardenne Massif, NW Europe). Clay mineral data have been placed in the palaeoenvironmental and structural histories documented by previous lithological, stratigraphical, palaeontological, diagenetic and tectonic contexts. The clay associations are dominated by illite and chlorite derived partly from the erosion of land masses surrounding the marine domain. The geothermal gradient estimated from correlation with conodont colour alteration index ranges between 40 and 70°C/km. A diachronous northwards migration of the diagenesis/metamorphism interface links to uplift caused by Late Carboniferous compressional folding and overthrusting. Associated clay minerals include smectite, locally preserved from diagenetic changes mainly by early pore closure, that reflect lagoonal or quiet offshore marine conditions. Smectite and subordinate kaolinite abundances decrease upwards during the Devonian in three successive intervals suggesting alternations of sub-arid to drier climates. The local occurrence of corrensite (ordered chlorite-smectite mixed-layer) is attributed to the moderate diagenetic transformation of pre-existing smectite

  17. Application of strontium isotope measurements to trace sediment sources in an upstream agricultural catchment (Loire River basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Thil, François; Foucher, Anthony; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is recognized as one of the main processes of land degradation in agricultural areas. It accelerates the supply of sediment to the rivers and degrades water quality. To limit those impacts and optimize management programs in such areas, sources of sediment need to be identified and sediment transport to be controlled. Here, we determined the sources of suspended sediment in the Louroux (24 km², French Loire River basin), a small catchment representative of lowland cultivated environments of Northwestern Europe. In this catchment, channels have been reshaped and 220 tile drain outlets have been installed over the last several decades. As a result, soil erosion and sediment fluxes have increased drastically. The variation of 87Sr/86Sr ratios, driven by the weathering of rocks with different ages and chemical composition, may reflect the mixing of different sediment sources. Strontium isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr) were therefore determined in potential soil sources, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and a sediment core sampled in the Louroux Pond at the catchment outlet. Soil, SPM and core samples displayed significantly different isotopic signatures. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in soil samples varied from 0.712763 to 0.724631 ± 0.000017 (2σ, n=20). Highest values were observed in silicic parts of the catchment whereas the lower values were identified in a calcareous area close to the Louroux Pond. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in SPM (0.713660 to 0.725749 ± 0.000017, 2σ, n=20) plotted between the soil and sediment core (0.712255 to 0.716415 ± 0.000017, 2σ, n=12), suggesting the presence of particles originating from at least two different lithological sources, i.e. silicic rocks and carbonate material. Variations in 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the outlet core sample were used to reconstruct the sedimentary dynamics in the catchment during the last decades. These results will guide the future implementation of appropriate management practices aiming to reduce erosion in upstream

  18. No evidence for anoxia during the Valanginian carbon isotope event—An organic-geochemical study from the Vocontian Basin, SE France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujau, Ariane; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Ostertag-Henning, Christian; Gréselle, Benjamin; Mutterlose, Jörg

    2012-07-01

    The Valanginian time interval (Early Cretaceous) is characterized by a positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) which represents the first of several prominent Cretaceous δ13C anomalies. A combined chemostratigraphic and organic-geochemical approach has been chosen to investigate the composition and distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) deposited before the Valanginian CIE, during its onset and plateau-phase. This was done to test whether this CIE is accompanied by changes in marine primary production and/or OM preservation. Biostratigraphically well-calibrated deposits from two hemipelagic sections located in the Vocontian Basin of SE France are used as sedimentary archives. A newly established high-resolution δ13C record covering the composite succession shows a characteristic Valanginian pattern and enables a detailed correlation with existing carbon isotope curves from the northern Tethyan margin. The analyzed solvent extractable fraction of the sedimentary OM is mainly composed of a marine origin with an admixture of land plant material. Variations in specific biomarkers for cyanobacteria (2α-methyl-hopanes), dinoflagellates (dinosterane or 4-desmethyl-23,24-dimethyl steranes) and terrigenous plant-derived OM (odd-numbered long-chain n-alkanes) as well as the sterane/hopane ratio, the C35 hopane index and the isoprenoids pristane and phytane were investigated. In contrast to the well-studied mid-Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs), neither significant OM enrichment nor prominent fluctuations in the selected biomarker abundances can be observed during the build-up phase of the Valanginian CIE. This points to relatively stable marine paleoenvironmental conditions with well-oxygenated bottom waters. Prior to the CIE, four cm-thick, finely laminated, dark layers (known as Barrande layers) with total organic carbon content reaching up to 4% show an exception from the generally stable biomarker pattern. Sedimentological and biomarker evidence support

  19. Control of tectonic setting and large-scale faults on the basin-scale distribution of deformation bands in porous sandstone (Provence, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballas, G.; Soliva, R.; Benedicto, A.; Sizun, J.

    2013-12-01

    From outcrops located in Provence (South-East France), we describe the distribution, the microstructures, and the petrophysical properties of deformation bands networks related to different tectonic events. In contractional setting, pervasively distributed networks of reverse-sense compactional-shear bands are observed in all the folded-sand units of the foreland, whereas localized networks of clustered reverse-sense shear bands are only observed close to a large-scale thrust. In extensional setting, networks of clustered normal-sense shear bands are generally observed adjacent to large-scale faults, although few and randomly distributed bands are also observed between these faults. Normal-sense cataclastic faults are also observed restricted to sand units, suggesting that faults can initiate in the sands in extension, which is not observed in contraction. Shear bands and faults show cataclastic microstructures of low-permeability whereas compactional-shear bands show crush microbreccia or protocataclastic microstructures of moderate permeability. This basin-scale analysis underlines the major role of tectonic settings (thrust-fault versus normal-fault andersonian-stress regime) and the influence of inherited large-scale faults on the formation of low-permeability shear bands. We also provide a geometrical analysis of the band network properties (spacing, thickness, shear/compaction ratio, degree of cataclasis, petrophysical properties) with respect to the host sand granulometry. This analysis suggests that granulometry, although less important than tectonic setting and the presence of large-scale faults, has however a non-negligible effect on the band networks geometry.

  20. Impact of climate on the evolution of carbonate systems during the Middle and Late Jurassic : (Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigaud, Benjamin; Vincent, Benoît

    2013-04-01

    Reconstructions of the Middle and Late Jurassic Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) of western tethyan ocean display short-term changes (0.5 m.y. to 1 m.y.). Recent shallow-marine carbonate systems are potentially very sensitive to climatic variations, as shown during quaternary period (Deschamps et al., 2012). In contrast, in ancient sedimentary systems, the impact of palaeoclimatic variations on carbonate factories is not easy to identify because of interplay between different controlling factors such as eustasy, tectonic, the variety of carbonate producers, and sediment supply. The objective of this study is to propose a detailed facies and stratigraphic framework (at the resolution of a million years) for the Middle and Late Jurassic carbonates (about 30My) of the Paris Basin in order to compare the evolution of the carbonate systems with palaeoclimatic variations, recently well documented for the Jurassic of the western European domain (Dera et al., 2011). The microfacies study display 18 lithofacies that can be merged into seven facies associations along a carbonate ramp. Late Bajocian is marked by the appearance of carbonate facies with scleractinian corals forming lens-shaped bodies and dome-shaped bioherms buildups reaching 10 m thick and 10-20 m lateral extent. Associated to a sea-level fall, an increase of SST seems to favor the development of these corallian buildups. Protected lagoonal environments extend during the Bathonian and are characterized by mioliolid-rich micritic facies. A 2nd order sea-level rise, flooding the Middle Jurassic carbonate ramp system, is followed by a brief drop in SST, suggesting a link between the demise of shallow-marine carbonate factories and the cooling event at the Callovian/Oxfordian transition. The recovery of carbonate production and the location of the carbonate platform during the Oxfordian is controlled by three factors: (1) the geometry of the stratigraphic architecture of thick clay-rich prograding wedges, (2) a 2nd

  1. Petroleum statistics in France

    SciTech Connect

    De Saint Germain, H.; Lamiraux, C.

    1995-08-01

    33 oil companies, including Elf, Exxon, Agip, Conoco as well as Coparex, Enron, Hadson, Midland, Hunt, Canyon and Union Texas are present in oil and gas exploration and production in France. The production of oil and gas in France amounts to some 60,000 bopd of oil and 350 MMcfpd of marketed natural gas each year, which still accounts for 3.5% and 10% for French domestic needs, respectively. To date, 166 fields have been discovered, representing a total reserve of 3 billion bbl of crude oil and 13 trillion cf of raw gas. These fields are concentrated in two major onshore sedimentary basins of Mesozoic age, which are the Aquitaine basin and the Paris basin. The Aquitaine basin should be subdivided into two distinct domains: The Parentis basin where the largest field Parentis was discovered in 1954 with still production of about 3700 bopd of oil and where Les Arbouslers field, discovered at the end of 1991, is currently producing about 10,000 bopd of oil. The northern Pyrenees and their foreland, where the Lacq field, discovered in 1951, has produced about 7.7 tcf of gas since 1957, and is still producing 138 MMcfpd. In the Paris basin, the two large oil fields are Villeperclue discovered in 1982 by Triton and Total, and Chaunoy, discovered in 1983 by Essorep, which are still producing about 10,000 and 15,000 bopd, respectively. The last significantly sized discovery occurred in 1990 with Itteville by Elf Aquitaine which is currently producing 4,200 bopd. The poster shows statistical data related to the past 20 years of oil and gas exploration and production in France.

  2. Uraniferous opal, Virgin Valley, Nevada: conditions of formation and implications for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Uraniferous, fluorescent opal, which occurs in tuffaceous sedimentary rocks at Virgin Valley, Nevada, records the temperature and composition of uranium-rich solutions as well as the time of uranium-silica coprecipitation. Results are integrated with previous geologic and geochronologic data for the area to produce a model for uranium mobility that may be used to explore for uranium deposits in similar geologic settings. Uraniferous opal occurs as replacements of diatomite, or silicic air-fall ash layers in tuffaceous lakebeds of the Virgin Valley Formation (Miocene) of Merriam (1907). Fission-track radiography shows uranium to be homogeneously dispersed throughout the opal structure, suggesting coprecipitation of dissolved uranium and silica gel. Fluid inclusions preserved within opal replacements of diatomite have homogenization temperatures in the epithermal range and are of low salinity. Four samples of opal from one locality all have U-Pb apparent ages which suggest uraniferous opal precipitation in late Pliocene time. These ages correspond to a period of local, normal faulting, and highangle faults may have served as vertical conduits for transport of deep, thermalized ground water to shallower levels. Lateral migration of rising solutions occurred at intersections of faults with permeable strata. Silica and some uranium were dissolved from silica-rich host strata of 5-20 ppm original uranium content and reprecipitated as the solutions cooled. The model predicts that in similar geologic settings, ore-grade concentrations of uranium will occur in permeable strata that intersect high-angle faults and that contain uranium source rocks as well as efficient reductant traps for uranium. In the absence of sufficient quantities of reductant materials, uranium will be flushed from the system or will accumulate in low-grade disseminated hosts such as uraniferous opal. ?? 1982.

  3. Hydro-economic optimization model for selecting least cost programs of measures at the river basin scale. Application to the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive on the Orb river basin (France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, C.; Rinaudo, J. D.; Caballero, Y.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.

    2012-04-01

    This article presents a case study which illustrates how an integrated hydro-economic model can be applied to optimize a program of measures (PoM) at the river basin level. By allowing the integration of hydrological, environmental and economic aspects at a local scale, this model is indeed useful to assist water policy decision making processes. The model identifies the least cost PoM to satisfy the predicted 2030 urban and agricultural water demands while meeting the in-stream flow constraints. The PoM mainly consists of water saving and conservation measures at the different demands. It includes as well some measures mobilizing additional water resources coming from groundwater, inter-basin transfers and improvement in reservoir operating rules. The flow constraints are defined to ensure a good status of the surface water bodies, as defined by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). The case study is conducted in the Orb river basin, a coastal basin in Southern France. It faces a significant population growth, changes in agricultural patterns and limited water resources. It is classified at risk of not meeting the good status by 2015. Urban demand is calculated by type of water users at municipality level in 2006 and projected to 2030 with user specific scenarios. Agricultural water demand is estimated at irrigation district (canton) level in 2000 and projected to 2030 under three agricultural development scenarios. The total annual cost of each measure has been calculated taken into account operation and maintenance costs as well as investment cost. A first optimization model was developed using GAMS, General Algebraic Modeling System, applying Mixed Integer Linear Programming. The optimization is run to select the set of measures that minimizes the objective function, defined as the total cost of the applied measures, while meeting the demands and environmental constraints (minimum in-stream flows) for the 2030 time horizon. The first result is an optimized Po

  4. France`s nuclear dilemmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Ignoring worldwide protests, France conducted the first of several scheduled nuclear tests in September. The controversy has overshadowed France`s more important nuclear challenges: maintaining a strong deterrent under a test ban, moving ahead with its proposals for {open_quotes}Europeanization{close_quotes} of that deterrent, and developing a consensus on how nuclear threats should be used in response to those who would brandish other weapons of mass destruction. 1 fig.

  5. Insights on the injection mechanisms inferred from AMS fabrics of sand injectites in a turbiditic system, the exemple of Bevon area of the SE Basin (France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robion, Philippe; Mehl, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    We propose to investigate the set up mechanisms of sands injection in the case of dykes injected in host marls of Aptian-Albian age in the Vocontian basin (SE France). Several models have been proposed for a downward injection of the dyke in the Bevons area and we guess that AMS fabric investigations can be used to infer the flow direction. 144 drill cores distributed on 14 sites were sampled, among which 8 sites in the injectites and 6 sites in the host rocks. The studied dykes are generally of a few decimeters thick and are setting up in both in vertical or oblique position with respect to the subhorizontal bedding of the host rocks. There were sampled from one side to the other in order to track the flow direction by identification of imbricated fabric. Magnetic mineralogy, i.e. unblocking temperature inferred from IRM 3 axes demagnetization, indicates that the ferromagnetics s.l. mineralogy is dominated by an assemblage of magnetite (unblocking temperature Tub=580°C) and pyrrhotite (Tub=325°C). Magnetic susceptibility is low, typical for siliciclastic rocks, ranging from 4x10-5 up to 1.7x10-4 SI. Degree of magnetic anisotropy is likely representative of AMS measurements in sedimentary rocks with weak values, below than 5 %. In marly host rocks magnetic mineralogy is dominated by pyrrhotite associated with magnetite and both the magnetic susceptibility and degree of anisotropy are slightly lower than for injectites. Regarding magnetic fabric axes distribution, despite some dispersion, the results show that minimum axes of AMS (K3) are parallel to the dyke plane, and maximum axes (K1) are roughly in horizontal position. In marly host rocks, the magnetic fabric is related to tectonic shortening. We interpret that the host rocks have recorded the regional tectonic imprint while the magnetic fabric of the injectites are related to early sedimentary processes. The mechanism of set up proposed to explain the magnetic fabric in the Bevon injectites is a step

  6. Coastal groundwater salinization: Focus on the vertical variability in a multi-layered aquifer through a multi-isotope fingerprinting (Roussillon Basin, France).

    PubMed

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Négrel, Philippe; Aunay, Bertrand; Ladouche, Bernard; Bailly-Comte, Vincent; Guerrot, Catherine; Flehoc, Christine; Pezard, Philippe; Lofi, Johanna; Dörfliger, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    The Roussillon sedimentary Basin (South France) is a complex multi-layered aquifer, close to the Mediterranean Sea facing seasonally increases of water abstraction and salinization issues. We report geochemical and isotopic vertical variability in this aquifer using groundwater sampled with a Westbay System® at two coastal monitoring sites: Barcarès and Canet. The Westbay sampling allows pointing out and explaining the variation of water quality along vertical profiles, both in productive layers and in the less permeable ones where most of the chemical processes are susceptible to take place. The aquifer layers are not equally impacted by salinization, with electrical conductivity ranging from 460 to 43,000μS·cm(-1). The δ(2)H-δ(18)O signatures show mixing between seawater and freshwater components with long water residence time as evidenced by the lack of contribution from modern water using (3)H, (14)C and CFCs/SF6. S(SO4) isotopes also evidence seawater contribution but some signatures can be related to oxidation of pyrite and/or organically bounded S. In the upper layers (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios are close to that of seawater and then increase with depth, reflecting water-rock interaction with argillaceous formations while punctual low values reflect interaction with carbonate. Boron isotopes highlight secondary processes such as adsorption/desorption onto clays in addition to mixings. At the Barcarès site (120m deep), the high salinity in some layers appear to be related neither to present day seawater intrusion, nor to Salses-Leucate lagoonwater intrusion. Groundwater chemical composition thus highlights binary mixing between fresh groundwater and inherited salty water together with cation exchange processes, water-rock interactions and, locally, sedimentary organic matter mineralisation probably enhanced by pyrite oxidation. Finally, combining the results of this study and those of Caballero and Ladouche (2015), we discuss the possible future evolution of

  7. Mass balance and decontamination times of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in rural nested catchments of an early industrialized region (Seine River basin, France).

    PubMed

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Lefevre, Irène; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and their subsequent release in rivers constitute a major environmental and public health problem in industrialized countries. In the Seine River basin (France), some PAHs exceed the target concentrations, and the objectives of good chemical status required by the European Water Framework Directive might not be achieved. This investigation was conducted in an upstream subcatchment where atmospheric fallout (n=42), soil (n=33), river water (n=26) and sediment (n=101) samples were collected during one entire hydrological year. PAH concentrations in atmospheric fallout appeared to vary seasonally and to depend on the distance to urban areas. They varied between 60 ng·L(-1) (in a remote site during autumn) and 2,380 ng·L(-1) (in a built-up area during winter). PAH stocks in soils of the catchment were estimated based on land use, as mean PAH concentrations varied between 110 ng·g(-1) under woodland and 2,120 ng·g(-1) in built-up areas. They ranged from 12 to 220 kg·km(-2). PAH contamination in the aqueous phase of rivers remained homogeneous across the catchment (72 ± 38 ng·L(-1)). In contrast, contamination of suspended solid was heterogeneous depending on hydrological conditions and population density in the drainage area. Moreover, PAH concentrations appeared to be higher in sediment (230-9,210 ng·g(-1)) than in the nearby soils. Annual mass balance calculation conducted at the catchment scale showed that current PAH losses were mainly due to dissipation (biodegradation, photo-oxidation and volatilization) within the catchments (about 80%) whereas exports due to soil erosion and riverine transport appeared to be of minor importance. Based on the calculated fluxes, PAHs appeared to have long decontamination times in soils (40 to 1,850 years) thereby compromising the achievement of legislative targets. Overall, the study highlighted the major role of legacy contamination that supplied the bulk of

  8. Critical multi-level governance issues of integrated modelling: An example of low-water management in the Adour-Garonne basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzega, Pierre; Therond, Olivier; Debril, Thomas; March, Hug; Sibertin-Blanc, Christophe; Lardy, Romain; Sant'ana, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the experience gained related to the development of an integrated simulation model of water policy. Within this context, we analyze particular difficulties raised by the inclusion of multi-level governance that assigns the responsibility of individual or collective decision-making to a variety of actors, regarding measures of which the implementation has significant effects toward the sustainability of socio-hydrosystems. Multi-level governance procedures are compared with the potential of model-based impact assessment. Our discussion is illustrated on the basis of the exploitation of the multi-agent platform MAELIA dedicated to the simulation of social, economic and environmental impacts of low-water management in a context of climate and regulatory changes. We focus on three major decision-making processes occurring in the Adour-Garonne basin, France: (i) the participatory development of the Master Scheme for Water Planning and Management (SDAGE) under the auspices of the Water Agency; (ii) the publication of water use restrictions in situations of water scarcity; and (iii) the determination of the abstraction volumes for irrigation and their allocation. The MAELIA platform explicitly takes into account the mode of decision-making when it is framed by a procedure set beforehand, focusing on the actors' participation and on the nature and parameters of the measures to be implemented. It is observed that in some water organizations decision-making follows patterns that can be represented as rule-based actions triggered by thresholds of resource states. When decisions are resulting from individual choice, endowing virtual agents with bounded rationality allows us to reproduce (in silico) their behavior and decisions in a reliable way. However, the negotiation processes taking place during the period of time simulated by the models in arenas of collective choices are not all reproducible. Outcomes of some collective decisions are very little or

  9. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  10. The Robinson and Weatherly uraniferous pyrobitumen deposits near Placerville, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilmarth, V.R.; Vickers, R.C.

    1953-01-01

    Uranium deposits that contain uraniferous pyrobitumen of possible hydrothermal origin occur at the Weatherly and Robinson properties near Placerville, San Miguel County, Colo. These deposits were mined for copper, silver, and gold more than 50 years ago and were developed for uranium in 1950. The Robinson property, half a mile east of Placerville, consists of the White Spar, New Discovery Lode, and Barbara Jo claims. The rocks in this area are nearly horizontal sandstones, shales, limestones, and conglomerates of the Cutler formation of Permian age and the Dolores formation of Triassic and Jurassic (?) age. These rocks have been faulted extensively and intruded by a Tertiary (?) andesite porphyry dike. Uranium-bearing pyrobitumen associated with tennantite, tetrahedrite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, bornite, azurite, malachite, calcite, barite, and quartz occurs in a lenticular body as much as 40 feet long and 6 feet wide along a northwest-trending, steeply dipping normal fault. The uranium content of eleven samples from the uranium deposit ranges from 0.001 to 0.045 percent uranium and averages about 0.02 percent uranium. The Weatherly property, about a mile northwest of Placerville, consists of the Black King claims nos. 1, 4, and 5. The rocks in this area include the complexly faulted Cutler formation of Permian age and the Dolores formation of Triassic and Jurassic (?) age. Uranium-bearing pyrobitumen arid uranophane occur, along a northwest-trending, steeply dipping normal fault and in the sedimentary rocks on the hanging wall of the fault. Lens-shaped deposits in the fault zone are as much as 6 feet long and 2 feet wide and contain as much as 9 percent uranium; whereas channel samples across the fault zone contain from 0.001 to 0.014 percent uranium. Tetrahedrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, fuchsite, malachite, azurite, erythrite, bornite, and molybdite in a gangue of pyrite, calcite, barite, and quartz are associated with the uraniferous material

  11. New archaeorthopteran insects from the Late Carboniferous of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais basins in northern France (Insecta: Cnemidolestodea, Panorthoptera).

    PubMed

    Coty, David; Háva, Jiří; Prokop, Jakub; Roques, Patrick; Nel, André

    2014-01-01

    New polyneopteran insects are described from Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian, Moscovian) compressed fossils from the North of France (Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Discovery of wing apex with distinct venation, e.g., apical fusion of RA with RP, numerous parallel posterior branches of RP with transversal crossveins, can be assigned to cf. Tococladus sp. (Cnemidolestodea: Tococladidae). It represents the second record of Cnemidolestodea from the Avion locality apart from Aviocladus pectinatus Prokop et al., 2014. Bruaylogus magnificus gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, is attributed to Panorthoptera nec Orthoptera having some distinct characters for the placement either close to Oedischiidae or a more basal position possibly with affinities to genus Heterologus. Aviologus duquesnei gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, differs from Oedischiidae by the presence of basal fork of M far from point of separation between M and Cu and fusion of MA with first posterior branch of RP. Aviologus share a long stem of M and simple CuPaβ with Heterologus duyiwuer and H. langfordorum, but both differ in well separated median and radial veins. These new fossils demonstrate that the archaeorthopterid insect fauna from the North of France was rather diverse with links to late Carboniferous and early Permian assemblages in Euramerica such as the Mazon Creek, Carbondale Formation or Elmo, Wellington Formation (Illinois, Kansas, USA) entomofaunas. PMID:25544457

  12. Large uraniferous springs and associated uranium minerals, Shirley Mountains, Carbon County, Wyoming -- A preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.D.

    1963-01-01

    Ten springs along the southeast flank of the Shirley Mountains, Carbon County, Wyoming, have water containing from 12 to 27 parts per billion uranium, have a total estimated flow of 3 million gallons of clear fresh water per day, and have a combined annual output that may be as much as 166 pounds of uranium. These springs emerge from Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Triassic rocks on the east flank of a faulted anticlinal fold. In the vicinity of several springs, metatyuyamunite occurs locally in crystalline calcite veins averaging 3 feet in width but reaching a maximum of 24 feet. The veins are as much as several hundred feet long-and cut vertically through sandstones of Pennsylvanian age overlying the Madison Limestone (Mississippian). This limestone is believed to be the source of the calcite. A 3-foot channel sample cross one calcite vein contains 0.089 percent uranium. Lesser amounts of uranium were obtained from other channel samples. Selected samples contain from 0.39 to 2.2 percent uranium and from 0.25 to 0.86 percent vanadium. Three possible sources of the uranium are: (1) Precambrian rocks, (2) Paleozoic rocks, (3) Pliocene(?) tuffaceous strata that were deposited unconformably across older .rocks in both the graphically high and low parts of the area, but were subsequently removed by erosion except for a few small remnants, one of which contains carnotite. There is apparently a close genetic relation between the uraniferous springs and uranium mineralization in the calcite veins. Data from this locality illustrate how uraniferous ground water can be used as a guide in the exploration for areas where uranium deposits may occur. Also demonstrated is the fact that significant quantities of uranium are present in water of some large flowing springs.

  13. New geological model of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites from Bahia (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Chaves, Alexandre

    2013-09-01

    New evidence supported by petrography (including mineral chemistry), lithogeochemistry, U-Pb geochronology by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and physicochemical study of fluid and melt inclusions by LA-ICP-MS and microthermometry, point to an orogenic setting of Lagoa Real (Bahia-Brazil) involving uraniferous mineralization. Unlike the previous models in which uraniferous albitites represent Na-metasomatised 1.75 Ga anorogenic granitic rocks, it is understood here that they correspond to metamorphosed sodium-rich and quartz-free 1.9 Ga late-orogenic syenitic rocks (Na-metasyenites). These syenitic rocks are rich not only in albite, but also in U-rich titanite (source of uranium). The interpretation of geochemical data points to a petrogenetic connection between alkali-diorite (local amphibolite protolith) and sodic syenite by fractional crystallization through a transalkaline series. This magmatic differentiation occurred either before or during shear processes, which in turn led to albitite and amphibolite formation. The metamorphic reactions, which include intense recrystallization of magmatic minerals, led uraninite to precipitate at 1.87 Ga under Oxidation/Reduction control. A second population of uraninites was also generated by the reactivation of shear zones during the 0.6 Ga Brasiliano Orogeny. The geotectonic implications include the importance of the Orosirian event in the Paramirim Block during paleoproterozoic Săo Francisco Craton edification and the influence of the Brasiliano event in the Paramirim Block during the West-Gondwana assembly processes. The regional microcline-gneiss, whose protolith is a 2.0 Ga syn-collisional potassic granite, represents the albitite host rock. The microcilne-gneiss has no petrogenetic association to the syenite (albitite protolith) in magmatic evolutionary terms.

  14. From hyper-extended rifts to orogens: the example of the Mauléon rift basin in the Western Pyrenees (SW France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, E.; Manatschal, G.; Tugend, J.

    2011-12-01

    An integral part of plate tectonic theory is that the fate of rifted margins is to be accreted into mountain belts. Thus, rift-related inheritance is an essential parameter controlling the evolution and architecture of collisional orogens. Although this link is well accepted, rift inheritance is often ignored. The Pyrenees, located along the Iberian and European plate boundary, can be considered as one of the best places to study the reactivation of former rift structures. In this orogen the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary convergence overprints a Late Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous complex intracontinental rift system related to the opening of the North Atlantic. During the rifting, several strongly subsiding basins developed in the axis of the Pyrenees showing evidence of extreme crustal extension and even locale mantle exhumation to the seafloor. Although the exact age and kinematics of rifting is still debated, these structures have an important impact in the subsequent orogenic overprint. In our presentation we discuss the example of the Mauléon basin, which escaped from the most pervasive deformations because of its specific location at the interface between the western termination of the chain and the Bay of Biscay oceanic realm. Detailed mapping combined with seismic reflection, gravity data and industry wells enabled to determine the 3D rift architecture of the Mauléon basin. Two major diachronous detachment systems can be mapped and followed through space. The Southern Mauléon Detachment (SMD) develops first, starts to thin the crust and floors the Southern Mauléon sub-Basin (SMB). The second, the Northern Mauléon Detachment (SMD) is younger and controls the final crustal thinning and mantle exhumation to the north. Both constitute the whole Mauléon basin. Like at the scale of the overall Pyrenees, the reactivation of the Mauléon Basin increases progressively from west to east, which enables to document the progressive reactivation of an aborted hyper

  15. The origin and timing of multiphase cementation in carbonates: Impact of regional scale geodynamic events on the Middle Jurassic Limestones diagenesis (Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigaud, Benjamin; Durlet, Christophe; Deconinck, Jean-François; Vincent, Benoît; Thierry, Jacques; Trouiller, Alain

    2009-12-01

    The Middle Jurassic carbonates of the eastern part of the Paris Basin display surprisingly low values of porosity and permeability ( Φ < 15‰ and K < 0.5 mD). The main objective of this study is to determine the causes and timing of the cementation that altered the petrophysical properties of these carbonates thereby destroying their potential as oil reservoirs; a fate that did not befall their equivalents in deeper, central parts of the Paris Basin. Using petrographic and geochemical analyses (stable O and C isotopes, Sr isotopes, major elements), we identify six calcitic spar stages, two dolomite stages, and several episodes of fracturing and stylolitization ordered in paragenetic sequence. Cement quantification shows the predominance of two blocky calcite cement stages (75% of total cementation). O and Sr isotopes from these calcite cements suggest that the parent fluids resulted either from a mixing of trapped Jurassic seawater and meteoric water, or from buffered meteoric waters. In the geological history of the Paris Basin, major meteoric water inputs were possible during the Early Cretaceous, when the Middle Jurassic carbonates cropped out at its northern and eastern borders. Lateral meteoric recharge may have occurred as a result of two separate uplift events (Late Cimmerian Unconformity and Late Aptian Unconformity) and the related exposures of carbonates to the north of the study area. This palaeohydrological circulation brought about a significant reduction of porosity (from 40% to 10%) through calcite cement precipitation. The Early Cretaceous events are of great importance in the diagenetic evolution of the sedimentary basins bordering the London-Brabant Massif across all of northwestern Europe. A subsequent dolomite and calcite cementation stage accounts for about 5% of the total cement volumes. This late cementation may have been caused by hydrothermal fluids ascending along permeable fractures during the Late Oligocene extension episode.

  16. Metal bioaccumulation and physiological condition of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) reared in two shellfish basins and a marina in Normandy (northwest France).

    PubMed

    Séguin, A; Caplat, C; Serpentini, A; Lebel, J M; Menet-Nedelec, F; Costil, K

    2016-05-15

    A 5-month experiment combining a geochemical survey of metals with a bioaccumulation study in batches of Crassostrea gigas was conducted in two shellfish farming areas and a marina in Normandy (France). Various endpoints at different levels of biological organization were studied. ROCCH data showed differences in biota contamination between the two shellfish areas but the present study revealed only slight differences in metallic contamination and biomarkers. By contrast, significantly different values were recorded in the marina in comparison with the two other sites. Indeed, higher levels of Cd, Cu and Zn were measured in the oysters from the marina, and these oysters also showed a poorer physiological condition (e.g., condition index, histopathological alterations and neutral lipid content). For coastal monitoring, the multi-biomarker approach coupled with an assessment of metallic contamination in biota appeared to be suitable for discriminating spatial differences in environmental quality after only a few months of exposure. PMID:26975610

  17. Late Permian paleomagnetic results from the Lodève, Le Luc, and Bas-Argens Basins (southern France): Magnetostratigraphy and geomagnetic field morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. E.; Pavlov, V.; Veselovsky, R.; Fetisova, A.

    2014-12-01

    Paleomagnetic results are presented from 271 stratigraphically-ordered horizons at four locations in southern France. Our focus is mainly on the Late Permian (258 horizons), but results from 13 horizons in the Triassic Buntsandstein are also reported. We argue that the Permian results extend magnetostratigraphic coverage up to the upper Capitanian Stage, some 6 million years after the end of the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron defined by the Illawarra Reversal in the Wordian Stage. When combined with published data, an overall mean paleopole at 49°N, 161°E (A95 = 4°, N = 9) is obtained. This is virtually identical to the upper Permian pole obtained by Bazhenov and Shatsillo (2010) using the intersecting great-circle method. Agreement between the two procedures, which are based on entirely independent data, supports the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) model.

  18. Combined Use of Water Level in Boreholes and Continuous Gravity Measurements for Hydrological Numerical Modeling: Example of the Durzon Karstic Basin (Larzac, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fores, B.; Champollion, C.; Le Moigne, N.; Chery, J.; Jourde, H.; Erik, D.; Vernant, P.

    2014-12-01

    Karstic hydrosystems are highly nonlinear and heterogeneous but they represent one of the main water resources in the Mediterranean area. Neither local measurements in boreholes nor analysis at the spring can take into account the variability of the water storage. Since 10 years, ground-based gravity measurements (absolute FG5 and relative CG5) allow the monitoring of the water storage in heterogeneous hydrosystems at intermediate scale between boreholes (local scale) and spring (global scale). Since threeyears, a geophysical observatory has been setup in the Mediterranean area (on the Durzon karstic basinin the south of France). Water level in boreholes and rainfall from rain gaugesare classical hydrological observations. They arecompleted by evapotranspiration measurements from a flux tower and continuous gravity measurements from the GWR iGrav#002 superconducting gravimeter. The main objective of thisstudy is to modelthe wholedata sets withexplicit numericalmodels. Hydrus-1D software allows explicit modeling of water storage and 1D-flow in variably saturated media. With a stochastic sampling, we find the underground parameters (porosity, permeability) that reproduce the most the different observations (gravity, water level, evapotranspiration and rainfall). From the results of the modeling, we discuss the size of the area observed by each type of measurements. Furthermore, water storage and transfer variability may be inferred from the synergy of local (boreholes) and more integrative (gravity) measurements. This study shows the potential of gravity measurements at aquifer scale.

  19. Modeling a complex system of multipurpose reservoirs under prospective scenarios (hydrology, water uses, water management): the case of the Durance River basin (South Eastern France, 12 800 km2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteil, Céline; Hendrickx, Frédéric; Samie, René; Sauquet, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The Durance River and its main tributary, the Verdon River, are two major rivers located in the Southern part of France. Three large dams (Serre-Ponçon, Castillon and Sainte-Croix) were built on their streams during the second half of the 20th century for multiple purposes. Stored water is used for hydropower, recreational, industry, drinking water and irrigation. Flows are partly diverted to feed areas outside the basin. On average 30 plants located in the Durance and Verdon valleys currently produce a total of 600 million kWh per year, equal to the annual residential consumption of a city with over 2.5 million inhabitants. The Southern part of France has been recently affected by severe droughts (2003, 2007 and 2011) and the rules for water allocation and reservoir management are now questioned particularly in the light of global change. The objective of the research project named "R²D²-2050" was to assess water availability and risks of water shortage in the mid-21st century by taking into account changes in both climate and water management. Therefore, a multi-model multi-scenario approach was considered to simulate regional climate, water resources and water demands under present-day (over the 1980-2009 baseline period) and under future conditions (over the 2036-2065 period). In addition, a model of water management was developed to simulate reservoir operating rules of the three dams. This model was calibrated to simulate water released from reservoir under constraints imposed by current day water allocation rules (e.g. downstream water requirements for irrigation, minimum water levels in the reservoirs during summer time for recreational purposes). Four territorial socio-economic scenarios were also elaborated with the help of stake holders to project water needs in the 2050s for the areas supplied with water from the Durance River basin. Results suggest an increase of the average air temperature with consequences on snow accumulation, snowmelt processes

  20. Evaluation of climate change on flood event by using parametric T-test and non-parametric Mann-Kendall test in Barcelonnette basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Azadeh; Glade, Thomas; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2010-09-01

    The existence of a trend in hydrological and meteorological time series is detected by statistical tests. The trend analysis of hydrological and meteorological series is important to consider, because of the effects of global climate change. Parametric or non-parametric statistical tests can be used to decide whether there is a statistically significant trend. In this paper, first a homogeneity analysis was performed by using the non-parametric Bartlett test. Then, trend detection was estimated by using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. The null hypothesis in the Mann-Kendall test is that the data are independent and randomly ordered. The result of Mann-Kendall test was compared with the parametric T-Test for finding the existence of trend. To reach this purpose, the significance of trends was analyzed on monthly data of Ubaye river in Barcelonnette watershed in southeast of France at an elevation of 1132 m (3717 ft) during the period from 1928 to 2009 bases with the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and parametric T-Test for river discharge and for meteorological data. The result shows that a rainfall event does not necessarily have an immediate impact on discharge. Visual inspection suggests that the correlation between observations made at the same time point is not very strong. In the results of the trend tests the p-value of the discharge is slightly smaller than the p-value of the precipitation but it seems that in both there is no statistically significant trend. In statistical hypothesis testing, a test statistic is a numerical summary of a set of data that reduces the data to one or a small number of values that can be used to perform a hypothesis test. Statistical hypothesis testing is determined if there is a significant trend or not. Negative test statistics and MK test in both precipitation and discharge data indicate downward trends. As conclusion we can say extreme flood event during recent years is strongly depending on: 1) location of the city: It is

  1. An innovative procedure to assess multi-scale temporal trends in groundwater quality: Example of the nitrate in the Seine-Normandy basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Benjamin; Baran, Nicole; Bourgine, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) asks Member States to identify trends in contaminant concentrations in groundwater and to take measures to reach a good chemical status by 2015. In this study, carried out in a large hydrological basin (95,300 km2), an innovative procedure is described for the assessment of recent trends in groundwater nitrate concentrations both at sampling point and regional scales. Temporal variograms of piezometric and nitrate concentration time series are automatically calculated and fitted in order to classify groundwater according to their temporal pattern. These results are then coupled with aquifer lithology to map spatial units within which the modes of diffuse transport of contaminants towards groundwater are assumed to be the same at all points. These spatial units are suitable for evaluating regional trends. The stability over time of the time series is tested based on the cumulative sum principle, to determine the time period during which the trend should be sought. The Mann-Kendall and Regional-Kendall nonparametric tests for monotonic trends, coupled with the Sen-slope test, are applied to the periods following the point breaks thus determined at both the sampling point or regional scales. This novel procedure is robust and enables rapid processing of large databases of raw data. It would therefore be useful for managing groundwater quality in compliance with the aims of the WFD.

  2. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a uraniferous coal from the Red Desert Area, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breger, Irving A.; Deul, Maurice; Meyrowitz, Robert; Rubinstein, Samuel

    1953-01-01

    A sample of subbituminous uraniferous coal from the Red Desert, Sweetwater County, Wyo., was studied mineralogically. The coal contains gypsum (6 percent), kaolinite (1 percent), quartz (0.3 percent), calcite (trace), and limonite (trace). This suite of minerals and the absence of pyrite show that the coal has been subjected to weathering and oxidation. No uranium minerals have been found; mechanical fractionation has indicated that the uranium is associated with the organic constituents of the coal. The minerals that have been isolated contain 0.0006 percent uranium, a content which is to be expected for nonuraniferous sedimentary rocks. The organic components of the coal contain approximately 0.002 percent uranium. On the basis of material balance calculations, the organic components carry 98 percent of the uranium in the coal. Fischer assays of this weathered coal from the Red Desert indicate a yield of 16.7 gallons of tar per ton on low-temperature retorting. In view of the large reserve of subbituminous coal in the Red Desert, its probable ease of mining, and its tar yield, it may be desirable to carry out further evaluation of the coal as a fuel or raw material for the manufacture of tar or chemicals. If economic factors permit utilization of the coal, the uranium, although present in small percentages, could be recovered as a byproduct.

  3. Massive {open_quotes}turbidite{close_quotes} sandstones in the Vocontian Basin (south-east of France): An analogue for blocky {open_quotes}basin floor fan{close_quotes} reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Imbert, P.; Rubino, J.L.; Olivier, P.; Rubino, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    The concept of {open_quotes}Basin Floor Fan{close_quotes} used to describe deep-marine massive sandstone reservoirs is largely derived from subsurface data, with little sedimentological support from outcrops. This paper discusses outcrop analogues for such types of massive sandstones. The Aptian-Albian sandstones in the intracratonic Vocontian Basin form elongate deposits of massive, channelized deep-marine turbidite sands up to 80 meters thick, interbedded with a predominantly shaley series. These channels, several kilometers wide, extend over a distance of 80 kilometers, with a width/thickness ratio between 20 and 100; an interesting feature of these deposits is the apparent lack of mounded depositional lobes at their extremity. These massive sands are multistory and represent stacked 1-30 meters thick units. The turbidites were sourced by the reworking of well-sorted shelf sand deposits. The massive sands are fine to medium-grained and devoid of visible structures, except for subtle grain size grading and crude parallel lamination. Sand distribution is controlled by the regional palaeotopography which forms elongate trough-like depressions (structurally controlled?). Some sandstones have a strongly irregular, erosional base and fill channel-like features. Deposition of the background shales, erosion of the valley floor and sandy infill occurred as distinct and separate phrases. The main controls on the massive sand distribution are the source of the sand and the palaeotopography. In these examples, the depositional mechanism of the {open_quotes}Basin Floor Fan{close_quotes}-like sands corresponds to the high density turbidity currents rather than slumps or contourites, as suggested from some subsurface data.

  4. A modeling approach of the hydro-thermal and chemical processes for managing the deep geothermal resource of the Val de Marne (Paris Basin, France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Virginie; Le Brun, Morgane; Lopez, Simon; Castillo, Christelle; Azaroual, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    The exploitation of the geothermal resource of the Dogger formation in Paris Basin (between 1500 m and 2000 m depth) for district heating started in the early 1970's with 110 geothermal wells drilled between 1970 and 1985. Technically, exploitations are referred as "doublet operation" the pair of wells involved in the geothermal loop. The warm water is pumped from a production well to the district heating plant where fluid heat is extracted through a heat exchanger to a district heating network. Then, the cooled brine is re-injected in a second well. Inside the reservoir, the wells are open-hole and lie around 1 km apart to protect the producer from the cold front growing around the injector. The reinjection allows the stabilization of the reservoir pressure and protects the surface from brines containing high concentrations of dissolved chemical components (Cl-, SO42-, Fe2+, H2S, CO2) allowing salinities between 5 to 35 g/l. With the current geothermal revival of the Paris Basin, the exploitation of the resource of the Dogger aquifer is facing new challenges: • New doublets are implemented and their location must be optimized with regards to the interferences with the existing operations. • Most of the wells still operating are next to 30 years old. They would need to be restored or shut down for scaling and/or corrosion problems, implying the drilling of new ones. • Geochemical modeling highlighted that the scaling risk is increasing with time due to the thermodynamic disequilibrium induced by the temperature variation during the heat production. For instance, Iron sulfide (Mackinawite and Pyrite), carbonate and sulfate (Calcite, Siderite, Anhydrite), silica (Chalcedony) and some clay minerals have tendency to precipitate. Mackinawite, Calcite and Siderite are clearly identified in some well scales. • The resource has been cooled by the 30 years of reinjection. The temperature at the production well is expected to decrease in the coming years as well as

  5. Measuring fallout radionuclides to constrain the origin and the dynamics of suspended sediment in an agricultural drained catchment (Loire River basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Laceby, J. Patrick; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion reaches problematic levels in agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe where tile drains may accelerate sediment transfer to rivers. This supply of large quantities of fine sediment to the river network leads to the degradation of water quality by increasing water turbidity, filling reservoirs and transporting contaminants. Agricultural patterns and landscapes features have been largely modified by human activities during the last century. To investigate erosion and sediment transport in lowland drained areas, a small catchment, the Louroux (24 km²), located in the French Loire River basin was selected. In this catchment, channels have been reshaped and more than 220 tile drains outlets have been installed after World War II. As a result, soil erosion and sediment fluxes strongly increased. Sediment supply needs to be better understood by quantifying the contribution of sources and the residence times of particles within the catchment. To this end, a network of river monitoring stations was installed, and fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Be-7) were measured in rainwater (n=3), drain tile outlets (n=4), suspended sediment (n=15), soil surface (n=30) and channel bank samples (n=15) between January 2013 and February 2014. Cs-137 concentrations were used to quantify the contribution of surface vs. subsurface sources of sediment. Results show a clear dominance of particles originating from surface sources (99 ± 1%). Be-7 and excess Pb-210 concentrations and calculation of Be-7/excess Pb-210 ratios in rainfall and suspended sediment samples were used to estimate percentages of recently eroded sediment in rivers. The first erosive winter storm mainly exported sediment depleted in Be-7 that likely deposited on the riverbed during the previous months. Then, during the subsequent floods, sediment was directly eroded and exported to the catchment outlet. Our results show the added value of combining spatial and temporal tracers to characterize

  6. Human impact variability on soil erosion during the Holocene based on valley floor sediments study in a Parisian basin fluvial catchment (France): crossing sedimentological, archaeological and palynological proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, E.; Cyprien, A. L.; Gay-Ovejero, I.; Hinschberger, F.; Joly, C.; Macaire, J. J.; Poirier, N.; Visset, L.; Zadora-Rio, E.

    2009-04-01

    This work is part of the French CNRS ECLIPSE program « Impact anthropique sur l'érosion des sols et la sédimentation dans les zones humides associées durant l'Holocène ». It aims to reconstitute the evolution of human impact on soil erosion at various periods via the study of Holocene sedimentary archives. In this framework the Choisille catchment (288 km²; elevation: 50 - 200 m), tributary of the River Loire near Tours (France), has been the subject of an interdisciplinary study (sedimentology, geophysics, archaeology, palynology). 3 areas are investigated: a downstream stretch, a silicated sub-catchment area and a carbonated sub-catchment area. In the downstream stretch, located near ancient populated areas, drillings were performed along cross sections through valley floor alluviums. They show that a more or less organic clayey silty sedimentation started at the beginning of the Holocene. The sedimentation rates strongly increased at the beginning of the Subbatlantic (Bronze Age), simultaneously with the anthropogenic pressure advent (on set of agriculture), as shown by archaeological and palynological evidences (agricultural settlements, massive loggings on slopes, stockbreeding on valley-floor grasslands). In the silicated sub-catchment area, located upstream, drillings have shown that clayey silty sedimentation began at the end of the Roman Period, continued during the Early Middle Ages and increased during the High Middle Ages. Spatial archaeological prospecting has revealed a faint anthropogenic presence at the Roman Period, then a decline of population until the High Middle Ages, characterised by an agricultural revival. Palynological analyses have shown that, in this area, grasslands were dominant since the Early Middle Ages, with an increase in cereal cultures at the beginning of the High Middle Ages. In the carbonated sub-catchment area, drillings have shown that the more or less organic clayey silty sedimentation has begun during the Bronze Age

  7. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Pedo-sedimentary record of human-environment interaction in ditches and waterlogged depressions on tableland (roman and early medieval period) : micromorphological cases studies from Marne-la-Vallée area (Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammas, C.; Blanchard, J.; Broutin, P.; Berga, A.

    2012-04-01

    On lœss derived soils located on the Stampien plateau from the Paris Basin (France), archaeological anthroposols and ancient cultivated soils are only preserved in very few places. Recent archaeological excavations showed the presence of a pattern of roman ditches and waterlogged depressions (« mares ») under the actual cultivated horizon (Ap). This presence strongly suggests extensive past agricultural practices and water management. An original system of ditches was found Near Marne-la-Vallée (France). It is composed of two parts, one being large ditches characterized by flat bottom and sometimes water layered deposits, called « fossés collecteurs » by the archaeologists, and the orher being smaller ditches with colluvial deposits. Our objectives was to use archaeological and micromorphological studies in order to study i) the agricultural function of these ditches and depressions, ii) their evolution with time. Observations conducted on the infilling of a « fossé collecteur » at Bussy-Saint-Georges suggest that it was not part of a drainage system, but that it was a linear water controlled system, with a ramp in one part, and a basin or a tank in another, and that it was used for others anthropic activities. In the same area, a large waterlogged depression was studied, and micromorphological analysis helped to elucidate its pedo-sedimentary formation processes. At the bottom, massive silty clayey matrix retained water. Thin layers composed of silt and clay (indicating low energy flows and decantation), sometimes impregnated and hardened by iron, alternated with silty deposit (indicating higher ernergy water layered deposits). The thin, non porous and iron impregnated crusts helped to raise the depression level, as well as, most likely the water table during roman period, maintaining waterlogging conditions. At the beginning of the early medival period, a slightly peaty event was discriminated. Higher in the profile, in more redoxic conditions

  9. Sand injectites network as a marker of the palaeo-stress field, the structural framework and the distance to the sand source: Example in the Vocontian Basin, SE France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, Damien; Gay, Aurélien; Imbert, Patrice; Cavailhes, Thibault; Soliva, Roger; Lopez, Michel

    2015-10-01

    A large sand injectite network is very well exposed in the area of Bevons, Southeast France. The associated sandstone turbiditic channel-fill and the host marls are the Aptian-Albian rocks of the Vocontian Basin. The sand injection network is composed of dykes, sills and sedimentary laccoliths ranging in thickness from mm to pluri-m. The dykes and sills have vertical and horizontal lengths of up to and over 100 m and 1 km, respectively. Outcrop observations show that the architecture and morphology of the sand injectites in the marls is governed by the local stress field during injection, pre-existing faults, the host-rock lithology, compaction, and distance to the potential sand source(s). The main set of dykes is oriented N50-60° perpendicular to the minimum compressive stress σ3 during sand injection. Two other sets of dykes are intruded along pre-existing syn-sedimentary faults oriented N140-150° (set 2) and N90° (set 3) during the Apto-Cenomanian interval. Sills and dykes thin laterally away from their potential sand sources and thin laterally away from them. The vertical thickness variations of the dykes and wings are more complex, as thinning away from the sand sources is often compensated by thickening toward the palaeo-surface. Based on field observations and measurements, we characterized the 3D architecture of the sand injectites and showed that the injectites probably formed due to a forceful injection from an overpressured sand body sealed by low-permeability lithologies.

  10. Radionuclide release from simulated waste material after biogeochemical leaching of uraniferous mineral samples.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Aimee Lynn; Caron, François; Spiers, Graeme

    2014-12-01

    Biogeochemical mineral dissolution is a promising method for the released of metals in low-grade host mineralization that contain sulphidic minerals. The application of biogeochemical mineral dissolution to engineered leach heap piles in the Elliot Lake region may be considered as a promising passive technology for the economic recovery of low grade Uranium-bearing ores. In the current investigation, the decrease of radiological activity of uraniferous mineral material after biogeochemical mineral dissolution is quantified by gamma spectroscopy and compared to the results from digestion/ICP-MS analysis of the ore materials to determine if gamma spectroscopy is a simple, viable alternative quantification method for heavy nuclides. The potential release of Uranium (U) and Radium-226 ((226)Ra) to the aqueous environment from samples that have been treated to represent various stages of leaching and passive closure processes are assessed. Dissolution of U from the solid phase has occurred during biogeochemical mineral dissolution in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, with gamma spectroscopy indicating an 84% decrease in Uranium-235 ((235)U) content, a value in accordance with the data obtained by dissolution chemistry. Gamma spectroscopy data indicate that only 30% of the (226)Ra was removed during the biogeochemical mineral dissolution. Chemical inhibition and passivation treatments of waste materials following the biogeochemical mineral dissolution offer greater protection against residual U and (226)Ra leaching. Pacified samples resist the release of (226)Ra contained in the mineral phase and may offer more protection to the aqueous environment for the long term, compared to untreated or inhibited residues, and should be taken into account for future decommissioning. PMID:24726552

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  12. Effect of mineral constituents in the bioleaching of uranium from uraniferous sedimentary rock samples, Southwestern Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amin, Maisa M; Elaassy, Ibrahim E; El-Feky, Mohamed G; Sallam, Abdel Sattar M; Talaat, Mona S; Kawady, Nilly A

    2014-08-01

    Bioleaching, like Biotechnology uses microorganisms to extract metals from their ore materials, whereas microbial activity has an appreciable effect on the dissolution of toxic metals and radionuclides. Bioleaching of uranium was carried out with isolated fungi from uraniferous sedimentary rocks from Southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Eight fungal species were isolated from different grades of uraniferous samples. The bio-dissolution experiments showed that Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus exhibited the highest leaching efficiencies of uranium from the studied samples. Through monitoring the bio-dissolution process, the uranium grade and mineralogic constituents of the ore material proved to play an important role in the bioleaching process. The tested samples asserted that the optimum conditions of uranium leaching are: 7 days incubation time, 3% pulp density, 30 °C incubation temperature and pH 3. Both fungi produced the organic acids, namely; oxalic, acetic, citric, formic, malonic, galic and ascorbic in the culture filtrate, indicating an important role in the bioleaching processes. PMID:24682031

  13. Uranium accumulation in aquatic macrophytes in an uraniferous region: Relevance to natural attenuation.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Cristina; Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-08-01

    Phytoremediation potential of uranium (U) was investigated by submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent native aquatic macrophytes inhabiting along the streams of Horta da Vilariça, a uraniferous geochemical region of NE Portugal. The work has been undertaken with the following objectives: (i) to relate the U concentrations in water-sediment-plant system; and (ii) to identify the potentialities of aquatic plants to remediate U-contaminated waters based on accumulation pattern. A total of 25 plant species culminating 233 samples was collected from 15 study points along with surface water and contiguous sediments. Concentrations of U showed wide range of variations both in waters (0.61-5.56 μg L(-1), mean value 1.98 μg L(-1)) and sediments (124-23,910 μg kg(-1), mean value 3929 μg kg(-1)) and this is also reflected in plant species examined. The plant species exhibited the ability to accumulate U several orders of magnitude higher than the surrounding water. Maximum U concentrations was recorded in the bryophyte Scorpiurium deflexifolium (49,639 μg kg(-1)) followed by Fontinalis antipyretica (35,771 μg kg(-1)), shoots of Rorippa sylvestris (33,837 μg kg(-1)), roots of Oenanthe crocata (17,807 μg kg(-1)) as well as in Nasturtium officinale (10,995 μg kg(-1)). Scorpiurium deflexifolium displayed a high bioconcentration factor (BF) of ∼2.5 × 10(4) (mean value). The species Fontinalis antipyretica, Nasturtium officinale (roots) and Rorippa sylvestris (shoots) exhibited the mean BFs of 1.7 × 10(4), 5 × 10(3) and 4.8 × 10(3) respectively. Maximum translocation factor (TF) was very much pronounced in the rooted perennial herb Rorippa sylvestris showing extreme ability to transport U for the shoots and seems to be promising candidate to be used as bioindicator species. PMID:27164268

  14. Outlier detection for groundwater data in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valmy, Larissa; de Fouquet, Chantal; Bourgine, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Quality and quantity water in France are increasingly observed since the 70s. Moreover, in 2000, the EU Water Framework Directive established a framework for community action in the water policy field for the protection of inland surface waters (rivers and lakes), transitional waters (estuaries), coastal waters and groundwater. It will ensure that all aquatic ecosystems and, with regard to their water needs, terrestrial ecosystems and wetlands meet 'good status' by 2015. The Directive requires Member States to establish river basin districts and for each of these a river basin management plan. In France, monitoring programs for the water status were implemented in each basin since 2007. The data collected through these programs feed into an information system which contributes to check the compliance of water environmental legislation implementation, assess the status of water guide management actions (programs of measures) and evaluate their effectiveness, and inform the public. Our work consists in study quality and quantity groundwater data for some basins in France. We propose a specific mathematical approach in order to detect outliers and study trends in time series. In statistic, an outlier is an observation that lies outside the overall pattern of a distribution. Usually, the presence of an outlier indicates some sort of problem, thus, it is important to detect it in order to know the cause. In fact, techniques for temporal data analysis have been developed for several decades in parallel with geostatistical methods. However compared to standard statistical methods, geostatistical analysis allows incomplete or irregular time series analysis. Otherwise, tests carried out by the BRGM showed the potential contribution of geostatistical methods for characterization of environmental data time series. Our approach is to exploit this potential through the development of specific algorithms, tests and validation of methods. We will introduce and explain our method

  15. Lead isotope ratios in bone ash of blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi): a means of screening for the accumulation of contaminants from uraniferous rocks.

    PubMed

    Nöthling, Johan O; Du Toit, Johannes S; Myburgh, Jan G

    2014-09-19

    This study was done to determine whether blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) from the Krugersdorp Game Reserve (KGR) in Gauteng Province, South Africa have higher concentrations of (238)U and higher (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (207)Pb/(204)Pb ratios in their bone ash than blesbok from a nearby control reserve that is not exposed to mine water and has no outcrops of uraniferous rocks. Eight blesbok females from the KGR and seven from the control site, all killed with a brain shot, were used. A Thermo X-series 2 quadrupole ICPMS was used to measure the concentrations of (238)U and lead and a Nu Instruments NuPlasma HR MC-ICP-MS to measure the lead isotope ratios in the tibial ash from each animal. KGR blesbok had higher mean concentrations of (238)U (P = 0.02) and ratios of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (207)Pb/(204)Pb (P < 0.00001) than the control blesbok. The probability of rejecting the false null hypothesis of no difference in the (206)Pb/(204)Pb or (207)Pb/(204)Pb ratios between KGR and control reserve animals (the power of the test) was 0.999. The blesbok from the KGR accumulated contaminants from an uraniferous environment. The (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (207)Pb/(204)Pb ratios in tibial ash proved effective in confirming accumulation of contaminants from uraniferous rocks. PMID:24967558

  16. Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated.

  17. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [121,100 cubic meters (m{sup 3})] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat.

  18. Tectonic styles, reevaluation of plays in southeastern France

    SciTech Connect

    Deville, E.; Mascle, A. ); Lamiraux, C. ); Le Bras, A. )

    1994-10-31

    Two major onshore sedimentary basins of Mesozoic age in France, the Paris and Aquitaine basins, have been intensively explored for about 40 years and contain a significant amount of hydrocarbons which presently still accounts for 4% of oil and 10% of gas for French domestic needs. Nevertheless, other Mesozoic basins are also present in the southeastern part of France, in front of the Alpine and Provincial Tertiary thrust belts. The level of activity here is presently very low, as the first phases of exploration in the 1950s to 1970s have been rather disappointing. In order to attract new players in these frontier area the French public authorities have decided to slightly modify the policy of license attributions. Among other aspects the new policy will include: (1) a simplification of the investigation procedure related to exploration licenses by suppression of the initial public inquiry; (2) an improvement of the transparency during the awarding of mining rights, by indicating the criteria that will be required for the selecting of the petitioner; and (3) a relaxing of regulations. The paper describes the geology of S.E. France, early exploration, seismic surveys, the Jura thrust belt, Bresse basin, the Vercors-Chartreuse, Southeast basin, and Carbieres zone.

  19. Urban Sociology in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiot, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Divides the history of urban sociology in France into three periods: (1) functionalism, which lasted from 1910 until the 1960s, (2) neo-Marxist socioeconomics lasting from 1968 until 1979, and (3) anthropological approach which is still dominant. Reviews theoretical perspectives and research characteristic of each period. (JDH)

  20. Industrial Psychology in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Montmollin, Maurice

    1977-01-01

    The current status of French industrial psychology is evaluated. Within the social and economic context of contemporary France, varying ideologies and scarce resources have created a gap between applied and academic industrial psychology. Personnel practices and systems and organizational research are noted. (Editor)

  1. Stratigraphic modeling of sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, T. ); Lawrence, D.T. )

    1990-11-01

    A two-dimensional stratigraphic forward model has been successfully applied and calibrated in clastic, carbonate, and mixed clastic/carbonate regimes. Primary input parameters are subsidence, sea level, volume of clastics, and carbonate growth potential. Program output includes sequence geometries, facies distribution lithology distribution, chronostratigraphic plots, burial history plots, thermal and maturity histories, and crossplots. The program may be used to predict reservoir distribution, to constrain interpretations of well and seismic data, to rapidly test exploration scenarios in frontier basins, and to evaluate the fundamental controls on observed basin stratigraphy. Applications to data sets from Main Pass (US Gulf Coast), Offshore Sarawak (Malaysia), Rub'al Khali basin (Oman), Paris basin (France), and Baltimore Canyon (US East Coast) demonstrate that the program can be used to simulate stratigraphy on a basin-wide scale as well as on the scale of individual prospects.

  2. Scale-dependent effects of land cover on water physico-chemistry and diatom-based metrics in a major river system, the Adour-Garonne basin (South Western France).

    PubMed

    Tudesque, Loïc; Tisseuil, Clément; Lek, Sovan

    2014-01-01

    The scale dependence of ecological phenomena remains a central issue in ecology. Particularly in aquatic ecology, the consideration of the accurate spatial scale in assessing the effects of landscape factors on stream condition is critical. In this context, our study aimed at assessing the relationships between multi-spatial scale land cover patterns and a variety of water quality and diatom metrics measured at the stream reach level. This investigation was conducted in a major European river system, the Adour-Garonne river basin, characterized by a wide range of ecological conditions. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and variance partitioning techniques were used to disentangle the different relationships between land cover, water-chemistry and diatom metrics. Our results revealed a top-down "cascade effect" indirectly linking diatom metrics to land cover patterns through water physico-chemistry, which occurred at the largest spatial scales. In general, the strength of the relationships between land cover, physico-chemistry, and diatoms was shown to increase with the spatial scale, from the local to the basin scale, emphasizing the importance of continuous processes of accumulation throughout the river gradient. Unexpectedly, we established that the influence of land cover on the diatom metric was of primary importance both at the basin and local scale, as a result of discontinuous but not necessarily antagonist processes. The most detailed spatial grain of the Corine land cover classification appeared as the most relevant spatial grain to relate land cover to water chemistry and diatoms. Our findings provide suitable information to improve the implementation of effective diatom-based monitoring programs, especially within the scope of the European Water Framework Directive. PMID:23892023

  3. [Primary care in France].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. PMID:26304179

  4. Pharmacy Education in France

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a “diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie” This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice. PMID:19325952

  5. Reconstructing the discharges and geomorphological impacts of artificial floods using archives and field surveys. The case of timber floating in the Yonne Basin, France (16th - 19th centuries).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gob, Frederic; Anne-Sophie, Poux; Nicolas, Jacob

    2010-05-01

    Timber floating became a major industry in the Yonne basin between the 16th and 19th centuries due to the rapid growth of Paris and its increasing energy needs. The Yonne River is a tributary of the Seine basin. Its source is located in the Morvan region, a granitic small massif in the south eastern part of the basin. Logs were transported by floating from the production area in the upper valley to Paris through the Yonne and the Seine rivers. In order to ease log transport in the steep and narrow headwater streams, river channels were reshaped and artificial floods were regularly created from small reservoirs obstructing the very top of the valley. The extent and the duration of the timber floating industry led to major geomorphological, hydrological and ecological perturbations to the river system. In order to study the impacts of this industry we tried to reconstruct the artificial conditions of flow during the floating period using archives and field surveys. The reservoirs were located and dated using archives and historical maps in order to evaluate the modifications to the hydrological regime. At the end of the 18th century, reservoirs were present on every little tributary of the upper valley. Their volumes were reconstructed based on the areas of the reservoirs and the heights of their dykes. From historical data, we know that it only took a couple of hours to empty the reservoirs and a couple of days to fill them. Over decades, between November and February the reservoirs were emptied as often as possible (probably several times per week). Small steep and incised streams of no more than 5 m wide regularly experienced discharges of 2 to 3 m3/s on average. The energy associated with the discharges in these small streams is very high: stream powers range between 250 and 400 W/m². In such conditions, the streams should have been able to transport pebbles and boulders of 15 to 35 cm in diameter and therefore induce very high sediment transport rates. Further

  6. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  7. Breeder reactors in France

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, C.P.

    1980-04-11

    France relies on nuclear power as an important part of her energy program. Anticipating problems with the availability of natural uranium before the year 2020, the French have been pursuing a three-stage program of development of breeder reactors. The third reactor in this program, the near-commercial plant Super Phenix Mark I, is expected to reach power operation in 1983. Although there are still some uncertainties, particularly about the date when the breeder will become competitive with other energy sources, the outlook is considered favorable and preliminary designs for commercial plants are under way.

  8. Identification of different groundwater flowpaths within volcanic aquifers using natural tracers for the evaluation of the influence of lava flows morphology (Argnat basin, Chaîne des Puys, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Guillaume; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Huneau, Frédéric; Loock, Sébastien; Renac, Christophe

    2010-09-01

    SummaryHydrochemical and stable isotopic ( 2H, 18O) data were used to characterize the groundwater flow and major chemical features within a complex fractured volcanic aquifer system, the Argnat basin, which is located in the Chaîne des Puys (French Massif Central). From 10 sampling points, the study of the transfer into the saturated zone from upstream to downstream, given the geological context and topography, allows to estimate the role of supply from high and low altitudes to the recharge processes. This work shows the existence of different types of supply between pahoehoe and a'a flows. Therefore, the morphology of volcanic flows impacts the chemical and isotopic signatures of groundwater, enhancing or reducing the influence of the unsaturated zone on the pathways of infiltrated water. Pahoehoe flows imply horizontal water flows of low discharge at the top of the lava whereas a'a flows seems to be much more heterogeneous and locally able to promote the existence of perched water bodies and further vertical circulations. Taking into account these two types of behaviour, a conceptual scheme of the functioning of this heterogeneous environment is proposed, which will help towards a sustainable management of volcanic aquifers in relation with the European Union Groundwater Directive (2006/118/CE) (2006).

  9. Legionnaires' disease in France.

    PubMed

    Campèse, C; Descours, G; Lepoutre, A; Beraud, L; Maine, C; Che, D; Jarraud, S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current knowledge of Legionnaires' disease (LD) illustrated by the epidemiological situation in France in 2013. LD is a severe pneumonia commonly caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. The diagnosis is usually based on the urinary antigen test. This rapid method reduces the delay between clinical suspicion and initiation of an appropriate treatment. However, the availability of a clinical strain is important to improve knowledge of circulating bacteria, to document case clusters, and to identify the sources of contamination. The source of contamination is unknown in most cases. The main contamination sources generating aerosols are water network systems and cooling towers. Thanks to the strengthening of clinical and environmental monitoring and to several guidelines, no epidemic has been reported in France since 2006. Despite these efforts, the number of LD cases has not decreased in recent years. It is essential that applied research continue to better understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of the disease and its characteristics (impact of environmental factors, sources of exposure, strains, host, etc.). Fundamental knowledge has been greatly improved (pathogenesis, immune mechanisms, etc.). The results of this research should help define new strategies for the diagnosis, prevention, and control to decrease the number of LD cases diagnosed every year. PMID:25722040

  10. Battle of France WWII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhath, Arpitha Rao

    The purpose of this thesis is to build an interactive Geographical Information System (GIS) tool, relating to the series of events that occurred during the Battle of France World War II. The tool gives us an insight about the countries involved in the battle, their allies and their strategies. This tool was created to use it as a one stop source of information regarding all the important battles that took place, which lead to the fall of France. The tool brings together the maps of all the countries involved. Integrated with each map is the data relevant to that map. The data for each country includes the place of attack, the strategies used during the attack, and the kind of warfare. The tool also makes use of HTML files to give all the information, along with the images from the time of the war and a footage which explains everything about the particular battle. The tool was build using JAVA, along with the use of MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) to develop Maps of each of the countries. MOJO is developed by ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) which makes it easier to add data to the maps. It also makes highlighting important information easier making use of pop-up windows, charts and infographics. HTML files were designed making use of the open-source template developed by Bootstrap. The tool is built in such a way that the interface is simple and easy for the user to use and understand.

  11. Isorenieratane record in black shales from the Paris Basin, France: Constraints on recycling of respired CO2 as a mechanism for negative carbon isotope shifts during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breugel, Yvonne; Baas, Marianne; Schouten, Stefan; Mattioli, Emanuela; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2006-12-01

    The prominent negative stable carbon isotope excursion in both carbonate and organic carbon recorded in organic-rich sediments deposited during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (OAE) has commonly been explained by recycling of 13C-depleted CO2 (the so-called Küspert model). More recently, the massive release of 13C-depleted methane or other forms of 13C-depleted carbon was also proposed to account for the observed negative δ13C excursions in organic carbon of terrigenous as well as of marine origin. The occurrence of diagenetic products of the carotenoid isorenieratene (isorenieratane and other aryl isoprenoids) in Toarcian black shales has been regarded as supporting evidence for the Küspert hypothesis as they point to strong stratification of the epicontinental seas. A section of a drill core straddling the Toarcian of the Paris Basin (Cirfontaine-en-Ornois) contained intact isorenieratane, providing evidence that photosynthetic green sulphur bacteria were present at the time of deposition, even prior to the OAE. However, the isorenieratane abundances are very low in the section where the negative δ13C excursion in organic carbon and phytane, a chemical fossil derived from chlorophyll, occurs. The abundance of the isorenieratene derivatives increases, once the δ13C records have shifted to more positive values. The δ13C of isorenieratane (generally circa -13.1 ± 0.5 ‰) indicates that the respired CO2 contribution at the chemocline was low and is thus not likely to be the main cause of the prominent up to 7‰ negative δ13C shift recorded in Toarcian organic carbon records.

  12. U-Pb ages of uraniferous opals and implications for the history of beryllium, fluorine, and uranium mineralization at Spor Mountain, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Lindsey, D.A.; Zielinski, R.A.; Simmons, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    The U-Pb isotope systematics of uraniferous opals from Spor Mountain, Utah, were investigated to determine the suitability of such material for geochronologic purposes, and to estimate the timing of uranium and associated beryllium and fluorine mineralization. The results indicate that uraniferous opals can approximate a closed system for uranium and uranium daughters, so that dating samples as young as ???1 m.y. should be possible. In addition, the expected lack of initial 230Th and 231Pa in opals permits valuable information on the initial 234U/238U to be obtained on suitable samples of ???10 m.y. age. The oldest 207Pb/235U apparent age observed, 20.8 ?? 1 m.y., was that of the opal-fluorite core of a nodule from a beryllium deposit in the Spor Mountain Formation. This age is indistinguishable from that of fission-track and K-Ar ages from the host rhyolite, and links the mineralization to the first episode of alkali rhyolite magmatism and related hydrothermal activity at Spor Mountain. Successively younger ages of 13 m.y. and 8-9 m.y. on concentric outer zones of the same nodule indicate that opal formed either episodically or continuously for over 10 m.y. Several samples of both fracture-filling and massive-nodule opal associated with beryllium deposits gave 207Pb/235U apparent ages of 13-16 m.y., which may reflect a restricted period of mineralization or perhaps an averaging of 21- and <13-m.y. periods of opal growth. Several samples of fracture-filling opal in volcanic rocks as young as 6 m.y. gave 207Pb/235U ages of 3.4-4.8 m.y. These ages may reflect hot-spring activity after the last major eruption of alkali rhyolite. ?? 1980.

  13. Women in physics in France

    SciTech Connect

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  14. [Measles in France].

    PubMed

    Antona, Denise; Baudon, Claire; Freymuth, François; Lamy, Mathieu; Maine, Catherine; Parent du Chatelet, Isabelle; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    From January 2008 to May 2012, over 22,000 cases of measles were reported in France. The highest incidence rate was observed in children below one year of age. Over 50% of cases were reported in young adults. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalised including 1,023 with severe pneumonia, 27 with encephalitis and/or myelitis : 10 died. This situation is linked to insufficient and heterogeneous vaccination coverage with pockets of susceptible people allowing virus circulation. Although the vaccine coverage in children has now improved for both doses, the issue of convincing young susceptible adults to catch up for measles vaccination remains critical, if the elimination target is to be met, and in order to protect the most vulnerable population unable to benefit from this vaccination (children below 1 year, immunodeficient people, pregnant women). PMID:23171908

  15. Radon-hazard potential the Beaver basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    Indoor-radon levels in the Beaver basin of southwestern Utah are the highest recorded to date in Utah, ranging from 17.5 to 495 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Because the U.S. Environment Protection Agency considers indoor-radon levels above 4 pCi/L to represent a risk of lung cancer from long-term exposure, the Utah Geological Survey is preparing a radon-hazard-potential map for the area to help prioritize indoor testing and evaluate the need for radon-resistant construction. Radon is a chemically inert radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium-238, which is commonly found in rocks and soils. Soil permeability, depth to ground water, and uranium/thorium content of source materials control the mobility and concentration of radon in the soil. Once formed, radon diffuses into the pore space of the soil and then to the atmosphere or into buildings by pressure-driven flow of air or additional diffusion. The Beaver basin has been a topographic and structural depression since late Miocene time. Paleocene to Miocene volcanic and igneous rocks border the basin. Uraniferous alluvial-fan, piedmont-slope, flood-plain, and lacustrine sediments derived from the surrounding volcanic rocks fill the basin. A soil-gas radon and ground radioactivity survey in the Beaver basin shows that soils have high levels of radon gas. In this survey, uranium concentrations range from 3 to 13 parts per million (ppm) and thorium concentrations range from 10 to 48 ppm. Radon concentrations in the soil gas ranged from 85 to 3,500 pCi/L. The highest concentrations of uranium, thorium, and radon gas and the highest radon-hazard-potential are in the well-drained permeable soils in the lower flood- plain deposits that underlie the city of Beaver.

  16. Stream pollution concentration in riffle geomorphic units (Yzeron basin, France).

    PubMed

    Namour, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent; Eschbach, David; Moulin, Bertrand; Fantino, Guillaume; Bordes, Claire; Breil, Pascal

    2015-11-01

    In urbanized areas, small streams can be greatly damaged by urban inflows and combined sewer overflows. These polluted inputs can be several times higher than the natural stream flow over short time periods. Sound knowledge of the spatial distribution of the discharged pollutants in sediments is therefore crucial for designing monitoring strategies and suitable remediation operations. This field study combines geomorphic characterization, hydraulic conductivity measurement and pollutant assays in sediments of a small suburban river. The study site was divided up into geomorphic units: riffles, pools and runs. The last two were grouped into one class named "pool-runs" owing to their closely similar open channel flow hydraulics. Benthic and hyporheic sediments were sampled at 2m intervals. Conventional particulate pollutants (Cr, Pb, N(org), P(tot) & C(org)) were assayed in samples. The main result was: pollutants were not randomly distributed in the stream sediments, but their location showed clear concentration differences by geomorphic units, with preferential accumulation in the hyporheic zones of riffle units and a lesser one in the hyporheic zones of pools. A decrease in hydraulic conductivity was significantly correlated with an increase in pollutant concentration. This occurred mainly at the transition between riffles and pool units. The down-welling water fluxes in the sediment calculated using Darcy's formula reflect this slowdown. Our findings highlight the need to take into account the geomorphological and hydrological functioning of a stream to accurately locate the biogeochemical hotspots to be treated and thereby develop more relevant monitoring and remediation methodologies. PMID:26057727

  17. Beginning of viniculture in France.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patrick E; Luley, Benjamin P; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P; Smith, Karen E; Hall, Gretchen R; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M

    2013-06-18

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport. PMID:23733937

  18. Beginning of viniculture in France

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500–475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425–400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport. PMID:23733937

  19. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  20. Structural investigations in the Massif-Central, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanvic, J. Y.

    1974-01-01

    This survey covered the French Massif-Central (where crystalline and volcanic rocks outcrop) and its surrounding sedimentaries, Bassin de Paris, Bassin d'Aquitaine and Rhodanian valley. One objective was the mapping of fracturing and the surveying of its relationship with known ore deposits. During this survey it was found that ERTS imagery outlines lithology in some sedimentary basins. On the other hand, in a basement area, under temperature climate conditions, lithology is rarely expressed. These observations can be related to the fact that band 5 gives excellent results above sedimentary basins in France and generally band 7 is the most useful in a basement area. Several examples show clearly the value of ERTS imagery for mapping linear features and circular structures. All the main fractures are identified with the exception of new ones found both in sedimentaries and basement areas. Other interesting findings concern sun elevation which, stereoscopic effect not being possible, simulates relief in a better way under certain conditions.

  1. Enterococcus cecorum human infection, France.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, E; Abat, C; Rolain, J-M

    2015-09-01

    Enterococcus cecorum is a bacterium of the intestinal tract of many domestic animals that is rarely reported as human pathogen. Here we report the first case of incisional hernia plate infection and the first case of urinary tract colonization due to E. cecorum from patients in Marseille, France. PMID:26199733

  2. The Quaternary coversands of southwest France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitzia, Luca; Bertran, Pascal; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Bateman, Mark D.; Hernandez, Marion; Garon, Henri; de Lafontaine, Guillaume; Mercier, Norbert; Leroyer, Chantal; Queffelec, Alain; Voinchet, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Detailed stratigraphic analysis and numerical dating (OSL, IRSL, ESR, 14C) of Pleistocene coversands in southwest France enable the construction of a renewed chronostratigraphic framework for sand deposition. The chronological data obtained from sandsheet units testify to the development of transgressive dunefields since at least the Middle Pleistocene (MIS 10). Three main phases of accumulation occurred during the Last Glacial. The oldest one (64-42 ka) is associated with wet sandsheet facies, histic horizons and zibar-type dune fields, which reflect deposition in a context strongly influenced by the groundwater table. The Late Pleniglacial (24-14 ka) corresponds to the main phase of coversand extension in a drier context. Silty gley horizons suggest, however, local interruptions of sand drifting during GS 2.1. Lateglacial stabilization of the coversands may not have occurred before GI-1c (Allerød), which was typified by the development of cumulic arenosols. These were covered by parabolic dunes during the Younger Dryas. The variations in extent of the emerged continental shelf during the glacial-interglacial cycles may explain the uneven geographical distribution of sand deposition through time. Because of coastline retreat up to 100 km north of 45°N during the LGM lowstand, the coversands were unable to reach the northern part of the basin. Comparison with other European regions highlights stronger affinities of the French record with Portugal than with the Netherlands and Great Britain, probably because of reduced influence of permafrost.

  3. "Franklin: Science, Politics and France"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, James E., III

    2003-04-01

    This presentation traces Benjamin Franklin's career as a "civic scientist" in Old-Regime France. It outlines the initial - and not always positive - reception of Franklin's work on electricity by the community of French scientists in the 1750s. It sketches Franklin's subsequent elevation into the pantheon of French Enlightenment heros, and it details his work as a "civic scientist" while American envoy to France in the 1770s and 1780s, notably his service on the government-sponsored commissions that repudiated the scientific and medical claims of Franz Anton Mesmer. This presentation concludes by examining a few features of Franklin's career that are not completely congruent with our notion of what a "civic scientist" might be, a contrast that is intended to illuminate both Franklin and the concept of "civic scientist."

  4. Cardiac remote monitoring in France.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Nicolas; Perrotton, Fanny; Delage, Emilie; Gourraud, Jean-Baptiste; Lande, Gilles; Solnon, Aude; Probst, Vincent; Grimandi, Gael; Clouet, Johann

    2014-04-01

    The increase in number of implanted cardiac medical devices and the announced decrease in number of cardiologists have led to remote monitoring being considered as a pivotal tool for patient follow-up. For 10 years, remote monitoring has been the subject of multiple clinical studies. In these studies, reliability and clinical efficacy have been demonstrated, but the use of remote monitoring remains quite limited in France compared with other countries. To explain this delay in uptake, some organizational difficulties and the lack of reimbursement of remote monitoring are often mentioned. The results of medico-economic studies might provide answers about the value of remote monitoring and enable the supervisory authorities to define how its use will be financed. This review provides a global view of remote monitoring in France, and covers the principle, clinical efficacy, organizational and regulatory aspects, and medico-economic data. PMID:24709285

  5. Toward an Ensemble Streamflow Forecast Over the Entire France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, F.; Habets, F.; Noilhan, J.; Morel, S.; Le Moigne, P.

    2004-12-01

    Since the year 2003, the French National Weather Service (Meteo-France) uses an operationnal real-time system that provides a daily monitoring of the water budget, streamflows and aquifer levels over the entire France : the SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) system. This coupled model is composed of the ISBA surface scheme and of the distributed hydrological model MODCOU. The system is used in a forced mode, with the atmospheric forcing derived from observations through the use of the SAFRAN analysis system. Such a system has been validated over 3 large french basins~: the Rhone, the Adour-Garonne and the Seine basins. It was shown that the system satisfactorily reproduces the water and energy budgets, as well as the observed streamflows, aquifer levels and snow-packs. In particular, the main long-duration floods of the Seine are well simulated. The SIM system is also used for streamflow forecasting. As a first step, experiments of determinist forecasts have been performed over the Rhone basin, using 2- and 3-day quantitive precipitation forecast. The encouraging results showed the potential of SIM for flood forecasting. As a next step, an ensemble streamflow prediction system is now being built. The forecasts from the Ensemble Prediction System of the ECMWF are used to force the system. The initial conditions of soil moisture, aquifer levels, etc. are given by the operationnal run of SIM, and the results are analysed for each forecast day. This system is expected to give 10-day forecasts of the streamflow of the main french rivers with a measure of the associated confidence, which is greatly valuable for flood warning and water management.

  6. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  7. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.

    The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.

    To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to

  8. CFB boiler at Gardanne (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Jaud, P.; Jacquet, L.; Delot, P.; Bayle, F.

    1995-06-01

    Among the new Clean Coal Technologies, {open_quotes}Circulating Fluidized Bed{close_quotes} is one of the most promising. Today, the largest project in commissioning`s the 250 MWe Provence CFB boiler, located near MARSEILLE in the south of France. At such a size, the CFB technique has now reached a capacity corresponding to thermal power plants operated by utilities. This new unit is a very important step towards larger size i.e. 400 MWe and greater. The SO{sub 2} emissions of this CFB boiler are guaranteed to be less than 400 mg / Nm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2} with the ratio of Ca/S lower than 3 while total sulfur in local coal used can reach 3.68 %. The purpose of the Provence project was to replace the existing pulverized coal boiler unit 4, commissioned in 1967, of the Provence power plant, with a new CFB boiler while reusing most of the existing equipment. The new boiler has been ordered from GEC ALSTHOM STEIN INDUSTREE (GASI) by Electricite de France (EDF) on behalf of the SOPROLIF consortium. Architect Engineering and construction management was performed by EDF jointly with Charbonnages de France (CdF: the French Coal Board). The 250 MWe CFB boiler is of the superheat-reheat type. The first firing of the boiler is due in April 1995. The poster session will describe the progress in the construction of the plant and provides technical details of the new boiler and auxiliaries.

  9. Home health care in France.

    PubMed

    Charles, B

    1990-02-23

    Home health care in France has a long tradition, but is limited in its development. Since 1970 hospitals are by law permitted to extend services at home. Apart from this, patient associations are a driving force in the organization of home health care. There is a trend to more home health care, but this is hampered by splitting of responsibilities of local, departmental or central authorities. The hospital pharmacist is recommended to focus on his scientific and technical competence. Improved relations between community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists are advocated. PMID:2314994

  10. [Dengue fever in mainland France].

    PubMed

    Paty, M-C

    2014-11-01

    Dengue fever is the most widespread distributed vector borne viral disease. It is transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. With the expansion of Aedes albopictus and increasing travel exchange, it is no longer limited to the tropical zone and transmission has been documented in temperate areas. In mainland France, where Aedes albopictus has been present and disseminating since 2004, 2 episodes of autochthonous transmission occurred in 2010 and in 2013. Control measures against dengue and chikungunya, which shares the same vector, are implemented every year since 2006, in the areas where the vector is present. They aim at preventing or limiting local transmission of these diseases. They are based on epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control measures. The diagnosis of dengue, and chikungunya should be considered in case of suggestive symptoms in patients returning from an area of virus circulation. It should also be considered for patients living or having stayed in areas of mainland France where Aedes albopictus is present, during its activity period from May 1 to November 30. The prevention and control system, including vector control measures and the notification of cases to the local health authority should be known, as the risk of autochthonous transmission increases every year. PMID:25080833

  11. Apprenticeship in France: Between Tradition and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Zarca, Georgie

    1996-01-01

    A study was made of the state of apprenticeship in France, using data gathered through telephone interviews with apprentices. Of a targeted group of 6,000 young apprentices, 70% participated in the survey. The study found that, until recently, apprenticeships had generally been used in France to train students in manual trades. During the past 10…

  12. Ensemble predictions of runoff using hydrograph transpositions to ungauged basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lavenne, Alban; Cudennec, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Regionalisation is one common approach for modelling streamflow in ungauged basins. It is sometimes performed on the basis of ensemble modelling and model averaging through the play of parameters of rainfall-runoff models. We propose an original approach for ensemble modelling by transposing physically based time series rather than model's parameters. We applied the approach on 6 sub-basins of the Blavet river in Brittany (France) with area varying from 5 km² to 316 km². Inside this sample of gauged basins, the water provided by hillslopes to the network at a basin scale, called the net rainfall, is assessed by inverting their simple geomorphology based network transfer function. Those net rainfall time series, estimated at an hourly time step on each gauged basin separately, summarise the hydrological behaviour of their hillslopes without the need of any complex modelling. Moreover, it has the advantage of being relatively scale independent which enables its transposition among basins. Once this net rainfall is transposed to an ungauged basin, it is reconvoluted using its own transfer function in order to estimate the hydrograph therein. We propose to combine several gauged basins to perform ensemble modelling prediction. This ensemble modelling provides an indication of uncertainty. Although it is not a robust estimate of the possible flow range, it informs about the variability of basins behaviour inside the studied region and, as a consequence, the relative confidence in those transpositions of hydrograph. By selecting donor basins according to their similarity to the ungauged one, we aim to improve prediction accuracy, reduce uncertainty and check the best way to define hydrological similarity for the choice of the donor basin. It is demonstrated that spatial proximity provides a relatively robust estimate of the best donor basin, and giving more importance to similar basins does not necessarily lead to higher accuracy in simulations compared to a simple net

  13. [The occupational physician in France].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-10-01

    The French Labor law defines the role and its allocation criteria of the occupational physician (OP) the same as in Japan. In France, occupational medicine is one of the medical specialties. The OP resident must follow the 4 years clinical training before certification. After having finished their residency, they are entitled to work for the occupational health service office of a company or company association (in the case of small and medium sized companies). The most important characteristics of the French system is that they cover all workers regardless of company size. The main role of the OP is prevention of work related diseases and accidents. They are not allowed to do clinical services except for emergency cases. Their main activities are health examinations, health education, patrol and advice for better working condition. Formerly, it was rather difficult to attract the medical students for OP resident course because of its prevention oriented characteristics. A growing concern about the importance of health management at the work site, however, has changed the situation. Now, the number of candidates for OP resident course is increasing. Their task has expanded to cover mental health and other life style related diseases. The 2011 modification of law redefines the role of the OP as a director of an occupational health service office who has a total responsibility of multidisciplinary services. The French and Japanese occupational health systems have many of similarities. A comparative study by researchers of UOEH is expected to yield useful information. PMID:24107336

  14. Nuclear Energy - A Fateful Choice for France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Etienne; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In France the public is only moderately interested in technological problems, and so the question of energy choices has not seeped deeply into the political consciousness. The situation could change as the country strengthens its nuclear commitment. (BT)

  15. Women's Employment in France: Protection or Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaud, Marcelle; Levy, Martine

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the origin and evolution of special protection laws in France for employed women, describes those measures that still exist, and explains what employers, unions, and the authorities think of them. Discusses pregnancy, family responsibilities, and technological progress. (CT)

  16. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ..., 2009, the Commission established a schedule for the conduct of the review (74 FR 66992, December 17... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  17. Impact of the Arundo scale Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on the weight of Arundo donax (Poaceae: Arundinoideae) rhizomes in Languedoc southern France and Mediterranean Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arundo donax L. (Poaceae) is native to Mediterranean Europe and invasive in the Rio Grande Basin of North America. Rhizomes from nine sites in France and Spain infested with a candidate control agent, the armoured scale Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) weighed 50% less than those fro...

  18. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  19. Advanced MCT technologies in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefanis, Gérard; Tribolet, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the very recent developments of the HgCdTe infrared detector technology developed by CEA-LETI and industrialized by Sofradir in France. Today Sofradir uses in production for more than 15years a very mature, reproducible, well mastered and fully understood, planar n on p ion implanted technology. This process that allows very high yields to be achieved in all infrared bands from SWIR to LWIR uses the very conventional approach of LPE growth of MCT on lattice-matched CdZnTe substrates. Progress in this field is continuous from 20years and has recently leaded to the fabrication of high performance VLWIR FPA (320x256 with cut off wavelengths as high as 20μm). Moreover, thanks to the design of the epitaxial structure and to the substrate removal step MCT FPAs present the unique features to have very high quantum efficiency (above 70%) from the cut off wavelength down to the UV. This effect, which opens new application fields, was recently demonstrated in SWIR 320x256 FPAs with cut off wavelength of 2.5μm. Very high quality FPAs (1280x1024) with pitches as small as 15μm have already been demonstrated last year using the MBE growth of MWIR MCT epilayers on 4 inches germanium substrates, n on p ion implanted photodiodes and the hot welding indium bump hybridization technique. At the same time, with the MBE growth, bicolor and dual band FPAs which uses more complex multi hetero-junctions architectures (both 4 layers npn and 'pseudo planar' structures and extrinsically doped MCT layers) were fabricated with formats of 320x256 and pitches as small as 25μm. A very new area of development concerns avalanche photodiodes (APD) made with MCT. This semiconductor presents a unique feature among all the over semiconductors. Extremely high avalanche gains can be obtained on n on p photodiodes without absolutely any noise excess (F(K)=1): MCT APDs act as perfect amplifiers. These results open new interesting fields of investigation for low

  20. The International Heliophysical Year in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.

    We are preparing in France the anniversary of IGY 50 We are gathering our efforts around few actions 1 We planned to follow the international campaigns with our solar Telescope THEMIS in Tenerife with the spacecrafts SOHO Cluster and the magnetometers of Superdarn A group is already formed with C Hanuise as responsible to understand some physical processes involved in these phenomena by using former data 2 On the initiative of CAWSES SCOSTEP program we plan to rehabilitate our heliograph in Meudon in order to be able to participate to the international network of flare survey The Japonese are leading this program Shibata and Kurokawa 3 We are developping lectures for students in different places in France We planned to work on the development of a DVD and video games in a IHY European context 4 We have also an outreach program which consists of an exhibition This exibition could be duplicated in France and for French speaking countries

  1. Syphilis surveillance in France, 2000-2003.

    PubMed

    Couturier, E; Michel, A; Janier, M; Dupin, N; Semaille, C

    2004-12-01

    This article describes syphilis trends, characteristics of patients from 2000 to 2003 in France and trends of the benzylpenicillin benzathine 2.4 million UI sales from 2001 to 2003. The ongoing surveillance system for syphilis case reporting since 2001 has been set up in volunteer settings, mostly public settings where STI treatment is offered. Clinical case reporting is complemented by sexual behavioural data based on a self-administered questionnaire. From 2000 to 2003, 1089 syphilis cases were reported in France, increasing from 37 cases in 2000 to 428 in 2003. Overall, 96% of syphilis cases were in men with a mean age of 36.5 years and 70% of whom were born in France. The proportion of syphilis cases with HIV co-infection decreased over time from 60% in 2000 to 33% in 2003. The most affected area by the syphilis epidemic is the Ile-de-France region, mainly the city of Paris. The greatest proportion of syphilis cases diagnosed in men who have sex with men (MSM) were in the Ile-de-France region, where they made up 87% of cases, compared with 75% in other regions. Among the patients who completed the self-administered questionnaire on sexual behaviour, 83% reported having casual sex partners in the 3 months prior to their syphilis diagnosis. Trends in the sales of benzylpenicillin benzathine 2.4 million UI in private pharmacies are similar to those observed in the surveillance system, and increased between 2001 and 2003. In conclusion, syphilis transmission is still ongoing in France in 2003 and the role of unprotected oral sex in the transmission of syphilis should be emphasised. PMID:15677855

  2. Prediction of streamflow from the set of basins flowing into a coastal bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lavenne, A.; Cudennec, C.

    2015-03-01

    Many coastal basins of the Brittany peninsula (France) display a high level of nitrate pollution, nine of them highlighted by the European Commission since 2007, as causing algal blooms in several coastal bays. To precisely diagnose and solve this issue the fluxes of every contributing basin have to be considered. However, this faces a strong data-scarce situation as most of the basins are ungauged. In this context, we propose to transpose hydrological information from one gauged basin to neighbouring points of interest. The methodology uses a simple geomorphology-based transfer function on the gauged basin, which allows assessment of the net rainfall time series through the de-convolution of the gauged discharge series. This net rainfall is then transposed and convoluted on the ungauged basin using its own transfer function in order to estimate discharge. This approach enables the quantification of the whole volume of freshwater entering the controversial Saint-Brieuc Bay.

  3. Heat flow map of the western Mediterranean basins

    SciTech Connect

    Foucher, J.P.; Burrus, J.; Vedova, B.D.

    1988-08-01

    More than 400 terrestrial heat flow determinations have been carried our in the western Mediterranean basins. These include results of detailed surveys in the Ligurian Sea and in the Gulf of Lions and Tyrrhenian basins, as well as sparse measurements in the Gulf of Valencia and the Algerian basin. Most of the measurements are surficial, obtained from the temperatures sensed by outrigged thermistors mounted on weight-driven probes penetrating the sediment to 3 to 10 m. Thermal conductivity was measured either on cores or in situ. The authors present a heat flow map of the western Mediterranean basins based on the available geothermal results. Mean regional heat flow values range from 55 to 105 mW m/sup /minus/2/ in the Lugiran and Gulf of Lions basin and from 50 to 200 m mW m/sup /minus/2/ in the Tyrrhenian Sea. In the latter basin, high heat flow characterizes areas of recent intensive thinning of the continental crust and associated incipient oceanic crust formation. In the former basins, heat flow tends to increase from the Provencal coast of France to the Corsican and Sardinian margins, which may reflect on increasing heat contribution from the mantle.

  4. Reconstruction of the Provence Chain evolution, southeastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestani, L.; Espurt, N.; Lamarche, J.; Bellier, O.; Hollender, F.

    2016-06-01

    The Provence fold-and-thrust belt forms the eastern limit of the Pyrenean orogenic system in southeastern France. This belt developed during the Late Cretaceous-Eocene Pyrenean-Provence compression and was then deformed by Oligocene-Miocene Ligurian rifting events and Neogene to present-day Alpine compression. In this study, surface structural data, seismic profiles, and crustal-to-lithospheric-scale sequentially balanced cross sections contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of the Provence Chain and its long-term history of deformation. Balanced cross sections show that the thrust system is characterized by various structural styles, including deep-seated basement faults that affect the entire crust, tectonic inversions of Paleozoic-Mesozoic basins, shallower décollements within the sedimentary cover, accommodation zones, and salt tectonics. This study shows the prime control of the structural inheritance over a long period of time on the tectonic evolution of a geological system. This includes mechanical heterogeneities, such as Variscan shear zones, reactivated during Middle Cretaceous Pyrenean rifting between Eurasia and Sardinia. In domains where Mesozoic rifting is well marked, inherited basement normal faults and the thermally weak crust favored the formation of an inner thick-skinned thrust belt during Late Cretaceous-Eocene contraction. Here 155 km (~35%) of shortening was accommodated by inversion of north verging crustal faults, north directed subduction of the Sardinia mantle lithosphere, and ductile thickening of the Provence mantle lithosphere. During the Oligocene, these domains were still predisposed for the localized faulting of the Ligurian basin rifting and the seafloor spreading.

  5. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  6. Progress in industrial holography in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigielski, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Industrial applications of holography in France are briefly reviewed. Particular attention is given to nondestructive testing of helicopter blades at Aerospatiale Central Laboratory, the use of holography at Renault for car-engine vibration study, vibration characterization of turbo-jet engine components at SNECMA, and vibration analysis of plates in an industrial hemodynamic tunnel.

  7. Haemovigilance and transfusion safety in France.

    PubMed

    Rouger, P; Noizat-Pirenne, F; Le Pennec, P Y

    2000-01-01

    The risks associated to red cell and platelet transfusions are essentially bound to the polymorphism of blood group antigens and to transfusion transmitted agents including virus, bacterias.... In France, the haemovigilance system and several investigations allowed to measure these different kinds of risks. We also developed analysis of failures in order to prevent errors and accidents to increase blood safety. PMID:10938971

  8. Murine Typhus, Reunion, France, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Camuset, Guillaume; Socolovschi, Cristina; Moiton, Marie-Pierre; Kuli, Barbara; Foucher, Aurélie; Poubeau, Patrice; Borgherini, Gianandrea; Wartel, Guillaume; Audin, Héla; Raoult, Didier; Filleul, Laurent; Parola, Philippe; Pagès, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Murine typhus case was initially identified in Reunion, France, in 2012 in a tourist. Our investigation confirmed 8 autochthonous cases that occurred during January 2011–January 2013 in Reunion. Murine typhus should be considered in local patients and in travelers returning from Reunion who have fevers of unknown origin. PMID:25625653

  9. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  10. Career Development and Public Policy in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Jean

    Three conditions characterize employment in France today: (1) high unemployment; (2) the importance of degrees in employment; and (3) significant differences between the sexes. The differences between national government initiatives and regional issues also are of concern. The main strategic issues facing career development focus on reducing…

  11. The Occitan Movement in Southern France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Klaus

    The Occitan movement in Southern France should be studied in the light of a world-wide political reality of our days, the surfacing of ethnic minorities which are beginning to voice cultural and political demands in almost all large industrialized or developing countries. The first step for a minority group to come into existence is almost without…

  12. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... The Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2009 (74 FR 31762, July 2, 2009) and determined on... publishing the notice in the Federal Register on December 17, 2009 (74 FR 66992). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Sorbitol From France; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  13. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  14. [New conditions for organ donation in France].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Corinne; Maroudy, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The procurement of organs from donors after circulatory death is a reliable technique which gives satisfactory posttransplant results and also represents a potential source of additional organs. In order to meet the growing need for organ donations, the 'anticipated organ donation approach' procedure is currently receiving renewed interest with new conditions for its implementation in France. PMID:27596496

  15. Implementing the national AIGA flash flood warning system in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Organde, Didier; Javelle, Pierre; Demargne, Julie; Arnaud, Patrick; Caseri, Angelica; Fine, Jean-Alain; de Saint Aubin, Céline

    2015-04-01

    The French national hydro-meteorological and flood forecasting centre (SCHAPI) aims to implement a national flash flood warning system to improve flood alerts for small-to-medium (up to 1000 km2) ungauged basins. This system is based on the AIGA method, co-developed by IRSTEA these last 10 years. The method, initially set up for the Mediterranean area, is based on a simple event-based hourly hydrologic distributed model run every 15 minutes (Javelle et al. 2014). The hydrologic model ingests operational radar-gauge rainfall grids from Météo-France at a 1-km² resolution to produce discharges for successive outlets along the river network. Discharges are then compared to regionalized flood quantiles of given return periods and warnings (expressed as the range of the return period estimated in real-time) are provided on a river network map. The main interest of the method is to provide forecasters and emergency services with a synthetic view in real time of the ongoing flood situation, information that is especially critical in ungauged flood prone areas. In its enhanced national version, the hourly event-based distributed model is coupled to a continuous daily rainfall-runoff model which provides baseflow and a soil moisture index (for each 1-km² pixel) at the beginning of the hourly simulation. The rainfall-runoff models were calibrated on a selection of 700 French hydrometric stations with Météo-France radar-gauge reanalysis dataset for the 2002-2006 period. To estimate model parameters for ungauged basins, the 2 hydrologic models were regionalised by testing both regressions (using different catchment attributes, such as catchment area, soil type, and climate characteristic) and spatial proximity techniques (transposing parameters from neighbouring donor catchments), as well as different homogeneous hydrological areas. The most valuable regionalisation method was determined for each model through jack-knife cross-validation. The system performance was then

  16. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  17. Fire occurrence prediction in the Mediterranean: Application to Southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakosta, Panagiota; Öster, Jan; Scherb, Anke; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The areas that extend in the Mediterranean basin have a long fire history. The climatic conditions of wet winters and long hot drying summers support seasonal fire events, mainly ignited by humans. Extended land fragmentation hinders fire spread, but seasonal winds (e.g. Mistral in South France or Meltemia in Greece) can drive fire events to become uncontrollable fires with severe impacts to humans and the environment [1]. Prediction models in these areas should incorporate both natural and anthropogenic factors. Several indices have been developed worldwide to express fire weather conditions. The Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) is currently adapted by many countries in Europe due to the easily observable input weather parameters (temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, precipitation) and the easy-to-implement algorithms of the Canadian formulation describing fuel moisture relations [2],[3]. Human influence can be expressed directly by human presence (e.g. population density) or indirectly by proxy indicators (e.g. street density [4], land cover type). The random nature of fire occurrences and the uncertainties associated with the influencing factors motivate probabilistic prediction models. The aim of this study is to develop a prediction model of fire occurrence probability under natural and anthropogenic influence in Southern France and to compare it with earlier developed predictions in other Mediterranean areas [5]. Fire occurrence is modeled as a Poisson process. Two interpolation methods (Kriging and Inverse Distance Weighting) are used to interpolate daily weather observations from weather stations to a 1 km² spatial grid and their results are compared. Poisson regression estimates the parameters of the model and the resulting daily predictions are provided in terms of maps displaying fire occurrence rates. The model is applied to the regions Provence-Alpes-Côtes D'Azur und Languedoc-Roussillon in the South of France. Weather data are obtained from

  18. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1992-06-01

    This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

  19. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    This project requires generation of producible tight gas sand reserve estimates for three western basins. The requirement is to perform such reserve estimates using industry accepted practices so that results will have high credibility and acceptance by the oil and gas industry. The ultimate goal of the project is to encourage development of the tight gas formation by industry through reduction of the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial gas wells. The three geological basins selected for study are the Greater Green River Basin, Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin, located in the Colorado, Utah and Wyoming Rocky Mountain region.

  20. Evolution of the Basco-Cantabrian basin, northern Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, O. )

    1988-08-01

    The Basco-Cantabrian basin (BCB) stretches for 150 km west from the Pyrenean system and displays a complex subsidence pattern through time, involving Triassic faulting, Jurassic quiescence, Cretaceous faulting and subsidence, followed by Tertiary compression. Its southern margin is rimmed by a narrow (40 km wide) Tertiary basin, deeper in places than the coeval Ebro basin in the southern Pyrenees, but lacking any driving load. This Tertiary Cantabrian basin may reflect the interaction between thermal subsidence phases at the southern margin of the BCB and uplift (inversion) of the Mesozoic basin to the north. In addition, the BCB shows a number of interactions between thin-skinned and thick-skinned styles of shortening. In the west, inversion has uplifted a major basement ridge between areas of vastly differing sedimentology and structural style. The southern thrust margin to the basin has no basement outcrops, even though it marks the southern margin of Mesozoic sedimentation. Balanced sections imply the reactivation of basement faults in controlling the geometry, position, and orientation of the thrust front. In the northern part of the BCB, around Bilbao, major monoclines and thrusts follow basement fault trends - trends which earlier strongly affected the distribution of the Mesozoic. The BCB has a stratigraphy and structure in common with eastern basins such as the Aquitaine and Ebro. Though it can be difficult to correlate individual structures, many features of basin dynamics are similar. It is valuable to study the less-deformed BCB in order to understand the basins of northern Spain and southern France.

  1. Clastic depositional styles and reservoir potential of Mediterranean basins

    SciTech Connect

    Bouma, A.H. )

    1990-05-01

    A variety of tectonic styles and activities throughout the late Mesozoic and younger epochs influenced sediment transport to the Mediterranean basins and, consequently, the approach needed to finding reservoir-type clastics. The style of the present-day basins varies from west to east, with large basinal depressions and continental rises in the western province, more elongate shapes in the central area, and numerous small basins and trenches in the eastern Mediterranean. In general terms, all these basins contain a similar fill: a deep-water sequence older than late Miocene, overlain by upper Miocene evaporites, and topped by Pliocene-Quaternary clastics. The exact type of fill depends on several factors, including proximity to the sediment source, climatic conditions, subsidence and tectonic activity, and tectono-eustatic or glacio-eustatic oscillations. Investigations on many of the clastic reservoirs in Mediterranean basins should emphasize submarine fans. The modern Mediterranean Sea contains several mid-sized fans (Rhone, Ebro, Valencia, and Nile fans) and many small ones (e.g., Crati Fan). There are several well-studied Tertiary subsurface and outcropping turbidite systems. The concept of deep-water marine sands, and many of the initial studies, began with some of the now classic outcrops in Italy, France, and Spain. A well-integrated study of both modern and ancient turbidite series is needed to construct basic exploration models for the Mediterranean region. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in France.

    PubMed

    Thulliez, P

    1992-01-01

    The high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in France led to the establishment of a national screening programme. Preventive measures were progressively introduced, and these became compulsory in 1978 with the result that the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis is now markedly reduced. Further improvements may include more systematic sampling from women before pregnancy, better and adequate health education and centralized notification of both maternal and congenital cases of toxoplasmosis. PMID:1290073

  3. Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht

    2016-06-01

    Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed. PMID:27261810

  4. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000–2012) and Tunisia (2011–2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs. PMID:26709514

  5. A paradox in physics education in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureateThe French baccalaureate (baccalauréat) is the examination students must pass to graduate from high school. undergraduate engineering school. The responses to the survey indicate that many students fall into a kind of mathematical ‘formalism’, which prevents them from understanding the actual physics behind the question. This leads us to believe that we must reconsider the way that physics is taught. An analysis of a physics teaching sequence in French and English undergraduate textbooks confirms the weight given to mathematical formalism in France. When approached from a purely mathematical angle, physics becomes a long and slow process of assimilation of the specific scientific culture that underlies the teaching model used in classes préparatoires, classes that are usually presented as a model of academic excellence. However, this model appears to be less suitable when teaching more ‘ordinary students’, who respond better when taken through a ‘detour’ of the ‘important roots’ of physics. This paper shows that in France historically rooted pedagogical traditions persist, ignoring the latest advances in research on science teaching.

  6. Populations at Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, France

    PubMed Central

    Piarroux, Martine; Piarroux, Renaud; Knapp, Jenny; Bardonnet, Karine; Dumortier, Jérôme; Watelet, Jérôme; Gerard, Alain; Beytout, Jean; Abergel, Armand; Bresson-Hadni, Solange

    2013-01-01

    During 1982–2007, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) was diagnosed in 407 patients in France, a country previously known to register half of all European patients. To better define high-risk groups in France, we conducted a national registry-based study to identify areas where persons were at risk and spatial clusters of cases. We interviewed 180 AE patients about their way of life and compared responses to those of 517 controls. We found that almost all AE patients lived in 22 départements in eastern and central France (relative risk 78.63, 95% CI 52.84–117.02). Classification and regression tree analysis showed that the main risk factor was living in AE-endemic areas. There, most at-risk populations lived in rural settings (odds ratio [OR] 66.67, 95% CI 6.21–464.51 for farmers and OR 6.98, 95% CI 2.88–18.25 for other persons) or gardened in nonrural settings (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.82–10.91). These findings can help sensitization campaigns focus on specific groups. PMID:23647623

  7. Divergent/passive margin basins

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.D. ); Santogrossi, P.A. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the detailed geology of the four divergent margin basins and establishes a set of analog scenarios which can be used for future petroleum exploration. The divergent margin basins are the Campos basin of Brazil, the Gabon basin, the Niger delta, and the basins of the northwest shelf of Australia. These four petroleum basins present a wide range of stratigraphic sequences and structural styles that represent the diverse evolution of this large and important class of world petroleum basins.

  8. Evidence of the radioactive fallout in France due to the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Evrard, Olivier; Van Beek, Pieter; Gateuille, David; Pont, Véronique; Lefèvre, Irène; Lansard, Bruno; Bonté, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Radioactive fallout due to the Fukushima reactor explosion in Japan was detected in environmental samples collected in France. The presence of (131)I in aerosols (200±6 μBq m(-3)) collected at the Pic du Midi observatory, located at 2877 m altitude in the French Pyrénées, indicated that the Japanese radioactive cloud reached France between 22 and 29 March, i.e. less than two weeks after the initial emissions, as suggested by a (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio of 1.4. Cesium radioisotopes ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were not detected in this sample but they were present in the aerosol sample collected the next week, i.e. between 29 March and 05 April (about 10 μBq m(-3)). We also report (131)I activities measured in grass (1.1-11 Bq kg(-1); fresh weight) and soil samples (0.4 Bq kg(-1)) collected in the Seine River basin between 30 March and 10 April. The (134)Cs from the damaged Fukushima power plant was also detected in grass collected in the Seine River basin between 31 March and 10 April (0.2-1.6 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight, with a (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio close to 1, which is consistent with Fukushima radioactive release). Despite the installation of a network of nested stations to collect suspended matter in the upstream part of the Seine River basin, (131)I was only detected in suspended matter (4.5-60 Bq kg(-1)) collected at the most upstream stations between 30 March and 12 April. Neither (131)I nor (134)Cs has been detected in environmental samples since the end of April 2011, because of the rapid decay of (131)I and the very low activities of (134)Cs (about 400 times lower than after Chernobyl accident). PMID:22348995

  9. Palaeontology, taxonomic revision and variability of some species of the genus Gassendiceras Bert et al., 2006 (Ammonitina, Upper Barremian) from southeastern Franc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bert, Didier; Bersac, Stéphane; Delanoy, Gérard; Canut, Léon

    2013-09-01

    Bed-by-bed sampling of twelve Barremian sections in southeastern France from pelagic basin (Vocontian Basin) to neritic platforms (Arc of Castellane, Arc of Nice and Provencal Domain) has enabled the collection of isochronous samples of the ammonite genus Gassendiceras. Three poorly known species of the Toxancyloceras vandenheckei Zone (Upper Barremian) are revised: G. alpinum, G. multicostatum and G. hoheneggeri; two new species are described (G. rebouleti nov. sp. and G. bosellii nov. sp.). The intraspecific variability of particular species was recognised. This variability is between slender peramorphic and robust paedomorphic extreme morphologies, with the presence of all intermediates.

  10. France. Country profile. [France's economy adjusts to a declining birth rate].

    PubMed

    Inserra, P

    1984-09-01

    This discussion of France focuses on regions and cities, age distribution, households and families, housing, labor force, consumption, education, and communications. France counted 54,334,871 citizens as of March 4, 1982. There were 250,000 more people than in 1975, yielding a 7-year growth rate of 3.3%. If present trends continue, there will be 56 million French by the end of the 1980s. Since 1975 when the last census was conducted, cities of more than 200,000 lost an average of 5% of their residents. For the 1st time in more than a century, urban areas of 20,000 or more did not gain population but merely held their own. France continues to experience the effects of the large-scale decimation of its male population during the 2 world wars. The World war i loss showed up March 1982 as a relatively smaller 60-74 group. Conversely the population aged 75 and over is growing, both in absolute numbers and as a percent of the population. There were 3.6 million aged 75 and over (6.6% of the population) in 1982 compared with 3 million (5.6%) in 1975. The 19 and under age group declined between 1975-85, from 31% (16.2 million) to 29% (15.6 million). The 20-59 year old group constitutes the largest segment of the population--about double the group aged 19 and under--and its growing. This group was 50% of the population in 1973 and 53% in 1982. The infant mortality rate has declined steadily in France, from 18.2 deaths/1000 births in 1970 to 13.6 in 1975 and 9.5 at present. The total fertility rate has continued to decline: 1.8 children/woman in the 1982 census a rate less than the number needed to replace the present French population. Between 1975-82 households grew 10.4% to a total of 19.6 million. The growth in the number of households is attributed to the increase in divorce and the tendency for French children to leave the parental home at an earlier age. France has nearly 23 million dwelling places. More than half of householders own their own homes. New housing starts

  11. How Gaz de France optimizes LNG regasification

    SciTech Connect

    Colonna, J.L.; Lecomte, B.; Caudron, S.

    1986-05-05

    A regasification optimization program was implemented at Montoir-de-Bretagne in 1984, and rapidly accepted by the operators. It has been an important tool for decision-making in the optimizing operation of this liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage and regasification terminal. The models used are regularly and easily updated on the basis of equipment behavior: aging or fouling. The Montoir-de-Bretagne LNG terminal is in the port area of Nates-Saint Nazaire on the Atlantic coast. It was commissioned in 1982 by Gaz de France. This terminal is used for receiving, storing, and regasifying the Algerian LNG received under a contract between Gaz de France and Sonatrach, as well as the LNG imported by Belgium and temporarily routed through France. It is designed to receive 25,000 to 200,000 cu m LNG carriers and has three 120,000 cm m LNG storage tanks. The daily sendout ranges between 6.7 million cu m and 36 million cu m. Monitor terminal supplies mainly Brittany and the Paris area. Two identifical berths allow the simultaneous reception of two LNG carriers. LNG is carried to the storage tanks in 32-in. lines at a rate of 12,000 cu m/hr. Each storage tank is equipped with three submerged 450 cu m/hr pumps with which the LNG is sent from the tanks to the secondary pumps at 8 bar. The nine high-pressure (HP) secondary pumps, with a capacity of either 450 cu m/hr or 180 cu m/hr, raise the LNG pressure to a level at least equal to pipeline pressure prior to revaporization.

  12. Chapter 40: history of neurology in France.

    PubMed

    Clarac, François; Boller, François

    2010-01-01

    The history of neurology in France is characterized by the very high degree of centralization in that country where "everything seems to happen in Paris," and yet the considerable degree of autonomous diversity in the evolution of some other medical schools such as Montpellier and Strasbourg. It could be argued that France saw the birth of clinical neurology as a separate discipline since Jean Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière Hospital obtained a chair of diseases of the nervous system in 1892, a first in the history of the academic world. The chapter shows, however, that the work of Charcot was preceded by a long evolution in medical thinking, which culminated with the introduction of experimental medicine developed by Claude Bernard and François Magendie, and by the study of aphasia by Paul Broca and its localization of language in a specific area of the brain. Many of the great neurologists of France like Duchenne de Boulogne, Gilles de la Tourette, Joseph Babinski and Pierre Marie gravitated around Charcot while others like Charles-Edward Brown-Sequard and Jules Dejerine developed their talents independently. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital further illustrates this independence. It also shows the relation between neurology and psychiatry with Henri Ey, Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker, who collaborated with Henri Laborit in the clinical development of chlorpromazine. Sainte Anne also saw the birth of modern neuropsychology with Henry Hécaen. Jean Talairach and his group developed human stereotaxic neurosurgery and a 3-dimensional brain atlas that is used around the world. The chapter also mentions institutions (the CNRS and INSERM) that have contributed to developments partially independently from medical schools. It concludes with a presentation of schools located outside of Paris that have played a significant role in the development of neurology. Six of the most important ones are described: Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Strasbourg, Lyon, and

  13. Autochthonous case of dengue in France, October 2013.

    PubMed

    Marchand, E; Prat, C; Jeannin, C; Lafont, E; Bergmann, T; Flusin, O; Rizzi, J; Roux, N; Busso, V; Deniau, J; Noel, H; Vaillant, V; Leparc-Goffart, I; Six, C; Paty, M C

    2013-01-01

    In October 2013, autochthonous dengue fever was diagnosed in a laboratory technician in Bouches-du-Rhone, southern France, a department colonised by Aedes albopictus since 2010. After ruling out occupational contamination, we identified the likely chain of local vector-borne transmission from which the autochthonous case arose. Though limited, this second occurrence of autochthonous dengue transmission in France highlights that efforts should be continued to rapidly detect dengue virus introduction and prevent its further dissemination in France. PMID:24342514

  14. Frances E. Jensen's The Teenage Brain.

    PubMed

    Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictable and sometimes incomprehensible moods and behaviors of a teenager can be a head-scratching mystery-especially to parents. Hormones, boredom, social media, peer pressure, and drugs and alcohol are just a few of the factors to consider. Frances E. Jensen, M.D., professor and chair of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and the mother of two sons who are now in their twenties (along with Washington Post health and science reporter and Pulitzer Prize winner Amy Ellis Nutt) look at the emerging science of the adolescent brain and provide advice based on Jensen's own research and experience as a single mother. PMID:27408670

  15. France: Thrust and parry over nuclear risks

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1997-01-31

    Claims about the health risks posed by nuclear-power installations are always controversial, but nowhere more so than in France, where some 75% of the nation`s electricity is generated from nuclear energy. So, it was no surprise that publication of a study by two French epidemiologists earlier this month claiming to show a link between cases of childhood leukemia and the nuclear-waste reprocessing plant at La Hague on the Normandy coast sparked fireworks in the French press. Several French epidemiologists sharply criticized the study`s methodology and conclusions. Their attacks have now drawn an unusual response from the British Medical Journal (BMJ), in which the paper appeared.

  16. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  17. Medication sales and syndromic surveillance, France.

    PubMed

    Vergu, Elisabeta; Grais, Rebecca F; Sarter, Hélène; Fagot, Jean-Paul; Lambert, Bruno; Valleron, Alain-Jaques; Flahault, Antoine

    2006-03-01

    Although syndromic surveillance systems using nonclinical data have been implemented in the United States, the approach has yet to be tested in France. We present the results of the first model based on drug sales that detects the onset of influenza season and forecasts its trend. Using weekly lagged sales of a selected set of medications, we forecast influenzalike illness (ILI) incidence at the national and regional level for 3 epidemic seasons (2000-01, 2001-02, and 2002-03) and validate the model with real-time updating on the fourth (2003-04). For national forecasts 1-3 weeks ahead, the correlation between observed ILI incidence and forecast was 0.85-0.96, an improvement over the current surveillance method in France. Our findings indicate that drug sales are a useful additional tool to syndromic surveillance, a complementary and independent source of information, and a potential improvement for early warning systems for both epidemic and pandemic planning. PMID:16704778

  18. [Territorial and social healthcare inequalities in France].

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Geographic analyses of health-related issues have a long tradition in France, and have often consisted of observational studies conducted by practitioners themselves. Such geographic approaches were gradually abandoned during the 20th century as the pace of clinical progress increased. The few healthcare studies conducted by geographers have had little impact among the medical community. However, our studies show that geographic inequalities in health still persist. During the last 10 years or so, the social and economic crisis has dangerously accentuated health inequalities at every level In France, where equality is supposed to be the watchword of the entire healthcare system, this situation is particularly regrettable. Access to care decreases with distance from medical services. With the increasing urban and suburban concentration of the population, public healthcare policy must focus on finding solutions for people living in remote areas or too poor to access medical care. Geographic analyses of healthcare organization can help to make medical care available for all, especially those who need it most. PMID:23550454

  19. The Oquirrh basin revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, M.C.

    1997-04-01

    The upper Paleozoic succession in the Oquirrh basin in unusually thick, up to 9300 m, and consists mainly of a Pennsylvanian-middle Permian miogeocline of northwestern Utah. Previous workers have suggested a tectonic origin for the Oquirrh basin that is incompatible with the basin location in both time and space. There is no evidence for Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian tectonism in the middle of the miogeocline. Thermal evidence from the Mississippian Mission Canyon shale does no support the implied deep burial of the crustal sag models of basin formation. Stratigraphic and facies evidence indicates a growth fault origin for the basin. Regional isopach maps and facies maps are powerful tools in interpreting depositional environments and in reconstructing fold-and-thrust belts. However, the location of measured sections relative to the location of the growth fault basin. The Charleston-Nebo thrust may have essentially reversed the movement on a growth fault. Thick Oquirrh basin sedimentary rocks may not be required to balance structural sections across this thrust fault. A thin-skinned, extensional growth fault origin for the Oquirrh basin implies that the Cordilleran miogeocline did not participate in the Pennsylvanian north-vergent uplifts of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains.

  20. Urgonian platform carbonates (Barremian-Early Aptian) of southeastern France: description of a new project and first data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastide, F.; Massonnat, G.; Föllmi, K.; Adatte, T.; Dumont, T.; Arnaud-Vanneau, A.; Virgone, A.; Arnaud, H.

    2012-04-01

    Urgonian platform carbonates are widespread in southeastern France. They were deposited along the northern Tethyan margin and bordered the Vocontian basin. They are predominantly composed of rudistic wackestone and bioclastic/ooid grainstone. The Urgonian Formation in southeastern France has been studied by various authors since 1847 (A. Orbigny, A. Arnaud-Vanneau, H. Arnaud, J. Charollais, B. Clavel, W. Kilian, J.P. Masse, R. Schroeder...). The goal of this project is to complement existing observations and produce a synthesis of the development of the Urgonian platform for the whole southeastern sector of France. This will be achieved by a sedimentological, palaeontological and stratigraphical study on 54 sections and dedicated wells, i.e., 2418 thin sections or 10.5 km of sections in total, through the entire Urgonian series, from the transgressive system track of Ba3 (early late Barremian) to the highstand system track of Ap2 (early Aptian). The sections and wells are located in five main sectors of southeastern France: Gard, Ardèche, Vercors, Vaucluse and Provence. A biostratigraphic chart relevant to all five sectors has been realized in order to correlate between the sections. In addition, the geochemistry (carbon and oxygen isotopes, whole-rock and clay mineralogies, and phosphorus contents) of five key sections (one in each main sector) has been analysed to evaluate palaeoenvironmental conditions and corroborate the stratigraphic correlation throughout southeastern France. An additional study will be performed on the global and regional geotectonic constellation during the late Barremian and the early Aptian, and finally a numerical model will be developed based on the stratigraphic correlation between the sections and consistent with their palaeoenvironmental and paleaoclimatic context. With this interdisciplinary approach, we hope to be able to reconstruct and understand the development of the Urgonian platform in terms of its palaeoenvironment, palaeo

  1. K Basin safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  2. Sm-Nd dating of fluorite from the worldclass Montroc fluorite deposit, southern Massif Central, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munoz, M.; Premo, W.R.; Courjault-Rade, P.

    2005-01-01

    A three-point Sm-Nd isotope isochron on fluorite from the very large Montroc fluorite vein deposit (southern Massif Central, France) defines an age of 111??13 Ma. Initial ??Nd of -8.6 and initial 87Sr/86Sr of ???0.71245 suggest an upper crustal source of the hydrothermal system, in agreement with earlier work on fluid inclusions which indicated a basinal brine origin. The mid-Cretaceous age of ???111 Ma suggests the Albian/Aptian transition as the most likely period for large-scale fluid circulation during a regional extensional tectonic event, related to the opening of the North Atlantic ocean. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  3. Cataclastic bands in immature and poorly lithified sandstone, examples from Corsica, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torabi, Anita

    2014-09-01

    Cataclastic bands with intense cataclasis formed in phyllosilicate- and clay-rich poorly lithified sandstone have been identified and characterized for the first time. This study indicates that intense cataclasis could occur at shallow burial depth regardless of mineralogy of the rock at the time of deformation. The study was performed on a series of listric normal faults (displacement up to 10 m) in the Aghione Formation at Aleria Basin, Corsica, France. In-situ measurements of permeability show a reduction in permeability up to two orders of magnitude in the damage zone (cataclastic bands), while permeability increases along the slip surfaces. The slip surfaces make conduits to fluid flow, which is also confirmed by the field observations. The permeability and porosity decrease within cataclastic bands is in agreement with an increase in P-wave velocity measured on the band possibly due to compaction, introducing anisotropy to the rock.

  4. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  5. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  6. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  7. The Definition of Vocational Diplomas in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobus, Martine; Verdier, Eric

    1997-01-01

    In both France and Germany, the government, employers' organizations, and unions all participate in defining vocational diplomas based on a national framework of procedures of elaborating and standardizing titles. Important differences between the diploma definition processes in France and Germany may be identified. In Germany, the issue is…

  8. Social Representation of Gifted Children: A Preliminary Study in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavani, Jean Louis; Zenasni, Franck; Pereira-Fradin, Maria

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of giftedness in France and the need for identification. Social Representations (SR) of gifted children have never been examined in France with an appropriate methodology, yet it is important to do so as the information obtained may help ensure the insertion and inclusion of these children in school and society. The…

  9. 78 FR 38821 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... reference at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of...-071-AD; Amendment 39-17482; AD 2013-12-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model EC 155B, EC155B1, SA-366G1, SA-365N,...

  10. 78 FR 76984 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... is incorporated by reference at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For...-084-AD; Amendment 39-17696; AD 2013-24-19] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS332C, AS332L,...

  11. 78 FR 25367 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... information that is incorporated by reference at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For...-021-AD; Amendment 39-17282; AD 2012-25-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model AS350B, AS350BA, AS350B1,...

  12. 78 FR 16200 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Eurocopter France...

  13. 78 FR 23686 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Eurocopter France...

  14. 77 FR 36216 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model...

  15. 78 FR 63429 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France Model AS332C,...

  16. 77 FR 58973 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the Eurocopter France...

  17. 77 FR 20319 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Eurocopter France (EC) Model...

  18. 77 FR 36220 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Eurocopter France...

  19. Dutch/Flemish in the North of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryckeboer, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Dutch in the Northern France, specifically the historical retreat of Dutch from Pas-de-Calais, historical evolution of the language situation in the Department du Nord, reactions to official language policy and language loss, characteristics of Flemish in France, alienation from other Dutch dialects by communicative isolation, linguistic…

  20. France: The Move toward Distance Education in the University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    France is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leading force in Europe. A highly literate and well-educated society, France's education statistics for 2003 show 12.1 million French children in primary and secondary education and 2.2 million students in tertiary education. The concept of education as a market commodity--long since…

  1. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  2. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  3. Teachers' Organizations and Educational Policy: The Case of France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanner, Raymond E.

    1978-01-01

    Characterizes membership and policy-making role of the largest teachers' organization in France, the Federation de l'Education Nationale. It represents 44 specialized educational unions. It supports the socialist party but has identified itself with the traditional way of administering education in France. (Author/AV)

  4. A Primer for Accompanying Secondary Student Groups to France. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Jim

    Many of the factors that can help ensure a successful and positive learning experience for teachers, leaders, chaperons, and students who travel and/or study in France are addressed in this publication. Although it is geared toward France, many of the ideas, especially the section on pre-departure orientation, can be applied to any travel group.…

  5. International Reports on Literacy Research: France and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This is a compilation of two separate reports on international literacy research from France and Argentina. In the reports from France, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow detailed three research projects that included the following: (1) A description of adult literacy skills; (2) An investigation of how study-abroad students were integrated…

  6. Japanese submersible explores the North Fiji Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipboard Scientific Party; Auzende, J.-M.; Urabe, T.; Tanahashi, M.; Ruellan, E.

    1992-03-01

    Since 1987, Japanese and French geologists, geophysicists, and biologists have been studying the North Fiji Basin Ridge within the framework of a joint project named STARMER (Science and Technology Agency of Japan—IFREMER of France). This ridge was first geologically, geophysically, and geochemically surveyed during the 1985 SEAPSO 3 cruise of the R/V Jean Charcot [Auzende et al., 1988]. At that time, water sampling and morphotectonic analysis indicated that the North Fiji Basin Ridge was technically and hydrothermally active. Within the STARMER project, four surface ship cruises have been conducted {Kaiyo 87-88-89 and Yokosuka 90).One significant result of these surveys is the complete mapping of the entire ridge between 14°S and 22°S (Figure 1), an area approximately 900 km long and more than 50 km wide (Sea Beam and Furuno multibeam swath-mapping systems were used). During the Kaiyo 87 cruise, the presence of active hydrothermalism (sulfide deposits, chimneys expelling shimmering water, and associated living animal colonies) was discovered through water sampling and video deep towing.

  7. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  8. Is there a remnant Variscan subducted slab in the mantle beneath the Paris basin? Implications for the late Variscan lithospheric delamination process and the Paris basin formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, O.; Piromallo, C.

    2012-08-01

    The Paris basin (northern France) is a Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic intracratonic basin that settled upon the collapsed Variscan collisional belt. The lithospheric roots of the Variscan orogenic system, below the Paris basin, have been investigated using a European-scale P-wave velocity tomographic model. Tomography points out the existence of a significant high velocity anomaly in the upper mantle below the western part of the basin. At ~ 150-200 km depth, the anomaly extends with a NW-SE trend along the buried Northern France trace of the Northern Variscan Suture Zone i.e. the Bray segment of the Upper Carboniferous Lizard-Rhenohercynian (LRH) suture. Moreover, the high-velocity anomaly is spatially correlated with the prominent Paris Basin Magnetic Anomaly. Its downdip extent reaches depths greater than 200 km below the southern margin of the Paris basin. As suggested in previous tomographic studies below ancient suture zones, these data argue for such anomaly being the remnant of a Variscan subducted slab that escaped the extensive late orogenic delamination process affecting the lithospheric roots by Late Carboniferous-Early Permian times and that was preserved stable over 300 Ma at the base of the lithosphere. On a general geodynamical perspective, these results provide a new insight into the long-term evolution of subducted lithosphere into the mantle. In the case of the Western European Variscan orogenic belt, they suggest that the subduction of the LRH slab below the previously thickened Variscan crust, and its final detachment from the orogenic root, have played an important role in the collapse of the belt, inducing thermal erosion and extension of the overriding lithosphere. The spatial evolution of late orogenic extension across the belt and of subsequent thermal subsidence in the Paris basin is suggested to result from the heterogeneous delamination of the lithospheric roots along strike and from the resultant pattern of asthenospheric rise.

  9. The death of Henry II of France.

    PubMed

    Faria, M A

    1992-12-01

    On June 30, 1559, King Henry II of France (1519-1559), against the advice of his court ministers, participated in a fateful joust. The wooden lance of his younger opponent pierced the King's headgear, shattered into fragments, and penetrated his right orbit and temple. The King survived for 11 days following the mortal wound and was treated by two of the most distinguished physicians of the Renaissance: Ambroise Paré (1510-1590), the master surgeon, and Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), the great anatomist. The unfortunate event, the nature of the injury, and the medical consultation between these eminent physicians should all be of interest to neurosurgeons. The historical consequences of this event are briefly reviewed. PMID:1432144

  10. [Epidemiology of autochthonous leishmaniases in France].

    PubMed

    Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Carme, Bernard; Desbois, Nicole; Bourdoiseau, Gilles; Lachaud, Laurence; Pratlong, Francine

    2013-11-01

    Leishmania infantum is the only species occurring in metropolitan France; located in the Mediterranean part of the country, it is responsible for a highly enzootic canine disease, while the human endemicity is low, with about 23 cases yearly reported to the National Reference Centre of Leishmaniases, mainly visceral forms. In French Guyana, five Leishmania species occur in the Amazonian forest, of which L. guyanensis is the predominant species, and L. braziliensis is responsible for the most critical forms. The most frequent clinical feature is cutaneous leishmaniasis, with a mean annual incidence reaching 2 p. 1000, with some inter-annual fluctuations. In Martinique Island, recent studies have confirmed the presence of an ancestral Leishmania species, responsible for small cutaneous lesions, of mild evolution; the life cycle of this species remains unknown. In Guadeloupe Island, a few autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis cases have been reported, needing a prospective study. PMID:23886932

  11. The LUNEX5 project in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couprie, M. E.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Betinelli, P.; Bouvet, F.; Buteau, A.; Cassinari, L.; Daillant, J.; Denard, J. C.; Eymard, P.; Gagey, B.; Herbeaux, C.; Labat, M.; Lagarde, B.; Lestrade, A.; Loulergue, A.; Marchand, P.; Marlats, J. L.; Miron, C.; Morin, P.; Nadji, A.; Polack, F.; Pruvost, J. B.; Ribeiro, F.; Ricaud, J. P.; Roy, P.; Tanikawa, T.; Roux, R.; Bielawski, S.; Evain, C.; Szwaj, C.; Lambert, G.; Lifschitz, A.; Malka, V.; Lehe, R.; Rousse, A.; Phuoc, K. Ta; Thaury, C.; Devanz, G.; Luong, M.; Carré, B.; LeBec, G.; Farvacque, L.; Dubois, A.; Lüning, J.

    2013-03-01

    The LUNEX5 (free electron Laser Using a New accelerator for the Exploitation of X-ray radiation of 5th generation) in France aims at investigating the generation of short, intense, and coherent pulses in the soft x-ray region (with two particular targeted wavelengths of 20 and 13 nm). It consists in a single Free Electron Laser (FEL) line with cryo-ready in-vacuum undulators using a Conventional Linear Accelerator (CLA) using the superconducting technology of 400 MeV or a Laser Wake Field Accelerator (LWFA) ranging from 0.4 to 1 GeV with multi-TW or PW lasers. The FEL line can be operated in the seeded (High order Harmonic in Gas seeding) and Echo Enable Harmonic Generation configurations, which performances will be compared. Two pilot user experiments for time-resolved studies of isolated species and magnetization dynamics will take benefit of LUNEX5 FEL radiation.

  12. Estimation of sulphite in food in France.

    PubMed

    Mareschi, J P; François-Collange, M; Suschetet, M

    1992-01-01

    Estimates have been made of the consumption levels of sulphites in foods in France using two methods, a global and a segmented protocol. The global method gave an estimated average intake of 20 mg SO2/day/capita; the segmented method gave estimates of 1.96 mg/day/capita for non-consumers of alcoholic beverages and 31.5 mg/day/capita for average consumers of cider, beer and wine. The risk of exceeding the Acceptable Daily Intake concerns only regular consumers (40-75 years old) of alcoholic beverages, particularly wine, the main vector. The global approach appears to be a simple and useful method for estimating intakes. PMID:1298660

  13. Mineral dust deposition in Western Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Julie; Laurent, Benoit; Bergmatti, Gilles; Losno, Rémi; Bon Nguyen, Elisabeth; Chevaillier, Servanne; Roulet, Pierre; Sauvage, Stéphane; Coddeville, Patrice; Ouboulmane, Noura; Siour, Guillaume; Tovar Sanchez, Antonio; Massanet, Ana; Morales Baquero, Rafael; Di Sarra, Giogio; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Dulac, François; Fornier, Michel; Coursier, Cyril

    2014-05-01

    North African deserts are the world's largest sources of atmospheric mineral dust produced by aeolian erosion. Saharan dust is frequently transported toward Europe over the Mediterranean basin. When deposited in oceanic areas, mineral dust can constitute a key input of nutrients bioavailable for the oceanic biosphere. For instance, Saharan dust deposited in the in the Mediterranean Sea can be a significant source of nutrient like Fe, P and N during summer and autumn. Our objective is to study the deposition Saharan mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin and to improve how deposition processes are parameterized in 3D regional models. To quantify the deposition flux of Saharan dust in the western Mediterranean region a specific collector (CARAGA) to sample automatically the insoluble atmospheric particle deposition was developed (LISA-ICARE) and a network of CARAGA collectors have been set up. Since 2011, eight CARAGA are then deployed in Frioul, Casset, Montandon and Ersa in France, Mallorca and Granada in Spain, Lampedusa in Italia, and Medenine in Tunisia, along a South-North gradient of almost 2000km from the North African coast to the South of Europe. We observe 10 well identified dust Saharan deposition events at Lampedusa and 6 at Mallorca for a 1-yr sampling period. These dust events are sporadic and the South-North gradient of deposition intensity and frequency is observed (the highest dust mass sampled at the stations are : 2,66 g.m-2 at Lampedusa ; 0,54 g.m-2 at Majorque ; 0,33 g.m-2 at Frioul ; 0,16 g.m-2 at Casset). The ability of the CHIMERE model to reproduce the deposition measurements is tested. The mineral dust plumes simulated over the western Mediterranean basin are also compared to satellite observations (OMI, MODIS) and in-situ measurements performed during the ChArMEx campaign and in the AERONET stations.

  14. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  15. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  16. Comparative description of tornadoes in France and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessens, Jean; Snow, John T.

    In comparison with the Great Plains of the United States, severe tornadoes are rare in France. Statistics based on significant (strong (F-2 and F-3) and violent (F-4 and F-5) [see Hales, 1988]) tornadoes that have occurred in France in the past three decades, however, show that this country averages two such tornadoes a year. By combining these observations with information from the scientific literature about events that occurred before the modern period, it has been possible to establish a tornado climatology for France based on 107 significant tornadoes. The main data of this climatology, recently published by Dessens and Snow [1989], are summarized here and compared with American tornadoes.

  17. Estimating nitrate emissions to surface water at regional and national scale: comparison of models using detailed regional and national-wide databases (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupas, R.; Gascuel-Odoux, C.; Durand, P.; Parnaudeau, V.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires River Basin District managers to carry out an analysis of nutrient pressures and impacts, in order to evaluate the risk of water bodies failing to reach "good ecological status" and to identify those catchments where prioritized nonpoint-source control measures should be implemented. A model has been developed to estimate nitrate nonpoint-source emissions to surface water, using readily available data in France. It was inspired from US model SPARROW (Smith al., 1997) and European model GREEN (Grizzetti et al., 2008), i.e. statistical approaches consisting of linking nitrogen sources and catchments' land and rivers characteristics. The N-nitrate load (L) at the outlet of a catchment is expressed as: L= R*(B*Lsgw+Ldgw+PS)-denitlake Where denitlake is a denitrification factor for lakes and reservoirs, Lsgw is the shallow groundwater discharge to streams (derived from the base flow index and N surplus in kgN.ha-1.yr-1), Ldgw is the deep groundwater discharge to streams (derived from total runoff, the base flow index and deep groundwater N concentration), PS is point sources from domestic and industrial origin (kgN.ha-1.yr-1) and R and B are the river system and basin reduction factor, respectively. Besides calibrating and evaluating the model at a national scale, its predictive quality was compared with those of regionalized models in Brittany (Western France) and in the Seine river basin (Paris basin), where detailed regional databases are available. The national-scale model proved to provide robust predictions in most conditions encountered in France, as it fitted observed N-nitrate load with an efficiency of 0.69. Regionalization of the model reduced the standard error in the prediction of N-nitrate loads by about 19 Hence, the development of regionalized models should be advocated only after the trade-off between improvement of fit and degradation of parameters' estimation has come under scrutiny.

  18. Pronatalist policies in Eastern Europe and France.

    PubMed

    Girard, A

    1983-08-01

    Western European fertility rates dropped markedly during the 1930s, and several governments established pronatalist policies. The policies were shortlived as fertility began to rise again after World War 2 and government intervention no longer appeared warranted. In contrast the countries of Eastern Europe retained their relatively high birthrates until measures in the 1950s gave individuals, especially women, greater freedom of choice in childbearing. Divorce laws were liberalized following World War 2, and women's participation in the labor force became widespread. Most European governments, following the example of the Soviet Union, liberalized abortion laws as well, making safe, medical abortion available for social, economic, and medical reasons. Whether or not as a direct result of this legislation, the Eastern European nations experienced such a rapid decline in birthrates that governments, fearing further ramifications, decided to intervene. In 1966, for example, Romania decreed abortion to be illegal except for medical reasons or in the case of rape. Eastern European governments justified their actions by emphasizing their concern about longterm effects. They wanted to avoid the "aging" of their population and the risk of future decrease in total population size. The abortion restrictions were accompanied by widespread efforts to encourage contraception through education, information programs, and postnatal consultations. Incentives were also adopted, and there were adjustments in working conditions for women including longer maternity leave and the opportunity for young mothers to have extended leave. The government's goal is to encourage 2 child families with enough 3 or 4 child families to compensate for 1 child or childless households. Eastern Europe is not alone in its pronatalist policy. France has set similar policies into motion. If this is exceptional among Western countries, it is because French fertility declined about a century before other

  19. [Difficulties with conducting clinical trials in France].

    PubMed

    Zannad, F; Plétan, Y

    2001-01-01

    France ranks third among European countries as regards the level of investment in clinical R&D and, overall, accounts for a contributive effort proportional to the size of its population and pharmaceutical market respectively. However, there is a trend for phase II and III studies to become proportionally fewer than in the past, while the number of phase IV studies is increasing. In a growing proportion of the mega-trials, which are instrumental for establishing evidence-based practice, French experts, investigators and, even more seriously, French patients, are insufficiently represented. Though studies in France are initiated relatively fast due to a clear regulatory framework and perform equally well as far as quantitative and qualitative factors are concerned, compared with most European countries involved in clinical research the costs incurred per completed patient are higher than those recorded in the other countries. Academic research shares most of these constraints and suffers from a lack of financial and human resources, while it faces additional delays in implementing studies because of longer administrative processes. Given the stakes in play, specific solutions should be implemented to maintain and further develop French competitiveness in clinical R&D. At the patient level, positive perception and awareness of the usefulness and safety of participating in clinical trials need to be emphasized. Education at the school level and using the lay media should be developed. Intervention of institutional and government officials is much needed. Direct patient recruitment should be developed through advertisement and the Internet, as well as within doctors' offices and through collaboration with patients' organizations. Patient information and consent forms should be made much simpler than those imposed within the framework of global studies because of FDA requirements. The French health system discourages the recruitment of patients by investigators who are

  20. A κ Model for Mainland France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, John; Gehl, Pierre; Bonilla, Luis Fabian; Gélis, Céline

    2010-11-01

    An important parameter for the characterization of strong ground motion at high-frequencies (>1 Hz) is kappa, κ, which models a linear decay of the acceleration spectrum, a( f), in log-linear space (i.e. a( f) = A 0 exp(- π κ f) for f > f E where f is frequency, f E is a low frequency limit and A 0 controls the amplitude of the spectrum). κ is a key input parameter in the stochastic method for the simulation of strong ground motion, which is particularly useful for areas with insufficient strong-motion data to enable the derivation of robust empirical ground motion prediction equations, such as mainland France. Numerous studies using strong-motion data from western North America (WNA) (an active tectonic region where surface rock is predominantly soft) and eastern North America (ENA) (a stable continental region where surface rock is predominantly very hard) have demonstrated that κ varies with region and surface geology, with WNA rock sites having a κ of about 0.04 s and ENA rock sites having a κ of about 0.006 s. Lower κs are one reason why high-frequency strong ground motions in stable regions are generally higher than in active regions for the same magnitude and distance. Few, if any, estimates of κs for French sites have been published. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to estimate κ using data recorded by the French national strong-motion network (RAP) for various sites in different regions of mainland France. For each record, a value of κ is estimated by following the procedure developed by Anderson and Hough (Bull Seismol Soc Am 74:1969-1993, 1984): this method is based on the analysis of the S-wave spectrum, which has to be performed manually, thus leading to some uncertainties. For the three French regions where most records are available (the Pyrenees, the Alps and the Côtes-d’Azur), a regional κ model is developed using weighted regression on the local geology (soil or rock) and source-to-site distance. It is found that the studied

  1. Geolectrical methods applied on a contaminated site : the Entressen landfill case study (south-eastern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naudet, V.; Revil, A.; Bottero, J.-Y.

    2003-04-01

    Redox potential is a controlling parameter in many contaminated site remediation technologies. Its knowledge is crutial to understand the contaminant plume development and risks for groundwater ressources. But, redox potential is very difficult to measure directlly in the field. A geophysical method that could determine the redox potential distribution in a contaminant plume would be particularly welcome. We believe that the self-potential method (SP) offers such a possibility. We performed extensive SP and electrical resistivity measurements downstream the Entressen landfill (south-eastern France in Provence). Thanks to the electrical resistivity tomographies, we obtained a 3D image of the aquifer datum. This image helps us to better understand the pattern of water flow through the channels, and to estimate the electrokinetic component of the SP signal. An important negative SP anomaly (-400 mV) is measured near the decantation basins of the landfill, suggesting an hypothetical leak of these basins. The polarity and the great amplitude of this anomaly indicate that the main component of the SP signal is due to electrochemical reactions such as oxido-reduction reactions. The comparison of the SP measurements and the geochemical data shows that the negative SP anomaly is correlated with the anaerobic zone of the contaminant plume. We believe that redox potential gradients in the contaminant plume generate a diffusion potential which is responsible for the SP anomaly. Microbial activity also plays a key role in all these processes.

  2. Laboratory medicine in France. A jeopardized situation.

    PubMed

    Valdiguié, P M; de Graeve, J S; Guerre, J P

    1997-11-01

    The expenses for health care in France have risen considerably during the present decade, ranking third after USA and Canada in the Western world. In spite of the very low cost of laboratory medicine (2.4% of the total expenditure in 1995), clinical laboratories have undergone a severe squeeze, due to two limiting factors; a decrease in the ordering of laboratory tests from private physicians and a reduction in the total expenses for laboratory services from the Social Security. Consequently, there has been unemployment of technical and secretarial staff and severe restriction in investment for buying new equipment. However, hospital laboratories will manage to assume their challenge in developing robotics, automation, molecular pathology techniques and expert systems. Private laboratories, in spite of their efforts to follow the technological advances in automation, will survive thanks to consolidation of regional networks that operate in a cooperative rather than competitive mode. Therefore, the challenge will be not in the adaptation of clinical laboratories, but in the limitation of overspending at the national level and in modification of the behaviour of irresponsible citizens accustomed to spending freely on health care services. PMID:9469244

  3. Identifying barriers to Muslim integration in France

    PubMed Central

    Adida, Claire L.; Laitin, David D.; Valfort, Marie-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Is there a Muslim disadvantage in economic integration for second-generation immigrants to Europe? Previous research has failed to isolate the effect that religion may have on an immigrant family's labor market opportunities because other factors, such as country of origin or race, confound the result. This paper uses a correspondence test in the French labor market to identify and measure this religious effect. The results confirm that in the French labor market, anti-Muslim discrimination exists: a Muslim candidate is 2.5 times less likely to receive a job interview callback than is his or her Christian counterpart. A high-n survey reveals, consistent with expectations from the correspondence test, that second-generation Muslim households in France have lower income compared with matched Christian households. The paper thereby contributes to both substantive debates on the Muslim experience in Europe and methodological debates on how to measure discrimination. Following the National Academy of Sciences’ 2001 recommendations on combining a variety of methodologies and applying them to real-world situations, this research identifies, measures, and infers consequences of discrimination based on religious affiliation, controlling for potentially confounding factors, such as race and country of origin. PMID:21098283

  4. Briquet and Briquet's syndrome viewed from France.

    PubMed

    Dongier, M

    1983-10-01

    Briquet's contributions to the description of hysteria have been almost completely forgotten in France. One may wonder how he, as well as contemporary French psychiatrists, would react to the approach to hysteria introduced and officialized by DSM III. In particular, its fragmentation into syndromes without apparent link to each other (psychogenic amnesia, conversion disorders, histrionic personality disorder, etc.) and its psychological causation, unbalanced by the consideration of organic factors in etiology, may raise questions. The correlation of conversion disorders with hysterical personality remains a feature of the WHO classification (ICD 9), as well as a feature of French contemporary texts, although it is no longer viewed as a regular association by American psychiatry. It may be that cultural factors lead, as suggested by Brisset, to a repression of conversion phenomena and of hyperexpressivity of affects replaced by more psychosomatic disorders in many contemporary societies. Finally, one may question whether the choice of the term "Briquet Syndrome" is appropriate, as many of the patients described by him did not have the chronic and malignant course described by Guze: It tends to limit hysteria to one end (the most severe one) of a spectrum of disorders. PMID:6357422

  5. Chemical composition of rainwater in Eastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanusi, Astrid; Wortham, Henri; Millet, Maurice; Mirabel, Philippe

    Rainwater sampled weekly at nine sites in eastern France from October 1991 to March 1992 has been analysed for major ions (Cl -, NO 3-, SO s2-, NH 4+, Na +, K +, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+), pH and conductivity. The major elements are SO 42- and Cl - for the anions and NH 4+ and Ca 2+ for the cations. The major ion concentrations are higher in urban areas, especially at Colmar (no.2), where rainfall amounts are low. Surprisingly, the acidity is higher at the sites in rural areas [i.e. mean pH of 4.4 for Ban sur Meurthe (no. 7)] and lower in the urban areas [mean pH of 5.0 for Strasbourg (no. 1) and pH of 5.7 for Colmar (no. 2)]. This is probably due to the presence of CaCO 3 in the "loess", which is the major constituent of soils in the upper Rhine valley. The relationship between the chemical composition of rain andair-mass trajectories for four humid weeks which presented only one rain event are also examined.

  6. Charles Thibault and assisted reproduction in France.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Charles Thibault was liked by French gynaecologists. There was not a year that Charles Thibault did not attend clinician gynaecology conferences. He made great strides in research on in vitro fertilisation, being the first to perform in vitro fertilised (IVF) oocyte transfers in rabbits. Later, in 1978 the first human pregnancy following IVF was achieved in the UK when Louise Brown was born. In 1980, two French teams,one at the Sèvres hospital and the other at the Clamart University Teaching Hospital, carried out egg retrievals in patients with natural cycles, after determination of the urinary LH peak, under general anaesthesia and by laparoscopy. The Clamart team developed LH SIR, which enabled a more accurate determination of the ideal time for egg collection. In 1983, the same team reported the first ambulatory oocyte retrievals by ultrasound, under local anaesthesia. This new technique did not require general anaesthesia. Finally, in 1983, the rate of births, per transfer, for the Sèvres team rose to 5.31%. 1984 showed considerable improvement: 13.83%. The first step in establishing IVF in France was completed with the Carghese symposium, in September 1984, where Charles Thibault pleaded for animal experimentation before human clinical trials. It was only later that ART developed significantly, necessitating a legislative framework and organisations such as GEFF and FIVNAT. PMID:15982455

  7. Revisiting the Rochechouart impact structure, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapers, Haley M.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Banerjee, Neil R.; FerrièRe, Ludovic; Lambert, Philippe; Izawa, Matthew R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Rochechouart impact structure, south-central France (45o50'N, 0o46'E), is a partly eroded, approximately 200 Myr, complex impact structure. The impactite suite at Rochechouart provides an excellent example of gradational boundaries and transitional lithologies that have been historically difficult to classify with standard impactite nomenclature. Here, we present the first detailed scanning electron microscopy-based description of the Rochechouart impactites integrated with hand-sample and petrographic observations with the goal of understanding the clast-matrix relationships of transitional lithologies. Three main impact-generated hydrothermal alteration assemblages are also recognized: (1) argillic-like, (2) carbonate, and (3) oxide. Our results support the existence of a continuum between clast-rich impact melt rocks and glass-rich clastic breccias (suevites) that must be represented in universal classification schemes. This suite of impactites from the Rochechouart impact structure is used as a test case for a recently published classification scheme based on the nature of the groundmass setting a precedent for classification of impactites with limited to no geological context such as deeply eroded terrestrial impact structures and future sample return missions. The re-evaluation of the melt-bearing Rochechouart impactites questions the currently accepted size of the crater, suggesting a much larger original crater diameter.

  8. Chirac of France: A new leader of the west?

    SciTech Connect

    Moiesi, D.

    1995-11-01

    In foreign and security policy the issues for France are contradictory nature of Chirac`s goals or in the incompatibility of the means to those ends. Chirac`s modernized Gaullist formula for independent French action to meet the exigencies of the post-Cold War world may be irreconcilable with the constraints and demands of the European unification process. The goal of independence may not mesh with the retention of influence. An immediate, concrete example is the apparent contradiction between France`s European and world ambitions and its resumption of nuclear testing. Four foreign policy themes have dominated the initial months of Chirac`s presidency: the war in Bosnia, nuclear testing, European relations, and the conflict in Algeria and its repercussions in France. These themes are examined in more detail.

  9. The impact of international recruitment on healthcare delivery in France.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Ioana; Planck, Ashlee

    2010-01-01

    Mobility of Health Professionals (MoHProf), the European Commission-sponsored collaborative project, examines current trends in the mobility of health professionals to, from and within the European Union (EU). The French national level project studies the relevance of international recruitment in France by studying migratory flows and the "pull" and "preventive" factors influencing immigration of foreign health professionals to France. Using the results of the study, in this article, firstly, we quantify the phenomenon of health professional immigration and secondly, we discuss the 'pull' and 'preventive' factors. We argue that diploma and professional recognition is a variable that acts both as a 'pull' and 'preventive' factor at once and has one of the most significant impacts on international recruitment in France. We, therefore, analyze its impact on the recruitment of health professionals having obtained their diploma and qualifications abroad and the possible consequences on healthcare delivery in France. PMID:21155427

  10. Autonomy and Mismanagement of Institutions of Higher Education in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Serge

    1982-01-01

    The report of an OECD IMHE Programme working group on institutional management in France is presented, focusing on four main themes: staff, diplomas and degrees, institutional administration, and relations with the central government. (Author/MSE)

  11. A short account of forensic dentistry in France.

    PubMed

    Riaud, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The earliest records and more recent cases where forensic dentistry has been used to identify bodies in France are described. The establishment of the French Society of Forensic Odontology is detailed. PMID:26930882

  12. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  13. SURVEY OF CROSS-BASIN BOAT TRAFFIC, ATCHAFALAYA BASIN, LOUISIANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    For flood control and for the preservation and enhancement of environmental quality of overflow swamp habitats, introduction of sediment from the Atchafalaya Basin Main Channel into backwater areas of the Atchafalaya Basin Floodway should be minimized. This introduction occurs ma...

  14. Preliminary Results of a Multi-Proxy Lake Sediment Core Study in East-Central France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misner, T.; Meyers, S.; Rosenmeier, M.; Strano, S.; Straffin, E.

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a multi-proxy study of natural and human-induced changes in the Burgundian environment, as recorded in the sediment geochemistry of three small freshwater basins within the Arroux River Valley, east-central France. Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates constrain the age of core material collected from the basins, and indicate that these mill and farm ponds were constructed by at least 1200 A.D. The pond sediments are predominantly massive, organic-rich muds that contain discrete sand and gravel lenses likely related to episodic flooding and/or basin drainage. In this study, continuous X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning is used to quantify bulk geochemical variability throughout the lake sediment cores, and to investigate specific elemental proxies for paleoenvironmental change (detrital flux, biogenic flux, and redox state). The high-resolution XRF data are supplemented by sediment magnetic susceptibility measurements, and organic matter concentration as determined by loss on ignition. These records demonstrate a general increase in detrital sediment input from 1200 to 1300 A.D., during a period of known regional agricultural expansion. We infer these changes to be the consequence of increased catchment soil erosion and material flux to the water bodies. The data also suggest changes in mill and farm pond primary productivity, also related to soil erosion and changing transport of soil nutrients to the basins. Near the onset of the Little Ice Age (ca. 1500 A.D.) pond productivity reductions are apparent, likely indicating colder climates. These mill and farm pond sedimentary archives, in conjunction with historic records, can be used to better understand past land management strategies. Furthermore, historically documented landscape changes can be examined within the context of prevailing climatic conditions over the last ~800 years in an effort to establish future best management practices and the most

  15. Uraniferous Phosphates: Resource, Security Risk, or Contaminant

    SciTech Connect

    LeMone, D.V.; Goodell, Ph.C.; Gibbs, S.G.; Winston, J.W.

    2008-07-01

    The escalation of the price of uranium (U) yellow cake (summer high = $130/0.454 kg (lb) has called into question the continuing availability of sufficient stockpiles and ores to process. As was developed during the years following World War II, the establishment and maintenance of a strategic inventory is a reasonable consideration for today. Therefore, it becomes critical to look at potential secondary resources beyond the classical ore suites now being utilized. The most economically viable future secondary source seems to be the byproducts of the beneficiation of phosphoric acids derived from phosphate ores. Phosphorous (P) is an essential nutrient for plants; its deficiency can result in highly restrictive limitations in crop productivity. Acidic soils in tropical and subtropical regions of the world are often P deficient with high P-sorption (fixation) capacities. To correct this deficiency, efficient water-soluble P fertilizers are required. The use of raw phosphate rocks not only adds phosphate but also its contained contaminants, including uranium to the treated land. Another immediate difficulty is phosphogypsum, the standard byproduct of simple extraction. It, for practical purposes, has been selectively classified as TENORM by regulators. The imposition of these standards presents major current and future disposal and re-utilization problems. Therefore, establishing an economically viable system that allows for uranium byproduct extraction from phosphoric acids is desirable. Such a system would be dependent on yellow cake base price stability, reserve estimates, political conditions, nation-state commitment, and dependence on nuclear energy. The accumulation of yellow cake from the additional extraction process provides a valuable commodity and allows the end acid to be a more environmentally acceptable product. The phosphogypsum already accumulated, as well as that which is in process, will not make a viable component for a radiation disposal devise (RDD). Concern for weapon proliferation by rogue nation states from the byproduct production of yellowcake is an unlikely scenario. To extract the fissile U-235 (0.07%) isotope from the yellowcake (99.3%) requires the erection of a costly major gaseous diffusion or a cascading centrifuge facility. Such a facility would be extremely difficult to mask. Therefore, from a diminished security risk and positive economic and environmental viewpoints, the utilization of a phosphoric acid beneficiation process extracting uranium is desirable. (authors)

  16. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  17. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de )

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  18. History of infrared optronics in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouilloy, J. P.; Siriex, Michel B.

    1995-09-01

    In France, the real start of work on the applications of infrared radiations occurred around 1947 - 1948. During many years, technological research was performed in the field of detectors, optical material, modulation techniques, and a lot of measurements were made in order to acquire a better knowledge of the propagation medium and radiation of IR sources, namely those of jet engines. The birth of industrial infrared activities in France started with the Franco-German missile guidance programs: Milan, HOT, Roland and the French air to air missile seeker programs: R530, MAGIC. At these early stages of IR technologies development, it was a great technical adventure for both the governmental agencies and industry to develop: detector technology with PbS and InSb, detector cooling for 3 - 5 micrometer wavelength range, optical material transparent in the infrared, opto mechanical design, signal processing and related electronic technologies. Etablissement Jean Turck and SAT were the pioneers associated with Aerospatiale, Matra and under contracts from the French Ministry of Defence (DGA). In the 60s, the need arose to enhance night vision capability of equipment in service with the French Army. TRT was chosen by DGA to develop the first thermal imagers: LUTHER 1, 2, and 3 with an increasing number of detectors and image frequency rate. This period was also the era in which the SAT detector made rapid advance. After basic work done in the CNRS and with the support of DGA, SAT became the world leader of MCT photovoltaic detector working in the 8 to 12 micron waveband. From 1979, TRT and SAT were given the responsibility for the joint development and production of the first generation French thermal imaging modular system so-called SMT. Now, THOMSON TTD Optronique takes over the opto-electronics activities of TRT. Laser based systems were also studied for military application using YAG type laser and CO2 laser: Laboratoire de Marcousis, CILAS, THOMSON CSF and SAT have

  19. Trinity river basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, Randy L.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crossfield, Allison S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 the Trinity River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) will include assessments of surface-water and ground-water quality. Initial efforts have focused on identifying water-quality issues in the basin and on the environmental factors underlying those issues. Physical characteristics described include climate, geology, soils, vegetation, physiography, and hydrology. Cultural characteristics discussed include population distribution, land use and land cover, agricultural practices, water use, an reservoir operations. Major water-quality categories are identified and some of the implications of the environmental factors for water quality are presented.

  20. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in France: 2001

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, F; Saraux, A; Guggenbuhl, P; Roux, C; Fardellone, P; Le Bihan, E; Cantagrel, A; Chary-Valckenaere, I; Euller-Ziegler, L; Flipo, R; Juvin, R; Behier, J; Fautrel, B; Masson, C; Coste, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Prevalence estimates of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) vary across Europe. Recent estimates in southern European countries showed a lower prevalence than in northern countries. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of RA in France in a multiregional representative sample in the year 2001. Methods: A two stage random sample was constituted in seven areas (20 counties) from the national telephone directory of households and by the next birthday method in each household. Patient-interviewers, member of self help groups, were trained to administer telephone surveys using a validated questionnaire for case detection of inflammatory rheumatism, and conducted the survey under quality control. All suspected cases of RA were confirmed by their rheumatologist or by clinical examination. Prevalence estimates after probability sampling correction were standardised for age and sex (national census 1999). Results: An average response rate of 64.7% (two stages combined) led to a total of 9395 respondents. Standardised prevalence was 0.31% (95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.48) for RA, 0.51% in women and 0.09% in men, with a higher age-specific prevalence in the 65–74 year age band. A geographical analysis of county clustering showed significant variation across the country. Conclusion: This national multiregional cooperative study demonstrates the usefulness of working in association with patients of self help groups. It showed a similar prevalence of RA to that of the spondyloarthropathies estimated concomitantly during the survey. It provides a reliable basis for definition of population targets for healthcare delivery and drug treatments. PMID:15800010

  1. The Spatial Distribution of Mustelidae in France

    PubMed Central

    Calenge, Clément; Chadoeuf, Joël; Giraud, Christophe; Huet, Sylvie; Julliard, Romain; Monestiez, Pascal; Piffady, Jérémy; Pinaud, David; Ruette, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the spatial distribution of 6 Mustelidae species in France using the data collected by the French national hunting and wildlife agency under the “small carnivorous species logbooks” program. The 1500 national wildlife protection officers working for this agency spend 80% of their working time traveling in the spatial area in which they have authority. During their travels, they occasionally detect dead or living small and medium size carnivorous animals. Between 2002 and 2005, each car operated by this agency was equipped with a logbook in which officers recorded information about the detected animals (species, location, dead or alive, date). Thus, more than 30000 dead or living animals were detected during the study period. Because a large number of detected animals in a region could have been the result of a high sampling pressure there, we modeled the number of detected animals as a function of the sampling effort to allow for unbiased estimation of the species density. For dead animals -- mostly roadkill -- we supposed that the effort in a given region was proportional to the distance traveled by the officers. For living animals, we had no way to measure the sampling effort. We demonstrated that it was possible to use the whole dataset (dead and living animals) to estimate the following: (i) the relative density -- i.e., the density multiplied by an unknown constant -- of each species of interest across the different French agricultural regions, (ii) the sampling effort for living animals for each region, and (iii) the relative detection probability for various species of interest. PMID:25811456

  2. Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France.

    PubMed

    Dufour, B; La Vieille, S

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological surveillance, namely the continuous monitoring of diseases and health determinants in a population, has developed over the past fifteen years, in the sphere of human health as well as in animal health. All epidemiological surveillance networks include the following four stages: data collection, data transmission, data processing and dissemination of information. However, despite this basic similarity, the very many networks existing in France are extremely varied in nature. At the national level, the bodies involved in epidemiological surveillance for infectious animal diseases are the Direction générale de l'alimentation, the Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments and, to a lesser degree, the Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer. In the field, the networks rely on the Direction des services vétérinaires, veterinary practitioners, laboratories in each département, and livestock producers' groups (especially animal health protection groups). Some twenty French networks currently in operation are presented in this article according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases, epidemiological surveillance is carried out almost entirely by the Direction générale de la santé and the Directions départementales d'action sanitaire et sociale, the Institut de veille sanitaire and the various Centres nationaux de référence (CNRs). Most human infectious diseases are monitored by one or more of the following broad categories of networks: reporting of notifiable diseases, the CNRs, the network of sentinel doctors, the network of hospital laboratories and departments, and medical causes of death. An example where surveillance is covered by several networks is also presented, namely surveillance for salmonellosis and Salmonella. Lastly, methods for evaluating networks are discussed. PMID:10779198

  3. The spatial distribution of Mustelidae in France.

    PubMed

    Calenge, Clément; Chadoeuf, Joël; Giraud, Christophe; Huet, Sylvie; Julliard, Romain; Monestiez, Pascal; Piffady, Jérémy; Pinaud, David; Ruette, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the spatial distribution of 6 Mustelidae species in France using the data collected by the French national hunting and wildlife agency under the "small carnivorous species logbooks" program. The 1500 national wildlife protection officers working for this agency spend 80% of their working time traveling in the spatial area in which they have authority. During their travels, they occasionally detect dead or living small and medium size carnivorous animals. Between 2002 and 2005, each car operated by this agency was equipped with a logbook in which officers recorded information about the detected animals (species, location, dead or alive, date). Thus, more than 30000 dead or living animals were detected during the study period. Because a large number of detected animals in a region could have been the result of a high sampling pressure there, we modeled the number of detected animals as a function of the sampling effort to allow for unbiased estimation of the species density. For dead animals -- mostly roadkill -- we supposed that the effort in a given region was proportional to the distance traveled by the officers. For living animals, we had no way to measure the sampling effort. We demonstrated that it was possible to use the whole dataset (dead and living animals) to estimate the following: (i) the relative density -- i.e., the density multiplied by an unknown constant -- of each species of interest across the different French agricultural regions, (ii) the sampling effort for living animals for each region, and (iii) the relative detection probability for various species of interest. PMID:25811456

  4. Middle Triassic shallow-water limestones from the Upper Muschelkalk of eastern France: the origin and depositional environment of some early Mesozoic fine-grained limestones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duringer, Philippe; Vecsei, Adam

    1998-10-01

    We have analyzed the sedimentary structures, depositional geometries, and petrography of a Middle Triassic fine-grained limestone succession from the Upper Muschelkalk in the intracratonic Germanic Basin. The limestones occur in a unit, several metres thick, that extends over an area of at least 2500 km 2 in eastern France. The geometry of specific wave ripples and small channels filled by lateral-accretion bedded limestones, and the cyclic sedimentation of the Upper Muschelkalk in eastern France indicate deposition on a very shallow subtidal shelf, commonly under the influence of relatively strong currents. The limestones mostly consist of microspar with a few skeletal grains. The formation of current ripples in the fine-grained limestones appear to be incompatible with an originally muddy grain size. The major part of the microsparite may thus have originated from the recrystallization of silt-size carbonate grains, e.g., calcispheres or peloids.

  5. Isotopic reconstruction of ancient human migrations: A comprehensive Sr isotope reference database for France and the first case study at Tumulus de Sables, south-western France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmes, M.; Boel, C.; Grün, R.; Armstrong, R.; Chancerel, A.; Maureille, B.; Courtaud, P.

    2012-04-01

    Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) can be used for the reconstruction of human and animal migrations across geologically different terrains. Sr isotope ratios in rocks are a product of age and composition and thus vary between geologic units. From the eroding environment Sr is transported into the soils, plants and rivers of a region. Humans and animals incorporate Sr from their diet into their bones and teeth, where it substitutes for calcium. Tooth enamel contains Sr isotope signatures acquired during childhood and is most resistant to weathering and overprinting, while the dentine is often diagenetically altered towards the local Sr signature. For the reconstruction of human and animal migrations the tooth enamel 87Sr/86Sr ratio is compared to the Sr isotope signature in the vicinity of the burial site and the surrounding area. This study focuses on the establishment of a comprehensive reference map of bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr ratios for France. In a next step we will compare human and animal teeth from key archaeological sites to this reference map to investigate mobility. So far, we have analysed plant and soil samples from ~200 locations across France including the Aquitaine basin, the western and northern parts of the Paris basin, as well as three transects through the Pyrenees Mountains. The isotope data, geologic background information (BRGM 1:1M), field images, and detailed method descriptions are available through our online database iRhum (http://rses.anu.edu.au/research/ee). This database can also be used in forensic studies and food sciences. As an archaeological case study teeth from 16 adult and 8 juvenile individuals were investigated from an early Bell Beaker (2500-2000 BC) site at Le Tumulus des Sables, south-west France (Gironde). The teeth were analysed for Sr isotope ratios using laser ablation ICP-MS. Four teeth were also analysed using solution ICP-MS, which showed a significant offset to the laser ablation results. This requires further

  6. 'East Basin' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'East Basin' Panorama (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera to obtain this view of the impact feature called 'East Basin' to the northeast of 'Husband Hill.' The images combined into this mosaic were taken during Spirit's 653rd Martian day, or sol (Nov. 3, 2005), just before Spirit descended eastward onto 'Haskin Ridge.' The view is about 150 degrees wide. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer, and 480-nanometer filters.

    Dark features on the far side of the basin, just left of center in this view, are basaltic sand deposits that were emplaced on the lee sides of hills by northwesterly winds. Haskin Ridge is visible along the right margin of the image, capped by a light-toned layer of rock. Spirit investigated the light-toned rock unit after taking this image. The basaltic plains located east of the 'Columbia Hills' can be seen in the distance beyond 'East Basin.' The rim of Thira crater is just visible on the distant horizon some 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) away.

  7. [Organ procurement in France: new challenges].

    PubMed

    Lamy, François-Xavier; Atinault, Alain; Thuong, Marie

    2013-03-01

    France has reached a pretty good level of activity, comparable to southern European countries: in 2011, 4945 transplantations (TX) have been performed among them, 2976 (60%) kidney TX, 1164 (24%) liver TX, 398 (8%) heart TX and 312 (6.3%) lung TX. However, the progression has slowed down since 2008 like in many countries. The potential of donors is mainly represented by the donor after brain-death (DBD) (90%), living donor (LD) for kidneys transplantation participates for only 10% of the overall kidney TX, and donor after cardiac death (DCD) activity, just started in 2006, for 2.2%. Current challenges to maximize the existing activity of DBD rely upon the implementation of program aimed to monitor deceased organ donation potential, a comprehensive approach of the regional disparities covering the steps of the detection of the potential donor, the rate of organ procurement and the refusal rate to organ donation. The profile of the donors has changed due to substantial epidemiologic shifts and a growing shortage of organs. The resource of expanded criteria donor (ECD) is widely used, mainly defined by a criteria of age. This policy is acceptable and successful under specific allocation scheme based on a donor-recipient matching. Before the TX needs of the population have been adequately met, the opportunities for improvement should be the development of DCD and LD activities, in addition to DBD activity. The extension to the DCD of the 3rd category of Maastricht is currently devised as a possible option for the future. The development of perfusion machine, available for kidney preservation and soon for the other organs is a new technical challenge that might increase the donor pool to previously discarded grafts. This superior and cost-effective method evaluated for ECD kidney preservation has also a potential of resuscitation and prediction of post-transplant outcome. To give a new launch to the TX activity as it was done in 2000, the Agency together with the

  8. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  9. Hydrological changes over France in the next decades and associated uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayon, Gildas; Boé, Julien; Martin, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The uncertainties in climate projections over the next decades generally remain large, with an important contribution of internal climate variability. To correctly quantify the impacts of those uncertainties in hydrological projections, multi-model and multi-member approaches are essential. To have a large ensemble of climate simulations, the study is based on Global Climate Models (GCMs) simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Phase 5 (CMIP5). For computational cost reasons, GCMs simulations are downscaled with a statistical method developed in a previous study (Dayon et al. 2015) in order to obtain the atmospheric variables on a 8 km grid over France necessary to drive the Isba-Modcou hydrological system. Isba is a land surface model that calculates the energy and water balance and Modcou is a hydrogeological model that routes the surface runoff given by Isba. Based on a large ensemble of simulations on the historical period (28) and multiple simulations from the same model with different initial conditions, a robust evaluation of the internal variability is made. The variability simulated by the hydrological model with dowsncaled climate simulations is compared with observations on the 20th century. Long-term trends in simulated river flows are also compared with observations. Potential changes of the continental hydrological cycle in the last century are also explored. Future impacts of climate change on the hydrological cycle of the main French rivers basins are evaluated with downscaled climate simulations driven by the Radiative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5. This large ensemble of simulations (20 for the RCP4.5 scenario and 18 for the RCP 8.5 scenario) allows to evaluate the respective importance of uncertainties from the internal climate variability, climate models and emission scenarios. References : Dayon et al. (2015), Transferability in the future climate of a statistical downscaling method for precipitation in France

  10. Spatial and temporal trends in PCBs in sediment along the lower Rhone River, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desmet, Marc; Mourier, Brice; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Roux, Gwenaelle; Persat, Henri; Lefevre, Irene; Peretti, Annie; Chapron, Emmanuel; Anaelle, Simonneau; Miege, Cecile; Babut, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasingly strict control of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) releases in France since the mid-1970s, PCB contamination of fish recently has emerged as a major concern in the lower Rhone River basin. We measured PCB concentrations in Rhone sediment to evaluate the effects of PCB releases from major urban and industrial areas, sediment redistribution by large floods, and regulatory controls on PCB trends from 1970 to present. Profiles of PCBs (the sum of seven indicator PCB congeners) were reconstructed from sediment cores collected from an off-river rural reference site and from three depositional areas along the Rhone upstream and downstream from the city of Lyon, France. Core chronology was determined from radionuclide profiles and flood deposits. PCB concentrations increased progressively in the downstream direction, and reached a maximum concentration in 1991 of 281 μg/kg at the most downstream site. At the rural reference site and at the upstream Rhone site, PCB concentrations peaked in the 1970s (maximum concentration of 13 and 78 μg/kg, respectively) and have decreased exponentially since then. PCB concentrations in the middle and downstream cores were elevated into the early 1990s, decreased very rapidly until 2000, and since then have remained relatively stable. Congener profiles for three time windows (1965–80, 1986–93, and 2000–08) were similar in the three sediment cores from the Rhone and different from those at the rural reference site. The results indicate that permitted discharges from a hazardous-waste treatment facility upstream from Lyon might have contributed to high concentrations into the 1980-90s, but that industrial discharges from the greater Lyon area and tributaries to the Rhone near Lyon have had a greater contribution since the 1990s. There is little indication that PCB concentration in sediments downstream from Lyon will decrease over at least the short term.

  11. Temperature humidity index scenarios in the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segnalini, M.; Bernabucci, U.; Vitali, A.; Nardone, A.; Lacetera, N.

    2013-05-01

    The study was undertaken to describe the temperature humidity index (THI) dynamics over the Mediterranean basin for the period 1971-2050. The THI combines temperature and humidity into a single value, and has been widely used to predict the effects of environmental warmth in farm animals. The analysis was based on daily outputs of the temperature and relative humidity from the Max Planck Institute data using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Emission Scenario A1B. Data revealed a gradual increase of both annual and seasonal THI during the period under investigation and a strong heterogeneity of the Mediterranean area. In particular, the analysis indicated that Spain, southern France and Italy should be expected to undergo the highest THI increase, which in the last decade under study (2041-2050) will range between 3 and 4 units. However, only during summer months the area presents characteristics indicating risk of thermal (heat) stress for farm animals. In this regard, scenario maps relative to the summer season suggested an enlargement of the areas in the basin where summer THI values will likely cause thermal discomfort in farm animals. In conclusion, the study indicated that the Mediterranean basin is likely to undergo THI changes, which may aggravate the consequences of hot weather on animal welfare, performances, health and survival and may help farmers, nutritionists, veterinarians, and policy-makers to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to limit consequences of climate change for the livestock sector in the Mediterranean countries.

  12. Temperature humidity index scenarios in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Segnalini, M; Bernabucci, U; Vitali, A; Nardone, A; Lacetera, N

    2013-05-01

    The study was undertaken to describe the temperature humidity index (THI) dynamics over the Mediterranean basin for the period 1971-2050. The THI combines temperature and humidity into a single value, and has been widely used to predict the effects of environmental warmth in farm animals. The analysis was based on daily outputs of the temperature and relative humidity from the Max Planck Institute data using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Emission Scenario A1B. Data revealed a gradual increase of both annual and seasonal THI during the period under investigation and a strong heterogeneity of the Mediterranean area. In particular, the analysis indicated that Spain, southern France and Italy should be expected to undergo the highest THI increase, which in the last decade under study (2041-2050) will range between 3 and 4 units. However, only during summer months the area presents characteristics indicating risk of thermal (heat) stress for farm animals. In this regard, scenario maps relative to the summer season suggested an enlargement of the areas in the basin where summer THI values will likely cause thermal discomfort in farm animals. In conclusion, the study indicated that the Mediterranean basin is likely to undergo THI changes, which may aggravate the consequences of hot weather on animal welfare, performances, health and survival and may help farmers, nutritionists, veterinarians, and policy-makers to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to limit consequences of climate change for the livestock sector in the Mediterranean countries. PMID:22850789

  13. Mesozoic-Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy of European basins

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, P.R. ); Jacquin, T. )

    1993-09-01

    The preliminary results of the project, [open quotes]Mesozoic-Cenozoic Sequence Stratigraphy of European Basins[close quotes] (introduced at a seminar in Dijon, France, on May 18-20, 1992), show that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic stratigraphic succession of western Europe can be subdivided into a series of transgressive-regressive facies cycles (second order, 3-50 m.y.) and related to tectonic events by subsidence analysis and regional geology. The distribution of the second-order cycles are shown on a series of transects that extend from the Mediterranean to the North Sea. Where possible, each transgressive-regressive phase has been subdivided into a series of higher frequency sequence cycles (third order, 0.5-3 m.y.). These sequence cycles are identified in regions with good outcrops and biostratigraphic control. The sequence stratigraphy interpretation of these outcrop sections provides documentation for the age and distribution of the second- and third-order stratigraphic cycles of western Europe. Subsurface seismic and well data from the North Sea Basin, Paris basin, and the Mediterranean area are interpreted in terms of sequence stratigraphy and correlated to the outcrop reference sections. Chronobiostratigraphy and numerical ages are based on a series of new charts made especially for this project that show the latest correlation of the biostratigraphic zones for both microfossils and macrofossils across Europe. The charts also include a numerical time scale that reconciles the differences between existing time scales.

  14. Newly Discovered Martian Impact Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stam, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three previously unrecognized Martian impact basins were discovered through detailed mapping of landforms, structures and terrains near Cassini and Al Qahira basins. Al Qahira A lies on the Martian dichotomy boundary and intersects the older basin, Al Qahira. It has four rings that are expressed by a variety of landforms. Southwestward Al Qahira A is out by a younger Basin, Al Qahira B. Al Qahira B is a highly degraded basin with one identifiable ring. Its ring is expressed by a few massifs, knobs and inward-facing scarps, but is recognized by the distributions of wrinkle ridges and plains units. Cassini A lies southward of the younger Cassini Basin and is intersected by it. It probably has four rings. The importance of detailed mapping of various types of landforms and terrains to the discovery of basins on Mars are demonstrated.

  15. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  16. Global analysis of intraplate basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, C.; Mueller, D. R.; Dyksterhuis, S.

    2005-12-01

    Broad intraplate sedimentary basins often show a mismatch of lithospheric extension factors compared to those inferred from sediment thickness and subsidence modelling, not conforming to the current understanding of rift basin evolution. Mostly, these basins are underlain by a very heterogeneous and structurally complex basement which has been formed as a product of Phanerozoic continent-continent or terrane/arc-continent collision and is usually referred to as being accretionary. Most likely, the basin-underlying substrate is one of the key factors controlling the style of extension. In order to investigate and model the geodynamic framework and mechanics controlling formation and evolution of these long-term depositional regions, we have been analysing a global set of more than 200 basins using various remotely sensed geophysical data sets and relational geospatial databases. We have compared elevation, crustal and sediment thickness, heatflow, crustal structure, basin ages and -geometries with computed differential beta, anomalous tectonic subsidence, and differential extension factor grids for these basins. The crust/mantle interactions in the basin regions are investigated using plate tectonic reconstructions in a mantle convection framework for the last 160 Ma. Characteristic parameters and patterns derived from this global analysis are then used to generate a classification scheme, to estimate the misfit between models derived from either crustal thinning or sediment thickness, and as input for extension models using particle-in-cell finite element codes. Basins with high differential extension values include the ``classical'' intraplate-basins, like the Michigan Basin in North America, the Zaire Basin in Africa, basins of the Arabian Penisula, and the West Siberian Basin. According to our global analysis so far, these basins show, that with increasing basin age, the amount of crustal extension vs. the extension values estimated from sediment thickness

  17. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. )

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  18. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  19. Geodynamic evolution and sedimentary infill of the northern Levant Basin: A source to sink-perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawie, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nicolas Hawie a,b,c (nicolas.hawie@upmc.fr) Didier Granjeon c (didier.granjeon@ifpen.fr) Christian Gorini a,b (christian.gorini@upmc.fr) Remy Deschamps c (remy.deschamps@ifpen.fr) Fadi H. Nader c (fadi-henri.nader@ifpen.fr) Carla Müller Delphine Desmares f (delphine.desmares@upmc.fr) Lucien Montadert e (lucien.montadert@beicip.com) François Baudin a (francois.baudin@upmc.fr) a UMR 7193 Institut des Sciences de la Terre de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie/ Univ. Paris 06, case 117. 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France b iSTEP, UMR 7193, CNRS, F-75005, Paris, France c IFP Energies nouvelles, 1-4 avenue du Bois Préau 92852 Rueil Malmaison Cedex, France d UMR 7207, Centre de Recherche sur la Paleobiodiversité et les Paleoenvironnements. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Tour 46-56 5ème. 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France e Beicip Franlab, 232 Av. Napoléon Bonaparte, 95502 Rueil-Malmaison, France Sedimentological and biostratigraphic investigations onshore Lebanon coupled with 2D offshore reflection seismic data allowed proposing a new Mesozoic-Present tectono-stratigraphic framework for the northern Levant Margin and Basin. The seismic interpretation supported by in-depth facies analysis permitted to depict the potential depositional environments offshore Lebanon as no well has yet been drilled. The Levant region has been affected by successive geodynamic events that modified the architecture of its margin and basin from a Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic rift into a Late Cretaceous subduction followed by collision and Miocene-Present strike slip motion. The interplay between major geodynamic events as well as sea level fluctuations impacted on the sedimentary infill of the basin. During Jurassic and Cretaceous, the Levant Margin is dominated by the aggradation of a carbonate platform while deepwater mixed-systems prevailed in the basin. During the Oligo-Miocene, three major sedimentary pathways are expected to drive important

  20. The epidemiology of adolescent drug use in France and Israel.

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, D B; Adler, I; Sudit, M

    1981-01-01

    Based on samples of adolescents residing in urban areas in France and in Israel, cross-cultural comparisons of adolescent use of alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, and illicit drugs are reported. Lifetime and current prevalences of use of all substances are higher in France than in Israel. The relative ranking of the prevalence of use of the various drugs is identical in the two countries, and is similar to that found in American samples. In both countries, drug use is more prevalent among males than females, and among older than younger adolescents. There are no differences among different socioeconomic groups. Religiosity affects the rates of use of all drugs in France, and the rates of non-alcoholic substances and the amounts of alcoholic beverages consumed in Israel. Differences in the prevalence of substance use across cultures and within a culture decrease as overall prevalence of use increases. PMID:7468857

  1. Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism Following a Viper Envenomation in France

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Géraldine; Pineau, Samuel; Biron, Charlotte; Connault, Jérôme; Artifoni, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Complications following snake bites are not common in France. We report the case of a bilateral pulmonary embolism following a viper envenomation in France. A healthy 72-year-old female presented with a lower limb hematoma following a viper bite. She was admitted at the hospital 2 days later and received low-molecular-weight heparin because of bed rest. Seven days later, she complained of thoracic pain and respiratory failure, and a bilateral pulmonary was diagnosed, without biological sign of neither disseminated intravascular coagulation nor coagulation trouble. Repeated lower limbs Doppler ultrasound were normal. This case is particularly interesting because it is only the 7th reported case of pulmonary embolism following a snake envenomation; moreover, it happened in France where poisonous snakes are very rare. Several hypotheses have been made to explain this late localized coagulopathy: an increased level of unstable fibrin produced by thrombin-like glycoproteins from the venom is one of them. PMID:27175626

  2. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  3. Mercury's Caloris Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Mercury: Computer Photomosaic of the Caloris Basin

    The largest basin on Mercury (1300 km or 800 miles across) was named Caloris (Greek for 'hot') because it is one of the two areas on the planet that face the Sun at perihelion.

    The Image Processing Lab at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory produced this photomosaic using computer software and techniques developed for use in processing planetary data. The Mariner 10 spacecraft imaged the region during its initial flyby of the planet.

    The Mariner 10 spacecraft was launched in 1974. The spacecraft took images of Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury in March and September 1974 and March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 images of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon during its mission.

    The Mariner 10 Mission was managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C.

  4. ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard III; Lawrence Cathles III; Mario Blanco; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2004-05-01

    The advanced Chemistry Basin Model project has been operative for 48 months. During this period, about half the project tasks are on projected schedule. On average the project is somewhat behind schedule (90%). Unanticipated issues are causing model integration to take longer then scheduled, delaying final debugging and manual development. It is anticipated that a short extension will be required to fulfill all contract obligations.

  5. Petroleum basin studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, P.M. ); Naylor, D. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the tectonic setting, basin development and history of exploration of a number of selected petroleum provinces located in a variety of settings in the Middle East, North Sea, Nigeria, the Rocky Mountains, Gabon and China. This book illustrates how ideas and models developed in one area may be applied to other regions. Regional reviews and the reassessment of petroleum provinces are presented.

  6. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  7. Dimension of fractal basin boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Park, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show final state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.

  8. The Scottish Women's Hospital at Royaumont, France 1914-1919.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M-F

    2014-01-01

    In 1915, under the aegis of the French Red Cross, volunteer medical women from the Scottish Women's Hospital Service for Foreign Service established a hospital at Royaumont Abbey in France, to treat casualties of the First World War. By working as a team comprised of radiologists, bacteriologists and surgeons, they were able to combat gas gangrene and record remarkable results. The circumstances and the way in which the doctors were portrayed in France and Britain prevented them from actively promoting their results to gain wider acceptance. After the War, medical women lost their training and employment opportunities and many left the profession. PMID:25516906

  9. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  10. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  11. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.

  12. Comparison of hydrogeochemical logging of drilling fluid during coring with the results from geophysical logging and hydraulic testing Example of the Morte-Mérie scientific borehole, Ardèche-France, Deep Geology of France Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquilina, L.; Eberschweiler, C.; Perrin, J.; Deep Geology of France Team

    1996-11-01

    A 980-m-deep well was cored on the Ardèche border of the Southeastern basin of France as part of the Deep Geology of France (GPF) programme. Hydrogeochemical logging was carried out during drilling, which involved the monitoring of physico-chemical parameters (pH, Eh, temperature and conductivity), and chemical parameters (concentrations of He, Rn, CO 2, CH 4, O 2 Ca, Cl and SiO 2) of the drilling fluid permanently circulating in the well. This logging programme was complemented by geophysical logging and two hydraulic tests. The combination of these measurements enabled identification of a transmissive interval due to fractures in the Jurassic carbonates, and of fluid inflow both at the base of the porous and slightly permeable Triassic sandstones and from an open fracture in the Permian conglomerates. These intervals are marked by changes in the drilling-fluid chemistry, such as an increase in chemical species content, or a drop in pH. The degree of modification depends on the natural permeability of the fractures and the salinity of the fluids. The porous and permeable intervals are also marked by He anomalies, which act as a tracer for these zones. Comparison between the geophysical and hydrogeochemical logs reveals that the latter provide information on the liquid phase, whether the fractures are productive or not, whereas the geophysical logs are more directly related to the solid phase.

  13. Shallow-water marl-limestone alternations in the Late Jurassic of western France: Cycles, storm event deposits or both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombié, Claude; Schnyder, Johann; Carcel, Damien

    2012-10-01

    The contribution of event deposits to various basin fills can be very significant, higher than 90% in some cases. Events may lead to the formation of marl-limestone alternations, which can also result from cyclic changes in sea level or climate, for example. The marl-limestone alternations of the Late Jurassic of western France contain abundant coarse-grained accumulations that resemble storm deposits described in other western European successions. The detailed analysis of facies evolution and hierarchical, high-frequency stacking pattern of depositional sequences of the Phare de Chassiron section (Ile d'Oléron, western France) allows the controls on marl-limestone formation to be defined. This section contains nearshore and shallow-marine mud deposits that were exposed to high-energy events. Elementary, small-, and medium-scale depositional sequences are defined. The stacking-pattern and the duration of these sequences suggest an orbital control on sedimentation. Precession (20 ka) cycles notably controlled the formation of elementary sequences that correspond to marl-limestone alternations. The deposition of marly or carbonate mud occurred in this storm-dominated system because of muddy sea beds, the gentle slope of the shelf, and the great amount of particles in suspension, which reduced water energy resulting from storms. Sediment supply was also sufficient to limit bioturbation and favour the preservation of numerous storm deposits. The production of carbonate mud was localised on positive structures and partly controlled by Milankovitch-scale sea-level cycles. Transport by storms of carbonate mud to the adjacent marly depressions during high carbonate production periods led to the formation of calcareous beds. Marl-limestone alternations in the Late Jurassic of western France therefore result from the combined effects of cyclic changes in carbonate production and high-energy, episodic events.

  14. A past discharge assimilation system for ensemble streamflow forecasts over France - Part 2: Impact on the ensemble streamflow forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirel, G.; Martin, E.; Mahfouf, J.-F.; Massart, S.; Ricci, S.; Regimbeau, F.; Habets, F.

    2010-04-01

    The use of ensemble streamflow forecasts is developing in the international flood forecasting services. Such systems can provide more accurate forecasts and useful information about the uncertainty of the forecasts, thus improving the assessment of risks. Nevertheless, these systems, like all hydrological forecasts, suffer from errors on initialization or on meteorological data, which lead to hydrological prediction errors. This article, which is the second part of a 2-part article, concerns the impacts of initial states, improved by a streamflow assimilation system, on an ensemble streamflow prediction system over France. An assimilation system was implemented to improve the streamflow analysis of the SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) hydro-meteorological suite, which initializes the ensemble streamflow forecasts at Météo-France. This assimilation system, using the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator (BLUE) and modifying the initial soil moisture states, showed an improvement of the streamflow analysis with low soil moisture increments. The final states of this suite were used to initialize the ensemble streamflow forecasts of Météo-France, which are based on the SIM model and use the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 10-day Ensemble Prediction System (EPS). Two different configurations of the assimilation system were used in this study: the first with the classical SIM model and the second using improved soil physics in ISBA. The effects of the assimilation system on the ensemble streamflow forecasts were assessed for these two configurations, and a comparison was made with the original (i.e. without data assimilation and without the improved physics) ensemble streamflow forecasts. It is shown that the assimilation system improved most of the statistical scores usually computed for the validation of ensemble predictions (RMSE, Brier Skill Score and its decomposition, Ranked Probability Skill Score, False Alarm Rate, etc.), especially for the first

  15. A past discharge assimilation system for ensemble streamflow forecasts over France - Part 2: Impact on the ensemble streamflow forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirel, G.; Martin, E.; Mahfouf, J.-F.; Massart, S.; Ricci, S.; Regimbeau, F.; Habets, F.

    2010-08-01

    The use of ensemble streamflow forecasts is developing in the international flood forecasting services. Ensemble streamflow forecast systems can provide more accurate forecasts and useful information about the uncertainty of the forecasts, thus improving the assessment of risks. Nevertheless, these systems, like all hydrological forecasts, suffer from errors on initialization or on meteorological data, which lead to hydrological prediction errors. This article, which is the second part of a 2-part article, concerns the impacts of initial states, improved by a streamflow assimilation system, on an ensemble streamflow prediction system over France. An assimilation system was implemented to improve the streamflow analysis of the SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) hydro-meteorological suite, which initializes the ensemble streamflow forecasts at Météo-France. This assimilation system, using the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator (BLUE) and modifying the initial soil moisture states, showed an improvement of the streamflow analysis with low soil moisture increments. The final states of this suite were used to initialize the ensemble streamflow forecasts of Météo-France, which are based on the SIM model and use the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 10-day Ensemble Prediction System (EPS). Two different configurations of the assimilation system were used in this study: the first with the classical SIM model and the second using improved soil physics in ISBA. The effects of the assimilation system on the ensemble streamflow forecasts were assessed for these two configurations, and a comparison was made with the original (i.e. without data assimilation and without the improved physics) ensemble streamflow forecasts. It is shown that the assimilation system improved most of the statistical scores usually computed for the validation of ensemble predictions (RMSE, Brier Skill Score and its decomposition, Ranked Probability Skill Score, False Alarm Rate, etc

  16. Foreign Students and Government Policy: Britain, France, and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Alice

    The impact of European government policy on the movement of foreign students in Great Britain, France, and West Germany is discussed by a member of the American Council on Education Committee on Foreign Students. Foreign student enrollments have increased dramatically in these three countries in the 1960s and 1970s, and foreign students also make…

  17. Ecole Maternelle (Preschool) in France: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougere, Gilles; Guenif-Souilamas, Nacira; Rayna, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at a cross-cultural analysis of interviews of (im/migrant and non-im/migrant) preschool teachers and parents, concerning im/migrant children enrolled in the French "ecole maternelle", in the context of the international Children Crossing Borders (CCB) research project. Interviews were conducted in France following a polyphonic…

  18. Recent Developments in Assessment and Examination Procedures in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadfoot, Patricia

    Recent changes in educational assessment in France reflect pressures to modernize the French educational system to align it with prevailing democratic and egalitarian values and to respond to the economy's vocational training needs. After providing background on the French educational system, this paper discusses two areas of secondary school…

  19. Novel bluetongue virus in goats, Corsica, France, 2014.

    PubMed

    Zientara, Stéphan; Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Höper, Dirck; Beer, Martin; Jenckel, Maria; Hoffmann, Bernd; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Fablet, Aurore; Vitour, Damien; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2014-12-01

    During 2000-2013, 4 genotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) were detected in Corsica, France. At the end of 2013, a compulsory BTV-1 vaccination campaign was initiated among domestic ruminants; biological samples from goats were tested as part of a corresponding monitoring program. A BTV strain with nucleotide sequences suggestive of a novel serotype was detected. PMID:25418049

  20. The Processing of Architects' Records. A Case-Study: France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildesheimer, Francoise

    By means of close examination of the records created and accumulated by individual architects and architectural firms in France, this Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) study is intended to call attention to the basic documentary values of these architectural records and to provide practical guidance to help ensure their preservation…

  1. International Reports on Literacy Research: Canada, France, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Canada, France and Russia. In the first report, research correspondent Linda M. Phillips, in collaboration with Christian Beaulieu, reports on the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network (CLLRNet). The vision of CLLRNet is…

  2. 78 FR 66668 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... written comments, data, or views. We also invite comments relating to the economic, environmental,...

  3. 78 FR 22213 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... France Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter...

  4. "Training the Trainers" of Teachers in France: Assessment and Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapostolle, Guy

    2009-01-01

    With the creation of IUFMs (university institutes of teacher training) in the 1990s, the training of teacher trainers in France has become a fundamental part of the renewal of teacher training. It is seen as a fundamental lever for the IUFMs to achieve the tasks and goals entrusted to them: training teachers who need to accommodate the new demands…

  5. France's grandes écoles accused of elitism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    Physicists in France have backed government plans to open up the country's elite grandes écoles to more students from poorer backgrounds. The government wants to allow up to 30% of students to be given free scholarships in an attempt to broaden the social mix of the student body. The physicists say this would not lead to a lowering of standards.

  6. Nationwide pseudo-outbreak of Salmonella enterica ssp. diarizonae, France.

    PubMed

    Thiolet, J M; Jourdan-Da Silva, N; Reggiani, A; De Valk, H; Coignard, B; Weill, F X

    2011-06-01

    To investigate an increased incidence of human cultures growing Salmonella enterica ssp. diarizonae serotype 61:k:1,5,7 in France in 2008, we reviewed medical records of case patients and identified the material used during invasive procedures and for bacterial culture. Trace-back investigations incriminated culture media containing contaminated sheep blood agar. PMID:20718799

  7. Foodborne Outbreak and Nonmotile Salmonella enterica Variant, France

    PubMed Central

    Brisabois, Anne; Accou-Demartin, Marie; Josse, Adeline; Marault, Muriel; Francart, Sylvie; Da Silva, Nathalie Jourdan; Weill, François-Xavier

    2012-01-01

    We report a food-related outbreak of salmonellosis in humans caused by a nonmotile variant of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in France in 2009. This nonmotile variant had been circulating in laying hens but was not considered as Typhimurium and consequently escaped European poultry flock regulations. PMID:22257550

  8. School Design and Management: Three Examples from France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Presents three examples of large-scale school construction and renovation projects in France where a link has been established between school design and successful teaching and learning. Further discussed are the conclusions that can be drawn from these projects in preparatory work prior to building. (GR)

  9. Adolescents and Smoking: Evidence from France and Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosanquet, Nick; Magee, Jayne

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on recent evidence now available from France and Spain on the smoking behavior of adolescents and young people. Evidence indicates that it will be a massive challenge to reduce smoking among young people. Argues that public awareness of the threat to health from smoking should be raised and that public health measures require further…

  10. 'Miss Frances', 'Miss Gail' and 'Miss Sandra' Crapemyrtles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, announces the release to nurserymen of three new crapemyrtle cultivars named 'Miss Gail', 'Miss Frances', and 'Miss Sandra'. ‘Miss Gail’ resulted from a cross-pollination between ‘Catawba’ as the female parent and ‘Arapaho’ ...

  11. Trade Unions and Political Parties in France: Some Recent Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynaud, Jean-Daniel

    1975-01-01

    France's three major trade union federations, which do not encompass all organized French workers, espouse quite different styles of relations with political parties. The author relates these to the three main traditions of French trade-unionism: the communist-leninist, the social democratic, and the syndicalist models, but finds them changing.…

  12. Fine-scale human genetic structure in Western France.

    PubMed

    Karakachoff, Matilde; Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Simonet, Floriane; Le Scouarnec, Solena; Pellen, Nadine; Lecointe, Simon; Charpentier, Eric; Gros, Françoise; Cauchi, Stéphane; Froguel, Philippe; Copin, Nane; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Probst, Vincent; Le Marec, Hervé; Molinaro, Sabrina; Balkau, Beverley; Redon, Richard; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Blum, Michael Gb; Dina, Christian

    2015-06-01

    The difficulties arising from association analysis with rare variants underline the importance of suitable reference population cohorts, which integrate detailed spatial information. We analyzed a sample of 1684 individuals from Western France, who were genotyped at genome-wide level, from two cohorts D.E.S.I.R and CavsGen. We found that fine-scale population structure occurs at the scale of Western France, with distinct admixture proportions for individuals originating from the Brittany Region and the Vendée Department. Genetic differentiation increases with distance at a high rate in these two parts of Northwestern France and linkage disequilibrium is higher in Brittany suggesting a lower effective population size. When looking for genomic regions informative about Breton origin, we found two prominent associated regions that include the lactase region and the HLA complex. For both the lactase and the HLA regions, there is a low differentiation between Bretons and Irish, and this is also found at the genome-wide level. At a more refined scale, and within the Pays de la Loire Region, we also found evidence of fine-scale population structure, although principal component analysis showed that individuals from different departments cannot be confidently discriminated. Because of the evidence for fine-scale genetic structure in Western France, we anticipate that rare and geographically localized variants will be identified in future full-sequence analyses. PMID:25182131

  13. Correspondence Tuition in France and the Development of Permanent Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cros, Louis

    This report covers the current situation and general trends in correspondence study in France and describes two public institutions involved in it: Centre National de Tele-Enseignement and Radio-Television Scolaire. The evolution of correspondence study has been linked with the development of permanent education and the parallel transformation of…

  14. Wildlife Reservoir for Hepatitis E Virus, Southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Sebastien; Top, Sokunthea; Bertagnoli, Stephane; Dubois, Martine; Guerin, Jean-Luc; Izopet, Jacques

    2015-07-01

    Pigs are a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). To determine the relative contribution of game to the risk for human HEV infection in southwestern France, we tested wildlife samples. HEV RNA was in 3.3% of wildlife livers, indicating that in this region, eating game meat is as risky as eating pork. PMID:26079541

  15. Local and International Implications of Schistosomiasis Acquired in Corsica, France

    PubMed Central

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Rothe, Camilla; Libman, Michael; Van De Winkel, Kristina; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Grobusch, Martin P.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Esposito, Douglas H.; Parola, Philippe; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    We report 11 cases of schistosomiasis in international travelers who had bathed in rivers in Corsica, France, during 2012–2014. The infections were diagnosed in 2014 and reported to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network and European Travel Medicine Network. Travelers can be sentinels for emerging infections; thus, this situation warrants a concerted human and veterinary epidemiologic response. PMID:26401954

  16. International Reports on Literacy Research: France, United Kingdom, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botza, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on France, United Kingdom and Brazil. In the first report, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow presents research into variations of reading motivation related to students' socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. Three of these…

  17. International Reports on Literacy Research: Argentina, Mexico, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Mallozzi, Christine, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Argentina, Mexico, and France. In the first report, Melina Porto reports on a new implementation of a teacher-education program currently underway in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, under the leadership of teacher-researcher…

  18. Changes in University Governance in France and in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffo, Stefano; Dubois, Pierre; Moscati, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The transformation of higher education systems under the pressure of new needs required by the "society of knowledge" in France and Italy has had a deep effect on the relationship between state and university, and therefore a direct impact on university governance. This article sums up the main results of a research carried out on university…

  19. Hepatitis E virus antibodies in blood donors, France.

    PubMed

    Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Bendall, Richard; Legrand-Abravanel, Florence; Sauné, Karine; Miédouge, Marcel; Ellis, Vic; Rech, Henri; Destruel, François; Kamar, Nassim; Dalton, Harry R; Izopet, Jacques

    2011-12-01

    Using a validated sensitive assay, we found hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG in 52.5% of voluntary blood donors in southwestern France. This finding suggests HEV is highly endemic to this region. The high HEV prevalence may reflect local dietary practices, such as eating uncooked pork and game products. PMID:22172156

  20. Romanticism or Reality? An Exploration of Frances Mary Hendry's "Chandra."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jilaine

    This paper singles out a novel written for children about India, "Chandra" (1995) by Frances Mary Hendry, as a powerful and useful novel to present to today's 11 to 14 year old students. The paper contends that the novel allows students to explore and consider different value systems, challenges them to become aware of prejudice and the making of…

  1. Frances Mullen: Her Life and Contributions to School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Thomas K.; Wells, Perri Dawn

    1999-01-01

    Frances Mullen was a significant contributor to the development of international school psychology. With Calvin Catterall and others she helped to initiate the international committee that would evolve into the International School Psychology Association. Her life and contributions provide a better understanding of the historical development of…

  2. Continuing Vocational Training in France. Review and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berton, F.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, continuing vocational training in France has evolved within an innovative institutional system that has produced results. The goals of the institutional program are to: (1) give individuals who had been excluded from initial training a second chance; (2) give people greater control over their lives by improving their level…

  3. Pupils and School History in France and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audigier, Francois; Fink, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes five studies, based on questionnaires and interviews with pupils in primary and lower secondary schools, in France and in Switzerland, over the past two decades. It explores the ways in which pupils' attitudes to history change during the transition between primary and secondary school, and investigates pupils' views about the…

  4. Wildlife Reservoir for Hepatitis E Virus, Southwestern France

    PubMed Central

    Lhomme, Sebastien; Top, Sokunthea; Bertagnoli, Stephane; Dubois, Martine; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). To determine the relative contribution of game to the risk for human HEV infection in southwestern France, we tested wildlife samples. HEV RNA was in 3.3% of wildlife livers, indicating that in this region, eating game meat is as risky as eating pork. PMID:26079541

  5. Migration and Marginality: Guestworkers in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rist, Ray C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines migratory movements in Europe since 1954, with particular emphasis on the 13 to 14 million immigrants to the industrial countries of northern Europe. Concludes that the movement of manpower has been critical in sustaining the post-World War II economies of industrialized nations such as Germany and France. (Author/DB)

  6. France's Administrative Tertiary: Stable Numbers for Occupations in Flux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaroutzos, Olivier; Meriot, Sylvie-Anne

    1995-01-01

    During the past decade, the number of jobs in France's administrative service sector has remained stable. General administrative work has become more infrequent; however, the basic occupations of secretary and accountancy have been maintained. Although the number of typists has declined, the number of "secretarial" jobs has increased dramatically.…

  7. Pandoraea pulmonicola chronic colonization in a cystic fibrosis patient, France

    PubMed Central

    Kokcha, S; Bittar, F; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Mely, L; Gomez, C; Gaubert, J-Y; Thomas, P; Rolain, J-M

    2013-01-01

    Pandoraea are considered emerging multidrug resistant pathogens in the context of cystic fibrosis. We report herein for the first time the case of a 30-year-old woman with cystic fibrosis, living in France, who was chronically infected with Pandoraea pulmonicola and who died of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis 3 weeks after bilateral lung transplantation. PMID:25356323

  8. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Verger, F.; Monget, J. M.; Crepon, M. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an investigation to map the various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France are presented. Paricular emphasis is given to the natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. It is shown that a close correlation exist between wind speed direction and the offshore width of the effluent.

  9. Fine-scale human genetic structure in Western France

    PubMed Central

    Karakachoff, Matilde; Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Simonet, Floriane; Le Scouarnec, Solena; Pellen, Nadine; Lecointe, Simon; Charpentier, Eric; Gros, Françoise; Cauchi, Stéphane; Froguel, Philippe; Copin, Nane; Balkau, B; Ducimetière, P; Eschwège;, E; Alhenc-Gelas, F; Girault, A; Fumeron, F; Marre, M; Roussel, R; Bonnet, F; Cauchi, S; Froguel, P; Cogneau, J; Born, C; Caces, E; Cailleau, M; Lantieri, O; Moreau, J G; Rakotozafy, F; Tichet, J; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Probst, Vincent; Le Marec, Hervé; Molinaro, Sabrina; Balkau, Beverley; Redon, Richard; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Blum, Michael GB; Dina, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The difficulties arising from association analysis with rare variants underline the importance of suitable reference population cohorts, which integrate detailed spatial information. We analyzed a sample of 1684 individuals from Western France, who were genotyped at genome-wide level, from two cohorts D.E.S.I.R and CavsGen. We found that fine-scale population structure occurs at the scale of Western France, with distinct admixture proportions for individuals originating from the Brittany Region and the Vendée Department. Genetic differentiation increases with distance at a high rate in these two parts of Northwestern France and linkage disequilibrium is higher in Brittany suggesting a lower effective population size. When looking for genomic regions informative about Breton origin, we found two prominent associated regions that include the lactase region and the HLA complex. For both the lactase and the HLA regions, there is a low differentiation between Bretons and Irish, and this is also found at the genome-wide level. At a more refined scale, and within the Pays de la Loire Region, we also found evidence of fine-scale population structure, although principal component analysis showed that individuals from different departments cannot be confidently discriminated. Because of the evidence for fine-scale genetic structure in Western France, we anticipate that rare and geographically localized variants will be identified in future full-sequence analyses. PMID:25182131

  10. Critical Citizenship Education in England and France: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura; Morris, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The promotion of "critical citizenship" has become a key objective of official school curricula around the world. Using an analytic framework developed by the authors, this paper identifies the diverse conceptions of critical citizenship that are promoted, by comparing the official school curricula for citizenship in England and France. The…

  11. Infection with Mycobacterium microti in Animals in France

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Lorraine; de Cruz, Krystel; Zanella, Gina; Aaziz, Rachid; Bulach, Tabatha; Karoui, Claudine; Hénault, Sylvie; Joncour, Guy

    2014-01-01

    We describe here 35 animal cases of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti in France (2002–2014). Recently, molecular tools that overcome the difficulty of confirming infection by this potentially zoonotic agent have revealed an increasing number of cases, suggesting that its prevalence may have been underestimated. PMID:25540404

  12. Providing for Disabled Students: University of Grenoble, France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Examines how France's University of Grenoble provides for its disabled students in its residence halls, including a description of the university's service for disabled service. A hospital/education center where disabled students can receive care and physiotherapy while attending school is highlighted. (GR)

  13. Novel Bluetongue Virus in Goats, Corsica, France, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Höper, Dirck; Beer, Martin; Jenckel, Maria; Hoffmann, Bernd; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Fablet, Aurore; Vitour, Damien; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    During 2000–2013, 4 genotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) were detected in Corsica, France. At the end of 2013, a compulsory BTV-1 vaccination campaign was initiated among domestic ruminants; biological samples from goats were tested as part of a corresponding monitoring program. A BTV strain with nucleotide sequences suggestive of a novel serotype was detected. PMID:25418049

  14. Infection with Mycobacterium microti in animals in France.

    PubMed

    Michelet, Lorraine; de Cruz, Krystel; Zanella, Gina; Aaziz, Rachid; Bulach, Tabatha; Karoui, Claudine; Hénault, Sylvie; Joncour, Guy; Boschiroli, Maria Laura

    2015-03-01

    We describe here 35 animal cases of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti in France (2002-2014). Recently, molecular tools that overcome the difficulty of confirming infection by this potentially zoonotic agent have revealed an increasing number of cases, suggesting that its prevalence may have been underestimated. PMID:25540404

  15. Frances Kellor, Americanization, and the Quest for Participatory Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, John

    2010-01-01

    Frances Alice Kellor (1873 - 1952) is most famous for leading the Americanization movement that greeted immigrants from 1906 to 1921. The movement has been damned as coercive in the name of conformity in the historical literature. This dissertation argues that Kellor's Americanization movement promoted immigrants and immigration, Americanized…

  16. Citrobacter amalonaticus human urinary tract infections, Marseille, France

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, V.; Abat, C.; Moal, V.; Rolain, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Citrobacter amalonaticus is a bacterium that has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. Here we report four cases of C. amalonaticus infections occurring in patients hospitalized in Marseille, France, and review all cases described in the published literature. PMID:26958347

  17. The Status of Women in France Today: A Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitz, Margaret Collins

    1981-01-01

    Reviews status of women in France today including intellectual scene, women in work force, feminist movement, recent legislation, and women in political process. Believes history will provide perspective needed to reassess changes which have taken place especially with new president and party in power. (BK)

  18. Promoting Reflective Practice in Continuing Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Educationalist Fred Korthagen elaborated a model in the 1980s for the relationship between the teacher educator and the teacher which embraces reflective practice as its guiding principle. In the present study, research was carried out into teacher development among a small group of language teachers working in continuing education in France.…

  19. Geographic variation in potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Gregoire; Georgescu, Vera; Bousquet, Jean

    2015-05-01

    Potentially avoidable hospitalizations are studied as an indirect measure of access to primary care. Understanding the determinants of these hospitalizations can help improve the quality, efficiency, and equity of health care delivery. Few studies have tackled the issue of potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France, and none has done so at the national level. We assessed disparities in potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France in 2012 and analyzed their determinants. The standardized rate of potentially avoidable hospitalizations ranged from 0.1 to 44.4 cases per 1,000 inhabitants, at the ZIP code level. Increased potentially avoidable hospitalizations were associated with higher mortality, lower density of acute care beds and ambulatory care nurses, lower median income, and lower education levels. This study unveils considerable variation in the rate of potentially avoidable hospitalizations in spite of France's mandatory, publicly funded health insurance system. In addition to epidemiological and sociodemographic factors, this study suggests that primary care organization plays a role in geographic disparities in potentially avoidable hospitalizations that might be addressed by increasing the number of nurses and enhancing team work in primary care. Policy makers should consider measuring potentially avoidable hospitalizations in France as an indicator of primary care organization. PMID:25941286

  20. Multiparameter monitoring of a salt cavern collapse (Cerville-Buissoncourt site, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daupley, Xavier; Fabriol, Robert; Contrucci, Isabelle; Bernardie, Séverine; Cao, Ngoc-Tuyen; Jousset, Philippe; Klein, Emmanuelle; Lebert, François; Behrooz, Bazargan

    2010-05-01

    Since 2004, in the framework of GISOS (Scientific Interest Group on the Impact and Safety of Underground Structures), INERIS and BRGM participated in a monitoring experiment of a salt cavern located in the Lorrain salt basin, few kilometers away from Nancy (France). The site is located in the mining concession of Cerville Buissoncourt, owned by SOLVAY. The mining method used consists in extracting the full salt formation by solution mining until the collapse of the overburden. Thereby, the opportunity offered by this collapse was taken to test various monitoring techniques to detect its early warning signs and to improve scientific and technical knowledge of salt caverns mechanical behavior and evolution. Several geotechnical and geophysical methods have been further implemented on site in addition to the monitoring carried out by the operator, which are : microseismic, hydroacoustic, broadband seismology, surface measurements (tacheometer and RTK GPS), drilling extensometry, hydro-chemistry. In early 2009, after several significant changes in the cavity behavior, and as it had reached its critical dimensions, the operator decided to trigger its collapse. For this, pumping operations in the cavern were carried out to reduce brine level and hydrostatic pressure that contributed previously to the cavern stability. These operations, conducted during 4 days, were monitored in real time. They led to the collapse of the cavity on February 13th, 2009. Comparative analysis of the measurements acquired by the several monitoring techniques allows describing in detail the different evolution stages of the cavity and the early warning signs of its collapse.

  1. Transport of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in a Brittany river, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wafar, M. V. M.; le Corre, P.; Birrien, J. L.

    1989-11-01

    Concentrations of NO 3-, NO 2-, NH 4+, PO 43-, Si(OH) 4-, DOC, DON, DOP, POC, PON, POP, chlorophyl a, phaeopigments, carbohydrates and proteins were measured for one year in the Morlaix river waters (Brittany coast, France). By comparison with the averages known for the unpolluted rivers of the world, concentrations of NO 3-, NH 4+, PO 43-, NO 2- and DON are found to be much higher, and those of nitrate and ammonium exceed even those known for highly polluted rivers. The selective pollution by N compounds is caused by an excessive use of fertilizers in the hinterland although with NH 4+, however, urban pollution can also be an important factor. Allochthonous sources supply a major fraction of particulate organic compounds to the river waters. Dissolved fractions of N and P in river waters are very large compared to the particulate fractions, whereas carbon is more or less equally distributed between DOC and POC. Transport of these nutrients to the estuary show three different patterns in relation to river discharge changes. Areal loading of the estuary with NO 3 and NH 4+ is greater than that known for other temperate estuaries. The deleterious effects of N pollution are, however, offset by the low freshwater flow, high tidal prism volume, estuarine basin geomorphology and uptake by benthic microalgae.

  2. Topex/Poseidon: A United States/France mission. Oceanography from space: The oceans and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON space mission, sponsored by NASA and France's space agency, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), will give new observations of the Earth from space to gain a quantitative understanding of the role of ocean currents in climate change. Rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse gases' produced as a result of human activities could generate a global warming, followed by an associated rise in sea level. The satellite will use radar altimetry to measure sea-surface height and will be tracked by three independent systems to yield accurate topographic maps over the dimensions of entire ocean basins. The satellite data, together with the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) measurements, will be analyzed by an international scientific team. By merging the satellite observations with TOGA and WOCE findings, the scientists will establish the extensive data base needed for the quantitative description and computer modeling of ocean circulation. The ocean models will eventually be coupled with atmospheric models to lay the foundation for predictions of global climate change.

  3. Evidence for spatially variable friction from tidal amplification and asymmetry in the Pertuis Breton (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolle, Amandine; Karpytchev, Mikhail

    2007-11-01

    The semi-diurnal tides are amplified and distorted as they propagate into the Pertuis Breton, a semi-enclosed shallow basin in the north-eastern part of Bay of Biscay, in France. This paper investigates the influence of bottom friction on amplification and phase lag of the tidal constituent M2 and its overtide M4 in the Pertuis Breton. A fine resolution two-dimensional (2D) numerical model is implemented to simulate tidal propagation. The model solves the depth-averaged shallow-water equations on a finite element grid using the TELEMAC 2D software. A two-zone parameterisation of friction coefficient is introduced to evaluate the impact of smooth mud flats on the tidal asymmetry and amplification in the Pertuis. Fitting the model to observed amplitudes and phases of M2 and M4 evaluates the decrease of Chezy friction coefficient from the mud flats to the rest of the Pertuis as 100:60. This conclusion is supported by the direct estimation based on morphology and composition of sea bed in the Pertuis Breton.

  4. Hydrological role of karst in the Chalk aquifer of Upper Normandy, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Janyani, Sanae; Dupont, Jean-Paul; Massei, Nicolas; Slimani, Smail; Dörfliger, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    The role of karst on large-scale groundwater flow is defined for the Chalk aquifer of Upper Normandy (western Paris Basin), France. In the regional context, chalk plateaus occupy the greater part of watersheds and are the main sites of groundwater recharge. Previous studies focused on karstic output systems in the valleys and less on water-level variations in the recharge zones upstream. This study assesses the relevant hydrogeological processes using time-series data (boreholes and springs) recorded along a down-gradient hydrologeological cross-section in two selected watersheds. These hydrological data are interpreted in the framework of previous descriptions of the morphological organization of the study area's karst network. The results highlight the hydrological role of (1) the input karst (vertical conduits) which drains recharging water, (2) the output karst (sub-horizontal conduits widely developed in the vicinity of valleys in the surface watersheds) which drains the output flows, and (3) the connections between these two (input and output) networks, which control the upstream water levels and allow quick transfer to springs, particularly after strong rainfall events. A conceptual model of the hydrological functioning of this covered karst aquifer is established, which should serve for the structuring and parameterization of a numerical model.

  5. Improvement of ECMWF monthly forecasts of precipitation over France with an analog method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelot, M.; Dubus, L.; Gailhard, J.

    2010-09-01

    Optimal operation of hydro-power plants requires accurate forecasts of precipitation which are then integrated into hydrological models to forecast river flows and water volumes in reservoirs. Precipitation is a difficult parameter to forecast, especially at long lead times (monthly and over) one of the reasons being the too coarse resolution of numerical weather prediction systems. In this study, we evaluate ECMWF's monthly forecasts of precipitation over 9 important basins in France. The deterministic approach shows that forecasts are useless over week 1. Using the probabilistic approach allows to get useful information for some events (lower and upper terciles for instance), up to week 3, but the overall scores are quite low, and hardly better than climatological scores. In a second step, EDF's analog method, currently used in operations for D+7 forecasts, has been adapted to ECWMF's monthly forecasts. It uses Z700 and Z1000 fields over North Atlantic and Europe to get local precipitations. For the nine catchments studied here and for the four weeks, results show an overall improvement of analog precipitation forecasts compared to raw forecasts. Improvement is also identified with respect to climatology in more than half of the catchments. The prediction skill is mostly pronounced for extreme events (low and heavy precipitations). The analog method thus presents significant performance, suited for operational use. Improvements can also be expected with some optimization of the method (mix of predictors, new similarity criterion…)

  6. Downscaling of seasonal forecasts and possible application to hydro-power production forecasts in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubus, L.; Berthelot, M.; Qu, Z.; Gailhard, J.

    2009-09-01

    Managing the power generation system at the scale of a country is a very complex problem which involves in particular climatic variables at different space and time scales. Air temperature and precipitation are among the most important ones, as they explain respectively an important part of the demand variability and the hydro power production capacity. If direct GCMs forecasts of local variables are not very skilful, specially over mid-latitudes, large scale fields such as geopotential height or mean sea level pressure show some positive skill over the North Atlantic / european region, that can be used to make local predictions of surface variables, using downscaling technics. In this study, we evaluated the 2m temperature and precipitation hindcasts of the DEMETER and ENSEMBLES systems on a number of hydrological basins in France. We used the University of Cantabria web portal for statistical downscaling, developed in the ENSEMBLES project, to downscale the most predictable large scale fields, and compared direct raw hindcasts with indirect downscaled hindcasts. Both direct and indirect hindcasts are then used in an hydrolocial model to evaluate their respective interest for hydro-power production forecasts.

  7. Declining Dioxin concentrations in the Rhone River, France, attest to the effectiveness of emissions controls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Babut, Marc; Mourier, Brice; Mahler, Barbara J.; Roux, Gwenaelle; Desmet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Emission-control policies have been implemented in Europe and North America since the 1990s for polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs). To assess the effect of these policies on temporal trends and spatial patterns for these compounds in a large European river system, sediment cores were collected in seven depositional areas along the Rhone River in France, dated, and analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. Results show concentrations increase in the downstream direction and have decreased temporally at all sites during the last two decades, with an average decrease of 83% from 1992 to 2010. The time for a 50% decrease in concentrations (t1/2) averaged 6.9 ± 2.6 and 9.1 ± 2.9 years for the sum of measured PCDDs and PCDFs, respectively. Congener patterns are similar among cores and indicate dominance of regional atmospheric deposition and possibly weathered local sources. Local sources are clearly indicated at the most downstream site, where concentrations of the most toxic dioxin, TCDD, are about 2 orders of magnitude higher than at the other six sites. The relatively steep downward trends attest to the effects of the dioxin emissions reduction policy in Europe and suggest that risks posed to aquatic life in the Rhone River basin from dioxins and furans have been greatly reduced.

  8. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  9. Apollo Basin, Moon: Estimation of Impact Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echaurren, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Apollo Basin is a, pre-Nectarian, multi-ring basin located within the large South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Multispectral data from both Galileo and Clementine showed that the composition of materials in Apollo is distinct…

  10. Flood risk analysis in urban area, using geo - historical approach. Example of Mulhouse (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Brice; Ansel, Romain; Guerrouah, Ouarda; With, Lauriane; Vitoux, Marie-Claire; Himmelsbach, Iso

    2010-05-01

    Flood Risks Prevention Plan in the Ill Basin, reveals that Mulhouse (France) is nearly totally free from flooding. It appears to be the result of the building of a diversion canal between 1848 and 1903. If its aim was to enable urbanisation and industrial development of the "French Manchester", the bypass canal transformed the city which was settled in a zone both swampy and liable to flooding in a place free from any flood risk, in theory. Events chronology is convincing: non only did the floodings disappear, but the city is a rare example in the Ill basin where devastating floods are in decrease nowadays. Having been flooded on numerous occasions since the Middle - Age, Mulhouse knew its last significant flood in 1895. And, in particular, the city wasn't flooded during the huge flood of january 1910. Excepting an unlikely meteorological accident, the canal efficiency seems to be undeniable. But, in the same time, alarmist reports mention the possibility of a flood which would affect 70.000 out of the 110.000 inhabitants of Mulhouse. What about this contradiction ? Firstly, extreme floods are not known, and the risk increases because of the changes in the landuse affecting the upper part of Ill basin. Secondly, risks changed because of urban growth : it's not any more the floods of Ill that raise problems, but the urban streaming. Nowadays, the risk doesn't come any more from below (river) but from at the top (hills). So, while the diversion channel avoids the floods of Ill since 1903, the innovative use of firemen archives report 76 cases of damaging urban streaming. The stake thus consists in mapping zones subjected to the various risks of flood, but also in establishing risks scenarii to prepare crisis management in case of disaster. The proposition of the paper is to adopt a geohistorical and interdisciplinary process on various scales in order to place the urban-river-installation system in a broader context, linking devastating floods chronology and landuse

  11. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  12. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  13. MASSACHUSETTS DRAINAGE SUB-BASINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MassGIS has produced a statewide digital datalayer of the approximately 2300 sub-basins as defined and used by the USGS Water Resources Division and the Mass Water Resources Commission and as modified by Executive Office of Environmental Affairs (EOEA) agencies. These sub-basins...

  14. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  15. The deep Ionian Basin revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  16. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to

  17. The future of astronomy PhDs in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissier, S.

    2012-12-01

    This contribution presents a poll undertaken at the beginning of 2012, and addressed to every doctor in astronomy who obtained his/her degree in France. Its goal is to motivate the French astronomical community to think and discuss about what should be the training of PhDs, and what should be its objective. Further discussions and reactions can be posted e.g. on {http://docastro.blogspot.fr/}. A worrying results from the poll is that the majority of the participants would not encourage a young student to start a thesis in astronomy. The main reasons for this fact may be the high pressure on astronomy positions and the little interest a doctorate has for other careers in France. I suggest we either have to modify our training or reduce the number of thesis starting each year in astronomy.

  18. France tries to save its ailing national health insurance system.

    PubMed

    Sorum, Paul Clay

    2005-07-01

    France has provided universal health care through employment-based health insurance funds. As its governments have increasingly used tax revenues to supplement payroll levies, they have assumed a larger role. Faced with widening deficits in the funds' accounts, the National Assembly adopted in August 2004 legislation designed to decrease health expenses, increase revenues to the funds, and improve quality of care. The apparent impacts of the so-called Douste-Blazy law are to reaffirm social solidarity and equality of access; to reinforce central control rather than relying more on decentralized and market forces; to give the now-unified funds a stronger director, shielded not only from labor and business but also, possibly, from the central government; to allow French private physicians to retain their unrivaled freedom of prescription; and to continue France's reliance on taxes as well as payroll levies to finance its health care. PMID:16022215

  19. Flow ensemble prediction for flash flood warnings at ungauged basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demargne, Julie; Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Caseri, Angelica; Ramos, Maria-Helena; de Saint Aubin, Céline; Jurdy, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods, which are typically triggered by severe rainfall events, are difficult to monitor and predict at the spatial and temporal scales of interest due to large meteorological and hydrologic uncertainties. In particular, uncertainties in quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) and quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) need to be taken into account to provide skillful flash flood warnings with increased warning lead time. In France, the AIGA discharge-threshold flood warning system is currently being enhanced to ingest high-resolution ensemble QPFs from convection-permitting numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, as well as probabilistic QPEs, to improve flash flood warnings for small-to-medium (from 10 to 1000 km²) ungauged basins. The current deterministic AIGA system is operational in the South of France since 2005. It ingests the operational radar-gauge QPE grids from Météo-France to run a simplified hourly distributed hydrologic model at a 1-km² resolution every 15 minutes (Javelle et al. 2014). This produces real-time peak discharge estimates along the river network, which are subsequently compared to regionalized flood frequency estimates of given return periods. Warnings are then provided to the French national hydro-meteorological and flood forecasting centre (SCHAPI) and regional flood forecasting offices, based on the estimated severity of ongoing events. The calibration and regionalization of the hydrologic model has been recently enhanced to implement an operational flash flood warning system for the entire French territory. To quantify the QPF uncertainty, the COSMO-DE-EPS rainfall ensembles from the Deutscher Wetterdienst (20 members at a 2.8-km resolution for a lead time of 21 hours), which are available on the North-eastern part of France, were ingested in the hydrologic model of the AIGA system. Streamflow ensembles were produced and probabilistic flash flood warnings were derived for the Meuse and Moselle river basins and

  20. Paleontological analysis of a lacustrine carbonaceous uranium deposit at the Anderson mine, Date Creek basin, west-central Arizona (U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Bradbury, J.P.; Forester, R.M.; Hanley, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary sequence of the Date Creek basin area of Arizona is composed principally of intertonguing alluvial-fan and lacustrine deposits. The lacustrine rocks contain large intermediate- to, locally, high-grade uranium deposits that form one of the largest uranium resources in the United States (an estimated 670,000 tons of U3O8 at an average grade of 0.023% is indicated by drilling to date). At the Anderson mine, about 50,000 tons of U3O8 occurs in lacustrine carbonaceous siltstones and mudstones (using a cutoff grade of 0.01%). The Anderson mine constitutes a new class of ore deposit, a lacustrine carbonaceous uranium deposit. Floral and faunal remains at the Anderson mine played a critical role in creating and documenting conditions necessary for uranium mineralization. Organic-rich, uraniferous rocks at the Anderson mine contain plant remains and ostracodes having remarkably detailed preservation of internal features because of infilling by opaline silica. This preservation suggests that the alkaline lake waters in the mine area contained high concentrations of dissolved silica and that silicification occurred rapidly, before compaction or cementation of the enclosing sediment. Uranium coprecipitated with the silica. Thinly laminated, dark-colored, siliceous beds contain centric diatoms preserved with carbonaceous material suggesting that lake waters at the mine were locally deep and anoxic. These alkaline, silica-charged waters and a stagnant, anoxic environment in parts of the lake were necessary conditions for the precipitation of large amounts of uranium in the lake-bottom sediments. Sediments at the Anderson mine contain plant remains and pollen that were derived from diverse vegetative zones suggesting about 1500 m of relief in the area at the time of deposition. The pollen suggests that the valley floor was semiarid and subtropical, whereas nearby mountains supported temperate deciduous forests. ?? 1990.

  1. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France were mapped with regard to natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. The mesoscale thermal features of the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea were also studied. The evolution of the thermal gradients generated by the main estuaries of the French coastal zones was investigated along with the modeling of diurnal heating of the sea surface and its influence on the oceanic surface layers.

  2. Shell disease in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, reared in France.

    PubMed

    Renault, T; Chollet, B; Cochennec, N; Gerard, A

    2002-01-01

    Progeny of eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, introduced into France in 1992, were reared in IFREMER facilities to test their growth performances. During the summer of 1993, sporadic mass mortalities (80-90%) occurred among C. virginica spat reared in the IFREMER laboratories in La Tremblade (Charente Maritime, France) and Bouin (Vendée, France). Affected oysters presented mantle retraction and deposition of an anomalous conchiolin layer on the inner surface of the shell. The incidence of oysters with gross signs exceeded 80%. No obvious pathogen was identified in soft tissues by histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, histological examination showed the presence of anomalous basophilic round structures, 0.5-1 microm in diameter, in gill and mantle connective tissues. These extracellular Feulgen-negative structures reacted positively with the von Kossa stain. TEM examination on mantle and gill samples in diseased spat showed that the basophilic bodies consisted of concentric deposits of an amorphous substance interpreted as containing calcium. These observations may indicate that the mineralization process in spat shells was disturbed without exact determination of the cause. Based on the similarities of the gross signs to those reported in juvenile eastern oysters in the United States, we believe that the cause of the mortalities observed in France was probably the Juvenile Oyster Disease. Moreover, we report for the first time the detection of anomalous amorphous structures in gill and mantle connective tissues associated with mortalities and deposition of an anomalous conchioloin layer on the inner shell surface in C. virginica spat. PMID:12054781

  3. The GMO case in France: politics, lawlessness and postmodernism.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Marcel

    2014-07-01

    The GMO debacle in France is analyzed in the light of the balance of forces around this controversy, the changes in position of governments and the opponents' strategic use of intimidation. These factors have caused insurmountable difficulties for scientific experimentations and assessment of the technology, as well as for farmers attempting to grow GM maize in this country. The change from a "modern" to a "postmodern" framing of official public debates and scientific institutions has not appeased confrontations concerning GMOs. PMID:25437234

  4. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  5. K-Basins design guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  6. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in small rodents in France.

    PubMed

    Chastagner, A; Moinet, M; Perez, G; Roy, E; McCoy, K D; Plantard, O; Agoulon, A; Bastian, S; Butet, A; Rantier, Y; Verheyden, H; Cèbe, N; Leblond, A; Vourc'h, G

    2016-07-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging zoonotic tick-borne pathogen affecting a wide range of mammals. Rodents are suspected to be natural reservoirs for this bacterium, but their role in the epidemiologic cycles affecting domestic animals and wild ungulates has not been demonstrated. This study aimed to improve our knowledge on A. phagocytophilum prevalence in Apodemus sylvaticus, A. flavicollis and Myodes glareolus using data collected in 2010 in one area in eastern France and in 2012-2013 in two others areas in western France. Rodents were captured in each site and infection was tested using qualitative real-time PCR assays on either blood or spleen samples. Prevalence showed high variability among sites. The highest prevalence was observed in the most eastern site (with an average infection rate of 22.8% across all species), whereas no rodent was found to be PCR positive in the south-west site and only 6.6% were positive in the north-west of France. Finally, a significant increase in prevalence was observed in autumn samples compared to spring samples in the north-west, but no change was found in the other two sites. PMID:27270190

  7. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium Isolates Obtained from Humans in France

    PubMed Central

    Guyot, K.; Follet-Dumoulin, A.; Lelièvre, E.; Sarfati, C.; Rabodonirina, M.; Nevez, G.; Cailliez, J. C.; Camus, D.; Dei-Cas, E.

    2001-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is usually considered the agent of human cryptosporidiosis. However, only in the last few years, molecular biology-based methods have allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes, and only a few data are available from France. In the present work, we collected samples of whole feces from 57 patients from France (11 immunocompetent patients, 35 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-infected patients, 11 immunocompromised but non-HIV-infected patients) in whom Cryptosporidium oocysts were recognized by clinical laboratories. A fragment of the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA gene encompassing the hypervariable region was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The results revealed that the majority of the patients were infected with cattle (29 of 57) or human (18 of 57) genotypes of Cryptosporidium parvum. However, a number of immunocompromised patients were infected with C. meleagridis (3 of 57), C. felis (6 of 57), or a new genotype of C. muris (1 of 57). This is the first report of the last three species of Cryptosporidium in humans in France. These results indicate that immunocompromised individuals are susceptible to a wide range of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. PMID:11574558

  8. The role of water nitrogen retention in integrated nutrient management: assessment in a large basin using different modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grizzetti, Bruna; Passy, Paul; Billen, Gilles; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Garnier, Josette; Lassaletta, Luis

    2015-06-01

    Assessing the removal of nitrogen (temporary and permanent) in large river basins is complex due to the dependency on climate, hydrological and physical characteristics, and ecosystems functioning. Measurements are generally limited in number and do not account for the full integration of all processes contributing to nitrogen retention in the river basin. However, the estimation of nitrogen retention by the ecosystems is crucial to understanding the nitrate water pollution and the N2O emissions to the atmosphere, as well as the lag time between the implementation of agri-environmental measures to reduce nitrogen pollution and the improvement of water quality. Models have often been used to understand the dynamics of the river basin system. The objective of this study was to assess nitrogen retention in a large river basin, the Seine basin (∼65 000 km2, in France), through the application of three models with different levels of complexity developed for different specific purposes: the GREEN, SWAT and RiverStrahler models. The study analyses the different modelling approaches and compares their estimates of water nitrogen retention over an 11-year period. Then reflexions on the role played by nitrogen retention by aquatic ecosystems in integrated nutrient management are presented. The results of this study are relevant for the understanding of nitrogen retention processes at the large river basin scale and for the analysis of mitigation measure scenarios designed to reduce nitrogen impacts on aquatic ecosystems and climate.

  9. ANN modeling for flood prediction in the upstream Eure's catchment (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharroubi, Ouissem; masson, Eric; Blanpain, Olivier; Lallahem, Sami

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall-Runoff relationship at basin scale is strongly depending on the catchment complexity including multi-scale interactions. In extreme events cases (i.e. floods and droughts) this relationship is even more complex and differs from average hydrological conditions making extreme runoff prediction very difficult to achieve. However, flood warning, flood prevention and flood mitigation rely on the possibility to predict both flood peak runoff and lag time. This point is crucial for decision making and flood warning to prevent populations and economical stakes to be damaged by extreme hydrological events. Since 2003 in France, a dedicated state service is in charge of producing flood warning from national level (i.e. SCHAPI) to regional level (i.e. SPC). This flood warning service is combining national weather forecast agency (i.e. Meteo France) together with a fully automated realtime hydrological network (i.e. Rainfall-Runoff) in order to produce a flood warning national map online and provide a set of hydro-meteorological data to the SPC in charge of flood prediction from regional to local scale. The SPC is in fact the flood service delivering hydrological prediction at operational level for decision making about flood alert for municipalities and first help services. Our research in collaboration with the SPC SACN (i.e. "Seine Aval et fleuves Côtiers Normands") is focused on the implementation of an Artificial Neural Network model (ANN) for flood prediction in deferent key points of the Eure's catchment and main subcatchment. Our contribution will focus on the ANN model developed for Saint-Luperce gauging station in the upstream part of the Eure's catchment. Prediction of extreme runoff at Saint-Luperce station is of high importance for flood warning in the Eure's catchment because it gives a good indicator on the extreme status and the downstream propagation of a potential flood event. Despite a good runoff monitoring since 27 years Saint Luperce flood

  10. Seasonal variability of suspended sediment transport in the Seine river catchment area (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Christine; Baati, Selma; Ayrault, Sophie; Bonte, Philippe; Evrard, Olivier; Kissel, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    , C., Kissel, C., Robin, E., Bonté, P. and Lagroix, F., 2009, Magnetic particle characterization in the Seine river system: Implications for the determination of natural versus anthropogenic input, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., doi:10.1029/2009GC002544. Tessier, L., Bonté, P., Mouchel, J.M., Lefevre, I., Sogon, S., Ayrault, S., Le Cloarec, M.F., 2003, Transport et characterisation des matieres en suspension dans le basin de la Seine : Identification des signatures naturelles et anthropiques, 14èmes Journées Scientifiques de l'Environnement : l'Eau, la Ville, la Vie, Créteil : France 2003. http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/20/30/84/PDF/4-JSE-2003-Manuscrit-Tessier-HAL-2008-01-08.pdf

  11. The IRHUM database - bioavailable strontium isotope ratios of France for geochemical fingerprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmes, Malte; Moffat, Ian; Grün, Rainer; Armstrong, Richard; Kinsley, Les; McMorrow, Linda

    2013-04-01

    Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) are used as a geochemical tracer in a wide range of fields including archaeology, ecology, soil, food and forensic sciences. These applications are based on the principle that strontium isotopic ratios of materials reflect the geological sources of the strontium, which were available during its formation. Geologic regions with distinct strontium isotope ranges, which depend on their age and composition, can be differentiated. A major constraint for current studies is the lack of robust reference maps to evaluate the strontium isotope ratios measured in the samples. The aim of the IRHUM (isotopic reconstruction of human migration) database is to provide a reference map of bioavailable strontium isotope ratios for continental France. The current dataset contains 400 sample locations covering the major geologic units of the Paris and Aquitaine Basin, the Massif Central, and the Pyrenees. At each site soil and plant samples have been collected to cover the whole range of strontium ratios at a specific location. The database is available online at www.rses.anu.edu.au/research-areas/archaeogeochemistry and contains the bioavailable strontium isotope data as well as major and trace element concentrations for soil and plant samples. Strontium isotopes were analysed using a Neptune multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) and elemental concentrations with a Varian Vista Pro Axial ICP-AES (inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer). In addition, IRHUM provides spatial context for each sample, including background geology, field observations and soil descriptions. This metadata allows users to evaluate the suitability of a specific data point for their study. The IRHUM database fills an important gap between high resolution studies from specific sites (e.g. archaeological sites), to the very broad geochemical mapping of Europe. Thus it provides an excellent tool to evaluate the regional context

  12. Basin development and petroleum potential of offshore Otway basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.E.; O'Brien, G.W.; Swift, M.G.; Scherl, A.S.; Marlow, M.S.; Exon, N.F.; Falvey, D.A.; Lock, J.; Lockwood, K.

    1987-05-01

    The Bass Strait region in southeastern Australia contains three sedimentary basins, which are, from east to west, the Gippsland, Bass, and Otway basins. The offshore Gippsland basin is Australia's most prolific petroleum-producing province and supplies over 90% of the country's production. In contrast, exploration has been unsuccessful in the offshore portion of the Otway basin; 17 wells have been drilled, and although shows of oil and gas have been common, no commercial discoveries have been made. Many of these wells, drilled in the 1960s and 1970s, were sited using poor-quality seismic data and, as a consequence, were frequently off structure. Seismic data quality has, however, improved significantly in recent years. The present study by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) involved the collection, in the offshore Otway basin, of 3700 km of high-quality, 48-channel seismic reflection data by the BMR research vessel R/V Rig Seismic. These data have been integrated with existing industry seismic data, well data, limited dredged material, and geohistory analyses in a framework study of basin development and hydrocarbon potential in this under-explored area. The offshore Otway basin extends 500 km along the southern coastline and is typically 50 km wide in water depths of less than 200 m. It contains up to 10 km of predominantly late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic sediments, which are overlain by a thin sequence of middle to late Tertiary shelf carbonates. It has been divided into three main structural elements: the Mussel Platform in the east, the central Voluta Trough, and the Crayfish Platform in the west. The basin was initiated at the end of the Jurassic as part of the Bassian rift. Up to 6 km of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited prior to breakup at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the onset of sea-floor spreading between Australia and Antarctica.

  13. Long-Term Care Financing: Lessons From France

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Context An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States’ long-term care financing reform efforts. Methods We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. Findings France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income adjusted and amounts are low. Nevertheless, expenditures have exceeded projections, burdening local governments. Private supplemental insurance covers 11% of French, mostly middle-income adults (versus 3% of Americans 18 and older). Whether policyholders will maintain employer-sponsored coverage after retirement is not known. The government's interest in pursuing an explicit public/private partnership has waned under President François Hollande, a centrist socialist, in contrast to the previous center-right leader, President Nicolas Sarkozy, thereby reducing the prospects of a coordinated public/private strategy. Conclusions American private insurers are showing increasing interest in long

  14. Martian lake basins and lacustrine plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hon, R. A.

    1992-02-01

    A classification of Martian lake basins based on the location of the basin in respect to water sources is proposed. The classes are type 1: valley-head basins; type 2: intravalley basins; type 3: valley-terminal basins; and type 4: isolated basins. Martian lakes are ephemeral features. Many craters and irregular depressions impounded water only until the basins filled and overflowed. Water escaping by spillover rapidly cut crevasses in the downstream side of basins and drained the ponds. Clastic lacustrine sediments collected in the lakes as flowing water lost velocity and turbulence. Evaporitic deposits may be significant in those basins that were not rapidly drained. Sediments deposited in lake basins form smooth, featureless plains. Lacustrine plains are potentially candidate sites for Mars landings and for the search for evidence of ancient life.

  15. Tectonic framework of Turkish sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O. )

    1988-08-01

    Turkey's exploration potential primarily exists in seven onshore (Southeast Turkey platform, Tauride platform, Pontide platform, East Anatolian platform, Interior, Trace, and Adana) basins and four offshore (Black Sea, Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea, and Mediterranean Sea) regional basins formed during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The Mesozoic basins are the onshore basins: Southeast Turkey, Tauride, Pontide, East Anatolian, and Interior basins. Due to their common tectonic heritage, the southeast Turkey and Tauride basins have similar source rocks, structural growth, trap size, and structural styles. In the north, another Mesozoic basin, the Pontide platform, has a much more complex history and very little in common with the southerly basins. The Pontide has two distinct parts; the west has Paleozoic continental basement and the east is underlain by island-arc basement of Jurassic age. The plays are in the upper Mesozoic rocks in the west Pontide. The remaining Mesozoic basins of the onshore Interior and East Anatolian basins are poorly known and very complex. Their source, reservoir, and seal are not clearly defined. The basins formed during several orogenic phases in mesozoic and Tertiary. The Cenozoic basins are the onshore Thrace and Adana basins, and all offshore regional basins formed during Miocene extension. Further complicating the onshore basins evolution is the superposition of Cenozoic basins and Mesozoic basins. The Thrace basin in the northwest and Adana basin in the south both originate from Tertiary extension over Tethyan basement and result in a similar source, reservoir, and seal. Local strike-slip movement along the North Anatolian fault modifies the Thrace basin structures, influencing its hydrocarbon potential.

  16. Provenance and basin evolution, Zhada basin, southwestern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J.; Decelles, P.; Gehrels, G.; Kapp, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Zhada basin is a late Miocene - Pliocene intermontane basin situated at high elevations in the Himalayan hinterland. The fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Zhada formation are undeformed and sit in angular unconformity above the deformed Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS). The basin sits just south of the Indus suture in a structural position occupied elsewhere in the Himalayan orogen by some of the highest mountains on earth, including Everest. The occurrence of a basin at this location demands explanation. Currently, the Sutlej River flows parallel to the structural grain of the Himalaya, westward through the basin, towards the Leo Pargil (Qusum) range. Near the range front it takes a sharp southward turn, cuts across the structural grain of the Himalaya and out into the Gangetic foreland. Palaeocurrent indicators in the lower part of the Zhada formation show that the basin originated as a northwest flowing axial river. Palaeocurrent indicators are consistently northwest oriented, even to within to within 10 km of the Leo Pargil range front in the north-western end of the basin. This implies that at the onset of sedimentation in Zhada basin the Leo Pargil range was not a barrier as it is today. In the upper part of the Zhada formation, palaeocurrent indicators are generally directed towards the centre of the basin. In the central and southern portions of the basin this indicates a transition from an axial, northwest flowing river to prograding fluvial and alluvial fans. However, in the north-western part of the basin the change between lower and upper Zhada formation involves a complete drainage reversal. This change in palaeocurrent orientation is also reflected in the detrital zircon signal from basin sediments. Low in the Zhada formation the detrital zircon signal is dominated by zircons from the Kailash (Gangdese) batholith (or associated extrusives, see below). However, higher in the sections, a local source, either from the TSS or the core of the

  17. Modeling overpressures in sedimentary basins: Consequences for permeability and rheology of shales, and petroleum expulsion efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Burrus, J.; Schneider, F.; Wolf, S. )

    1994-07-01

    The prediction of overpressures using Institut Francais du Petrole's 2-D numerical model TEMISPACK is applied to several provinces of the world. In the Paris basin, France, normally pressured Liassic shales are shown to have permeabilities around a microdarcy, independently confirmed by laboratory measurements. In contrast, in the Norway section of the North Sea, Williston Basin, Canada, Gulf Coast, and in the Mahakam delta, observed overpressures of 10-50 MPa are consistently modeled with shale permeabilities around 1-10 nanodarcys. This theoretical value fits well with the lowest permeability measured in compacted shales. For these basins, compaction disequilibrium was found to explain most (>85%) of the overpressures. The only exception was the Williston basin in which overpressures observed in the organic-rich Bakken shales are entirely due to hydrocarbon generation. In Mahakam delta, the rheology of shales is nonlinear, i.e., the strength of shales increases rapidly with death. Consequently, shale compaction cannot be described by the linear behavior often assumed in hydrology. In the absence of fault barriers, numerical simulations and geological evidence suggest that overpressured source rocks have low or very low expulsion efficiency, irrespective of their organic content. However, shales with a permeability on the order of a microdarcy do not hinder petroleum migration.

  18. Hydrothermal activity in the Lau Basin: First results from the NAUTILAU Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NAUTILAU Group

    The Lau Basin, a back arc spreading center, is one of the most active hydrothermal areas in the ocean. A scientific team from France, Germany, and Tonga investigated the southern Lau Basin near Tonga in 1989 to study the processes of seafloor ore-mineral formation associated with hydrothermal circulation along the volcanic Valu Fa ridge (Ride de Valu Fa in Figure 1), which lies in back of the Tonga-Kermadec trench.Between April 17 and May 10 scientists on the R/V Nadir used the submersible Nautile to make 22 dives in the southern Lau Basin. The cruise was called NAUTILAU, for Nautile in Lau Basin. In addition to the standard equipment of the submersible (video and photo cameras, and temperature probe), a CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) instrument was integrated with a “mini rosette” water sampling device used for the first time on the Nautile to obtain correlations between the geological observations and the physical and chemical anomalies measured in the seawater.

  19. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...

  20. Severe and contrasted polymetallic contamination patterns (1900-2009) in the Loire River sediments (France).

    PubMed

    Grosbois, C; Meybeck, M; Lestel, L; Lefèvre, I; Moatar, F

    2012-10-01

    The Loire River basin (117,800 km(2), France) has been exposed to multiple sources of metals during the last 150 years, originating from major mining districts (coal and non-ferrous metals) and their associated industrial activities. Geochemical archives are established here from the analysis of a 4m sediment core in the downstream floodplain and then compared to stream bed sediments from pristine monolithological sub-basins and from bed and bank sediments in impacted tributaries. The contamination is assessed for 55 major and trace elements through their enrichment factors to Al (EF), normalized to the pre-anthropogenic background. Archives from 1900 to 2009 show enrichment (EF<1.3) not only for Ba, Be, Cs, Ga, Rb, REE, Sr, V, and Zr but also for U and Th, despite U mining activities until the 1990s. From 1900 to 1950, the level of contamination is severe for Hg, Au, Ag (10

  1. Factors controlling growth and morphology of early Miocene stromatolites from Montaigu-le-Blin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Barilaro, Federica; McKenzie, Judith A.; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2015-04-01

    A large variety of stromatolite morphotypes are present in the early Miocene sedimentary sequence that outcrops in the region of Montaigu-le-Blin, France. Thanks to its good degree of preservation, this formation is an ideal place to evaluate the key factors controlling the occurrence and morphology of the stromatolites, as well as to study the diagenetic processes that transform a soft, slimy lithifying microbialite into a solid, laminated sedimentary rock. Facies analysis suggests that the Montaigu-le-Blin stromatolites formed in shallow waters, in a restricted, laterally heterogeneous basin. Various evidence suggests a biological origin for the stromatolites, whose formation cannot be explained through abiotic background precipitation driven by evaporation, temperature changes, or migration of metamorphic fluids. Microscopic observations revealed that the Montaigu-le-Blin stromatolites are mainly comprised of authigenic calcite that precipitated directly from the basin waters (no evidence for trapping and binding) in close association with algae, microbial cells, and exopolymeric substances. Well-preserved microfossils of photosynthetic organisms are widespread within the thin sections. The calcite constituting the stromatolites is characterized by positive δ13C values (1.7 to 4.4 o), suggesting that microbial mediation of calcite was mainly related to the metabolic activity of photosynthetic organisms or anoxygenic phototrophs, and not to metabolisms in which organic material is degraded (e.g. sulfate reduction). The laminated habit of the stromatolites results from alternating layers of porous, digit-like sparite and more compacted organic-rich micrite. No correlation was identified, through isotopic analysis, between these two types of laminae and external environmental factors (i.e. temperature, salinity, eutrophication state). Rather, we hypothesize that periodic fluctuations in the dominant microbial/algal species within the mat influenced the morphology

  2. Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

    1986-05-01

    Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

  3. Influence of fluvial environments on sediment archiving processes and temporal pollutant dynamics (Upper Loire River, France).

    PubMed

    Dhivert, E; Grosbois, C; Rodrigues, S; Desmet, M

    2015-02-01

    Floodplains are often cored to build long-term pollutant trends at the basin scale. To highlight the influences of depositional environments on archiving processes, aggradation rates, archived trace element signals and vertical redistribution processes, two floodplain cores were sampled near in two different environments of the Upper Loire River (France): (i) a river bank ridge and (ii) a paleochannel connected by its downstream end. The base of the river bank core is composed of sandy sediments from the end of the Little Ice Age (late 18th century). This composition corresponds to a proximal floodplain aggradation (<50 m from the river channel) and delimits successive depositional steps related to progressive disconnection degree dynamism. This temporal evolution of depositional environments is associated with mineralogical sorting and variable natural trace element signals, even in the <63-μm fraction. The paleochannel core and upper part of the river bank core are composed of fine-grained sediments that settled in the distal floodplain. In this distal floodplain environment, the aggradation rate depends on the topography and connection degree to the river channel. The temporal dynamics of anthropogenic trace element enrichments recorded in the distal floodplain are initially synchronous and present similar levels. Although the river bank core shows general temporal trends, the paleochannel core has a better resolution for short-time variations of trace element signals. After local water depth regulation began in the early 1930s, differences of connection degree were enhanced between the two cores. Therefore, large trace element signal divergences are recorded across the floodplain. The paleochannel core shows important temporal variations of enrichment levels from the 1930s to the coring date. However, the river bank core has no significant temporal variations of trace element enrichments and lower contamination levels because of a lower deposition of

  4. Anthropophile elements in river sediments: Overview from the Seine River, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiu-Bin; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Bouchez, Julien; Louvat, Pascale; Wang, Yi-Na

    2014-11-01

    contrast to larger river systems that drain relatively pristine basins, little is known about the sediment geochemistry of rivers impacted by intense human activities. In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of the anthropogenic overprints on element geochemistry in sediments of the human-impacted Seine River, France. Most elements are fractionated by grain size, as shown by the comparison between suspended particulate matter (SPM) and riverbank deposits (RBD). The RBD are particularly coarse and enriched in carbonates and heavy minerals and thus in elements such as Ba, Ca, Cr, Hf, Mg, Na, REEs, Sr, Ti, Th, and Zr. Although the enrichment/depletion pattern of some elements (e.g., K, REEs, and Zr) can largely be explained by a binary mixture between two sources, other elements such as Ag, Bi, Cr, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, W, and Zn in SPM in Paris show that a third end-member having anthropogenic characteristics is needed to account for their enrichment at low water stage. These "anthropophile" elements, with high enrichment factors (EFs) relative to the upper continental crust (UCC), display a progressive enrichment downstream and different geochemical behaviors with respect to the hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., grain size) compared to elements having mainly a natural origin. Our findings emphasize the need for systematic studies of these anthropophile elements in other human-impacted rivers using geochemical normalization techniques, and stress the importance of studying the chemical variability associated with hydrodynamic conditions when characterizing riverine element geochemistry and assessing their flux to the ocean.

  5. Zn isotopes in the suspended load of the Seine River, France: Isotopic variations and source determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, JiuBin; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Louvat, Pascale; Huon, Sylvain

    2009-07-01

    We report Zn isotopic ratios (δ 66Zn) of river suspended particulate matter (SPM) and floodplain deposits (FD) from the Seine basin, France, with a precision ⩽0.05‰. A decrease in δ 66Zn from 0.30‰ to 0.08‰ is observed in SPM from the upstream to downstream parts of the fluvial system, associated with an increase in Zn concentration from 100 ppm to 400 ppm. The Zn/Al of SPM at the river mouth is up to five times greater than the Zn/Al of the natural background, and by normalizing to the later value we define a Zn enrichment factor. Suspended sediments from a temporal series of samples collected in Paris display a similar variation in δ 66Zn of between 0.08‰ and 0.26‰, while showing an inverse relationship between the Zn enrichment factor and δ 66Zn. The amount of Zn transported as suspended load varies from 10% to 90%, as a function of increasing discharge. The δ 66Zn of SPM and the dissolved load are correlated, suggesting that adsorption processes are probably not the dominant process by which the Zn enrichment of SPM takes place. Instead, we interpret our data as reflecting the mixture of two main populations of suspended particles with distinct δ 66Zn. The first is characteristic of natural silicate particles transported by erosion processes to the river, while the second likely represents anthropogenic particles derived from wastewater treatment plants or combined sewer overflows. Based on isotopic ratios, we calculate that 70% of Zn in SPM of the Seine River in Paris is of anthropogenic origin.

  6. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. P.; Wattenbach, M.; Smith, P.; Meersmans, J.; Jolivet, C.; Boulonne, L.; Arrouays, D.

    2011-05-01

    Soil organic carbon plays a major role in the global carbon budget, and can act as a source or a sink of atmospheric carbon, thereby possibly influencing the course of climate change. Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are now taken into account in international negotiations regarding climate change. Consequently, developing sampling schemes and models for estimating the spatial distribution of SOC stocks is a priority. The French soil monitoring network has been established on a 16 km × 16 km grid and the first sampling campaign has recently been completed, providing around 2200 measurements of stocks of soil organic carbon, obtained through an in situ composite sampling, uniformly distributed over the French territory. We calibrated a boosted regression tree model on the observed stocks, modelling SOC stocks as a function of other variables such as climatic parameters, vegetation net primary productivity, soil properties and land use. The calibrated model was evaluated through cross-validation and eventually used for estimating SOC stocks for mainland France. Two other models were calibrated on forest and agricultural soils separately, in order to assess more precisely the influence of pedo-climatic variables on SOC for such soils. The boosted regression tree model showed good predictive ability, and enabled quantification of relationships between SOC stocks and pedo-climatic variables (plus their interactions) over the French territory. These relationships strongly depended on the land use, and more specifically, differed between forest soils and cultivated soil. The total estimate of SOC stocks in France was 3.260 ± 0.872 PgC for the first 30 cm. It was compared to another estimate, based on the previously published European soil organic carbon and bulk density maps, of 5.303 PgC. We demonstrate that the present estimate might better represent the actual SOC stock distributions of France, and consequently that the previously published approach at the

  7. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. P.; Wattenbach, M.; Smith, P.; Meersmans, J.; Jolivet, C.; Boulonne, L.; Arrouays, D.

    2010-11-01

    Soil organic carbon plays a major role in the global carbon budget, and can act as a source or a sink of atmospheric carbon, whereby it can influence the course of climate change. Changes in soil organic soil stocks (SOCS) are now taken into account in international negotiations regarding climate change. Consequently, developing sampling schemes and models for estimating the spatial distribution of SOCS is a priority. The French soil monitoring network has been established on a 16 km × 16 km grid and the first sampling campaign has recently been completed, providing circa 2200 measurements of stocks of soil organic carbon, obtained through an in situ composite sampling, uniformly distributed over the French territory. We calibrated a boosted regression tree model on the observed stocks, modelling SOCS as a function of other variables such as climatic parameters, vegetation net primary productivity, soil properties and land use. The calibrated model was evaluated through cross-validation and eventually used for estimating SOCS for the whole of metropolitan France. Two other models were calibrated on forest and agricultural soils separately, in order to assess more precisely the influence of pedo-climatic variables on soil organic carbon for such soils. The boosted regression tree model showed good predictive ability, and enabled quantification of relationships between SOCS and pedo-climatic variables (plus their interactions) over the French territory. These relationship strongly depended on the land use, and more specifically differed between forest soils and cultivated soil. The total estimate of SOCS in France was 3.260 ± 0.872 PgC for the first 30 cm. It was compared to another estimate, based on the previously published European soil organic carbon and bulk density maps, of 5.303 PgC. We demonstrate that the present estimate might better represent the actual SOCS distributions of France, and consequently that the previously published approach at the European

  8. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  9. [Planning of perinatal health: the case of France].

    PubMed

    Arroyo, P E

    1990-01-01

    Since 1970 the perinatal health (PH) status of the French population has been one of the highest in the world as a resulting of systematic efforts in social and economic development. This article is a case study to determine the reasons for France's success in achieving such a high standard in Ph. The study is a prospective quasi-social experiment and the data was gathered at 3 intervals: 1970, 1976 and 1981. The methodology used was based on the planning process and analyzed the data from both the microeconomic and macroeconomic perspectives. The 9 stages of the planning process include the following: 1) definition of the problem; 2) financial and economic costs of PH; 3) identification of causal relationships between cause and effect of the problem; 4) census of resources needed for PH; 5) establishment of policy goals and objectives; 6) categorizing all potential interventions and integrating these into action programs; 7) quantifying the program costs; 8) classifying programs according to cost-efficiency and 9) developing a national policy. The national policy was implemented in France in 1971 with evaluations in 1976 and 1981. The reasons attributed to the successful implementation of this national program in France are: 1) a high degree of social participation and mobilization; 2) a high level of economic prosperity achieved after the 1960's; 3) the basic health needs of the population were met; 4) the existence of a research infrastructure that allowed national and international interventions; and 5) the multidisciplinary and economic focus of the planning process. PMID:12342827

  10. Predictability in France : atmospheric forcing or land surface initial conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, S.; Martin, E.; Céron, J.-P.; Regimbeau, F.

    2010-09-01

    A first study of a hydrological forecasting suite has already been done at seasonal time scales over France (Céron and al., 2010) in a context of adaptation for water resources management. The results showed the feasibility of hydrological seasonal forecasts by forcing the hydrometeorological model Safran-Isba-Modcou (SIM) with seasonal atmospheric forecasts from the DEMETER project. Scores were better for hydrological variables than for atmospheric variables for four river catchments for the spring season. The purpose of the present study is to quantify the sources of predictability of the hydrometeorological system. Two experiences were conducted in order to address this issue. The first experience consisted in testing the impact of the land surface initial conditions. We used realistic land surface initial state produced by the operational SIM model for the specific year and 9 random years of Safran atmospheric analyses (temperature and precipitation) from 1971 to 2001, in a consistent way with the previous study (Céron et al, 2010). The other atmospheric parameters (wind, specific humidity, long wave and short wave radiation and cloudiness) come from the SAFRAN climatology over the same period. The second experience was designed to evaluate the impact of the atmospheric forcing with 9 random years, chosen for the land surface initial state. The atmospheric forcing (temperature and precipitation) comes from the Safran analysis system for the corresponding year. Some results of this study will be presented on soil wetness index (SWI) forecasts and river flows forecasts for all stations in France. We will compare deterministic and probabilistic scores of the two experiences with those of the hydrological forecasting suite built with the seasonal forecasts from the DEMETER project. Perspectives for the downscaling of seasonal forecasts will be discussed in a last part. Céron J-P, Tanguy G, Franchistéguy L, Martin E, Regimbeau F and Vidal J-P, 2010. Hydrological

  11. Viscoelastic Relaxation of Lunar Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohit, P. S.; Phillips, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    The large lunar impact basins provide a unique glimpse into early lunar history. Here we investigate the possibility that the relief of the oldest lunar basins (with the exception of South-Pole Aitken) has decayed through viscous relaxation. We identify nine ancient multi-ring basins with very low relief and low-amplitude Bouguer and free-air gravity anomalies. The characteristics of these basins are consistent with either 1) relaxation of topographic relief by ductile flow (e.g. Solomon et al., 1982) or 2) obliteration of basin topography during crater collapse immediately following impact. Both scenarios require that the basins formed early in lunar history, when the Moon was hot. The latter possibility appears to be unlikely due to the great topographic relief of South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA), the largest and oldest impact basin on the Moon (with the possible exception of the putative Procellarum basin; Wilhelms, 1987). On the other hand, the thin crust beneath SPA may not have allowed ductile flow in its lower portions, even for a hot Moon, implying that a thicker crust is required beneath other ancient basins for the hypothesis of viscous relaxation to be tenable. Using a semi-analytic, self-gravitating viscoelastic model, we investigate the conditions necessary to produce viscous relaxation of lunar basins. We model topographic relaxation for a crustal thickness of 30 km, using a dry diabase flow law for the crust and dry olivine for the mantle. We find that the minimum temperature at the base of the crust (Tb) permitting nearly complete relaxation of topography by ductile flow on a timescale < 108 yrs is 1400 K, corresponding to a heat flow of 55mW/m2, into the crust. Ductile flow in the lower crust becomes increasingly difficult as the crustal thickness decreases. The crust beneath SPA, thinned by the impact, is only 15-20 km thick and would require Tb ≥ 1550 K for relaxation to occur. The fact that SPA has maintained high-amplitude relief suggests that

  12. Remote Operations of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, T.; Thomas, J.; Burdullis, T.

    2014-05-01

    In 2007, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) started a project with the goal to enable remote control of the Mauna Kea observatory from the Headquarters facility in Waimea. After a few years of development effort the observatory has operated exclusively in a remote fashion since the beginning of 2011. This paper will discuss the entire lifecycle of the project from design and development to the successful implementation and ongoing operation of remote observing. Special emphasis will be given to the challenges, successes and lessons learned along the way.

  13. What strategy should France implement for H2020?

    PubMed

    Dhainaut, Jean-François; Diebolt, Vincent; Pouletty-Lefèbvre, Brigitte; Baker, Angela; Bassompierre, François; Borel, Thomas; Braunstein, David; Demotes, Jacques; François, Bruno; Huet, Stéphane; Micallef, Joëlle; Misse, Christophe; Molon, Annamaria; Rascol, Olivier; Ravoire, Sophie; Schwartz, Bertrand; Donne, Nathalie; Donne, Nathalie; Fusaï, Guillaume; Pouletty, Philippe; Vicaut, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of Horizon 2020--the European Union's 8th Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, allotted a budget of 79 billion euros--provides an opportunity to review France's participation in previous Framework Programmes. Indeed, French participation does not match either its scientific importance or its financial investment. While France contributed 16.5 to 17% of the EU's 7th Framework Programme research budget, its return through the funding of coordinated projects in which French teams are participating stands at around 12.5 to 13%, a shortfall of 600 million euros. Although the situation depends on the type of activity, French participation in clinical research appears to be smaller than that of its neighbours, with fewer responses to European calls for proposals. While France has many assets, which include the assured funding of clinical research, structured thematic networks and the initiation of major national programmes, it suffers from the dilution of resources due to France's regional development policy, the lack of multidisciplinarity and the ignorance of both the medical and scientific community and the institutions to which they belong as to how Horizon 2020 actually works. We propose three types of strategy to encourage proposals for coordinated clinical research projects or projects involving French teams, and to help in the drawing up of applications: Broaden the vision of our children, students and colleagues, helping them to adapt to the globalisation of knowledge throughout their educational and professional lives. Recognise the value of European actions to influence the European landscape and change mentalities. Help and support project initiators by pooling skills within a limited number of expert centres designed to assist them in their funding application. • Broaden the vision of our children, students and colleagues, helping them to adapt to the globalisation of knowledge throughout their educational and professional lives

  14. [Ventilators for anesthesia. Models available in France. Criteria for choice].

    PubMed

    Otteni, J C; Ancellin, J; Cazalaà, J B; Clergue, F; Feiss, P; Fougère, S; Nivoche, Y; Safran, D

    1995-01-01

    This update article discusses the criteria for the choice of an anaesthetic machine and provides a short analysis of the main components of the models commercialized in France in 1994. The following items are considered: the design of the machine, the fresh gas delivery system, the anaesthesia breathing system(s), the ventilator and the waste gas scavenging system, the monitors associated with the machine and other criteria such as facility of learning to run the machine and of its daily use, ease of "in-house" maintenance and quality of after-sales service, cost of the machine and of its use (driving gas, disposable equipment). PMID:7677278

  15. [Ambulatory surgery in France: practical and medicolegal considerations].

    PubMed

    Wodey, E; de la Brière, F

    2013-12-01

    In France, ambulatory anaesthesia and surgery seem to be well codified. Many recommendations have been published by the Health Authority and the professional associations: they are summarized in this review. However, numerous practical problems persist: for example, two situations specific to paediatric practice are problematic parental comprehension and application of the information provided and poor access to strong analgesics outside the hospital. Despite this, the paediatric population is an ideal target for ambulatory care because of its usual good health and quicker recovery after minor injury as proven by the small percentage of failure and readmission. PMID:24209990

  16. Remote sensing of biomass of salt marsh vegetation in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.; Levasseur, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data (gathered using a hand-held radiometer) and harvest data were collected from four salt marsh vegetation types in Brittany, France, to develop equations predicting live aerial biomass from spectral measurements. Remote sensing estimates of biomass of the general salt marsh community (GSM) and of Spartina alterniflora can be obtained throughout the growing season if separate biomass prediction equations are formulated for different species mixtures (for the GSM) and for different canopy types (for S. alterniflora). Results suggest that remote sensing will not be useful for predicting Halimione portulacoides biomass, but can be used to estimate Puccinellia maritima biomass early in the growing season.

  17. Frances E. Jensen’s The Teenage Brain

    PubMed Central

    Silveri, Marisa M.

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictable and sometimes incomprehensible moods and behaviors of a teenager can be a head-scratching mystery—especially to parents. Hormones, boredom, social media, peer pressure, and drugs and alcohol are just a few of the factors to consider. Frances E. Jensen, M.D., professor and chair of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and the mother of two sons who are now in their twenties (along with Washington Post health and science reporter and Pulitzer Prize winner Amy Ellis Nutt) look at the emerging science of the adolescent brain and provide advice based on Jensen’s own research and experience as a single mother. PMID:27408670

  18. Time transfer by laser link between China and France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Ni, W. T.; Samain, E.

    2008-07-01

    To advance from milli-arcsecond to micro-arcsecond astrometry, time keeping capability and its comparison among different stations need to be improved and enhanced. The T2L2 (Time transfer by laser link) experiment under development at OCA and CNES to be launched in 2008 on Jason-2, allows the synchronization of remote clocks on Earth. It is based on the propagation of light pulses in space which is better controlled than propagation of radio waves. In this paper, characteristics are presented for both a common view and non-common view T2L2 comparisons of clocks between China and France.

  19. [Sex and mortality in France, 1906-1980].

    PubMed

    Chenu, A

    1988-01-01

    Differential mortality in France is examined by sex, with a focus on the excess mortality among men during the period 1906-1980, using data from official and other published sources. The effects of occupation, social class, quality of medical care, and consumption of alchohol and tobacco are considered. The author finds that since 1976, life expectancy has been eight years higher for women than for men. While men employed in executive and white collar positions tend to live longer than their working-class counterparts, the situation is reversed for women, with executive women showing a higher mortality rate than other female employees and workers. PMID:12315114

  20. Severe peritonitis due to Balantidium coli acquired in France.

    PubMed

    Ferry, T; Bouhour, D; De Monbrison, F; Laurent, F; Dumouchel-Champagne, H; Picot, S; Piens, M A; Granier, P

    2004-05-01

    The case reported here concerns an alcoholic pork-butcher who presented with severe colitis with peritonitis, caused by the only ciliate protozoan capable of infecting humans, Balantidium coli. This parasite is common in a variety of domestic and wild mammals, mainly pigs; however, its prevalence rate in humans is very low--particularly in industrialised, northern countries, including France. The infection is most frequently acquired by ingesting food or water contaminated by pig faeces, and it may be asymptomatic or may cause acute diarrhoea. Specific antibiotic treatment is efficacious, and it is important to consider the risk of this parasitic disease in susceptible patients presenting with bloody diarrhoea. PMID:15112068

  1. The contract facilities for gamma irradiation at Dagneux, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, D.; Kavanagh, M. T.

    CONSERVATOME SA have operated a facility at DAGNEUX near LYON, France since 1961. This operation is among the very first of its kind in the entire world. The process is based on gamma rays from Cobalt 60 of which there are three separate units. In addition there is a small experimental unit using Cesium 137. At present CONSERVATOME is owned by TRANSNUCLEAIRE and EPICEA as principal shareholders and so has the support of the French Atomic Energy Commission. This paper describes the larger D3 unit and reviews some of the products treated at DAGNEUX.

  2. Paleothermometry of the Sydney Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Schmidt, P.W.

    1982-07-10

    Evidence from overprinting of magnetizations of Late Permian and Mesozoic rocks and from the rank of Permian coals and Mesozoic phytoclasts (coal particles) suggests that surface rocks in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia, have been raised to temperatures of the order of 200 /sup 0/C or higher. As vitrinite reflectance, an index of coal rank or coalification, is postulated to vary predictably with temperature and time, estimates of the paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin based on observed vitrinite reflectance measurements can be made in conjunction with reasonable assumptions about the tectonic and thermal histories of the basin. These estimates give maximum paleotemperatures of present day surface rocks in the range 60--249 /sup 0/C, depending on factors such as location in the basin, the thickness of the sediment eroded, and the maximum paleogeothermal gradient. Higher coal rank and, consequently, larger eroded thicknesses and paleogeothermal gradients occur along the eastern edge of the basin and may be related to seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea on the basin's eastern margin. A theory of thermal activation of magnetization entailing the dependence of magnetic viscosity on the size distribution of the magnetic grains is used to obtain an independent estimate of the maximum paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin. This estimate places the maximum paleotemperature in the range 250--300 /sup 0/C along the coastal region. Both coalification and thermal activation of magnetization models provide strong evidence of elevated paleotemperatures, which in places exceed 200 /sup 0/C, and the loss of sediment thicknesses in excess of 1 km due to erosion.

  3. Daily quantitative precipitation forecasts based on the analogue method: Improvements and application to a French large river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Daoud, Aurélien; Sauquet, Eric; Bontron, Guillaume; Obled, Charles; Lang, Michel

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents some improvements of a probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasting method based on analogues, formerly developed on small basins located in South-Eastern France. The scope is extended to large scale basins mainly influenced by frontal systems, considering a case study area related to the Saône river, a large basin in eastern France. For a given target situation, this method consists in searching for the most similar situations observed in a historical meteorological archive. Precipitation amounts observed during analogous situations are then collected to derive an empirical predictive distribution function, i.e. the probabilistic estimation of the precipitation amount expected for the target day. The former version of this forecasting method (Bontron, 2004) has been improved by introducing two innovative variables: temperature, that allows taking seasonal effects into account and vertical velocity, which enables a better characterization of the vertical atmospheric motion. The new algorithm is first applied in a perfect prognosis context (target situations come from a meteorological reanalysis) and then in an operational forecasting context (target situations come from weather forecasts) for a three years period. Results show that this approach yields useful forecasts, with a lower false alarm rate and improved performances from the present day D to day D + 2.

  4. Characterization of remarkable floods in France, a transdisciplinary approach applied on generalized floods of January 1910

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudou, Martin; Lang, Michel; Vinet, Freddy; Coeur, Denis

    2014-05-01

    . The January 1910's flood is one of these remarkable floods. This event is foremost known for its aftermaths on the Seine basin, where the flood remains the strongest recorded in Paris since 1658. However, its impacts were also widespread to France's Eastern regions (Martin, 2001). To demonstrate the evaluation grid's interest, we propose a deep analysis of the 1910's river flood with the integration of historical documentation. The approach focus on eastern France where the flood remains the highest recorded for several rivers but were often neglected by scientists in favor of Paris's flood. Through a transdisciplinary research based on the evaluation grid method, we will describe the January 1910 flood event and define why it can be considered as a remarkable flood for these regions.

  5. Basin Overflow Floods on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, R. P.

    2006-12-01

    On Earth, the most intense recognized historical and paleofloods have been ice dambursts or overflows of large basins, often initiated by abundant runoff or meltwater from the contributing watersheds. Many impact craters and other basins also overflowed in the Martian cratered highlands, and some of their incised outlet valleys similarly record evidence of erosive floods. Otherwise, the commonly small, enclosed watersheds on Mars contain poorly developed valley networks and relatively simple depositional landforms, which record little evidence of intense (by terrestrial standards) meteorological floods. For these reasons, basin overflows may have been disproportionately important mechanisms for incision of large valleys on Mars. Many of the Martian outflow channels head in topographic settings that favored ponding, including large canyons, impact or intercrater basins, chaotic terrain basins, and grabens. This topography may have accumulated somewhat slower groundwater discharges from the subsurface to support peak channel discharges of 106-108 m3/s. To yield a discharge of 106, 107, and 108 m3/s from a dam failure with a width/depth ratio of 5, the model predicts that a breach of ~100, 250, and 640 m, respectively, must form rapidly with respect to the decline of lake level. Terrestrial damburst floods have not exceeded ~106 m3/s for earthen dams and ~107 m3/s for ice dams, but brecciation of the Martian surface by impact cratering may have allowed larger damburst failures, whereas solid bedrock was exposed at shallower depths in the terrestrial examples. Moreover, many of the Martian basins were much larger than enclosed continental basins on Earth, so long-lived overflows may have facilitated entrenchment of deeper channels. Some large, mid-latitude basins overflowed to carve Ma'adim Vallis and the Uzboi-Ladon-Margaritifer Valles system, which are similar in scale to the terrestrial Grand Canyon but record much larger formative discharges. Models of damburst

  6. Hydrogeologic framework of sedimentary deposits in six structural basins, Yakima River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, M.A.; Vaccaro, J.J.; Watkins, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework was delineated for the ground-water flow system of the sedimentary deposits in six structural basins in the Yakima River Basin, Washington. The six basins delineated, from north to south are: Roslyn, Kittitas, Selah, Yakima, Toppenish, and Benton. Extent and thicknesses of the hydrogeologic units and total basin sediment thickness were mapped for each basin. Interpretations were based on information from about 4,700 well records using geochemical, geophysical, geologist's or driller's logs, and from the surficial geology and previously constructed maps and well interpretations. The sedimentary deposits were thickest in the Kittitas Basin reaching a depth of greater than 2,000 ft, followed by successively thinner sedimentary deposits in the Selah basin with about 1,900 ft, Yakima Basin with about 1,800 ft, Toppenish Basin with about 1,200 ft, Benton basin with about 870 ft and Roslyn Basin with about 700 ft.

  7. Stormwater detention basin sediment removal

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, stormwater runoff from landfills has been treated mainly by focusing on reducing the peak storm discharge rates so as not to hydraulically impact downstream subsheds. However, with the advent of stricter water quality regulations based on the Federal Clean Water Act, and the related NPDES and SPDES programs, landfill owners and operators are now legally responsible for the water quality of the runoff once it leaves the landfill site. At the Fresh Kills Landfill in New York City, the world`s largest covering over 2000 acres, landfilling activities have been underway since 1945. With the main objective at all older landfill sites having focused on maximizing the available landfill footprint in order to obtain the most possible airspace volume, consideration was not given for the future siting of stormwater basin structures. Therefore, when SCS Engineers began developing the first comprehensive stormwater management plan for the site, the primary task was to locate potential sites for all the stormwater basins in order to comply with state regulations for peak stormwater runoff control. The basins were mostly constructed where space allowed, and were sized to be as large as possible given siting and subshed area constraints. Seventeen stormwater basins have now been designed and are being constructed to control the peak stormwater runoff for the 25-year, 24-hour storm as required by New York State. As an additional factor of safety, the basins were also designed for controlled discharge of the 100-year, 24 hour storm.

  8. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  9. Inversion of Extensional Sedimentary Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    The evolution of extensional sedimentary basins is governed by the surrounding stress field and can, therefore, be expected to be highly sensitive to variations in these stresses. Important changes in basin geometry are to be expected in the case of an even short-lived reversal from extension to compression. We investigate the evolu- tion of fold and thrust structures which form in compression after extension, when basin forming processes have come to a complete stop. To this purpose, we use a two- dimensional, viscoplastic model and start our experiments from a pre-existing exten- sional geometry. We illustrate the sensitivity of the evolving structures to inherited extensional geometry, sedimentary and erosional processes, and material properties. One series of our model experiments involves the upper- to middle crust only in order to achieve a high detail in the basin area. We find that our results agree with examples from nature and analogue studies in, among others, the uplift and rotation of syn-rift sediments, the propagation of shear zones into the post-rift sediments and, in specific cases, the development of back-thrusts or basement short-cut faults. We test the out- come of these models by performing a second series of model simulations in which basins on a continental margin are inverted through their progressive approach of a subduction zone. These latter models are on the scale of the whole upper mantle.

  10. France-wide future evolution of discharges for the next decades: a multi-RCP/GCM/hydrological model and calibration exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirel, Guillaume; Nicolas, Madeleine; Beersma, Jules

    2015-04-01

    Due to complex interactions between atmosphere, vegetation, oceans, land and human beings, climate is continually evolving. The last IPCC report highlighted that by the end of the 21st century, dramatic climate modifications may occur: in Europe, the temperature is expected to increase by several degrees, and the evolution of precipitation is more uncertain. These changes will impact the water cycle, and as a consequence river discharges, which can potentially impact economical, industrial and touristic activities as well as the ecosphere. In order to provide new insights for hydrology in France, we propose to assess the impact of climate change on discharge module, high and low flows for over 800 river points in France. For this, the last CMIP5 projections are used for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. This country-wide evaluation, a compromise between basin-based and continental studies usually performed in literature, is of the utmost importance due to the numerous interconnections of water uses inside France. For this work, the 4 IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) were utilized to drive part or all of 27 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) or versions of GCMs, for which one to ten different runs were available. This represents a total of 183 climatic projections that were then downscaled using the Advanced Delta Change (ADC) method, a statistical method calibrated between a past reference period and the two future periods. In this study, we applied the ADC to an 8x8 km 52-year meteorological reanalysis available over France. Six global conceptual hydrological models (GR4J, GR5J, GR6J, MORD6, TOPMO, HBV0) were used to produce the hydrological projections, allowing the representation of uncertainty in hydrological modelling. Moreover, one of the hydrological models was calibrated with several objective functions and over contrasted climatic periods. By having several methods or models for every step (except regarding the downscaling method), we

  11. [An economic evaluation of intimate partner violence in France].

    PubMed

    Nectoux, Marc; Mugnier, Claude; Baffert, Sandrine; Albagly, Maité; Thélot, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to carry out an economic evaluation of intimate partner violence in France. Using published data, institutional sources, field studies and expert opinions, the cost of intimate partner violence is estimated in terms of the overall cost to society. A range of different economic approaches are used (micro-economic, meso-economic and macro-economic approaches). The total cost of intimate partner violence in France is estimated at 2.5 billion Euros per year (between 1.7 and 3.5 billion Euros). The total cost of intimate partner violence includes healthcare costs (483 ? million), social and justice services (355 ? million), production losses as a result of deaths, imprisonments and absenteeism (1099 ? million), and the human costs of rape and prejudice (535 ? million). By increasing the budget allocated to the prevention of domestic violence by one euro, it is estimated that the state, health insurance and local authorities could make savings of up to 87 Euros of social spending, including 30 Euros of direct expenses. PMID:20858339

  12. Toward an anthropometric history of provincial France, 1780-1920.

    PubMed

    Heyberger, Laurent

    2007-07-01

    A sample of 237,782 individual observations was obtained in four areas of France: rural Alsace, urban Alsace, Limousin, and Brie (Ile-de-France). Trends in the biological standard of living of conscripts born in these regions between 1780 and 1920 fit well with the recently estimated trends for other parts of Europe. While heights were relatively low, they did not decline much preceding the Revolution in 1789. During the first half of the 19th Century heights varied considerably both spatially and longitudinally, indicating the contrasting effects of modernization among the four areas. Conscripts from the least productive agricultural area, Limousin, were the shortest. Heights in Alsace remained essentially unchanged during the first half of the 19th Century, but those in Brie increased after 1820 and those in Limousin after 1840. The positive trend became more general after 1870, though Brie alone showed the considerable negative impact of the agricultural depression of the last quarter of the 19th Century. Heights diverged until 1850 and converged thereafter. In Limousin, the annual height of conscripts is positively correlated with the weight of cattle. By the early decades of the 20th Century, a marked, long-term increase in anthropometric growth had occurred in these four regions, as elsewhere in Europe. The regional estimates correspond well to the national trends estimated by Komlos and Weir except that they show the great local variation in height until the turn of the 20th Century. PMID:17531551

  13. Doses to patients from dental radiology in France

    SciTech Connect

    Benedittini, M.; Maccia, C.; Lefaure, C.; Fagnani, F. )

    1989-06-01

    In France, a national study was undertaken to estimate both dental radiology practices (equipment and activity) and the associated population collective dose. This study was done in two steps: A nationwide survey was conducted on the practitioner categories involved in dental radiology, and dosimetric measurements were performed on patients and on an anthropomorphic phantom by using conventional dental x-ray machines and pantomographic units. A total of 27.5 x 10(6) films were estimated to have been performed in 1984; 6% of them were pantomographic and 94% were conventional. Most of the organ doses measured for one intra-oral film were lower than 1 mGy (100 mrad); pantomogram dose values were generally higher than intra-oral ones. The collective effective dose equivalent figure was 2,000 person-Sv (2 x 10(5) person rem) leading to a per head dose equivalent of 0.037 mSv (3.7 mrem). The study allowed authors to identify ways to reduce the patient dose in France (e.g., implementing the use of long cone devices and controlling darkroom practices).

  14. Doses to patients from diagnostic radiology in France

    SciTech Connect

    Maccia, C.; Benedittini, M.; Lefaure, C.; Fagnani, F.

    1988-04-01

    Reported here are results of a 1982 national survey in France to establish the collective effective dose equivalent associated with the main types of radiological examinations practiced annually in this country (except nuclear medicine, C.T. scans, dental radiology and mass chest screening). This report describes the methodology followed in achieving dose measurements either on an anthropomorphic phantom or directly on the patient, and it highlights the importance of the radiological procedures (number of x-ray films, fluoroscopy screening time, etc.) on the patient organ doses. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent associated with these radiological practices is 86,000 person-Sv, i.e., an individual effective dose equivalent of 1.58 mSv y-1; the genetically significant dose figure is 0.29 mSv and the collective red bone marrow dose due to 45 million x-ray exams practiced in France (1982) is 40,300 person-Sv, i.e. 0.74 mSv per inhabitant.

  15. Surnames and dialects in France: population structure and cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Scapoli, C; Goebl, H; Sobota, S; Mamolini, E; Rodriguez-Larralde, A; Barrai, I

    2005-11-01

    To study the isonymy structure of France as related to local language variations, the surname distributions of 6.03 million telephone users registered for the year 2002 were analysed in the 21 conterminous regions, their 94 departments and in 809 towns of the Country. For regions and departments the differences among local dialects were quantified according to the dialecto-metrization of the Atlas Linguistique Français. We found that Lasker's distance between regions was correlated with geographic distance with r=0.692+/-0.040, while Euclidean (r=0.546+/-0.058) and Nei's (r=0.610+/-0.048) distances were less correlated. Slightly lower correlations were observed for departments. Also, dialectometric distance was correlated with geography (r=0.582+/-0.069 for regions and r=0.617+/-0.015 for departments). The correlations between Lasker and dialectometric matrix distances for regions and departments are r=0.625+/-0.046 and 0.544+/-0.014, respectively, indicating that the common cause generating surname and language diversity accounts for about 35% of the differentiation. Both Lasker and dialectometric distances identify very similar boundaries between Poitou, Centre, Bourgogne and Franche Comptée at the North, and Aquitaine, Limousin, Auvergne, Rhône-Alpes in the South. Average Fisher's alpha for France was 7877 the highest value observed for the European countries studied to date. The size of alpha in most French towns indicates considerable recent immigration. PMID:15935393

  16. NATO SET-093 joint field experiment at Bourges, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, C.; Bruel, F.; Prieur, D.; Naz, P.; Miller, L. S.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the NATO Task Group SET-093/RTG53/MSE (referred to as TG-53 in this report) Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment II conducted at the Etablissement Technique de Bourges (ETBS), Bourges, France, during 16 to 27 June 2008. This field experiment is a follow-on to the NATO TG-53 Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment I conducted at the Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG), Yuma, Arizona, USA, during 31 October to 4 November 2005 [1]. The objectives of the joint experiment were: (i) to collect acoustic signatures of direct and indirect firings from weapons' such as small arms, mortars, artillery, rockets, and C4 explosives, (ii) to analyze the propagation effects of grassy, wooded, and urban terrains, (iii) to share signatures collected from a variety of acoustic sensors, on the ground and in the air, distributed over a wide area, and (iv) to demonstrate the interoperability of disparate sensors developed by the various nations involved. The participating NATO countries , including France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States of America, and Israel as well as part of the Mediterranean dialogue countries, deployed nearly 90 sensors and sensor systems over the test range area.

  17. Introduction of SARS in France, March–April, 2003

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf, Sylvie; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Hoen, Bruno; Emmanuelli, Julien; Lesens, Olivier; Dupon, Michel; Natali, François; Michelet, Christian; Reynes, Jacques; Guery, Benoit; Larsen, Christine; Semaille, Caroline; Mouton, Yves; Christmann, Daniel; André, Michel; Escriou, Nicolas; Burguière, Anna; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Coignard, Bruno; Lepoutre, Agnés; Meffre, Christine; Bitar, Dounia; Decludt, Bénédicte; Capek, Isabelle; Antona, Denise; Che, Didier; Herida, Magid; Infuso, Andréa; Saura, Christine; Brücker, Gilles; Hubert, Bruno; LeGoff, Dominique; Scheidegger, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    We describe severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in France. Patients meeting the World Health Organization definition of a suspected case underwent a clinical, radiologic, and biologic assessment at the closest university-affiliated infectious disease ward. Suspected cases were immediately reported to the Institut de Veille Sanitaire. Probable case-patients were isolated, their contacts quarantined at home, and were followed for 10 days after exposure. Five probable cases occurred from March through April 2003; four were confirmed as SARS coronavirus by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, serologic testing, or both. The index case-patient (patient A), who had worked in the French hospital of Hanoi, Vietnam, was the most probable source of transmission for the three other confirmed cases; two had been exposed to patient A while on the Hanoi-Paris flight of March 22–23. Timely detection, isolation of probable cases, and quarantine of their contacts appear to have been effective in preventing the secondary spread of SARS in France. PMID:15030682

  18. Vaccine knowledge in students in Paris, France, and surrounding regions

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, Guillaume; Rigal, Laurent; Partouche, Henri; Aoun, Olivier; Jaury, Philippe; Joannard, Nathalie; Guthmann, Jean Paul; Cochereau, Delphine; Caumes, Eric; Bricaire, Francois; Salmon-Céron, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In France, young adults are legally freed from parental authority at the age of 18 years and are, thus, responsible for their own vaccine record. This young adult population is more frequently exposed to vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with students’ knowledge of the interval between two antitetanus boosters and their report of having up-to-date vaccinations. METHODS: In April 2009, a survey was conducted involving a random sample of students between 18 and 25 years of age eating lunch at university dining facilities in Paris and its suburbs (Ile de France). RESULTS: Among the 677 students approached, 583 agreed to participate. Only 207 (36%) of respondents knew the recommended dosing interval between two doses of tetanus vaccine booster (10 years). The majority of students (69%) reported having up-to-date vaccinations. Declaring having up-to-date vaccinations was significantly associated with having a general practitioner (OR 3.03 [95% CI 1.69 to 5.55]). Health care students were significantly more likely to know the decennial interval between two antitetanus boosters (OR 2 [95% CI 1.28 to 3.25]). Most of responding students (n=519 [89%]) believed that vaccines were very useful. CONCLUSIONS: An overall lack of knowledge of vaccines was observed among this student population. Health care providers, such as GPs and university medical practice staff, who interact with these young individuals have an essential role to promote better vaccination coverage in this population. PMID:25285109

  19. Slavery, smallpox, and revolution: 1792 in Ile de France (Mauritius).

    PubMed

    Vaughan, M

    2000-12-01

    In 1792 a slave-ship arrived on the french Indian Ocean island of Ile de France (Mauritius) from South India, bringing with it smallpox. As the epidemic spread, a heated debate ensued over the practice of inoculation. The island was in the throes of revolutionary politics and the community of French colonists were acutely aware of their new rights as 'citizens'. In the course of the smallpox epidemic, many of the political tenisons of the period came to focus on the question of inoculation, and were played out on the bodies of slaves. Whilst some citizens asserted their right, as property owners, to inoculate their slaves, others, equally vehemently, objected to the practice and asserted their right to protect their slaves from infection. Eighteenth-century colonial medicine was largely geared to keeping the bodies of slaves and workers productive and useful, but formal medicine never had a monopoly. Slaves on Ile de France brought with them a rich array of medical beliefs and practices from Africa, India, and Madagascar. We have little direct historical evidence for these, but we do know that many slaves came from areas in which forces of smallpox inoculation were known and practised. PMID:14535269

  20. French hormones: progestins and therapeutic variation in France.

    PubMed

    Löwy, Ilana; Weisz, George

    2005-06-01

    Western medicine is seen as universally valid, but in reality it displays a wide range of national and local variability. Our paper focuses on one such case of local variation: the widespread use of progestins in France to treat various pre-menopausal conditions as well as for contraception. The case of progestins allows us to explore how specific styles of research may come to dominate a particular local medical culture, and how they are influenced by changing criteria of scientific validity and wider social relations. We argue that in the 1980s and 1990s a single prestigious research-oriented Parisian hospital service played a dominant role in the transformation of progestins into scientifically validated medical practice. This status was not called seriously into question until recently when foreign research on a different form of hormone therapy suggested that risk was associated with their use. We also propose that both the research around and medical use of progestins in France was shaped by the positive attitude of many French women, including feminists, to hormonal therapies and to the non-surgical specialty most closely associated with hormones, medical gynaecology. PMID:15814185

  1. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pork produced in France.

    PubMed

    Djokic, V; Blaga, R; Aubert, D; Durand, B; Perret, C; Geers, R; Ducry, T; Vallee, I; Djurkovic Djakovic, O; Mzabi, A; Villena, I; Boireau, P

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of the Toxoplasma gondii parasite in pork produced in France, and to determine infection risk factors. An innovative survey was designed based on annual numbers of slaughtered pigs from intensive and outdoor farms in France. A total of 1549 samples of cardiac fluids were collected from pig hearts to determine seroprevalence using a Modified Agglutination Test. Of those, 160 hearts were bio-assayed in mice to isolate live parasites. The overall seroprevalence among fattening pigs was 2·9%. The adjusted seroprevalence in pigs from intensive farms was 3·0%; the highest in sows (13·4%); 2·9% in fattening pigs and 2·6% in piglets. Adjusted seroprevalence in fattening animals from outdoor farms was 6·3%. Strains were isolated from 41 animals and all were genotyped by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism as type II. Risk-factor analysis showed that the risk of infection was more than three times higher for outdoor pigs, and that sows' risk was almost five times higher than that of fattening animals. This study provides further evidence of extensive pork infection with T. gondii regardless of breeding systems, indicating that farm conditions are still insufficient to guarantee 'Toxoplasma-free pork'. PMID:26928081

  2. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. PMID:24919796

  3. E-waste management and resources recovery in France.

    PubMed

    Vadoudi, Kiyan; Kim, Junbeum; Laratte, Bertrand; Lee, Seung-Jin; Troussier, Nadège

    2015-10-01

    There are various issues of concern regarding electronic waste management, such as the toxicity of hazardous materials and the collection, recycling and recovery of useful resources. To understand the fate of electronic waste after collection and recycling, a products and materials flow analysis should be performed. This is a critical need, as material resources are becoming increasingly scarce and recycling may be able to provide secondary sources for new materials in the future. In this study, we investigate electronic waste systems, specifically the resource recovery or recycling aspects, as well as mapping electronic waste flows based on collection data in France. Approximately 1,588,453 t of new electrical and electronic equipment were sold in the French market in 2010. Of this amount, 430,000 t of electronic waste were collected, with the remaining 1,128,444 t remaining in stock. Furthermore, the total recycled amounts were 354,106 t and 11,396 t, respectively. The main electronic waste materials were ferrous metals (37%), plastic (22%), aluminium (12%), copper (11%) and glass (7%). This study will contribute to developing sustainable electronic waste and resource recycling systems in France. PMID:26283311

  4. Obtaining Reimbursement in France and Italy for New Diabetes Products

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Elmar; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  5. [Total body irradiation in France in the past twenty years].

    PubMed

    Hoffstetter, S; Marchal, C; Bordigoni, P

    2003-06-01

    A review of the activity and techniques of total body irradiation (TBI) in France in the last 20 years is presented. In order to have on overall view of the activity and techniques of total body irradiation in France, the group of cancer centre radiation oncologists sent a questionnaire to all the cancer centres or public hospitals radiotherapy departments dealing with this treatment. Thirty-six questionnaires were sent and thirty-one departments answered. Three departments do not offer this treatment. Five departments did not answer. Results, therefore, concern the activity of the 28 departments that agreed to give detailed and clear answers. A total of 10 630 TBIs have been documented, 850 to 900 TBI have been done each year since 1995. Single fraction TBIs are used in only five centres and are being progressively abandoned. For multiple-fraction TBIs, the techniques described here are the ones used in 1999, at the time the questionnaires were sent. A majority (98%) of the teams used linear accelerators. The collected data are synthesised in tables. Nowadays, single fraction TBIs are only indicated in exceptional cases. Most of the TBIs are fractionated in six twice-daily fractions with pulmonary shielding to limit the dose between 6 and 11 Gy depending on departments' protocols and pathologies. PMID:12834771

  6. [Vauquelin: route from a thatched cottage to Institute of France].

    PubMed

    Lafont, O

    2014-07-01

    Nicolas Louis Vauquelin was born in a little thatched cottage in Saint-André-d'Hébertot, in Normandy, on May 16th 1763. He went to Rouen and then to Paris where he met Antoine de Fourcroy and became his co-worker and his friend. They published together sixty articles, and he published alone a hundred and twenty articles. He became a pharmacist in 1787. He occupied simultaneously or not many important University positions. He was Associate Professor at École polytechnique, Professor at École des mines, Professor at Collège de France, Director of School of Pharmacy, Professor at Museum d'histoire naturelle, Professor at Faculty of Medicine. He became Empire Knight, Member of Institute of France, Member and President of Academy of Medicine, Member and President of Society of Pharmacy. He discovered and isolated chrome and discovered beryllium. He was a very efficient professor and many of his students were well-known scientists. He died on November 14th 1829. PMID:24997883

  7. 10 years of surveillance of human tularaemia in France.

    PubMed

    Mailles, A; Vaillant, V

    2014-01-01

    Tularaemia has been mandatorily notifiable in France since October 2002. The surveillance aims to detect early any infection possibly due to bioterrorism and to follow up disease trends. We report the results of national surveillance from 2002 to 2012. A case is defined as a patient with clinical presentation suggestive of tularaemia and biological confirmation of infection or an epidemiological link with a biologically confirmed case. Clinical, biological and epidemiological data are collected using a standardised notification form. From 2002 to 2012, 433 cases were notified, with a median age of 49 years (range 2 to 95 years) and a male–female sex ratio of 1.8. Most frequent clinical presentations were glandular tularaemia (n=200; 46%) and ulceroglandular tularaemia (n=113; 26%). Most frequent at-risk exposures were handling hares (n=179; 41%) and outdoor leisure exposure to dust aerosols (n=217; 50%). Tick bites were reported by 82 patients (19%). Ten clusters (39 cases) were detected over the 10-year period, as well as a national outbreak during winter 2007/2008. The tularaemia surveillance system is able to detect small clusters as well as major outbreaks. Surveillance data show exposure to dust aerosols during outdoor leisure activities to be a major source of contamination in France. PMID:25411688

  8. USA-France: Confronting two perspectives on shale gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, C.; Fellous, J.

    2013-12-01

    Exploiting shale gas and oil can be seen from very different perspectives, whether you live in the US where it is a decade long reality shaping the country's energy landscape or in France, where it is banned by law since 2011. Beyond this situation, the overall legal framework that regulates (or not) environmental and water protection, the use of chemicals, land ownership and the exploitation of underground mineral resources, the attribution of licenses for exploration and exploitation, etc. in Europe (and particularly in France, the only European country with Bulgaria where hydraulic fracturation is strictly forbidden) and in the US is at complete variance. This presentation will discuss subsequent attitudes vis-à-vis exploration, exploitation, scientific research on shale gas and fracking, and public activism that has arisen as a result of environmental, socioeconomic and human concerns. It will compare and contrast the different views and look at lessons that can be learned from those differences. This work is building upon the experience of the authors who have studied the issues relating to energy, water, population and climate and their connections, as seen from both sides of the Atlantic.

  9. Evolution of hut access facing glacier shrinkage in the Mer de Glace basin (Mont Blanc massif, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourey, Jacques; Ravanel, Ludovic

    2016-04-01

    Given the evolution of high mountain environment due to global warming, mountaineering routes and huts accesses are more and more strongly affected by glacial shrinkage and concomitant gravity processes, but almost no studies have been conducted on this relationship. The aim of this research is to describe and explain the evolution over the last century of the access to the five alpine huts around the Mer de Glace glacier (Mont Blanc massif), the larger French glacier (length = 11.5 km, area = 30 km²), a major place for Alpine tourism since 1741 and the birthplace of mountaineering, by using several methods (comparing photographs, surveying, collecting historical documents). While most of the 20th century shows no marked changes, loss of ice thickness and associated erosion of lateral moraines generate numerous and significant changes since the 1990s. Boulder falls, rockfalls and landslides are the main geomorphological processes that affect the access, while the glacier surface lowering makes access much longer and more unstable. The danger is then greatly increased and the access must be relocated and/or equipped more and more frequently (e.g. a total of 520 m of ladders has been added). This questions the future accessibility to the huts, jeopardizing an important part of mountaineering and its linked economy in the Mer de Glace area.

  10. Restoration of ponds in rural landscapes: modelling the effect on nitrate contamination of surface water (the Seine River Basin, France).

    PubMed

    Passy, Paul; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Fesneau, Corinne; Tournebize, Julien

    2012-07-15

    Ponds were ubiquitous features of the traditional rural waterscape in the Seine watershed, as shown by the 18th century Cassini map. Using the result of a water quality survey at the entrance and the outlet of a small pond receiving agricultural drainage water, the Seneque/Riverstrahler biogeochemical model was shown to accurately simulate the observed 30% reduction in nitrogen fluxes crossing this pond. The model was then used to simulate the effect of various scenarios of pond restoration (inspired by their 18th century geographical distribution as revealed by the Cassini map) on surface water nitrate contamination at different spatial scales. In regions with an impermeable lithological substrate, the restoration of ponds at a density of 5% of the agricultural area would reduce the riverine nitrogen export by up to 25% on an annual basis. It is suggested that such waterscape management, used in conjunction with more preventive measures, can be a useful means to reduce nitrate contamination of water resources. PMID:22682989

  11. Groundwater dolocretes from the Upper Triassic of the Paris Basin, France: a case study of an arid, continental diagenetic facies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spotl, S.; Wright, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    The majority of the dolomite consists of a finely crystalline groundmass of dolomicrospar and, less commonly, dolomicrite. Glaebules, irregular spar-filled cracks, spheroidal dolomite, silificiation and vuggy porosity are locally abundant in the massive dolomite. In contrast, biologically induced micromorphological features such as rhizocretions and alveolar-septal fabrics were observed in the thin, nodular dolomite beds. Petrographic observations argue in favour of primary (proto)dolomite precipitation, although early diagenetic replacement of calcite by (proto)dolomite cannot be ruled out. Strontium and carbon isotope data of early diagenetic dolocrete cements and oxygen isotope data of early diagenetic silica indicate an entirely non-marine, continental origin for the groundwaters. -from Authors

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and phthalates in roach from the Seine River basin (France): impact of densely urbanized areas.

    PubMed

    Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Tlili, Khawla; Blanchard, Martine; Labadie, Pierre; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) from three chemical classes-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and phthalates-were investigated in the Seine River and one tributary, the Orge River, upstream and downstream of urban areas. The impact of urban areas was characterized by a concentration increase of all compounds in the Seine River and for phthalates and PBDEs in the Orge River. In the Seine River, from upstream (Marnay) to downstream (Triel) of urban areas, water concentration increases were greater for diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) (6 times, p < 0.05) and ∑tri-hexa BDE (5 times [p < 0.05]) than for ∑7PCBi (2.6 times). Simultaneously, sediments displayed a strong accumulation of contaminants downstream and compared with upstream values, their concentrations increased greatly: 202-fold for DEHP, 69-fold for BDE209, 25-fold for ∑tri-hexa-BDE, and 11-fold for ∑7PCBi. Variations of fish ED concentrations gave an indication of their habitat contamination increase observed downstream of densely urbanized areas of the Seine River, especially for PBDEs (∑tri-hexa-PBDEs = 14-fold increase ≤15.7 ± 6.9 ng g(-1) dry weight [dw; p < 0.001]) and for PCBs (∑7PCBi eightfold increase ≤211 ± 55 ng g(-1) dw [p < 0.01]). PCA results highlighted relationships between the different ED classes. A correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between PCB and PBDE fish concentrations, suggesting common sources and similar absorption mechanisms. For PCBs, which were poorly biodegraded, the bioaccumulation factor was strongly correlated (p < 0.001) to molecular hydrophobicity, whereas for PBDEs a negative correlation (p < 0.05) was observed related active debromination processes. This multichemical study investigates for the first time the occurrence of a wide range of EDs in roach, which was chosen as a sentinel species for this survey of surface water contamination. PMID:24132598

  13. Observations on the incorporation of trace elements in halite of Oligocene salt beds, Bourg-en-Bresse Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, R. )

    1988-12-01

    It is common practice to employ trace elements found in chloride salts as indicators of the conditions of deposition. Because some halite contains abundant fluid inclusions, it is necessary to separate the salt from the inclusions before analysis. This study presents the data derived from the use of a simple preparative technique which permits analysis of the trace elements in solid halite, and provides a guide to test the success in elimination of the contaminants contained in the fluid inclusions. The differentiation is accomplished simply by crushing the salt in alcohol followed by separate analysis of the fluid and solid components, thus yielding accurate trace element concentrations in the solids (crystal lattice, dislocations, and grain boundaries) and the fluids. Br and K are present both in the solid and liquid phases of the halite, but Mg is exclusively in the fluid inclusions. The elimination of the Mg from the analysis of the solid phase may thus be employed as a monitor to indicate the degree of purification of the samples being analyzed.

  14. Observations on the incorporation of trace elements in halite of Oligocene salt beds, Bourg-en-Bresse Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Robert

    1988-12-01

    It is common practice to employ trace elements found in chloride salts as indicators of the conditions of deposition. Because some halite contains abundant fluid inclusions, it is necessary to separate the salt from the inclusions before analysis. This study presents the data derived from the use of a simple preparative technique which permits analysis of the trace elements in solid halite, and provides a guide to test the success in elimination of the contaminants contained in the fluid inclusions. The differentiation is accomplished simply by crushing the salt in alcohol followed by separate analysis of the fluid and solid components, thus yielding accurate trace element concentrations in the solids (crystal lattice, dislocations, and grain boundaries) and the fluids. Br and K are present both in the solid and liquid phases of the halite, but Mg is exclusively in the fluid inclusions. The elimination of the Mg from the analysis of the solid phase may thus be employed as a monitor to indicate the degree of purification of the samples being analysed.

  15. Testing for Basins of Wada

    PubMed Central

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Yorke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has theWada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries. PMID:26553444

  16. Oil in the Malvinas Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Galeazzi, J.S.

    1996-08-01

    The Malvinas Basin is petroliferous. The main source rocks are Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous outer shelf to basinal shales known as the Pampa Rincon and Lower Inoceramus formations. Main reservoirs are fluvial and shallow-marine sandstones of the coeval Springhill Formation. On the western flank of the basin, 17 wells drilled the Cenozoic and Mesozoic column. Three of these wells discovered hydrocarbons within the Springhill Formation, and one discovered oil in Early Paleogene sandstones. Additionally, some wells recorded shows at different levels within the stratigraphic succession. A detailed overview of the drilled portion of the basin permitted the construction of a sequence stratigraphic framework, and yielded clues on a complex history of deformation. Interpretation of facies and stratal stacking and termination patterns determined that the main reservoir and source rocks were deposited in a ramp-style depositional setting. They represent the lower transgressive phase of a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous megasequence deposited during the early sag stage of the basin. Alternative reservoirs to the Springhill sandstones include early Paleogene glauconitic sandstones and carbonates, and Miocene deep-water turbidites. Structural trap styles include normal fault features of Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age, and compressional and inverted positive structures due to Neogene compression. Possible combination and stratigraphic traps include: little tested onlap pinchout of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and Paleogene sandstones and untested erosionally truncated Paleogene sandstones; Early Paleogene carbonate buildups and Miocene deep-water turbidite mounds. The understanding of the geology of the western Malvinas Basin is the key to success of exploration in the huge frontier surrounding areas.

  17. H-Area Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Stejskal, G.

    1990-12-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.

  18. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins are proposed to be mare-type basins produced 4 billion y.a. by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upward from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the earth indicates that at least 50% of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60% oceanic, 40% continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  19. Origin of the earth's ocean basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frex, H.

    1977-01-01

    The earth's original ocean basins were mare-type basins produced 4 billion years ago by the flux of asteroid-sized objects responsible for the lunar mare basins. Scaling upwards from the observed number of lunar basins for the greater capture cross-section and impact velocity of the Earth indicates that at least 50 percent of an original global crust would have been converted to basin topography. These basins were flooded by basaltic liquids in times short compared to the isostatic adjustment time for the basin. The modern crustal dichotomy (60 percent oceanic, 40 percent continental crust) was established early in the history of the earth, making possible the later onset of plate tectonic processes. These later processes have subsequently reworked, in several cycles, principally the oceanic parts of the earth's crust, changing the configuration of the continents in the process. Ocean basins (and oceans themselves) may be rare occurrences on planets in other star systems.

  20. Searching for Nectaris Basin Impact Melt Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. A.

    2015-07-01

    Because Nectaris Basin is a key stratigraphic marker for lunar bombardment, we are conducting an effort to identify Nectaris basin impact-melt rocks, to model their emplacement, and to examine sites where Nectaris impact melt is abundant.

  1. Caribbean basin framework, 4: Maracaibo basin, northwestern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Maracaibo basin is presently located in a topographic depression on the Maracaibo block, a triangular, fault-bounded block within the Caribbean-South America plate boundary of northwestern Venezuela. Intense oil exploration over the last 50 years has produced a large amount of seismic and well data that can be used to constrain four Jurassic to Recent tectonic and depositional events that affected the region: (1). Late Jurassic rift phase and subsidence along normal faults striking north-northeast across the floor of the basin; (2) Cretaceous to early Eocene subsidence recorded by shallow to deep marine carbonate and clastic rocks that thicken from south to north and completely cover Permian rocks of the Merida arch; (3) Eocene folding, thrusting, and initial reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as convergent strike-slip and reverse faults. Eocene clastic sediments are thickest in a narrow northwest-trending foredeep on the northeastern margin of the basin; (4) Late Miocene to Recent northwest-southeast convergence is marked by continued reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as reverse and left-lateral strike-slip faults, uplift of mountain ranges bordering the basin, and deposition of up to 10 km of clastic sediment.

  2. Travel reported by pilgrims from Marseille, France before and after the 2010 Hajj.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Bauge, Marie; Simon, Fabrice; Benkouiten, Samir; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Sixty-seven percent of French pilgrims reported to have traveled out of France just before the 2010 Hajj (mainly in North Africa) and 26% planned to do so after leaving Saudi Arabia. Surveillance of Hajj-associated infectious diseases in returned French pilgrims should be coordinated between France and North African countries. PMID:22414041

  3. Nuclear Power and Government Structure: The Divergent Paths of the United States and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkenbus, Jack N.

    1984-01-01

    Despite large-scale public opposition to civilian nuclear power in the United States and France, only in the former country has the opposition been successful in halting further commercialization of this energy technology. A major reason is that France's political structure provides relatively few access points for the expression of opposition.…

  4. The Highlights and Pitfalls of Developing an Intercultural Workshop in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey-Hartel, Cheri; Kasum, Duffy

    An intercultural training workshop including orientation and travel to France is described. The program was made available to businessmen and women interested or involved in trade with France, to students in communications, foreign languages, and international business, and to community members. The program included pre-departure classes to…

  5. 77 FR 7128 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Determination and Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Low Enriched Uranium From France, 67 FR 6689 (February 13..., 77 FR 1059 (January 9, 2012) (CCR Initiation Notice). DATES: Effective Date: February 10, 2012. FOR... International Trade Administration Low Enriched Uranium From France: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  6. Economic Analysis of Grain Production in France. Staff Report No. AGES880202.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liapis, Peter S.

    A study analyzed grain production in France, the major grain producer in the European Community and one of the leading producers in the world. France is also a major grain exporter and thus competes with the United States in world markets. The United States is pursuing a policy of lower world prices to regain market share. Large grain surpluses in…

  7. Severe Ketoalkalosis as Initial Presentation of Imported Human Rabies in France

    PubMed Central

    Contou, Damien; Dacheux, Laurent; Bendib, Inès; Jolivet, Sarah; Rodriguez, Christophe; Tomberli, Françoise; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Lavenir, Rachel; Lepelletier, Anthony; Larrous, Florence; Troupin, Cécile; Bourhy, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with an unusual initial metabolic presentation of imported human rabies who became symptomatic within 2 weeks of returning from Mali to France. This is the single case of imported human rabies identified in France within the past 11 years and the first report of viral RNA in bronchial secretions. PMID:25854482

  8. 75 FR 42380 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order on Sorbitol From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... from France. See Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009). Pursuant to... United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. Sorbitol From France; Determination, 75 FR 39277... Order, 47 FR 15391 (April 9, 1982). On June 29, 1984, the order was revoked, in part. See Sorbitol...

  9. Structure and Governance of Universities in France, the United States of America, and Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acostaromero, Salvador

    This thesis reviews the main elements of university governance in France, the United States, and Mexico. A brief historical overview of higher education in the three countries precedes an individual analysis. The analysis of university governance in France focuses on the 1968 reform of higher education prompted by student protests and the 1983…

  10. Possible application of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index in France: A pilot study in Brittany

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our goal was to determine if the US Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) scale might have application in France. Twenty homes in Brittany, north western region of France were classified by inspection as “Moldy” or “Non-Moldy”. Dust and air samples were collected (MiTest ...

  11. From Sun King to Royal Twilight: Painting in Eighteenth Century France from the Musee Picardie, Amiens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the traveling exhibition from the Musee de Picardie in Amiens, France, called "From the Sun King to the Royal Twilight: Painting in Eighteenth Century France," that provides an overview of French paintings from the reign of Louis IV to the fall of the monarchy. (CMK)

  12. Corporate Language: The Blind Spot of Language Policy? Reflections on France's Loi Toubon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saulière, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at France's Loi Toubon, which mandates the use of French in private companies, to illustrate how macro-level language planning reaches a dead end if it fails to consider local contexts and involve micro-level agents. The motivations, limitations and contradictions of France's language policy in relation to companies…

  13. Education in France. Bulletin, 1963, No. 33. OE-14091. [Foreword - Chapter VI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Male, George A.

    1963-01-01

    The present bulletin on education in France is another in the Office of Education's long established series on education in other countries. France is of particular interest because of its strong educational traditions and its dedication to democratic principles. In the process of gathering information for this study, the author visited schools in…

  14. Education in France. Bulletin, 1963, No. 33. OE-14091. [Chapter VII - Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Male, George M.

    1963-01-01

    The present bulletin on education in France is another in the Office of Education's long established series on education in other countries. France is of particular interest because of its strong educational traditions and its dedication to democratic principles. In the process of gathering information for this study, the author visited schools in…

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 8, Which Reemerged in France in August 2015

    PubMed Central

    Sailleau, Corinne; Quenault, Hélène; Lucas, Pierrick; Viarouge, Cyril; Touzain, Fabrice; Fablet, Aurore; Vitour, Damien; Attoui, Houssam; Zientara, Stéphan; Blanchard, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the complete genome sequence (coding and noncoding) of the bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8, isolated from a ram in Allier department, France, 2015. Sequence analysis confirms the reemergence of the BTV-8 strain that previously circulated in France until 2009 and other European countries until 2010. PMID:27081120

  16. What Do We Do with a Difference? France and the Debate over Headscarves in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshet, Dan

    2008-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent debates surrounding headscarves in public schools in France, where the wearing of an article of clothing became the focus of intense national debate. The book is divided into two parts. Part One, Framing the Discussion, includes the following essays: (1) Essay: Immigration and Integration in Europe (2) France; (3)…

  17. Educating the People: "Cours d'adultes" and Social Stratification in France, 1830-1870

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines the formation, operation, and social effects of adult education classes in France during the nineteenth century. These classes were created and operated prior to the formation of France's national education system and were part of the expansion of primary schooling for the working class, or more generally for "the people". The…

  18. Peripheral arterial obliterative disease. Cost of illness in France.

    PubMed

    Montron, A; Guignard, E; Pelc, A; Comte, S

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of this study, carried out in 1995, was to determine, using available sources, the cost of peripheral arterial obliterative disease (PAOD) in France over a 1-year period. This cost-of-illness study was based on a retrospective analysis of the available literature and databases. It involved a description of epidemiological data and a cost estimate of the different medical resources consumed over 1 year. For this latter purpose, a payer perspective was chosen. Data were extracted from national representative surveys and databases with respect to morbidity and mortality [from the National Institute of Health and Medical Research (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale; INSERM) and the National Sickness Insurance Fund for Salaried People (Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salariés; CNAMTS)], consultations, examination tests and drug prescriptions [from the French Medical Audit conducted by Intercontinental Medical Statistics (IMS)], hospitalisations [from the Statistical Unit of the Department of Health-Service des Statistiques, des Etudes et des Systemes d'Information (SESI) and the National Public Research Centre in Health Economics (Centre de Recherche d'Etude et de Documentation en Economie de la Santé; CREDES)] and related health expenditure from CNAMTS. In France, the prevalence of stage II PAOD (Leriche and Fontaine classification) in 1992 was estimated to be 675,000; 53% of these patients had undergone vascular or bypass surgery. The total annual cost of healthcare (including consultations, drugs, laboratory tests, hospitalisation and hydrotherapy) for the management of patients with PAOD ranged from 3.9 billion French francs (F) to F4.6 billion (1995 values), depending on the type of hospital considered. 50% of this cost was related to hospitalisations and 75% was covered by the CNAMTS. Although this study was only a partial evaluation and did not take into account indirect costs or nonmedical direct

  19. [First-aid in France. Current situation and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri

    2010-06-01

    First-aid--treatment aimed at enabling a victim to survive pending the arrival of qualified medical support--is less well developed in France than in many other industrialized countries, especially among the general public. The current status of first-aid in France is paradoxical: schooling is free and obligatory, the ambulance service and emergency services are of the highest quality, but the general public are too often passive and unknowledgeable when faced with an emergency situation. This situation is due to several factors, including the complexity of first-aid training and regulations, the involvement of too many public bodies, the legal liability of the first-aider, and a lack of ongoing training. The French National Academy of Medicine recommends 8 measures to improve this situation: Provide a legal definition of first-aid: "a set of recognized measures aimed, in an emergency setting, at preserving the physical and psychological integrity of the victim of an accident or illness, notably pending the arrival of professional medical assistance". Waive, as in many other countries, civil and legal responsibility for the non professional first-aider, except in case of clear negligence. Reinforce the organization of first-aid in France in order to monitor the number and quality of first-aiders, and to ensure theoretical and pedagogic research; create a communications department capable of supporting and promoting first-aid. Improve access to first-aid training by increasing the number of situations in which it is obligatory (driving tuition, school and university examinations, group responsibility, at-risk practices), by providing financial assistance for certain groups, and by ensuring routine training at school, in the armed forces, and in the workplace. Create a progressive and integrated citizen first-aid training course with individual modules, ensuring that first-aiders update and perfect their knowledge throughout life. Soften pedagogic rules and shorten

  20. The burden and treatment of diabetes in France

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this review was to describe and situate the burden and treatment of diabetes within the broader context of the French health care system. Methods Literature review on the burden, treatment and outcomes of diabetes in France, complemented by personal communication with with diabetes experts in the Paris public hospital system. Results Prevalence of diabetes in the French population is estimated at 6%. Diabetes has the highest prevalence among all chronic conditions covered 100% by France’s statutory health insurance (SHI), and the number of covered patients has doubled in the past 10 years. In 2010, the SHI cost for pharmacologically-treated diabetes patients amounted to €17.7 billion, including an estimated €2.5 billion directly related to diabetes treatment and prevention and €4.2 billion for treatment of diabetes-related complications. In 2007, the average annual SHI cost was €6 930 for patients with type 1 diabetes and €4 890 for patients with type 2 diabetes. Complications are associated with significantly increased costs. Diabetes is a leading cause of adult blindness, amputation and dialysis in France, which also has one of the highest rates of end-stage renal disease in Europe. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among people with diabetes. Historically, the French health care system has been more oriented to curative acute care rather than preventive medicine and management of long-term chronic diseases. More recently, the government has focused on primary prevention as part of its national nutrition and health program, with the goal of reducing overweight and obesity in adults and children. It has also recognized the critical role of the patient in managing chronic diseases such as diabetes and has put into place a free patient support program called “sophia”. Additional initiatives focus on therapeutic patient education (TPE) and the development of personalized patient pathways. Conclusions

  1. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Turning basins. 401.48 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.48 Turning basins. No vessel... the locations set out in the table to this section. Table 1. South Shore Canal: (a) Turning Basin...

  2. 33 CFR 401.48 - Turning basins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Turning basins. 401.48 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.48 Turning basins. No vessel... the locations set out in the table to this section. Table 1. South Shore Canal: (a) Turning Basin...

  3. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    SciTech Connect

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  4. Initiation and evolution of the Oligo-Miocene rift basins of southwestern Europe: Contribution of deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bois, C.

    1993-11-01

    Southwestern European Oligo-Miocene rift basins have recently been investigated by deep seismic reflection profiling. The study of these data, together with other geophysical and geological data, shows that the rifts, which run from the Rhinegraben to the western Mediterranean, do not form a single clearcut system. The N-trending rifts (Rhinegraben, Bresse and Limagne) were developed on a cold and rigid lithosphere affected by the Alpine collision. The NE-trending rifts (southeastern France, Gulf of Lions and Valencia Trough) were formed slightly later in a backarc basin associated with an active segment of the European-Iberian plate that was heated, affected by widespread calcalkaline volcanism and probably weakened. All the southwestern European rifts and basins together may, however, be related to a common heritage represented by the boundary between the European-Iberian and African-Apulian plates that was created in the Jurassic with the initiation of the Tethys Ocean. The present features of the southwestern European Oligo-Miocène rift basins may be explained by a combination of three geodynamic mechanisms: mechanical stretching of the lithosphere, active mantle uplifting, and subordinate lithospheric flexuring. All the rifts were probably initiated by passive stretching. A systematic discrepancy between stretching derived from fault analysis and attenuation of the crust has been observed in all the rifts. This suggests that these rifts were subsequently reworked by one or several active mantle upwelling events associated with late shoulder uplift, asthenosphere upwelling and anomalous P-wave velocities in the lowermost crust and the uppermost mantle. Crustal attenuation may have been achieved by mantle intrusion, metamorphism of the deep crust and/or its delamination. Some of the rifts were affected by lithospheric flexuring. Combinations, in various proportions, of a small number of geodynamic mechanisms probably controlled many basins in the world. This

  5. Hydrograph transposition to ungauged basin accounting for spatio-temporal rainfall variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lavenne, Alban; Cudennec, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Lack of measurements is one of the main issues in hydrological modelling. However, neighbours and nested gauged catchment are precious sources of information to understand the catchment behaviours within one region. Extracting the maximum of information from those points of measurements, that could be then transposed to ungauged catchment, is still a great challenge. We propose a methodology to transpose hydrological information from gauged catchments to ungauged ones, in order to simulate streamflow hydrographs. It uses geomorphology-based hydrological modelling, which is particularly well adapted to ungauged basins thanks to its robustness, generality and flexibility. We develop a geomorphology-based model on the gauged catchment which has been built in order to capture the main behaviour of the basin. Its transfer function considers the different dynamics of the catchment through the combination of velocities and width functions. Moreover, the explicit structure of the model enables to easily create a map of isochrone areas describing the time to the outlet. Therefore, spatially distributed rainfall can then be split into those isochrone areas, permitting the transfer function to deal with spatio-temporal variability of rainfall. Once the model calibrated, using a particle swarm optimisation algorithm, its transfer function is inversed to assess the net rainfall time series. In this way, we obtained a standardized variable which is used to estimate discharge in ungauged basin. Therefore, net rainfall time series is transposed and convoluted on the ungauged catchment using its own transfer function. Spatio-temporal rainfall variability between basins is considered through a correction of this net rainfall time series. This correction is based on differences between mean gross rainfall observation among those two catchments. This methodology is applied on pairs of basins among 6 gauged basins (from 5km² to 316km²) located in Brittany, France. For the benefit of

  6. Stratigraphical links between Miocene Alpine Foreland basin and Gulf of Lion Passive Margin during lowstands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, Jean-Loup; Gorini, Christian; Leroux, Estelle; Aslanian, Daniel; Rabineau, Marina; Parize, Olivier; Besson, David

    2015-04-01

    Miocene peri-alpine foreland basin is connected toward the south with the Gulf of Lion passive margin and is predominantly filled by marine shallow water molassic deposits ranging from lower Miocene to Pliocene in age. Nine to ten depositional sequences are recorded and partly preserved in this basin and can be traced into the post rift part of the Gulf of Lion. One of the most surprising feature of the stratigraphic infill is the total lack of lowstand deposits within the foreland basin ; All superimposed sequences only includes transgressive and highstand System Tracts separated by erosional sequence boundaries and the development of incised valley networks filled by tidal deposits during transgression; Besson et al. 2005. It means that the entire foreland basin in SE France is exposed during lowstand periods without any preservation of fluvial deposits. By place few forced regression wedges are preserved at the transition between the foreland and the passive margin, close to the present day coastline. To date no real lowstand wedges have never been reported in the offshore of the Gulf of Lion. A reinterpretation of the best old vintage 2D dip seismic profiles along the passive margin validates the idea that the foreland basin is entirely exposed as well as the proximal part of the passive margin; first because some incised valleys can be occasionally picked on the shelf and second mainly because well defined superimposed or juxtaposed prograding lowstand wedges with nicely defined clinoforms onlapping the sequence boundaries can be recognized on the distal part of the shelf from the Burdigalian to the Messinian. Their ages being constrains by the Calmar well calibration. Unfortunately, they can't be continuously mapped all along the shelf break because of the strong erosion related to the Messinian Unconformity and the associated huge sea level fall.So we have to explain why during the lowstands, exceptionally long fluvial valley networks (more than 300km) can

  7. Evolution of the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasmacher, U. A.; Bauer, F. U.; Kollenz, S.; Delvaux, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Congo Basin is one of the largest basins in the World with very little knowledge on the geological evolution as well as the oil and gas potential. In the past, oil seeps are recorded in the central part of the basin. Four sides in the Congo basin have been drilled so far. The cores of the two drill sides Dekese and Samba are located at the Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Belgium. In a reconnaissance survey, we sampled both drill cores in a nearly even spacing of ~ 150 m covering the whole stratigraphy from Albian to Proterozoic. The red and green to grey sandstone samples were prepared by usual heavy minerals separation technique. Most of the samples revealed enough apatite and zircon grains for the two thermochronometric techniques fission track and (U-Th-Sm)/He. The time-temperature (t-T) evolution for the two drill locations were modelled by using the determined thermochronological data within the software code HeFTy. We tested various geological evolutionary constrains. Both techniques provide us information on the thermal and exhumation of the possible source area and on the drill location by themselves.

  8. Childhood leukaemia and population movements in France, 1990–2003

    PubMed Central

    Bellec, S; Baccaïni, B; Goubin, A; Rudant, J; Ripert, M; Hémon, D; Clavel, J

    2007-01-01

    In a national study, we investigated the incidence of childhood leukaemia (CL) over a 14-year period in France in relation to several measures based on the proportion of individuals who changed address between the last two national censuses. A positive association was found with the proportion of migrants who came from a distant place. The further the migrants came, the higher was the incidence of leukaemia, particularly among children aged 0–4 years in ‘isolated' communes at the time of diagnosis (RR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.1,1.8 in the highest category of migration distance). Although the role of the population density was less obvious, a more marked association was found above a certain threshold. No association with the proportion of commuters was observed. PMID:18087281

  9. Market access pathways for cell therapies in France

    PubMed Central

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Toumi, Mondher; Jørgensen, Jesper; Kefalas, Panos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and objective Cell therapies can be classified into three main categories of products: advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), ATMPs prepared on a non-routine basis (hospital exemptions), and minimally manipulated cells. Despite the benefits that cell therapies can bring to patients, they are subject to complex pathways to reach the market in France. The objective of this study was to identify and describe routes to market access for cell therapies in France and how these vary by regulatory status. Methodology The research was structured following five main steps: (1) identification of the French regulatory framework for cell therapies; (2) identification of the health products categorised as cell therapies in France; (3) mapping of the market access pathways per category of cell therapy; (4) validation of findings by interviewing experts; and (5) development of a roadmap summarising market access pathways for cell therapies in France. The secondary research methodology included a comprehensive literature review conducted on websites of French public health institutions, complemented by a research for peer-reviewed articles, abstracts, and grey literature. Results Different market access pathways are possible depending on the cell therapy category. For ATMPs, market access pathways depend on the licensing status of the therapy. Licensed ATMPs followed the same market access pathways as ‘conventional’ pharmaceuticals, whereas not-yet-licensed ATMPs can be funded via a specific financial allowance under the framework of a Temporary Authorisation for Use procedure or various research programmes. For new ATMPs that are associated with a separate medical device (not considered as ‘combined ATMPs’) or associated with a new medical procedure, additional pathways will apply for the medical device and/or medical procedure to be reimbursed in the ambulatory settings or at hospital. The most likely funding option for ATMPs prepared on a non

  10. Measles Elimination Efforts and 2008–2011 Outbreak, France

    PubMed Central

    Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel; Baudon, Claire; Freymuth, François; Lamy, Mathieu; Maine, Catherine; Floret, Daniel; Parent du Chatelet, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Although few measles cases were reported in France during 2006 and 2007, suggesting the country might have been close to eliminating the disease, a dramatic outbreak of >20,000 cases occurred during 2008–2011. Adolescents and young adults accounted for more than half of cases; median patient age increased from 12 to 16 years during the outbreak. The highest incidence rate was observed in children <1 year of age, reaching 135 cases/100,000 infants during the last epidemic wave. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalized, including 1,023 for severe pneumonia and 27 for encephalitis/myelitis; 10 patients died. More than 80% of the cases during this period occurred in unvaccinated persons, reflecting heterogeneous vaccination coverage, where pockets of susceptible persons still remain. Although vaccine coverage among children improved, convincing susceptible young adults to get vaccinated remains a critical issue if the target to eliminate the disease by 2015 is to be met. PMID:23618523

  11. Preparing the future of astronomy PhDs in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissier, S.; Buat, V.; Cambresy, L.

    2015-12-01

    The numbers of doctors in astronomy formed in France has been increasing for 15 years, a time during which the number of openings for permanent positions has remained constant. As it is well known by the young generations, the pressure on the research position is high, putting many post-doctoral researchers in difficult situations for up to 10 years after their defence. We have to prepare students and post-doctoral researchers to maximize their chances for both academia and the private sector. In this spirit, the 2015 SF2A conference included a lunch meeting with former members of hiring committee and a workshop on the valorization of the astronomy thesis. We believe awareness of both young and senior researchers is important to provide PhDs with a robust background and modern methods, valuable in their future, whichever it is.

  12. Implementing Cognitive Remediation Programs in France: The "Secret Sauce".

    PubMed

    Amado, Isabelle; Sederer, Lloyd I

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive remediation (CR) is a psychosocial therapy that seeks to restore patients' cognitive abilities by providing strategies to improve functioning in cognitive domains and helping them transfer acquired capabilities to everyday life. Since 2008, CR programs have been introduced in several regional health ministry areas in France. This column describes that implementation initiative, which includes creation of a network of the most active CR programs to conduct multicenter trials; establishment of a university degree in CR, awarded after completion of a one-year clinical training program; and implementation activities of regional health agencies. The authors describe three core elements of a "secret sauce"-a common language, timing, and leadership-that has helped ensure the success of the implementation efforts and that may be useful in other countries. PMID:26975526

  13. STS-93 Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-93 Mission Specialist Michel Tognini of France, who represents the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), poses in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Facility, which holds the main engine of the orbiter Columbia. He and other crew members Commander Eileen Collins, Mission Specialist Catherine G. Coleman, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley are visiting Kennedy to look over the primary payload, the Chandra X-ray Observatory. STS-93 is scheduled to launch July 9 aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. Formerly called the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, Chandra comprises three major elements: the spacecraft, the science instrument module (SIM), and the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high-temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe.

  14. Cloud Height Maps for Hurricanes Frances and Ivan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) captured these images and cloud-top height retrievals of Hurricane Frances on September 4, 2004, when the eye sat just off the coast of eastern Florida, and Hurricane Ivan on September 5th, after this cyclone had devastated Grenada and was heading toward the central and western Caribbean. Hurricane Frances made landfall in the early hours of September 5, and was downgraded to Tropical Storm status as it swept inland through the Florida panhandle and continued northward. On the heels of Frances is Hurricane Ivan, which is on record as the strongest tropical cyclone to form at such a low latitude in the Atlantic, and was the most powerful hurricane to have hit the Caribbean in nearly a decade.

    The ability of forecasters to predict the intensity and amount of rainfall associated with hurricanes still requires improvement, especially on the 24 to 48 hour timescale vital for disaster planning. To improve the operational models used to make hurricane forecasts, scientists need to better understand the multi-scale interactions at the cloud, mesoscale and synoptic scales that lead to hurricane intensification and dissipation, and the various physical processes that affect hurricane intensity and rainfall distributions. Because these uncertainties with regard to how to represent cloud processes still exist, it is vital that the model findings be evaluated against hurricane observations whenever possible. Two-dimensional maps of cloud height such as those shown here offer an unprecedented opportunity for comparing simulated cloud fields against actual hurricane observations.

    The left-hand panel in each image pair is a natural color view from MISR's nadir camera. The right-hand panels are cloud-top height retrievals produced by automated computer recognition of the distinctive spatial features between images acquired at different view angles. These results indicate that at the time that these images were

  15. Impact of carwash discharge on stormwater quality (Toulouse, France).

    PubMed

    Sablayrolles, C; Vialle, C; Vignoles, C; Montrejaud-Vignoles, M

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of discharge from carwashes to pollutant levels in stormwater was evaluated. Five carwashes and two outlets in the city of Toulouse (France) were selected. Water samples were collected from December 2006 to December 2007. Concentrations and loadings of classical water quality parameters (conductivity, pH, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen, phosphorus, ammonium, nitrate, suspended solid and volatile suspended solid) and five groups of organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, lauryl alkyl benzene sulphonates, methyl tert-butyl ether and total hydrocarbons) were determined. The results suggest that the wastewater derived from carwashes was negligible compared to the volume and flow rates within the stormwater network. However, high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phosphorus and lauryl alkyl benzene sulphonates in liquid waste from carwashes, and the impact of these pollutants on stormwater quality could not be neglected. PMID:21123901

  16. [3 cases of tetradontidae poisoning observed in France].

    PubMed

    Costes, P; Avril, E

    1979-01-01

    The authors report 3 cases of food poisoning, one of them leading to a swift death, which they were able to observe on 1st January 1978 in the Drôme (France). They explain how burbot was the suspected food responsible for the auto-intoxication and how the X ray examination of the vertebrae of this fish allowed them to support the diagnosis of "tetrodonic" poisoning; the inquest did not allow to state precisely where the fish was caught. With regard to these French cases the authors point out that this type of pathology is made possible by the increasing importing of fish from tropical regions, in powder form or frozen products. PMID:498391

  17. [Intraosseous vascular access, a technic previously underestimated in France].

    PubMed

    Oriot, D; Cardona, J; Berthier, M; Nasimi, A; Boussemart, T

    1994-07-01

    Intraosseous vascular access is a simple and very efficient technique for fluid and drug administration in any pediatric emergencies where the intravenous route is impossible or inadequate. Yet it remains unrecognized in France. Its pharmacokinetics is close to that of peripheral intravenous route, but it allows much greater infusion flow rates. In pediatric resuscitation it must be considered as the number one technique of intravascular access in infants, and rapidly as the first alternative after failure of attempt of intravenous route in children under 6. Provided that the technique is performed with careful asepsis, the risk of infectious complications is very low. However the intraosseous route must remain a transitory vascular access, and has to be stopped as soon as possible, its use never exceeding 24 hours. PMID:7987470

  18. Statistical analysis of Nomao customer votes for spots of France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pálovics, Róbert; Daróczy, Bálint; Benczúr, András; Pap, Julia; Ermann, Leonardo; Phan, Samuel; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of votes of customers for spots of France collected by the startup company Nomao. The frequencies of votes per spot and per customer are characterized by a power law distribution which remains stable on a time scale of a decade when the number of votes is varied by almost two orders of magnitude. Using the computer science methods we explore the spectrum and the eigenvalues of a matrix containing user ratings to geolocalized items. Eigenvalues nicely map to large towns and regions but show certain level of instability as we modify the interpretation of the underlying matrix. We evaluate imputation strategies that provide improved prediction performance by reaching geographically smooth eigenvectors. We point on possible links between distribution of votes and the phenomenon of self-organized criticality.

  19. The Rank-Ferenczi relationship, as seen from France.

    PubMed

    Lugrin, Yves

    2012-12-01

    Seen from France, where Rank's "American" work is not well known, the Rank-Ferenczi relationship does not allow to state that the two learned colleagues were the best friends. Rank met Ferenczi in 1908, but their most valuable and fruitful working relationship is limited to the 1922-1924 time period. Their working relationship must be read in light of the unique transference links of each to Freud, and in light of the tormented history of the analytic movement, especially after the First World War. The sensible reader will not forget that after the fast extinction of their short collaboration they continued their own works in their own ways, Otto Rank in Paris and in America and Sándor Ferenczi in Budapest. No more friends, nor enemies, but both, in a different style, brave and creative analysts. PMID:23175027

  20. Epidemiological Overview of Hodgkin Lymphoma across the Mediterranean Basin.

    PubMed

    Salati, Massimiliano; Cesaretti, Marina; Macchia, Matteo; Mistiri, Mufid El; Federico, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has always been a source of fascination to researchers due to its heterogeneous characteristics of presentation. HL is an uncommon neoplasm of B-cell origin with an incidence that varies significantly by age, sex, ethnicity, geographic location and socioeconomic status. This complex pattern was also found to be replicated among Mediterranean basin populations. HL incidence rates progressively decreased from industrialized European countries such as France (ASR=2.61) and Italy (ASR=2.39) to less developed nations such as Albania (ASR=1.34) and Bosnia Herzegovina (ASR=1.1). Regarding HL mortality we have found that countries with the lowest incidence rates show the highest number of deaths from this cancer and viceversa. Finally, a wide gap in terms of survival was showed across the Mediterranean basin with survival rates ranged from 82.3% and 85.1% among Italian men and women, to 53.3 % and 59.3% among Libyan men and women, respectively. Factors such as the degree of socio-economic development, the exposure to risk factors westernization-related, the availability of diagnostic practices along with different genetic susceptibilities to HL may explain its variation across Mediterranean countries. Furthermore, the lack of health resources decisively contribute to the poor prognosis recorded in less developed region. In the future, the introduction of appropriate and accessible treatment facilities along with an adequate number of clinical specialists in the treatment of HL and other cancers are warranted in order to improve the outcomes of affected patients and treat a largely curable type of cancer in disadvantaged regions. PMID:25045456

  1. Survey on practice of venom immunotherapy in France

    PubMed Central

    Dzviga, Charles; Matevi, Catherine; Bonniaud, Philippe; Lavaud, François; Girodet, Bruno; Birnbaum, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is the only efficient prevention for sting-induced anaphylaxis, but its application is not without risks and needs precautions and standardization. European guidelines were proposed in 2005, but recent practice surveys and more recent knowledge raise the need for an update. The aim of this study was to analyze VIT practices in France, based on previous surveys in Europe but also extended to outcome event management. Material and methods A paper questionnaire was sent widely to persons involved in venom treatment. Results Eighty-six responses could be included from physicians actively involved in VIT induction evenly distributed in France. The survey shows that VIT was engaged from grade III down to grade I reactions, starting preferentially with the ultra-rush protocol. Premedication was used by 42% only and risks induced by co-treatment with β-blockers were well known but not with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. However, side effects were very variably managed from arrest to enhancement in doses, time-delay or duration. Similarly, we observed a large discrepancy in treatment evaluation (skin tests, biology, timing and interpretation), decision making for treatment termination (when and how long to be prolonged) and post-treatment follow-up (adrenaline kit, event record) as well as procedures in case of late relapse (new induction, different doses). Conclusions Our study shows that most recommendations were fully or partially followed and may need reminding, but many points need to be completed or updated with new tools and knowledge acquired during the last 10 years. PMID:26925131

  2. Testing probabilistic seismic hazard estimations against observations, application to France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasan, H. O.; Beauval, C.; Helmstetter, A.; Gueguen, P.

    2012-12-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard calculations rely on different models and assumptions (characterization of seismic sources, recurrence laws of magnitudes, ground-motion prediction equations, …). In many countries, studies performed by different teams often led to considerably different outputs. The aim of the present study is to understand if, by using observations, it is possible to discriminate between the different hazard estimates. The work focuses on estimates obtained for the French territory (SIGMA project, seismic hazard in France). Three past studies are considered: MEDD 2002, AFPS 2006 and SIGMA 2012. Two types of observations are taken into account: the French accelerometric database (RAP), and the French macroseismic database (SisFrance). The methods were initially applied in New Zealand, Italy, and the US (Albarello and D'Amico 2008; Stirling and Gerstenberger 2010). Testing of predictions against observations is led in an extensive way, looking at different acceleration threshold levels, different return periods and different spatial windows. The GMPEs best fitting the low-acceleration dataset are first identified. In the course of the testing, we check that the main assumptions underlying the tests are fulfilled (independence of sites, no impact of aftershocks, completeness of records). The results of the testing, relying on the short accelerometric record, show that the models are overestimating the observed hazard for small accelerations (<30 cm/s2) and short return periods (< 20 years). For higher accelerations and longer return periods, models are consistent with the observed hazard. Next, tests will be led using observations on much longer time windows by using the macroseismic database.

  3. FVCOM model estimate of the location of Air France 447

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changsheng; Limeburner, Richard; Gao, Guoping; Xu, Qichun; Qi, Jianhua; Xue, Pengfei; Lai, Zhigang; Lin, Huichan; Beardsley, Robert; Owens, Breck; Carlson, Barry

    2012-06-01

    On June 1, 2009, Air France AF447 disappeared in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean en route from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to Paris, France. On June 6-19, 2009, bodies and debris from the aircraft were recovered floating in the equatorial ocean. This paper describes efforts on using the global-local nested finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) to model reversely the tracks of bodies and debris back to the time of the crash and to help searchers locate the cockpit voice and flight data recorders and learn why this tragic accident occurred. To validate the reliability and reality of FVCOM, eight surface drifters were deployed by the French Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la sécurité de l'aviation civile (BEA) near the last known position in early June 2010 for a period of 3 weeks. These drifter data were used to optimize the spatial and temporal correlation scales of the adaptive sampling data assimilation method of FVCOM. Applying an optimized FVCOM system to assimilate all available drifter- and float-tracking-derived currents in May-June 2009 under three different wind conditions, we reproduced the June 2009 current fields in the area near the LKP and used these fields to reversely track bodies and debris from locations where they were found to the time when the crash occurred. Possible locations for the crashed plane were suggested based on our model results and were made available to the French investigators and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle Operations Group who successfully located the aircraft debris field in April 2011 on the seafloor at a depth of 3,900 m.

  4. Predicting future spatial distribution of SOC across entire France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meersmans, Jeroen; Van Rompaey, Anton; Quine, Tim; Martin, Manuel; Pagé, Christian; Arrouays, Dominique

    2013-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is widely recognized as a key factor controlling soil quality and as a crucial and active component of the global C-cycle. Hence, there exists a growing interest in monitoring and modeling the spatial and temporal behavior of this pool. So far, a large attempt has been made to map SOC at national scales for current and/or past situations. Despite some coarse predictions, detailed spatial SOC predictions for the future are still lacking. In this study we aim to predict future spatial evolution of SOC driven by climate and land use change for France up to the year 2100. Therefore, we combined 1) an existing model, predicting SOC as a function of soil type, climate, land use and management (Meersmans et al 2012), with 2) eight different IPCC spatial explicit climate change predictions (conducted by CERFACS) and 3) Land use change scenario predictions. We created business-as-usual land use change scenarios by extrapolating observed trends and calibrating logistic regression models, incorporating a large set of physical and socio-economic factors, at the regional level in combination with a multi-objective land allocation (MOLA) procedure. The resultant detailed projections of future SOC evolution across all regions of France, allow us to identify regions that are most likely to be characterized by a significant gain or loss of SOC and the degree to which land use decisions/outcomes control the scale of loss and gain. Therefore, this methodology and resulting maps can be considered as powerful tools to aid decision making concerning appropriate soil management, in order to enlarge SOC storage possibilities and reduce soil related CO2 fluxes.

  5. Group B streptococcus neonatal invasive infections, France 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Joubrel, C; Tazi, A; Six, A; Dmytruk, N; Touak, G; Bidet, P; Raymond, J; Trieu Cuot, P; Fouet, A; Kernéis, S; Poyart, C

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus (GBS)) is the leading cause of invasive infections among newborns in industrialized countries, with two described syndromes: early-onset disease (EOD) and late-onset disease (LOD). Since the introduction in many countries of intrapartum antibioprophylaxis (IAP), the incidence of EOD has dramatically decreased, whereas that of LOD remains unchanged. We describe the clinical and bacteriological characteristics of 438 GBS neonatal invasive infections notified to the French National Reference Centre for Streptococci in France from 2007 to 2012. Clinical data were retrieved from hospitalization reports or questionnaires. Capsular type, assignment to the hypervirulent clonal complex (CC)17 and antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined. One hundred and seventy-four (39.7%) and 264 (60.3%) isolates were responsible for EOD, including death in utero, and LOD, respectively. EOD was associated with bacteraemia (n = 103, 61%) and LOD with meningitis (n = 145, 55%). EOD was mainly due to capsular polysaccharide (CPS) III isolates (n = 99, 57%) and CPS Ia isolates (n = 40, 23%), and CPS III isolates were responsible for 80% (n = 211) of LOD cases. CC17 accounted for 80% (n = 121) of CPS III isolates responsible for meningitis (n = 151; total cases of meningitis, 188). Bad outcome risk factors were low gestational age and low birthweight. LOD represents almost 60% of cases of neonatal GBS disease in France and other countries in which IAP has been implemented. This observation reinforces the need to develop new prevention strategies targeting CC17, which is predominant in GBS neonatal infections. PMID:26055414

  6. Hospital planning in France and the Federal Republic of Germany.

    PubMed

    Altenstetter, C

    1980-01-01

    This article on hospital planning programs in France and North-Rhine Westfalia (a state in the Federal Republic of Germany), assembles information on the formal building blocks of inter-organizational relations in the formulation and implementation process. Because these planning programs are embedded in past social policy developments and institution-building, it is necessary to first compare the two countries' compulsory health insurance schemes. This is followed by a general profile of each health care system. A third section examines the formulation and implementation of the countries' hospital planning programs and participation patterns. Based on this comparison, inferences are drawn that are relevant to policy and research. The analysis yields three major conclusions. First, despite abundant legal and administrative controls at the disposal of central health bureaucracies, the capability of the national leadership to influence the hospital system through innovative planning is limited by jurisdictional, institutional, functional and territorial fragmentation, and differentiation of control and public responsibility in health. However, the diverse goal orientations of participants may provide the necessary tension to allow for some change in otherwise highly structured political and administrative systems. Second, despite differences in historical, political and administrative developments, the decision making systems for health care policies in France and the Federal Republic, with the exception of health insurance, are strikingly similar to the fragmented decision making system in the United States. Third, the effect of government-mandated participation is empirically uncertain. Opening up the circle of participants seems to have reinforced alliances between public bureaucracies and corporate vested interests. Hospital planning continues to be carried out for rather than with the consumer and citizen. Hospital planning which is a mixture of goal and process

  7. Archaeomagnetic Study performed on Early Medieval Buildings from western France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.; Dufresne, P.; Blain, S.; Guibert, P.; Oberlin, C.; Sapin, C.

    2009-05-01

    A multiple dating study, involving a collaboration between specialists of dating techniques (thermoluminescence (TL) and radiocarbon), historians of art and archaeologists, has been carried out on several early medieval buildings from western France. The early medieval period is not well known especially in France where there is a lack of visible evidence that identifies pre-Romanesque architecture. The majority of buildings to have survived from this period are religious ones, considered important enough to be made of strong, non-perishable material such as stone or brick, as for example the churches of Notre-Dame-sous- Terre in the Mont-Saint-Michel or St Martin in Angers. Due to their significance in architectural history, it is imperative to position them accurately in the chronology of the history of art. Bricks are often used to build up round-headed arches or to reinforce the frame of a wall with bonding courses in those churches. TL dating and archeomagnetic analysis were performed on cores drilled within bricks while radiocarbon dating were undertaken on coals found within mortars. In order to increase the number of data during the early Middle Ages, archeointensity determinations using the classical Thellier technique with anisotropy of thermal remanence and cooling rate corrections were performed. Archaeomagnetic directions were used to recognize the firing position of bricsk during manufacture. Reliable and precise ages were obtained on the church Notre-Dame-sous-Terre; they indicate two phases of building in 950±50AD and 990±50AD. Mean archeointensities obtained on 17 (21) samples from the first (second) phases appears very closed 69.1±1.2 and 68.3±1.6 microTesla. Ages and archeomagnetic results obtained on 4 other sites will be presented and compared to the available data in western Europe.

  8. Clinical negligence in hospitals in France and England.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michael J; de Bono Q C, John; Métayer, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    This article arose from the back-to-back presentations by Michael Kelly and Patrice Métayer to the Anglo-French Medical Society in 2013 on the French and English legal systems handling a case of alleged clinical negligence as it proceeds from complaint to settlement or judgment in the two jurisdictions. Both systems have a hospital-based first stage with various avenues being available for amicable resolution, the French version being more regulated and prescribed than the English one. In both jurisdictions fewer than 5% cases go down the criminal route. Before the court is involved, in England there is an elaborate lawyer-controlled phase involving negotiations between the two sides and their experts which is expensive but often leads to pre-trial settlement for significant sums of money. Medical experts are central to all of this. In England they are largely unregulated and entirely advisory in an open market, in France they are both regulated and supervised by judges, being placed on official lists. These experts take a major inquisitorial role in a Debate between the two sides, combining the functions of Single Joint Expert (SJE), arbiter and mentor. If agreement is not reached, a second Debate before a different Expert is arranged. In both countries fewer than 5% cases reach a court for a hearing before a judge. In England a trial is an elaborate lengthy, expensive adversarial contest where all of the issues are rehearsed in full with factual and expert evidence, whereas in France in a contested case the judge reviews the reports of the two Debates with the lawyers who were involved (and not the experts, factual witnesses or parties). PMID:26419273

  9. Sporadic community-acquired Legionnaires' disease in France: a 2-year national matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Che, D; Campese, C; Santa-Olalla, P; Jacquier, G; Bitar, D; Bernillon, P; Desenclos, J-C

    2008-12-01

    Legionnaires' disease (LD) is an aetiology of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in adults, with a high case-fatality ratio (CFR). We conducted a matched case-control study to identify risk factors for sporadic, community-acquired LD. Cases of sporadic, community-acquired and biologically confirmed LD, in metropolitan France from 1 September 2002 to 31 September 2004, were matched with a control subject according to age, sex, underlying illness and location of residence within 5 km. We performed a conditional logistic regression on various host-related factors and exposures. Analysis was done on 546 matched pairs. The CFR was 3.5%. Age ranged from 18-93 years (mean 57 years), with a 3.6 male:female sex ratio. Cases were more likely to have smoked with the documentation of a dose-effect relation, to have travelled with a stay in a hotel (OR 6.1, 95% CI 2.6-14.2), or to have used a wash-hand basin for personal hygiene (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.6-7.7) than controls. Tobacco and travel have been previously described as risk factors for LD, but this is the first time that such a dose-effect for tobacco has been documented among sporadic cases. These findings will provide helpful knowledge about LD and help practitioners in identifying patients at high risk. PMID:18211725

  10. Landscape trajectories during the Lateglacial and the Holocene in the Loir River Valley (France) : the contribution of Geoarchaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana, Juliene

    2015-04-01

    A multidisciplinary research has been initiated in the Loir River valley where investigations revealed high-potential fluvial records and landforms for environmental and socio-environmental reconstructions. Investigations provide the opportunity to reconstruct landscape trajectories between climate, environmental and societal changes during the last 16000 years, using geoarchaeological and archaeogeographical approaches: sedimentology, soil micromorphology, geochemistry, archaeology, geomatics, geochronology (AGES Program: Ancient Geomorphological EvolutionS of Loire Basin hydrosystem). In the sector of Vaas (Sarthe, France) the research on the Lateglacial and the Holocene sedimentary sequences from the alluvial plain leads to a general overview of the valley evolution from the end of the Weichselian Upper Pleniglacial to the Present. Joined to archaeological (Protohistoric and Antic sites) and historical data (engineering archives, 18th century cadastral registers) this research highlights the importance of anthropogenic and geomorphological heritages in the current fluvial landscape (microtopography, wetlands, archaeological remains, land use). This knowledge constitutes a basis for skills transfer to planners and managers, in sustainable management of hydrological resources (reducing the vulnerability to flooding and low flows), preservation of biodiversity (wetlands protection) and valorization of landscapes (cultural tourism development).

  11. Tectonic evolution and oil and gas of Tarim basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuzhu, Kang; Zhihong, Kang

    According to the new results achieved in the past ten years and more, using mobilism and the theory of polycycle by Huang Jiqing (1977, 1984), the formation of the basement of the Tarim basin and its characteristics are summarized. The prototype basins formed since Sinian times are classified into rift basin, continental marginal basin, cratonic basin, foreland basin and others. The Tarim basin is regarded as a huge oil- and gas-bearing basin superposed by prototype basins of different ages. The tectonic characteristics of these basins including tectonic movements, tectonic migrations, faults and trap types are summarized. In addition, structural control over oil and gas and oil-forming features are analysed.

  12. Mississippian facies relationships, eastern Anadarko basin, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, H.W. ); Forgotson, J.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Mississippian strata in the eastern Anadarko basin record a gradual deepening of the basin. Late and post-Mississippian tectonism (Wichita and Arbuckle orogenies) fragmented the single large basin into the series of paired basins and uplifts recognized in the southern half of Oklahoma today. Lower Mississippian isopach and facies trends (Sycamore and Caney Formations) indicate that basinal strike in the study area (southeastern Anadarko basin) was predominantly east-west. Depositional environment interpretations made for Lower Mississippian strata suggest that the basin was partially sediment starved and exhibited a low shelf-to-basin gradient. Upper Mississippian isopach and facies trends suggest that basinal strike within the study area shifted from dominantly east-west to dominantly northwest-southeast due to Late Mississippian and Early Pennsylvanian uplift along the Nemaha ridge. Within the study area, the Chester Formation, composed of gray to dove-gray shales with interbedded limestones deposited on a carbonate shelf, thins depositionally into the basin and is thinnest at its facies boundary with the Springer Group and the upper portion of the Caney Formation. As basin subsidence rates accelerated, the southern edge of the Chester carbonate shelf was progressively drowned, causing a backstepping of the Chester Formation calcareous shale and carbonate facies. Springer Group sands and black shales transgressed northward over the drowned Chester Formation shelf.

  13. Structural and Petrophysical Characterization of Fault Zones in Shales: Example from the Tournemire Url (sw, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DICK, P.; Du Peloux de Saint Romain, A.; Moreno, E.; Homberg, C.; Renel, F.; Dauzères, A.; Wittebroodt, C.; Matray, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Tournemire Underground Research Laboratory (URL) operated by IRSN (French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety) is located on the western border of the Mesozoic sedimentary Causses Basin (SW France). The URL crosses a thick Toarcian shale formation (≈250 m) and is interbedded between two aquiferous limestone formations. In addition to the 250 m thick overlying limestones, the geotechnical and hydrogeological characteristics of this site exhibit similarities with those measured by the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (Andra) in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation of Bure (Meuse/Haute Marne, France). The Tournemire site is marked by numerous minor shear bands that affect not only the shale formation but also the over- and underlying limestone units. Since analogous discontinuities in an underground deep geological repository could act as a preferential pathway for radionuclide migration, the Tournemire site appears as an ideal location to understand the internal and permeability structures of such clay-based faults. In this study, we investigate the structural and petrophysical variations observed in a 10-15 m thick, subvertical, strike-slip shear band. For this, eight fully cored and logged horizontal boreholes were drilled normal to the fault's direction. The internal architecture and permeability of the fault was revealed through a combination of different tools (AMS, SEM, XRD and helium pycnometer) used on samples, as well as optical, induction and neutron porosity logging used in boreholes. The analysis of core samples from the different boreholes indicates that the studied fault zone is divided into a fault core (gouge), surrounded by a damaged zone (e.g., kinematically related fracture sets, small faults, and veins). Porosity and hydraulic conductivity values are low in the undisturbed shale (respectively, 9% and 10-14 m.s-1) and increase progressively towards the fault core (respectively, 15-20% and 5.10-12 m.s-1

  14. Geodynamics of the Sivas Basin (Turkey): from a forearc basin to a retroarc foreland basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kergaravat, Charlie; Callot, Jean-Paul; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kavak, Kaan

    2016-04-01

    Anatolia records the consumption of several oceanic basins, from the Northern Neotethys domain, by north-dipping subduction until the end of Mesozoic. The associated obduction event occurred during Campanian, from North to South and from Greece to Oman, leading to the emplacement of ophiolite thrust sheets and associated ophiolitic mélange. In particular, the Sivas Basin in Eastern Anatolia is located at the boundary between the Kırsehir block to the East, Pontide arc to the North and Tauride Platform to the South, sutured by ophiolitic belts. The Sivas Basin formed a Tertiary fold-and-thrust belt, which exhibits mainly north verging thrust in Paleogene deposits, and South verging thrust in oligo-miocene sequence. To understand the northern verging thrust above south verging obduction, it is necessary to zoom out of the basin, and include a set of processes that affect the eastern Anatolia. This study aims to characterize the structural and sedimentary evolution of the Sivas Basin, based on a fieldwork approach, coupled to the interpretation of subsurface data, thermochronology and biostratigraphy. The Sivas Basin was initiated in a forearc setting relatively to the subduction of the Inner-Tauride Ocean while the associated ophiolites are obducted onto the northern passive margin of the Tauride margin. Early Maastrichtian to Paleocene deposits are represented by carbonate platforms located on ophiolitic highs, passing to turbidites and olistostomes toward the North. The early Eocene sediments, mainly composed of ophiolitic clasts, are deposited on a regional unconformity marked along the southern margin of the basin by incisions in response to the emergence of north-verging thrust. The middle Eocene sediments, intensively folded by northward thrusting, are mostly represented by flysch type deposits (olistostromes, mass-flows and turbidites). The onset of the compression is related to the initiation of the Taurus shortening in a retroarc situation, in response to

  15. Hydrocarbon accumulations in the Tarim basin, China

    SciTech Connect

    Li Desheng; Liang Digang; Jia Chengzao; Wang Gang

    1996-10-01

    The Tarim basin is the largest and least explored inland basin in China. The areal extent of the basin reaches 560,000 km{sup 2}. The interior of the basin is mostly covered by the Takla Mekan Desert, which is about 330,000 km{sup 2} in areal extent. The basin has become the object of special attention since China set aside first- and third-round onshore bidding blocks in the Tarim basin for foreign oil firms to explore. The Tarim basin is a polyhistory superimposed basin that has experienced seven evolutionary stages: (1) Sinian-Cambrian-Ordovician aulacogen stage, (2) Silurian-Devonian intracratonic depression stage, (3) Carboniferous marginal sea stage, (4) Permian rift basin stage, (5) Triassic-Jurassic foreland basin stage, (6) Cretaceous-Paleogene NeoTethys bay stage, and (7) Neogene-Pleistocene foreland and inland basin stage. Both the basin`s Paleozoic marine platform sequences and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial fills are believed to contain substantial volumes of hydrocarbons. After recent years of exploration, nine oil and gas fields have been proven and 23 discoveries have been made in the Tabei, Tazhong, and Southwest areas. Kekeya, Lunnan, Sangtamu, Jiefangqudong, Donghetang, and Tazhong 4 oil fields have been put into production. Output of crude oil was 2.6 million t (metric tons) (52,000 BOPD) in 1995. The production will increase to 5 million t (100,000 BOPD) in 1997. Giant oil and gas traps probably will be discovered in the Tarim basin. The prospect is promising.

  16. Use of Zn isotopes as a probe of anthropogenic contamination and biogeochemical processes in the Seine River, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Gaillardet, J.; Louvat, P.; Birck, J.

    2009-05-01

    Metal contamination is a major issue of human impact on the aqueous environment. River water is particularly susceptible to contamination for both dissolved and particulate loads, displaying a major challenge in understanding the dominant sources and pathways of metals in polluted drainage basins. Recent improvements in mass spectrometry allow isotopic measurements of "non-traditional" metals (Zn, Cu, Fe, etc.), making their isotopes a new potential device to investigate contamination of metals under dissolved and particulate forms in rivers. We focus here on Zn isotope geochemistry in the largely anthropized Seine River (France). A new protocol of two-column separation of Zn from dilute aqueous solution has been developed and proven to be reproducible and satisfactory for accurate measurement of Zn isotopic ratios in water samples by MC-ICP-MS (2σ = 0.04‰). Preliminary results show a total variation of 0.65‰ for δ66Zn in dissolved phases of the Seine basin, and a light isotope enrichment in anthropogenic sources compared to other water samples. The determined conservative behavior of Zn in river water makes its isotopes an effective probe of anthropogenic contamination. The natural and anthropogenic inputs were clearly identified and calculated based on Zn isotope compositions for dissolved loads. Suspended particular matters (SPM) display different Zn isotope compositions compared to dissolved loads, with a total δ66Zn variation of 0.22‰. Zn concentrations and its isotope compositions in SPM reveal inverse relationships as function of the distance from the headwater and the SPM content for geographical and temporal samples, respectively. The δ66Zn data in SPM are interpreted as reflecting the mixture of natural and anthropogenic particles. The correlation between dissolved and particulate δ66Zn shows that adsorption processes are not the dominant process making Zn enrichment in SPM. We report here for the first time systematic δ66Zn data in waters of

  17. Keuper stratigraphic cycles in the Paris basin and comparison with cycles in other peritethyan basins (German basin and Bresse-Jura basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquin, Sylvie; Guillocheau, François

    1996-09-01

    High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of the Keuper, Paris Basin, is used to establish correlations between the basin-centre evaporite series and the basin-margin clastics series. The high-resolution correlations show stratigraphic cycle geometries. The Keuper consists of five minor base-level cycles whth occur in the upper portion of the Scythian-Carnian major base-level cycle and the lower part of the Carnian-Liassic major base-level cycle. The maximum relative rate of subsidence for the base-level fall phase of the Scythian-Carnian major cycle occurs in the eastern part of the Paris Basin. During the base-level rise phase of the Carnian-Liassic major cycle, the area of highest rate of subsidence shifted westwards and northwards. This shift records the first occurrence of an independent Paris Basin which was no longer merely the western margin of the German Basin. Two phases of tectonic movement influenced evaporite sedimentation and sequence geometries by creating areas of subsidence where halite could accumulate. The second, within the 'Marnes irisées supérieures', induced a general westward and northward tilt of the basin. Concurrent migration of depocentres to the west and north produced an intra-'Marnes irisées supérieures' truncation. Comparison of the stratigraphic records of the Paris Basin and of other Triassic Peritethyan basins (German Basin, Bresse-Jura Basin and South-East Basin) reveals numerous similarities. The coastal onlap curve of the German Keuper (Aigner and Bachmann, 1992) exhibits many similarities with the sequence evolution of the Paris Basin. But the Triassic succession is more complete in the German Basin and more cycles are observed. The major difference between these two basins during the Keuper is that the 'Marnes irisées inférieures' minor base-level cycle does not occur in the German Basin. In the Bresse-Jura Basin, the major difference concerns the Lettenkohle. One minor base-level cycle is recorded in the Paris Basin while

  18. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  19. Formation of lunar basin rings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, C.A.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    The origin of the multiple concentric rings that characterize lunar impact basins, and the probable depth and diameter of the transient crater have been widely debated. As an alternative to prevailing "megaterrace" hypotheses, we propose that the outer scarps or mountain rings that delineate the topographic rims of basins-the Cordilleran at Orientale, the Apennine at Imbrium, and the Altai at Nectaris-define the transient cavities, enlarged relatively little by slumping, and thus are analogous to the rim crests of craters like Copernicus; inner rings are uplifted rims of craters nested within the transient cavity. The magnitude of slumping that occurs on all scarps is insufficient to produce major inner rings from the outer. These conclusions are based largely on the observed gradational sequence in lunar central uplifts:. from simple peaks through somewhat annular clusters of peaks, peak and ring combinations and double ring basins, culminating in multiring structures that may also include peaks. In contrast, belts of slump terraces are not gradational with inner rings. Terrestrial analogs suggest two possible mechanisms for producing rings. In some cases, peaks may expand into rings as material is ejected from their cores, as apparently occurred at Gosses Bluff, Australia. A second process, differential excavation of lithologically diverse layers, has produced nested experimental craters and is, we suspect, instrumental in the formation of terrestrial ringed impact craters. Peak expansion could produce double-ring structures in homogeneous materials, but differential excavation is probably required to produce multiring and peak-in-ring configurations in large lunar impact structures. Our interpretation of the representative lunar multiring basin Orientale is consistent with formation of three rings in three layers detected seismically in part of the Moon-the Cordillera (basin-bounding) ring in the upper crust, the composite Montes Rook ring in the underlying

  20. Neotectonics and seismic hazard in the northern Alpine foreland (Northern Switzerland and adjacent France and Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, S. M.; Ustaszewski, K.; Deichmann, N.; Müller, W. H.; Slejko, D.

    2003-04-01

    The analysis of the present-day tectonic framework of the northern Alpine foreland is of great importance in terms of (1) the search for host formations for storing high-level and long-lived intermediate and high-level nuclear waste in Northern Switzerland, and, (2) a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA), which re-evaluates the safety of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plant Sites. The recently established close scientific cooperation between pure and applied geosciences led to a growing consensus that deformation linked to Alpine orogeny is still ongoing at present, after having propagated northwards into the Molasse basin and the Jura Mountains in Miocene to Pliocene times. It is not entirely clear yet, how this presently ongoing deformation in the Northern Alpine foreland, associated with convergence rates in the order of 1 mm/a or less, is partitioned between basement (crystalline basement, including Permo-Carboniferous troughs) and the sedimentary cover, the latter being rheologically decoupled along the Triassic evaporites. There is a consensus amongst most authors that classical Jura folding and thrusting was "thin-skinned", i.e. that shortening in the basement was confined to the northern rim of the Alps ("distant push hypothesis"). NW-SE- to N-S directed shortening within the basement migrated northward into Northern Switzerland and adjacent France and Germany since Late Pliocene times, inducing a change from former "thin"- to presently active "thick-skinned" deformation. Its precise extent, however, is uncertain. Knowledge of rate and mode of deformation within the basement is crucial for seismic hazard analysis. The remaining epistemic uncertainty will be built into a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. It is hoped that further investigations in the framework of projects EUCOR-URGENT (Upper Rhine Graben: Evolution and Neo-Tectonics) and ENTEC (Environmental Tectonics) will significantly reduce these uncertainties. Knowledge about the seismic source of